Science.gov

Sample records for geological storage capacity

  1. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  2. Estimation of Geologic Storage Capacity of Carbon Dioxide in the Bukpyeong Basin, Korea Using Integrated Three-Dimensional Geologic Formation Modeling and Thermo-Hydrological Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Kihm, J.; Park, S.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A conventional method, which was suggested by NETL (2007), has been widely used for estimating the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide in sedimentary basins. Because of its simple procedure, it has been straightforwardly applied to even spatially very complicate sedimentary basins. Thus, the results from the conventional method are often not accurate and reliable because it can not consider spatial distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties, which are not uniform but variable within sedimentary basins. To overcome this limit of the conventional method, a new method, which can consider such spatially variable distributions of fluid conditions and carbon dioxide properties within sedimentary basins, is suggested and applied in this study. In this new method, a three-dimensional geologic formation model of a target sedimentary basin is first established and discretized into volume elements. The fluid conditions (i.e., pressure, temperature, and salt concentration) within each element are then obtained by performing thermo-hydrological numerical modeling. The carbon dioxide properties (i.e., phase, density, dynamic viscosity, and solubility to groundwater) within each element are then calculated from thermodynamic database under corresponding fluid conditions. Finally, the geologic storage capacity of carbon dioxide with in each element is estimated using the corresponding carbon dioxide properties as well as porosity and element volume, and that within the whole sedimentary basin is determined by summation over all elements. This new method is applied to the Bukpyeong Basin, which is one of the prospective offshore sedimentary basins for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in Korea. A three-dimensional geologic formation model of the Bukpyeong Basin is first established considering the elevation data of the boundaries between the geologic formations obtained from seismic survey and geologic maps at the sea floor surface. This geologic

  3. Estimating the supply and demand for deep geologic CO2 storage capacity over the course of the 21st Century: A meta-analysis of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2013-08-05

    Whether there is sufficient geologic CO2 storage capacity to allow CCS to play a significant role in mitigating climate change has been the subject of debate since the 1990s. This paper presents a meta- analysis of a large body of recently published literature to derive updated estimates of the global deep geologic storage resource as well as the potential demand for this geologic CO2 storage resource over the course of this century. This analysis reveals that, for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation scenarios that have end-of-century atmospheric CO2 concentrations of between 350 ppmv and 725 ppmv, the average demand for deep geologic CO2 storage over the course of this century is between 410 GtCO2 and 1,670 GtCO2. The literature summarized here suggests that -- depending on the stringency of criteria applied to calculate storage capacity – global geologic CO2 storage capacity could be: 35,300 GtCO2 of “theoretical” capacity; 13,500 GtCO2 of “effective” capacity; 3,900 GtCO2, of “practical” capacity; and 290 GtCO2 of “matched” capacity for the few regions where this narrow definition of capacity has been calculated. The cumulative demand for geologic CO2 storage is likely quite small compared to global estimates of the deep geologic CO2 storage capacity, and therefore, a “lack” of deep geologic CO2 storage capacity is unlikely to be an impediment for the commercial adoption of CCS technologies in this century.

  4. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR

  5. Geologic features and ground-water storage capacity of the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olmsted, F.H.; Davis, G.H.

    1961-01-01

    The Sacramento Valley constitutes the northern and smaller arm of the Central Valley of California. It is about 150 miles long by about 30 miles wide; and its area is about 5,000 square miles. The Sacramento Valley is drained by the Sacramento River, the largest in California, which rises west of Mount Shasta and flows southward to join the San Joaquin River near Suisun Bay and discharges through San Francisco Bay to the Pacific. Most of the valley floor is suitable for growing crops, and under irrigation the land is highly productive. The Sacramento Valley is underlain by sediments transported from the surrounding mountains by the Sacramento River and its tributaries. The floor of the valley slopes southward from about 300 feet above sea level at the north end near Red Bluff to sea level at Suisun Bay. The Sutter Buttes, which are erosional remnants of an old volcano rise to 2,132 feet above sea level near the center of the valley. The valley floor is not a featureless plain but is characterized by various types of topography, which have been assigned to four principal groups: 1, low hills and dissected alluvial uplands; 2, low alluvial plains and fans; 3, flood plains and natural levees; and 4, flood basins; a fifth and relatively minor group consists of the tidal Islands of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which are south of the principal area of investigation. The rocks that underlie the Sacramento Valley and the bordering mountains range from crystalline rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age to unconsolidated alluvium of Recent age. These rocks have been subdivided into 20 geologic units which may be assigned to 2 broad categories: rocks that yield little water and rocks that yield water freely. The rocks of the first category are chiefly marine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Early Tertiary age and a basement complex of pre-Tertiary crystalline rocks. The rocks of the second category consist predominantly of nonmarine valley

  6. Geology, water resources and usable ground-water storage capacity of part of Solano County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomasson, H.G.; Olmsted, F.H.; LeRoux, E.F.

    1960-01-01

    . Putah Creek and the smaller streams have constructed an alluvial plain, herein designated the Putah plain, which slopes eastward and southeastward from the foothills toward the Sacramento River. A large part of the Putah plain is traversed by a branching set of distributary channel ridges or natural levees formed at times of overflow of Putah Creek. The rocks in the Putah area range in age from Cretaceous to Recent. For the purposes of this investigation they are divided into eight geologic or stratigraphic units, from youngest to oldest: (1) Stream-channel deposits, (2) younger alluvium, (3) older alluvium, (4) Tehama formation and related continental sediments, (5) volcanic sedimentary rocks, (6) basalt, (7) undifferentiated sedimentary rocks of Paleocene(?) and Eocene age, and (8) undifferentiated rocks of Cretaceous age. The stream-channel deposits are predominantly loose sand and gravel along the channel of Putah Creek. In part they are actively moving downstream and shifting. The younger alluvium, of Recent age, consists of flood-plain deposits underlying the Putah plain, Vaca Valley, Pleasants Valley, and the small valleys in the foothills north of Putah Creek and in the English Hills. Exposures of younger alluvium are characterized by soils lacking significant profile development and in many places by channel-ridge topography. The older alluvium occupies the stratigraphic interval between the younger alluvium and the Tehama formation and related continental sediments and is probably of late Pleistocene age. Its contact with the underlying Tehama formation and related continental sediments is unconformable near the foothills, but it may be gradational beneath much of the Putah plain. The base of the older alluvium is not well defined at many places but is inferred to be at the bottom of an irregular and ill-defined zone of coarse deposits, which ranges from about 50 feet to more than 150 feet below the land surface. Exposures of the older

  7. A Model To Estimate Carbon Dioxide Injectivity and Storage Capacity for Geological Sequestration in Shale Gas Wells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ryan W J; Celia, Michael A; Bandilla, Karl W; Doster, Florian; Kanno, Cynthia M

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies suggest the possibility of CO2 sequestration in depleted shale gas formations, motivated by large storage capacity estimates in these formations. Questions remain regarding the dynamic response and practicality of injection of large amounts of CO2 into shale gas wells. A two-component (CO2 and CH4) model of gas flow in a shale gas formation including adsorption effects provides the basis to investigate the dynamics of CO2 injection. History-matching of gas production data allows for formation parameter estimation. Application to three shale gas-producing regions shows that CO2 can only be injected at low rates into individual wells and that individual well capacity is relatively small, despite significant capacity variation between shale plays. The estimated total capacity of an average Marcellus Shale well in Pennsylvania is 0.5 million metric tonnes (Mt) of CO2, compared with 0.15 Mt in an average Barnett Shale well. Applying the individual well estimates to the total number of existing and permitted planned wells (as of March, 2015) in each play yields a current estimated capacity of 7200-9600 Mt in the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania and 2100-3100 Mt in the Barnett Shale.

  8. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  9. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Methodology and gaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Bradshaw, J.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Implementation of CO2 capture and geological storage (CCGS) technology at the scale needed to achieve a significant and meaningful reduction in CO2 emissions requires knowledge of the available CO2 storage capacity. CO2 storage capacity assessments may be conducted at various scales-in decreasing order of size and increasing order of resolution: country, basin, regional, local and site-specific. Estimation of the CO2 storage capacity in depleted oil and gas reservoirs is straightforward and is based on recoverable reserves, reservoir properties and in situ CO2 characteristics. In the case of CO2-EOR, the CO2 storage capacity can be roughly evaluated on the basis of worldwide field experience or more accurately through numerical simulations. Determination of the theoretical CO2 storage capacity in coal beds is based on coal thickness and CO2 adsorption isotherms, and recovery and completion factors. Evaluation of the CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers is very complex because four trapping mechanisms that act at different rates are involved and, at times, all mechanisms may be operating simultaneously. The level of detail and resolution required in the data make reliable and accurate estimation of CO2 storage capacity in deep saline aquifers practical only at the local and site-specific scales. This paper follows a previous one on issues and development of standards for CO2 storage capacity estimation, and provides a clear set of definitions and methodologies for the assessment of CO2 storage capacity in geological media. Notwithstanding the defined methodologies suggested for estimating CO2 storage capacity, major challenges lie ahead because of lack of data, particularly for coal beds and deep saline aquifers, lack of knowledge about the coefficients that reduce storage capacity from theoretical to effective and to practical, and lack of knowledge about the interplay between various trapping mechanisms at work in deep saline aquifers. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd

  10. Impacts of Geological Variability on Carbon Storage Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, Jordan Kaelin

    The changes to the environment caused by anthropogenic climate change pose major challenges for energy production in the next century. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a group of technologies that would permit the continued use of carbon-intense fuels such as coal for energy production while avoiding further impact on the global climate system. The mechanism most often proposed for storage is injection of CO2 below the surface of the Earth in geological media, with the most promising option for CO2 reservoirs being deep saline aquifers (DSA's). Unlike oil and gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers are poorly characterized and the variability in their properties is large enough to have a high impact on the overall physical and economic viability of CCS. Storage in saline aquifers is likely to be a very high-capacity resource, but its economic viability is almost unknown. We consider the impact of geological variability on the total viability of the CO 2 storage system from several perspectives. First, we examine the theoretical range of costs of storage by coupling a physical and economic model of CO 2 storage with a range of possible geological settings. With the relevant properties of rock extending over several orders of magnitude, it is not surprising that we find costs and storage potential ranging over several orders of magnitude. Second, we use georeferenced data to evaluate the spatial distribution of cost and capacity. When paired together to build a marginal abatement cost curve (MACC), this cost and capacity data indicates that low cost and high capacity are collocated; storage in these promising areas is likely to be quite viable but may not be available to all CO2 sources. However, when we continue to explore the impact of geological variability on realistic, commercial-scale site sizes by invoking capacity and pressure management constraints, we find that the distribution costs and footprints of these sites may be prohibitively high. The combination

  11. CO2 storage capacity estimation: Issues and development of standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradshaw, J.; Bachu, S.; Bonijoly, D.; Burruss, R.; Holloway, S.; Christensen, N.P.; Mathiassen, O.M.

    2007-01-01

    Associated with the endeavours of geoscientists to pursue the promise that geological storage of CO2 has of potentially making deep cuts into greenhouse gas emissions, Governments around the world are dependent on reliable estimates of CO2 storage capacity and insightful indications of the viability of geological storage in their respective jurisdictions. Similarly, industry needs reliable estimates for business decisions regarding site selection and development. If such estimates are unreliable, and decisions are made based on poor advice, then valuable resources and time could be wasted. Policies that have been put in place to address CO2 emissions could be jeopardised. Estimates need to clearly state the limitations that existed (data, time, knowledge) at the time of making the assessment and indicate the purpose and future use to which the estimates should be applied. A set of guidelines for estimation of storage capacity will greatly assist future deliberations by government and industry on the appropriateness of geological storage of CO2 in different geological settings and political jurisdictions. This work has been initiated under the auspices of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (www.cslforum.org), and it is intended that it will be an ongoing taskforce to further examine issues associated with storage capacity estimation. Crown Copyright ?? 2007.

  12. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    replacement storage resource (KRRSR) is a conservative estimate that represents only the amount of CO2 at subsurface conditions that could replace the volume of known hydrocarbon production. The mean national KRRSR, determined from production volumes rather than the geologic model of buoyant and residual traps that make up TASR, is 13 Gt. The estimated storage resources are dominated by residual trapping class 2, which accounts for 89 percent of the total resources. The Coastal Plains Region of the United States contains the largest storage resource of any region. Within the Coastal Plains Region, the resources from the U.S. Gulf Coast area represent 59 percent of the national CO2 storage capacity.

  13. Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30).

  14. Specific storage volumes: A useful tool for CO2 storage capacity assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, S.T.; Burruss, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    Subsurface geologic strata have the potential to store billions of tons of anthropogenic CO2; therefore, geologic carbon sequestration can be an effective mitigation tool used to slow the rate at which levels of atmospheric CO2 are increasing. Oil and gas reservoirs, coal beds, and saline reservoirs can be used for CO2 storage; however, it is difficult to assess and compare the relative storage capacities of these different settings. Typically, CO2 emissions are reported in units of mass, which are not directly applicable to comparing the CO2 storage capacities of the various storage targets. However, if the emission values are recalculated to volumes per unit mass (specific volume) then the volumes of geologic reservoirs necessary to store CO2 emissions from large point sources can be estimated. The factors necessary to convert the mass of CO2 emissions to geologic storage volume (referred to here as Specific Storage Volume or 'SSV') can be reported in units of cubic meters, cubic feet, and petroleum barrels. The SSVs can be used to estimate the reservoir volume needed to store CO2 produced over the lifetime of an individual point source, and to identify CO2 storage targets of sufficient size to meet the demand from that given point source. These storage volumes also can then be projected onto the land surface to outline a representative "footprint," which marks the areal extent of storage. This footprint can be compared with the terrestrial carbon sequestration capacity of the same land area. The overall utility of this application is that the total storage capacity of any given parcel of land (from surface to basement) can be determined, and may assist in making land management decisions. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006.

  15. Large capacity cryopropellant orbital storage facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive study was performed to develop the major features of a large capacity orbital propellant storage facility for the space-based cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle. Projected propellant usage and delivery schedules can be accommodated by two orbital tank sets of 100,000 lb storage capacity, with advanced missions expected to require increased capacity. Information is given on tank pressurization schemes, propellant transfer configurations, pump specifications, the refrigeration system, and flight tests.

  16. Geological Characterization, Capacity Estimates and Long-Term Fate of CO2 Storage in Deep Saline Aquifers in the Two Elk Energy Park Pilot Test site, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, R.; Benson, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Energy Park (North America Power Group) is a commercial-scale demonstration project planned as a series of renewable and other electric power generation, carbon capture, sequestration and related facilities, located in the eastern side of the Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming. The site is located on top of several deep saline aquifers, depleted oil reservoirs, and coal seams. The Powder River basin was identified by NETL and Big Sky partnership as having high potential for CO2 sequestration. The aims of our current study were to identify and describe all porous sections below the proposed site, to estimate the capacity of each unit, and to conduct simulations to better understand the faith of injected CO2 between those different layers. The storage goal of the project is 3 Mt/year for 50 years of operation. The project is supported by the DOE. Detailed geological characterization of the section between the Madison Formation and the Mowry Shale was based on two wells, located ~10 km from the proposed site. Porous sandstone layers were identified in the Minnelusa, Spearfish, Sundance, Morrison, Lakota, and Dakota formations. Average porosity in all of those units is between 8 to 15%. These formations consist of interbedded sandstone and shale, with some anhydrite and dolomite layers in the Minnelusa Formation. Our interest was to examine the ability of these impermeable layers (shale, anhydrite, and dolomite) to act as local seal to the different porous units. Other shale dominant formations also occur in the section (Opeche, Fuson, Skull, and Mowry formations) and will act as major seals to the whole porous section. The complex stratigraphy and relatively low permeability of the rocks at this site appear to preclude identification of a single unit that can be used for CO2 storage. Instead, the most promising option is to inject CO2 into large thickness of sediments, resulting in the injection of a relatively small amount of CO2 into a number of formations

  17. Nickel-hydrogen capacity loss on storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    1989-01-01

    A controlled experiment evaluating the capacity loss experienced by nickel electrodes stored under various conditions of temperature, hydrogen pressure, and electrolyte concentration was conducted using nickel electrodes from four different manufacturers. It was found that capacity loss varied with respect to hydrogen pressure, and storage temperature as well as with respect to electrode manufacturing processes. Impedance characteristics were monitored and found to be indicative of electrode manufacturing processes and capacity loss. Cell testing to evaluate state-of-charge effects on capacity loss were inconclusive as no loss was sustained by the cells tested in this experiment.

  18. A Feasibility Study of Geologic Water Storage in Arid Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairley, J. P.; Preuit, T.

    2001-05-01

    An important control on the carrying capacity of arid and semi-arid regions is the ability to develop and maintain a reliable water supply for domestic and agricultural use. In the semi-arid highlands of southern Peru, the pre-Columbian Incas developed a technique of collecting and storing basin yields by controlling the discharge boundary of an existing aquifer. This water resource management strategy has been dubbed "Geologic Water Storage" (Fairley, in review). Yield from at least one such system near Cuzco, Peru, has provided a reliable source of irrigation water for rural farmers to the present day. The geologic water storage systems of southern Peru suggested the possibility of developing a similar system to water stock in rural Idaho. Annual precipitation in Idaho is about one-third that of southern Peru, and obtaining an adequate stock water supply is often problematic. The application of a simple lumped capacitance model to a selected basin in central Idaho showed that it may be physically and economically feasible to modify the basin characteristics to prolong water availability at the site. A more detailed study of this problem, that includes field characterization of the site, is necessary to substantiate the model results. If further studies and field trials confirm the viability of geologic water storage, this approach may find applications in many rural and developing areas, both nationally and internationally.

  19. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least.

  20. CO2-storage assessment and effective capacity in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Aktouf, Abdelouahab; Bentellis, Abdelhakim

    2016-01-01

    Deep saline aquifers widely distributed deep in the earth offer the greatest CO2 storage potential in all current geological CO2 storage approaches. The western region of the Saharan platform in Algeria includes several sedimentary basins characterized by a large production of dry gas with high CO2 rates sometimes exceeding 9 %. To reduce CO2 emissions, these basins were analyzed to identify those with the largest potential for the geological sequestration of CO2 (GSC). The evaluation methodology applied to determine the basin potential is based on qualitative geological and practical criteria to which we have assigned normalized numerical values. This evaluation method allows us to quantitatively compare and evaluate the basins in Algeria. Estimations of the CO2 storage capacities of several structures in the sedimentary Ahnet-Gourara Basin, which has the greatest potential for GSC, vary from 1 Gt to over 5 Gt. Based on cautious estimations, these geologic structures should be able to contain the entire volume of the CO2 emitted over the next three decades at least. PMID:27462486

  1. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  2. Capacity retention in hydrogen storage alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anani, A.; Visintin, A.; Srinivasan, S.; Appleby, A. J.; Reilly, J. J.; Johnson, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Results of our examination of the properties of several candidate materials for hydrogen storage electrodes and their relation to the decrease in H-storage capacity upon open-circuit storage over time are reported. In some of the alloy samples examined to date, only about 10 percent of the hydrogen capacity was lost upon storage for 20 days, while in others, this number was as high as 30 percent for the same period of time. This loss in capacity is attributed to two separate mechanisms: (1) hydrogen desorbed from the electrode due to pressure differences between the cell and the electrode sample; and (2) chemical and/or electrochemical degradation of the alloy electrode upon exposure to the cell environment. The former process is a direct consequence of the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the hydride alloy phase and the partial pressure of hydrogen in the hydride phase in equilibrium with that in the electrolyte environment, while the latter is related to the stability of the alloy phase in the cell environment. Comparison of the equilibrium gas-phase dissociation pressures of these alloys indicate that reversible loss of hydrogen capacity is higher in alloys with P(eqm) greater than 1 atm than in those with P(eqm) less than 1 atm.

  3. Public Acceptance for Geological CO2-Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F.; Ossing, F.; Würdemann, H.; Co2SINK Team

    2009-04-01

    Public acceptance is one of the fundamental prerequisites for geological CO2 storage. In highly populated areas like central Europe, especially in the vicinity of metropolitan areas like Berlin, underground operations are in the focus of the people living next to the site, the media, and politics. To gain acceptance, all these groups - the people in the neighbourhood, journalists, and authorities - need to be confident of the security of the planned storage operation as well as the long term security of storage. A very important point is to show that the technical risks of CO2 storage can be managed with the help of a proper short and long term monitoring concept, as well as appropriate mitigation technologies e.g adequate abandonment procedures for leaking wells. To better explain the possible risks examples for leakage scenarios help the public to assess and to accept the technical risks of CO2 storage. At Ketzin we tried the following approach that can be summed up on the basis: Always tell the truth! This might be self-evident but it has to be stressed that credibility is of vital importance. Suspiciousness and distrust are best friends of fear. Undefined fear seems to be the major risk in public acceptance of geological CO2-storage. Misinformation and missing communication further enhance the denial of geological CO2 storage. When we started to plan and establish the Ketzin storage site, we ensured a forward directed communication. Offensive information activities, an information centre on site, active media politics and open information about the activities taking place are basics. Some of the measures were: - information of the competent authorities through meetings (mayor, governmental authorities) - information of the local public, e.g. hearings (while also inviting local, regional and nation wide media) - we always treated the local people and press first! - organizing of bigger events to inform the public on site, e.g. start of drilling activities (open

  4. CO2 sequestration: Storage capacity guideline needed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.; Hickman, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Petroleum reserves are classified for the assessment of available supplies by governmental agencies, management of business processes for achieving exploration and production efficiency, and documentation of the value of reserves and resources in financial statements. Up to the present however, the storage capacity determinations made by some organizations in the initial CO2 resource assessment are incorrect technically. New publications should thus cover differences in mineral adsorption of CO2 and dissolution of CO2 in various brine waters.

  5. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  9. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close all... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  11. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  12. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  13. 46 CFR 112.55-15 - Capacity of storage batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capacity of storage batteries. 112.55-15 Section 112.55... LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Storage Battery Installation § 112.55-15 Capacity of storage batteries. (a) A storage battery for an emergency lighting and power system must have the capacity— (1) To close...

  14. Rocky Mountain Regional CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Laes, Denise; Eisinger, Chris; Esser, Richard; Morgan, Craig; Rauzi, Steve; Scholle, Dana; Matthews, Vince; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this study includes extensive characterization of the most promising geologic CO{sub 2} storage formations on the Colorado Plateau, including estimates of maximum possible storage capacity. The primary targets of characterization and capacity analysis include the Cretaceous Dakota Formation, the Jurassic Entrada Formation and the Permian Weber Formation and their equivalents in the Colorado Plateau region. The total CO{sub 2} capacity estimates for the deep saline formations of the Colorado Plateau region range between 9.8 metric GT and 143 metric GT, depending on assumed storage efficiency, formations included, and other factors.

  15. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Beni

    2013-11-15

    Understanding the limits imposed on information storage capacity of physical systems is a problem of fundamental and practical importance which bridges physics and information science. There is a well-known upper bound on the amount of information that can be stored reliably in a given volume of discrete spin systems which are supported by gapped local Hamiltonians. However, all the previously known systems were far below this theoretical bound, and it remained open whether there exists a gapped spin system that saturates this bound. Here, we present a construction of spin systems which saturate this theoretical limit asymptotically by borrowing an idea from fractal properties arising in the Sierpinski triangle. Our construction provides not only the best classical error-correcting code which is physically realizable as the energy ground space of gapped frustration-free Hamiltonians, but also a new research avenue for correlated spin phases with fractal spin configurations. -- Highlights: •We propose a spin model with fractal ground states and study its coding properties. •We show that the model asymptotically saturates a theoretical limit on information storage capacity. •We discuss its relations to various theoretical physics problems.

  16. Potential environmental impacts of offshore UK geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Geological carbon dioxide storage in the United Kingdom (UK) will almost certainly be entirely offshore, with storage for over 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation in offshore depleted hydrocarbon fields and sandstone formations. Storage capacity can be limited by the increase in formation water pressure upon CO2 injection, therefore removal and disposal of formation waters ('produced waters') can control formation water pressures, and increase CO2 storage capacity. Formation waters could also be produced during CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR). The precedent from current UK North Sea hydrocarbon extraction is to 'overboard' produced waters into the ocean, under current regulations. However, laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution, including heavy metals. Eight of these elements are specifically identified in the UK as potentially hazardous to the marine environment (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn). A comparison was made between the concentrations of these eight trace elements in the results of laboratory batch leaching experiments of reservoir rock in CO2-rich saline solutions and overboarded waters from current offshore UK hydrocarbon production. This showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2

  17. Interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry in geological carbon storage

    DOE PAGES

    Altman, Susan J.; Kirk, Matthew Fletcher; Santillan, Eugenio-Felipe U.; Bennett, Philip C.

    2016-02-28

    Researchers at the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security (CFSES) have conducted laboratory and modeling studies to better understand the interplay between microorganisms and geochemistry for geological carbon storage (GCS). We provide evidence of microorganisms adapting to high pressure CO2 conditions and identify factors that may influence survival of cells to CO2 stress. Factors that influenced the ability of cells to survive exposure to high-pressure CO2 in our experiments include mineralogy, the permeability of cell walls and/or membranes, intracellular buffering capacity, and whether cells live planktonically or within biofilm. Column experiments show that, following exposure to acidic water, biomassmore » can remain intact in porous media and continue to alter hydraulic conductivity. Our research also shows that geochemical changes triggered by CO2 injection can alter energy available to populations of subsurface anaerobes and that microbial feedbacks on this effect can influence carbon storage. Our research documents the impact of CO2 on microorganisms and in turn, how subsurface microorganisms can influence GCS. Furthermore, we conclude that microbial presence and activities can have important implications for carbon storage and that microorganisms should not be overlooked in further GCS research.« less

  18. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources. Its data and results are reported in three publications: the assessment data publication (this report), the assessment results publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a, USGS Circular 1386), and the assessment summary publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013b, USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3020). This data publication supports the results publication and contains (1) individual storage assessment unit (SAU) input data forms with all input parameters and details on the allocation of the SAU surface land area by State and general land-ownership category; (2) figures representing the distribution of all storage classes for each SAU; (3) a table containing most input data and assessment result values for each SAU; and (4) a pairwise correlation matrix specifying geological and methodological dependencies between SAUs that are needed for aggregation of results.

  19. CO(2) capture and geologic storage: the possibilities.

    PubMed

    Loáiciga, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)) capture and geologic storage has been postulated as one possible method to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) by injecting and storing it in deep geologic formations. This issue paper analyzes the viability of capture and geologic storage of becoming an effective method to aid in stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO(2). It is herein shown that such viability is contingent on overcoming major obstacles that are hydrogeological, technical, and economic in nature. Our analysis indicates that capture and geologic storage is likely to have negligible success in reducing the atmospheric buildup of CO(2) in the coming decades. The magnitude of the anthropogenic emissions of CO(2) indicates that a transition of the world economy away from reliance on fossil fuels might be the only path to stabilize its atmospheric concentration.

  20. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Varela, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

  1. A Probabilistic Assessment Methodology for the Evaluation of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean T.; Burruss, Robert A.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Freeman, P.A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Energy. The first year of that activity was specified for development of a methodology to estimate storage potential that could be applied uniformly to geologic formations across the United States. After its release, the methodology was to receive public comment and external expert review. An initial methodology was developed and published in March 2009 (Burruss and others, 2009), and public comments were received. The report was then sent to a panel of experts for external review. The external review report was received by the USGS in December 2009. This report is in response to those external comments and reviews and describes how the previous assessment methodology (Burruss and others, 2009) was revised. The resource that is assessed is the technically accessible storage resource, which is defined as the mass of CO2 that can be stored in the pore volume of a storage formation. The methodology that is presented in this report is intended to be used for assessments at scales ranging from regional to subbasinal in which storage assessment units are defined on the basis of common geologic and hydrologic characteristics. The methodology does not apply to site-specific evaluation of storage resources or capacity.

  2. International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO2Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2006-02-23

    Several technological options have been proposed to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of CO{sub 2}. One proposed remedy is to separate and capture CO{sub 2} from fossil-fuel power plants and other stationary industrial sources and to inject the CO{sub 2} into deep subsurface formations for long-term storage and sequestration. Characterization of geologic formations for sequestration of large quantities of CO{sub 2} needs to be carefully considered to ensure that sites are suitable for long-term storage and that there will be no adverse impacts to human health or the environment. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage (Final Draft, October 2005) states that ''Site characterization, selection and performance prediction are crucial for successful geological storage. Before selecting a site, the geological setting must be characterized to determine if the overlying cap rock will provide an effective seal, if there is a sufficiently voluminous and permeable storage formation, and whether any abandoned or active wells will compromise the integrity of the seal. Moreover, the availability of good site characterization data is critical for the reliability of models''. This International Symposium on Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Geological Storage (CO2SC) addresses the particular issue of site characterization and site selection related to the geologic storage of carbon dioxide. Presentations and discussions cover the various aspects associated with characterization and selection of potential CO{sub 2} storage sites, with emphasis on advances in process understanding, development of measurement methods, identification of key site features and parameters, site characterization strategies, and case studies.

  3. Storage Capacity Explains Fluid Intelligence but Executive Control Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuderski, Adam; Taraday, Maciej; Necka, Edward; Smolen, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether fluid intelligence (Gf) is better predicted by the storage capacity of active memory or by the effectiveness of executive control. In two psychometric studies, we measured storage capacity with three kinds of task which required the maintenance of a visual array, the monitoring of simple relations among perceptually available…

  4. Polyaniline-polypyrrole composites with enhanced hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Attia, Nour F; Geckeler, Kurt E

    2013-06-13

    A facile method for the synthesis of polyaniline-polypyrrole composite materials with network morphology is developed based on polyaniline nanofibers covered by a thin layer of polypyrrole via vapor phase polymerization. The hydrogen storage capacity of the composites is evaluated at room temperature exhibits a twofold increase in hydrogen storage capacity. The HCl-doped polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a storage capacity of 0.46 wt%, whereas the polyaniline-polypyrrole composites could store 0.91 wt% of hydrogen gas. In addition, the effect of the dopant type, counteranion size, and the doping with palladium nanoparticles on the storage properties are also investigated.

  5. Adapting Dry Cask Storage for Aging at a Geologic Repository

    SciTech Connect

    C. Sanders; D. Kimball

    2005-08-02

    A Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Aging System is a crucial part of operations at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository in the United States. Incoming commercial SNF that does not meet thermal limits for emplacement will be aged on outdoor pads. U.S. Department of Energy SNF will also be managed using the Aging System. Proposed site-specific designs for the Aging System are closely based upon designs for existing dry cask storage (DCS) systems. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing DCS systems for use in the SNF Aging System at Yucca Mountain. The most important difference between existing DCS facilities and the Yucca Mountain facility is the required capacity. Existing DCS facilities typically have less than 50 casks. The current design for the aging pad at Yucca Mountain calls for a capacity of over 2,000 casks (20,000 MTHM) [1]. This unprecedented number of casks poses some unique problems. The response of DCS systems to off-normal and accident conditions needs to be re-evaluated for multiple storage casks. Dose calculations become more complicated, since doses from multiple or very long arrays of casks can dramatically increase the total boundary dose. For occupational doses, the geometry of the cask arrays and the order of loading casks must be carefully considered in order to meet ALARA goals during cask retrieval. Due to the large area of the aging pad, skyshine must also be included when calculating public and worker doses. The expected length of aging will also necessitate some design adjustments. Under 10 CFR 72.236, DCS systems are initially certified for a period of 20 years [2]. Although the Yucca Mountain facility is not intended to be a storage facility under 10 CFR 72, the operational life of the SNF Aging System is 50 years [1]. Any cask system selected for use in aging will have to be qualified to this design lifetime. These considerations are examined, and a summary is provided of the adaptations that must be made in order to use DCS

  6. An Integrated Approach to Predicting Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity in Carbonate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. M.; Hao, Y.; Mason, H. E.; Carroll, S.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonate reservoirs are widespread globally but pose unique challenges for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage due to the reactive nature of carbonate minerals and the inherently heterogeneous pore structures of these rock types. Carbonate mineral dissolution resulting from CO2-acidified fluids may actually create new storage capacity, but predicting the extent and location of enhanced storage is complicated by the presence of pore size distributions spanning orders of magnitude as well as common microfractures. To address this issue, core samples spanning a wide range of depths and predicted permeabilities were procured from wells drilled into the Weyburn-Midale reservoir from the IEA GHG's CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project, Saskatchewan, Canada; and from the Arbuckle dolomite at the Kansas Geological Survey's South-central Kansas CO2 Project. Our approach integrated non-invasive characterization, complex core-flooding experiments, and 3-D reactive transport simulations to calibrate relevant CO2 storage relationships among fluid flow, porosity, permeability, and chemical reactivity. The resulting observations from this work permit us to constrain (and place uncertainty limits on) some of the model parameters needed for estimating evolving reservoir CO2 storage capacity. The challenge remains, however, as to how to best interpret and implement these observations at the actual reservoir scale. We present our key findings from these projects and recommendations for storage capacity predictions. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a scenario analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James

    2010-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which would offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply. Geostorage options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and potentially hard rock cavrns. DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an ecocomic analysis methodology to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) a version that is fully arrayed such that all four types of geologic storage options can be assessed at the same time, (2) incorporate specific scenarios illustrating the model's capability, and (3) incorporate more accurate model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules. Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale geostorage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S. and from the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO{sub 2} in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  8. Comparison of Publically Available Methodologies for Development of Geologic Storage Estimates for Carbon Dioxide in Saline Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, A.; Strazisar, B. R.; Guthrie, G. D.; Bromhal, G.

    2012-12-01

    High-level estimates of CO2 storage potential at the national, regional, and basin scale are required to assess the potential for carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) technologies to reduce CO2 emissions for application to saline formations. Both private and public entities worldwide rely on CO2 storage potential estimates for broad energy-related government policy and business decisions. High-level estimates of CO2 geologic storage potential, however, have a high degree of uncertainty because the assessments rely on simplifying assumptions due to the deficiency or absence of data from the subsurface associated with areas of potential storage in saline formations and the natural heterogeneity of geologic formations in general, resulting in undefined rock properties. As site characterization progresses to individual CO2 storage sites, additional site-specific data will likely be collected and analyzed that will allow for the refinement of high-level CO2 storage resource estimates and development of CO2 storage capacities. Until such detailed characterization can be documented, dependable high-level CO2 storage estimates are essential to ensure successful widespread deployment of CCUS technologies. Initiatives for assessing CO2 geologic storage potential have been conducted since 1993. Although dependable high-level CO2 storage estimates are essential to ensure successful deployment of CCUS technologies, it is difficult to assess the uncertainty of these estimates without knowing how the current methodologies targeted at high-level CO2 storage resource estimates for saline formations compare to one another. In this study, we compare high-level CO2 methodologies for development of geologic storage estimates for CO2 in saline formations to assess the uncertainty associated with various methodologies. The methodologies applied are listed as follows: (1) U.S. DOE Methodology: Development of Geologic Storage Potential for Carbon Dioxide at the National and

  9. Niagara Falls Storage Site, Lewiston, New York: geologic report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report is one of a series of engineering and environmental reports planned for the US Department of Energy's properties at Niagara Falls, New York. It describes the essential geologic features of the Niagara Falls Storage Site. It is not intended to be a definitive statement of the engineering methods and designs required to obtain desired performance features for any permanent waste disposal at the site. Results are presented of a geological investigation that consisted of two phases. Phase 1 occurred during July 1982 and included geologic mapping, geophysical surveys, and a limited drilling program in the vicinity of the R-10 Dike, planned for interim storage of radioactive materials. Phase 2, initiated in December 1982, included excavation of test pits, geophysical surveys, drilling, observation well installation, and field permeability testing in the South Dike Area, the Northern Disposal Area, and the K-65 Tower Area.

  10. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOEpatents

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  11. Potential of Microbes to Increase Geologic CO2 Storage Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Mitchell, A. C.; Ebigbo, A.; Phillips, A.; Cunningham, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) involves the injection of supercritical CO2 into underground formations such as brine aquifers where microbe-rock-fluid interactions will occur. These interactions may be important for the long-term fate of the injected CO2. Concepts and results will be presented from bench to meso-scale experiments focusing on the utility of attached microorganisms and biofilms to enhance storage security of injected CO2, via mineral-trapping, solubility trapping, formation trapping, and leakage reduction. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and geologic CO2 storage-relevant pressures have demonstrated the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Recent work has focused on small and large scale (75 cm diameter, 38 cm high sandstone) radial flow systems as well as the molecular characterization and isolation of microbes from geologic carbon sequestration-relevant environments. Methods for microscopic and macroscopic visualization of relevant processes from the pore to the bulk scale are being developed and have been proven to be essential tools in establishing the necessary understanding to increase CO2 storage security. As a result, reactive transport models describing the influence of biological processes on CO2 storage security have been developed and are continuously being modified to include relevant processes.

  12. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim G. M.; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel B.; van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Guerschman, Juan P.; Keys, Patrick W.; Gordon, Line J.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-04-01

    This study presents an "Earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale independent. In contrast to a traditional look-up table approach, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover types, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depths otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. Our results suggest that several forest types are able to create a large storage to buffer for severe droughts (with a very long return period), in contrast to, for example, savannahs and woody savannahs (medium length return period), as well as grasslands, shrublands, and croplands (very short return period). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for poor resolution soil and rooting depth data that form a limitation for achieving progress in the global land surface modelling community.

  13. National Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources -- Trends and Interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buursink, M. L.; Blondes, M. S.; Brennan, S.; Drake, R., II; Merrill, M. D.; Roberts-Ashby, T. L.; Slucher, E. R.; Warwick, P.

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins or study areas were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the USGS assessment methodology. The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons. To augment the release of the assessment, this study reviews input estimates and output results as a part of the resource calculation. Included in this study are a collection of both cross-plots and maps to demonstrate our trends and interpretations. Alongside the assessment, the input estimates were examined for consistency between SAUs and cross-plotted to verify expected trends, such as decreasing storage formation porosity with increasing SAU depth, for instance, and to show a positive correlation between storage formation porosity and permeability estimates. Following the assessment, the output results were examined for correlation with selected input estimates. For example, there exists a positive correlation between CO2 density and the TASR, and between storage formation porosity and the TASR, as expected. These correlations, in part, serve to verify our estimates for the geologic variables. The USGS assessment concluded that the Coastal Plains Region of the eastern and southeastern United States contains the largest storage resource. Within the Coastal Plains Region, the storage resources from the U.S. Gulf Coast study area represent 59 percent of the national CO2 storage capacity

  14. A life cycle cost analysis framework for geologic storage of hydrogen : a user's tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Lord, Anna Snider; Borns, David James; Klise, Geoffrey T.

    2011-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in large scale hydrogen geostorage, which could offer substantial buffer capacity to meet possible disruptions in supply or changing seasonal demands. The geostorage site options being considered are salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers and hard rock caverns. The DOE has an interest in assessing the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for these types of geologic hydrogen storage options. This study has developed an economic analysis methodology and subsequent spreadsheet analysis to address costs entailed in developing and operating an underground geologic storage facility. This year the tool was updated specifically to (1) incorporate more site-specific model input assumptions for the wells and storage site modules, (2) develop a version that matches the general format of the HDSAM model developed and maintained by Argonne National Laboratory, and (3) incorporate specific demand scenarios illustrating the model's capability. Four general types of underground storage were analyzed: salt caverns, depleted oil/gas reservoirs, aquifers, and hard rock caverns/other custom sites. Due to the substantial lessons learned from the geological storage of natural gas already employed, these options present a potentially sizable storage option. Understanding and including these various geologic storage types in the analysis physical and economic framework will help identify what geologic option would be best suited for the storage of hydrogen. It is important to note, however, that existing natural gas options may not translate to a hydrogen system where substantial engineering obstacles may be encountered. There are only three locations worldwide that currently store hydrogen underground and they are all in salt caverns. Two locations are in the U.S. (Texas), and are managed by ConocoPhillips and Praxair (Leighty, 2007). The third is in Teeside, U.K., managed by Sabic Petrochemicals (Crotogino et

  15. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  16. Economic performance of water storage capacity expansion for food security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.

  17. Capacity loss on storage and possible capacity recovery for HST nickel-hydrogen cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.

    1992-01-01

    Negatively precharged nickel hydrogen cells will experience a useable capacity loss during extended open circuit storage periods. Some of the lost capacity can be recovered through cycling. Capacity recovery through cycling can be enhanced by cycling at high depths of discharge (DOD). The most timely procedure for recovering the faded capacity is to charge the cell fully and allow the cell to sit open-circuit at room temperature. This procedure seems to be effective in part because of the enlarged structure of the active materials. The compounds that formed during storage at the low electrode potentials can more easily dissolve and redistribute. All of the original capacity cannot be recovered because the lattice structure of the active material is irreversibly altered during storage. The recommendation is to use positively precharged cells activated with 26 percent KOH if possible. In aerospace applications, the benefits of negative precharge are offset by the possibility of delays and storage periods.

  18. Sensitivity study of CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers withclosed boundaries: Dependence on hydrogeologic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C-F.

    2007-02-07

    In large-scale geologic storage projects, the injected volumes of CO{sub 2} will displace huge volumes of native brine. If the designated storage formation is a closed system, e.g., a geologic unit that is compartmentalized by (almost) impermeable sealing units and/or sealing faults, the native brine cannot (easily) escape from the target reservoir. Thus the amount of supercritical CO{sub 2} that can be stored in such a system depends ultimately on how much pore space can be made available for the added fluid owing to the compressibility of the pore structure and the fluids. To evaluate storage capacity in such closed systems, we have conducted a modeling study simulating CO{sub 2} injection into idealized deep saline aquifers that have no (or limited) interaction with overlying, underlying, and/or adjacent units. Our focus is to evaluate the storage capacity of closed systems as a function of various reservoir parameters, hydraulic properties, compressibilities, depth, boundaries, etc. Accounting for multi-phase flow effects including dissolution of CO{sub 2} in numerical simulations, the goal is to develop simple analytical expressions that provide estimates for storage capacity and pressure buildup in such closed systems.

  19. Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Modeling of Fluid Geological Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelletto, N.; Garipov, T.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The accurate modeling of the complex coupled physical processes occurring during the injection and the post-injection period is a key factor for assessing the safety and the feasibility of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in subsurface formations. In recent years, it has become widely accepted the importance of the coupling between fluid flow and geomechanical response in constraining the sustainable pressure buildup caused by fluid injection relative to the caprock sealing capacity, induced seismicity effects and ground surface stability [e.g., Rutqvist, 2012; Castelletto et al., 2013]. Here, we present a modeling approach based on a suitable combination of Finite Volumes (FVs) and Finite Elements (FEs) to solve the coupled system of partial differential equations governing the multiphase flow in a deformable porous medium. Specifically, a FV method is used for the flow problem while the FE method is adopted to address the poro-elasto-plasticity equations. The aim of the present work is to compare the performance and the robustness of unconditionally stable sequential-implicit schemes [Kim et al., 2011] and the fully-implicit method in solving the algebraic systems arising from the discretization of the governing equations, for both normally conditioned and severely ill-conditioned problems. The two approaches are tested against well-known analytical solutions and experimented with in a realistic application of CO2 injection in a synthetic aquifer. References: - Castelletto N., G. Gambolati, and P. Teatini (2013), Geological CO2 sequestration in multi-compartment reservoirs: Geomechanical challenges, J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 118, 2417-2428, doi:10.1002/jgrb.50180. - Kim J., H. A. Tchelepi, and R. Juanes (2011), Stability, accuracy and efficiency of sequential methods for coupled flow and geomechanics, SPE J., 16(2), 249-262. - Rutqvist J. (2012), The geomechanics of CO2 storage in deep sedimentary formations, Geotech. Geol. Eng., 30, 525-551.

  20. Geologic Water Storage in Pre-Columbian Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Fairley Jr., Jerry P.

    1997-07-14

    Agriculture in the arid and semi-arid regions that comprise much of present-day Peru, Bolivia, and Northern Chile is heavily dependent on irrigation; however, obtaining a dependable water supply in these areas is often difficult. The precolumbian peoples of Andean South America adapted to this situation by devising many strategies for transporting, storing, and retrieving water to insure consistent supply. I propose that the ''elaborated springs'' found at several Inka sites near Cuzco, Peru, are the visible expression of a simple and effective system of groundwater control and storage. I call this system ''geologic water storage'' because the water is stored in the pore spaces of sands, soils, and other near-surface geologic materials. I present two examples of sites in the Cuzco area that use this technology (Tambomachay and Tipon) and discuss the potential for identification of similar systems developed by other ancient Latin American cultures.

  1. Environmental Responses to Carbon Mitigation through Geological Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Alfred; Bromenshenk, Jerry

    2013-08-30

    In summary, this DOE EPSCoR project is contributing to the study of carbon mitigation through geological storage. Both deep and shallow subsurface research needs are being addressed through research directed at improved understanding of environmental responses associated with large scale injection of CO{sub 2} into geologic formations. The research plan has two interrelated research objectives. Objective 1: Determine the influence of CO{sub 2}-related injection of fluids on pore structure, material properties, and microbial activity in rock cores from potential geological carbon sequestration sites. Objective 2: Determine the Effects of CO{sub 2} leakage on shallow subsurface ecosystems (microbial and plant) using field experiments from an outdoor field testing facility.

  2. A Life Cycle Cost Analysis Framework for Geologic Storage of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Anna S.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Borns, David James

    2009-09-01

    Large scale geostorage options for fuels including natural gas and petroleum offer substantial buffer capacity to meet or hedge against supply disruptions. This same notion may be applied to large scale hydrogen storage to meet industrial or transportation sector needs. This study develops an assessment tool to calculate the potential ‘gate-to-gate’ life cycle costs for large scale hydrogen geostorage options in salt caverns, and continues to develop modules for depleted oil/gas reservoirs and aquifers. The U.S. Department of Energy has an interest in these types of storage to assess the geological, geomechanical and economic viability for this type of hydrogen storage. Understanding, and looking to quantify, the value of large-scale storage in a larger hydrogen supply and demand infrastructure may prove extremely beneficial for larger infrastructure modeling efforts when looking to identify the most efficient means to fuel a hydrogen demand (e.g., industrial or transportation-centric demand). Drawing from the knowledge gained in the underground large scale storage options for natural gas and petroleum in the U.S., the potential to store relatively large volumes of CO2 in geological formations, the hydrogen storage assessment modeling will continue to build on these strengths while maintaining modeling transparency such that other modeling efforts may draw from this project.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Geological Heterogeneity - Implications for CO2 Geological Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanson, J. L.; Kirste, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 geological storage is a proposed mitigation strategy currently being considered to reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions. One factor often limiting the implementation of CO2 geological storage is the uncertainty associated with geological heterogeneities within storage reservoirs and how these heterogeneities will impact CO2 partitioning into the various storage mechanisms. Numerical models are a useful tool for integrating field and laboratory data to generate predictions on the extent of CO2 storage at larger spatial and temporal scales than experimental work is capable of undertaking alone. Numerical models use governing equations to simulate physical and chemical processes, such as the flow and transport of CO2 within the subsurface. Governing equations require the specification of a number of input parameters inherent to the porous medium. In nature, parameters such as porosity and permeability vary within and between different rock types, according to variations in factors such as grain size, sorting, cementation and structure. These variations lead to geological heterogeneity at a number of scales. However, geological heterogeneity is often oversimplified in numerical models, either due to a lack of geological data or to increase computational efficiency. Grid spacing is often coarse, leading to faster simulation times but a decrease in numerical accuracy. Further work is required to investigate how simplifying geological heterogeneity within numerical models affects short and long term CO2 storage predictions. To quantify the impact of geological heterogeneity, TOUGH2, a multiphase flow and transport code, is used to construct a series of simulations with increasing degrees of geological complexity. Comparisons are made between numerous scenarios, including discrete versus gradual progression into areas of heterogeneous rock types, continuous versus discontinuous layering, internal structures and anisotropy. Input parameters associated with

  4. System-level modeling for economic evaluation of geological CO2storage in gas reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-03-02

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine aquifers ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research is being conducted to improveunderstanding of factors affecting particular aspects of geological CO2storage (such as storage performance, storage capacity, and health,safety and environmental (HSE) issues) as well as to lower the cost ofCO2 capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasisto date on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedprocess models to representations of engineering components andassociated economic models. The objective of this study is to develop asystem-level model for geological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture andseparation, compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, andCO2 injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection into a gas reservoir and relatedenhanced production of methane. Potential leakage and associatedenvironmental impacts are also considered. The platform for thesystem-level model is GoldSim [GoldSim User's Guide. GoldSim TechnologyGroup; 2006, http://www.goldsim.com]. The application of the system modelfocuses on evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration withenhanced gas recovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. Thereservoir simulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2simulator, EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2.Using a system-level modeling approach, the economic benefits of enhancedgas recovery can be directly weighed against the costs and benefits ofCO2 injection.

  5. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Storage Capacity for Depleted Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Yen Ting; Shen, Chien-Hao; Tseng, Chi-Chung; Fan, Chen-Hui; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2015-04-01

    A depleted gas reservoir is one of the best options for CO2 storage for many reasons. First of all, the storage safety or the caprock integrity has been proven because the natural gas was trapped in the formation for a very long period of time. Also the formation properties and fluid flow characteristics for the reservoir have been well studied since the discovery of the gas reservoir. Finally the surface constructions and facilities are very useful and relatively easy to convert for the use of CO2 storage. The purpose of this study was to apply an analytical approach to estimate CO2 storage capacity in a depleted gas reservoir. The analytical method we used is the material balance equation (MBE), which have been widely used in natural gas storage. We proposed a modified MBE for CO2 storage in a depleted gas reservoir by introducing the z-factors of gas, CO2 and the mixture of the two. The MBE can be derived to a linear relationship between the ratio of pressure to gas z-factor (p/z) and the cumulative term (Gp-Ginj, where Gp is the cumulative gas production and Ginj is the cumulative CO2 injection). The CO2 storage capacity can be calculated when constraints of reservoir recovery pressure are adopted. The numerical simulation was also used for the validation of the theoretical estimation of CO2 storage capacity from the MBE. We found that the quantity of CO2 stored is more than that of gas produced when the reservoir pressure is recovered from the abandon pressure to the initial pressure. This result was basically from the fact that the gas- CO2 mixture z-factors are lower than the natural gas z-factors in reservoir conditions. We also established a useful p/z plot to easily observe the pressure behavior of CO2 storage and efficiently calculate the CO2 storage capacity. The application of the MBE we proposed was demonstrated by a case study of a depleted gas reservoir in northwestern Taiwan. The estimated CO2 storage capacities from conducting reservoir simulation

  6. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid

  7. Storage capacity in hot dry rock reservoirs

    DOEpatents

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-11-11

    A method is described for extracting thermal energy, in a cyclic manner, from geologic strata which may be termed hot dry rock. A reservoir comprised of hot fractured rock is established and water or other liquid is passed through the reservoir. The water is heated by the hot rock, recovered from the reservoir, cooled by extraction of heat by means of heat exchange apparatus on the surface, and then re-injected into the reservoir to be heated again. Water is added to the reservoir by means of an injection well and recovered from the reservoir by means of a production well. Water is continuously provided to the reservoir and continuously withdrawn from the reservoir at two different flow rates, a base rate and a peak rate. Increasing water flow from the base rate to the peak rate is accomplished by rapidly decreasing backpressure at the outlet of the production well in order to meet periodic needs for amounts of thermal energy greater than a baseload amount, such as to generate additional electric power to meet peak demands. The rate of flow of water provided to the hot dry rock reservoir is maintained at a value effective to prevent depletion of the liquid inventory of the reservoir. 4 figs.

  8. Improved storage efficiency through geologic modeling and reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ammer, J.R.; Mroz, T.H.; Covatch, G.L.

    1997-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), through partnerships with industry, is demonstrating the importance of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation for optimizing the development and operation of gas storage fields. The geologic modeling and reservoir simulation study for the Natural Fuel Gas Supply Corporation CRADA was completed in September 1995. The results of this study were presented at the 1995 Society of Petroleum Engineers` (SPE) Eastern Regional Meeting. Although there has been no field verification of the modeling results, the study has shown the potential advantages and cost savings opportunities of using horizontal wells for storage enhancement. The geologic modeling for the Equitrans` CRADA was completed in September 1995 and was also presented at the 1995 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. The reservoir modeling of past field performance was completed in November 1996 and prediction runs are currently being made to investigate the potential of offering either a 10 day or 30 day peaking service in addition to the existing 110 day base load service. Initial results have shown that peaking services can be provided through remediation of well damage and by drilling either several new vertical wells or one new horizontal well. The geologic modeling for the Northern Indiana Public Service Company CRADA was completed in November 1996 with a horizontal well being completed in January 1997. Based on well test results, the well will significantly enhance gas deliverability from the field and will allow the utilization of gas from an area of the storage field that was not accessible from their existing vertical wells. Results are presented from these three case studies.

  9. Hydrogen storage capacity of catalytically grown carbon nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, Matthias; Bauer, Erich; Reichenauer, Gudrun; Schliermann, Thomas; Bernhardt, Babette; Bohmhammel, Klaus; Henneberg, Eva; Knoll, Uta; Maneck, Heinz-Eberhard; Braue, Wolfgang

    2005-08-11

    In 1996, R. T. K. Baker, and N. M. Rodriguez claimed to have synthesized a new type of carbon nanofiber material capable of storing large amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and pressures above 100 bar, thus making it a powerful candidate for a very efficient energy storage system in mobile applications. Consequently, many scientists all over the world tried to test and verify these findings, however, with partly inconsistent results. We present here for the first time independent hydrogen storage measurements for several types of nanofibers, both synthesized by our group following precisely the specifications given in the literature as well as original samples supplied by Rodriguez and Baker for this study. The hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature and pressures up to 140 bar were quantified independently by gravimetric and volumetric methods, respectively. No significant hydrogen storage capacity has been detected for all carbon nanofibers investigated.

  10. Practical modeling approaches for geological storage of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Celia, Michael A; Nordbotten, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    The relentless increase of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and the associated concerns about climate change have motivated new ideas about carbon-constrained energy production. One technological approach to control carbon dioxide emissions is carbon capture and storage, or CCS. The underlying idea of CCS is to capture the carbon before it emitted to the atmosphere and store it somewhere other than the atmosphere. Currently, the most attractive option for large-scale storage is in deep geological formations, including deep saline aquifers. Many physical and chemical processes can affect the fate of the injected CO2, with the overall mathematical description of the complete system becoming very complex. Our approach to the problem has been to reduce complexity as much as possible, so that we can focus on the few truly important questions about the injected CO2, most of which involve leakage out of the injection formation. Toward this end, we have established a set of simplifying assumptions that allow us to derive simplified models, which can be solved numerically or, for the most simplified cases, analytically. These simplified models allow calculation of solutions to large-scale injection and leakage problems in ways that traditional multicomponent multiphase simulators cannot. Such simplified models provide important tools for system analysis, screening calculations, and overall risk-assessment calculations. We believe this is a practical and important approach to model geological storage of carbon dioxide. It also serves as an example of how complex systems can be simplified while retaining the essential physics of the problem.

  11. Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapuis, Flavie; Bauer, Hugues; Grataloup, Sandrine; Leynet, Aurélien; Bourgine, Bernard; Castagnac, Claire; Fillacier, Simon; Lecomte, Antony; Le Gallo, Yann; Bonijoly, Didier

    2010-05-01

    Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France, f.chapuis@brgm.fr, d.bonijoly@brgm.fr 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, ylg@greogreen.fr The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the techno-economical potential of storing 200 000 tCO2 per year produced by a sugar beat distillery. To reach this goal, an accurate hydro-geological characterisation of a CO2 injection site is of primary importance because it will strongly influence the site selection, the storage design and the risk management. Geological investigation for CO2 storage is usually set in the center or deepest part of sedimentary basins. However, CO2 producers do not always match with the geological settings, and so other geological configurations have to be studied. This is the aim of this project, which is located near the South-West border of the Paris Basin, in the Orléans region. Special geometries such as onlaps and pinch out of formation against the basement are likely to be observed and so have to be taken into account. Two deep saline aquifers are potentially good candidates for CO2 storage. The Triassic continental deposits capped by the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic continental shales and the Dogger carbonate deposits capped by the Callovian and Oxfordian shales. First, a data review was undertaken, to provide the palaeogeographical settings and ideas about the facies, thicknesses and depth of the targeted formations. It was followed by a seismic interpretation. Three hundred kilometres of seismic lines were reprocessed and interpreted to characterize the geometry of the studied area. The main structure identified is the Étampes fault that affects all the formations. Apart from the vicinity of the fault where drag

  12. Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapuis, Flavie; Bauer, Hugues; Grataloup, Sandrine; Leynet, Aurélien; Bourgine, Bernard; Castagnac, Claire; Fillacier, Simon; Lecomte, Antony; Le Gallo, Yann; Bonijoly, Didier

    2010-05-01

    Geological investigation for CO2 storage: from seismic and well data to storage design Chapuis F.1, Bauer H.1, Grataloup S.1, Leynet A.1, Bourgine B.1, Castagnac C.1, Fillacier, S.2, Lecomte A.2, Le Gallo Y.2, Bonijoly D.1. 1 BRGM, 3 av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orléans Cedex, France, f.chapuis@brgm.fr, d.bonijoly@brgm.fr 2 Geogreen, 7, rue E. et A. Peugeot, 92563 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex, France, ylg@greogreen.fr The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the techno-economical potential of storing 200 000 tCO2 per year produced by a sugar beat distillery. To reach this goal, an accurate hydro-geological characterisation of a CO2 injection site is of primary importance because it will strongly influence the site selection, the storage design and the risk management. Geological investigation for CO2 storage is usually set in the center or deepest part of sedimentary basins. However, CO2 producers do not always match with the geological settings, and so other geological configurations have to be studied. This is the aim of this project, which is located near the South-West border of the Paris Basin, in the Orléans region. Special geometries such as onlaps and pinch out of formation against the basement are likely to be observed and so have to be taken into account. Two deep saline aquifers are potentially good candidates for CO2 storage. The Triassic continental deposits capped by the Upper Triassic/Lower Jurassic continental shales and the Dogger carbonate deposits capped by the Callovian and Oxfordian shales. First, a data review was undertaken, to provide the palaeogeographical settings and ideas about the facies, thicknesses and depth of the targeted formations. It was followed by a seismic interpretation. Three hundred kilometres of seismic lines were reprocessed and interpreted to characterize the geometry of the studied area. The main structure identified is the Étampes fault that affects all the formations. Apart from the vicinity of the fault where drag

  13. Solid-State Hydrogen Storage: Storage Capacity,Thermodynamics and Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Osborn, William; Markmaitree, Tippawan; Shaw, Leonard D.; Ren, Ruiming; Hu, Jian Z.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2009-04-01

    Solid-state reversible hydrogen storage systems hold great promise for on-board applications. The key criteria for a successful solid-state reversible storage material are high storage capacity, suitable thermodynamic properties, and fast hydriding and dehydriding kinetics. The LiNH2 + LiH system has been utilized as an example system to illustrate these critical issues that are common among other solid-state reversible storage materials. The progress made in thermodynamic destabilization and kinetic enhancements via various approaches have been emphasized. The implications of these advancements in the development of future solid-state reversible hydrogen storage materials are discussed.

  14. Canopy storage capacity of xerophytic shrubs in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-ping; Zhang, Ya-feng; Hu, Rui; Pan, Yan-xia; Berndtsson, Ronny

    2012-08-01

    SummaryThe capacity of shrub canopy water storage is a key factor in controlling the rainfall interception. Thus, it affects a variety of hydrological processes in water-limited arid desert ecosystems. Vast areas of revegetated desert ecosystems in Northwestern China are occupied by shrub and dwarf shrub communities. Yet, data are still scarce regarding their rainwater storage capacity. In this study, simulated rainfall tests were conducted in controlled conditions for three dominant xerophytic shrub types in the arid Tengger Desert. Eight rainfall intensities varying from 1.15 to 11.53 mm h-1 were used to determine the canopy water storage capacity. The simulated rainfall intensities were selected according to the long-term rainfall records in the study area. The results indicate that canopy storage capacity (expressed in water storage per leaf area, canopy projection area, biomass, and volume of shrub respectively) increased exponentially with increase in rainfall intensity for the selected shrubs. Linear relationships were found between canopy storage capacity and leaf area (LA) or leaf area index (LAI), although there was a striking difference in correlation between storage capacity and LA or LAI of Artemisia ordosica compared to Caragana korshinskii and Hedysarum scoparium. This is a result of differences in biometric characteristics, especially canopy morphology between the shrub species. Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that LA and dry biomass are better predictors as compared to canopy projection area and volume of samples for precise estimation of canopy water storage capacity. In terms of unit leaf area, mean storage capacity was 0.39 mm (range of 0.24-0.53 mm), 0.43 mm (range of 0.28-0.60 mm), and 0.61 mm (range of 0.29-0.89 mm) for C. korshinskii, H. scoparium, and A. ordosica, respectively. Correspondingly, divided per unit dry biomass, mean storage capacity was 0.51 g g-1 (range of 0.30-0.70 g g-1), 0.41 g g-1 (range of 0.26-0.57 g g-1), and

  15. Simulation of Porous Medium Hydrogen Storage - Estimation of Storage Capacity and Deliverability for a North German anticlinal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Bauer, S.; Pfeiffer, W. T.

    2015-12-01

    Large scale energy storage will be required to mitigate offsets between electric energy demand and the fluctuating electric energy production from renewable sources like wind farms, if renewables dominate energy supply. Porous formations in the subsurface could provide the large storage capacities required if chemical energy carriers such as hydrogen gas produced during phases of energy surplus are stored. This work assesses the behavior of a porous media hydrogen storage operation through numerical scenario simulation of a synthetic, heterogeneous sandstone formation formed by an anticlinal structure. The structural model is parameterized using data available for the North German Basin as well as data given for formations with similar characteristics. Based on the geological setting at the storage site a total of 15 facies distributions is generated and the hydrological parameters are assigned accordingly. Hydraulic parameters are spatially distributed according to the facies present and include permeability, porosity relative permeability and capillary pressure. The storage is designed to supply energy in times of deficiency on the order of seven days, which represents the typical time span of weather conditions with no wind. It is found that using five injection/extraction wells 21.3 mio sm³ of hydrogen gas can be stored and retrieved to supply 62,688 MWh of energy within 7 days. This requires a ratio of working to cushion gas of 0.59. The retrievable energy within this time represents the demand of about 450000 people. Furthermore it is found that for longer storage times, larger gas volumes have to be used, for higher delivery rates additionally the number of wells has to be increased. The formation investigated here thus seems to offer sufficient capacity and deliverability to be used for a large scale hydrogen gas storage operation.

  16. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  17. The Leakage Risk Monetization Model for Geologic CO2 Storage.

    PubMed

    Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Pollak, Melisa F; Deng, Hang; Wilson, Elizabeth J; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Peters, Catherine A

    2016-05-17

    We developed the Leakage Risk Monetization Model (LRiMM) which integrates simulation of CO2 leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs with estimation of monetized leakage risk (MLR). Using geospatial data, LRiMM quantifies financial responsibility if leaked CO2 or brine interferes with subsurface resources, and estimates the MLR reduction achievable by remediating leaks. We demonstrate LRiMM with simulations of 30 years of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone at two locations that differ primarily in their proximity to existing wells that could be leakage pathways. The peak MLR for the site nearest the leakage pathways ($7.5/tCO2) was 190x larger than for the farther injection site, illustrating how careful siting would minimize MLR in heavily used sedimentary basins. Our MLR projections are at least an order of magnitude below overall CO2 storage costs at well-sited locations, but some stakeholders may incur substantial costs. Reliable methods to detect and remediate leaks could further minimize MLR. For both sites, the risk of CO2 migrating to potable aquifers or reaching the atmosphere was negligible due to secondary trapping, whereby multiple impervious sedimentary layers trap CO2 that has leaked through the primary seal of the storage formation.

  18. Buoyant dispersal of CO2 during geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, M. A.; Woods, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is currently the only technology that may allow significant reductions in CO2 emissions from large point sources. Seismic images of geological CO2 storage show the rise of CO2 is influenced by horizontal shales. The buoyant CO2 spreads beneath impermeable barriers until a gap allows its upward migration. The large number and small scale of these barriers makes the prediction of the CO2 migration path and hence the magnitude of CO2 trapping very challenging. We show that steady buoyancy dominated flows in complex geometries can be modeled as a cascade of flux partitioning events. This approach allows the analysis of two-dimensional plume dispersal from a horizontal injection well. We show that the plume spreads laterally with height y above the source according to (y/h)1/2 L, where L is the width of the shales and h is their vertical separation. The fluid volume below successive shale layers, and therefore the magnitude of trapped CO2, increase as (y/h)5/4 above the source, so that every additional layer of barriers traps more CO2 than the one below. Upscaling small scale flow barriers by reducing the vertical permeability, common in numerical simulations of CO2 storage, does not capture the dispersion and trapping of the CO2 plume by the flow barriers.

  19. The Leakage Risk Monetization Model for Geologic CO2 Storage.

    PubMed

    Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Pollak, Melisa F; Deng, Hang; Wilson, Elizabeth J; Fitts, Jeffrey P; Peters, Catherine A

    2016-05-17

    We developed the Leakage Risk Monetization Model (LRiMM) which integrates simulation of CO2 leakage from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs with estimation of monetized leakage risk (MLR). Using geospatial data, LRiMM quantifies financial responsibility if leaked CO2 or brine interferes with subsurface resources, and estimates the MLR reduction achievable by remediating leaks. We demonstrate LRiMM with simulations of 30 years of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone at two locations that differ primarily in their proximity to existing wells that could be leakage pathways. The peak MLR for the site nearest the leakage pathways ($7.5/tCO2) was 190x larger than for the farther injection site, illustrating how careful siting would minimize MLR in heavily used sedimentary basins. Our MLR projections are at least an order of magnitude below overall CO2 storage costs at well-sited locations, but some stakeholders may incur substantial costs. Reliable methods to detect and remediate leaks could further minimize MLR. For both sites, the risk of CO2 migrating to potable aquifers or reaching the atmosphere was negligible due to secondary trapping, whereby multiple impervious sedimentary layers trap CO2 that has leaked through the primary seal of the storage formation. PMID:27052112

  20. CO2/clay interactions and the significance for geological storage of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Wentinck, Rick; Bertier, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    For the characterization of CO2 storage reservoirs a number of critical parameters need to be assessed, like storage capacity or injection rate, where a straight-forward work flow based on existing experience in the oil and gas industry is available. Added complexity is in the identification of (potential) leakage pathways along wellbores, faults/fractures or even capillary seal networks. The critical aspects are mechanisms and rates of potential leakage. Over the past few years an improved understanding of the interaction of CO2 with clay minerals was generated, with a major focus on swelling clays, such as montmorillonite. Especially in relatively young and / or low maturity sedimentary basins, smectite contents of the seal lithologies can be high (e.g. North Sea). It was found that for CO2 storage and storage containment non-negligible physical effects result from clays in contact with CO2 and water under pressure, temperature and stress conditions representative for geological reservoirs. It was shown that all clay minerals are able to adsorb significant amounts of CO2, while only smectite swells in the presence of CO2, thereby creating a swelling force that is potentially large and may affect local stress fields. Several cases where this interaction might become important are discussed in this contribution: (1) clay swelling between wellbore cement and host rock, (2) CO2 adsorption of clays in the storage reservoir, (3) clay swelling and the impact on fractures and faults, potentially acting as pathways, for fluid leakage and (4) shrinkage of swelling clays due to dehydration by CO2 and the possible creation of dehydration cracks. This contribution aims at summarizing these effects, increasing awareness and discussing its significance for the geological storage of CO2.

  1. The Rosetta Resources CO2 Storage Project - A WESTCARB GeologicPilot Test

    SciTech Connect

    Trautz, Robert; Benson, Sally; Myer, Larry; Oldenburg, Curtis; Seeman, Ed; Hadsell, Eric; Funderburk, Ben

    2006-01-30

    WESTCARB, one of seven U.S. Department of Energypartnerships, identified (during its Phase I study) over 600 gigatonnesof CO2 storage capacity in geologic formations located in the Westernregion. The Western region includes the WESTCARB partnership states ofAlaska, Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon and Washington and theCanadian province of British Columbia. The WESTCARB Phase II study iscurrently under way, featuring three geologic and two terrestrial CO2pilot projects designed to test promising sequestration technologies atsites broadly representative of the region's largest potential carbonsinks. This paper focuses on two of the geologic pilot studies plannedfor Phase II -referred to-collectively as the Rosetta-Calpine CO2 StorageProject. The first pilot test will demonstrate injection of CO2 into asaline formation beneath a depleted gas reservoir. The second test willgather data for assessing CO2 enhanced gas recovery (EGR) as well asstorage in a depleted gas reservoir. The benefit of enhanced oil recovery(EOR) using injected CO2 to drive or sweep oil from the reservoir towarda production well is well known. EaR involves a similar CO2 injectionprocess, but has received far less attention. Depleted natural gasreservoirs still contain methane; therefore, CO2 injection may enhancemethane production by reservoir repressurization or pressure maintenance.CO2 injection into a saline formation, followed by injection into adepleted natural gas reservoir, is currently scheduled to start inOctober 2006.

  2. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources─South Florida Basin: Chapter L in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2015-08-26

    This report presents five storage assessment units (SAUs) that have been identified as potentially suitable for geologic carbon dioxide sequestration within a 35,075-square-mile area that includes the entire onshore and State-water portions of the South Florida Basin. Platform-wide, thick successions of laterally extensive carbonates and evaporites deposited in highly cyclic depositional environments in the South Florida Basin provide several massive, porous carbonate reservoirs that are separated by evaporite seals. For each storage assessment unit identified within the basin, the areal distribution of the reservoir-seal couplet identified as suitable for geologic Carbon dioxide sequestration is presented, along with a description of the geologic characteristics that influence the potential carbon dioxide storage volume and reservoir performance. On a case-by-case basis, strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are also discussed. Geologic information presented in this report has been employed to calculate potential storage capacities for carbon dioxide sequestration in the storage assessment units assessed herein, although complete assessment results are not contained in this report.

  3. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources─South Florida Basin: Chapter L in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents five storage assessment units (SAUs) that have been identified as potentially suitable for geologic carbon dioxide sequestration within a 35,075-square-mile area that includes the entire onshore and State-water portions of the South Florida Basin. Platform-wide, thick successions of laterally extensive carbonates and evaporites deposited in highly cyclic depositional environments in the South Florida Basin provide several massive, porous carbonate reservoirs that are separated by evaporite seals. For each storage assessment unit identified within the basin, the areal distribution of the reservoir-seal couplet identified as suitable for geologic Carbon dioxide sequestration is presented, along with a description of the geologic characteristics that influence the potential carbon dioxide storage volume and reservoir performance. On a case-by-case basis, strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are also discussed. Geologic information presented in this report has been employed to calculate potential storage capacities for carbon dioxide sequestration in the storage assessment units assessed herein, although complete assessment results are not contained in this report.

  4. The low cost of geological assessment for underground CO2 storage: Policy and economic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Dooley, J; Held, H; Edenhofer, O

    2005-01-31

    The costs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS) in geologic formations is estimated to be $6-75/t CO{sub 2}. In the absence of a mandate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or some other significant incentive for CCS deployment, this cost effectively limits CCS technology deployment to small niche markets and stymies the potential for further technological development through learning-by-doing until these disincentives for the free venting of CO{sub 2} are in place. By far, the largest current fraction of these costs is capture (including compression and dehydration), commonly estimated at $25-60/t CO{sub 2} for power plant applications followed by CO{sub 2} transport and storage, estimated at $0-15/t CO{sub 2}. Of the storage costs, only a small fraction of the cost will go to accurate geological characterization. These one-time costs are probably on the order of $0.1/t CO{sub 2} or less as these costs are spread out over the many millions of tons likely to be injected into a field over many decades. Geologic assessments include information central to capacity prediction, risk estimation for the target intervals, and development facilities engineering. Since assessment costs are roughly 2 orders of magnitude smaller than capture costs, and assessment products carry other tangible societal benefits such as improved accuracy in fossil fuel and ground water reserves estimates, government or joint private/public funding of major assessment initiatives should underpin early policy choices regarding CO{sub 2} storage deployment and should serve as a point of entry for policy makers and regulators. Early assessment is also likely to improve the knowledge base upon which the first commercial CCS deployments will rest.d

  5. Influence of geologic layering on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridger, D. W.; Allen, D. M.

    2013-09-01

    A modeling study was carried out to evaluate the influence of aquifer heterogeneity, as represented by geologic layering, on heat transport and storage in an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system in Agassiz, British Columbia, Canada. Two 3D heat transport models were developed and calibrated using the flow and heat transport code FEFLOW including: a "non-layered" model domain with homogeneous hydraulic and thermal properties; and, a "layered" model domain with variable hydraulic and thermal properties assigned to discrete geological units to represent aquifer heterogeneity. The base model (non-layered) shows limited sensitivity for the ranges of all thermal and hydraulic properties expected at the site; the model is most sensitive to vertical anisotropy and hydraulic gradient. Simulated and observed temperatures within the wells reflect a combination of screen placement and layering, with inconsistencies largely explained by the lateral continuity of high permeability layers represented in the model. Simulation of heat injection, storage and recovery show preferential transport along high permeability layers, resulting in longitudinal plume distortion, and overall higher short-term storage efficiencies.

  6. Charged fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Mina; Yang, Shenyuan; Wang, Enge; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2007-09-01

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we explore systematically the capacity of charged carbon fullerenes Cn (20 storage media. We find that the binding strength of molecular hydrogen on either positively or negatively charged fullerenes can be dramatically enhanced to 0.18-0.32 eV, a desirable range for potential room-temperature, near ambient applications. The enhanced binding is delocalized in nature, surrounding the whole surface of a charged fullerene, and is attributed to the polarization of the hydrogen molecules by the high electric field generated near the surface of the charged fullerene. At full hydrogen coverage, these charged fullerenes can gain storage capacities of up to approximately 8.0 wt %. We also find that, contrary to intuitive expectation, fullerenes containing encapsulated metal atoms only exhibit negligible enhancement in the hydrogen binding strength, because the charge donated by the metal atoms is primarily confined inside the fullerene cages. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage media.

  7. Method to estimate water storage capacity of capillary barriers - Discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, Glendon W. ); Ward, Anderson L. ); Meyer, Philip D. )

    1998-11-01

    This is a brief comment on a previously published paper. The paper by Stormont and Morris[JGGE 124 (4):297-302] provides an interesting approach to computing water storage capacity of capillary barriers used as landfill covers. They correctly show that available water storage capacity can be increased up to a factor of two for a silt loam soil, when it is used in a capillary barrier as compared to existing as a deep soil profile. For this very reason such a capillary barrier, utilizing silt loam soil, was constructed and successfully tested at the U. S. Department of Energy?s Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Silt loam soil provides optimal water storage for capillary barriers and ensures minimal drainage. Less benefits are obtained when capillary barriers utilize more sandy soils. We would endorse a limited application of the method of Stormont and Morris. We suggest that there will be large uncertainties in field capacity, wilting point and water retention characteristics and only when these uncertainties are accounted for can such a method be used to provide sound engineering judgement for cover design. A recommended procedure for using this method would include actual field measurements of the soil hydraulic properties of the cover materials.

  8. Bathymetric survey and estimation of storage capacity of lower Sixmile Creek reservoir, Ithaca, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wernly, John F.; Zajd, Jr., Henry J.; Coon, William F.

    2016-10-05

    During 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Ithaca, New York, and the New York State Department of State, conducted a bathymetric survey of the lower Sixmile Creek reservoir in Tompkins County, New York. A former water-supply reservoir for the City of Ithaca, the reservoir is no longer a functional component of Ithaca’s water-supply system, having been replaced by a larger reservoir less than a mile upstream in 1911. Excessive sedimentation has substantially reduced the reservoir’s water-storage capacity and made the discharge gate at the base of the 30-foot dam, which creates the reservoir, inoperable. U.S. Geological Survey personnel collected bathymetric data by using an acoustic Doppler current profiler. Across more than half of the approximately 14-acre reservoir, depths were manually measured because of interference from aquatic vegetation with the acoustic Doppler current profiler. City of Ithaca personnel created a bottom-elevation surface from these depth data. A second surface was created from depths that were manually measured by City of Ithaca personnel during 1938. Surface areas and storage capacities were computed at 1-foot increments of elevation for both bathymetric surveys. The results indicate that the current storage capacity of the reservoir at its normal water-surface elevation is about 84 acre-feet and that sediment accumulated between 1938 and 2015 has decreased the reservoir’s capacity by about 68 acre-feet. This sediment load is attributed to annual inputs from the watershed above the reservoir, as well as from an episodic landslide that filled a large part of the reservoir along its northern edge in 1949.

  9. Optimising geological storage of CO2 by development of multiple injection sites in regionally extensive storage sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhurst, Maxine; McDermott, Christopher; Williams, John; Mackay, Eric; Jin, Min; Tucker, Owain; Mallows, Tom; Hannis, Sarah; Pearce, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    by the operation of more than one injection site in a geological formation by taking a regional-scale approach to site assessment. The study concludes that at least 360 million tonnes of CO2 captured over the coming 35 years could be permanently stored using two injection sites in the Captain Sandstone. Confidence in the planned operation of two or more injection sites in a storage formation is greatly increased by the use of existing information, knowledge and data acquired during hydrocarbon exploitation. Widespread pressure changes should be expected by the injection of CO2 at more than one site. Assessment, management and monitoring of pressure changes on a regional scale will optimise the storage capacity, ensure security of storage and prevent adverse effects to existing storage and hydrocarbon operations. The vast offshore potential across all sectors of the North Sea could be made accessible and practical for storage of CO2 captured at European sources by the operation of two or more sites in a storage formation by following the approach taken in CO2MultiStore.

  10. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G−S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G−S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity. PMID:25755261

  11. Solar electricity supply isolines of generation capacity and storage.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Wolf; Grossmann, Iris; Steininger, Karl W

    2015-03-24

    The recent sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation accompanied by globally rapidly increasing investment in PV plants calls for new planning and management tools for large-scale distributed solar networks. Of major importance are methods to overcome intermittency of solar electricity, i.e., to provide dispatchable electricity at minimal costs. We find that pairs of electricity generation capacity G and storage S that give dispatchable electricity and are minimal with respect to S for a given G exhibit a smooth relationship of mutual substitutability between G and S. These isolines between G and S support the solving of several tasks, including the optimal sizing of generation capacity and storage, optimal siting of solar parks, optimal connections of solar parks across time zones for minimizing intermittency, and management of storage in situations of far below average insolation to provide dispatchable electricity. G-S isolines allow determining the cost-optimal pair (G,S) as a function of the cost ratio of G and S. G-S isolines provide a method for evaluating the effect of geographic spread and time zone coverage on costs of solar electricity.

  12. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil database information has some predictive power for model soil storage capacity, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for

  13. U.S. Department of Energy's site screening, site selection, and initial characterization for storage of CO2 in deep geological formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodosta, T.D.; Litynski, J.T.; Plasynski, S.I.; Hickman, S.; Frailey, S.; Myer, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is the lead Federal agency for the development and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. As part of its mission to facilitate technology transfer and develop guidelines from lessons learned, DOE is developing a series of best practice manuals (BPMs) for carbon capture and storage (CCS). The "Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geological Formations" BPM is a compilation of best practices and includes flowchart diagrams illustrating the general decision making process for Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization. The BPM integrates the knowledge gained from various programmatic efforts, with particular emphasis on the Characterization Phase through pilot-scale CO2 injection testing of the Validation Phase of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (RCSP) Initiative. Key geologic and surface elements that suitable candidate storage sites should possess are identified, along with example Site Screening, Site Selection, and Initial Characterization protocols for large-scale geologic storage projects located across diverse geologic and regional settings. This manual has been written as a working document, establishing a framework and methodology for proper site selection for CO2 geologic storage. This will be useful for future CO2 emitters, transporters, and storage providers. It will also be of use in informing local, regional, state, and national governmental agencies of best practices in proper sequestration site selection. Furthermore, it will educate the inquisitive general public on options and processes for geologic CO2 storage. In addition to providing best practices, the manual presents a geologic storage resource and capacity classification system. The system provides a "standard" to communicate storage and capacity estimates, uncertainty and project development risk, data guidelines and analyses for adequate site characterization, and

  14. High Methane Storage Capacity in Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Gándara, Felipe; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Lee, Seungkyu; Yaghi, Omar M.

    2014-08-14

    The use of porous materials to store natural gas in vehicles requires large amounts of methane per unit of volume. Here we report the synthesis, crystal structure and methane adsorption properties of two new aluminum metal–organic frameworks, MOF-519 and MOF-520. Both materials exhibit permanent porosity and high methane volumetric storage capacity: MOF-519 has a volumetric capacity of 200 and 279 cm3 cm–3 at 298 K and 35 and 80 bar, respectively, and MOF-520 has a volumetric capacity of 162 and 231 cm3 cm–3 under the same conditions. Furthermore, MOF-519 exhibits an exceptional working capacity, being able to deliver a large amount of methane at pressures between 5 and 35 bar, 151 cm3 cm–3, and between 5 and 80 bar, 230 cm3 cm–3.

  15. Reaction capacity characterization of shallow sedimentary deposits in geologically different regions of the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Griffioen, Jasper; Klein, Janneke; van Gaans, Pauline F M

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative insight into the reaction capacity of porous media is necessary to assess the buffering capacity of the subsurface against contaminant input via groundwater recharge. Here, reaction capacity is to be considered as a series of geochemical characteristics that control acid/base conditions, redox conditions and sorption intensity. Using existing geochemical analyses, a statistical regional assessment of the reaction capacity was performed for two geologically different areas in the Netherlands. The first area is dominated by Pleistocene aquifer sediments only, in the second area a heterogeneous Holocene confining layer is found on top of the Pleistocene aquifer sediments. Within both areas, two or more regions can be distinguished that have a distinctly different geological build-up of the shallow subsurface. The reactive compounds considered were pyrite, reactive Fe other than pyrite, sedimentary organic matter, carbonate and clay content. This characterization was complemented by the analysis of a dataset of samples newly collected, from two regions within the Pleistocene area, where the sedimentary facies of samples was additionally distinguished. The statistical assessment per area was executed at the levels of region, geological formation and lithology class. For both areas, significant differences in reaction capacities were observed between: 1. different lithology classes within a geological formation in a single region, 2. identical geological formations in different regions and 3. various geological formations within a single region. Here, the reaction capacity is not only controlled by lithostratigraphy, but also by post-depositional diagenesis and paleohydrology. Correlation coefficients among the reactive compounds were generally higher for sand than for clay, but insufficiently high to allow good estimation of reactive compounds from each other. For the sandy Pleistocene aquifer sediments, the content of reactive compounds was frequently

  16. Implications of CO2 Geological Storage on Aquifers Autotrophic Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupraz, Sébastien; Fabbri, Antonin; Joulian, Catherine; Menez, Bénédicte; Gerard, Emanuelle; Henry, Benoit; Crouzet, Catherine; Guyot, François; Garrido, Francis

    2010-05-01

    In a global strategy of carbon emission reduction, a study about CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) feasibility in the case of a French beet sugar factory and distillery in the Parisian basin was undertaken by regional and state authorities. Besides, economical, geological and engineering questions, microbial interactions were also studied since the potential contribution of the deep biosphere on the storage zones appears to be an essential factor in terms of injectivity and CO2 mobilization. Biological processes like biofilm formation, biomineralization and carbon assimilation may hinder the injections or, to the contrary, improve the stability of the sequestration by shifting CO2 into more stable forms like carbonates and organic matter. Regarding those possibilities, it is thus mandatory to establish how the subsurface biosphere will react by determining which metabolisms will be able to sustain the stress due to high concentrations of CO2 and the resulting acidification. In that case, the study of autotrophic communities reactivity is essential because they are the only entrance for CO2 assimilation in the SLiMEs (Subsurface Litho autotrophic Microbial Ecosystems) and thus are accountable for the general biomass and biofilm production in the deep subsurface. Nevertheless, a simple assessment of the toxical effect induced on these strains cannot be representative of the possible interactions at the scale of a long term storage where adaptations should play a major role. For that reason, we decided to choose different strains, namely autotrophic methanogens (Methanothermococcus thermolithotrophicus and Archeoglobus fulgidus) and sulfate reducing bacteria strains (Desulfotomaculum geothermicum and Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii), that best characterize the autotrophic communities of our injection site (aquifer of the Triassic Keuper sandstones) and to make them undergo a test of selection/adaptation toward a sequential increase of CO2 partial pressure from 0.05 to 5

  17. Sparsely Connected, Hebbian Networks with Strikingly Large Storage Capacities.

    PubMed

    BOOS, WILLIAM; VOGEL, DAVID D.

    1997-06-01

    Conspicuous problems confront the use of fully-connected networks (F-nets) in the construction of realistic partial models of biological memory. These problems include the high synaptic densities of F-nets, and the low information storage capacities of F-nets with simple, biologically realistic learning rules. Most auto-associative networks constructed with low connectivities have employed random projections of path length 1. Projective networks (P-nets) are nonrandom, multilayer networks which achieve extremely low connectivities by linking all neurons in the same layer through paths of length 2. In this paper we derive a lower bound on the storage capacities of a class of simple, two-layer P-nets with binary Hebbian synapses. Given a 1% tolerance for spurious neurons, we find that the P-net with 1000 synapses per neuron (2 x 10(6) neurons) will store more than 1.5 x 10(6) training vectors with 20 active neurons per vector (0.25 bits per synapse). Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  18. Sparsely Connected, Hebbian Networks with Strikingly Large Storage Capacities.

    PubMed

    BOOS, WILLIAM; VOGEL, DAVID D.

    1997-06-01

    Conspicuous problems confront the use of fully-connected networks (F-nets) in the construction of realistic partial models of biological memory. These problems include the high synaptic densities of F-nets, and the low information storage capacities of F-nets with simple, biologically realistic learning rules. Most auto-associative networks constructed with low connectivities have employed random projections of path length 1. Projective networks (P-nets) are nonrandom, multilayer networks which achieve extremely low connectivities by linking all neurons in the same layer through paths of length 2. In this paper we derive a lower bound on the storage capacities of a class of simple, two-layer P-nets with binary Hebbian synapses. Given a 1% tolerance for spurious neurons, we find that the P-net with 1000 synapses per neuron (2 x 10(6) neurons) will store more than 1.5 x 10(6) training vectors with 20 active neurons per vector (0.25 bits per synapse). Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. PMID:12662862

  19. A standard model for storage of geological map data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, K. A.; Giles, J. R. A.

    1997-07-01

    The information presented on a geological map may be represented by a logical model in the form of an entity-relationship diagram. This must show the links between the three-dimensional geology and the two-dimensional expression of that geology which is the map. The principles behind the model created for the British Geological Survey's Digital Map Production System are outlined, and the model's main features explained.

  20. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: U.S. Gulf Coast: Chapter H in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Buursink, Marc L.; Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Edited by Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents 27 storage assessment units (SAUs) within the United States (U.S.) Gulf Coast. The U.S. Gulf Coast contains a regionally extensive, thick succession of clastics, carbonates, salts, and other evaporites that were deposited in a highly cyclic depositional environment that was subjected to a fluctuating siliciclastic sediment supply and transgressive and regressive sea levels. At least nine major depositional packages contain porous strata that are potentially suitable for geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration within the region. For each SAU identified within these packages, the areal distribution of porous rock that is suitable for geologic CO2 sequestration is discussed, along with a description of the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net-porous thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Additionally, a characterization of the overlying regional seal for each SAU is presented. On a case-by-case basis, strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are also presented. Geologic information presented in this report has been employed to calculate potential storage capacities for CO2 sequestration in the SAUs that are assessed herein, although complete assessment results are not contained in this report.

  1. Coupled Modeling of Fault Poromechanics During Geologic CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, B.; Hager, B. H.; Juanes, R.

    2012-12-01

    Perhaps the most pressing current debate surrounding carbon capture and storage (CCS) revolves around the pressure limitations on geologic storage [Szulczewski et al., 2012]. Overpressures due to CO2 injection could fracture the caprock [Birkholzer and Zhou, 2009], trigger earthquakes [Cappa and Rutqvist, 2011], and potentially compromise the caprock by activating faults [Zoback and Gorelick, 2012]. While an alarmist view of these issues [Zoback and Gorelick, 2012] appears unwarranted, it seems clear that addressing the coupled processes of CO2 injection and fault poromechanics constitutes a pressing challenge for CCS. More generally, the fundamental link between earthquakes and groundwater flow is a first-order geoscience problem. Despite the interest that this issue has received in recent times, many aspects remain poorly understood, from the physics of the problem to the ability to perform credible fully-coupled simulations. Here, we advance our current simulation technology for forecasting fault slip and fault activation from fluid injection and withdrawal at depth. We present the development and application of a coupled multiphase-flow and reservoir-geomechanics simulator able to model the poromechanics of faults. We use a recently-discovered operator split, the fixed-stress split [Kim et al., 2011], to obtain an unconditionally-stable sequential iterative scheme for the simulation of multiphase flow and geomechanics. The geomechanics code PyLith [Aagaard et al., 2011] permits simulating faults as surfaces of discontinuity. We use the rigorous nonlinear formulation of coupled geomechanics, in which the variation in the fluid mass of each phase is tracked [Coussy, 1995]. Our approach allows us to model strong capillarity and compressibility effects, which can be important in the context of CO2 injection. We present results from several synthetic case studies to highlight the main features of our simulator, and to perform a preliminary risk assessment of leakage

  2. HybridPlan: A Capacity Planning Technique for Projecting Storage Requirements in Hybrid Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Youngjae; Gupta, Aayush; Urgaonkar, Bhuvan; Piotr, Berman; Sivasubramaniam, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Economic forces, driven by the desire to introduce flash into the high-end storage market without changing existing software-base, have resulted in the emergence of solid-state drives (SSDs), flash packaged in HDD form factors and capable of working with device drivers and I/O buses designed for HDDs. Unlike the use of DRAM for caching or buffering, however, certain idiosyncrasies of NAND Flash-based solid-state drives (SSDs) make their integration into hard disk drive (HDD)-based storage systems nontrivial. Flash memory suffers from limits on its reliability, is an order of magnitude more expensive than the magnetic hard disk drives (HDDs), and can sometimes be as slow as the HDD (due to excessive garbage collection (GC) induced by high intensity of random writes). Given the complementary properties of HDDs and SSDs in terms of cost, performance, and lifetime, the current consensus among several storage experts is to view SSDs not as a replacement for HDD, but rather as a complementary device within the high-performance storage hierarchy. Thus, we design and evaluate such a hybrid storage system with HybridPlan that is an improved capacity planning technique to administrators with the overall goal of operating within cost-budgets. HybridPlan is able to find the most cost-effective hybrid storage configuration with different types of SSDs and HDDs

  3. Implications of surface seepage on the effectiveness of geologic storage of carbon dioxide as a climate change mitigation strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Hepple, Robert P.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-30

    The probability that long-term geologic storage or sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) will become an important climate change mitigation strategy will depend on a number of factors, namely (1) availability, capacity and location of suitable sites, (2) the cost of geologic storage compared to other climate change mitigation options, and (3) public acceptance. Whether or not a site is suitable will be determined by establishing that it can meet a set of performance requirements for safe and effective geologic storage (PRGS). To date, no such PRGS have been developed. Establishing effective PRGS must start with an evaluation of how much CO{sub 2} might be stored and for how long the CO{sub 2} must remain underground to meet goals for controlling atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. These requirements then provide a context for addressing the issue of what, if any, is an ''acceptable surface seepage rate''? This paper provides a preliminary evaluation of CO{sub 2} storage amounts, time-scales, and concordant performance requirements.

  4. Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage: Effect of Metallic Mesh Size on Storage Time and Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuja, S. Z.; Yilbas, B. S.

    2015-11-01

    Use of metallic meshes in latent heat thermal storage system shortens the charging time (total melting of the phase change material), which is favorable in practical applications. In the present study, effect of metallic mesh size on the thermal characteristics of latent heat thermal storage system is investigated. Charging time is predicted for various mesh sizes, and the influence of the amount of mesh material on the charging capacity is examined. An experiment is carried out to validate the numerical predictions. It is found that predictions of the thermal characteristics of phase change material with presence of metallic meshes agree well with the experimental data. High conductivity of the metal meshes enables to transfer heat from the edges of the thermal system towards the phase change material while forming a conduction tree in the system. Increasing number of meshes in the thermal system reduces the charging time significantly due to increased rate of conduction heat transfer in the thermal storage system; however, increasing number of meshes lowers the latent heat storage capacity of the system.

  5. Estimation of reservoir storage capacity using multibeam sonar and terrestrial lidar, Randy Poynter Lake, Rockdale County, Georgia, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rockdale County Department of Water Resources, conducted a bathymetric and topographic survey of Randy Poynter Lake in northern Georgia in 2012. The Randy Poynter Lake watershed drains surface area from Rockdale, Gwinnett, and Walton Counties. The reservoir serves as the water supply for the Conyers-Rockdale Big Haynes Impoundment Authority. The Randy Poynter reservoir was surveyed to prepare a current bathymetric map and determine storage capacities at specified water-surface elevations. Topographic and bathymetric data were collected using a marine-based mobile mapping unit to estimate storage capacity. The marine-based mobile mapping unit operates with several components: multibeam echosounder, singlebeam echosounder, light detection and ranging system, navigation and motion-sensing system, and data acquisition computer. All data were processed and combined to develop a triangulated irregular network, a reservoir capacity table, and a bathymetric contour map.

  6. Phase diagram and storage capacity of sequence processing neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Düring, A.; Coolen, A. C. C.; Sherrington, D.

    1998-10-01

    We solve the dynamics of Hopfield-type neural networks which store sequences of patterns, close to saturation. The asymmetry of the interaction matrix in such models leads to violation of detailed balance, ruling out an equilibrium statistical mechanical analysis. Using generating functional methods we derive exact closed equations for dynamical order parameters, namely the sequence overlap and correlation and response functions, in the thermodynamic limit. We calculate the time translation invariant solutions of these equations, describing stationary limit cycles, which leads to a phase diagram. The effective retarded self-interaction usually appearing in symmetric models is here found to vanish, which causes a significantly enlarged storage capacity of 0305-4470/31/43/005/img6, compared with 0305-4470/31/43/005/img7 for Hopfield networks storing static patterns. Our results are tested against extensive computer simulations and excellent agreement is found.

  7. Subsurface storage capacity influences climate-evapotranspiration interactions in three western United States catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, E. S.; Tague, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    In the winter-wet, summer-dry forests of the western United States, total annual evapotranspiration (ET) varies with precipitation and temperature. Geologically mediated drainage and storage properties, however, may strongly influence these relationships between climate and ET. We use a physically based process model to evaluate how plant accessible water storage capacity (AWC) and rates of drainage influence model estimates of ET-climate relationships for three snow-dominated, mountainous catchments with differing precipitation regimes. Model estimates show that total annual precipitation is a primary control on inter-annual variation in ET across all catchments and that the timing of recharge is a second-order control. Low AWC, however, increases the sensitivity of annual ET to these climate drivers by 3 to 5 times in our two study basins with drier summers. ET-climate relationships in our Colorado basin receiving summer precipitation are more stable across subsurface drainage and storage characteristics. Climate driver-ET relationships are most sensitive to subsurface storage (AWC) and drainage parameters related to lateral redistribution in the relatively dry Sierra site that receives little summer precipitation. Our results demonstrate that uncertainty in geophysically mediated storage and drainage properties can strongly influence model estimates of watershed-scale ET responses to climate variation and climate change. This sensitivity to uncertainty in geophysical properties is particularly true for sites receiving little summer precipitation. A parallel interpretation of this parameter sensitivity is that spatial variation in storage and drainage properties are likely to lead to substantial within-watershed plot-scale differences in forest water use and drought stress.

  8. CO2 geological storage into a lateral aquifer of an offshore gas field in the South China Sea: storage safety and project design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Li, Dexiang; Ezekiel, Justin; Zhang, Weidong; Mi, Honggang; Ren, Shaoran

    2015-06-01

    The DF1-1 gas field, located in the western South China Sea, contains a high concentration of CO2, thus there is great concern about the need to reduce the CO2 emissions. Many options have been considered in recent years to dispose of the CO2 separated from the natural gas stream on the Hainan Island. In this study, the feasibility of CO2 storage in the lateral saline aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field is assessed, including aquifer selection and geological assessment, CO2 migration and storage safety, project design, and economic analysis. Six offshore aquifers have been investigated for CO2 geological storage. The lateral aquifer of the DF1-1 gas field has been selected as the best target for CO2 injection and storage because of its proven sealing ability, and the large storage capacity of the combined aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir geological structure. The separated CO2 will be dehydrated on the Hainan Island and transported by a long-distance subsea pipeline in supercritical or liquid state to the central platform of the DF1-1 gas field for pressure adjustment. The CO2 will then be injected into the lateral aquifer via a subsea well-head through a horizontal well. Reservoir simulations suggest that the injected CO2 will migrate slowly upwards in the aquifer without disturbing the natural gas production. The scoping economic analysis shows that the unit storage cost of the project is approximately US26-31/ton CO2 with the subsea pipeline as the main contributor to capital expenditure (CAPEX), and the dehydration system as the main factor of operating expenditure (OPEX).

  9. Traceable components of terrestrial carbon storage capacity in biogeochemical models.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jianyang; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; Hararuk, Oleksandra

    2013-07-01

    Biogeochemical models have been developed to account for more and more processes, making their complex structures difficult to be understood and evaluated. Here, we introduce a framework to decompose a complex land model into traceable components based on mutually independent properties of modeled biogeochemical processes. The framework traces modeled ecosystem carbon storage capacity (Xss ) to (i) a product of net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem residence time (τE ). The latter τE can be further traced to (ii) baseline carbon residence times (τ'E ), which are usually preset in a model according to vegetation characteristics and soil types, (iii) environmental scalars (ξ), including temperature and water scalars, and (iv) environmental forcings. We applied the framework to the Australian Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to help understand differences in modeled carbon processes among biomes and as influenced by nitrogen processes. With the climate forcings of 1990, modeled evergreen broadleaf forest had the highest NPP among the nine biomes and moderate residence times, leading to a relatively high carbon storage capacity (31.5 kg cm(-2) ). Deciduous needle leaf forest had the longest residence time (163.3 years) and low NPP, leading to moderate carbon storage (18.3 kg cm(-2) ). The longest τE in deciduous needle leaf forest was ascribed to its longest τ'E (43.6 years) and small ξ (0.14 on litter/soil carbon decay rates). Incorporation of nitrogen processes into the CABLE model decreased Xss in all biomes via reduced NPP (e.g., -12.1% in shrub land) or decreased τE or both. The decreases in τE resulted from nitrogen-induced changes in τ'E (e.g., -26.7% in C3 grassland) through carbon allocation among plant pools and transfers from plant to litter and soil pools. Our framework can be used to facilitate data model comparisons and model intercomparisons via tracking a few traceable components for all terrestrial carbon

  10. SUBSURFACE PROPERTY RIGHTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses subsurface property rights as they apply to geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2). GS projects inject captured CO2 into deep (greater than ~1 km) geologic formations for the explicit purpose of avoiding atmospheric emission of CO2. Because of the...

  11. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  12. Geophysical assessments of renewable gas energy compressed in geologic pore storage reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Al Hagrey, Said Attia; Köhn, Daniel; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energy resources can indisputably minimize the threat of global warming and climate change. However, they are intermittent and need buffer storage to bridge the time-gap between production (off peak) and demand peaks. Based on geologic and geochemical reasons, the North German Basin has a very large capacity for compressed air/gas energy storage CAES in porous saltwater aquifers and salt cavities. Replacing pore reservoir brine with CAES causes changes in physical properties (elastic moduli, density and electrical properties) and justify applications of integrative geophysical methods for monitoring this energy storage. Here we apply techniques of the elastic full waveform inversion FWI, electric resistivity tomography ERT and gravity to map and quantify a gradually saturated gas plume injected in a thin deep saline aquifer within the North German Basin. For this subsurface model scenario we generated different synthetic data sets without and with adding random noise in order to robust the applied techniques for the real field applications. Datasets are inverted by posing different constraints on the initial model. Results reveal principally the capability of the applied integrative geophysical approach to resolve the CAES targets (plume, host reservoir, and cap rock). Constrained inversion models of elastic FWI and ERT are even able to recover well the gradual gas desaturation with depth. The spatial parameters accurately recovered from each technique are applied in the adequate petrophysical equations to yield precise quantifications of gas saturations. Resulting models of gas saturations independently determined from elastic FWI and ERT techniques are in accordance with each other and with the input (true) saturation model. Moreover, the gravity technique show high sensitivity to the mass deficit resulting from the gas storage and can resolve saturations and temporal saturation changes down to ±3% after reducing any shallow fluctuation such as that of

  13. Predicting capillarity of mudrocks for geological storage of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Amann-Hildenbrand, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Various rock types were investigated, with the main focus on the determination and prediction of the capillary breakthrough and snap-off pressure in mudrocks (e.g. shales, siltstones, mudstones). Knowledge about these two critical pressures is important for the prediction of the capillary sealing capacity of CO2 storage sites. Capillary pressure experiments, when performed on low-permeable core plugs, are difficult and time consuming. Laboratory measurements on core plugs under in-situ conditions are mostly performed using nitrogen, but also with methane and carbon dioxide. Therefore, mercury porosimetry measurements (MIP) are preferably used in the industry to determine an equivalent value for the capillary breakthrough pressure. These measurements have the advantage to be quick and cheap and only require cuttings or trim samples. When evaluating the database in detail we find that (1) MIP data plot well with the drainage breakthrough pressures determined on sample plugs, while the conversion of the system Hg/air to CO2/brine using interfacial and wettability data does not provide a uniform match, potentially caused by non fully water-wet conditions; (2) brine permeability versus capillary breakthrough pressure determined on sample plugs shows a good match and could provide a first estimate of Pc-values since permeability is easier to determine than capillary breakthrough pressures. For imbibition snap-off pressures a good correlation was found for CH4 measured on sample plugs only; (3) porosity shows a fairly good correlation with permeability for sandstone only, and with plug-derived capillary breakthrough pressures for sandstones, carbonates and evaporates. No such correlations exist for mudrocks; (4) air and brine-derived permeabilities show an excellent correlation and (5) from the data used we do not infer any direct correlations between specific surface area (SSA), mineralogy or organic carbon content with permeability or capillary pressure however were

  14. [Water storage capacity of qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) forest canopy in Qilian Mountains].

    PubMed

    Peng, Huan-hua; Zhao, Chuan-yan; Xu, Zhong-lin; Peng, Shou-zhang; Wang, Yao

    2011-09-01

    By the methods of direct measurement and regression analysis, this paper estimated the water storage capacity of Picea crassifolia forest canopy in Guantan in Qilianshan Mountains, based on the observed throughfall and the laboratory experimental data about the water storage capacity of various canopy components in 2008. Due to the impacts of various factors, differences existed in the canopy water storage capacity estimated by the two methods. The regression analysis was mainly impacted by the measurement approaches of the throughfall, the maximum water storage capacity estimated being 0.69 mm, whereas the direct measurement was mainly impacted by tree height, diameter at breast height, plant density, and leaf area index, with the estimated maximum water storage capacity being 0.77 mm. The direct measurement showed that the maximum water storage capacity per unit area of the canopy components of the forest was in the order of barks (0.31 mm) > branches (0.28 mm) > leaves (0.08 mm).

  15. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  16. Storage capacity of the Fena Valley Reservoir, Guam, Mariana Islands, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marineau, Mathieu D.; Wright, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of the bathymetric data indicate that the reservoir currently has 6,915 acre-feet of storage capacity. The engineering drawings of record show that the total reservoir capacity in 1951 was estimated to be 8,365 acre-feet. Thus, between 1951 and 2014, the total storage capacity decreased by 1,450 acre-feet (a loss of 17 percent of the original total storage capacity). The remaining live-storage capacity, or the volume of storage above the lowest-level reservoir outlet elevation, was calculated to be 5,511 acre-feet in 2014, indicating a decrease of 372 acre-feet (or 6 percent) of the original 5,883 acre-feet of live-storage capacity. The remaining dead-storage capacity, or volume of storage below the lowest-level outlet, was 1,404 acre-feet in 2014, indicating a decrease of 1,078 acre-feet (or 43 percent) of the original 2,482 acre-feet of dead-storage capacity.

  17. Carbon sequestration kinetic and storage capacity of ultramafic mining waste.

    PubMed

    Pronost, Julie; Beaudoin, Georges; Tremblay, Joniel; Larachi, Faïçal; Duchesne, Josée; Hébert, Réjean; Constantin, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Mineral carbonation of ultramafic rocks provides an environmentally safe and permanent solution for CO(2) sequestration. In order to assess the carbonation potential of ultramafic waste material produced by industrial processing, we designed a laboratory-scale method, using a modified eudiometer, to measure continuous CO(2) consumption in samples at atmospheric pressure and near ambient temperature. The eudiometer allows monitoring the CO(2) partial pressure during mineral carbonation reactions. The maximum amount of carbonation and the reaction rate of different samples were measured in a range of experimental conditions: humidity from dry to submerged, temperatures of 21 and 33 °C, and the proportion of CO(2) in the air from 4.4 to 33.6 mol %. The most reactive samples contained ca. 8 wt % CO(2) after carbonation. The modal proportion of brucite in the mining residue is the main parameter determining maximum storage capacity of CO(2). The reaction rate depends primarily on the proportion of CO(2) in the gas mixture and secondarily on parameters controlling the diffusion of CO(2) in the sample, such as relative saturation of water in pore space. Nesquehonite was the dominant carbonate for reactions at 21 °C, whereas dypingite was most common at 33 °C.

  18. Enhancement of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Hydrate Lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2012-02-16

    First principles electronic structure calculations of the gas phase pentagonal dodecahedron (H2O)20 (D-cage) and tetrakaidecahedron (H2O)24 (T-cage), which are building blocks of structure I (sI) hydrate lattice, suggest that these can accommodate up to a maximum of 5 and 7 guest hydrogen molecules, respectively. For the pure hydrogen hydrate, Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD) simulations of periodic (sI) hydrate lattices indicate that the guest molecules are released into the vapor phase via the hexagonal phases of the larger T-cages. An additional mechanism for the migration between neighboring D- and T-cages was found to occur through a shared pentagonal face via the breaking and reforming of a hydrogen bond. This molecular mechanism is also found for the expulsion of a CH4 molecule from the D-cage. The presence of methane in the larger T-cages was found to block this release, therefore suggesting possible scenarios for the stabilization of these mixed guest clathrate hydrates and the potential enhancement of their hydrogen storage capacity.

  19. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boer-Euser, Tanja; McMillan, Hilary K.; Hrachowitz, Markus; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    Root zone storage capacity (Sr) is an important variable for hydrology and climate studies, as it strongly influences the hydrological functioning of a catchment and, via evaporation, the local climate. Despite its importance, it remains difficult to obtain a well-founded catchment representative estimate. This study tests the hypothesis that vegetation adapts its Sr to create a buffer large enough to sustain the plant during drought conditions of a certain critical strength (with a certain probability of exceedance). Following this method, Sr can be estimated from precipitation and evaporative demand data. The results of this "climate-based method" are compared with traditional estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show that the differences between catchments in climate-derived catchment representative Sr values are larger than for soil-derived Sr values. Using a model experiment, we show that the climate-derived Sr can better reproduce hydrological regime signatures for humid catchments; for more arid catchments, the soil and climate methods perform similarly. This makes the climate-based Sr a valuable addition for increasing hydrological understanding and reducing hydrological model uncertainty.

  20. Depth of cinder deposits and water-storage capacity at Cinder Lake, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Amoroso, Lee; Kennedy, Jeff; Unema, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The 2010 Schultz fire northeast of Flagstaff, Arizona, burned more than 15,000 acres on the east side of San Francisco Mountain from June 20 to July 3. As a result, several drainages in the burn area are now more susceptible to increased frequency and volume of runoff, and downstream areas are more susceptible to flooding. Resultant flooding in areas downgradient of the burn has resulted in extensive damage to private lands and residences, municipal water lines, and roads. Coconino County, which encompasses Flagstaff, has responded by deepening and expanding a system of roadside ditches to move flood water away from communities and into an area of open U.S. Forest Service lands, known as Cinder Lake, where rapid infiltration can occur. Water that has been recently channeled into the Cinder Lake area has infiltrated into the volcanic cinders and could eventually migrate to the deep regional groundwater-flow system that underlies the area. How much water can potentially be diverted into Cinder Lake is unknown, and Coconino County is interested in determining how much storage is available. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys and drilled four boreholes to determine the depth of the cinder beds and their potential for water storage capacity. Results from the geophysical surveys and boreholes indicate that interbedded cinders and alluvial deposits are underlain by basalt at about 30 feet below land surface. An average total porosity for the upper 30 feet of deposits was calculated at 43 percent for an area of 300 acres surrounding the boreholes, which yields a total potential subsurface storage for Cinder Lake of about 4,000 acre-feet. Ongoing monitoring of storage change in the Cinder Lake area was initiated using a network of gravity stations.

  1. GEOLOGIC CARBON STORAGE: UNDERSTANDING THE RULES OF THE UNDERGROUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the geologic sequestration (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2), an emerging option for carbon management. Few studies have explored the regulatory needs of GS or compared these needs with regulations governing underground injection on the U.S. mainland. Our treatment...

  2. High resolution numerical modelling of high temperature heat storage in geological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Bauer, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Increasing use of energy stemming from renewable sources, such as wind or solar power plants, requires development of new and improvement of existing energy storage options on different time scales. One potential storage option is high temperature heat storage with temperatures of up to 100°C in the geological subsurface using borehole heat exchanger (BHE). Numerical scenario simulations are performed to assess feasibility and storage capacity and, furthermore, to predict the effects induced. To allow for accurate and reliable results, the BHE must be represented correctly and realistic in the numerical model. Therefore, a detailed model of a single BHE and the surrounding aquifer, accounting for the full geometry and component parametrisation (circulating working fluid, pipe and grout), is set up. This model setup is used to simulate an experimental data set from a laboratory sandbox by Beier et al. (2011), containing an 18 m long single U-tube BHE centered horizontally along it. Temperature curves observed in different radial distances as well as at the pipe outflow can be matched well with the model setup used, which is thus verified. Potential geological formations for high temperature heat storage are located in greater depths below fresh water aquifers that are used for drinking water. Therefore, the above model is adapted to represent a 100 m long vertical double U-tube BHE placed in an average depth of 500 m. The processes of heat transport and groundwater flow are coupled by water density and viscosity, which both depend on pressure and temperature. A sensitivity study is done to quantify the effects of the thermal parameters of grout and aquifer on the amount of heat stored and the temperature distribution in the aquifer. It was found that the amount of heat stored through the BHE is most sensitive to the heat conductivity of the aquifer. Increasing the aquifer heat conductivity by 50 % increases the amount of heat stored in the numerical model by 30

  3. Methane storage capacity of the early martian cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Methane is a key molecule to understand the habitability of Mars due to its possible biological origin and short atmospheric lifetime. Recent methane detections on Mars present a large variability that is probably due to relatively localized sources and sink processes yet unknown. In this study, we determine how much methane could have been abiotically produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed martian remanent magnetic field. Under the assumption of a cold early Mars environment, a cryosphere could trap such methane as clathrates in stable form at depth. The extent and spatial distribution of these methane reservoirs have been calculated with respect to the magnetization distribution and other factors. We calculate that the maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere is about 2.1 × 1019-2.2 × 1020 moles of CH4, which can explain sporadic releases of methane that have been observed on the surface of the planet during the past decade (∼1.2 × 109 moles). This amount of trapped methane is sufficient for similar sized releases to have happened yearly during the history of the planet. While the stability of such reservoirs depends on many factors that are poorly constrained, it is possible that they have remained trapped at depth until the present day. Due to the possible implications of methane detection for life and its influence on the atmospheric and climate processes on the planet, confirming the sporadic release of methane on Mars and the global distribution of its sources is one of the major goals of the current and next space missions to Mars.

  4. Influence of soil and climate on root zone storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer-Euser, T.; McMillan, H.; Hrachowitz, M.; Winsemius, H.; Savenije, H.

    2015-12-01

    The catchment representative root zone storage capacity (Sr), i.e. the plant available soil water, is an important parameter of hydrological systems. It does not only influence the runoff from catchments, by controlling the partitioning of water fluxes but it also influences the local climate, by providing the source for transpiration. Sr is difficult to observe at catchment scale, due to heterogeneities in vegetation and soils. Sr estimates are traditionally derived from soil characteristics and estimates of root depths. In contrast, a recently suggested method allows the determination of Sr based on climate data, i.e. precipitation and evaporation, alone (Gao et al., 2014). By doing so, the time-variable size of Sr, is explicitly accounted for, which is not the case for traditional soil based methods. The time-variable size of Sr reflects root growth and thus the vegetation's adaption to medium-term fluctuations in the climate. Thus, we tested and compared Sr estimates from this 'climate based method' with estimates from soil data for 32 catchments in New Zealand. The results show a larger range in climate derived Sr than in soil derived Sr. Using a model experiment, we show that a model using the climate derived Sr is more accurately able to reproduce a set of hydrological regime signatures, in particular for humid catchments. For more arid catchments, the two methods provide similar model results. This implies that, although soil information has some predictive power for Sr, climate has a similar or greater control on Sr, as climate affects the evolving hydrological functioning of the root zone at the time scale of hydrological interest. In addition, Sr represents the plant available water and thus root surface, volume and density, and is therefore a more complete descriptor of vegetation influence on water fluxes than mere root depth. On balance, the results indicate that climate has a higher explanatory power than soils for catchment representative Sr.

  5. Tree invasion effects on peat water storage capacity (La Guette peatland, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, Stephane; Viel, Emelie; Gogo, Sebastien; Le Moing, Franck; Laggoun-Defarge, Fatima

    2015-04-01

    In peatlands, carbon fluxes are mainly controlled by peat water saturation state, and this saturation state is an equilibrium between recharge/drainage fluxes and the peat storage capacity. The invasion of Sphagnum peatlands by vascular plants is a current problem in many peat-accumulating systems, raising the question of the relationships between vegetation changes and water storage capacity of peat horizons. To investigate this question, the water storage capacity of the "La Guette" peatland (France), invaded by Betula spp was monitored at the watershed scale since 2008 using a water balance approach and was estimated during the 20th century using historical photographs showing the drainage network and the land cover change. During this period, the site clearly experienced a vegetation change as the site was treeless in 1944. Two main results arise from this experimental device: (1) In this disturbed peatland, tree consumption amplifies the summer drought and the resulting water table drawdown allows an increase of air entrapment in the peat. Even if runoff flows occurred after this drought, the water storage capacity is affected, with about 30% of air that remains trapped in the peat porosity 6 months after the drought period. The effects of a single drought on peat water storage capacity are observed over more than a single hydrological cycle, suggesting a possible cumulative effect of droughts decreasing the peat water storage capacity. (2) Tree invasion is found to drive the drainage network morphology. Hydrological model calibrated for the study site suggested that the development of drainage network had reduced the water storage capacity of the peatland. These observations evidenced a positive feedback between vegetation dynamics and water storage capacity: tree invasion changes the drainage network geometry that decreases the peat water storage capacity, which in return may favor tree development. These two results highlight that the peat water storage

  6. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    The United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), in collaboration with major partners Albemarle Corporation (Albemarle) and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), conducted research to discover new hydride materials for the storage of hydrogen having on-board reversibility and a target gravimetric capacity of ≥ 7.5 weight percent (wt %). When integrated into a system with a reasonable efficiency of 60% (mass of hydride / total mass), this target material would produce a system gravimetric capacity of ≥ 4.5 wt %, consistent with the DOE 2007 target. The approach established for the project combined first principles modeling (FPM - UTRC) with multiple synthesis methods: Solid State Processing (SSP - UTRC), Solution Based Processing (SBP - Albemarle) and Molten State Processing (MSP - SRNL). In the search for novel compounds, each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages; by combining them, the potential for success was increased. During the project, UTRC refined its FPM framework which includes ground state (0 Kelvin) structural determinations, elevated temperature thermodynamic predictions and thermodynamic / phase diagram calculations. This modeling was used both to precede synthesis in a virtual search for new compounds and after initial synthesis to examine reaction details and options for modifications including co-reactant additions. The SSP synthesis method involved high energy ball milling which was simple, efficient for small batches and has proven effective for other storage material compositions. The SBP method produced very homogeneous chemical reactions, some of which cannot be performed via solid state routes, and would be the preferred approach for large scale production. The MSP technique is similar to the SSP method, but involves higher temperature and hydrogen pressure conditions to achieve greater species mobility. During the initial phases of the project, the focus was on higher order alanate complexes in the phase space

  7. Storage capacity and sedimentation trends of Lago Garzas, Puerto Rico, 1996-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-Lopez, L.R.

    2012-01-01

    Lago Garzas is located in west-central Puerto Rico, about 3.5 kilometers southwest of the town of Adjuntas, in the confluence of the Río Vacas and three other unnamed tributaries (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), and was constructed in 1943 for hydroelectric power generation and municipal water use along the southern coast. The dam is a semi-hydraulic earthfill embankment lined with boulders, and has a height of 61.57 meters, a top width of 9.14 meters, a base width of 365.76 meters, and a crest length of 227.37 meters; State Road PR-518 crosses the top of the dam. A morning-glory-type spillway is located near the west abutment of the dam at an elevation of 736.12 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, 1969). Figure 2 shows an aerial photograph of the Lago Garzas earthfill dam and the morning-glory spillway section. Additional information and operational procedures are provided in Soler-López and others (1999). During July 17-18, 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority, conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Garzas to update the reservoir storage capacity and update the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2007 data with the previous 1996 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Garzas during July 2007, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since 1996.

  8. Estimate of Maximum Underground Working Gas Storage Capacity in the United States

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the aggregate maximum capacity for U.S. natural gas storage. Although the concept of maximum capacity seems quite straightforward, there are numerous issues that preclude the determination of a definitive maximum volume. The report presents three alternative estimates for maximum capacity, indicating appropriate caveats for each.

  9. Voltage Dependent Charge Storage Modes and Capacity in Subnanometer Pores

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, Rui; Meunier, V.; Huang, Jingsong; Wu, Peng; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2012-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that charge storage in subnanometer pores follows a distinct voltage-dependent behavior. Specifically, at lower voltages, charge storage is achieved by swapping co-ions in the pore with counterions in the bulk electrolyte. As voltage increases, further charge storage is due mainly to the removal of co-ions from the pore, leading to a capacitance increase. The capacitance eventually reaches a maximum when all co-ions are expelled from the pore. At even higher electrode voltages, additional charge storage is realized by counterion insertion into the pore, accompanied by a reduction of capacitance. The molecular mechanisms of these observations are elucidated and provide useful insight for optimizing energy storage based on supercapacitors.

  10. The Nanoscale Basis of CO2 Trapping for Geologic Storage.

    PubMed

    Bourg, Ian C; Beckingham, Lauren E; DePaolo, Donald J

    2015-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is likely to be a critical technology to achieve large reductions in global carbon emissions over the next century. Research on the subsurface storage of CO2 is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the efficacy of CO2 storage in sedimentary rock formations. Three key parameters that have a nanoscale basis and that contribute uncertainty to predictions of CO2 trapping are the vertical permeability kv of seals, the residual CO2 saturation Sg,r in reservoir rocks, and the reactive surface area ar of silicate minerals. This review summarizes recent progress and identifies outstanding research needs in these areas. Available data suggest that the permeability of shale and mudstone seals is heavily dependent on clay fraction and can be extremely low even in the presence of fractures. Investigations of residual CO2 trapping indicate that CO2-induced alteration in the wettability of mineral surfaces may significantly influence Sg,r. Ultimately, the rate and extent of CO2 conversion to mineral phases are uncertain due to a poor understanding of the kinetics of slow reactions between minerals and fluids. Rapidly improving characterization techniques using X-rays and neutrons, and computing capability for simulating chemical interactions, provide promise for important advances.

  11. The Nanoscale Basis of CO2 Trapping for Geologic Storage.

    PubMed

    Bourg, Ian C; Beckingham, Lauren E; DePaolo, Donald J

    2015-09-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is likely to be a critical technology to achieve large reductions in global carbon emissions over the next century. Research on the subsurface storage of CO2 is aimed at reducing uncertainties in the efficacy of CO2 storage in sedimentary rock formations. Three key parameters that have a nanoscale basis and that contribute uncertainty to predictions of CO2 trapping are the vertical permeability kv of seals, the residual CO2 saturation Sg,r in reservoir rocks, and the reactive surface area ar of silicate minerals. This review summarizes recent progress and identifies outstanding research needs in these areas. Available data suggest that the permeability of shale and mudstone seals is heavily dependent on clay fraction and can be extremely low even in the presence of fractures. Investigations of residual CO2 trapping indicate that CO2-induced alteration in the wettability of mineral surfaces may significantly influence Sg,r. Ultimately, the rate and extent of CO2 conversion to mineral phases are uncertain due to a poor understanding of the kinetics of slow reactions between minerals and fluids. Rapidly improving characterization techniques using X-rays and neutrons, and computing capability for simulating chemical interactions, provide promise for important advances. PMID:26266820

  12. Comparison of methods for geologic storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Angela L.; Bromhal, Grant S.; Strazisar, Brian; Rodosta, Traci D.; Guthrie, William J.; Allen, Douglas E.; Guthrie, George D.

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary estimates of CO{sub 2} storage potential in geologic formations provide critical information related to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage (CCUS) technologies to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions. Currently multiple methods to estimate CO{sub 2} storage and multiple storage estimates for saline formations have been published, leading to potential uncertainty when comparing estimates from different studies. In this work, carbon dioxide storage estimates are compared by applying several commonly used methods to general saline formation data sets to assess the impact that the choice of method has on the results. Specifically, six CO{sub 2} storage methods were applied to thirteen saline formation data sets which were based on formations across the United States with adaptations to provide the geologic inputs required by each method. Methods applied include those by (1) international efforts – the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (Bachu et al., 2007); (2) United States government agencies – U.S. Department of Energy – National Energy Technology Laboratory (US-DOE-NETL, 2012) and United States Geological Survey (Brennan et al., 2010); and (3) the peer-reviewed scientific community – Szulczewski et al. (2012) and Zhou et al. (2008). A statistical analysis of the estimates generated by multiple methods revealed that assessments of CO{sub 2} storage potential made at the prospective level were often statistically indistinguishable from each other, implying that the differences in methodologies are small with respect to the uncertainties in the geologic properties of storage rock in the absence of detailed site-specific characterization.

  13. Bathymetry and Sediment-Storage Capacity Change in Three Reservoirs on the Lower Susquehanna River, 1996-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langland, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The Susquehanna River transports a substantial amount of the sediment and nutrient load to the Chesapeake Bay. Upstream of the bay, three large dams and their associated reservoirs trap a large amount of the transported sediment and associated nutrients. During the fall of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection completed bathymetric surveys of three reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna River to provide an estimate of the remaining sediment-storage capacity. Previous studies indicated the upper two reservoirs were in equilibrium with long-term sediment storage; only the most downstream reservoir retained capacity to trap sediments. A differential global positioning system (DGPS) instrument was used to provide the corresponding coordinate position. Bathymetry data were collected using a single beam 210 kHz (kilohertz) echo sounder at pre-defined transects that matched previous surveys. Final horizontal (X and Y) and vertical (Z) coordinates of the geographic positions and depth to bottom were used to create bathymetric maps of the reservoirs. Results indicated that from 1996 to 2008 about 14,700,000 tons of sediment were deposited in the three reservoirs with the majority (12,000,000 tons) being deposited in Conowingo Reservoir. Approximately 20,000 acre-feet or 30,000,000 tons of remaining storage capacity is available in Conowingo Reservoir. At current transport (3,000,000 tons per year) and deposition (2,000,000 tons per year) rates and with no occurrence of major scour events due to floods, the remaining capacity may be filled in 15 to 20 years. Once the remaining sediment-storage capacity in the reservoirs is filled, sediment and associated phosphorus loads entering the Chesapeake Bay are expected to increase.

  14. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  15. Analysis of methods to determine storage capacity of, and sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir, Santa Cruz County, California, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Kelly R.; Freeman, Lawrence A.; Flint, Lorraine E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Santa Cruz, conducted bathymetric and topographic surveys to determine the water storage capacity of, and the loss of capacity owing to sedimentation in, Loch Lomond Reservoir in Santa Cruz County, California. The topographic survey was done as a supplement to the bathymetric survey to obtain information about temporal changes in the upper reach of the reservoir where the water is shallow or the reservoir may be dry, as well as to obtain information about shoreline changes throughout the reservoir. Results of a combined bathymetric and topographic survey using a new, state-of-the-art method with advanced instrument technology indicate that the maximum storage capacity of the reservoir at the spillway altitude of 577.5 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929) was 8,646 ±85 acre-feet in March 2009, with a confidence level of 99 percent. This new method is a combination of bathymetric scanning using multibeam-sidescan sonar, and topographic surveying using laser scanning (LiDAR), which produced a 1.64-foot-resolution grid with altitudes to 0.3-foot resolution and an estimate of total water storage capacity at a 99-percent confidence level. Because the volume of sedimentation in a reservoir is considered equal to the decrease in water-storage capacity, sedimentation in Loch Lomond Reservoir was determined by estimating the change in storage capacity by comparing the reservoir bed surface defined in the March 2009 survey with a revision of the reservoir bed surface determined in a previous investigation in November 1998. This revised reservoir-bed surface was defined by combining altitude data from the 1998 survey with new data collected during the current (2009) investigation to fill gaps in the 1998 data. Limitations that determine the accuracy of estimates of changes in the volume of sedimentation from that estimated in each of the four previous investigations (1960, 1971, 1982, and 1998

  16. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  17. OneGeology - a geoscience exemplar for worldwide cyberinfrastructure capacity-building and scientific innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Daalen, T.; Allison, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    OneGeology is a trail-blazing global initiative that has helped propel the geosciences into the forefront of cyberinfrastructure development with potentially transformative impacts on scientific and technical innovation across broad areas of society. In the five years since its launch, 117 nations, through their Geological Surveys have signed the OneGeology protocols and nearly half are serving up national geological maps as Web services at varying scales, with the remainder developing those capabilities. In federal systems, states and provinces are increasingly adding higher resolution spatial data to the national contributions to the global system. The OneGeology concept of a distributed, open-source, Web-service based network has become the archetype for transforming data into knowledge and innovation. This is not only revolutionizing the geosciences but offering opportunities for governments to use these cutting-edge capabilities for broad innovation and capacity building. Across the globe, communities are facing the same four challenges: put simply, how do we best make data discoverable, shareable, viewable and downloadable, so that the user also has access to consistent data at a national and continental level? The principle of managing scientific and societal data and knowledge where they are generated and are best understood is well established in the geoscience community and can be scaled up and transferred to other domains and sectors of society. The distributed nature of most data sources means the complementary delivery mechanism of Web map services has become equally prevalent in the spatial data community. Together these factors are driving a world-wide revolution in the way spatial information is being disseminated to its users. Industry, academia, and governments are quickly adopting and adapting to this new paradigm and discovering that very modest investments in this emerging field are reaping tremendous returns in national capacity and triggering

  18. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary

    2013-05-31

    This report covers the results of developing the rock physics theory of the effects of CO{sub 2} injection and storage in a host reservoir on the rock's elastic properties and the resulting seismic signatures (reflections) observed during sequestration and storage. Specific topics addressed are: (a) how the elastic properties and attenuation vary versus CO{sub 2} saturation in the reservoir during injection and subsequent distribution of CO{sub 2} in the reservoir; (b) what are the combined effects of saturation and pore pressure on the elastic properties; and (c) what are the combined effects of saturation and rock fabric alteration on the elastic properties. The main new results are (a) development and application of the capillary pressure equilibrium theory to forecasting the elastic properties as a function of CO{sub 2} saturation; (b) a new method of applying this theory to well data; and (c) combining this theory with other effects of CO{sub 2} injection on the rock frame, including the effects of pore pressure and rock fabric alteration. An important result is translating these elastic changes into synthetic seismic responses, specifically, the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) response depending on saturation as well as reservoir and seal type. As planned, three graduate students participated in this work and, as a result, received scientific and technical training required should they choose to work in the area of monitoring and quantifying CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  19. REGULATING THE ULTIMATE SINK: MANAGING THE RISKS OF GEOLOGIC CO2 STORAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper addresses the issue of geologic storage (GS) of carbon dioxide (CO2) and discusses the risks and regulatory history of deep underground waste injection on the U.S. mainland and surrounding continental shelf. The treatment focuses on the technical and regulatory aspects ...

  20. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    DOE PAGES

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the “closed aquifer” estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. Anmore » analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the “closed aquifer” approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.« less

  1. Using Pressure and Volumetric Approaches to Estimate CO2 Storage Capacity in Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Thibeau, Sylvain; Bachu, Stefan; Birkholzer, Jens; Holloway, Sam; Neele, Filip; Zhou, Quanlin

    2014-12-31

    Various approaches are used to evaluate the capacity of saline aquifers to store CO2, resulting in a wide range of capacity estimates for a given aquifer. The two approaches most used are the volumetric “open aquifer” and “closed aquifer” approaches. We present four full-scale aquifer cases, where CO2 storage capacity is evaluated both volumetrically (with “open” and/or “closed” approaches) and through flow modeling. These examples show that the “open aquifer” CO2 storage capacity estimation can strongly exceed the cumulative CO2 injection from the flow model, whereas the “closed aquifer” estimates are a closer approximation to the flow-model derived capacity. An analogy to oil recovery mechanisms is presented, where the primary oil recovery mechanism is compared to CO2 aquifer storage without producing formation water; and the secondary oil recovery mechanism (water flooding) is compared to CO2 aquifer storage performed simultaneously with extraction of water for pressure maintenance. This analogy supports the finding that the “closed aquifer” approach produces a better estimate of CO2 storage without water extraction, and highlights the need for any CO2 storage estimate to specify whether it is intended to represent CO2 storage capacity with or without water extraction.

  2. Global root zone storage capacity from satellite-based evaporation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Bastiaanssen, Wim; Gao, Hongkai; Jägermeyr, Jonas; Senay, Gabriel; van Dijk, Albert; Guerschman, Juan; Keys, Patrick; Gordon, Line; Savenije, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    We present an "earth observation-based" method for estimating root zone storage capacity - a critical, yet uncertain parameter in hydrological and land surface modelling. By assuming that vegetation optimises its root zone storage capacity to bridge critical dry periods, we were able to use state-of-the-art satellite-based evaporation data computed with independent energy balance equations to derive gridded root zone storage capacity at global scale. This approach does not require soil or vegetation information, is model independent, and is in principle scale-independent. In contrast to traditional look-up table approaches, our method captures the variability in root zone storage capacity within land cover type, including in rainforests where direct measurements of root depth otherwise are scarce. Implementing the estimated root zone storage capacity in the global hydrological model STEAM improved evaporation simulation overall, and in particular during the least evaporating months in sub-humid to humid regions with moderate to high seasonality. We find that evergreen forests are able to create a large storage to buffer for extreme droughts (with a return period of up to 60 years), in contrast to short vegetation and crops (which seem to adapt to a drought return period of about 2 years). The presented method to estimate root zone storage capacity eliminates the need for soils and rooting depth information, which could be a game-changer in global land surface modelling.

  3. Re-evaluating the relationships among filtering activity, unnecessary storage, and visual working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Emrich, Stephen M; Busseri, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The amount of task-irrelevant information encoded in visual working memory (VWM), referred to as unnecessary storage, has been proposed as a potential mechanism underlying individual differences in VWM capacity. In addition, a number of studies have provided evidence for additional activity that initiates the filtering process originating in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia, and is therefore a crucial step in the link between unnecessary storage and VWM capacity. Here, we re-examine data from two prominent studies that identified unnecessary storage activity as a predictor of VWM capacity by directly testing the implied path model linking filtering-related activity, unnecessary storage, and VWM capacity. Across both studies, we found that unnecessary storage was not a significant predictor of individual differences in VWM capacity once activity associated with filtering was accounted for; instead, activity associated with filtering better explained variation in VWM capacity. These findings suggest that unnecessary storage is not a limiting factor in VWM performance, whereas neural activity associated with filtering may play a more central role in determining VWM performance that goes beyond preventing unnecessary storage.

  4. Assessment of Factors Influencing Effective CO{sub 2} Storage Capacity and Injectivity in Eastern Gas Shales

    SciTech Connect

    Godec, Michael

    2013-06-30

    Building upon advances in technology, production of natural gas from organic-rich shales is rapidly developing as a major hydrocarbon supply option in North America and around the world. The same technology advances that have facilitated this revolution - dense well spacing, horizontal drilling, and hydraulic fracturing - may help to facilitate enhanced gas recovery (EGR) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in these formations. The potential storage of CO {sub 2} in shales is attracting increasing interest, especially in Appalachian Basin states that have extensive shale deposits, but limited CO{sub 2} storage capacity in conventional reservoirs. The goal of this cooperative research project was to build upon previous and on-going work to assess key factors that could influence effective EGR, CO{sub 2} storage capacity, and injectivity in selected Eastern gas shales, including the Devonian Marcellus Shale, the Devonian Ohio Shale, the Ordovician Utica and Point Pleasant shale and equivalent formations, and the late Devonian-age Antrim Shale. The project had the following objectives: (1) Analyze and synthesize geologic information and reservoir data through collaboration with selected State geological surveys, universities, and oil and gas operators; (2) improve reservoir models to perform reservoir simulations to better understand the shale characteristics that impact EGR, storage capacity and CO{sub 2} injectivity in the targeted shales; (3) Analyze results of a targeted, highly monitored, small-scale CO{sub 2} injection test and incorporate into ongoing characterization and simulation work; (4) Test and model a smart particle early warning concept that can potentially be used to inject water with uniquely labeled particles before the start of CO{sub 2} injection; (5) Identify and evaluate potential constraints to economic CO{sub 2} storage in gas shales, and propose development approaches that overcome these constraints; and (6) Complete new basin

  5. Response surfaces for CO2 leakage from geologic storage along abandoned wellbores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, A.; Carey, J. W.; Pawar, R. J.; Stauffer, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic reservoirs that have previously been drilled for oil and gas exploration is under investigation worldwide as an option for reducing the amount of anthropogenic carbon introduced to the atmosphere. Reservoirs that have already been tapped for hydrocarbon production have several benefits over development of new sites: they tend to be geologically well-understood, with existing wellbore data to help further characterize the local geologic framework; are known to be conducive to trapping buoyant or pressurized fluids; may have infrastructure in place; and are likely to be already impacted ecologically as compared to pristine sites. One downside to using depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is the potential for CO2 leakage along pre-existing wellbores that were either not designed for CO2 sequestration or have been improperly plugged and abandoned. The primary goal of this study is to develop estimates of possible wellbore leakage rates of CO2 from storage reservoirs to the surface and/or into overlaying aquifers, as a function of wellbore properties and the surrounding geologic framework. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow along wellbores across a wide range of geologic and wellbore parameters. Several wellbore scenarios were studied, including a simple wellbore between the CO2 storage reservoir and the surface; a wellbore intersecting a saline aquifer ("thief zone"); and a wellbore intersecting both a thief zone and a freshwater aquifer. The Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE) software was used to analyze results and produce response surfaces for the estimation of wellbore flow rate as a function of the primary factors that influence leakage. These results will be used to develop abstractions for leakage rates to be incorporated in performance assessments of geologic CO2 storage, which will help

  6. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: allocations of assessed areas to Federal lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Cahan, Steven M.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Following the geologic basin-scale assessment of technically accessible carbon dioxide storage resources in onshore areas and State waters of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated that an area of about 130 million acres (or about 200,000 square miles) of Federal lands overlies these storage resources. Consequently, about 18 percent of the assessed area associated with storage resources is allocated to Federal land management. Assessed areas are allocated to four other general land-ownership categories as follows: State lands about 4.5 percent, Tribal lands about 2.4 percent, private and other lands about 72 percent, and offshore areas about 2.6 percent.

  7. Site characterization of the highest-priority geologic formations for CO2 storage in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, Ronald C.; Bentley, Ramsey; Campbell-Stone, Erin; Dahl, Shanna; Deiss, Allory; Ganshin, Yuri; Jiao, Zunsheng; Kaszuba, John; Mallick, Subhashis; McLaughlin, Fred; Myers, James; Quillinan, Scott

    2013-12-07

    This study, funded by U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory award DE-FE0002142 along with the state of Wyoming, uses outcrop and core observations, a diverse electric log suite, a VSP survey, in-bore testing (DST, injection tests, and fluid sampling), a variety of rock/fluid analyses, and a wide range of seismic attributes derived from a 3-D seismic survey to thoroughly characterize the highest-potential storage reservoirs and confining layers at the premier CO2 geological storage site in Wyoming. An accurate site characterization was essential to assessing the following critical aspects of the storage site: (1) more accurately estimate the CO2 reservoir storage capacity (Madison Limestone and Weber Sandstone at the Rock Springs Uplift (RSU)), (2) evaluate the distribution, long-term integrity, and permanence of the confining layers, (3) manage CO2 injection pressures by removing formation fluids (brine production/treatment), and (4) evaluate potential utilization of the stored CO2

  8. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and to consult with other Federal and State agencies to locate the pertinent geological data needed for the assessment. The geologic sequestration of CO2 is one possible way to mitigate its effects on climate change. The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment (Open-File Report 2010-1127; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) is based on previous USGS probabilistic oil and gas assessment methodologies. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. The operational unit of the assessment is a storage assessment unit (SAU), composed of a porous storage formation with fluid flow and an overlying sealing unit with low permeability. Assessments are conducted at the SAU level and are aggregated to basinal and regional results. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of SAUs in separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the assessed basin and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage

  9. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet. PMID:26775980

  10. Antioxidant capacity, total phenols and color profile during the storage of selected plants used for infusion.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Zamora, Ana; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-05-15

    Many plants, like tea, are widely used for preparing herbal infusions. These plants have an interesting antioxidant capacity that may change after harvesting depending on the technological processing and the storage conditions. We determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP methods), total phenolic content and color analysis (reflectance) of 36 plants traditionally consumed in Spain as infusion. Green tea was the most antioxidant herb, although oregano and lemon balm showed also a very high antioxidant capacity, as well as phenolic content. The antioxidant study after 3-month storage at different temperatures showed that up to a 50% of the total antioxidant capacity could be lost. Color analysis correlated with antioxidant capacity evolution, being a quick tool to control the storage conditions. Finally, our data confirm that the intake of one serving of plant infusion could release the equivalent of up to 1,500 μmol trolox, being a good source of antioxidants for the human diet.

  11. A Central Capacity Limit to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays in Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saults, J. Scott; Cowan, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    If working memory is limited by central capacity (e.g., the focus of attention; N. Cowan, 2001), then storage limits for information in a single modality should apply also to the simultaneous storage of information from different modalities. The authors investigated this by combining a visual-array comparison task with a novel auditory-array…

  12. Decrease in the Antioxidant Capacity in Beverages Containing Tea Extracts during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Nekvapil, Tomas; Kopriva, Vladimir; Boudny, Vladimir; Hostovsky, Martin; Dvorak, Petr; Malota, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine antioxidant capacity of beverages containing black, white, and green tea extracts using the photochemiluminescence method, and to monitor its changes based on the storage temperature and time. Samples were stored at two different temperatures (refrigerated at 4°C and laboratory temperature 22°C), analyzed after opening of the original package, and consequently after 4 and 7 days. Results of the antioxidant capacity are expressed as the standard equivalents, that is, ascorbic acid in mmol/L. The highest mean value of the antioxidant capacity was found after opening of the original package in fruit-juice-enriched samples and totaled 9.793 mmol/L. This group revealed significant dependence (P < 0.05) not only on the storage time, but also temperature. In samples without added fruit juices containing preservatives the value was 0.428 mmol/L. This group showed significant dependence (P < 0.05) on the decrease of antioxidant capacity only when based on the storage time. Samples without fruit juices or preservatives showed significant decrease in the antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05) after 4 days of storage based on the storage time. The dependence on temperature was revealed only after 7 days of storage. PMID:22997491

  13. On scale and magnitude of pressure build-up induced by large-scale geologic storage of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2011-05-01

    The scale and magnitude of pressure perturbation and brine migration induced by geologic carbon sequestration is discussed assuming a full-scale deployment scenario in which enough CO{sub 2} is captured and stored to make relevant contributions to global climate change mitigation. In this scenario, the volumetric rates and cumulative volumes of CO{sub 2} injection would be comparable to or higher than those related to existing deep-subsurface injection and extraction activities, such as oil production. Large-scale pressure build-up in response to the injection may limit the dynamic storage capacity of suitable formations, because over-pressurization may fracture the caprock, may drive CO{sub 2}/brine leakage through localized pathways, and may cause induced seismicity. On the other hand, laterally extensive sedimentary basins may be less affected by such limitations because (i) local pressure effects are moderated by pressure propagation and brine displacement into regions far away from the CO{sub 2} storage domain; and (ii) diffuse and/or localized brine migration into overlying and underlying formations allows for pressure bleed-off in the vertical direction. A quick analytical estimate of the extent of pressure build-up induced by industrial-scale CO{sub 2} storage projects is presented. Also discussed are pressure perturbation and attenuation effects simulated for two representative sedimentary basins in the USA: the laterally extensive Illinois Basin and the partially compartmentalized southern San Joaquin Basin in California. These studies show that the limiting effect of pressure build-up on dynamic storage capacity is not as significant as suggested by Ehlig-Economides and Economides, who considered closed systems without any attenuation effects.

  14. The usable capacity of porous materials for hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichtenmayer, Maurice; Hirscher, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A large number of different porous materials has been investigated for their hydrogen uptake over a wide pressure range and at different temperature. From the absolute adsorption isotherms, the enthalpy of adsorption is evaluated for a wide range of surface coverage. The usable capacity, defined as the amount of hydrogen released between a maximum tank pressure and a minimum back pressure for a fuel cell, is analyzed for isothermal operation. The usable capacity as a function of temperature shows a maximum which defines the optimum operating temperature. This optimum operating temperature is higher for materials possessing a higher enthalpy of adsorption. However, the fraction of the hydrogen stored overall that can be released at the optimum operating temperature is higher for materials with a lower enthalpy of adsorption than for the ones with higher enthalpy.

  15. Multilayer associative neural networks (MANN's): storage capacity versus perfect recall.

    PubMed

    Kang, H

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to to resolve important issues in artificial neural nets-exact recall and capacity in multilayer associative memories. These problems have imposed restrictions on coding strategies. We propose the following triple-layered hybrid neural network: the first synapse is a one-shot associative memory using the modified Kohonen's adaptive learning algorithm with arbitrary input patterns; the second one is Kosko's bidirectional associative memory consisting of orthogonal input/output basis vectors such as Walsh series satisfying the strict continuity condition; and finally, the third one is a simple one-shot associative memory with arbitrary output images. A mathematical framework based on the relationship between energy local minima (capacity of the neural net) and noise-free recall is established. The robust capacity conditions of this multilayer associative neural network that lead to forming the local minima of the energy function at the exact training pairs are derived. The chosen strategy not only maximizes the total number of stored images but also completely relaxes any code-dependent conditions of the learning pairs.

  16. Carbon Honeycomb High Capacity Storage for Gaseous and Liquid Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Zubarev, Evgeniy N.

    2016-02-01

    We report an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. The allotrope structures are derived from our low temperature electron diffraction and electron microscopy data. These structures can be both periodic and random and are built exclusively from s p2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. They demonstrate high levels of physical absorption of various gases unattainable in other carbon forms such as fullerites or nanotubes. These honeycomb structures can be used not only for storage of various gases and liquids but also as a matrix for new composites.

  17. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  18. High-capacity hydrogen storage in lithium and sodium amidoboranes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Zhitao; Yong, Chaw K.; Wu, Guotao; Chen, Ping; Shaw, Wendy J.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Jones, Martin O.; Johnson, Simon; Edwards, Peter; David, Bill

    2008-02-21

    A substantial effort worldwide has been given to materials development for onboard hydrogen storage over the past decade.1-6 One interesting family of potential hydrogen storage materials are ammonia borane (AB-NH3BH3) and the related amineboranes. Ammonia borane having a H content of 19.6 mass% encounters relatively high kinetic barrier in dehydrogenation. Recently some work has been reported on approaches to lower the ammonia borane dehydrogenation temperature by introducing nanoscaffold, using Ir-based catalysts or ionic liquids.4-6 Some work has focused on modifying the thermodynamics of ‘stable’ hydrides with additives that stabilize the dehydrogenated products.7 We have been thinking about this from the opposite point of view, i. e., altering the chemical composition of ammonia borane through the addition of amides and hydrides in order to destabilize it.8 The rationale behind this is that the inherent polarity and intermolecular interactions (dihydrogen bonding) of ammonia borane can be altered, and result in different dehydrogenation mechanism. In this paper we report that the interaction between LiH and ammonia borane leads to the replacement of a hydrogen by lithium to yield LiNH2BH3 with substantial resultant changes in dehydrogenation behavior. Battelle operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy.

  19. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  20. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site. PMID:23971876

  1. Estimating CO2 storage capacity in saline aquifers: Revisited concept and application to the Bécancour area (Québec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Tran Ngoc, Tien; Lefebvre, René; Malo, Michel; Doughty, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of effective storage capacity is needed to assess CO2 geological storage projects. Although many efforts have been made to define and estimate storage capacity in deep saline aquifers, it is a complex issue due to the multiphase-multicomponent displacement processes involved. There are difficulties and differing views about the use of existing dynamic/static capacity estimation approaches, especially regarding the application of these approaches to various types of reservoirs. In this research, a revised methodology to assess the amount of CO2 that can be injected into a saline aquifer is presented in terms of reservoir boundaries, capacity definitions and efficiency storage factors. For the dynamic approach, the TOUGH2 numerical simulator was used to calculate the CO2 storage capacity for a bounded reservoir volume, using a definition of "capacity" based on the mass of all forms of CO2 present in the reservoir after injection (mobile, immobile and dissolved). It is necessary to distinguish the efficiency storage factors, and thus the storage capacity, that are estimated on mass or volume basis because the factors based on mass are greater than the ones based on volume. Local and global efficiency storage factors are respectively averaged over domains containing CO2 and the whole reservoir and they change with space and time. For the static approach (i.e. USDOE volumetric and compressibility methods), in order to compute the storage capacity the only difficulty resides in the estimation of the efficiency storage factors, which are related to the areal, vertical, gravity and microscopic displacements in the volumetric static method. These factors were quantitatively estimated from correlations used in petroleum engineering to relate multiphase displacement processes with dimensionless numbers. The methodology proposed herein was applied to the estimation of the CO2 effective storage capacity of the deep saline aquifers of the Potsdam sandstones in the B

  2. CO2 Storage Capacity of Saline Aquifers in the Swedish Sector of the Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopher, Daniel; Juhlin, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of a range of options to reduce CO2 emissions in order to mitigate climate change in the future. The Intra-cratonic Baltic Sea Basin contains several saline aquifers which could be suitable for CO2 storage. In this study the CO2 storage capacity of the Cambrian När and Faludden sandstone members is evaluated within the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea Basin. A probabilistic approach is adopted to characterise both the most likely storage capacity estimate as well as the associated uncertainty. The storage capacity within structural closures and stratigraphic traps is considered. Depth structure maps generated using a dense grid of vintage 2D marine seismic data are used to assess the storage potential in structural traps for both potential reservoirs. A regional scale stratigraphic trap is also considered for the Faludden reservoir. Key input properties for the CO2 storage capacity calculations such as porosity, CO2 density and storage efficiency factor are characterised based on available well log and core data. CO2 storage capacities for the structural and stratigraphic traps are then calculated using a Monte Carlo type approach where the input parameters are randomly perturbed within a set range. A statistical analysis of the input parameters is used to define the range within which these properties are allowed to vary, both spatially and at a given point. Finally these results are compared to others for the greater Baltic Sea region. This approach allows a most likely CO2 storage capacity estimate as well as low and high estimates to be obtained for the Swedish sector of the Baltic Sea in the investigated formations. Based on these results it appears that the largest storage capacity lies within the regional stratigraphic trap of the Faludden reservoir. The structural traps provide significantly smaller volumes when compared to the Faludden stratigraphic trap. The majority of the structural traps are also less certain

  3. The Evolution of Root Zone Storage Capacity after Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijzink, Remko C.; Hutton, Christopher; Pechlivanidis, Ilias; Capell, René; Arheimer, Berit; Wagener, Thorsten; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Hrachowitz, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Root zone storage capacity forms a crucial parameter in ecosystem functioning as it is the key parameter that determines the partitioning between runoff and transpiration. There is increasing evidence from several case studies for specific plants that vegetation adapts to the critical situation of droughts. For example, trees will, on the long term, try to improve their internal hydraulic conductivity after droughts, for example by allocating more biomass for roots. In spite of this understanding, the water storage capacity in the root zone is often treated as constant in hydrological models. In this study, it was hypothesized that root zone storage capacities are altered by deforestation and the regrowth of the ecosystem. Three deforested sub catchments as well as not affected, nearby control catchments of the experimental forests of HJ Andrews and Hubbard Brook were selected for this purpose. Root zone storage capacities were on the one hand estimated by a climate-based approach similar to Gao et al. (2014), making use of simple water balance considerations to determine the evaporative demand of the system. In this way, the maximum deficit between evaporative demand and precipitation allows a robust estimation of the root zone storage capacity. On the other hand, three conceptual hydrological models (FLEX, HYPE, HYMOD) were calibrated in a moving window approach for all catchments. The obtained model parameter values representing the root zone storage capacities of the individual catchments for each moving window period were then compared to the estimates derived from climate data for the same periods. Model- and climate-derived estimates of root zone storage capacities both showed a similar evolution. In the deforested catchments, considerable reductions of the root zone storage capacities, compared to the pre-treatment situation and control catchments, were observed. In addition, the years after forest clearing were characterized by a gradual recovery of the

  4. Modeling geologic storage of carbon dioxide: Comparison ofnon-hysteretic and hysteretic characteristic curves

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2006-07-17

    Numerical models of geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO2)in brine-bearing formations use characteristic curves to represent theinteractions of non-wetting-phase CO2 and wetting-phase brine. When aproblem includes both injection of CO2 (a drainage process) and itssubsequent post-injection evolution (a combination of drainage andwetting), hysteretic characteristic curves are required to correctlycapture the behavior of the CO2 plume. In the hysteretic formulation,capillary pressure and relative permeability depend not only on thecurrent grid-block saturation, but also on the history of the saturationin the grid block. For a problem that involves only drainage or onlywetting, a non-hysteretic formulation, in which capillary pressure andrelative permeability depend only on the current value of the grid-blocksaturation, is adequate. For the hysteretic formulation to be robustcomputationally, care must be taken to ensure the differentiability ofthe characteristic curves both within and beyond the turning-pointsaturations where transitions between branches of the curves occur. Twoexample problems involving geologic CO2 storage are simulated withTOUGH2, a multiphase, multicomponent code for flow and transport codethrough geological media. Both non-hysteretic and hysteretic formulationsare used, to illustrate the applicability and limitations ofnon-hysteretic methods.The first application considers leakage of CO2from the storage formation to the ground surface, while the secondexamines the role of heterogeneity within the storageformation.

  5. Relevance of underground natural gas storage to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Benson, Sally M.

    2002-07-01

    The practice of underground natural gas storage (UNGS), which started in the USA in 1916, provides useful insight into the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide--the dominant anthropogenic greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere. In many ways, UNGS is directly relevant to geologic CO{sub 2} storage because, like CO{sub 2}, natural gas (essentially methane) is less dense than water. Consequently, it will tend to rise to the top of any subsurface storage structure located below the groundwater table. By the end of 2001 in the USA, about 142 million metric tons of natural gas were stored underground in depleted oil and gas reservoirs and brine aquifers. Based on their performance, UNGS projects have shown that there is a safe and effective way of storing large volumes of gases in the subsurface. In the small number of cases where failures did occur (i.e., leakage of the stored gas into neighboring permeable layers), they were mainly related to improper well design, construction, maintenance, and/or incorrect project operation. In spite of differences in the chemical and physical properties of the gases, the risk-assessment, risk-management, and risk-mitigation issues relevant to UNGS projects are also pertinent to geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  6. Climate change and storage response in alpine geologic endmember catchments using integrated modeling and baseflow recession analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, K. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Arumi, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Runoff generation in snowmelt-dominated alpine systems predominantly occurs in subsurface, be it in the soil, saprolite, or fractured bedrock zone, and shifts in timing and amount of runoff due to climate change remains an open topic of research. Furthermore, the degree to which subsurface storage offsets the loss of snow storage in porous and fractured alpine terrains, i.e., the hydrogeologic buffering capacity, is still largely unknown. The snowmelt-dominated alpine watersheds in California and Chile are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to their Mediterranean climate, where winter snowpack sustains the demand of urban and agricultural needs during the dry summers. The streams draining the western slope of the Sierra Nevada and Andes mountains show a decline in snowmelt runoff, with an earlier shift in spring pulse and center of mass timing over the past 50 years. Following the snowmelt period, summer low flows are sustained by groundwater, and interbasin baseflow trends have been shown to correlate with geology, and to some extent, soil thickness in less permeable basins. However, the interannual (intrabasin) baseflow trends have not been explored with respect to climate change impacts to storage-discharge relationships. Here we estimate long-term groundwater storage trends via baseflow recession analysis for two geologically distinct alpine basins: the granitic Middle Fork Kaweah in the southern Sierra Nevada, California (640 masl, 264.2 km2 with daily data back to 1949) and the volcanic Diguillín in the central Andes, Bío Bío Region, Chile (670 masl and 334 km2 with daily data back to 1959). We employ a simple linear reservoir model for estimating storage from baseflow, and investigate the sensitivity to watershed characteristics, such as depth of groundwater circulation and storage on the results. We supplement these results with numerical experiments conducted using ParFlow-CLM, a fully-integrated hydrologic model coupled to a land surface

  7. Recommended volumetric capacity definitions and protocols for accurate, standardized and unambiguous metrics for hydrogen storage materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parilla, Philip A.; Gross, Karl; Hurst, Katherine; Gennett, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The ultimate goal of the hydrogen economy is the development of hydrogen storage systems that meet or exceed the US DOE's goals for onboard storage in hydrogen-powered vehicles. In order to develop new materials to meet these goals, it is extremely critical to accurately, uniformly and precisely measure materials' properties relevant to the specific goals. Without this assurance, such measurements are not reliable and, therefore, do not provide a benefit toward the work at hand. In particular, capacity measurements for hydrogen storage materials must be based on valid and accurate results to ensure proper identification of promising materials for further development. Volumetric capacity determinations are becoming increasingly important for identifying promising materials, yet there exists controversy on how such determinations are made and whether such determinations are valid due to differing methodologies to count the hydrogen content. These issues are discussed herein, and we show mathematically that capacity determinations can be made rigorously and unambiguously if the constituent volumes are well defined and measurable in practice. It is widely accepted that this occurs for excess capacity determinations and we show here that this can happen for the total capacity determination. Because the adsorption volume is undefined, the absolute capacity determination remains imprecise. Furthermore, we show that there is a direct relationship between determining the respective capacities and the calibration constants used for the manometric and gravimetric techniques. Several suggested volumetric capacity figure-of-merits are defined, discussed and reporting requirements recommended. Finally, an example is provided to illustrate these protocols and concepts.

  8. On CO2 Behavior in the Subsurface, Following Leakage from aGeologic Storage Reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-02-09

    The amounts of CO2 that would need to be injected intogeologic storage reservoirs to achieve a significant reduction ofatmospheric emissions are very large. A 1000 MWe coal-fired power plantemits approximately 30,000 tonnes of CO2 per day, 10 Mt per year(Hitchon, 1996). When injected underground over a typical lifetime of 30years of such a plant, the CO2 plume may occupy a large area of order 100km2 or more, and fluid pressure increase in excess of 1 bar(corresponding to 10 m water head) may extend over an area of more than2,500 km2 (Pruess, et al., 2003). The large areal extent expected for CO2plumes makes it likely that caprock imperfections will be encountered,such as fault zones or fractures, which may allow some CO2 to escape fromthe primary storage reservoir. Under most subsurface conditions oftemperature and pressure, CO2 is buoyant relative to groundwaters. If(sub-)vertical pathways are available, CO2 will tend to flow upward and,depending on geologic conditions, may eventually reach potablegroundwater aquifers or even the land surface. Leakage of CO2 could alsooccur along wellbores, including pre-existing and improperly abandonedwells, or wells drilled in connection with the CO2 storage operations.The pressure increases accompanying CO2 injection will give rise tochanges in effective stress that could cause movement along faults,increasing permeability and potential for leakage.Escape of CO2 from aprimary geologic storage reservoir and potential hazards associated withits discharge at the land surface raise a number of concerns, including(1) acidification of groundwater resources, (2) asphyxiation hazard whenleaking CO2 is discharged at the land surface, (3) increase inatmospheric concentrations of CO2, and (4) damage from a high-energy,eruptive discharge (if such discharge is physically possible). In orderto gain public acceptance for geologic storage as a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of CO2, it is necessary to address theseissues

  9. Some examples of the utility of HCMM data in geologic remote sensing. [Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J. P.; Abrams, M. J.; Alley, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of HCMM (Heat Capacity Mapping Mission) data in geologic remote sensing are presented, and the data set is composed of HCMM and aircraft digital scanner data and ground truth data from four western U.S. test sites. Data are used in the thermal model to test thermal data effectiveness, and changes in temperature with depth and time for dry soils are described by the model. It is found that the HCMM thermal inertia image is useful in the separability of bedrock and alluvium in Death Valley, and aa and pahoehoe flows in the Pisgah basalt flow. In a color composite of HCMM day temperature, night temperature, and day visible images of the Pisgah Crater test site, it is possible to distinguish alluvium, playa, aa and pahoehoe basalt flow, rhyolite intrusives, and other elements. Ground checking of units at a few points will extend capabilities to large areas and assist in creating telegeologic maps.

  10. Physical and economic potential of geological CO2 storage in saline aquifers.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jordan K; Pratson, Lincoln; Newell, Richard G; Jackson, Robert B

    2009-03-15

    Carbon sequestration in sandstone saline reservoirs holds great potential for mitigating climate change, but its storage potential and cost per ton of avoided CO2 emissions are uncertain. We develop a general model to determine the maximum theoretical constraints on both storage potential and injection rate and use it to characterize the economic viability of geosequestration in sandstone saline aquifers. When applied to a representative set of aquifer characteristics, the model yields results that compare favorably with pilot projects currently underway. Over a range of reservoir properties, maximum effective storage peaks at an optimal depth of 1600 m, at which point 0.18-0.31 metric tons can be stored per cubic meter of bulk volume of reservoir. Maximum modeled injection rates predict minima for storage costs in a typical basin in the range of $2-7/ ton CO2 (2005 U.S.$) depending on depth and basin characteristics in our base-case scenario. Because the properties of natural reservoirs in the United States vary substantially, storage costs could in some cases be lower or higher by orders of magnitude. We conclude that available geosequestration capacity exhibits a wide range of technological and economic attractiveness. Like traditional projects in the extractive industries, geosequestration capacity should be exploited starting with the low-cost storage options first then moving gradually up the supply curve.

  11. Systematic Risk Reduction: Chances and Risks of Geological Storage of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, F. R.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    A profound risk assessment should be the basis of any underground activity such as the geological storage of CO2. The risks and benefits should be weighted, whereas the risks need to be systematically reduced. Even after some decades of geological storage of CO2 (as part of a carbon capture and storage CCS), only a few projects are based on an independent risk assessment. In some cases, a risk assessment was performed after the start of storage operation. Chances: - Are there alternatives to CCS with lower risk? - Is a significant CO2 reduction possible without CCS? - If we accept that CO2 emissions are responsible for climate change having a severe economical impact, we need to substantially reduce CO2 emissions. As long as economic growth is directly related to CO2 emissions, we need to decouple the two. - CCS is one of the few options - may be a necessity, if the energy market is not only dependent on demand. Risks: Beside the risk not to develop and implement CCS, the following risks need to be addressed, ideally in a multi independent risk assessment. - Personal Interests - Acceptance - Political interests - Company interests - HSE (Health Safety Environment) - Risk for Climate and ETS - Operational Risks If a multi independent risk assessment is performed and the risks are addressed in a proper way, a significant and systematic risk reduction can be achieved. Some examples will be given, based on real case studies, such as CO2SINK at Ketzin.

  12. Storage capacity and retrieval time of small-world neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Hiraku; Odagaki, Takashi

    2007-09-15

    To understand the influence of structure on the function of neural networks, we study the storage capacity and the retrieval time of Hopfield-type neural networks for four network structures: regular, small world, random networks generated by the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model, and the same network as the neural network of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using computer simulations, we find that (1) as the randomness of network is increased, its storage capacity is enhanced; (2) the retrieval time of WS networks does not depend on the network structure, but the retrieval time of C. elegans's neural network is longer than that of WS networks; (3) the storage capacity of the C. elegans network is smaller than that of networks generated by the WS model, though the neural network of C. elegans is considered to be a small-world network.

  13. CO2 Geological Storage in Olivine Rich Basaltic Aquifers: New Insights From Flow-Through Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peuble, S.; Godard, M.; Luquot, L.; Gibert, B.; Mainprice, D.; Martinez, I.; Gouze, P.

    2012-04-01

    ) Mg-Fe rich phyllosilicates plates perpendicular to (at the expense of ?) olivine surfaces was observed. The precipitation of these serpentine type minerals may explain the strong decrease in permeability during experiments. Carbonation was relatively efficient in our experiments: between 0.003g (exp.3) and 0.015 g (exp.1 & 2) of CO2 per gram of sample was trapped as carbonates. When these analyses are upscaled to the size of an injection site, they correspond to an average yield of 3.6 to 10.6 Mtons of CO2/km3/day. Our results indicate a strong control of flow rates on carbonation, and also on hydration reactions. This implies not only variations of the CO2 storage capacity of the basaltic aquifer with distance to the injection well, but also that controlling the injection rate would allow enhancing the efficiency of in situ carbonation. Luquot L., Andreani M., Gouze P., Camps P. (2012) CO2 percolation experiment through chlorite/zeolite-rich sandstone (Pretty-Hill Formation - Otway-Basin-Australia), Chemical Geology 294-295, 75-88, doi:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.11.018.

  14. Simulation of CO2 Sequestration at Rock Spring Uplift, Wyoming: Heterogeneity and Uncertainties in Storage Capacity, Injectivity and Leakage

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Hailin; Dai, Zhenxue; Jiao, Zunsheng; Stauffer, Philip H.; Surdam, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Many geological, geochemical, geomechanical and hydrogeological factors control CO{sub 2} storage in subsurface. Among them heterogeneity in saline aquifer can seriously influence design of injection wells, CO{sub 2} injection rate, CO{sub 2} plume migration, storage capacity, and potential leakage and risk assessment. This study applies indicator geostatistics, transition probability and Markov chain model at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming generating facies-based heterogeneous fields for porosity and permeability in target saline aquifer (Pennsylvanian Weber sandstone) and surrounding rocks (Phosphoria, Madison and cap-rock Chugwater). A multiphase flow simulator FEHM is then used to model injection of CO{sub 2} into the target saline aquifer involving field-scale heterogeneity. The results reveal that (1) CO{sub 2} injection rates in different injection wells significantly change with local permeability distributions; (2) brine production rates in different pumping wells are also significantly impacted by the spatial heterogeneity in permeability; (3) liquid pressure evolution during and after CO{sub 2} injection in saline aquifer varies greatly for different realizations of random permeability fields, and this has potential important effects on hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir rock, reactivation of pre-existing faults and the integrity of the cap-rock; (4) CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimate for Rock Springs Uplift is 6614 {+-} 256 Mt at 95% confidence interval, which is about 36% of previous estimate based on homogeneous and isotropic storage formation; (5) density profiles show that the density of injected CO{sub 2} below 3 km is close to that of the ambient brine with given geothermal gradient and brine concentration, which indicates CO{sub 2} plume can sink to the deep before reaching thermal equilibrium with brine. Finally, we present uncertainty analysis of CO{sub 2} leakage into overlying formations due to heterogeneity in both the target saline

  15. Modelling the impacts of climate policy on the deployment of carbon dioxide capture and geologic storage across electric power regions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2007-04-02

    This paper summarizes the results of a first-of-its-kind holistic, integrated economic analysis of the potential role of carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies across the regional segments of the United States of America (USA) electric power sector, over the time frame 2005-2045, in response to two hypothetical emissions control policies analyzed against two potential energy supply futures that include updated and substantially higher projected prices for natural gas. A key feature of this paper’s analysis is an attempt to explicitly model the inherent heterogeneities that exist in both the nation’s current and future electricity generation infrastructure and candidate deep geologic CO2 storage formations. Overall, between 180 and 580 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle with CCS (IGCC+CCS) capacity is built by 2045 in these four scenarios, requiring between 12 and 41gigatons of CO2 (GtCO2) of storage in regional deep geologic reservoirs across the USA. Nearly all of this CO2 is from new IGCC+CCS systems, which start to deploy after 2025. Relatively little IGCC+CCS capacity is built before that time, primarily under unique niche opportunities. For the most part, CO2 emissions prices will likely need to be sustained at well over $10-20/ton CO2 before CCS begins to deploy on a large scale within the electric power sector. Within these broad national trends, a highly nuanced picture of CCS deployment across the USA emerges. Across the four scenarios studied here, some North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions do not employ any CCS while others build more than 100 GW of CCS-enabled generation capacity. One region sees as much as 50% of their geologic CO2 storage reservoirs’ total theoretical capacity consumed by 2045, while the majority of the regions still have more than 90% of their potential storage capacity available to meet storage needs in the second half of the century and beyond.

  16. NaBH4 in "Graphene Wrapper:" Significantly Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity and Regenerability through Nanoencapsulation.

    PubMed

    Chong, Lina; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Ding, Wenjiang; Liu, Di-Jia; Zou, Jianxin

    2015-09-01

    A new high-capacity reversible hydrogen-storage material synthesized by the encapsulation of NaBH4 nanoparticles in graphene is reported. This approach effectively prevents phase agglomeration or separation during successive H2 discharge/recharge processes and enables rapid H2 uptake and release in NaBH4 under mild conditions. The strategy advanced here paves a new way for application in energy generation and storage.

  17. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    PubMed

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide.

  18. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    PubMed

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide. PMID:26767550

  19. Surface Water Storage Capacity of Twenty Tree Species in Davis, California.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qingfu; McPherson, E Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Urban forestry is an important green infrastructure strategy because healthy trees can intercept rainfall, reducing stormwater runoff and pollutant loading. Surface saturation storage capacity, defined as the thin film of water that must wet tree surfaces before flow begins, is the most important variable influencing rainfall interception processes. Surface storage capacity is known to vary widely among tree species, but it is little studied. This research measured surface storage capacities of 20 urban tree species in a rainfall simulator. The measurement system included a rainfall simulator, digital balance, digital camera, and computer. Eight samples were randomly collected from each tree species. Twelve rainfall intensities (3.5-139.5 mm h) were simulated. Leaf-on and leaf-off simulations were conducted for deciduous species. Stem and foliar surface areas were estimated using an image analysis method. Results indicated that surface storage capacities varied threefold among tree species, 0.59 mm for crape myrtle ( L.) and 1.81 mm for blue spruce ( Engelm.). The mean value across all species was 0.86 mm (0.11 mm SD). To illustrate application of the storage values, interception was simulated and compared across species for a 40-yr period with different rainfall intensities and durations. By quantifying the potential for different tree species to intercept rainfall under a variety of meteorological conditions, this study provides new knowledge that is fundamental to validating the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry as a green infrastructure strategy and designing functional plantings. PMID:26828174

  20. Water storage capacity of natural wetland depressions in the Devils Lake basin of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludden, A.P.; Frink, D.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Photogrammetric mapping techniques were used to derive the water storage capacities of natural wetland depressions other than lakes in the Devils Lake Basin of North Dakota. Results from sample quarter-section areas were expanded to the entire basin. Depressions in the Devils Lake Basin have a maximum storage capacity of nearly 811,000 cubic dekameters (657,000 acre-feet). The depressions store about 72 percent of the total runoff volume from a 2-year-frequency runoff and about 41 percent of the total runoff volume from a 100-year-frequency runoff.

  1. Impacts of shifting fire regime on ecosystem carbon storage capacity in the interior Alaskan forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Kelly, R.; Hu, F.; Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Fire is the primary disturbance in the boreal forest, and variations in fire regimes have important ecological, biogeochemical, and socioeconomic implications. Recent widespread burning throughout the biome has been convincingly linked to climatic warming, with expectations of increased burning with future climate change. However, fire-regime dynamics are scale-dependent, and it is unclear whether empirical climate-fire relationships derived from the short observational record are applicable to future projections. Paleo-fire reconstructions offer a valuable extension to historical fire records by providing a context for ongoing change and offering insights to the causes and consequences of fire regime shifts over decades to millennia. The main objectives of this study are to address 1) how fire regime shift impacts ecosystem C dynamics at a millennial time scale; and 2) which factor is more important in regulating the dynamics of ecosystem C storage capacity at decades to millennium scales among fire, CO2 and temperature. In this study, the REGIME model (Weng et al. JGR, 2012) has been modified to evaluate the dynamics of ecosystem C storage capacity (the theoretic capacity of an ecosystem to store C) since 3000 years BP for the black spruce forests in interior Alaska under the influence of changing fire regime, rising atmospheric CO2 concentration, and climate warming, all of which were derived from paleo-data. In addition, C storage capacity was also modeled through the 21 century using IPCC scenarios for CO2 and temperature, and fire regime scenario derived based on a paleo-fire dataset. Overall, fire frequency has been constant but fire severity has increased significantly since 3000 years BP for the studied area. Our results indicate that this fire regime shifting alone or in combination with temperature and/or CO2 always decrease ecosystem C storage capacity over the past 3000 years. Among the single factors, fire regime shifting results in the greatest

  2. The Potential of Microbial Activity to Increase the Efficacy of Geologic Carbon Capture and Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, A. B.; Gerlach, R.; Phillips, A. J.; Eldring, J.; Lauchnor, E.; Klapper, I.; Ebigbo, A.; Mitchell, A. C.; Spangler, L.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic carbon capture and storage involves the injection of CO2 into underground formations such as brine aquifers where microbe-rock-fluid interactions will occur. These interactions may be important for the long-term fate of the injected CO2 particularly near well bores and potential leakage pathways. Herein, concepts and results are presented from bench to meso-scale experiments focusing on the utility of attached microorganisms and biofilms to enhance storage security of injected CO2. Batch and flow experiments at atmospheric and geologic CO2storage-relevant pressures have demonstrated the ability of microbial biofilms to decrease the permeability of natural and artificial porous media, survive the exposure to scCO2, and facilitate the conversion of CO2 into long-term stable carbonate phases as well as increase the solubility of CO2 in brines. Recently, the microbially catalyzed process of ureolysis has been investigated for the potential to promote calcium carbonate mineralization in subsurface reservoirs using native or introduced ureolytic microorganisms, which increase the saturation state of CaCO3 via the hydrolysis of urea. The anticipated applications for this biomineralization process in the subsurface include sealing microfractures and CO2 leakage pathways for increased security of geologic carbon storage. Recent work has focused on facilitating this biomineralization process in large scale (74 cm diameter, 38 cm high sandstone) radial flow systems under ambient and subsurface relevant pressures with the goal of developing injection strategies suited for field scale deployment. Methods for microscopic and macroscopic visualization of relevant processes, such as growth of microbial biofilms, their interactions with minerals and influence on pore spaces in porous media reactors are being developed and have been used to calibrate reactive transport models. As a result, these models are being used to predict the effect of biological processes on CO2

  3. Optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system

    SciTech Connect

    Tsungying Lee; Nanming Chen

    1993-12-01

    Due to the cyclical human life, utility loads appear to be cyclical too. During daytime when most factories are in operation, the electricity demand is very high. On the contrary, when most people are sleeping from midnight to daybreak, the electric load is very low, usually only half of the peak load amount. To meet this large gap between peak load and light load, utilities must idle many generation plants during light load period while operating all generation plants during peak load period no matter how expensive they are. This low utilization factor of generation plants and uneconomical operation have sparked utilities to invest in energy storage devices such as pumped storage plants, compressed air energy storage plants, battery energy storage systems (BES) and superconducting magnetic energy storage systems (SMES) etc. Among these, pumped storage is already commercialized and is the most widely used device. However, it suffers the limit of available sites and will be saturated in the future. Other energy storage devices are still under research to reduce the cost. This paper investigates the optimal capacity of the battery energy storage system in a power system. Taiwan Power Company System is used as the example system to test this algorithm. Results show that the maximum economic benefit of the battery energy storage in a power system can be achieved by this algorithm.

  4. Influence of storage time on functional capacity of flow cytometrically sex-sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Gil, Maria A; Caballero, Ignacio; Almiñana, Carmen; Roca, Jordi; Martinez, Emilio A

    2005-07-01

    Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa is an emerging biotechnology, still considered suboptimal owing to the slowness of the process, which requires long sorting periods to obtain an adequate number of spermatozoa to perform a non-surgical insemination. This period involves storage of sorted cells that could impair their functional capacity. Here, we have studied how the storage of sex-sorted boar spermatozoa affects their functional capacity. Sorted spermatozoa were assessed at various times (0, 2, 5h or 10h) during storage after sorting and compared with diluted and unsorted spermatozoa for sperm motility patterns, plasma membrane and acrosomal integrity and their ability to penetrate homologous IVM oocytes. Sex-sorted sperm motility and membrane integrity only decreased significantly (p<0.05) by the end of the storage period (10h) compared to unsorted spermatozoa. Sperm velocity, ALH and Dance increased significantly (p<0.05), immediately post-sorting, returning to unsorted sperm values during storage. Acrosome integrity was not seriously affected by the sorting process, but decreased (p<0.05) during storage after sorting. Sorted spermatozoa stored 2h after sorting did not differ from unsorted in penetration rates and numbers of spermatozoa per oocyte, reaching the highest (p<0.05) penetration rates and sperm numbers per oocyte, when co-cultured for 6 or more hours. Non-storage or storage for 5h or 10h negatively (p<0.05) affected sperm penetration ability. In conclusion, although flow cytometrically sex-sorted spermatozoa are able to maintain motility, viability and acrosomal integrity at optimal levels until 10h of storage after sorting, fertilizing ability is maintained only over shorter storage times (<5h). PMID:15935845

  5. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Denver Basin, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska: Chapter G in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake II, Ronald M.; Brennan, Sean T.; Covault, Jacob A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    This is a report about the geologic characteristics of five storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Denver Basin of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. These SAUs are Cretaceous in age and include (1) the Plainview and Lytle Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Greenhorn Limestone, (4) the Niobrara Formation and Codell Sandstone, and (5) the Terry and Hygiene Sandstone Members. The described characteristics, as specified in the methodology, affect the potential carbon dioxide storage resource in the SAUs. The specific geologic and petrophysical properties of interest include depth to the top of the storage formation, average thickness, net-porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and the area of structural reservoir traps. Descriptions of the SAU boundaries and the overlying sealing units are also included. Assessment results are not contained in this report; however, the geologic information included here will be used to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage volume in the SAUs.

  6. Enhanced hydrogen storage capacity of copper containing mesoporous silicas prepared using different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekkiou, Housseyn; Boukoussa, Bouhadjar; Ghezini, Rachid; Khenchoul, Zineb; Ouali, Affaf; Hamacha, Rachida; Bengueddach, Abdelkader

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the synthesis of mesoporous materials, Al-MCM-41, doped with copper using different methods. The results show that the method of synthesis affects the structural and textural properties of these solids. Their application in hydrogen storage shows that the adsorption is enhanced when using a solid containing Cu+2 ions, with an adsorption capacity around 1.8 wt% at 77 K, while the solids containing CuO particles present a medium adsorption capacity. Temperature variation plays a very important role in determining the adsorption capacity and the best results are obtained at 77 K.

  7. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-01

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  8. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions.

  9. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials.

  10. Carborane-Based Metal-Organic Framework with High Methane and Hydrogen Storage Capacities

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, RD; Krungleviciute, V; Clingerman, DJ; Mondloch, JE; Peng, Y; Wilmer, CE; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT; Yildirim, T; Farha, OK; Mirkin, CA

    2013-09-10

    A Cu-carborane-based metal organic framework (MOF), NU-135, which contains a quasi-spherical para-carborane moiety, has been synthesized and characterized. NU-135 exhibits a pore volume of 1.02 cm(3)/g and a gravimetric BET surface area of ca. 2600 m(2)/g, and thus represents the first highly porous carborane-based MOF. As a consequence of the, unique geometry of the carborane unit, NU-135 has a very high volumetric BET surface area of ca. 1900 m(2)/cm(3). CH4, CO2, and H-2 adsorption isotherms were measured over a broad range of pressures and temperatures and are in good agreement with computational predictions. The methane storage capacity of NU-135 at 35 bar and 298 K is ca. 187 v(STP)/v. At 298 K, the pressure required to achieve a methane storage density comparable to that of a compressed natural gas (CNG) tank pressurized to 212 bar, which is a typical storage pressure, is only 65 bar. The methane working capacity (5-65 bar) is 170 v(STP)/v. The volumetric hydrogen storage capacity at 55 bar and 77 K is 49 g/L. These properties are comparable to those of current record holders in the area of methane and hydrogen storage. This initial example lays the groundwork for carborane-based materials with high surface areas.

  11. Impact of Maximum Allowable Cost on CO2 Storage Capacity in Saline Formations.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Simon A; Gluyas, Jon G; Goldthorpe, Ward H; Mackay, Eric J

    2015-11-17

    Injecting CO2 into deep saline formations represents an important component of many greenhouse-gas-reduction strategies for the future. A number of authors have posed concern over the thousands of injection wells likely to be needed. However, a more important criterion than the number of wells is whether the total cost of storing the CO2 is market-bearable. Previous studies have sought to determine the number of injection wells required to achieve a specified storage target. Here an alternative methodology is presented whereby we specify a maximum allowable cost (MAC) per ton of CO2 stored, a priori, and determine the corresponding potential operational storage capacity. The methodology takes advantage of an analytical solution for pressure build-up during CO2 injection into a cylindrical saline formation, accounting for two-phase flow, brine evaporation, and salt precipitation around the injection well. The methodology is applied to 375 saline formations from the U.K. Continental Shelf. Parameter uncertainty is propagated using Monte Carlo simulation with 10 000 realizations for each formation. The results show that MAC affects both the magnitude and spatial distribution of potential operational storage capacity on a national scale. Different storage prospects can appear more or less attractive depending on the MAC scenario considered. It is also shown that, under high well-injection rate scenarios with relatively low cost, there is adequate operational storage capacity for the equivalent of 40 years of U.K. CO2 emissions. PMID:26480926

  12. Non-Verbal Information Storage in Humans and Developmental Information Processing Channel Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randhawa, Bikkar S.

    This study was designed to ascertain the nature of information storage in humans and to determine the channel capacity of Ss at various stages of development. A 3 x 2 x 2 multivariate complete factorial design was employed: the three levels of the first factor (Age) were 5, 8, and 12 years; the two levels of the second factor were Visual and…

  13. Enhancement of energy storage capacity of Mg functionalized silicene and silicane under external strain

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Tanveer; Ahuja, Rajeev; Chakraborty, Sudip; De Sarkar, Abir; Johansson, Börje

    2014-09-22

    The electronic structure, stability, and hydrogen storage capacity of strain induced Mg functionalized silicene (SiMg) and silicane (SiHMg) monolayers have been studied by means of van der Waals induced first principles calculations. A drastic increase in the binding energy of Mg adatoms on both the monolayers under the biaxial symmetric strain of 10% ensures the uniform distribution of dopants over the substrates. A significant positive charge on each Mg accumulates a maximum of six H{sub 2} molecules with H{sub 2} storage capacity of 8.10% and 7.95% in case of SiMg and SiHMg, respectively. The average adsorption energy for H{sub 2} molecules has been found ideal for practical H{sub 2} storage materials.

  14. CO2 Geological Storage Field Development - Application of Baseline, Monitoring and Verification Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, A.; Mackie, E.; Jenvey, N.

    2009-04-01

    The creation of a robust Baseline, Monitoring, and Verification (BMV)plan is key to assuring containment integrity in CO2 geological storage projects. A BMV plan has three main aims: Monitor CO2 movement in the subsurface, Calibrate dynamic earth models and finally, Verify volume of stored CO2. Wide ranges of potential BMV technologies available are currently tested in CCS pilots and industrial scale projects. This paper describes how to optimize the BMV plan design by adopting a risk-based approach and how the value of information (VOI) of specific monitoring technologies needs to be assessed to meet program objectives.

  15. Antioxidant capacity and vitamin E in barley: Effect of genotype and storage.

    PubMed

    Do, Thu Dung T; Cozzolino, Daniel; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Box, Amanda; Able, Amanda J

    2015-11-15

    Antioxidants, including vitamin E, may have a positive effect on human health and prolong storage of food items. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity were measured in 25 barley genotypes before and after 4 months storage at 10 °C using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ability to scavenge DPPH radicals, respectively. As expected, α-tocotrienol (α-T3) and α-tocopherol (α-T) were the predominant tocol isomers. Vitamin E content and antioxidant capacity varied significantly among genotypes. Vitamin E ranged from 8.5 to 31.5 μg/g dry weight (DW) while ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) varied from 57.2 to 158.1 mg AEAC/100 g fresh weight (FW). Generally, lower vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity was observed in hulless or coloured genotypes. These results suggest that some genotypes are potential candidates for breeding of barley cultivars with high vitamin E content or antioxidant capacity at harvest, even after storage.

  16. Improved understanding of geologic CO{sub 2} storage processes requires risk-driven field experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01

    The need for risk-driven field experiments for CO{sub 2} geologic storage processes to complement ongoing pilot-scale demonstrations is discussed. These risk-driven field experiments would be aimed at understanding the circumstances under which things can go wrong with a CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) project and cause it to fail, as distinguished from accomplishing this end using demonstration and industrial scale sites. Such risk-driven tests would complement risk-assessment efforts that have already been carried out by providing opportunities to validate risk models. In addition to experimenting with high-risk scenarios, these controlled field experiments could help validate monitoring approaches to improve performance assessment and guide development of mitigation strategies.

  17. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  18. Source/Sink Matching for U.S. Ethanol Plants and Candidate Deep Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.

    2008-09-18

    This report presents data on the 140 existing and 74 planned ethanol production facilities and their proximity to candidate deep geologic storage formations. Half of the existing ethanol plants and 64% of the planned units sit directly atop a candidate geologic storage reservoir. While 70% of the existing and 97% of the planned units are within 100 miles of at least one candidate deep geologic storage reservoir. As a percent of the total CO2 emissions from these facilities, 92% of the exiting units CO2 and 97% of the planned units CO2 emissions are accounted for by facilities that are within 100 miles of at least one potential CO2 storage reservoir.

  19. Overview of geologic storage of natural gas with an emphasis on assessing the feasibility of storing hydrogen.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, Anna Snider

    2009-09-01

    In many regions across the nation geologic formations are currently being used to store natural gas underground. Storage options are dictated by the regional geology and the operational need. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an interest in understanding theses various geologic storage options, the advantages and disadvantages, in the hopes of developing an underground facility for the storage of hydrogen as a low cost storage option, as part of the hydrogen delivery infrastructure. Currently, depleted gas/oil reservoirs, aquifers, and salt caverns are the three main types of underground natural gas storage in use today. The other storage options available currently and in the near future, such as abandoned coal mines, lined hard rock caverns, and refrigerated mined caverns, will become more popular as the demand for natural gas storage grows, especially in regions were depleted reservoirs, aquifers, and salt deposits are not available. The storage of hydrogen within the same type of facilities, currently used for natural gas, may add new operational challenges to the existing cavern storage industry, such as the loss of hydrogen through chemical reactions and the occurrence of hydrogen embrittlement. Currently there are only three locations worldwide, two of which are in the United States, which store hydrogen. All three sites store hydrogen within salt caverns.

  20. Mg-based nanocomposites with high capacity and fast kinetics for hydrogen storage.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiangdong; Wu, Chengzhang; Du, Aijun; Lu, Gao Qing; Cheng, Huiming; Smith, Sean C; Zou, Jin; He, Yinghe

    2006-06-22

    Magnesium and its alloys have shown a great potential in effective hydrogen storage due to their advantages of high volumetric/gravimetric hydrogen storage capacity and low cost. However, the use of these materials in fuel cells for automotive applications at the present time is limited by high hydrogenation temperature and sluggish sorption kinetics. This paper presents the recent results of design and development of magnesium-based nanocomposites demonstrating the catalytic effects of carbon nanotubes and transition metals on hydrogen adsorption in these materials. The results are promising for the application of magnesium materials for hydrogen storage, with significantly reduced absorption temperatures and enhanced ab/desorption kinetics. High level Density Functional Theory calculations support the analysis of the hydrogenation mechanisms by revealing the detailed atomic and molecular interactions that underpin the catalytic roles of incorporated carbon and titanium, providing clear guidance for further design and development of such materials with better hydrogen storage properties.

  1. Capacity investigation of brine-bearing sands of the Fwwm formation for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten; Benson, Sally M.; Hovorka, Susan D.; Knox, Paul R.; Green, Christopher T.

    2001-05-01

    The capacity of fluvial brine-bearing formations to sequester CO{sub 2} is investigated using numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} injection and storage. Capacity is defined as the volume fraction of the subsurface available for CO{sub 2} storage and is conceptualized as a product of factors that account for two-phase flow and transport processes, formation geometry, formation heterogeneity, and formation porosity. The space and time domains used to define capacity must be chosen with care to obtain meaningful results, especially when comparing different authors' work. Physical factors that impact capacity include permeability anisotropy and relative permeability to CO{sub 2}, brine/CO{sub 2} density and viscosity ratios, the shape of the trapping structure, formation porosity and the presence of low-permeability layering.

  2. Health, Safety, and Environmental Screening and Ranking Frameworkfor Geologic CO2 Storage Site Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-09-19

    This report describes a screening and ranking framework(SRF) developed to evaluate potential geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites on the basis of health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risk arising from possible CO2 leakage. The approach is based on the assumption that HSE risk due to CO2 leakage is dependent on three basic characteristics of a geologic CO2 storage site: (1) the potential for primary containment by the target formation; (2) the potential for secondary containment if the primary formation leaks; and (3) the potential for attenuation and dispersion of leaking CO2 if the primary formation leaks and secondary containment fails. The framework is implemented in a spreadsheet in which users enter numerical scores representing expert opinions or general information available from published materials along with estimates of uncertainty to evaluate the three basic characteristics in order to screen and rank candidate sites. Application of the framework to the Rio Visa Gas Field, Ventura Oil Field, and Mammoth Mountain demonstrates the approach. Refinements and extensions are possible through the use of more detailed data or model results in place of property proxies. Revisions and extensions to improve the approach are anticipated in the near future as it is used and tested by colleagues and collaborators.

  3. Health, Safety, and Environmental Screening and Ranking Frameworkfor Geologic CO2 Storage Site Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-03-15

    This report describes a screening and ranking framework(SRF) developed to evaluate potential geologic carbon dioxide (CO2)storage sites on the basis of health, safety, and environmental (HSE)risk arising from possible CO2 leakage. The approach is based on theassumption that HSE risk due to CO2 leakage is dependent on three basiccharacteristics of a geologic CO2 storage site: (1) the potential forprimary containment by the target formation, (2) the potential forsecondary containment if the primary formation leaks, and (3) thepotential for attenuation and dispersion of leaking CO2 if the primaryformation leaks and secondary containment fails. The framework isimplemented in a spreadsheet in which users enter numerical scoresrepresenting expert opinions or general information available frompublished materials along with estimates of uncertainty to evaluate thethree basic characteristics in order to screen and rank candidate sites.Application of the framework to the Rio Vista Gas Field, Ventura OilField, and Mammoth Mountain demonstrates the approach. Refinements andextensions are possible through the use of more detailed data or modelresults in place of property proxies. Revisions and extensions to improvethe approach are anticipated in the near future as it is used and testedby colleagues and collaborators.

  4. Characterization of Pliocene and Miocene Formations in the Wilmington Graben, Offshore Los Angeles, for Large-Scale Geologic Storage of CO₂

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-12-08

    Geomechanics Technologies has completed a detailed characterization study of the Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California area for large-scale CO₂ storage. This effort has included: an evaluation of existing wells in both State and Federal waters, field acquisition of about 175 km (109 mi) of new seismic data, new well drilling, development of integrated 3D geologic, geomechanics, and fluid flow models for the area. The geologic analysis indicates that more than 796 MMt of storage capacity is available within the Pliocene and Miocene formations in the Graben for midrange geologic estimates (P50). Geomechanical analyses indicate that injection can be conducted without significant risk for surface deformation, induced stresses or fault activation. Numerical analysis of fluid migration indicates that injection into the Pliocene Formation at depths of 1525 m (5000 ft) would lead to undesirable vertical migration of the CO₂ plume. Recent well drilling however, indicates that deeper sand is present at depths exceeding 2135 m (7000 ft), which could be viable for large volume storage. For vertical containment, injection would need to be limited to about 250,000 metric tons per year per well, would need to be placed at depths greater than 7000ft, and would need to be placed in new wells located at least 1 mile from any existing offset wells. As a practical matter, this would likely limit storage operations in the Wilmington Graben to about 1 million tons per year or less. A quantitative risk analysis for the Wilmington Graben indicate that such large scale CO₂ storage in the area would represent higher risk than other similar size projects in the US and overseas.

  5. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Storage Options in the Illinois Basin: Validation Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, Robert

    2012-12-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) assessed the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage in the 155,400 km{sup 2} (60,000 mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin, which underlies most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky. The region has annual CO{sub 2} emissions of about 265 million metric tonnes (292 million tons), primarily from 122 coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010). Validation Phase (Phase II) field tests gathered pilot data to update the Characterization Phase (Phase I) assessment of options for capture, transportation, and storage of CO{sub 2} emissions in three geological sink types: coal seams, oil fields, and saline reservoirs. Four small-scale field tests were conducted to determine the properties of rock units that control injectivity of CO{sub 2}, assess the total storage resources, examine the security of the overlying rock units that act as seals for the reservoirs, and develop ways to control and measure the safety of injection and storage processes. The MGSC designed field test operational plans for pilot sites based on the site screening process, MVA program needs, the selection of equipment related to CO{sub 2} injection, and design of a data acquisition system. Reservoir modeling, computational simulations, and statistical methods assessed and interpreted data gathered from the field tests. Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting (MVA) programs were established to detect leakage of injected CO{sub 2} and ensure public safety. Public outreach and education remained an important part of the project; meetings and presentations informed public and private regional stakeholders of the results and findings. A miscible (liquid) CO{sub 2} flood pilot project was conducted in the Clore Formation sandstone (Mississippian System, Chesterian Series) at Mumford Hills Field in Posey County, southwestern

  6. Storage Capacity and Water Quality of Lake Ngardok, Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yeung, Chiu Wang; Wong, Michael F.

    1999-01-01

    A bathymetric survey conducted during March and April, 1996, determined the total storage capacity Lake Ngardok to be between 90 and 168 acre-feet. Elevation-surface area and elevation-capacity curves summarizing the current relations among elevation, surface area, and storage capacity were created from the bathymetric map. Rainfall and lake-elevation data collected from April 1996 to March 1998 indicated that lake levels correlated to rainfall values with lake elevation rising rapidly in response to heavy rainfall and then returning to normal levels within a few days. Mean lake elevation for the 22 month period of data was 59.5 feet which gives a mean storage capacity of 107 acre-feet and a mean surface area of 24.1 acre. A floating mat of reeds, which covered 58 percent of the lake surface area at the time of the bathymetric survey, makes true storage capacity difficult to estimate. Water-quality sampling during April 1996 and November 1997 indicated that no U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standards were violated for analyzed organic and inorganic compounds and radionuclides. With suitable biological treatment, the lake water could be used for drinking-water purposes. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements indicated that Lake Ngardok is stratified. Given that air temperature on Palau exhibits little seasonal variation, it is likely that this pattern of stratification is persistent. As a result, complete mixing of the lake is probably rare. Near anaerobic conditions exist at the lake bottom. Low dissolved oxygen (3.2 milligrams per liter) measured at the outflow indicated that water flowing past the outflow was from the deep oxygen-depleted depths of the lake.

  7. Remote Sensing of Soil Water Storage Capacity Using the Landsat and MODIS Image Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, J. M. H.; Umstot, T.; Wilson, J. L.; Allen, R.; Trezza, R.

    2014-12-01

    We will present a method for the quantitative assessment of the soil water storage capacity of each pixel in a Landsat or MODIS image using the information available in the historic Landsat and MODIS archives. The soil water storage capacity represents the maximum amount of water that can be stored in the soil and/or bedrock so that it is available for release into the atmosphere through transpiration by vegetation and/or evaporation from the land surface. First, the METRIC algorithm is used to convert 15 images representative for growing seasons in wet, dry and normal years into evaporative fraction maps. The evaporative fraction is an expression of the relative evapotranspiration and is strongly correlated to soil moisture conditions in the root zone: high and low evaporative fractions indicate, respectively, high and low root zone soil water contents. We use an experimental relationship to derive a normalized root zone soil moisture value between 0 (dry) to 1 (saturation) from the evaporative fraction. Then, the wetness score for each pixel is calculated as the sum of its 15 "normalized root zone soil moisture" values; it is a relative measure of the overall wetness of a pixel compared to other pixels with values between 0 and 15. Large and small values for the wetness score indicate, respectively, large and small values for the soil water storage capacity. The challenge is to convert the ranking of the wetness scores for each pixel into a quantitative soil water storage capacity. For this operation we use the hydrological Distributed Parameter Watershed Model (DPWM). After construction of seven physically realistic conversion functions between wetness score rank and soil water storage capacity, we evaluate the seven distributions of the differences between the 15 METRIC observed and DPWM simulated "normalized root zone soil moisture" maps. The conversion function that yields the smallest sum of differences is considered the optimal function and is used for

  8. A risk management approach to double-shell tank waste volume versus storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Coles, G.A.; Thurkow, T.J.; Fritz, R.L.; Nuhlestein, L.O.; Allen, M.R.; Stuart, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    A risk-based assessment of the overall waste volume versus double-shell tank storage capacity was conducted to develop fallback positions for projections where the waste volume was at a high risk of exceeding capacity. This study was initiated to provide that assessment. A working simulation model was the primary deliverable of this study. The model validates the approach and demonstrates that simulation analysis can provide a method of tracking uncertainties in available data, assessing probabilities, and serves as a tool to be used by management to determine the consequences of various off-normal occurrences.

  9. Detection and impacts of leakage from sub-seafloor deep geological carbon dioxide storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, Jerry; Stahl, Henrik; Bull, Jonathan M.; Bergès, Benoît J. P.; Cevatoglu, Melis; Lichtschlag, Anna; Connelly, Douglas; James, Rachael H.; Kita, Jun; Long, Dave; Naylor, Mark; Shitashima, Kiminori; Smith, Dave; Taylor, Peter; Wright, Ian; Akhurst, Maxine; Chen, Baixin; Gernon, Tom M.; Hauton, Chris; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Leighton, Timothy G.; Sato, Toru; Sayer, Martin D. J.; Suzumura, Masahiro; Tait, Karen; Vardy, Mark E.; White, Paul R.; Widdicombe, Steve

    2014-11-01

    Fossil fuel power generation and other industrial emissions of carbon dioxide are a threat to global climate, yet many economies will remain reliant on these technologies for several decades. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations provides an effective option to remove these emissions from the climate system. In many regions storage reservoirs are located offshore, over a kilometre or more below societally important shelf seas. Therefore, concerns about the possibility of leakage and potential environmental impacts, along with economics, have contributed to delaying development of operational CCS. Here we investigate the detectability and environmental impact of leakage from a controlled sub-seabed release of CO2. We show that the biological impact and footprint of this small leak analogue (<1 tonne CO2 d-1) is confined to a few tens of metres. Migration of CO2 through the shallow seabed is influenced by near-surface sediment structure, and by dissolution and re-precipitation of calcium carbonate naturally present in sediments. Results reported here advance the understanding of environmental sensitivity to leakage and identify appropriate monitoring strategies for full-scale carbon storage operations.

  10. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-05-26

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiation on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoir, Battelle has been awarded a project to investigate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. This project is the Phase III of Battelle's work under the Novel Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Management grant. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations and potentially in nearby deep coal seams. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January through March 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the technical activities focused on development of injection well design, preparing a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, assessment of monitoring technologies, analysis of coal samples for testing the capture system by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, and presentation of project progress at several venues. In addition, related work has progressed on a collaborative risk assessment project with Japan research institute CREIPI and technical application for the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership.

  11. Optimized six-dimensional optical storage: a practicable way to large capacity and fast throughputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shangqing

    2015-08-01

    An optimized six-dimensional storage system has been investigated theoretically. The system uses multiple beams to create overlapped micro gratings as each storage cell. The cell capacity depends exponentially on the beam wavelength number. With two-photon absorption writing, coherence tomography reading and superresolving beam focusing, this system has extra-large capacity of >1 Pbyte per DVD sized disk (potential ~60 Pbytes per disk), extra-fast reading speed of >117 Gbits/s with high signal-to-noise ratio of >66 dB, large cell sizes (~0.3μm × 6μm) which greatly reduce data addressing difficulties and a standard drive like structure compatible with the CD and DVD disks.

  12. Anthocyanins, phenolics and antioxidant capacity after fresh storage of blueberry treated with edible coatings.

    PubMed

    Chiabrando, Valentina; Giacalone, Giovanna

    2015-05-01

    The influence of different edible coatings on total phenolic content, total anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. cv Berkeley and O'Neal) was investigated, mainly for industrial applications. Also titratable acidity, soluble solids content, firmness and weight loss of berries were determined at harvest and at 15-day intervals during 45 storage days at 0 °C, in order to optimize coating composition. Application of chitosan coating delayed the decrease in anthocyanin content, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Coating samples showed no significant reduction in the weight loss during storage period. In cv Berkeley, the use of alginate coating showed a positive effect on firmness, titratable acidity and maintained surface lightness of treated berries. In cv O'Neal, no significant differences in total soluble solids content were found, and the chitosan-coated berries showed the minimum firmness losses. In both cultivars, the addition of chitosan to coatings decreases the microbial growth rate.

  13. Near-surface monitoring strategies for geologic carbon dioxide storage verification

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Hepple, Robert P.

    2003-10-31

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. Geologic CO{sub 2} storage verification will be needed to ensure that CO{sub 2} is not leaking from the intended storage formation and seeping out of the ground. Because the ultimate failure of geologic CO{sub 2} storage occurs when CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, and because elevated concentrations of CO{sub 2} near the ground surface can cause health, safety, and environmental risks, monitoring will need to be carried out in the near-surface environment. The detection of a CO{sub 2} leakage or seepage signal (LOSS) in the near-surface environment is challenging because there are large natural variations in CO{sub 2} concentrations and fluxes arising from soil, plant, and subsurface processes. The term leakage refers to CO{sub 2} migration away from the intended storage site, while seepage is defined as CO{sub 2} passing from one medium to another, for example across the ground surface. The flow and transport of CO{sub 2} at high concentrations in the near-surface environment will be controlled by its high density, low viscosity, and high solubility in water relative to air. Numerical simulations of leakage and seepage show that CO{sub 2} concentrations can reach very high levels in the shallow subsurface even for relatively modest CO{sub 2} leakage fluxes. However, once CO{sub 2} seeps out of the ground into the atmospheric surface layer, surface winds are effective at dispersing CO{sub 2} seepage. In natural ecological systems with no CO{sub 2} LOSS, near-surface CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations are controlled by CO{sub 2} uptake by photosynthesis, and production by root respiration, organic carbon biodegradation in soil, deep outgassing of CO{sub 2}, and by exchange of CO{sub 2} with the atmosphere. Existing technologies available for monitoring CO{sub 2} in the near-surface environment

  14. A new benzimidazole based covalent organic polymer having high energy storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Patra, Bidhan C; Khilari, Santimoy; Satyanarayana, Lanka; Pradhan, Debabrata; Bhaumik, Asim

    2016-06-18

    We report the synthesis of a new benzimidazole-based covalent organic polymer (TpDAB) via solvothermal Schiff base condensation between 1,3,5-triformylphloroglucinol (Tp) and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB). TpDAB showed high energy storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 335 F g(-1) at 2 mV s(-1) scan rate and good cyclic stability with 93% retention of its initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. PMID:27222226

  15. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  16. Contribution of terrigenous rocks of South Belgian coal deposits in geological storage of CO2 : the sandstones case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, N.; Baele, J.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Sequestration of CO2 in unmined coal seams is one of the different options for storing CO2 in geological reservoirs. In favorable situations, it could be coupled with the retrieving of adsorbed methane from coal (ECBM), which can make this solution economically more attractive. However, in the case of South Belgian coal measures, both weak permeability of the coal and frequent faulting/folding of the seams are likely to decrease the efficiency of this technique. Westphalian A and B sediments from South Belgium are containing only about 2.5% vol. of coal; the other rocks consisting of shales/siltstones (~80%) and sandstones (~20%). For all these lithologies, the main processes of CO2 sequestration are 1) adsorption in coal and clay minerals that are partly forming shales, and within rock porosity in the case of sandstones and, to a lesser extent, in the shales/siltstone porosity. In a previous assessment of the sequestration potential in Westphalian coal measures of South Belgium, Baele et al. (2007) showed that coal and shales each account for 25% of the total sequestration potential, and the rest, i.e. 50%, is related to sandstones on a basis of 2% porosity. Beside their significant additional storage capacity, sandstones have also a better permeability than the other finer-grained and organic lithologies. Additionally, sandstones are known to occasionally cut the coal seams (wash-out), thus providing insights in increasing accessibility of injected CO2 into the coal. On the other hand, some sandstone banks are fossil braided rivers that induced peripheral fractures by differential compaction during burial diagenesis (Van Tongeren et al., 2000). These fractures are thus likely to have increased accessibility from high-injectivity sandstones to surrounding lithologies that could significantly contribute to storage capacity. The aim of this study is to refine the contribution of the westphalian South Belgium sandstones to the geological storage of CO2. Measurements

  17. A Framework to Estimate CO2 Leakage associated with Geological Storage in Mature Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celia, M. A.; Bachu, S.; Gasda, S.

    2002-12-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide requires careful risk analysis to avoid unintended consequences associated with the subsurface injection. Most negative consequences of subsurface injection are associated with leakage of the injected CO2 out of the geological formation into which it is injected. Such leakage may occur through natural geological features, including fractures and faults, or it may occur through human-created pathways such as existing wells. Possible leakage of CO2 through existing wells appears to be especially important in mature sedimentary basins that have been explored intensively and exploited for hydrocarbon production. In the Alberta Basin of western Canada, more than 300,000 oil and gas wells have been drilled, while in the state of Texas in the United States, more than 1,500,000 wells have been drilled. Many of these wells have been abandoned, and the information available to describe their current state is highly variable and sometimes nonexistent. Because these wells represent possible direct conduits from the injection zone to the land surface, a comprehensive assessment of leakage potential associated with these wells needs to be pursued. Analysis of leakage potential associated with existing wells must combine a data mining component with a multi-level modeling effort to assess leakage potential in a probabilistic framework. Information available for existing wells must be categorized and analyzed, and general leakage characteristics associated with wells of varying properties must be quantified. One example of a realistic target formation is the Viking Formation in Alberta, which is overlain by a thick shale layer and contains hydrocarbon in some locations. The existence of hydrocarbon in the formation indicates that the overlying shale layer is an effective barrier to flow, and therefore this is a good candidate formation for CO2 storage. However, the formation and its cap rock are punctured by approximately 180,000 wells, with

  18. Li and Ca Co-decorated carbon nitride nanostructures as high-capacity hydrogen storage media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yusheng; Ji, Yong; Li, Meng; Yuan, Pengfei; Sun, Qiang; Jia, Yu

    2011-11-01

    Using first-principles method based on density functional theory, we perform a detailed study of the hydrogen storage properties of Li and Ca co-decorated graphene-like carbon nitride (g-CN) nanostructures. The results show that the average adsorption energy of the molecular hydrogen is ˜0.26 eV/H2, which is acceptable for reversible H2 adsorption/desorption near ambient temperature. Moreover, the findings also show that the storage capacity of the Li and Ca co-decorated g-CN can reach up to 9.17 wt %, presenting a good potential as hydrogen storage material. Regarding the H2 adsorption mechanism, it is demonstrated that the Li adatoms become positively charged through charge transferring to g-CN and then bind hydrogen molecules via the polarization mechanism.

  19. Comparison of Storage Capacity and Sedimentation Trends of Lago Guayabal, Puerto Rico-December 2001 and October 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2008-01-01

    Lago Guayabal dam is located on the Rio Jacaguas in the municipality of Villalba in southern Puerto Rico, about 4 kilometers north of the town of Juana Diaz and about 5 kilometers south of Villalba (fig. 1). The dam is owned and operated by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) and was constructed in 1913 for the irrigation of croplands in the southern coastal plains of Puerto Rico. The reservoir impounds the waters of the Rio Jacaguas and those of the Rio Toa Vaca, when the Toa Vaca dam overflows or releases water. The reservoir has a drainage area of 53.8 square kilometers. The dam is a concrete gravity structure with a normal pool (at top of flashboards) elevation of 103.94 meters above mean sea level (Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, 1988). During October 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Caribbean Water Science Center, in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) conducted a bathymetric survey of Lago Guayabal to update the reservoir storage capacity and actualize the reservoir sedimentation rate by comparing the 2006 data with the previous 2001 bathymetric survey results. The purpose of this report is to describe and document the USGS sedimentation survey conducted at Lago Guayabal during October 2006, including the methods used to update the reservoir storage capacity, sedimentation rates, and areas of substantial sediment accumulation since December 2001. The Lago Guayabal sedimentation history up to 2001 was published by the USGS in 2003 (Soler-Lopez, 2003); therefore, this report focuses on the comparison between the 2001 and current bathymetric surveys of Lago Guayabal.

  20. High Methane Storage Working Capacity in Metal-Organic Frameworks with Acrylate Links.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Juncong; Furukawa, Hiroyasu; Zhang, Yue-Biao; Yaghi, Omar M

    2016-08-17

    High methane storage capacity in porous materials is important for the design and manufacture of vehicles powered by natural gas. Here, we report the synthesis, crystal structures and methane adsorption properties of five new zinc metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-905, MOF-905-Me2, MOF-905-Naph, MOF-905-NO2, and MOF-950. All these MOFs consist of the Zn4O(-CO2)6 secondary building units (SBUs) and benzene-1,3,5-tri-β-acrylate, BTAC. The permanent porosity of all five materials was confirmed, and their methane adsorption measured up to 80 bar to reveal that MOF-905 is among the best performing methane storage materials with a volumetric working capacity (desorption at 5 bar) of 203 cm(3) cm(-3) at 80 bar and 298 K, a value rivaling that of HKUST-1 (200 cm(3) cm(-3)), the benchmark compound for methane storage in MOFs. This study expands the scope of MOF materials with ultrahigh working capacity to include linkers having the common acrylate connectivity. PMID:27442620

  1. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt: Chapter E in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows up on previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of 14 storage assessment units (SAUs) in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, and eight SAUs in Ordovician to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks within the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah Thrust Belt (WIUTB). The GGRB and WIUTB are contiguous with nearly identical geologic units; however, the GGRB is larger in size, whereas the WIUTB is more structurally complex. This report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries, as well as their sealing and reservoir units, are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are typically provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. This geologic information was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of variably attributed well data and a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling.

  2. Predicting possible effects of H2S impurity on CO2 transportation and geological storage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Chen

    2013-01-01

    For CO(2) geological storage, permitting impurities, such as H(2)S, in CO(2) streams can lead to a great potential for capital and energy savings for CO(2) capture and separation, but it also increases costs and risk management for transportation and storage. To evaluate the cost-benefits, using a recently developed model (Ji, X.; Zhu, C. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2012, 91, 40-59), this study predicts phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the system H(2)S-CO(2)-H(2)O-NaCl under transportation and storage conditions and discusses potential effects of H(2)S on transportation and storage. The prediction shows that inclusion of H(2)S in CO(2) streams may lead to two-phase flow. For H(2)S-CO(2) mixtures, at a given temperature, the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H(2)S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O system, the total gas solubility increases while the mass density of the aqueous solution with dissolved gas decreases. For the CO(2)-H(2)S-H(2)O-NaCl system, at a given temperature, pressure and NaCl concentration, the solubility of the gas mixture in aqueous phase increases with increasing H(2)S content and then decreases, while the mass density of aqueous solution decreases and may be lower than the mass density of the solution without gas dissolution.

  3. A Constrained Differential Evolution Algorithm for Reservoir Management: Optimal Placement and Control of Wells for Geological Carbon Storage with Uncertainty in Reservoir Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Bianchi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of large volume of CO2 into deep geological reservoirs for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) is expected to cause significant pressure perturbations in subsurface. Large-scale pressure increases in injection reservoirs during GCS operations, if not controlled properly, may limit dynamic storage capacity and increase risk of environmental impacts. The high pressure may impact caprock integrity, induce fault slippage, and cause leakage of brine and/or CO2 into shallow fresh groundwater resources. Thus, monitoring and controlling pressure buildup are critically important for environmentally safe implementation of GCS projects. Extraction of native brine during GCS operations is a pressure management approach to reduce significant pressure buildup. Extracted brine can be transferred to the surface for utilization or re-injected into overlying/underlying saline aquifers. However, pumping, transportation, treatment and disposal of extracted brine can be challenging and costly. Therefore, minimizing volume of extracted brine, while maximizing CO2 storage, is an essential objective of the pressure management with brine extraction schemes. Selection of optimal well locations and extraction rates are critical for maximizing storage and minimizing brine extraction during GCS. However, placing of injection and extraction wells is not intuitive because of heterogeneity in reservoir properties and complex reservoir geometry. Efficient computerized algorithms combining reservoir models and optimization methods are needed to make proper decisions on well locations and control parameters. This study presents a global optimization methodology for pressure management during geologic CO2 sequestration. A constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm is introduced for solving optimization problems involving well placement and injection/extraction control. The CDE methodology is tested and applied for realistic CO2 storage scenarios with the presence of uncertainty in

  4. A Survey of Measurement, Mitigation, and Verification Field Technologies for Carbon Sequestration Geologic Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K. K.; Klara, S. M.; Srivastava, R. D.

    2004-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE's) Carbon Sequestration Program is developing state-of-the-science technologies for measurement, mitigation, and verification (MM&V) in field operations of geologic sequestration. MM&V of geologic carbon sequestration operations will play an integral role in the pre-injection, injection, and post-injection phases of carbon capture and storage projects to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Effective MM&V is critical to the success of CO2 storage projects and will be used by operators, regulators, and stakeholders to ensure safe and permanent storage of CO2. In the U.S. DOE's Program, Carbon sequestration MM&V has numerous instrumental roles: Measurement of a site's characteristics and capability for sequestration; Monitoring of the site to ensure the storage integrity; Verification that the CO2 is safely stored; and Protection of ecosystems. Other drivers for MM&V technology development include cost-effectiveness, measurement precision, and frequency of measurements required. As sequestration operations are implemented in the future, it is anticipated that measurements over long time periods and at different scales will be required; this will present a significant challenge. MM&V sequestration technologies generally utilize one of the following approaches: below ground measurements; surface/near-surface measurements; aerial and satellite imagery; and modeling/simulations. Advanced subsurface geophysical technologies will play a primary role for MM&V. It is likely that successful MM&V programs will incorporate multiple technologies including but not limited to: reservoir modeling and simulations; geophysical techniques (a wide variety of seismic methods, microgravity, electrical, and electromagnetic techniques); subsurface fluid movement monitoring methods such as injection of tracers, borehole and wellhead pressure sensors, and tiltmeters; surface/near surface methods such as soil gas monitoring and infrared

  5. Model Comparison and Uncertainty Quantification for Geologic Carbon Storage. The Sim-SEQ Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Hou, Zhangshuan; Gosink, Luke J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Doughty, Christine A.; Li, J. J.; Wei, L.; Gasda, S.; Bacci, Giacomo; Govindan, Rajesh; Shi, Ji-Quan; Yamamoto, H.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Hosseini, Seyyed; Birkholzer, Jens; Bonneville, Alain

    2013-08-07

    Sim-SEQ is a model comparison initiative for geologic carbon storage (GCS). In Sim-SEQ, fifteen different modeling teams are developing conceptual models for flow and transport of an injected CO2 plume at the Sim-SEQ study site (or the S-3 site) located near Cranfield, Mississippi. The objective of the project is to understand the sources of model uncertainty in GCS, and if possible, to quantify these uncertainties through comparison of the different conceptual models and also through comparison with observed data from the S-3 site. In this paper, we compare six different conceptual models of the S-3 site, and present a preliminary uncertainty analysis of these six models using a generalized linear model approach. We show that differences in model conceptualization and interpretation of site characterization data caus a significant range in predictions.

  6. Systematic assessment of wellbore integrity for geologic carbon storage projects using regulatory and industry information

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, Mark; Sminchak, J.R.

    2015-11-01

    database of over 4 million items on well integrity parameters in the study areas, a systematic CBL evaluation tool for rating cement in boreholes, SCP field testing procedures and analysis methodology, a process for summarizing well integrity at CO2 storage fields, a statistical analysis of well integrity indicators, and an assessment of practical methods and costs necessary to repair/remediate typical wells in the region based on assessment of six test study areas. Project results may benefit both CO2 storage and improved oil recovery applications. This study of wellbore integrity is a useful precursor to support development of geologic storage in the Midwest United States because it sheds more light on the actual well conditions (rather than the perceived condition) of historic oil and gas wells in the region.

  7. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Impacts of CO2 Storage: Regulatory and Capacity Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Birkholzer, J.T.; Zhou, Q.

    2009-04-02

    Industrial-scale injection of CO{sub 2} into saline sedimentary basins will cause large-scale fluid pressurization and migration of native brines, which may affect valuable groundwater resources overlying the deep sequestration reservoirs. In this paper, we discuss how such basin-scale hydrologic impacts can (1) affect regulation of CO{sub 2} storage projects and (2) may reduce current storage capacity estimates. Our assessment arises from a hypothetical future carbon sequestration scenario in the Illinois Basin, which involves twenty individual CO{sub 2} storage projects in a core injection area suitable for long-term storage. Each project is assumed to inject five million tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year for 50 years. A regional-scale three-dimensional simulation model was developed for the Illinois Basin that captures both the local-scale CO{sub 2}-brine flow processes and the large-scale groundwater flow patterns in response to CO{sub 2} storage. The far-field pressure buildup predicted for this selected sequestration scenario suggests that (1) the area that needs to be characterized in a permitting process may comprise a very large region within the basin if reservoir pressurization is considered, and (2) permits cannot be granted on a single-site basis alone because the near- and far-field hydrologic response may be affected by interference between individual sites. Our results also support recent studies in that environmental concerns related to near-field and far-field pressure buildup may be a limiting factor on CO{sub 2} storage capacity. In other words, estimates of storage capacity, if solely based on the effective pore volume available for safe trapping of CO{sub 2}, may have to be revised based on assessments of pressure perturbations and their potential impact on caprock integrity and groundwater resources, respectively. We finally discuss some of the challenges in making reliable predictions of large-scale hydrologic impacts related to CO{sub 2

  8. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Permian and Palo Duro Basins and Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin: Chapter K in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resource in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report is the geologic framework document for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins, the combined Bend arch-Fort Worth Basin area, and subbasins therein of Texas, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. In addition to a summarization of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Though appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of inputs selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial files of boundaries for the SAUs herein, as well as maps of the density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  9. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  10. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources—Southern Rocky Mountain Basins: Chapter M in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Drake, Ronald M.; Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; East, Joseph A.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2016-06-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed an assessment of the potential geologic carbon dioxide storage resources in the onshore areas of the United States. To provide geological context and input data sources for the resources numbers, framework documents are being prepared for all areas that were investigated as part of the national assessment. This report, chapter M, is the geologic framework document for the Uinta and Piceance, San Juan, Paradox, Raton, Eastern Great, and Black Mesa Basins, and subbasins therein of Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. In addition to a summary of the geology and petroleum resources of studied basins, the individual storage assessment units (SAUs) within the basins are described and explanations for their selection are presented. Although appendixes in the national assessment publications include the input values used to calculate the available storage resource, this framework document provides only the context and source of the input values selected by the assessment geologists. Spatial-data files of the boundaries for the SAUs, and the well-penetration density of known well bores that penetrate the SAU seal, are available for download with the release of this report.

  11. Characterization of deep saline aquifers for CO2 storage capacity assessment, Bécancour area, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    TRAN NGOC, T.; Konstantinovskaya, E. A.; Lefebvre, R.; Malo, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician St. Lawrence Lowlands basin of southern Québec has been assessed the most prospective for CO2 storage potential according to geological and practical criteria. Such a demonstration requires the assessment of numerous aspects: storing, injectivity, containment and adequate long-term monitoring. To do so, the characterisation stage of potential sites has to be comprehensive. We provide a case study of the CO2 storage capacity assessment in the deep saline aquifers of the Bécancour region (between Montréal and Québec City) through characterizing in term of hydrogeology and rock petrophysics. The analysed data include stratigraphy and lithology, drill stem tests, hydraulic well tests, well logging, fluid sampling and core analyses. The saline aquifers of the Bécancour region are found at depths between 800 and 2400 m in sandstones of the Potsdam Gp., dolomites of the Beekmantown Gp, and limestones of the Trenton Gp. The caprock consists of at least 800 m of siltstone and shale. The reservoir units are compartmentalized at depth into two distinct blocks by the Yamaska regional normal fault trending SW-NE. Hydrostatic pressure measurements from different intervals and locations show different pressure gradients ΔP with the average value of 12.17 kPa/m, varying from 10.78 kPa/m in the northeastern part of the region and to 15.60 kPa/m in its southwestern part. We observed also different in situ artesian rates of brine-producing boreholes: Q=0, 0< Q <10 and Q=13 l/min which is correlated to ΔP magnitudes. This indicates that the site reservoir is partially overpressurized and non-homogeneous at the regional scale. Permeability anisotropy from core analyses (k_h/k_v = O(10^2)) is indicative of dominant horizontal hydraulic connectivity. Average salinity profiles differing from S=109 g/l to 242 g/l in separate reservoir units confirms this lateral connectivity preponderance and a vertical discontinuity between the aquifers. An average

  12. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Powder River Basin, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska: Chapter B in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Mars, John L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven A.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents ten storage assessment units (SAUs) within the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska. The Powder River Basin contains a thick succession of sedimentary rocks that accumulated steadily throughout much of the Phanerozoic, and at least three stratigraphic packages contain strata that are suitable for CO2 storage. Pennsylvanian through Triassic siliciclastic strata contain two potential storage units: the Pennsylvanian and Permian Tensleep Sandstone and Minnelusa Formation, and the Triassic Crow Mountain Sandstone. Jurassic siliciclastic strata contain one potential storage unit: the lower part of the Sundance Formation. Cretaceous siliciclastic strata contain seven potential storage units: (1) the Fall River and Lakota Formations, (2) the Muddy Sandstone, (3) the Frontier Sandstone and Turner Sandy Member of the Carlile Shale, (4) the Sussex and Shannon Sandstone Members of Cody Shale, and (5) the Parkman, (6) Teapot, and (7) Teckla Sandstone Members of the Mesaverde Formation. For each SAU, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed to calculate the potential storage space in the various SAUs.

  13. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂more » per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.« less

  14. Leakage of CO2 from geologic storage: Role of secondaryaccumulation at shallow depth

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2007-05-31

    Geologic storage of CO2 can be a viable technology forreducing atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases only if it can bedemonstrated that leakage from proposed storage reservoirs and associatedhazards are small or can be mitigated. Risk assessment must evaluatepotential leakage scenarios and develop a rational, mechanisticunderstanding of CO2 behavior during leakage. Flow of CO2 may be subjectto positive feedbacks that could amplify leakage risks and hazards,placing a premium on identifying and avoiding adverse conditions andmechanisms. A scenario that is unfavorable in terms of leakage behavioris formation of a secondary CO2 accumulation at shallow depth. This paperdevelops a detailed numerical simulation model to investigate CO2discharge from a secondary accumulation, and evaluates the role ofdifferent thermodynamic and hydrogeologic conditions. Our simulationsdemonstrate self-enhancing as well as self-limiting feedbacks.Condensation of gaseous CO2, 3-phase flow of aqueous phase -- liquid CO2-- gaseous CO2, and cooling from Joule-Thomson expansion and boiling ofliquid CO2 are found to play important roles in the behavior of a CO2leakage system. We find no evidence that a subsurface accumulation of CO2at ambient temperatures could give rise to a high-energy discharge, aso-called "pneumatic eruption."

  15. Geochemical Implications of CO2 Leakage Associated with Geologic Storage: A Review

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2012-07-09

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is a major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Different scientific theories exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. The authors of this report reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of near surface environments such as potable water aquifers and the vadose zone. Experimental and modeling studies highlighted the potential for both beneficial (e.g., CO2 re sequestration or contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g., contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion in these systems. Current knowledge gaps, including the role of CO2-induced changes in redox conditions, the influence of CO2 influx rate, gas composition, organic matter content and microorganisms are discussed in terms of their potential influence on pertinent geochemical processes and the potential for beneficial or deleterious outcomes. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why closing these knowledge gaps are pivotal. A framework for studying and assessing consequences associated with each factor is also presented in Section 5.6.

  16. Early opportunities of CO₂ geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, R. T.; Davidson, C. L.

    2014-12-31

    Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO₂ emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO₂ sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO₂ per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO₂ (CO₂ concentration >80% and >98.5% respectively). Four typical source-sink pairs are chosen for techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO₂ capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO₂. When a 15USD/t CO₂ tax and 20USD/t for CO₂ sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  17. Geochemical Implications of Gas Leakage Associated with Geologic CO2 Storage - A Qualitative Review

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Lee, Gie Hyeon; Amonette, James E.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2013-01-01

    Leakage from deep storage reservoirs is considered the major risk factor associated with geologic sequestration of CO2. Different schools of thought exist concerning the potential implications of such leakage for near-surface environments. We reviewed the current literature on how CO2 leakage (from storage reservoirs) would likely impact the geochemistry of overlying potable aquifers. Results from experimental and modeling studies point to the potential for both beneficial (e.g. contaminant immobilization) and deleterious (e.g. contaminant mobilization) consequences of CO2 intrusion into potable groundwater. However, there are significant discrepancies between studies particularly concerning, what contaminants are of concern and the geochemical processes involved. These discrepancies reflected the lack of a consensus on CO2-induced changes in subsurface geochemical processes and subsequent effects on groundwater chemistry. The development of consistent experimental protocols and the identification of pertinent factors driving CO2-induced geochemical changes in the subsurface were identified as key research needs. Geochemical modeling was used to systematically highlight why a standardization of experimental protocols and the consideration of experimental factors such as gas leakage rates, redox status and the influence of co-transported gases are pertinent. The role of analog studies, reactions occurring in the vadose zone, and the influence of organic contaminants are also discussed.

  18. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming: Chapter C in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, Matthew D.; Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110-140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used for the national CO2 assessment is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rock within the Hanna, Laramie, and Shirley Basins of Wyoming. It focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein will be employed, as specified in the methodology, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data in a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  19. Monetizing Leakage Risk of Geologic CO2 Storage using Wellbore Permeability Frequency Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Fitts, Jeffrey; Peters, Catherine; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) may be captured from large point sources (e.g., coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement manufacturers) and injected into deep sedimentary basins for storage, or sequestration, from the atmosphere. This technology—CO2 Capture and Storage (CCS)—may be a significant component of the portfolio of technologies deployed to mitigate climate change. But injected CO2, or the brine it displaces, may leak from the storage reservoir through a variety of natural and manmade pathways, including existing wells and wellbores. Such leakage will incur costs to a variety of stakeholders, which may affect the desirability of potential CO2 injection locations as well as the feasibility of the CCS approach writ large. Consequently, analyzing and monetizing leakage risk is necessary to develop CCS as a viable technological option to mitigate climate change. Risk is the product of the probability of an outcome and the impact of that outcome. Assessment of leakage risk from geologic CO2 storage reservoirs requires an analysis of the probabilities and magnitudes of leakage, identification of the outcomes that may result from leakage, and an assessment of the expected economic costs of those outcomes. One critical uncertainty regarding the rate and magnitude of leakage is determined by the leakiness of the well leakage pathway. This leakiness is characterized by a leakage permeability for the pathway, and recent work has sought to determine frequency distributions for the leakage permeabilities of wells and wellbores. We conduct a probabilistic analysis of leakage and monetized leakage risk for CO2 injection locations in the Michigan Sedimentary Basin (USA) using empirically derived frequency distributions for wellbore leakage permeabilities. To conduct this probabilistic risk analysis, we apply the RISCS (Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage) model (Bielicki et al, 2013a, 2012b) to injection into the Mt. Simon Sandstone. RISCS monetizes leakage risk

  20. Micrometeorological Technique for Monitoring of Geological Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage: Methodology, Workflow and Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Madsen, R.; Feese, K.

    2013-12-01

    The eddy covariance (EC) method is a micrometeorological technique for direct high-speed measurements of the transport of gases and energy between land or water surfaces and the atmosphere [1]. This method allows for observations of gas transport scales from 20-40 times per second to multiple years, represents gas exchange integrated over a large area, from hundreds of square meters to tens of square kilometres, and corresponds to gas exchange from the entire surface, including canopy, and soil or water layers. Gas fluxes, emission and exchange rates are characterized from single-point in situ measurements using permanent or mobile towers, or moving platforms such as automobiles, helicopters, airplanes, etc. Presently, over 600 eddy covariance stations are in operation in over 120 countries [1]. EC is now recognized as an effective method in regulatory and industrial applications, including CCUS [2-10]. Emerging projects utilize EC to continuously monitor large areas before and after the injections, to locate and quantify leakages where CO2 may escape from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other CCUS characterizations [5-10]. Although EC is one of the most direct and defensible micrometeorological techniques measuring gas emission and transport, and complete automated stations and processing are readily available, the method is mathematically complex, and requires careful setup and execution specific to the site and project. With this in mind, step-by-step instructions were created in [1] to introduce a novice to the EC method, and to assist in further understanding of the method through more advanced references. In this presentation we provide brief highlights of the eddy covariance method, its application to geological carbon capture, utilization and storage, key requirements, instrumentation and software, and review educational resources particularly useful for carbon sequestration research. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method

  1. The H60Si6C54 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-07-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C60 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H60Si6C54 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H60Si6C54 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H2 molecules can be stored inside the H60Si6C54 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H2@H60Si6C54 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si6C54 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  2. Multimode intelligent data compressor/decompressor (MICE) optimized for speed and storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliavin, Michael A.; D'Adderio, Leo; Aye, Tin M.; Jannson, Joanna L.

    2002-12-01

    Proliferation of high speed, low cost computing systems has caused an explosion of data, leading to the need for higher and higher capacity storage systems and faster data transmission. The field of nuclear physics has felt this need acutely because data can be acquired at >100 Mbps, the data accumulated by a single collider can exceed hundreds of petabytes. Although much effort has gone into improving data storage, all approaches are severely limited by slow processing, high capacity memory requirements, and compression of heterogeneous data. Physical Optics Corporation (POC) has developed a preliminary prototype Multimode Intelligent Compression Engine (MICE) that overcomes many of the limitations of lossless data compression techniques for large scale data storage, retrieval, and processing. The MICE approach combines novel software/hardware. The key MICE innovation is a unique fuzzy logic artificial intelligence preprocessor that examines the incoming data in sections, on the fly, and applies optimum compression to each section. No a priori information is required about the data. The unique MICE hardware is based on POC's high speed, highly parallel processing technology. The hardware is compact and economical, and enables the system to compress data in real time.

  3. Aromaticity-Controlled Energy Storage Capacity of the Dihydroazulene-Vinylheptafulvene Photochromic System.

    PubMed

    Skov, Anders B; Broman, Søren Lindbaek; Gertsen, Anders S; Elm, Jonas; Jevric, Martyn; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-10-01

    Photochemical conversion of molecules into high-energy isomers that, after a stimulus, return to the original isomer presents a closed-cycle of light-harvesting, energy storage, and release. One challenge is to achieve a sufficiently high energy storage capacity. Here, we present efforts to tune the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) couple through loss/gain of aromaticity. Two derivatives were prepared, one with aromatic stabilization of DHA and the second of VHF. The consequences for the switching properties were elucidated. For the first type, sigmatropic rearrangements of DHA occurred upon irradiation. Formation of a VHF complex could be induced by a Lewis acid, but addition of H2 O resulted in immediate regeneration of DHA. For the second type, the VHF was too stable to convert into DHA. Calculations support the results and provide new targets. We predict that by removing one of the two CN groups at C-1 of the aromatic DHA, the heat storage capacity will be further increased, as will the life-time of the VHF. Calculations also reveal that a CN group at the fulvene ring retards the back-reaction, and we show synthetically that it can be introduced regioselectively.

  4. Aromaticity-Controlled Energy Storage Capacity of the Dihydroazulene-Vinylheptafulvene Photochromic System.

    PubMed

    Skov, Anders B; Broman, Søren Lindbaek; Gertsen, Anders S; Elm, Jonas; Jevric, Martyn; Cacciarini, Martina; Kadziola, Anders; Mikkelsen, Kurt V; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2016-10-01

    Photochemical conversion of molecules into high-energy isomers that, after a stimulus, return to the original isomer presents a closed-cycle of light-harvesting, energy storage, and release. One challenge is to achieve a sufficiently high energy storage capacity. Here, we present efforts to tune the dihydroazulene/vinylheptafulvene (DHA/VHF) couple through loss/gain of aromaticity. Two derivatives were prepared, one with aromatic stabilization of DHA and the second of VHF. The consequences for the switching properties were elucidated. For the first type, sigmatropic rearrangements of DHA occurred upon irradiation. Formation of a VHF complex could be induced by a Lewis acid, but addition of H2 O resulted in immediate regeneration of DHA. For the second type, the VHF was too stable to convert into DHA. Calculations support the results and provide new targets. We predict that by removing one of the two CN groups at C-1 of the aromatic DHA, the heat storage capacity will be further increased, as will the life-time of the VHF. Calculations also reveal that a CN group at the fulvene ring retards the back-reaction, and we show synthetically that it can be introduced regioselectively. PMID:27552740

  5. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    This technology assessment of long-term high capacity data storage systems identifies an emerging crisis of severe proportions related to preserving important historical data in science, healthcare, manufacturing, finance and other fields. For the last 50 years, the information revolution, which has engulfed all major institutions of modem society, centered itself on data-their collection, storage, retrieval, transmission, analysis and presentation. The transformation of long term historical data records into information concepts, according to Drucker, is the next stage in this revolution towards building the new information based scientific and business foundations. For this to occur, data survivability, reliability and evolvability of long term storage media and systems pose formidable technological challenges. Unlike the Y2K problem, where the clock is ticking and a crisis is set to go off at a specific time, large capacity data storage repositories face a crisis similar to the social security system in that the seriousness of the problem emerges after a decade or two. The essence of the storage crisis is as follows: since it could take a decade to migrate a peta-byte of data to a new media for preservation, and the life expectancy of the storage media itself is only a decade, then it may not be possible to complete the transfer before an irrecoverable data loss occurs. Over the last two decades, a number of anecdotal crises have occurred where vital scientific and business data were lost or would have been lost if not for major expenditures of resources and funds to save this data, much like what is happening today to solve the Y2K problem. A pr-ime example was the joint NASA/NSF/NOAA effort to rescue eight years worth of TOVS/AVHRR data from an obsolete system, which otherwise would have not resulted in the valuable 20-year long satellite record of global warming. Current storage systems solutions to long-term data survivability rest on scalable architectures

  6. In-situ liquid storage capacity measurement of subsurface wastewater absorption system products.

    PubMed

    Quisenberry, Virgil; Brown, Philip; Smith, Bill; Hallahan, Dennis F

    2006-11-01

    A method is presented for measuring the in-situ liquid storage capacity of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) products. While these products vary in composition, geometry, and porosity, they all have the same function: to provide a conduit for the flow of effluent from a septic tank to and through a trench so that infiltration into the soil can occur. A functional SWIS must also provide temporary liquid storage. Storage is necessary for periods when discharge from the septic tank exceeds the infiltration rate of the soil. Storage is also important during times when the soil in and around the trench is saturated. Many states now have regulatory requirements pertaining to storage volume, and these requirements commonly establish the traditional gravel-pipe system as the standard for minimally acceptable volume. Raliable comparisons between various alternative products and gravel have been difficult or impossible, because there has been no standard method for measuring storage volume. Some products have been evaluated under realistic field conditions; others have been evaluated under theoretical or ideal conditions. The protocol developed by the study reported here can serve as a common, accurate basis for comparisons. A 3-foot-deep trench was excavated, and the bottom was leveled. Markers (nails or rods) were attached to the products to indicate the invert and full-volume heights. The products were then enclosed in plastic, placed in a trench, and covered with soil. A 4-inch-diameter pipe extended from the product to the surface to allow metered additions of water into the products and precise determinations when the systems had been filled to capacity. Four plastic chambers, three expanded polystyrene (ESP) products, two multipipe arrangements, and a standard gravel-pipe system were evaluated. The standard gravel-pipe system held 10.2 gal/ft Three of the four plastic chambers stored from 100 to 130 percent of what the standard system held. The

  7. Storage capacity and learning algorithms for two-layer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Köhler, H. M.; Tschepke, F.; Vollmayr, H.; Zippelius, A.

    1992-05-01

    A two-layer feedforward network of McCulloch-Pitts neurons with N inputs and K hidden units is analyzed for N-->∞ and K finite with respect to its ability to implement p=αN random input-output relations. Special emphasis is put on the case where all hidden units are coupled to the output with the same strength (committee machine) and the receptive fields of the hidden units either enclose all input units (fully connected) or are nonoverlapping (tree structure). The storage capacity is determined generalizing Gardner's treatment [J. Phys. A 21, 257 (1988); Europhys. Lett. 4, 481 (1987)] of the single-layer perceptron. For the treelike architecture, a replica-symmetric calculation yields αc~ √K for a large number K of hidden units. This result violates an upper bound derived by Mitchison and Durbin [Biol. Cybern. 60, 345 (1989)]. One-step replica-symmetry breaking gives lower values of αc. In the fully connected committee machine there are in general correlations among different hidden units. As the limit of capacity is approached, the hidden units are anticorrelated: One hidden unit attempts to learn those patterns which have not been learned by the others. These correlations decrease as 1/K, so that for K-->∞ the capacity per synapse is the same as for the tree architecture, whereas for small K we find a considerable enhancement for the storage per synapse. Numerical simulations were performed to explicitly construct solutions for the tree as well as the fully connected architecture. A learning algorithm is suggested. It is based on the least-action algorithm, which is modified to take advantage of the two-layer structure. The numerical simulations yield capacities p that are slightly more than twice the number of degrees of freedom, while the fully connected net can store relatively more patterns than the tree. Various generalizations are discussed. Variable weights from hidden to output give the same results for the storage capacity as does the committee

  8. CO2 Dissolution Trapping: Can Geologic Framework Models be used to Capture such Storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtner, P. C.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An efficient simulation methodology is developed to investigate fundamental complexity in modeling geological carbon sequestration, whereby upscaled hydrostratigraphic models (HSMs) with reduced characterization cost can be used to accurately model CO2 flow and storage. Based on a three-dimensional experimental stratigraphy which exhibits permeability (k) heterogeneity at multiple scales, a fully heterogeneous model (FHM) with 3.2 million grid cells is created. Using an image processing algorithm that can capture large-scale facies connectivity, three HSMs of decreasing heterogeneity resolutions are created with 8, 3, and 1 stratigraphic unit. To overcome the computation challenge of simulating these large models, a parallel flow simulator was written and verified. Increasing system ln(k) variances - 0.1, 1.0, 4.5 - are tested, leading to a suite of 12 conceptual flow models. Equivalent k tensors are then computed for each unit of the HSMs using a numerical upscaling technique. For all the HSMs, at all the variances tested, significant accuracy is achieved with the upscaled ks in terms of capturing both the FHM fluid head and flow connectivity. Using PFLOTRAN, a state-of-the-art massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code [1], CO2 injection is simulated with all models at 2 km depth for 20 years, followed by 1000 years of monitoring. Compared to the FHM which provides the reference solution, when the variance of ln(k) is low, all HSMs yield similar reservoir fluid pressure, plume footprint, and dissolution fingering (and therefore the total predicted dissolution storage at the end of the simulation time) as the FHM. When the variance of ln(k) is high, the HSMs are still able to accurately capture the fluid pressure of the FHM, but they predict more dissolution fingering due to their increasingly homogenized representation of the reservoir permeability. The higher the level of homogenization, the stronger the predicted fingering is. On the other

  9. Study on capacity fading of 18650 type LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liu-Qun; Li, Shu-Jun; Zhang, Deng-Feng; Lin, Hai-Jun; Miao, Yan-Yue; Chen, Shou-Wei; Liu, Hai-Bin

    2015-05-01

    The capacity fading of LiCoO2-based lithium ion batteries during storage was studied. The discharging capacity fading is attributed to the decreasing in the charging capacity at the constant current stage. After 300 cycles, the ratio of the charging capacity of batteries at the constant current stage to the total charging capacity decreases from 87.2 to 71.2%. The bounce-back voltage is closely related to the internal resistance when the battery is discharged to the cut-off voltage of 3.0 V. Batteries were disassembled in the fully discharged state, and then a assembled again in order to deeply understand the causes of the capacity fading of the cathode and anode. The results shows that the SEI film thickness increasing, breaking or repairing process at the anode could be responsible for the high bounce-back voltage, the increase of the internal resistance and the capacity fading during storage.

  10. Stratified storage economically increases capacity and efficiency of campus chilled water system

    SciTech Connect

    Bahnfleth, W.P.; Joyce, W.S.

    1995-03-01

    This article describes how the addition of stratified chilled water storage to the Cornell University campus chilled water system has increased its capacity and efficiency and reduced its operating costs for less than the cost of a conventional chilled water plant expansion. While chilled water storage is not appropriate for all chilled water systems, the experience at Cornell indicates that it can be very cost effective when favorable conditions exist. It should receive serious consideration by owners of large systems who are investigating alternatives for system expansion. The benefits of variable speed chiller operation were found to be considerable. It is hoped that this successful application will stimulate further interest in the development and application of variable speed drive chillers.

  11. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides. PMID:22873406

  12. Core--strategy leading to high reversible hydrogen storage capacity for NaBH4.

    PubMed

    Christian, Meganne L; Aguey-Zinsou, Kondo-François

    2012-09-25

    Owing to its high storage capacity (10.8 mass %), sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) is a promising hydrogen storage material. However, the temperature for hydrogen release is high (>500 °C), and reversibility of the release is unachievable under reasonable conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of a novel strategy leading to high and stable hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling for NaBH(4) under mild pressure conditions (4 MPa). By an antisolvent precipitation method, the size of NaBH(4) particles was restricted to a few nanometers (<30 nm), resulting in a decrease of the melting point and an initial release of hydrogen at 400 °C. Further encapsulation of these nanoparticles upon reaction of nickel chloride at their surface allowed the synthesis of a core--shell nanostructure, NaBH(4)@Ni, and this provided a route for (a) the effective nanoconfinement of the melted NaBH(4) core and its dehydrogenation products, and (b) reversibility and fast kinetics owing to short diffusion lengths, the unstable nature of nickel borohydride, and possible modification of reaction paths. Hence at 350 °C, a reversible and steady hydrogen capacity of 5 mass % was achieved for NaBH(4)@Ni; 80% of the hydrogen could be desorbed or absorbed in less than 60 min, and full capacity was reached within 5 h. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such performances have been achieved with NaBH(4). This demonstrates the potential of the strategy in leading to major advancements in the design of effective hydrogen storage materials from pristine borohydrides.

  13. Design and reversible hydrogen storage capacity determination of unique nanoarrays of titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amrita

    In this project hydrogen storage studies were carried out on TiO 2 nanotubular arrays of different diameters prepared by electrochemical anodization, combined with template-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The growth of the CNTs on the nanotubular TiO2 arrays was accomplished by chemical vapor deposition. The hydrogen storage capacity was determined for the nanotubular TiO2 and the combined TiO2-CNT arrays, by charging and discharging hydrogen with a Sievert's apparatus. It was found that the presence of carbon nanotubes on nano-porous titanium oxide can enhance storage of hydrogen as determined by volumetric means. The hydrogen uptake in as-anodized TiO2 nanotubes was found to be 2 wt% at liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) and 0.94 wt% at room temperature. Desorption results for TiO2 at 393 K and 300 K were 1.5 wt% and 0.7 wt%, respectively. The CNT-TiO2 composites showed a hydrogen uptake capacity of 1.94 wt% at room temperature and 2.5 wt% at 77 K. The desorption results were 1.8 wt% at 393 K and 0.68 wt% at room temperature. It was seen that the hydrogen uptake was higher at lower temperatures and discharge was increased significantly at higher temperatures for both TiO2 and CNT/TiO2 samples. The utilization of this novel hydrogen storage method can be recognized as a break-through in the hydrogen economy as applied to on-board vehicular applications.

  14. Measurement of residual CO2 saturation at a geological storage site using hydraulic tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rötting, T. S.; Martinez-Landa, L.; Carrera, J.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Cubillo, B.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, a methodology is presented to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. Numerical and analytical solutions are used to simulate a continuous injection in a porous medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storativity over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. The model results are interpreted using conventional pressure build-up and diagnostic plots (a plot of the drawdown s and the logarithmic derivative d s / d ln t of the drawdown as a function of time). The methodology is applied using the hydraulic parameters estimated for the Hontomin site (Northern Spain) where a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP) for geological CO2 storage is planned to be set up. The reduction of hydraulic conductivity causes an increase in observed drawdowns, the increased storativity in the CO2 zone causes a delay in the drawdown curve with respect to the reference curve measured before CO2 injection. The duration (characteristic time) of these effects can be used to estimate the radius of the CO2 zone. The effects of reduced permeability and increased storativity are well separated from wellbore storage and natural formation responses, even if the CO2-brine interface is inclined (i.e. the CO2 forms a cone around the well). We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storativity (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head build

  15. Titanium-decorated graphene for high-capacity hydrogen storage studied by density functional simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Ren, Ling; He, Yao; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2010-10-01

    We present results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption of hydrogen molecules on Ti-decorated graphene. Our results indicate that the binding energies of molecular hydrogen on Ti-decorated graphene can be dramatically enhanced to 0.23-0.60 eV. The hybridization of the Ti 3d orbitals with the H2 σ and σ* orbitals plays a central role in the enhanced binding. There is also a contribution from the attractive interaction between the surface dipole and the dipole of polarized H2. It can be expected that Ti-decorated graphene could be considered as a potential high-capacity hydrogen storage medium.

  16. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making processmore » regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.« less

  17. Grid Inertial Response-Based Probabilistic Determination of Energy Storage System Capacity Under High Solar Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that responsive battery energy storage systems (BESSs) are an effective means to improve the grid inertial response to various disturbances including the variability of the renewable generation. One of the major issues associated with its implementation is the difficulty in determining the required BESS capacity mainly due to the large amount of inherent uncertainties that cannot be accounted for deterministically. In this study, a probabilistic approach is proposed to properly size the BESS from the perspective of the system inertial response, as an application of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). The proposed approach enables a risk-informed decision-making process regarding (1) the acceptable level of solar penetration in a given system and (2) the desired BESS capacity (and minimum cost) to achieve an acceptable grid inertial response with a certain confidence level.

  18. Yttrium-dispersed C{sub 60} fullerenes as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Zi-Ya; Dong, Shun-Le

    2014-02-28

    Interaction between hydrogen molecules and functionalized C{sub 60} is investigated using density functional theory method. Unlike transition metal atoms that tend to cluster on the surface, C{sub 60} decorated with 12 Yttrium atoms on each of its 12 pentagons is extremely stable and remarkably enhances the hydrogen adsorption capacity. Four H{sub 2} molecules can be chemisorbed on a single Y atom through well-known Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson interaction. The nature of bonding is a weak physisorption for the fifth adsorbed H{sub 2} molecule. Consequently, the C{sub 60}Y{sub 12} complex with 60 hydrogen molecules has been demonstrated to lead to a hydrogen storage capacity of ∼6.30 wt. %.

  19. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15

  20. CO2 storage resources, reserves, and reserve growth: Toward a methodology for integrated assessment of the storage capacity of oil and gas reservoirs and saline formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burruss, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Geologically based methodologies to assess the possible volumes of subsurface CO2 storage must apply clear and uniform definitions of resource and reserve concepts to each assessment unit (AU). Application of the current state of knowledge of geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and geophysical parameters (contingencies) that control storage volume and injectivity allows definition of the contingent resource (CR) of storage. The parameters known with the greatest certainty are based on observations on known traps (KTs) within the AU that produced oil, gas, and water. The aggregate volume of KTs within an AU defines the most conservation volume of contingent resource. Application of the concept of reserve growth to CR volume provides a logical path for subsequent reevaluation of the total resource as knowledge of CO2 storage processes increases during implementation of storage projects. Increased knowledge of storage performance over time will probably allow the volume of the contingent resource of storage to grow over time, although negative growth is possible. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. What Limits Working Memory Capacity? Evidence for Modality-Specific Sources to the Simultaneous Storage of Visual and Auditory Arrays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fougnie, Daryl; Marois, Rene

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable debate on whether working memory (WM) storage is mediated by distinct subsystems for auditory and visual stimuli (Baddeley, 1986) or whether it is constrained by a single, central capacity-limited system (Cowan, 2006). Recent studies have addressed this issue by measuring the dual-task cost during the concurrent storage of…

  2. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2006-01-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiative on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs, Battelle has been investigating the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. In addition to the DOE, the project is being sponsored by American Electric Power (AEP), BP, The Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) of the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority, Schlumberger, and Battelle. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the October through December 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the following report, the main field activity was reservoir testing in the Copper Ridge ''B-zone'' in the AEP No.1 well. In addition reservoir simulations were completed to assess feasibility of CO{sub 2} injection for the Mountaineer site. These reservoir testing and computer simulation results suggest that injection potential may be substantially more than anticipated for the Mountaineer site. Work also continued on development of injection well design options, engineering assessment of CO{sub 2} capture systems, permitting, and assessment of monitoring technologies as they apply to the project site. Overall, the current design feasibility phase project is proceeding according to plans.

  3. Natural Analog for Geologic Storage of CO2: CO2 accumulation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Xu, T.; Liu, N.; Zhou, B.

    2012-12-01

    Natural accumulations of CO2 are potential analogues of CO2 geological storage that can provide useful information on the behaviour of supercritical CO2 in reservoirs. Natural CO2 accumulations are common across Northeast China, and, although they occur in a wide variety of geological settings, their distribution is principally controlled by the Mesozoic-Cenozoic rift basins and associated Quaternary volcanism. High CO2 concentrations (>60 CO2%) in natural gas reservoirs are usually related to volcanism and magmatism, and possesses mantle-genetic origin. CO2 reservoirs consist of sandstone, volcanic rocks and carbonate rocks with the buried depth from 2000-3000 m. Dawsonite is recognized in almost all of the CO2-bearing basin, which has been proved to share the same carbon source with CO2 in the reservoirs in Songliao basin, Hailaer basin and Donghai basin. Petrographic data show that dawsonite is abundant in feldspar- rich sandstone, volcanic rock fragment-rich sandstones and tuff. In some cases, high percentage of dawsonite cement constitutes a diagenetic seal, which occurs in the reservoir-mudstone caprock and prevents upward leakage of CO2. Besides dawsonite, mantle-genetic CO2 flux leads to the formation of calcite, ankerite and siderite. The statistics of porosity and permeability measured from the dawsonite-bearing sandstone and dawsonite-absent sandstone with the almost same burial depth in Songliao basin show that the mantle-genetic CO2 flux result in lower reservoir quality, suggesting that mineral trapping for CO2 is significant. Chemical analyses of formation water in Songliao basin and Hailaer basin indicate that the concentrations of TDS, HCO3-,CO32-, Mg2+,Ca2+ and Na+ + K+ in dawsonite-bearing sandstone are higher than that in dawsonite-absent sandstone. Distribution of CO2 and dawsonite is constrainted by the regional caprocks in the Songliao basin. The charging time of the mantle-genetic CO2 in China dates from 50 to 25 Ma.

  4. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Chapter A in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Buursink, Mark L.; Craddock, William H.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology of earlier work, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Wells sharing the same well borehole are treated as a single penetration. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  5. How to Factor GCM Uncertainty in Assessing Changes to Reservoir Storage Capacity for Future (Warmer) Climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woldemeskel, F. M.; Sharma, A.; Sivakumar, B.; Mehrotra, R.

    2013-12-01

    Whether or not the existing storage capacity of reservoirs is sufficient to meet future water demands is a question of great interest to water managers and policy makers. Among other factors, uncertainties in GCM projections make accurate estimation of future water availability and reservoir storage requirements extremely complicated. Projections of variables using GCMs (e.g. temperature, precipitation) are highly uncertain due to inaccuracies in the climate model structure, greenhouse gas emission scenarios, and initial conditions (or ensemble runs) used. The present study proposes a new method to quantify the uncertainties (or standard errors) of GCM projections and their influence on the estimation of reservoir storage. The GCM standard errors are estimated through the following four steps: (i) interpolating multiple GCM outputs to a common spatial grid; (ii) converting the interpolated GCM outputs to percentiles; (iii) estimating standard error for model, scenario, initial condition and total uncertainty for each percentile; and (iv) transforming standard error estimates to time series. By assuming an additive error model and conditioning on these standard errors, thousands of rainfall and temperature realizations are obtained for a selected GCM and scenario. The temperature realizations are used to estimate evaporation realizations, which are then used as input (together with rainfall) to rainfall-runoff model for estimating streamflow. Finally, the streamflow realizations are used to quantify reservoir storage requirements with its associated uncertainties using reservoir behavior analysis. The proposed method is tested for the case of the Warragamba dam reservoir system that supplies more than 80% of water to Sydney, Australia. The results suggest that uncertainties in reservoir storage capacity will be significantly large for the future period than that for the historical period. Comparison of the effects of rainfall and evaporation uncertainty suggests

  6. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  7. Early opportunities of CO2 geological storage deployment in coal chemical industry in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Ning; Li, Xiaochun; Liu, Shengnan; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2014-11-12

    Abstract: Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage (CCS) is regarded as a promising option for climate change mitigation; however, the high capture cost is the major barrier to large-scale deployment of CCS technologies. High-purity CO2 emission sources can reduce or even avoid the capture requirements and costs. Among these high-purity CO2 sources, certain coal chemical industry processes are very important, especially in China. In this paper, the basic characteristics of coal chemical industries in China is investigated and analyzed. As of 2013 there were more than 100 coal chemical plants in operation or in late planning stages. These emission sources together emit 430 million tons CO2 per year, of which about 30% are emit high-purity and pure CO2 (CO2 concentration >80% and >99% respectively).Four typical source-sink pairs are studied by a techno-economic evaluation, including site screening and selection, source-sink matching, concept design, and experienced economic evaluation. The technical-economic evaluation shows that the levelized cost of a CO2 capture and aquifer storage project in the coal chemistry industry ranges from 14 USD/t to 17 USD/t CO2. When a 15USD/t CO2 tax and 15USD/t for CO2 sold to EOR are considered, the levelized cost of CCS project are negative, which suggests a net economic benefit from some of these CCS projects. This might provide China early opportunities to deploy and scale-up CCS projects in the near future.

  8. How CO2 Leakage May Impact the Role of Geologic Carbon Storage in Climate Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. A.; Deng, H.; Bielicki, J. M.; Fitts, J. P.; Oppenheimer, M.

    2014-12-01

    Among CCUS technologies (Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration), geological storage of CO2 has a large potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, but confidence in its deployment is often clouded by the possibility and cost of leakage. In this study, we took the Michigan sedimentary basin as an example to investigate the monetized risks associated with leakage, using the Risk Interference of Subsurface CO2 Storage (RISCS) model. The model accounts for spatial heterogeneity and variability of hydraulic properties of the subsurface system and permeability of potential leaking wells. In terms of costs, the model quantifies the financial consequences of CO2 escaping back to the atmosphere as well as the costs incurred if CO2 or brine leaks into overlying formations and interferes with other subsurface activities or resources. The monetized leakage risks derived from the RISCS model were then used to modify existing cost curves by shifting them upwards and changing their curvatures. The modified cost curves were used in the integrated assessment model - GCAM (Global Change Assessment Model), which provides policy-relevant results to help inform the potential role of CCUS in future energy systems when carbon mitigation targets and incentives are in place. The results showed that the extent of leakage risks has a significant effect on the extent of CCUS deployment. Under more stringent carbon mitigation policies such as a high carbon tax, higher leakage risks can be afforded and incorporating leakage risks will have a smaller impact on CCUS deployment. Alternatively, if the leakage risks were accounted for by charging a fixed premium, similar to how the risk of nuclear waste disposal is treated, the contribution of CCUS in mitigating climate change varies, depending on the value of the premium.

  9. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks. PMID:24840090

  10. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  11. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ~1,100 mAh g-1 at 30 mA g-1 and ~420 mAh g-1 at 30 A g-1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage.

  12. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g(-1) at 30 mA g(-1) and ∼420 mAh g(-1) at 30 A g(-1), which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  13. Array of nanosheets render ultrafast and high-capacity Na-ion storage by tunable pseudocapacitance

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Dongliang; Zhu, Changrong; Yang, Peihua; Xia, Xinhui; Liu, Jilei; Wang, Jin; Fan, Xiaofeng; Savilov, Serguei V.; Lin, Jianyi; Fan, Hong Jin; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries are a potentially low-cost and safe alternative to the prevailing lithium-ion battery technology. However, it is a great challenge to achieve fast charging and high power density for most sodium-ion electrodes because of the sluggish sodiation kinetics. Here we demonstrate a high-capacity and high-rate sodium-ion anode based on ultrathin layered tin(II) sulfide nanostructures, in which a maximized extrinsic pseudocapacitance contribution is identified and verified by kinetics analysis. The graphene foam supported tin(II) sulfide nanoarray anode delivers a high reversible capacity of ∼1,100 mAh g−1 at 30 mA g−1 and ∼420 mAh g−1 at 30 A g−1, which even outperforms its lithium-ion storage performance. The surface-dominated redox reaction rendered by our tailored ultrathin tin(II) sulfide nanostructures may also work in other layered materials for high-performance sodium-ion storage. PMID:27358085

  14. Preliminary Modelling of the Effect of Impurity in CO2 Streams on the Storage Capacity and the Plume Migration in Pohang Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yongchan; Choi, Byoungyoung; Shinn, Youngjae

    2015-04-01

    Captured CO2 streams contain various levels of impurities which vary depending on the combustion technology and CO2 sources such as a power plant and iron and steel production processes. Common impurities or contaminants are non-condensable gases like nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen, and are also air pollutants like sulphur and nitrogen oxides. Specifically for geological storage, the non-condensable gases in CO2 streams are not favourable because they can decrease density of the injected CO2 stream and can affect buoyancy of the plume. However, separation of these impurities to obtain the CO2 purity higher than 99% would greatly increase the cost of capture. In 2010, the Korean Government announced a national framework to develop CCS, with the aim of developing two large scale integrated CCS projects by 2020. In order to achieve this goal, a small scale injection project into Pohang basin near shoreline has begun which is seeking the connection with a capture project, especially at a steel company. Any onshore sites that are suitable for the geological storage are not identified by this time so we turned to the shallow offshore Pohang basin where is close to a large-scale CO2 source. Currently, detailed site surveys are being undertaken and the collected data were used to establish a geological model of the basin. In this study, we performed preliminary modelling study on the effect of impurities on the geological storage using the geological model. Using a potential compositions of impurities in CO2 streams from the steel company, we firstly calculated density and viscosity of CO2 streams as a function of various pressure and temperature conditions with CMG-WINPROP and then investigated the effect of the non-condensable gases on storage capacity, injectivity and plume migrations with CMG-GEM. Further simulations to evaluate the areal and vertical sweep efficiencies by impurities were perform in a 2D vertical cross section as well as in a 3D simulation grid. Also

  15. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  16. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    Offshore UK geological formations have the capacity to store > 100 years' worth of UK CO2 output from industry and power generation, if utilised for carbon capture and storage (CCS) schemes. During CO2 storage or CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery (CO2-EOR), formation waters may be produced at the surface to be disposed of into the marine environment. Laboratory and field scale studies, with an emphasis on the effects on onshore shallow potable groundwaters, have shown that CO2 dissolution in formation waters during injection and storage acidifies the waters and promotes mobilisation from the reservoir sandstones of major and trace elements into solution. Of relevance to the UK context, eight of these elements are specifically identified as potentially hazardous to the marine environment: As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn. Batch experiments using simple borosilicate flasks sat on heating mantles were used in this study to determine concentrations of these 8 elements which could be leached from selected North Sea sandstones with bubbled CO2 and saline solutions, at formation temperatures. These concentration data were compared with produced water data from current UK offshore hydrocarbon extraction activities. The comparison showed that, taking the North Sea as a whole, the experimental results fall within the range of concentrations of current oil and gas activities. However, on a field-by-field basis, concentrations may be enhanced with CO2 storage, such that they are higher than waters normally produced from a particular field. Lead, nickel and zinc showed the greatest concentration increases in the experiments with the addition of CO2, with the other five elements of interest not showing any strong trends with respect to enhanced CO2. The origin of the increased trace element concentrations was investigated using sequential leaching experiments. A six step method of increasingly aggressive leaching was developed, based on modification of methods outlined by Tessier et al

  17. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage.

  18. Effects of storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity of laying hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Nimalaratne, Chamila; Schieber, Andreas; Wu, Jianping

    2016-03-01

    The aromatic amino acids and carotenoids are the major contributors to the antioxidant properties of egg yolk. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of simulated retail storage and domestic cooking on the antioxidant activity as well as on the aromatic amino acid and carotenoid contents in ordinary table eggs, omega 3/lutein (n-3/lutein) enriched eggs, and eggs from heritage chicken breeds. The oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) was the highest in n-3/lutein enriched eggs (161.4μmolTE/gsample), while eggs from heritage white leghorns (HW) showed the lowest levels (127.6μmolTE/gsample). Six weeks of storage at refrigerated temperature did not change the ORAC values, as well as the contents of free amino acid, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in egg yolk. Boiling and frying however, significantly reduced the ORAC value, and the contents of free amino acid, lutein and zeaxanthin, and increased the MDA content in eggs. Our results showed that the antioxidant activity is stable during six weeks of simulated retail storage. PMID:26471533

  19. Changes in the color, chemical stability and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solution over storage.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xiaonan; Bary, Solène; Zhou, Weibiao

    2016-02-01

    Many anthocyanin-containing foods are thermally processed to ensure their safety, and stored for some time before being consumed. However, the combination of thermal processing and subsequent storage has a significant impact on anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the color, chemical stability, and antioxidant capacity of thermally treated anthocyanin aqueous solutions during storage at 4, 25, 45, and 65 °C, respectively. Anthocyanin aqueous solutions were thermally treated before storage. Results showed that the degradation rate of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions was much faster than those in real food. The color of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions changed dramatically during storage. The anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at 4 °C showed the best chemical stability. Interestingly, the antioxidant capacity of the anthocyanin aqueous solutions stored at lower temperatures remained the same; however, the antioxidant capacity of those thermally treated at 120 or 140 °C and stored at 45 or 65 °C significantly decreased.

  20. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Alaska North Slope and Kandik Basin, Alaska: Chapter I in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, William H.; Buursink, Marc L.; Covault, Jacob A.; Brennan, Sean T.; Doolan, Colin A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven N.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2014-01-01

    For each SAU in both of the basins, we discuss the areal distribution of suitable CO2 sequestration reservoir rock. We also characterize the overlying sealing unit and describe the geologic characteristics that influence the potential CO2 storage volume and reservoir performance. These characteristics include reservoir depth, gross thickness, net thickness, porosity, permeability, and groundwater salinity. Case-by-case strategies for estimating the pore volume existing within structurally and (or) stratigraphically closed traps are presented. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included herein was employed to calculate the potential storage volume in the various SAUs. Lastly, in this report, we present the rationale for not conducting assessment work in fifteen sedimentary basins distributed across the Alaskan interior and within Alaskan State waters.

  1. Streamline-based Simulation of Geological CO2 Storage: Otway Case-Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaro Vallejo, Lorena; Dance, Tess; Cinar, Yildiray; Laforce, Tara

    2010-05-01

    -based simulators have the advantage of solving transport equations in 1D, which decreases the CPU (Central Processing Unit) time without losing accuracy. The current in-house streamline-based simulator has been extended to include compressibility. This 3-component (hydrocarbon, carbon dioxide and brine) 2-phase (aqueous and hydrocarbon) research code allows the CO2 to dissolve in both aqueous and hydrocarbon phase, water to dissolve in the hydrocarbon phase and assumes that hydrocarbons only exist in the hydrocarbon phase. The extended compressible streamline simulator will be used to simulate Huff and Push injection in the different geological scenarios taken from the Otway Project. A detailed study will be carried out to optimise the injection scheme and understand how reservoir variability can influence CO2 trapping. Streamline simulations will be compared against commercial simulations (ECLIPSE) regarding convergence of results and simulation times. 1. R Qi, T C LaForce and M J Blunt, "Design of carbon dioxide storage in aquifers," International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 3 195-205 (2009). 2. Website accessed on 14th January 2010: http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/

  2. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity. PMID:26866666

  3. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Highly Ordered Mesoporous Carbon with Superior Lithium and Sodium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Minsi; Jiang, Yu; Wei, Xiang; Zhong, Xiongwu; Gu, Lin; Yu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Red phosphorus (P) have been considered as one of the most promising anode material for both lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and (NIBs), because of its high theoretical capacity. However, natural insulating property and the large volume expansion of red P during cycling lead to poor cyclability and low rate performance, which prevents its practical application. Here, we significantly improves both lithium storage and sodium storage performance of red P by confining nanosized amorphous red P into the mesoporous carbon matrix (P@CMK-3) using a vaporization-condensation-conversion process. The P@CMK-3 shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼ 2250 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 0.25 C (∼ 971 mA h g(-1) based on the composite), excellent rate performance of 1598 and 624 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively (562 and 228 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite at 6.1 and 12 C, respectively) and significantly enhanced cycle life of 1150 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P at 5 C (500 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 1000 cycles for LIBs. For Na ions, it also displays a reversible capacity of 1020 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of red P (370 mA h g(-1) based on the mass of the composite) after 210 cycles at 5C. The significantly improved electrochemical performance could be attributed to the unique structure that combines a variety of advantages: easy access of electrolyte to the open channel structure, short transport path of ions through carbon toward the red P, and high ionic and electronic conductivity.

  4. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Columbia Basin of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and the Western Oregon-Washington basins: Chapter D in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. The methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Eocene and Oligocene sedimentary rocks within the Columbia, Puget, Willapa, Astoria, Nehalem, and Willamette Basins of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. The designated sealing unit in the Columbia Basin is tentatively chosen to be the ubiquitous and thick Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group. As a result of uncertainties regarding the seal integrity of the Columbia River Basalt Group, the SAUs were not quantitatively assessed. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on the cell maps.

  5. Pragmatic consideration of geologic carbon storage design based upon historic pressure response to oil and gas production in the southern San Joaquin basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, P. D.

    2015-12-01

    Annual CO2 emissions from large fixed sources in the southern San Joaquin Valley and vicinity in California are about 20 million metric tons per year (MMT/Y). Cumulative net fluid production due to oil and gas extracted from below the minimum depth for geologic carbon storage (taken as 1,500 m) was 1.4 billion m3 at reservoir conditions as of 2010. At an average CO2 storage density of 0.5 metric tons per m3, this implies 35 years of storage capacity at current emission rates just to refill the vacated volume, neglecting possible reservoir consolidation. However, the production occurred from over 300 pools. The production rate relative to average pressure decline in the more productive pools analyzed suggests they could receive about 2 MMT/Y raising the field average pressure to nearly the fracturing pressure. This would require well fields as extensive as those used for production, instead of the single to few wells per project typically envisioned. Even then, the actual allowable injection rate to the larger pools would be less than 2 MMT/Y in order to keep pressures at the injection well below the fracture pressure. This implies storing 20 MMT/Y would require developing storage operations in tens of pools with hundreds, if not over a thousand, wells. This utilization of one of the basins with the most storage capacity in the state would result in reducing the state's fixed source emissions by only one eighth relative to current emissions. The number of fields and wells involved in achieving this suggests a different strategy might provide more capacity at similar cost. Specifically, staging wells that initially produce water in the vicinity of fewer injection wells could result in both more storage. This water could be directed to a shallower zone, or supplied to the surface at a similar cost. The commencement of ocean water desalination in the state indicates the economics of water supply might support treating this water for beneficial use, particularly if it

  6. Application of Heat Capacity Mapping Mission data to regional geologic analysis for mineral and energy resource evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K. (Principal Investigator); Hummer-Miller, S.; Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Krohn, M. D.; Podwysocki, M. H.; Pohn, H. H.; Raines, G. L.; Rowan, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Heat Capacity Mapping Mission thermal-inertia images of a diversity of terrains and geologic settings were examined in conjunction with topographic, geologic, geophysical, and LANDSAT data. The images were found to have attributes similar to bedrock maps. In the Cascades region, two new features were identified and a method was developed to characterize regional terranes using linear feature data. Two northeast-trending Lineaments were discovered in the Overthrust Belt of Montana and Idaho. The longer of the two extends from the Idaho-Oregon border, through the Idaho batholith and across the Lewis thrust. It coincides, along segments, with mapped faults and an aeromagnetic pattern change. A major lineament crossing the Colorado Plateau and the Southern Rocky Mountians was detected on several thermal-inertial images and evidence was found for the existence of a geologic discontinuity. Vegetation-covered areas in Richfield and the Silver City quadrangle (Arizona and New Mexico) displayed thermal-inertia differences within heavily vegetation areas although no apreciable correlation was found between vegetation cover and thermal inertia. Resistant ridges and knolls have high thermal inertias and thermal-inertia contrasts occurred at lithologic and fault contacts. In the heavy vegetated Pinaleno Mountains, Arizona, a Lithologic unit obscured on LANDSAT MSS data due to the vegetation cover, exhibited a thermal-inertia contrast with its surroundings.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Impacts of Hydrological Properties of Geologic Storage Formations on Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, J.; Kim, J.

    2010-12-01

    A series of numerical simulations using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model is performed to analyze groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport due to geologic storage of carbon dioxide in a geologic storage formation (sandstone aquifer) and to evaluate impacts of its saturated (i.e., porosity and intrinsic permeability) and unsaturated (i.e., residual water saturation, residual gas saturation, gas-entry pressure, and van Genuchten’s exponent) hydrological properties on the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. The numerical simulation results show that the hydrological properties of the storage formation have significant effects on the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide. Under a constant injection pressure of carbon dioxide, the injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of carbon dioxide injection (about 2 weeks) and then increases monotonously until the end of carbon dioxide injection. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide are most sensitive to variations in the intrinsic permeability and van Genuchten’s exponent of the storage formation. They increase significantly as the intrinsic permeability and van Genuchten’s exponent of the storage formation increase, whereas they decrease slightly as the porosity and the residual gas saturation of the storage formation increase. However, they are most insensitive to variations in the residual water saturation and the gas-entry pressure of the storage formation. These results indicate that the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide is significantly dependent on the relative permeability, which is a function of the unsaturated hydrological properties (i.e., residual water saturation, residual gas saturation, gas-entry pressure, and van Genuchten’s exponent) of the storage formation, as well as its saturated hydrological properties (i.e., porosity and intrinsic permeability) in different degrees. Therefore it may be

  8. Fault Geomechanics and Carbon Dioxide Leakage Applied to Geological Storage: FY07 Quarterly and Summary Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Morris, J

    2007-11-02

    Safe and permanent storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoirs is critical to geologic sequestration. The objective of this study is to quantify the conditions under which a general (simulated) fault network and a specific (field case) fault network will fail and leak carbon dioxide out of a reservoir. Faults present a potential fast-path for CO{sub 2} leakage from reservoirs to the surface. They also represent potential induced seismicity hazards. It is important to have improved quantitative understandings of the processes that trigger activity on faults and the risks they present. Fortunately, the conditions under which leakage along faults is induced can be predicted and quantified given the fault geometry, reservoir pressure, an in-situ stress tensor. We proposed to expand the current capabilities of fault threshold characterization and apply that capability to a site where is CO{sub 2} injection is active or planned. Specifically, we proposed to use a combination of discrete/explicit and continuum/implicit codes to provide constrain the conditions of fault failure. After minor enhancements of LLNL's existing codes (e.g., LDEC), we would create a 3D synthetic model of a common configuration (e.g., a faulted dome). During these steps, we will identify a field site where the necessary information is available and where the operators are willing to share the necessary information. We would then execute an analysis specific to the field case. The primary products by quarter are: 1Q--Identification of likely field case; 2Q--Functioning prototype fault model; 3Q--Execution of fault-slip/migration calculation for synthetic case; and 4Q--Begin simulation of fault-slip/migration calculation for field system. It is worth noting that due to the continuing resolution, we did not receive any funds until 3Q, and did not receive >65% of the support until 4Q. That said, we were still able to meet all of our milestones for FY07 on time and on budget.

  9. Modeled Differential Muon Flux Measurements for Monitoring Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. L.; Naudet, C. J.; Gluyas, J.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, we published the first, theoretical feasibility study of the use of muon tomography to monitor injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a geological storage reservoir for carbon storage (Kudryavtsev et al., 2012). Our initial concept showed that attenuation of the total muon downward flux, which is controlled effectively by its path-length and the density of the material through which it passes, could quantify the replacement in a porous sandstone reservoir of relatively dense aqueous brine by less dense supercritical carbon dioxide (specific gravity, 0.75). Our model examined the change in the muon flux over periods of about one year. However, certainly, in the initial stages of carbon dioxide injection it would be valuable to examine its emplacement over much shorter periods of time. Over a year there are small fluctuations of about 2% in the flux of high energy cosmic ray muons, because of changes in pressure and temperature, and therefore density, of the upper atmosphere (Ambrosio, 1997). To improve precision, we developed the concept of differential muon monitoring. The muon flux at the bottom of the reservoir is compared with the incident flux at its top. In this paper we present the results of three simulations. In all of them, as in our previous modeling exercise, we assume a 1000 sq. m total area of muon detectors, but in this case both above and below a 300 m thick sandstone bed, with 35% porosity, capped by shale and filled initially with a dense brine (specific gravity, 1.112). We assume high sweep efficiency, since supercritical CO2 and water are miscible, and therefore that 80% of the water will be replaced over a period of injection spanning 10 years. In the first two cases the top of the reservoir is at 1200 m and the overburden is either continuous shale or a 100m shale horizon beneath a sandstone aquifer, respectively. In the third case, which is somewhat analogous to the FutureGen 2.0 site in Illinois (FutureGen Industrial

  10. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-23

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  11. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time. PMID:26201827

  12. Carbon hybridized halloysite nanotubes for high-performance hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jiao; Fu, Liangjie; Yang, Huaming; Ouyang, Jing

    2015-07-01

    Hybrid nanotubes of carbon and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) with different carbon:HNTs ratio were hydrothermally synthesized from natural halloysite and sucrose. The samples display uniformly cylindrical hollow tubular structure with different morphologies. These hybrid nanotubes were concluded to be promising medium for physisorption-based hydrogen storage. The hydrogen adsorption capacity of pristine HNTs was 0.35% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while that of carbon coated HNTs with the pre-set carbon:HNTs ratio of 3:1 (3C-HNTs) was 0.48% under the same condition. This carbon coated method could offer a new pattern for increasing the hydrogen adsorption capacity. It was also possible to enhance the hydrogen adsorption capacity through the spillover mechanism by incorporating palladium (Pd) in the samples of HNTs (Pd-HNTs) and 3C-HNTs (Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs are the samples with different location of Pd nanoparticles). The hydrogen adsorption capacity of the Pd-HNTs was 0.50% at 2.65 MPa and 298 K, while those of Pd-3C-HNTs and 3C-Pd-HNTs were 0.58% and 0.63%, respectively. In particular, for this spillover mechanism of Pd-carbon-HNTs ternary system, the bidirectional transmission of atomic and molecular hydrogen (3C-Pd-HNTs) was concluded to be more effective than the unidirectional transmission (Pd-3C-HNTs) in this work for the first time.

  13. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    PubMed

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off. PMID:25812095

  14. Depression storage capacities of different ideal pavements as quantified by a terrestrial laser scanning-based method.

    PubMed

    Nehls, T; Menzel, M; Wessolek, G

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partition on paved urban surfaces is governed to a great extent by depression storage. This is especially the case for small rainfall events, which are often ignored in urban hydrology. If storage, infiltration and evaporation (important for urban heat island mitigation), rather than storm water run-off, are of interest, high-resolution simulations with exact values for depression storage capacities are required. Terrestrial laser scanners deliver fast, high-resolution surveys of pavement surface morphology. The depression storage capacity can be quantified from 3D points by generating digital elevation models and applying cut-and-fill algorithms in a geographic information system. The method was validated using a test model. It was possible to quantify depressions with a depth of at least 1.4 × 10(-3) m and a surface of at least 15 × 10(-6) m(2) with an uncertainty below 30%. Applying this method, the depression storage capacities for 11 ideal, typical pavement designs were found to vary from 0.07 to 1.4 mm. Realistic urban pavements must also be surveyed, as cracks and puddles from their use history can have a major impact on the depression storage capacities and thus on infiltration, evaporation and, finally, the annual run-off.

  15. Modeling the Long-Term Isolation Performance of Natural and Engineered Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J W; Nitao, J J; Morris, J P

    2004-07-26

    Long-term cap rock integrity represents the single most important constraint on the long-term isolation performance of natural and engineered geologic CO{sub 2} storage sites. CO{sub 2} influx that forms natural accumulations and CO{sub 2} injection for EOR/sequestration or saline-aquifer disposal both lead to concomitant geochemical alteration and geomechanical deformation of the cap rock, enhancing or degrading its seal integrity depending on the relative effectiveness of these interdependent processes. This evolution of cap-rock permeability can be assessed through reactive transport modeling, an advanced computational method based on mathematical models of the coupled physical and chemical processes catalyzed by the influx event. Using our reactive transport simulator (NUFT), supporting geochemical databases and software (SUPCRT92), and distinct-element geomechanical model (LDEC), we have shown that influx-triggered mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within typical shale cap rocks continuously reduce microfrac apertures, while pressure and effective-stress evolution first rapidly increase then slowly constrict them. For a given shale composition, the extent of geochemical enhancement is nearly independent of key reservoir properties (permeability and lateral continuity) that distinguish saline aquifer and EOR/sequestration settings and CO{sub 2} influx parameters (rate, focality, and duration) that distinguish engineered disposal sites and natural accumulations, because these characteristics and parameters have negligible impact on mineral reaction rates. In contrast, the extent of geomechanical degradation is highly dependent on these reservoir properties and influx parameters, because they effectively dictate magnitude of the pressure perturbation. Specifically, initial geomechanical degradation has been shown inversely proportional to reservoir permeability and lateral continuity and proportional to influx rate. As a result, while the extent of

  16. Geologic carbon storage is unlikely to trigger large earthquakes and reactivate faults through which CO2 could leak.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, Victor; Carrera, Jesus

    2015-05-12

    Zoback and Gorelick [(2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(26):10164-10168] have claimed that geologic carbon storage in deep saline formations is very likely to trigger large induced seismicity, which may damage the caprock and ruin the objective of keeping CO2 stored deep underground. We argue that felt induced earthquakes due to geologic CO2 storage are unlikely because (i) sedimentary formations, which are softer than the crystalline basement, are rarely critically stressed; (ii) the least stable situation occurs at the beginning of injection, which makes it easy to control; (iii) CO2 dissolution into brine may help in reducing overpressure; and (iv) CO2 will not flow across the caprock because of capillarity, but brine will, which will reduce overpressure further. The latter two mechanisms ensure that overpressures caused by CO2 injection will dissipate in a moderate time after injection stops, hindering the occurrence of postinjection induced seismicity. Furthermore, even if microseismicity were induced, CO2 leakage through fault reactivation would be unlikely because the high clay content of caprocks ensures a reduced permeability and increased entry pressure along the localized deformation zone. For these reasons, we contend that properly sited and managed geologic carbon storage in deep saline formations remains a safe option to mitigate anthropogenic climate change.

  17. Geologic carbon storage is unlikely to trigger large earthquakes and reactivate faults through which CO2 could leak

    PubMed Central

    Vilarrasa, Victor; Carrera, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Zoback and Gorelick [(2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(26):10164–10168] have claimed that geologic carbon storage in deep saline formations is very likely to trigger large induced seismicity, which may damage the caprock and ruin the objective of keeping CO2 stored deep underground. We argue that felt induced earthquakes due to geologic CO2 storage are unlikely because (i) sedimentary formations, which are softer than the crystalline basement, are rarely critically stressed; (ii) the least stable situation occurs at the beginning of injection, which makes it easy to control; (iii) CO2 dissolution into brine may help in reducing overpressure; and (iv) CO2 will not flow across the caprock because of capillarity, but brine will, which will reduce overpressure further. The latter two mechanisms ensure that overpressures caused by CO2 injection will dissipate in a moderate time after injection stops, hindering the occurrence of postinjection induced seismicity. Furthermore, even if microseismicity were induced, CO2 leakage through fault reactivation would be unlikely because the high clay content of caprocks ensures a reduced permeability and increased entry pressure along the localized deformation zone. For these reasons, we contend that properly sited and managed geologic carbon storage in deep saline formations remains a safe option to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25902501

  18. Geologic carbon storage is unlikely to trigger large earthquakes and reactivate faults through which CO2 could leak.

    PubMed

    Vilarrasa, Victor; Carrera, Jesus

    2015-05-12

    Zoback and Gorelick [(2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109(26):10164-10168] have claimed that geologic carbon storage in deep saline formations is very likely to trigger large induced seismicity, which may damage the caprock and ruin the objective of keeping CO2 stored deep underground. We argue that felt induced earthquakes due to geologic CO2 storage are unlikely because (i) sedimentary formations, which are softer than the crystalline basement, are rarely critically stressed; (ii) the least stable situation occurs at the beginning of injection, which makes it easy to control; (iii) CO2 dissolution into brine may help in reducing overpressure; and (iv) CO2 will not flow across the caprock because of capillarity, but brine will, which will reduce overpressure further. The latter two mechanisms ensure that overpressures caused by CO2 injection will dissipate in a moderate time after injection stops, hindering the occurrence of postinjection induced seismicity. Furthermore, even if microseismicity were induced, CO2 leakage through fault reactivation would be unlikely because the high clay content of caprocks ensures a reduced permeability and increased entry pressure along the localized deformation zone. For these reasons, we contend that properly sited and managed geologic carbon storage in deep saline formations remains a safe option to mitigate anthropogenic climate change. PMID:25902501

  19. A Capacity Design Method of Distributed Battery Storage for Controlling Power Variation with Large-Scale Photovoltaic Sources in Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Sawa, Toshiyuki; Gunji, Keiko; Yamazaki, Jun; Watanabe, Masahiro

    A design method for distributed battery storage capacity has been developed for evaluating battery storage advantage on demand-supply imbalance control in distribution systems with which large-scale home photovoltaic powers connected. The proposed method is based on a linear storage capacity minimization model with design basis demand load and photovoltaic output time series subjective to battery management constraints. The design method has been experimentally applied to a sample distribution system with substation storage and terminal area storage. From the numerical results, the developed method successfully clarifies the charge-discharge control and stored power variation, satisfies peak cut requirement, and pinpoints the minimum distributed storage capacity.

  20. Influence of transition metal electronegativity on the oxygen storage capacity of perovskite oxides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lu; Taylor, Daniel D; Rodriguez, Efrain E; Zachariah, Michael R

    2016-08-16

    The selection of highly efficient oxygen carriers (OCs) is a key step necessary for the practical development of chemical looping combustion (CLC). In this study, a series of ABO3 perovskites, where A = La, Ba, Sr, Ca and B = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, are synthesized and tested in a fixed bed reactor for reactivity and stability as OCs with CH4 as the fuel. We find that the electronegativity of the transition metal on the B-site (λB), is a convenient descriptor for oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of our perovskite samples. By plotting OSC for total methane oxidation against λB, we observe an inverted volcano plot relationship. These results could provide useful guidelines for perovskite OC design and their other energy related applications. PMID:27478888

  1. Storage capacity and oxygen mobility in mixed oxides from transition metals promoted by cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, Camilo; Pérez, Alejandro; Molina, Rafael; Moreno, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    The oxygen mobility and storage capacity of Ce-Co/Cu-MgAl or Ce-MgAl mixed oxides, obtained by hydrotalcite precursors, were evaluated using Toluene-temperature-programmed-reaction, 18O2 isotopic exchange and O2-H2 titration. The presence of oxygen vacancies-related species was evaluated by means of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. A correlation was found between the studied properties and the catalytic activity of the oxides in total oxidation processes. It was evidenced that catalytic activity depends on two related processes: the facility with which the solid can be reduced and its ability to regenerate itself in the presence of molecular oxygen in the gas phase. These processes are enhanced by Cu-Co cooperative effect in the mixed oxides. Additionally, the incorporation of Ce in the Co-Cu catalysts improved their oxygen transport properties.

  2. Lithium decoration of three dimensional boron-doped graphene frameworks for high-capacity hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yunhui; Meng, Zhaoshun; Liu, Yuzhen; You, Dongsen; Wu, Kai; Lv, Jinchao; Wang, Xuezheng; Deng, Kaiming; Lu, Ruifeng E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn; Rao, Dewei E-mail: rflu@njust.edu.cn

    2015-02-09

    Based on density functional theory and the first principles molecular dynamics simulations, a three-dimensional B-doped graphene-interconnected framework has been constructed that shows good thermal stability even after metal loading. The average binding energy of adsorbed Li atoms on the proposed material (2.64 eV) is considerably larger than the cohesive energy per atom of bulk Li metal (1.60 eV). This value is ideal for atomically dispersed Li doping in experiments. From grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, high hydrogen storage capacities of 5.9 wt% and 52.6 g/L in the Li-decorated material are attained at 298 K and 100 bars.

  3. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-04-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the potential saturation of soil organic carbon (SOC) and derived sequestration potentials in steppe soils is missing. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe locations in Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of the fine mineral fraction (silt and clay particles <20 µm) of natural grassland soils, OC sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the derived OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 84 to 89% despite massive SOC losses. As a result, the OC sequestration potential of degraded grassland soils was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and thus to a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC amounts. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and can thus not be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration.

  4. Carbon storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils and sequestration potentials in northern China.

    PubMed

    Wiesmeier, Martin; Munro, Sam; Barthold, Frauke; Steffens, Markus; Schad, Peter; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2015-10-01

    Organic carbon (OC) sequestration in degraded semi-arid environments by improved soil management is assumed to contribute substantially to climate change mitigation. However, information about the soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration potential in steppe soils and their current saturation status remains unknown. In this study, we estimated the OC storage capacity of semi-arid grassland soils on the basis of remote, natural steppe fragments in northern China. Based on the maximum OC saturation of silt and clay particles <20 μm, OC sequestration potentials of degraded steppe soils (grazing land, arable land, eroded areas) were estimated. The analysis of natural grassland soils revealed a strong linear regression between the proportion of the fine fraction and its OC content, confirming the importance of silt and clay particles for OC stabilization in steppe soils. This relationship was similar to derived regressions in temperate and tropical soils but on a lower level, probably due to a lower C input and different clay mineralogy. In relation to the estimated OC storage capacity, degraded steppe soils showed a high OC saturation of 78-85% despite massive SOC losses due to unsustainable land use. As a result, the potential of degraded grassland soils to sequester additional OC was generally low. This can be related to a relatively high contribution of labile SOC, which is preferentially lost in the course of soil degradation. Moreover, wind erosion leads to substantial loss of silt and clay particles and consequently results in a direct loss of the ability to stabilize additional OC. Our findings indicate that the SOC loss in semi-arid environments induced by intensive land use is largely irreversible. Observed SOC increases after improved land management mainly result in an accumulation of labile SOC prone to land use/climate changes and therefore cannot be regarded as contribution to long-term OC sequestration.

  5. Impure CO2 geological storage: Preliminary laboratory experiments at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostrom, M.; Wei, N.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Bonneville, A.

    2011-12-01

    The cost of carbon capture is related to the purity of the CO2 and subsequent removal of the impurities may be costly. For several sites, it is likely to be more cost effective if impure CO2 is injected, although non-condensable impurities may reduce storage capacity and increase the injection pressure. The feasibility of co-sequestration of CO2 with a certain level of impurity has not been experimentally studied in much detail due to severe limitations associated with visualization and sampling at high pressure and temperature conditions. A series of intermediate-scale experiments has been conducted in a 100-cm-long, 20-cm-high, and 5-cm-wide intermediate-scale flow cell studying the effects of N2 and H2S impurities on CO2 transport in initially brine-saturated porous media. Homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous systems were used to evaluate pH behavior, measure water and gas pressures, and analyze the gas composition at several locations. A multiphase code was used to compare simulation results for equilibrium dissolution conditions with experimental results. Although these preliminary analogue experiments were conducted at ambient pressure and temperature, the provide insight in the behavior of injected multi-component gas in initially saturated porous media.

  6. Exploring the capacity of radar remote sensing to estimate wetland marshes water storage.

    PubMed

    Grings, F; Salvia, M; Karszenbaum, H; Ferrazzoli, P; Kandus, P; Perna, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper focuses on the use of radar remote sensing for water storage estimation in wetland marshes of the Paraná River Delta in Argentina. The approach followed is based on the analysis of a temporal set of ENVISAT ASAR data which includes images acquired under different polarizations and incidence angles as well as different environmental conditions (water level, precipitation, and vegetation condition). Two marsh species, named junco and cortadera, were monitored. This overall data set gave us the possibility of studying and understanding the basic interactions between the radar, the soil under different flood conditions, and the vegetation structure. The comprehension of the observed features was addressed through electromagnetic models developed for these ecosystems. The procedure used in this work to estimate water level within marshes combines a direct electromagnetic model, field work data specifically obtained to feed the model, the actual ASAR measurements and a well known retrieval scheme based on a cost function. Results are validated with water level evaluations at specific points. A map showing an estimation of the water storage capacity and its error in junco and cortadera areas for the date where the investigation was done is also presented.

  7. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs. PMID:24738450

  8. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  9. MUFITS Code for Modeling Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide at Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2012-12-01

    liquid and gaseous CO2. We consider CO2 injection into highly heterogeneous the 10th SPE reservoir. We provide analysis of physical phenomena that have control temperature distribution in the reservoir. The distribution is non-monotonic with regions of high and low temperature. The main phenomena responsible for considerable temperature decline around CO2 injection point is the liquid CO2 evaporation process. We also apply the code to real-scale 3D simulations of CO2 geological storage at supercritical conditions in Sleipner field and Johansen formation (Fig). The work is supported financially by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (12-01-31117) and grant for leading scientific schools (NSh 1303.2012.1). CO2 phase saturation in Johansen formation after 50 years of injection and 1000 years of rest period

  10. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita; Bowden, Mark; Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie; Huang, Zhenguo; Autrey, Tom

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  11. May through July 2015 storm event effects on suspended-sediment loads, sediment trapping efficiency, and storage capacity of John Redmond Reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Guy M.; King, Lindsey R.

    2016-06-20

    The Neosho River and its primary tributary, the Cottonwood River, are the main sources of inflow to John Redmond Reservoir in east-central Kansas. Storm events during May through July 2015 caused large inflows of water and sediment into the reservoir. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kansas Water Office, and funded in part through the Kansas State Water Plan Fund, computed the suspended-sediment inflows to, and trapping efficiency of, John Redmond Reservoir during May through July 2015. This fact sheet summarizes the quantification of suspended-sediment loads to and from the reservoir during May through July 2015 storm events and describes reservoir sediment trapping efficiency and effects on water-storage capacity.

  12. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    Desires to enhance the energy security of the United States have spurred significant interest in the development of abundant domestic heavy hydrocarbon resources including oil shale and coal to produce unconventional liquid fuels to supplement conventional oil supplies. However, the production processes for these unconventional fossil fuels create large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) and this remains one of the key arguments against such development. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies could reduce these emissions and preliminary analysis of regional CO2 storage capacity in locations where such facilities might be sited within the U.S. indicates that there appears to be sufficient storage capacity, primarily in deep saline formations, to accommodate the CO2 from these industries. Nevertheless, even assuming wide-scale availability of cost-effective CO2 capture and geologic storage resources, the emergence of a domestic U.S. oil shale or coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry would be responsible for significant increases in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. The authors present modeling results of two future hypothetical climate policy scenarios that indicate that the oil shale production facilities required to produce 3MMB/d from the Eocene Green River Formation of the western U.S. using an in situ retorting process would result in net emissions to the atmosphere of between 3000-7000 MtCO2, in addition to storing potentially 900-5000 MtCO2 in regional deep geologic formations via CCS in the period up to 2050. A similarly sized, but geographically more dispersed domestic CTL industry could result in 4000-5000 MtCO2 emitted to the atmosphere in addition to potentially 21,000-22,000 MtCO2 stored in regional deep geologic formations over the same period. While this analysis shows that there is likely adequate CO2 storage capacity in the regions where these technologies are likely to deploy, the reliance by these industries on large-scale CCS could result

  13. Assessment of the Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources of the Clinton, Medina, and Tuscarora Formations in the Appalachian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doolan, C.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage potential within the Appalachian Basin. This assessment was performed as part of the USGS national assessment of geologic CO2 storage resources in which individual sedimentary basins are divided into storage assessment units (SAUs) based on geologic characteristics such as lithology, porosity, permeability, reservoir depth, formation water salinity, and the presence of a regional sealing formation. This study focuses on the assessment of the Clinton, Medina and Tuscarora Formations storage assessment unit (SAU) that covers an area of 48.9 million acres in eastern Kentucky and Ohio, West Virginia, northern and western Pennsylvania, and southwestern New York. The areal extent of the SAU is defined on the western boundary by the 100 foot isopach contour of the combined Rochester and Rose Hill Shales that acts as the regional sealing formation and is defined by the 3,000 foot depth to top contour of the Clinton and Tuscarora Formations elsewhere. Depth-to-top and isopach contours were derived from IHS Energy Group, 2011 data for over 25,000 unique boreholes located throughout the area of the SAU. The Clinton, Medina and Tuscarora Formations SAU is composed of the porous intervals of the Lower to Middle Silurian strata that is bounded by the underlying Ordovician age Queenston Shale, and the overlying Silurian age Rochester and Rose Hill Shales. Porous intervals were deposited in a variety of wave and tidal dominated environments as a result of a Lower Silurian shoreline that prograded southeast to northwest. Porous units in the Tuscarora Formation in southwestern and central Pennsylvania and West Virginia are predominantly fine to medium grained sands of alluvial plain facies and those of the Clinton and Medina Formations in southwestern New York, northeastern Pennsylvania, eastern Ohio and northeastern Kentucky are typically fine grained quartzarenites deposited

  14. Passive microseismic monitoring at an Australian CO2 geological storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siggins, Anthony

    2010-05-01

    Passive microseismic monitoring at an Australian CO2 geological storage site A.F. Siggins1 and T. Daley2 1. CO2CRC at CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 2. Lawrence Berkeley National Labs, Berkeley, CA, USA Prior to the injection of CO2, background micro-seismic (MS) monitoring commenced at the CO2CRC Otway project site in Victoria, south-eastern Australia on the 4th of October 2007. The seismometer installation consisted of a solar powered ISS MS™ seismometer connected to two triaxial geophones placed in a gravel pack in a shallow borehole at 10m and 40 m depth respectively. The seismometer unit was interfaced to a digital radio which communicated with a remote computer containing the seismic data base. This system was designed to give a qualitative indication of any natural micro-seismicity at the site and to provide backup to a more extensive geophone array installed at the reservoir depth of approximately 2000m. During the period, October to December 2007 in excess of 150 two-station events were recorded. These events could all be associated with surface engineering activities during the down-hole installation of instruments at the nearby Naylor 1 monitoring well and surface seismic weight drop investigations on site. Source location showed the great majority of events to be clustered on the surface. MS activity then quietened down with the completion of these tasks. Injection of a CO2 rich gas commenced in mid March 2008 continuing until late August 2009 with approximately 65,000 tonnes being injected at 2050m depth in to a depleted natural gas formation. Only a small number of subsurface MS events were recorded during 2008 although the monitoring system suffered from long periods of down-time due to power supply failures and frequent mains power outages in the region. In March 2009 the surface installation was upgraded with new hardware and software. The seismometer was replaced with a more sensitive ISS 32-bit GS

  15. Climatic and Landscape Controls on Storage Capacity of Urban Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs): Implications for Stormwater-Stream Connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, R. M.; Prestegaard, K. L.; Palmer, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization alters watershed hydrological processes; impervious surfaces increase runoff generation, while storm sewer networks increase connectivity between runoff sources and streams. Stormwater control measures (SCMs) that enhance stormwater infiltration have been proposed to mitigate these effects by functioning as stormwater sinks. Regenerative stormwater conveyances structures (RSCs) are an example of infiltration-based SCMs that are placed between storm sewer outfalls and perennial stream networks. Given their location, RSCs act as critical nodes that regulate stormwater-stream connectivity. Therefore, the storage capacity of a RSC structure may exert a major control on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of these connections. This project examined both hydrogeological and hydro-climatic factors that could influence storage capacity of RSC structures. We selected three headwater (5-48 ha) urban watersheds near Annapolis, Maryland, USA. Each watershed is drained by first-order perennial streams and has been implemented with a RSC structure. We conducted high-frequency precipitation and stream stage monitoring below the outlet of each RSC structure for a 1-year period. We also instrumented one of the RSC structures with groundwater wells to monitor changes in subsurface storage over time. Using these data, we 1) identified rainfall thresholds for RSC storage capacity exceedance; 2) quantified the frequency and duration of connectivity when the storage capacity of each RSC was exceeded; and 3) evaluated both event-scale and seasonal changes in groundwater levels within the RSC structure. Precipitation characteristics and antecedent precipitation indices influenced the frequency and duration of stormwater-stream connections. We hypothesize both infiltration limitations and storage limitations of the RSCs contributed to the temporal patterns we observed in stormwater-stream connectivity. We also observed reduced storage potential as contributing area and

  16. Numerical Study of Artificial Seal Formation to Remedy Leakage from Geological CO2 Storage Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, T.; Tanaka, H.; Xu, T.

    2011-12-01

    In the Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (CCS), the CO2 is captured from emission source and stored into geological reservoirs at a depth below 800 m. The injected CO2 is less dense than water, and as a result, it tends to migrate upward. For trapping to inhibit the upward migration of CO2, the reservoirs should be covered with a sufficiently impermeable seal, i.e. caprock. However, the caprock may contain imperfections such as faults and fractures which will play a role of a high permeability path to arise leakage of the injected CO2 from the reservoirs. Pressurization with the injected CO2 can create fissures that may transmit CO2 through the caprock (Zoback and Zinke, 2002). Preparing for such risk of CO2 leakage through pre-existing and/or induced fractures, the International Energy Agency (IEA) has pointed out the importance of establishing a ready-to-use strategy for remediation of leakage from CO2 storage reservoirs (IEA, 2007). As one possibility to realize the strategy, we have proposed a concept to use an aqueous solution (Ito et al., 2006). The solution will have a sufficiently-low viscosity for passing through even small aperture, and it will not impact formation permeability as long as the solution is left as it is. When the solution encounters dissolved CO2, precipitation will occur due to chemical reaction. As a result, the permeability will be reduced by filling the pores and fractures in the rocks with the precipitates. In the present study, we demonstrated first this idea through laboratory experiments simulating subsurface condition at 1000 m deep, i.e. 10 MPa and 40 deg. C, and using a silicate solution reacting with CO2. In this case, the solution - CO2 reaction will produce precipitates of amorphous silica. The results of laboratory experiments show that the present method led to a 99 % permeability reduction in a glass-bead artificial rock even its initially-high permeability of few darcy. Such reduction of permeability was reproduced

  17. Radon isotope measurements as a monitoring tool for CO2 leakage in geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandia, F.; Mazadiego, L. F.; de Elío, J.; Ortega, M.; Bruno, J.

    2011-12-01

    Early detection of the failure of the seal integrity is fundamental in the monitoring plan of a deep geological CO2 storage. A number of methods of leakage control are based on changes in fluid geochemistry (shallow water, soil gases) providing valuable indicators. Among them, the measurement of CO2 fluxes in the soil-atmosphere interface is commonly used since it can be easily done using portable infra-red analyzers (i.e., accumulation chambers). However, initial emission of CO2 from storage horizon could be masked by fluxes from biological activity, limiting its applicability as an early alarm system. The measurement of fluxes of trace gas (Rn, He, VOC) that are virtually absent in the pre-injection baseline turns out a promising complementary method. The measurement of radon isotopes has been long used for the observation of mass transport from deep reservoirs to surface despite the flux of 222Rn and 220Rn is usually very limited in sedimentary basins due to the short half-life of these isotopes. The enhanced transport of radon in CO2 fluxes has been reported from natural systems, resulting in concentration in air up to several thousands of Bq/m3. In the frame of the Compostilla pilot plant project in Spain, a number of methodologies to measure radon emission are being tested in natural systems to select of the most reliable and cost-effective method to be used in leakage control. These methods are (1) Scintillation detector EDA RD-200, (2) Track Etch °, (3) Ionization Chamber and (4) alpha spectroscopy SARAD RTM 200. Some of them are capable of measuring the isotopes separately (SARAD) whereas others just detect the bulk radon concentration. Also, these methods follow distinct procedures and acquisition times. The studied natural sites are located in central and NE Spain (Campo de Calatrava and La Selva basins), and in central Italy (Arezzo basin). Apparently, radon isotopes (up 200000 Bq/m3) are measured far from parent isotopes, and they are coupled to

  18. Ecosystem carbon storage capacity as affected by disturbance regimes: A general theoretical model

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Ensheng; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Weile; Wang, Han; Hayes, Daniel J; McGuire, A. David; Hastings, Alan; Schimel, David

    2012-01-01

    Disturbances have been recognized as a key factor shaping terrestrial ecosystem states and dynamics. A general model that quantitatively describes the relationship between carbon storage and disturbance regime is critical for better understanding large scale terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics. We developed a model (REGIME) to quantify ecosystem carbon storage capacities (E[x]) under varying disturbance regimes with an analytical solution E[x] = U {center_dot} {tau}{sub E} {center_dot} {lambda}{lambda} + s {tau} 1, where U is ecosystem carbon influx, {tau}{sub E} is ecosystem carbon residence time, and {tau}{sub 1} is the residence time of the carbon pool affected by disturbances (biomass pool in this study). The disturbance regime is characterized by the mean disturbance interval ({lambda}) and the mean disturbance severity (s). It is a Michaelis-Menten-type equation illustrating the saturation of carbon content with mean disturbance interval. This model analytically integrates the deterministic ecosystem carbon processes with stochastic disturbance events to reveal a general pattern of terrestrial carbon dynamics at large scales. The model allows us to get a sense of the sensitivity of ecosystems to future environmental changes just by a few calculations. According to the REGIME model, for example, approximately 1.8 Pg C will be lost in the high-latitude regions of North America (>45{sup o} N) if fire disturbance intensity increases around 5.7 time the current intensity to the end of the twenty-first century, which will require around 12% increases in net primary productivity (NPP) to maintain stable carbon stocks. If the residence time decreased 10% at the same time additional 12.5% increases in NPP are required to keep current C stocks. The REGIME model also lays the foundation for analytically modeling the interactions between deterministic biogeochemical processes and stochastic disturbance events.

  19. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, Milton

    1999-01-01

    In a recent address at the California Science Center in Los Angeles, Vice President Al Gore articulated a Digital Earth Vision. That vision spoke to developing a multi-resolution, three-dimensional visual representation of the planet into which we can roam and zoom into vast quantities of embedded geo-referenced data. The vision was not limited to moving through space, but also allowing travel over a time-line, which can be set for days, years, centuries, or even geological epochs. A working group of Federal Agencies, developing a coordinated program to implement the Vice President's vision, developed the definition of the Digital Earth as a visual representation of our planet that enables a person to explore and interact with the vast amounts of natural and cultural geo-referenced information gathered about the Earth. One of the challenges identified by the agencies was whether the technology existed that would be available to permanently store and deliver all the digital data that enterprises might want to save for decades and centuries. Satellite digital data is growing by Moore's Law as is the growth of computer generated data. Similarly, the density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society is also increasing by a factor of four every three years. The technological bottleneck is that the bandwidth for transferring data is only growing at a factor of four every nine years. This implies that the migration of data to viable long-term storage is growing more slowly. The implication is that older data stored on increasingly obsolete media are at considerable risk if they cannot be continuously migrated to media with longer life times. Another problem occurs when the software and hardware systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers. Many instances exist where support for these systems are phased out after mergers or even in going out of business. In addition, survivability of older media can suffer from

  20. Loading Capacities for Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium in High Caustic Nuclear Waste Storage Tanks Containing Selected Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    OJI, LAWRENCE

    2004-11-16

    In this study the loading capacities of selected actinides onto some of the most common sorbent materials which are present in caustic nuclear waste storage tanks have been determined. Some of these transition metal oxides and activated carbons easily absorb or precipitate plutonium, neptunium and even uranium, which if care is not taken may lead to unwanted accumulation of some of these fissile materials in nuclear waste tanks during waste processing. Based on a caustic synthetic salt solution simulant bearing plutonium, uranium and neptunium and ''real'' nuclear waste supernate solution, the loading capacities of these actinides onto iron oxide (hematite), activated carbon and anhydrous sodium phosphate have been determined. The loading capacities for plutonium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 3.4 0.22 plus or minus and 5.5 plus or minus 0.38 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for plutonium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 2.01 microgram per gram of sludge solids. The loading capacities for neptunium onto granular activated carbon and iron oxide (hematite) in a caustic synthetic salt solution were, respectively, 7.9 plus or minus 0.52 and greater than 10 microgram per gram of sorbent. The loading capacity for neptunium onto a typical nuclear waste storage tank sludge solids was 4.48 microgram per gram of sludge solids. A typical nuclear waste storage tank solid material did not show any significant affinity for uranium. Sodium phosphate showed significant affinity for both neptunium and uranium, with loading capacities of 6.8 and 184.6 plus or minus 18.5 microgram per gram of sorbent, respectively.

  1. Influence of hot water dip on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during storage.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Zhong, Liezhou; Sun, Yujing; Chen, Jianchu; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2013-12-01

    The influence of hot water dips (50, 52 and 54  for 3 min) on fruit quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin during 60 days' storage at 10  was investigated. Hot water dips did not affect fruit quality attributes as well as ascorbic acid content, and 50  treatment significantly reduced fruit weight loss. Significant increases of flavonoids were found in all hot water treated fruit from after treatments till 15 days of storage, whereas phenolic acids were not greatly affected. Hot water dipping at 50  significantly increased total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of Satsuma mandarin immediately after treatment and maintained similar levels with control during storage, while 52 and 54  treatments showed relatively lower levels. The results suggested that hot water dipping at 50  for 3 min can be a promising way to retain functional quality of storing Satsuma mandarin.

  2. Climate controls how ecosystems size the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongkai; Hrachowitz, Markus; Schymanski, Stan; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Sriwongsitanon, Nutchanart; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    The root zone moisture storage capacity (SR) of terrestrial ecosystems is a buffer providing vegetation continuous access to water and a critical factor controlling land-atmospheric moisture exchange, hydrological response and biogeochemical processes. However, it is impossible to observe directly at catchment scale. Here, using data from 300 diverse catchments, it was tested that, treating the root zone as a reservoir, the mass curve technique (MCT), an engineering method for reservoir design, can be used to estimate catchment-scale SR from effective rainfall and plant transpiration. Supporting the initial hypothesis, it was found that MCT-derived SR coincided with model-derived estimates. These estimates of parameter SR can be used to constrain hydrological, climate and land surface models. Further, the study provides evidence that ecosystems dynamically design their root systems to bridge droughts with return periods of 10-40 years, controlled by climate and linked to aridity index, inter-storm duration, seasonality and runoff ratio. This adaptation of ecosystems to climate could be explored for prediction in ungauged basins. We found that implementing the MCT-derived SR without recalibration has dramatically increased hydrological model transferability.

  3. Estimation of root zone storage capacity at the catchment scale using improved Mass Curve Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zongxue; Singh, Vijay P.

    2016-09-01

    The root zone storage capacity (Sr) greatly influences runoff generation, soil water movement, and vegetation growth and is hence an important variable for ecological and hydrological modelling. However, due to the great heterogeneity in soil texture and structure, there seems to be no effective approach to monitor or estimate Sr at the catchment scale presently. To fill the gap, in this study the Mass Curve Technique (MCT) was improved by incorporating a snowmelt module for the estimation of Sr at the catchment scale in different climatic regions. The "range of perturbation" method was also used to generate different scenarios for determining the sensitivity of the improved MCT-derived Sr to its influencing factors after the evaluation of plausibility of Sr derived from the improved MCT. Results can be showed as: (i) Sr estimates of different catchments varied greatly from ∼10 mm to ∼200 mm with the changes of climatic conditions and underlying surface characteristics. (ii) The improved MCT is a simple but powerful tool for the Sr estimation in different climatic regions of China, and incorporation of more catchments into Sr comparisons can further improve our knowledge on the variability of Sr. (iii) Variation of Sr values is an integrated consequence of variations in rainfall, snowmelt water and evapotranspiration. Sr values are most sensitive to variations in evapotranspiration of ecosystems. Besides, Sr values with a longer return period are more stable than those with a shorter return period when affected by fluctuations in its influencing factors.

  4. A method for quick assessment of CO2 storage capacity in closedand semi-closed saline formations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Q.; Birkholzer, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Rutqvist, J.

    2008-02-10

    Saline aquifers of high permeability bounded by overlying/underlying seals may be surrounded laterally by low-permeability zones, possibly caused by natural heterogeneity and/or faulting. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection into and storage in such 'closed' systems with impervious seals, or 'semi-closed' systems with nonideal (low-permeability) seals, is different from that in 'open' systems, from which the displaced brine can easily escape laterally. In closed or semi-closed systems, the pressure buildup caused by continuous industrial-scale CO{sub 2} injection may have a limiting effect on CO{sub 2} storage capacity, because geomechanical damage caused by overpressure needs to be avoided. In this research, a simple analytical method was developed for the quick assessment of the CO{sub 2} storage capacity in such closed and semi-closed systems. This quick-assessment method is based on the fact that native brine (of an equivalent volume) displaced by the cumulative injected CO{sub 2} occupies additional pore volume within the storage formation and the seals, provided by pore and brine compressibility in response to pressure buildup. With nonideal seals, brine may also leak through the seals into overlying/underlying formations. The quick-assessment method calculates these brine displacement contributions in response to an estimated average pressure buildup in the storage reservoir. The CO{sub 2} storage capacity and the transient domain-averaged pressure buildup estimated through the quick-assessment method were compared with the 'true' values obtained using detailed numerical simulations of CO{sub 2} and brine transport in a two-dimensional radial system. The good agreement indicates that the proposed method can produce reasonable approximations for storage-formation-seal systems of various geometric and hydrogeological properties.

  5. Rapid Assessment of U.S. Forest and Soil Organic Carbon Storage and Forest Biomass Carbon-Sequestration Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, Eric T.; Ackerman, Katherine V.; Bliss, Norman B.; Kellndorfer, Josef M.; Reeves, Matt C.; Rollins, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides results of a rapid assessment of biological carbon stocks and forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity in the conterminous United States. Maps available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture are used to calculate estimates of current organic carbon storage in soils (73 petagrams of carbon, or PgC) and forest biomass (17 PgC). Of these totals, 3.5 PgC of soil organic carbon and 0.8 PgC of forest biomass carbon occur on lands managed by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). Maps of potential vegetation are used to estimate hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities that are 3-7 PgC higher than current forest biomass carbon storage in the conterminous United States. Most of the estimated hypothetical additional forest biomass carbon sequestration capacity is accrued in areas currently occupied by agriculture and development. Hypothetical forest biomass carbon sequestration capacities calculated for existing forests and woodlands are within +or- 1 PgC of estimated current forest biomass carbon storage. Hypothetical forest biomass sequestration capacities on lands managed by the DOI in the conterminous United States are 0-0.4 PgC higher than existing forest biomass carbon storage. Implications for forest and other land management practices are not considered in this report. Uncertainties in the values reported here are large and difficult to quantify, particularly for hypothetical carbon sequestration capacities. Nevertheless, this rapid assessment helps to frame policy and management discussion by providing estimates that can be compared to amounts necessary to reduce predicted future atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  6. Satellite-based measurements of surface deformation reveal fluid flow associated with the geological storage of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Vasco, D.W.; Rucci, A.; Ferretti, A.; Novali, F.; Bissell, R.; Ringrose, P.; Mathieson, A.; Wright, I.

    2009-10-15

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), gathered over the In Salah CO{sub 2} storage project in Algeria, provides an early indication that satellite-based geodetic methods can be effective in monitoring the geological storage of carbon dioxide. An injected volume of 3 million tons of carbon dioxide, from one of the first large-scale carbon sequestration efforts, produces a measurable surface displacement of approximately 5 mm/year. Using geophysical inverse techniques we are able to infer flow within the reservoir layer and within a seismically detected fracture/ fault zone intersecting the reservoir. We find that, if we use the best available elastic Earth model, the fluid flow need only occur in the vicinity of the reservoir layer. However, flow associated with the injection of the carbon dioxide does appear to extend several kilometers laterally within the reservoir, following the fracture/fault zone.

  7. Water storage capacity exceedance controls the timing and amount of runoff generated from Arctic hillslopes in Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the hydrologic community, there is a growing recognition that different runoff generation mechanisms can be unified within a "fill-and-spill" or storage exceedance paradigm. However, testing this unifying paradigm requires observing watersheds at a variety of scales under their full range of storage conditions, which are difficult to observe on typical human timescales in most environments. Polar watersheds underlain by continuous permafrost provide an opportunity to address these issues, because their total capacity for water storage follows a consistent annual cycle of expansion and contraction as a direct consequence of the extreme seasonality of solar energy availability. Cryotic conditions usually limit water storage to the surface snowpack and frozen soils, but summer warming allows the shallow subsurface to progressively thaw, providing a dynamic storage reservoir that is the convolved expression of several factors, including substrate hydrologic properties, watershed structure, and stochastic precipitation. We hypothesize that the amount of remaining water storage capacity in the system directly controls the amount and timing of runoff production for a given input. We test this prediction for six hillslope watersheds in Arctic Alaska over the 2013 and 2014 summer seasons from snowmelt in May through plant senescence in mid-August. We compare water table position to runoff produced from a given storm event or series of storm events. We find that no runoff is produced until a threshold water table position is exceeded; that is, as seasonal storage changes, runoff depends on watershed storage capacity exceedance. Preliminary results suggest that once that threshold is met, hydrologic response is proportional to storage exceedance. Thus, runoff production from Arctic hillslopes can be modeled from the surface energy balance and a reasonable estimate of shallow subsurface material properties. If storage exceedance is the key control on water export from

  8. Multivariate Geostatistical Analysis of Uncertainty for the Hydrodynamic Model of a Geological Trap for Carbon Dioxide Storage. Case study: Multilayered Geological Structure Vest Valcele, ROMANIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scradeanu, D.; Pagnejer, M.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the works is to evaluate the uncertainty of the hydrodynamic model for a multilayered geological structure, a potential trap for carbon dioxide storage. The hydrodynamic model is based on a conceptual model of the multilayered hydrostructure with three components: 1) spatial model; 2) parametric model and 3) energy model. The necessary data to achieve the three components of the conceptual model are obtained from: 240 boreholes explored by geophysical logging and seismic investigation, for the first two components, and an experimental water injection test for the last one. The hydrodinamic model is a finite difference numerical model based on a 3D stratigraphic model with nine stratigraphic units (Badenian and Oligocene) and a 3D multiparameter model (porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, leakage etc.). The uncertainty of the two 3D models was evaluated using multivariate geostatistical tools: a)cross-semivariogram for structural analysis, especially the study of anisotropy and b)cokriging to reduce estimation variances in a specific situation where is a cross-correlation between a variable and one or more variables that are undersampled. It has been identified important differences between univariate and bivariate anisotropy. The minimised uncertainty of the parametric model (by cokriging) was transferred to hydrodynamic model. The uncertainty distribution of the pressures generated by the water injection test has been additional filtered by the sensitivity of the numerical model. The obtained relative errors of the pressure distribution in the hydrodynamic model are 15-20%. The scientific research was performed in the frame of the European FP7 project "A multiple space and time scale approach for the quantification of deep saline formation for CO2 storage(MUSTANG)".

  9. Geological Carbon Sequestration Storage Resource Estimates for the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone, Illinois and Michigan Basins, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, David; Ellett, Kevin; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Midwest of the United States is a primary target for potential geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations. The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the Cambro-Ordovician strata in the Illinois and Michigan Basins above the basal Mount Simon Sandstone since the Mount Simon is the subject of other investigations including a demonstration-scale injection at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. The primary reservoir targets investigated in this study are the middle Ordovician St Peter Sandstone and the late Cambrian to early Ordovician Knox Group carbonates. The topic of this report is a regional-scale evaluation of the geologic storage resource potential of the St Peter Sandstone in both the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Multiple deterministic-based approaches were used in conjunction with the probabilistic-based storage efficiency factors published in the DOE methodology to estimate the carbon storage resource of the formation. Extensive data sets of core analyses and wireline logs were compiled to develop the necessary inputs for volumetric calculations. Results demonstrate how the range in uncertainty of storage resource estimates varies as a function of data availability and quality, and the underlying assumptions used in the different approaches. In the simplest approach, storage resource estimates were calculated from mapping the gross thickness of the formation and applying a single estimate of the effective mean porosity of the formation. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates ranging from 3.3 to 35.1 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 1.0 to 11.0 Gt in the Illinois Basin at the P10 and P90 probability level, respectively. The second approach involved consideration of the diagenetic history of the formation throughout the two basins and used depth-dependent functions of porosity to derive a more realistic spatially variable model of porosity rather than applying a

  10. CO2-brine-mineral Reactions in Geological Carbon Storage: Results from an EOR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, H.; Wigley, M.; Bickle, M.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Galy, A.; Ballentine, C.; Zhou, Z.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in brines and reactions of the acid brines ultimately dissolving silicate minerals and precipitating carbonate minerals are the prime long-term mechanisms for stabilising the light supercritical CO2 in geological carbon storage. However the rates of dissolution are very uncertain as they are likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the flow of CO2, the possibility of convective instability of the denser CO2-saturated brines and on fluid-mineral reactions which buffer brine acidity. We report the results of sampling brines and gases during a phase of CO2 injection for enhanced oil recovery in a small oil field. Brines and gases were sampled at production wells daily for 3 months after initiation of CO2 injection and again for two weeks after 5 months. Noble gas isotopic spikes were detected at producing wells within days of initial CO2 injection but signals continued for weeks, and at some producers for the duration of the sampling period, attesting to the complexity of gas-species pathways. Interpretations are complicated by the previous history of the oil field and re-injection of produced water prior to injection of CO2. However water sampled from some producing wells during the phase of CO2 injection showed monotonic increases in alkalinity and in concentrations of major cations to levels in excess of those in the injected water. The marked increase in Na, and smaller increases in Ca, Mg, Si, K and Sr are interpreted primarily to result from silicate dissolution as the lack of increase in S and Cl concentrations preclude additions of more saline waters. Early calcite dissolution was followed by re-precipitation. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the waters apparently exceed the 87Sr/86Sr ratios of acetic and hydrochloric acid leaches of carbonate fractions of the reservoir rocks and the silicate residues from the leaching. This may indicate incongruent dissolution of Sr or larger scale isotopic heterogeneity of the reservoir. This is being investigated

  11. Our trial to develop a risk assessment tool for CO2 geological storage (GERAS-CO2GS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Komai, T.

    2012-12-01

    We will introduce our researches about to develop a risk assessment tool named 'GERAS-CO2GS' (Geo-environmental Risk Assessment System, CO2 Geological Storage Risk Assessment System) for 'Carbon Dioxide Geological Storage (Geological CCS)'. It aims to facilitate understanding of size of impact of risks related with upper migration of injected CO2. For gaining public recognition about feasibility of Geological CCS, quantitative estimation of risks is essential, to let public knows the level of the risk: whether it is negligible or not. Generally, in preliminary hazard analysis procedure, potential hazards could be identified within Geological CCS's various facilities such as: reservoir, cap rock, upper layers, CO2 injection well, CO2 injection plant and CO2 transport facilities. Among them, hazard of leakage of injected C02 is crucial, because it is the clue to estimate risks around a specific injection plan in terms of safety, environmental protection effect and economy. Our risk assessment tool named GERAS-CO2GS evaluates volume and rate of retention and leakage of injected CO2 in relation with fractures and/or faults, and then it estimates impact of seepages on the surface of the earth. GERAS-CO2GS has four major processing segments: (a) calculation of CO2 retention and leakage volume and rate, (b) data processing of CO2 dispersion on the surface and ambient air, (c) risk data definition and (d) evaluation of risk. Concerning to the injection site, we defined a model, which is consisted from an injection well and a geological strata model: which involves a reservoir, a cap rock, an upper layer, faults, seabed, sea, the surface of the earth and the surface of the sea. For retention rate of each element of CO2 injection site model, we use results of our experimental and numerical studies on CO2 migration within reservoirs and faults with specific lithological conditions. For given CO2 injection rate, GERAS-CO2GS calculates CO2 retention and leakage of each segment

  12. Development of Regenerable High Capacity Boron Nitrogen Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Damle, A.

    2010-02-03

    The objective of this three-phase project is to develop synthesis and hydrogen extraction processes for nitrogen/boron hydride compounds that will permit exploitation of the high hydrogen content of these materials. The primary compound of interest in this project is ammonia-borane (NH{sub 3}BH{sub 3}), a white solid, stable at ambient conditions, containing 19.6% of its weight as hydrogen. With a low-pressure on-board storage and an efficient heating system to release hydrogen, ammonia-borane has a potential to meet DOE's year 2015 specific energy and energy density targets. If the ammonia-borane synthesis process could use the ammonia-borane decomposition products as the starting raw material, an efficient recycle loop could be set up for converting the decomposition products back into the starting boron-nitrogen hydride. This project is addressing two key challenges facing the exploitation of the boron/nitrogen hydrides (ammonia-borane), as hydrogen storage material: (1) Development of a simple, efficient, and controllable system for extracting most of the available hydrogen, realizing the high hydrogen density on a system weight/volume basis, and (2) Development of a large-capacity, inexpensive, ammonia-borane regeneration process starting from its decomposition products (BNHx) for recycle. During Phase I of the program both catalytic and non-catalytic decomposition of ammonia borane are being investigated to determine optimum decomposition conditions in terms of temperature for decomposition, rate of hydrogen release, purity of hydrogen produced, thermal efficiency of decomposition, and regenerability of the decomposition products. The non-catalytic studies provide a base-line performance to evaluate catalytic decomposition. Utilization of solid phase catalysts mixed with ammonia-borane was explored for its potential to lower the decomposition temperature, to increase the rate of hydrogen release at a given temperature, to lead to decomposition products

  13. Storage and retrieval of ground-water data at the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercer, Maria W.; Morgan, Charles O.

    1982-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a computerized Ground-Water Site-Inventory (GWSI) file that contains information about wells and springs at sites from all States of the United States. This file contains data collected by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and personnel of cooperating State, local and Federal agencies. The file is easily accessible to members or users of the National Water Data Exchange. Since the establishment of the GWSI file in 1974, the data base has grown 19% per year and contains information on about 770,000 sites as of February 1981. (USGS)

  14. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra- and inter-annual water variability in large river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Societies and economies are challenged by variable water supplies. Water storage infrastructure, on a range of scales, can help to mitigate hydrological variability. This study uses a water balance model to investigate how storage capacity can improve water security in the world’s 403 most important river basins, by substituting water from wet months to dry months. We construct a new water balance model for 676 ‘basin-country units’ (BCUs), which simulates runoff, water use (from surface and groundwater), evaporation and trans-boundary discharges. When hydrological variability and net withdrawals are taken into account, along with existing storage capacity, we find risks of water shortages in the Indian subcontinent, Northern China, Spain, the West of the US, Australia and several basins in Africa. Dividing basins into BCUs enabled assessment of upstream dependency in transboundary rivers. Including Environmental Water Requirements into the model, we find that in many basins in India, Northern China, South Africa, the US West Coast, the East of Brazil, Spain and in the Murray basin in Australia human water demand leads to over-abstraction of water resources important to the ecosystem. Then, a Sequent Peak Analysis is conducted to estimate how much storage would be needed to satisfy human water demand whilst not jeopardizing environmental flows. The results are consistent with the water balance model in that basins in India, Northern China, Western Australia, Spain, the US West Coast and several basins in Africa would need more storage to mitigate water supply variability and to meet water demand.

  15. Study of the fluid flow characteristics in a porous medium for CO2 geological storage using MRI.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongchen; Jiang, Lanlan; Liu, Yu; Yang, Mingjun; Zhou, Xinhuan; Zhao, Yuechao; Dou, Binlin; Abudula, Abuliti; Xue, Ziqiu

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to understand fluid flow in porous media. Understanding of fluid flow process in porous media is important for the geological storage of CO2. The high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was used to measure fluid flow in a porous medium (glass beads BZ-02). First, the permeability was obtained from velocity images. Next, CO2-water immiscible displacement experiments using different flow rates were investigated. Three stages were obtained from the MR intensity plot. With increasing CO2 flow rate, a relatively uniform CO2 distribution and a uniform CO2 front were observed. Subsequently, the final water saturation decreased. Using core analysis methods, the CO2 velocities were obtained during the CO2-water immiscible displacement process, which were applied to evaluate the capillary dispersion rate, viscous dominated fractional flow, and gravity flow function. The capillary dispersion rate dominated the effects of capillary, which was largest at water saturations of 0.5 and 0.6. The viscous-dominant fractional flow function varied with the saturation of water. The gravity fractional flow reached peak values at the saturation of 0.6. The gravity forces played a positive role in the downward displacements because they thus tended to stabilize the displacement process, thereby producing increased breakthrough times and correspondingly high recoveries. Finally, the relative permeability was also reconstructed. The study provides useful data regarding the transport processes in the geological storage of CO2.

  16. The effect of drought on carbon storage capacity in a tropical rainforest in French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilos, M. M.; Burban, B.; Hérault, B.; Goret, J. Y.; Cazal, J.; Bonal, D.

    2015-12-01

    In a perfect-deficit approach (Yi, 2012), the daily maximum carbon storage capacity (CPC) of a given ecosystem for each year defines the perfect annual CPC curve. Deficits are the differences in the daily observational data for a given year against a perfect curve. The area between this curve and instantaneous canopy photosynthetic rates represents the potential productivity. Using an 11-year (2004 - 2014) eddy covariance flux and meteorological data, this perfect-deficit approach was used to examine the relationship between potential productivity and droughts occurring in 2005 and 2010 in a tropical rainforest of French Guiana, South America. Surprisingly, CPC deficits were only reduced by 24% (2005) and 19% (2010) from their respective perfect CPCs, indicating a subtle effect of drought to ecosystem productivity. Highest precipitation occurred in 2010 but precipitation deficits dropped drastically during this year (71% reduction from its perfect value) which reflects a drought condition. However, its deficits showed no correlation annually and seasonally. Soil water content (SWC) appeared to be the single driver for CPC deficits during long dry periods but is weakly correlated (r = 0.30; P <0.01 and r = 0.31; P <0.01, in 2005 and 2010, respectively). These results indicate that soil water is not a major limiting factor for productivity of this ecosystem during drought periods. In contrast, global radiation (Rg) corresponds to the peak of CPC deficits in 2010, but only 19% had been reduced from its ideal value. Yet, highest gross primary production (GPP) of 4106±231 gCm-2yr-1 occurred this year (mean 3753±231 gCm-2yr-1). Therefore, smaller deficits in Rg coupled with sufficient water may have induced higher productivity in 2010. Nevertheless, weaker correlations between potential productivity and climatic drivers may imply that other controlling aspects such as biological constraints may also have an effect to the dynamics of potential productivity during

  17. Effects of reduction in porosity and permeability with depth on storage capacity and injectivity in deep saline aquifers: A case study from the Mount Simon Sandstone aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medina, C.R.; Rupp, J.A.; Barnes, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone is recognized as a deep saline reservoir that has significant potential for geological sequestration in the Midwestern region of the United States. Porosity and permeability values collected from core analyses in rocks from this formation and its lateral equivalents in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, and Ohio indicate a predictable relationship with depth owing to a reduction in the pore structure due to the effects of compaction and/or cementation, primarily as quartz overgrowths. The regional trend of decreasing porosity with depth is described by the equation: ??(d)=16.36??e-0.00039*d, where ?? is the porosity and d is the depth in m. The decrease of porosity with depth generally holds true on a basinwide scale. Bearing in mind local variations in lithologic and petrophysical character within the Mount Simon Sandstone, the source data that were used to predict porosity were utilized to estimate the pore volume available within the reservoir that could potentially serve as storage space for injected CO2. The potential storage capacity estimated for the Mount Simon Sandstone in the study area, using efficiency factors of 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, is 23,680, 118,418, 236,832, and 355,242 million metric tons of CO2, respectively. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. WATSTORE: National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System of the U. S. Geological Survey; user's guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchison, Norman E.

    1975-01-01

    with an IBM 370/155 computer. WATSTORE is now (1975) available to other Federal agencies and selected cooperators of the Geological Survey who acquire and(or) use water data. The WATSTORE User's Guide describes the systeb and how it operates.

  19. Investigating the Fundamental Scientific Issues Affecting the Long-term Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, Lee; Cunningham, Alfred; Barnhart, Elliot; Lageson, David; Nall, Anita; Dobeck, Laura; Repasky, Kevin; Shaw, Joseph; Nugent, Paul; Johnson, Jennifer; Hogan, Justin; Codd, Sarah; Bray, Joshua; Prather, Cody; McGrail, B.; Oldenburg, Curtis; Wagoner, Jeff; Pawar, Rajesh

    2014-12-19

    The Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) collaborative was formed to address basic science and engineering knowledge gaps relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The original funding round of ZERT (ZERT I) identified and addressed many of these gaps. ZERT II has focused on specific science and technology areas identified in ZERT I that showed strong promise and needed greater effort to fully develop.

  20. A method for determination of heat storage capacity of the mold materials using a differential thermal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ol'khovik, E.

    2016-04-01

    The article proposes a method for determining of the heat storage capacity of the mould materials. Modern materials for mouldsare made using a variety of technologies, and the manufacturers of binders and additives ensure thermal properties of certain materials only when using a certain recipe. In practice, for management of the casting solidification process (creation of the volume or directed mode) it is favorable to apply various technological methods, including modification of one of the important properties of the casting mould, which is heat storage capacity. A rather simple technique based on the application of the differential thermal analysis was developed for its experimental definition. The obtained data showed a possibility of industrial application of the method.

  1. Practical angular-multiplexing holographic data storage system with 2 terabyte capacity and 1 gigabit transfer rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshizawa, Taku; Shimada, Ken-ichi; Fujita, Kouji; Tada, Yukinobu

    2016-09-01

    Aiming at the realization of an optical data storage system with a large disc capacity and a high transfer rate suitable for digital data archiving, we have defined the specifications of an angular-multiplexing holographic data storage system with a disc capacity of 2 TB and a transfer rate of 1 Gbps on the basis of a run-length-limited (RLL) high-density recording method using RLL modulation. To realize the specifications, RLL turbo coding, a servo system for the reference beam angle, and a servo system for book tracking were newly invented. Also, to satisfy the specifications, a holographic disc and several key components were developed in cooperation with several specialty companies. Eventually, we confirmed a high-density recording of 2.4 Tbit/in.2 achieved by the RLL high-density recording method, using evaluation equipment complying with the specifications for single book recording.

  2. Development and evaluation of a low-cost and high-capacity DICOM image data storage system for research.

    PubMed

    Yakami, Masahiro; Ishizu, Koichi; Kubo, Takeshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-04-01

    Thin-slice CT data, useful for clinical diagnosis and research, is now widely available but is typically discarded in many institutions, after a short period of time due to data storage capacity limitations. We designed and built a low-cost high-capacity Digital Imaging and COmmunication in Medicine (DICOM) storage system able to store thin-slice image data for years, using off-the-shelf consumer hardware components, such as a Macintosh computer, a Windows PC, and network-attached storage units. "Ordinary" hierarchical file systems, instead of a centralized data management system such as relational database, were adopted to manage patient DICOM files by arranging them in directories enabling quick and easy access to the DICOM files of each study by following the directory trees with Windows Explorer via study date and patient ID. Software used for this system was open-source OsiriX and additional programs we developed ourselves, both of which were freely available via the Internet. The initial cost of this system was about $3,600 with an incremental storage cost of about $900 per 1 terabyte (TB). This system has been running since 7th Feb 2008 with the data stored increasing at the rate of about 1.3 TB per month. Total data stored was 21.3 TB on 23rd June 2009. The maintenance workload was found to be about 30 to 60 min once every 2 weeks. In conclusion, this newly developed DICOM storage system is useful for research due to its cost-effectiveness, enormous capacity, high scalability, sufficient reliability, and easy data access.

  3. Composition design for Laves phase-related BCC-V solid solution alloys with large hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Yuan, L.; Xu, F.; Sun, L. X.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the alloy composition characteristics with large hydrogen storage capacities in Laves phase-related BCC solid solution alloy systems using the cluster line approach. Since a dense-packed icosahedral cluster A6B7 characterizes the local structure of AB2 Laves phases, in A-B-C ternary system, such as Ti-Cr(Mn, Fe)-V, where A-B forms AB2 Laves phases while A-C and B-C tend to form solid solutions, a cluster line A6B7-C is constructed by linking A6B7 to C. The alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities are generally located near this line and are approximately expressed with the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The cluster-line alloys (Ti6Cr7)100-xVx (x = 2.5-70 at.%) exhibit different structures and hence different hydrogen storage capacities with increasing V contents. The alloy (Ti6Cr7)95V5 as well as Ti30Cr40V30 with BCC solid solution structure satisfy the cluster-plus-glue-atom model.

  4. Composition design for Laves phase-related body-centered cubic V solid solution alloys with large hydrogen storage capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Wang, Q.; Dong, C.; Yuan, L.; Xu, F.; Sun, L. X.

    2008-03-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities in Laves phase-related body-centered cubic (bcc) solid solution alloy systems using the cluster line approach. Since a dense-packed icosahedral cluster A6B7 characterizes the local structure of AB2 Laves phases, in an A-B-C ternary system, such as Ti-Cr (Mn, Fe)-V, where A-B forms AB2 Laves phases while A-C and B-C tend to form solid solutions, a cluster line A6B7-C is constructed by linking A6B7 to C. The alloy compositions with large hydrogen storage capacities are generally located near this line and are approximately expressed with the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The cluster line alloys (Ti6Cr7)100-xVx (x = 2.5-70 at.%) exhibit different structures and hence different hydrogen storage capacities with increasing V content. The alloys (Ti6Cr7)95V5 and Ti30Cr40V30 with bcc solid solution structure satisfy the cluster-plus-glue-atom model.

  5. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for Biological and Geological Data. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Donald F.

    A project is being conducted to test the feasibility of an information storage and retrieval system for museum specimen data, particularly for natural history museums. A pilot data processing system has been developed, with the specimen records from the national collections of birds, marine crustaceans, and rocks used as sample data. The research…

  6. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Alan L.; Anderson, David M.; Winiarski, David W.; Carmichael, Robert T.; Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Fisher, Andrew R.

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  7. Modelling rainfall interception by forests: a new method for estimating the canopy storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Fernando; Valente, Fernanda; Nóbrega, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Evaporation of rainfall intercepted by forests is usually an important part of a catchment water balance. Recognizing the importance of interception loss, several models of the process have been developed. A key parameter of these models is the canopy storage capacity (S), commonly estimated by the so-called Leyton method. However, this method is somewhat subjective in the selection of the storms used to derive S, which is particularly critical when throughfall is highly variable in space. To overcome these problems, a new method for estimating S was proposed in 2009 by Pereira et al. (Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 149: 680-688), which uses information from a larger number of storms, is less sensitive to throughfall spatial variability and is consistent with the formulation of the two most widely used rainfall interception models, Gash analytical model and Rutter model. However, this method has a drawback: it does not account for stemflow (Sf). To allow a wider use of this methodology, we propose now a revised version which makes the estimation of S independent of the importance of stemflow. For the application of this new version we only need to establish a linear regression of throughfall vs. gross rainfall using data from all storms large enough to saturate the canopy. Two of the parameters used by the Gash and the Rutter models, pd (the drainage partitioning coefficient) and S, are then derived from the regression coefficients: pd is firstly estimated allowing then the derivation of S but, if Sf is not considered, S can be estimated making pd= 0. This new method was tested using data from a eucalyptus plantation, a maritime pine forest and a traditional olive grove, all located in Central Portugal. For both the eucalyptus and the pine forests pd and S estimated by this new approach were comparable to the values derived in previous studies using the standard procedures. In the case of the traditional olive grove, the estimates obtained by this methodology

  8. Isotopic Approaches to Evaluate the Fate of Injected CO2 in Two Geological Storage Projects in Mature Oilfields in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, B.; Johnson, G.; Nightingale, M.; Maurice, S.; Raistrick, M.; Taylor, S.; Hutcheon, I.; Perkins, E.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring and verification of CO2 storage is an essential component of geological storage projects. We present evidence from two enhanced oil recovery projects in Canada that geochemical and isotopic techniques can be successfully used to trace the fate of injected CO2. Geochemical and isotopic data for fluids and gases obtained from multiple wells at the International Energy Agency Greenhouse Gas Weyburn CO2 Monitoring and Storage Project (Saskatchewan, Canada) and from the Penn West Pembina Cardium CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring Pilot (Alberta, Canada) were collected before and throughout the CO2 injection phase. Carbon isotope ratios of injected CO2 in the Weyburn project were significantly lower than those of background CO2 in the reservoir. In contrast, carbon isotope ratios of injected CO2 at Penn West's Pembina Cardium CO2-Enhanced Oil Recovery Monitoring Pilot were markedly higher than those of background CO2. After commencement of CO2 injection, the concentrations and carbon isotope values of CO2 and HCO3- in fluids and gases repeatedly obtained from monitoring wells were determined. Increasing CO2 and HCO3- concentrations in concert with carbon isotope values trending towards those of the injected CO2 revealed effective solubility and ionic trapping of injected CO2 at several monitoring wells at both study sites. In addition, changes in the oxygen isotope values of reservoir fluids provided independent evidence for dissolution of injected CO2 in the produced waters. We conclude that geochemical and isotopic monitoring techniques can play an essential role in verification of CO2 storage provided that the isotopic composition of the injected CO2 is distinct.

  9. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  10. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  11. Energy storage capacity of reversible liquid-phase Diels Alder reaction between maleic anhydride and 2- methyl furan

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, B.G.; Poling, B.E.

    1983-07-01

    Calorimetry was used to determine the heat of reaction and equilibrium constant at 318 K for the reaction between maleic anhydride (A) and 2-methyl furan (B). The values were-60 kJ/gmol and 614 cm/sup 3//gmol, respectively. The motivation for this work was to find a single phase-reacting system that could be used to store solar energy. Thus, the energy storage capacity was calculated for a mixture of A and B, both initially at 7 kmol/m/sup 3/, in dioxane. The maximum apparent heat capacity of 7.37 J/cm/sup 3/ X K occurred at 334 K. This maximum value is 76% higher than the heat capacity of pure water.

  12. Risk assessment of geo-microbial assosicated CO2 Geological Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Sakamoto, Y.; Higashino, H.; Mayumi, D.; Sakata, S.; Kano, Y.; Nishi, Y.; Nakao, S.

    2014-12-01

    If we maintain preferable conditions for methanogenesis archaea during geological CCS, we will be able to abate greenhouse gas emission and produce natural gas as natural energy resource at the same time. Assuming Bio-CCS site, CO2 is injected from a well for to abate greenhouse gas emission and cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes, and CH4 is produced from another well. The procedure is similar to the Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery (EOR/EGR) operation, but in Bio-CCS, the target is generation and production of methane out of depleted oil/gas reservoir during CO2 abatement. Our project aims to evaluate the basic practicability of Bio-CCS that cultivate methanogenic geo-microbes within depleted oil/gas reservoirs for geological CCS, and produce methane gas as fuel resources on the course of CO2 abatement for GHG control. To evaluate total feasibility of Bio-CCS concept, we have to estimate: CH4 generation volume, environmental impact along with life cycle of injection well, and risk-benefit balance of the Bio-CCS. We are modifying the model step by step to include interaction of oil/gas-CO2-geomicrobe within reservoir more practically and alternation of geo-microbes generation, so that we will be able to estimate methane generation rate more precisely. To evaluate impacts of accidental events around Bio-CCS reservoir, we estimated CO2 migration in relation with geological properties, condition of faults and pathways around well, using TOUGH2-CO2 simulator. All findings will be integrated in to it: cultivation condition of methanogenic geo-microbes, estimation method of methane generation quantities, environmental impacts of various risk scenarios, and benefit analysis of schematic site of Bio-CCS.

  13. Characteristics of storage related capacity loss in Ni/H2 cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1993-01-01

    The changes in the capacity, voltage and pressure profile of flight configuration Ni/H2 cells when they are stored for extended periods is examined. The Ni/H2 cells exhibit capacity fade phenomenon regardless of their design when they are stored at room temperature. Capacity loss also occurs if old cells (5 years old) are stored in a very low rate trickle charge (C/200 rate) condition. A periodic recharge technique leads to pressure rise in the cells. Conventional trickle charge (C/100 rate) helps in minimizing or eliminating the second plateau which is one of the characteristics of the capacity fade phenomenon.

  14. Earthquake triggering and large-scale geologic storage of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Zoback, Mark D.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its enormous cost, large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a viable strategy for significantly reducing CO2 emissions associated with coal-based electrical power generation and other industrial sources of CO2 [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2005) IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Prepared by Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, eds Metz B, et al. (Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge, UK); Szulczewski ML, et al. (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:5185–5189]. We argue here that there is a high probability that earthquakes will be triggered by injection of large volumes of CO2 into the brittle rocks commonly found in continental interiors. Because even small- to moderate-sized earthquakes threaten the seal integrity of CO2 repositories, in this context, large-scale CCS is a risky, and likely unsuccessful, strategy for significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:22711814

  15. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  16. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along the

  17. National Geochemical Database, U.S. Geological Survey RASS (Rock Analysis Storage System) geochemical data for Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, E.A.; Smith, D.B.; Abston, C.C.; Granitto, Matthew; Burleigh, K.A.

    1999-01-01

    This dataset contains geochemical data for Alaska produced by the analytical laboratories of the Geologic Division of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These data represent analyses of stream-sediment, heavy-mineral-concentrate (derived from stream sediment), soil, and organic material samples. Most of the data comes from mineral resource investigations conducted in the Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program (AMRAP). However, some of the data were produced in support of other USGS programs. The data were originally entered into the in-house Rock Analysis Storage System (RASS) database. The RASS database, which contains over 580,000 data records, was used by the Geologic Division from the early 1970's through the late 1980's to archive geochemical data. Much of the data have been previously published in paper copy USGS Open-File Reports by the submitter or the analyst but some of the data have never been published. Over the years, USGS scientists recognized several problems with the database. The two primary issues were location coordinates (either incorrect or lacking) and sample media (not precisely identified). This dataset represents a re-processing of the original RASS data to make the data accessible in digital format and more user friendly. This re-processing consisted of checking the information on sample media and location against the original sample submittal forms, the original analytical reports, and published reports. As necessary, fields were added to the original data to more fully describe the sample preparation methods used and sample medium analyzed. The actual analytical data were not checked in great detail, but obvious errors were corrected.

  18. Maximal breath-holding time and immediate tissue CO2 storage capacity during head-out immersion in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, L P; Lundgren, C E

    1996-01-01

    This study tested three possible mechanisms that could explain the prolonged breath-holds (BH) previously observed in humans during submersion in 35 degrees C (thermoneutral) water, including a reduced metabolism, a decreased CO2 sensitivity, and an increased CO2 storage capacity. During immersed BH (n = 13), maximal BH time was prolonged by 20.3% (P < 0.05), the rate of rise of end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PETCO2) was slower (P < 0.05) by 31% (compatible with increased CO2 storage capacity), but the breaking-point PETCO2 (CO2 sensitivity) and the rate of decrease of end tidal partial pressure of oxygen (metabolism) were unchanged. During air breathing (n = 5), immersion resulted in a significant decrease in tidal volume (11%), but did not affect O2 uptake, CO2 elimination (VCO2), or respiratory exchange ratio (R). During a 4-min CO2-rebreathing (n = 9), the slope of the hypercapnic ventilatory response curve (CO2 sensitivity index) was unchanged by immersion, but the significantly decreased VCO2, R, and rate of rise in PETCO2 during immersed rebreathing indicated an increase in the acute CO2 storage capacity (SC). The estimated SC (n = 9), based on an assumed cellular respiratory quotient of 0.8, were 0.52 (SEM 0.03) ml.kg-1.mmHg-1 for control and 0.66 (SEM 0.04) ml.kg-1.mmHg-1 for immersion. A proposed mechanism for the increased SC during immersed BH and during immersed rebreathing is that immersion accelerated CO2 redistribution in the body by increasing perfusion to some low-perfused, low-metabolism, and high-capacity tissues, such as resting skeletal muscle. The increased SC during immersion, however, did not correlate with the prolonged BH duration (n = 9, P > 0.05). The mechanism of the latter remains unclear.

  19. Technology Assessment of High Capacity Data Storage Systems: Can We Avoid a Data Survivability Crisis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halem, M.; Shaffer, F.; Palm, N.; Salmon, E.; Raghavan, S.; Kempster, L.

    1998-01-01

    The density of digital storage media in our information-intensive society increases by a factor of four every three years, while the rate at which this data can be migrated to viable long-term storage has been increasing by a factor of only four every nine years. Meanwhile, older data stored on increasingly obsolete media, are at considerable risk. When the systems for which the media were designed are no longer serviced by their manufacturers (many of whom are out of business), the data will no longer be accessible. In some cases, older media suffer from a physical breakdown of components - tapes simply lose their magnetic properties after a long time in storage. The scale of the crisis is compatible to that facing the Social Security System. Greater financial and intellectual resources to the development and refinement of new storage media and migration technologies in order to preserve as much data as possible.

  20. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. PMID:22868147

  1. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits.

  2. Effects of Scandinavian hydro power on storage needs in a fully renewable European power system for various transmission capacity scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev

    2015-04-01

    The penetration of renewable energies in the European power system has increased in the last decades (23.5% share of renewables in the gross electricity consumption of the EU-28 in 2012) and is expected to increase further up to very high shares close to 100%. Planning and organizing this European energy transition towards sustainable power sources will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. It is very likely that in a fully renewable European power system wind and photovoltaics (pv) will contribute the largest shares to the generation mix followed by hydro power. However, feed-in from wind and pv is due to the weather dependant nature of their resources fluctuating and non-controllable. To match generation and consumption several solutions and their combinations were proposed like very high backup-capacities of conventional power generation (e.g. fossile or nuclear), storages or the extension of the transmission grid. Apart from those options hydro power can be used to counterbalance fluctuating wind and pv generation to some extent. In this work we investigate the effects of hydro power from Norway and Sweden on residual storage needs in Europe depending on the overlaying grid scenario. High temporally and spatially resolved weather data with a spatial resolution of 7 x 7 km and a temporal resolution of 1 hour was used to model the feed-in from wind and pv for 34 investigated European countries for the years 2003-2012. Inflow into hydro storages and generation by run-of-river power plants were computed from ERA-Interim reanalysis runoff data at a spatial resolution of 0.75° x 0.75° and a daily temporal resolution. Power flows in a simplified transmission grid connecting the 34 European countries were modelled minimizing dissipation using a DC-flow approximation. Previous work has shown that hydro power, namely in Norway and Sweden, can reduce storage needs in a renewable European power system by a large extent. A 15% share of hydro power in Europe

  3. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  4. High capacity hydrogen storage materials: attributes for automotive applications and techniques for materials discovery.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Sudik, Andrea; Wolverton, Christopher; Siegel, Donald J

    2010-02-01

    Widespread adoption of hydrogen as a vehicular fuel depends critically upon the ability to store hydrogen on-board at high volumetric and gravimetric densities, as well as on the ability to extract/insert it at sufficiently rapid rates. As current storage methods based on physical means--high-pressure gas or (cryogenic) liquefaction--are unlikely to satisfy targets for performance and cost, a global research effort focusing on the development of chemical means for storing hydrogen in condensed phases has recently emerged. At present, no known material exhibits a combination of properties that would enable high-volume automotive applications. Thus new materials with improved performance, or new approaches to the synthesis and/or processing of existing materials, are highly desirable. In this critical review we provide a practical introduction to the field of hydrogen storage materials research, with an emphasis on (i) the properties necessary for a viable storage material, (ii) the computational and experimental techniques commonly employed in determining these attributes, and (iii) the classes of materials being pursued as candidate storage compounds. Starting from the general requirements of a fuel cell vehicle, we summarize how these requirements translate into desired characteristics for the hydrogen storage material. Key amongst these are: (a) high gravimetric and volumetric hydrogen density, (b) thermodynamics that allow for reversible hydrogen uptake/release under near-ambient conditions, and (c) fast reaction kinetics. To further illustrate these attributes, the four major classes of candidate storage materials--conventional metal hydrides, chemical hydrides, complex hydrides, and sorbent systems--are introduced and their respective performance and prospects for improvement in each of these areas is discussed. Finally, we review the most valuable experimental and computational techniques for determining these attributes, highlighting how an approach that

  5. The role of storage capacity in coping with intra-annual runoff variability on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaupp, Franziska; Hall, Jim; Dadson, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Intra-annual variability poses a risk to water security in many basins as runoff is unevenly distributed over the year. Areas such as Northern Africa, Australia and the South-Western USA are characterized by a high coefficient of variability of monthly runoff. Analyzing the global risk of water scarcity, this study examines 680 basin-country units (BCUs) (403 river basins divided by country borders). By calculating the water balance for each BCU, the interplay of runoff on the one hand and domestic, industrial and environmental water needs on the other hand is shown. In contrast to other studies on average water scarcity, this work focuses on variability of water supply as metrics based on annual average water availability and demand can underestimate the risk of scarcity. The model is based on the assumption that each country-basin with sub-basins and tributaries can be treated as one single reservoir with storage capacity aggregated over that BCU. It includes surface runoff and the possibility to withdraw groundwater as water supply. The storage capacity of each BCU represents the ability to transfer water from wet months to dry months in order to buffer and cope with intra-annual water supply variability and to meet total water demand. Average monthly surface runoff per country-basin for the period 1979 to 2012 is derived from outcomes of the hydrological model Mac-PDM. Mac-PDM is forced with monthly ERAI-Interim reanalysis climate data on a one degree resolution. Groundwater withdrawal capacity, total water demand and storage capacity are taken from the IMPACT model provided by the International Food Research Institute (IFPRI). Storage refers to any kind of surface reservoir whose water can be managed and used for human activities in the industrial, domestic and agricultural sectors. Groundwater withdrawal capacity refers to the technological capacity to pump water rather than the amount of groundwater available. Total water demand includes consumptive water

  6. A contribution to risk analysis for leakage through abandoned wells in geological CO 2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Andreas; Binning, P. J.; Johannsen, K.; Helmig, R.; Class, H.

    2010-08-01

    The selection and the subsequent design of a subsurface CO 2 storage system are subject to considerable uncertainty. It is therefore important to assess the potential risks for health, safety and environment. This study contributes to the development of methods for quantitative risk assessment of CO 2 leakage from subsurface reservoirs. The amounts of leaking CO 2 are estimated by evaluating the extent of CO 2 plumes after numerically simulating a large number of reservoir realizations with a radially symmetric, homogeneous model. To conduct the computationally very expensive simulations, the 'CO 2 Community Grid' was used, which allows the execution of many parallel simulations simultaneously. The individual realizations are set up by randomly choosing reservoir properties from statistical distributions. The statistical characteristics of these distributions have been calculated from a large reservoir database, holding data from over 1200 reservoirs. An analytical risk equation is given, allowing the calculation of average risk due to multiple leaky wells with varying distance in the surrounding of the injection well. The reservoir parameters most affecting risk are identified. Using these results, the placement of an injection well can be optimized with respect to risk and uncertainty of leakage. The risk and uncertainty assessment can be used to determine whether a site, compared to others, should be considered for further investigations or rejected for CO 2 storage.

  7. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  8. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  9. Process for the generation of high capacity pulses from an inductive energy storage device

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, F.; Maier, S.

    1984-04-03

    An inductive storage circuit for generating high voltage pulses includes a quenching circuit and a discharge circuit each connected in parallel with a storage inductor. One branch of the quenching circuit includes a quenching capacitor and one branch of the discharge circuit includes a resistor and a diode in series. These two branches have a common junction, to which is connected a quenching thyristor that forms the second branch of each of the quenching and discharge circuits. Thus, the quenching thyristor is in series with each of the quenching capacitor and the discharge resistor.

  10. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  11. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Herrick, Courtney Grant

    2010-06-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes in strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of a storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  12. From Fundamental Understanding To Predicting New Nanomaterials For High Capacity Hydrogen/Methane Storage and Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Yildirim, Taner

    2015-03-03

    On-board hydrogen/methane storage in fuel cell-powered vehicles is a major component of the national need to achieve energy independence and protect the environment. The main obstacles in hydrogen storage are slow kinetics, poor reversibility and high dehydrogenation temperatures for the chemical hydrides; and very low desorption temperatures/energies for the physisorption materials (MOF’s, porous carbons). Similarly, the current methane storage technologies are mainly based on physisorption in porous materials but the gravimetric and volumetric storage capacities are below the target values. Finally, carbon capture, a critical component of the mitigation of CO2 emissions from industrial plants, also suffers from similar problems. The solid-absorbers such as MOFs are either not stable against real flue-gas conditions and/or do not have large enough CO2 capture capacity to be practical and cost effective. In this project, we addressed these challenges using a unique combination of computational, synthetic and experimental methods. The main scope of our research was to achieve fundamental understanding of the chemical and structural interactions governing the storage and release of hydrogen/methane and carbon capture in a wide spectrum of candidate materials. We studied the effect of scaffolding and doping of the candidate materials on their storage and dynamics properties. We reviewed current progress, challenges and prospect in closely related fields of hydrogen/methane storage and carbon capture.[1-5] For example, for physisorption based storage materials, we show that tap-densities or simply pressing MOFs into pellet forms reduce the uptake capacities by half and therefore packing MOFs is one of the most important challenges going forward. For room temperature hydrogen storage application of MOFs, we argue that MOFs are the most promising scaffold materials for Ammonia-Borane (AB) because of their unique interior active metal-centers for AB binding and well

  13. The maximum water storage capacities in nominally anhydrous minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Yurimoto, H.

    2012-12-01

    Water is the most important volatile component in the Earth, and affects the physicochemical properties of mantle minerals, e.g. density, elastic property, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, rheological property, melting temperature, melt composition, element partitioning, etc. So many high pressure experiments have been conducted so far to determine the effect of water on mantle minerals. To clarify the maximum water storage capacity in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals in the mantle transition zone and lower mantle is an important issue to discuss the possibility of the existence of water reservoir in the Earth mantle. So we have been clarifying the maximum water storage capacity in mantle minerals using MA-8 type (KAWAI-type) high pressure apparatus and SIMS (secondary ion mass spectroscopy). Upper mantle mineral, olivine can contain ~0.9 wt% H2O in the condition just above 410 km discontinuity in maximum (e.g. Chen et al., 2002; Smyth et al., 2006). On the other hand, mantle transition zone mineral, wadsleyite and ringwoodite can contain significant amount (about 2-3 wt.%) of H2O (e.g. Inoue et al., 1995, 1998, 2010; Kawamoto et al., 1996; Ohtani et al., 2000). But the lower mantle mineral, perovskite can not contain significant amount of H2O, less than ~0.1 wt% (e.g. Murakami et al., 2002; Inoue et al., 2010). In addition, garnet and stishovite also can not contain significant amount of H2O (e.g. Katayama et al., 2003; Mookherjee and Karato, 2010; Litasov et al., 2007). On the other hand, the water storage capacities of mantle minerals are supposed to be significantly coupled with Al by a substitution with Mg2+, Si4+ or Mg2+ + Si4+, because Al3+ is the trivalent cation, and H+ is the monovalent cation. To clarify the degree of the substitution, the water contents and the chemical compositions of Al-bearing minerals in the mantle transition zone and the lower mantle were also determined in the Al-bearing systems with H2O. We will introduce the

  14. Stochastic injection-strategy optimization for the preliminary assessment of candidate geological storage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Brent M.; Baù, Domenico; González-Nicolás, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Geological carbon sequestration (GCS) has been identified as having the potential to reduce increasing atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2). However, a global impact will only be achieved if GCS is cost-effectively and safely implemented on a massive scale. This work presents a computationally efficient methodology for identifying optimal injection strategies at candidate GCS sites having uncertainty associated with caprock permeability, effective compressibility, and aquifer permeability. A multi-objective evolutionary optimization algorithm is used to heuristically determine non-dominated solutions between the following two competing objectives: (1) maximize mass of CO2 sequestered and (2) minimize project cost. A semi-analytical algorithm is used to estimate CO2 leakage mass rather than a numerical model, enabling the study of GCS sites having vastly different domain characteristics. The stochastic optimization framework presented herein is applied to a feasibility study of GCS in a brine aquifer in the Michigan Basin (MB), USA. Eight optimization test cases are performed to investigate the impact of decision-maker (DM) preferences on Pareto-optimal objective-function values and carbon-injection strategies. This analysis shows that the feasibility of GCS at the MB test site is highly dependent upon the DM's risk-adversity preference and degree of uncertainty associated with caprock integrity. Finally, large gains in computational efficiency achieved using parallel processing and archiving are discussed.

  15. The optimal retailer's ordering policies with trade credit financing and limited storage capacity in the supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Ghi-Feng; Chung, Kun-Jen; Chen, Tzung-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The traditional economic order quantity model assumes that the retailer's storage capacity is unlimited. However, as we all know, the capacity of any warehouse is limited. In practice, there usually exist various factors that induce the decision-maker of the inventory system to order more items than can be held in his/her own warehouse. Therefore, for the decision-maker, it is very practical to determine whether or not to rent other warehouses. In this article, we try to incorporate two levels of trade credit and two separate warehouses (own warehouse and rented warehouse) to establish a new inventory model to help the decision-maker to make the decision. Four theorems are provided to determine the optimal cycle time to generalise some existing articles. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and annual costs of the inventory system.

  16. Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets: facile synthesis, structural modelling, magnetic properties and application for high capacity lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Su, Dawei; Horvat, Josip; Munroe, Paul; Ahn, Hyojun; Ranjbartoreh, Ali R; Wang, Guoxiu

    2012-01-01

    Polyhedral magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets were synthesised by a low temperature hydrothermal method. Atomistic simulation and calculations on surface attachment energy successfully predicted the polyhedral structure of magnetite nanocrystals with multiple facets. X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and high resolution transmission microscopy confirmed the crystal structure of magnetite, which is consistent with the theoretical modelling. The magnetic property measurements show the superspin glass state of the polyhedral nanocrystals, which could originate from the nanometer size of individual single crystals. When applied as an anode material in lithium ion cells, magnetite nanocrystals demonstrated an outstanding electrochemical performance with a high lithium storage capacity, a satisfactory cyclability, and an excellent high rate capacity.

  17. Particle behaviour consideration to maximize the settling capacity of rainwater storage tanks.

    PubMed

    Han, M Y; Mun, J S

    2007-01-01

    Design of a rainwater storage tank is mostly based on the mass balance of rainwater with respect to the tank, considering aspects such as rainfall runoff, water usage and overflow. So far, however, little information is available on the quality aspects of the stored rainwater, such as the behavior of particles, the effect of retention time of the water in the tank and possible influences of system configuration on water quality in the storage tank. In this study, we showed that the performance of rainwater storage tanks could be maximized by recognizing the importance of water quality improvement by sedimentation and the importance of the system configuration within the tank, as well as the efficient collection of runoff. The efficiency of removal of the particles was increased by there being a considerable distance between the inlet and the outlet in the rainwater storage tank. Furthermore, it is recommended that the effective water depth in a rainwater tank be designed to be more than 3 m and that the rainwater be drawn from as close to the water surface as possible by using a floating suction device. An operation method that increases the retention time by stopping rainwater supply when the turbidity of rainwater runoff is high will ensure low turbidity in the rainwater collected from the tank.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Novel Porous Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) Toward High Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Eddaoudi; Zaworotko, Michael; Space, Brian; Eckert, Juergen

    2013-05-08

    Statement of Objectives: 1. Synthesize viable porous MOFs for high H2 storage at ambient conditions to be assessed by measuring H2 uptake. 2. Develop a better understanding of the operative interactions of the sorbed H2 with the organic and inorganic constituents of the sorbent MOF by means of inelastic neutron scattering (INS, to characterize the H2-MOF interactions) and computational studies (to interpret the data and predict novel materials suitable for high H2 uptake at moderate temperatures and relatively low pressures). 3. Synergistically combine the outcomes of objectives 1 and 2 to construct a made-to-order inexpensive MOF that is suitable for super H2 storage and meets the DOE targets - 6% H2 per weight (2kWh/kg) by 2010 and 9% H2 per weight (3kWh/kg) by 2015. The ongoing research is a collaborative experimental and computational effort focused on assessing H2 storage and interactions with pre-selected metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and zeolite-like MOFs (ZMOFs), with the eventual goal of synthesizing made-to-order high H2 storage materials to achieve the DOE targets for mobile applications. We proposed in this funded research to increase the amount of H2 uptake, as well as tune the interactions (i.e. isosteric heats of adsorption), by targeting readily tunable MOFs:

  19. A Dynamic Programming Model for Optimizing Frequency of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring in Geological CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjya, D.; Mukerji, T.; Mascarenhas, O.; Weyant, J.

    2005-12-01

    Designing a cost-effective and reliable monitoring program is crucial to the success of any geological CO2 storage project. Effective design entails determining both, the optimal measurement modality, as well as the frequency of monitoring the site. Time-lapse seismic provides the best spatial coverage and resolution for reservoir monitoring. Initial results from Sleipner (Norway) have demonstrated effective monitoring of CO2 plume movement. However, time-lapse seismic is an expensive monitoring technique especially over the long term life of a storage project and should be used judiciously. We present a mathematical model based on dynamic programming that can be used to estimate site-specific optimal frequency of time-lapse surveys. The dynamics of the CO2 sequestration process are simplified and modeled as a four state Markov process with transition probabilities. The states are M: injected CO2 safely migrating within the target zone; L: leakage from the target zone to the adjacent geosphere; R: safe migration after recovery from leakage state; and S: seepage from geosphere to the biosphere. The states are observed only when a monitoring survey is performed. We assume that the system may go to state S only from state L. We also assume that once observed to be in state L, remedial measures are always taken to bring it back to state R. Remediation benefits are captured by calculating the expected penalty if CO2 seeped into the biosphere. There is a trade-off between the conflicting objectives of minimum discounted costs of performing the next time-lapse survey and minimum risk of seepage and its associated costly consequences. A survey performed earlier would spot the leakage earlier. Remediation methods would have been utilized earlier, resulting in savings in costs attributed to excessive seepage. On the other hand, there are also costs for the survey and remedial measures. The problem is solved numerically using Bellman's optimality principal of dynamic

  20. Exemplifying the Effects of Parameterization Shortcomings in the Numerical Simulation of Geological Energy and Mass Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, Frank; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Schäfer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations of hydraulic, thermal, geomechanical, or geochemical (THMC-) processes in the subsurface have been conducted for decades. Often, such simulations are commenced by applying a parameter set that is as realistic as possible. Then, a base scenario is calibrated on field observations. Finally, scenario simulations can be performed, for instance to forecast the system behavior after varying input data. In the context of subsurface energy and mass storage, however, these model calibrations based on field data are often not available, as these storage actions have not been carried out so far. Consequently, the numerical models merely rely on the parameter set initially selected, and uncertainties as a consequence of a lack of parameter values or process understanding may not be perceivable, not mentioning quantifiable. Therefore, conducting THMC simulations in the context of energy and mass storage deserves a particular review of the model parameterization with its input data, and such a review so far hardly exists to the required extent. Variability or aleatory uncertainty exists for geoscientific parameter values in general, and parameters for that numerous data points are available, such as aquifer permeabilities, may be described statistically thereby exhibiting statistical uncertainty. In this case, sensitivity analyses for quantifying the uncertainty in the simulation resulting from varying this parameter can be conducted. There are other parameters, where the lack of data quantity and quality implies a fundamental changing of ongoing processes when such a parameter value is varied in numerical scenario simulations. As an example for such a scenario uncertainty, varying the capillary entry pressure as one of the multiphase flow parameters can either allow or completely inhibit the penetration of an aquitard by gas. As the last example, the uncertainty of cap-rock fault permeabilities and consequently potential leakage rates of stored gases into

  1. Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor, G.; Prevost, J.

    2013-12-01

    Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013

  2. Continuous atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior over geological storage sites using flux stations: latest technologies and resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, George; Madsen, Rodney; Feese, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    quantify leakages from the subsurface, to improve storage efficiency, and for other storage characterizations [5-8]. In this presentation, the latest regulatory and methodological updates are provided regarding atmospheric monitoring of the injected CO2 behavior using flux stations. These include 2013 improvements in methodology, as well as the latest literature, including regulatory documents for using the method and step-by-step instructions on implementing it in the field. Updates also include 2013 development of a fully automated remote unattended flux station capable of processing data on-the-go to continuously output final CO2 emission rates in a similar manner as a standard weather station outputs weather parameters. References: [1] Burba G. Eddy Covariance Method for Scientific, Industrial, Agricultural and Regulatory Applications. LI-COR Biosciences; 2013. [2] International Energy Agency. Quantification techniques for CO2 leakage. IEA-GHG; 2012. [3] US Department of Energy. Best Practices for Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations. US DOE; 2012. [4] Liu G. (Ed.). Greenhouse Gases: Capturing, Utilization and Reduction. Intech; 2012. [5] Finley R. et al. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin - Phase III. DOE-MGSC; DE-FC26-05NT42588; 2012. [6] LI-COR Biosciences. Surface Monitoring for Geologic Carbon Sequestration. LI-COR, 980-11916, 2011. [7] Eggleston H., et al. (Eds). IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, IPCC NGGI P, WMO/UNEP; 2006-2011. [8] Burba G., Madsen R., Feese K. Eddy Covariance Method for CO2 Emission Measurements in CCUS Applications: Principles, Instrumentation and Software. Energy Procedia, 40C: 329-336; 2013.

  3. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations.

  4. Massive memory revisited: Limitations on storage capacity for object details in visual long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Corbin A; Yassa, Michael A; Egeth, Howard E

    2015-11-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The results reveal that while VLTM representations are typically sufficient to support performance when the procedure probes gist-based information, they are not sufficient in circumstances when the procedure requires more detail. We show that VLTM capacity, albeit large, is heavily reliant on gist as well as detail. Thus, the nature of the mnemonic representations stored in VLTM is important in understanding its capacity limitations. PMID:26472646

  5. Tunable Gravimetric and Volumetric Hydrogen Storage Capacities in Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amol; Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Chen, Yun-Wen; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-09-28

    We study the hydrogen adsorption in porous frameworks composed of silsesquioxane cages linked via boron substituted aromatic structures by first-principles modeling. Such polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) frameworks can be further modified by decorating them with metal atoms binding to the ring structures of the linkers. We have considered Sc- and Ti-doped frameworks which bind H2 via so-called Kubas interaction between hydrogen molecules and transition metal atoms. It will be demonstrated that the maximum H2 gravimetric capacity can be improved to more than 7.5 wt % by using longer linkers with more ring structures. However, the maximum H2 volumetric capacity can be tuned to more than 70 g/L by varying the size of silsesquioxane cages. We are optimistic that by varying the building blocks, POSS frameworks can be modified to meet the targets for the gravimetric and volumetric capacities set by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Tunable Gravimetric and Volumetric Hydrogen Storage Capacities in Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Amol; Chiu, Cheng-Chau; Chen, Yun-Wen; Kuo, Jer-Lai

    2016-09-28

    We study the hydrogen adsorption in porous frameworks composed of silsesquioxane cages linked via boron substituted aromatic structures by first-principles modeling. Such polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) frameworks can be further modified by decorating them with metal atoms binding to the ring structures of the linkers. We have considered Sc- and Ti-doped frameworks which bind H2 via so-called Kubas interaction between hydrogen molecules and transition metal atoms. It will be demonstrated that the maximum H2 gravimetric capacity can be improved to more than 7.5 wt % by using longer linkers with more ring structures. However, the maximum H2 volumetric capacity can be tuned to more than 70 g/L by varying the size of silsesquioxane cages. We are optimistic that by varying the building blocks, POSS frameworks can be modified to meet the targets for the gravimetric and volumetric capacities set by the U.S. Department of Energy. PMID:27599537

  7. Vadose Zone Remediation of CO2 Leakage from Geologic CO2 Storage Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2004-03-03

    In the unlikely event that CO2 leakage from deep geologic CO2 sequestration sites reaches the vadose zone, remediation measures for removing the CO2 gas plume may have to be undertaken. Carbon dioxide leakage plumes are similar in many ways to volatile organic compound (VOC) vapor plumes, and the same remediation approaches are applicable. We present here numerical simulation results of passive and active remediation strategies for CO2 leakage plumes in the vadose zone. The starting time for the remediation scenarios is assumed to be after a steady-state CO2 leakage plume is established in the vadose zone, and the source of this plume has been cut off. We consider first passive remediation, both with and without barometric pumping. Next, we consider active methods involving extraction wells in both vertical and horizontal configurations. To compare the effectiveness of the various remediation strategies, we define a half-life of the CO2 plume as a convenient measure of the CO2 removal rate. For CO2 removal by passive remediation approaches such as barometric pumping, thicker vadose zones generally require longer remediation times. However, for the case of a thin vadose zone where a significant fraction of the CO2 plume mass resides within the high liquid saturation region near the water table, the half-life of the CO2 plume without barometric pumping is longer than for somewhat thicker vadose zones. As for active strategies, results show that a combination of horizontal and vertical wells is the most effective among the strategies investigated, as the performance of commonly used multiple vertical wells was not investigated.

  8. Chemical, mineralogical and molecular biological characterization of the rocks and fluids from a natural gas storage deep reservoir as a baseline for the effects of geological hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, Daria; Kasina, Monika; Weigt, Jennifer; Merten, Dirk; Pudlo, Dieter; Würdemann, Hilke

    2014-05-01

    Planned transition to renewable energy production from nuclear and CO2-emitting power generation brings the necessity for large scale energy storage capacities. One possibility to store excessive energy produced is to transfer it to chemical forms like hydrogen which can be subsequently injected and stored in subsurface porous rock formations like depleted gas reservoirs and presently used gas storage sites. In order to investigate the feasibility of the hydrogen storage in the subsurface, the collaborative project H2STORE ("hydrogen to store") was initiated. In the scope of this project, potential reactions between microorganism, fluids and rocks induced by hydrogen injection are studied. For the long-term experiments, fluids of natural gas storage are incubated together with rock cores in the high pressure vessels under 40 bar pressure and 40° C temperature with an atmosphere containing 5.8% He as a tracer gas, 3.9% H2 and 90.3% N2. The reservoir is located at a depth of about 2 000 m, and is characterized by a salinity of 88.9 g l-1 NaCl and a temperature of 80° C and therefore represents an extreme environment for microbial life. First geochemical analyses showed a relatively high TOC content of the fluids (about 120 mg l-1) that were also rich in sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron. Remarkable amounts of heavy metals like zinc and strontium were also detected. XRD analyses of the reservoir sandstones revealed the major components: quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, anhydrite and analcime. The sandstones were intercalated by mudstones, consisting of quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, analcime, chlorite, mica and carbonates. Genetic profiling of amplified 16S rRNA genes was applied to characterize the microbial community composition by PCR-SSCP (PCR-Single-Strand-Conformation Polymorphism) and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). First results indicate the presence of microorganisms belonging to the phylotypes alfa-, beta- and gamma

  9. Development of REBCO HTS Magnet of Magnetic Bearing for Large Capacity Flywheel Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Matsuoka, Taro; Furukawa, Makoto; Nakao, Kengo; Nagashima, Ken; Ogata, Masafumi; Yamashita, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazuhiro; Arai, Yuuki; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Horiuchi, Shinichi; Maeda, Tadakazu; Shimizu, Hideki

    A flywheel energy storage system (FESS) is a promising electrical storage system that moderates fluctuation of electrical power from renewable energy sources. The FESS can charge and discharge the surplus electrical power repetitively with the rotating energy. Particularly, the FESS that utilizes a high temperature superconducting magnetic bearing (HTS bearing) is lower loss than conventional FESS that has mechanical bearing, and has property of longer life operation than secondary batteries. The HTS bearing consists of a HTS bulk and double-pancake coils used 2nd generation REBCO wires. In the development, the HTS double-pancake coils were fabricated and were provided for a levitation test to verify the possibility of the HTS bearing. We successfully confirmed the magnetic field was achieved to design value, and levitation force in the configuration of one YBCO bulk and five double pan-cake coils was obtained to a satisfactory force of 39.2 kN (4 tons).

  10. Reactivity of rock and well in a geological storage of CO2 : role of co-injected gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, S.; Sterpenich, J.; Pironon, J.

    2009-04-01

    The CO2 capture and geological storage from high emitting sources (coal and gas power plants) is one of a panel of solutions proposed to reduce the global greenhouse gas emissions. Different pre- , post- or oxy-combustion capture processes are now available to separate associated gases (SOx, NOx, etc…) and the CO2. However, complete purification of CO2 is unachievable for cost reasons as well as for CO2 surplus of emissions due to the separation processes. By consequence, a non-negligible part (more or less 5%) of these gases, called "annex gases", could be co-injected with the CO2. Their impact on the chemical stability of reservoir rocks, caprocks and wells has to be evaluated before any large scale injection procedure. Physico-chemical transformations could modify mechanical and injectivity properties of the site and possibly alter storage safety. One of the aims of the CCS pilot project leaded by TOTAL at Lacq (France) is to develop, through a real case study, a methodology for a long-term safe storage qualification. Greenhouse gases are captured from an oxy-combustion power plant, transported along 30 km to the carbonate reservoir of Rousse at around 4500 m in depth. The study presented here is focused on laboratory simulations of geochemical interactions between the reservoir rock (fractured dolomite), the caprock (marl) and the injected CO2 with some potential annex gases. In the same time, experiments are performed on the reactivity of reference minerals such as calcite, dolomite, muscovite, quartz and pyrite to better understand the implication of each phase on bulk rock reactivity. Moreover, well reactivity is observed through specific steel and cement used by petroleum industry. Two annex gases (SO2 and NO) have been selected.. Their reactivity is compared to that of N2 considered as an inert annex gas from a chemical point of view. Solid samples are placed in 1cm3 gold capsules in presence or not of water with a salinity of 25 NaCl g/l. Gases are

  11. Impaired Semantic Knowledge Underlies the Reduced Verbal Short-Term Storage Capacity in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Frederic; Majerus, Steve; De Baerdemaeker, Julie; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne

    2009-01-01

    A decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) capacity is consistently observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although this impairment has been mainly attributed to attentional deficits during encoding and maintenance, the progressive deterioration of semantic knowledge in early stages of AD may also be an important determinant of poor…

  12. Massive Memory Revisited: Limitations on Storage Capacity for Object Details in Visual Long-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Corbin A.; Yassa, Michael A.; Egeth, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous work suggests that visual long-term memory (VLTM) is highly detailed and has a massive capacity. However, memory performance is subject to the effects of the type of testing procedure used. The current study examines detail memory performance by probing the same memories within the same subjects, but using divergent probing methods. The…

  13. Geochemical Processes During Geological Carbon Storage: Lessons from Natural Analogues and Field Experiments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Kampman, N.; Wigley, M.; Dubacq, B.

    2013-12-01

    The nature, rates and consequences of reactions between CO2-charged brines and reservoir and caprock minerals for the long-term fate of geological carbon stores are uncertain. At worst it has been suggested that acid carbonated brines might corrode migration pathways through caprocks and fault zones allowing CO2 to escape and transporting metal contaminants. However there is a growing body of data from short term injection experiments, and sites where natural CO2 has been stored or actively leaking for 100,000's of years or more, which shows that the acid fluids are rapidly neutralised by reaction with carbonate and Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals, that the fluids precipitate carbonate minerals in caprocks and along migration pathways, and that caprocks have remained impermeable over millions of years. Limited observations from small scale injection experiments suggest that the natural heterogeneities in rock formations cause extensive fingering of the injected CO2, markedly increasing the rates of CO2 dissolution into formation brines. The resultant acidity drives the dissolution of carbonates and Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals which buffers pH, but the more sluggish dissolution of silicate minerals over time scales of months or more drives subsequent re-precipitation of carbonate minerals. Dissolution of Fe-oxide grain coatings is important in stabilizing Fe-Mg-Ca carbonate minerals. Reaction rates slow over 2 to 5 orders-of-magnitude as equilibrium is approached and in the longer term are controlled by the kinetic balance between the thermodynamic understep of the dissolution reactions of primary Si-Al phases (e.g. feldspars and micas in sandstone reservoirs) and the overstep driving the precipitation of clay minerals. Reservoir mineralogy imposes a key control on the fluid-mineral reactions where immature continental sandstones contain much higher fractions of reactive feldspars and micas than mature marine quartz sands. The major conclusion from observations to date is

  14. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharski, Timothy J.; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Zheng, Jennie O.; Nocera, Daniel G.; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol-1, and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  15. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain. PMID:24755597

  16. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    PubMed

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  17. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC

    2014-04-13

    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  18. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices.

  19. Soil water storage capacity under chronosequence of revegetation in Yanhe watershed on the Loess Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Feng; Wen, Zhong-Ming; An, Shao-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture deserves attention due to its scientific importance and practical applications. However, the effects of soil moisture on vegetation development and succession are poorly documented. Here we study soil water storage in Yanhe watershed at northern Shaanxi on five different land uses, namely shrubland, farmland, natural grassland, woodland, and artificial grassland, and in soil under restoration for 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25. The results show that (1) soil water in soil 0-60 cm below ground is the highest in farmland, and lower in shrubland, artificial grassland, natural grassland and woodland; (2) soil water in artificial grassland and woodland decreases rapidly as the soil depth increases; whereas soil water in farmland, natural grassland, shrubland and woodland decreases; (3) soil water storage of farmland is greater than that of shrubland, artificial grassland, natural grassland and woodland; and (4) the vegetation succession in soil undergo restoration for different years on eroded soil results in a decrease in soil water storage.

  20. Synergistic High Charge-Storage Capacity for Multi-level Flexible Organic Flash Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Minji; Khim, Dongyoon; Park, Won-Tae; Kim, Jihong; Kim, Juhwan; Noh, Yong-Young; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Electret and organic floating-gate memories are next-generation flash storage mediums for printed organic complementary circuits. While each flash memory can be easily fabricated using solution processes on flexible plastic substrates, promising their potential for on-chip memory organization is limited by unreliable bit operation and high write loads. We here report that new architecture could improve the overall performance of organic memory, and especially meet high storage for multi-level operation. Our concept depends on synergistic effect of electrical characterization in combination with a polymer electret (poly(2-vinyl naphthalene) (PVN)) and metal nanoparticles (Copper). It is distinguished from mostly organic nano-floating-gate memories by using the electret dielectric instead of general tunneling dielectric for additional charge storage. The uniform stacking of organic layers including various dielectrics and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) as an organic semiconductor, followed by thin-film coating using orthogonal solvents, greatly improve device precision despite easy and fast manufacture. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] as high-k blocking dielectric also allows reduction of programming voltage. The reported synergistic organic memory devices represent low power consumption, high cycle endurance, high thermal stability and suitable retention time, compared to electret and organic nano-floating-gate memory devices. PMID:26201747

  1. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, Ian

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO2 will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO2 will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO2 releases

  2. Dissolution of CO2 in Brines and Mineral Reactions during Geological Carbon Storage: AN Eor Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickle, M. J.; Chapman, H.; Galy, A.; Kampman, N.; Dubacq, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Zhou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Dissolution of CO2 in formation brines is likely to be a major process which stabilises stored CO2 on longer time scales and mitigates CO2 migrating through storage complexes. However very little is known about the likely rates of CO2 dissolution as CO2 flows through natural heterogeneous brine filled reservoirs. Here we report the results of sampling fluids over 6 months after a phase of CO2 injection commenced for enhanced oil recovery coupled with injection of isotopically enriched 3He and 129Xe. Modelling of the changes in fluid chemistry has previously been interpreted to indicate significant dissolution of silicate minerals where fluids remained close to saturation with calcite. These calculations, which are based on modal decomposition of changes in cation concentrations, are supported by changes in the isotopic compositions of Sr, Li and Mg. Analysis of Sr-isotopic compositions of samples from outcrops of the Frontier Formation, which forms the reservoir sampled by the EOR experiment, reveals substantial heterogeneity. Silicate mineral compositions have 87Sr/86Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.719 whereas carbonate cements have values around 0.7076. Calculation of CO2 dissolution based on simplified 2-D flow models shows that fluids likely sample reservoir heterogeneities present on a finer scale with CO2 fingers occupying the most permeable horizons and most water flow in the adjacent slightly less permeable zones. Smaller time scale variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios are interpreted to reflect variations in flow paths on small length scales driven by invading CO2.

  3. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    PubMed

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  4. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes.

    PubMed

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl.

  5. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-19

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors.

  6. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    PubMed

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-19

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. PMID:27546561

  7. Rhizophoraceae Mangrove Saplings Use Hypocotyl and Leaf Water Storage Capacity to Cope with Soil Water Salinity Changes

    PubMed Central

    Lechthaler, Silvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Tonné, Nathalie; Prusova, Alena; Gerkema, Edo; Van As, Henk; Koedam, Nico; Windt, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most striking features of Rhizophoraceae mangrove saplings are their voluminous cylinder-shaped hypocotyls and thickened leaves. The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to root and settle. In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0–5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid rhizosphere salinity changes using water stored in hypocotyls and leaves, but the largest water storage capacity was found in the leaves. We conclude that in Rhizophora and Bruguiera the hypocotyl offers the bulk of water buffering capacity during the dispersal phase and directly after settlement when only few leaves are present. As saplings develop more leaves, the significance of the leaves as a water storage organ becomes larger than that of the hypocotyl. PMID:27446125

  8. Rock Physics Analysis for the Characterization of the Geological CO2 Storage Prospect in Southwestern Ulleung Basin, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, G.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Keehm, Y.

    2014-12-01

    We performed rock physical analysis for the characterization of the CO2 storage site in Ulleung basin, Korea. We obtained the characteristics of target formation from the previous work, which contains comprehensive analyses on key horizons and stratigraphy. After verifying the previous work with well-log data, we performed rock physics modeling to obtain the interrelations between reservoir properties and seismic property for key units, such as shale volume-impedance and porosity-impedance relations. We applied the relations to inverted acoustic impedance from 3D seismic data, and obtained 3D distribution maps for shale volume and porosity. We found around 10-meter-thick cap rock unit (Unit 2-3) and two reservoir units (Unit 3-1 & 3-2) with thickness of a few hundred meters. Unit 2-3 has consistently high shale volume throughout the study area, which implies that it can be a good cap rock. Unit 3-1 and 3-2 seem to be good reservoir layers and their average sand thicknesses are 60 m and 150 m, respectively. From this preliminary analysis, the pore volume of the sand intervals of two reservoirs units is estimated to be 20 billion cubic meters. If we assume that one percent of sand pore volume can be replaced by injected CO2, the injectable amount of CO2 would be 136 million metric tonne. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by "Development of Technology for CO2 Marine Geological Storage" funded by the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries, Korea (No. 20052004), and "Energy Efficiency & Resources of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant" funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & energy (No. 20132010201760).

  9. The role of residence time in diagnostic models of global carbon storage capacity: model decomposition based on a traceable scheme

    PubMed Central

    Yizhao, Chen; Jianyang, Xia; Zhengguo, Sun; Jianlong, Li; Yiqi, Luo; Chengcheng, Gang; Zhaoqi, Wang

    2015-01-01

    As a key factor that determines carbon storage capacity, residence time (τE) is not well constrained in terrestrial biosphere models. This factor is recognized as an important source of model uncertainty. In this study, to understand how τE influences terrestrial carbon storage prediction in diagnostic models, we introduced a model decomposition scheme in the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) and then compared it with a prognostic model. The result showed that τE ranged from 32.7 to 158.2 years. The baseline residence time (τ′E) was stable for each biome, ranging from 12 to 53.7 years for forest biomes and 4.2 to 5.3 years for non-forest biomes. The spatiotemporal variations in τE were mainly determined by the environmental scalar (ξ). By comparing models, we found that the BEPS uses a more detailed pool construction but rougher parameterization for carbon allocation and decomposition. With respect to ξ comparison, the global difference in the temperature scalar (ξt) averaged 0.045, whereas the moisture scalar (ξw) had a much larger variation, with an average of 0.312. We propose that further evaluations and improvements in τ′E and ξw predictions are essential to reduce the uncertainties in predicting carbon storage by the BEPS and similar diagnostic models. PMID:26541245

  10. External electric field: An effective way to prevent aggregation of Mg atoms on γ-graphyne for high hydrogen storage capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xin-Lu; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we investigate the hydrogen storage capacity of Mg-decorated γ-graphyne (Mg-G) based on DFT calculations. Our results indicate that an external electric field can effectively prevent Mg atoms aggregating on γ-graphyne sheet. The Mg-G, after electric field (F = 0.05 V/nm) treatment, can store up to ten H2 molecules and the hydrogen storage capacity is 10.64 wt%, with the average adsorption energy of 0.28 eV/H2. Our calculations demonstrate that Mg-G is a potential material for hydrogen storage with high capacity and might motivate active experimental efforts in designing hydrogen storage media.

  11. Developing Radioactive Carbon Isotope Tagging for Monitoring, Verification and Accounting in Geological Carbon Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yinghuang

    pressurized CO2 tagged with our tracer. The laboratory scale evaluation demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of our tracer loops and injection system. The 14C/12C ratio we achieved in the high pressure flow loop was at the part per trillion level, and deviation between the experimental result and theoretical expectation was 6.1%. Third, a field test in Iceland successfully demonstrated a similar performance whereby 14CO2 tracer could be injected in a controlled manner into a CO2 stream at the part per trillion level over extended periods of time. The deviation between the experimental result and theoretical expectation was 7.1%. In addition the project considered a laser-based 14C detection system. However, the laser-based 14C detection system was shown to possess inadequate sensitivity for detecting ambient levels of 14CO2. Alternative methods for detecting 14C, such as saturated cavity absorption ring down spectroscopy and scintillation counting may still be suitable. In summary, the project has defined the foundation of carbon-14 tagging for the monitoring, verification, and accounting of geological carbon sequestration.

  12. Coupling Power Generation, Geologic CO2 Storage and Saline Groundwater Desalination to Address Growing Energy Needs in Water Constrained Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, C. L.; Wurstner, S. K.; Fortson, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    As humanity works to both minimize climate change and adapt to its early impacts, co-management of energy and water resources will become increasingly important. In some parts of the US, power plants have been denied permits, in part because of the significant burden placed on local water supplies by assigning new water rights for the facility’s entire design life. Water resources may be allocated 30 to 50 years into a future where water availability and quality are uncertain due to supply impacts associated with climate change and increased demand from growing populations, agriculture and industry. In many areas, particularly those with access to seawater, desalination is being employed with increasing frequency to augment conventional sources of fresh water. At the same time, many of the world’s developed nations are moving to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One key technological option for addressing emissions from the power generation sector is CO2 capture and geologic storage (CCS). This process is both water and energy intensive for many power and industrial facilities, compounding the impact of declining water availability for plants faced with deploying CCS in a CO2-constrained future. However, a unique opportunity may exist to couple power generation and CCS by extracting and desalinating brine from the CO2 storage formation to produce fresh water. While this coupled approach is unlikely to be attractive for most CCS projects, it may represent a viable option in areas where there is demand for additional electricity but conventional water supplies are unable to meet the needs of the power generation and CO2 capture systems, or in areas where brine produced from CCS projects can be desalinated to supplement strained municipal supplies. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the factors impacting the feasibility of coupled CCS-desalination projects. Several injection / extraction scenarios have been examined via the STOMP geochemical flow model

  13. Design Considerations for Financing a National Trust to Advance the Deployment of Geologic CO2 Storage and Motivate Best Practices

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Trabucchi, Chiara; Patton , Lindene

    2010-03-01

    This paper explores how the flawed, widely held public policy view of an ever growing risk associated with long-term carbon dioxide (CO2) storage profoundly influences the public policy dialogue about how to best address the long term risk profile for geologic storage. In order to accomplish this, the authors present evidence from the rapidly emerging science and engineering of CO2 storage which demonstrates that, with proper site characterization and sound operating practices, retention of stored CO2 will increase with time thus invalidating the premise of an ever growing risk. The authors focus on key issues of fit, interplay, and scalability associated with a trust fund funded by a hypothetical $1/tonCO2 tipping fee for each ton of CO2 stored in the United States under WRE450 and WRE550 climate policies. The authors conclude there is no intrinsic value in creating a trust fund predicated solely on collecting a fixed fee that is not mapped to site-specific risk profiles. If left to grow unchecked, a trust fund that is predicated on a constant stream of annual payments unrelated to the site’s risk profile could result in the accumulation of hundreds of billions to more than a trillion dollars in real terms contributing to significant opportunity cost of capital. Further, rather than mitigating the financial consequences of long-term CCS risks, this analysis suggests a blanket $1/tonCO2 tipping fee may increase the probability and frequency of long-term risk by eliminating financial incentives for sound operating behavior and site selection criteria – contribute to moral hazard. At a minimum, effective use of a trust fund requires: (1) strong oversight regarding site selection and fund management, and (2) a clear process by which the fund is periodically valued and funds collected are mapped to the risk profile of the pool of covered CCS sites. Without appropriate checks and balances, there is no a priori reason to believe that the amount of funds held in trust

  14. New High Capacity Getter for Vacuum-Insulated Mobile Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    H. Londer; G. R. Myneni; P. Adderley; G. Bartlok; J. Setina; W. Knapp; D. Schleussner

    2006-05-01

    Current ''Non evaporable getters'' (NEGs), based on the principle of metallic surface sorption of gas molecules, are important tools for the improving the performance of many vacuum systems. High porosity alloys or powder mixtures of Zr, Ti, Al, V, Fe and other metals are the base materials for this type of getters. The continuous development of vacuum technologies has created new challenges for the field of getter materials. The main sorption parameters of the current NEGs, namely, pumping speed and sorption capacity, have reached certain upper limits. Chemically active metals are the basis of a new generation of NEGs. The introduction of these new materials with high sorption capacity at room temperature is a long-awaited development. These new materials enable the new generation of NEGs to reach faster pumping speeds, significantly higher sticking rates and sorption capacities up to 104 times higher during their lifetimes. Our development efforts focus on producing these chemically active metals with controlled insulation or protection. The main structural forms of our new getter materials are spherical powders, granules and porous multi-layers. The full pumping performance can take place at room temperature with activation temperatures ranging from room temperature to 650 C. In one of our first pilot projects, our proprietary getter solution was successfully introduced as a getter pump in a double-wall mobile LH2 tank system. Our getters were shown to have very high sorption capacity of all relevant residual gases, including H2. This new concept opens the opportunity for significant vacuum improvements, especially in the field of H2 pumping which is an important task in many different vacuum applications.

  15. Ultrasound treatment on phenolic metabolism and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Wei Keat; Ali, Asgar

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasound treatment at different power output (0, 25 and 29W) and exposure time (10 and 15min) was used to investigate its effect on the phenolic metabolism enzymes, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut pineapple. Following ultrasound treatment at 25 and 29W, the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was increased significantly (P<0.05) by 2.0 and 1.9-fold, when compared to control. Meanwhile, both the activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and polyphenol peroxidase (POD) in fresh-cut pineapple was significantly (P<0.05) lower than control upon subjected to ultrasound treatment. In the present study, induction of PAL was found to significantly (P<0.001) correlate with higher total phenolic content and thus higher antioxidant capacity in fresh-cut pineapple. Results suggest that hormetic dosage of ultrasound treatment can enhance the activity of PAL and total phenolic content and hence the total antioxidant capacity to encounter with oxidative stress. PMID:27596416

  16. Optimizing accuracy of determinations of CO₂ storage capacity and permanence, and designing more efficient storage operations: An example from the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, Ramsey; Dahl, Shanna; Deiss, Allory; Duguid, Andrew; Ganshin, Yuri; Jiao, Zunsheng; Quillinan, Scott

    2015-12-01

    At a potential injection site on the Rock Springs Uplift in southwest Wyoming, an investigation of confining layers was undertaken to develop and test methodology, identify key data requirements, assess previous injection scenarios relative to detailed confining layer properties, and integrate all findings in order to reduce the uncertainty of CO₂ storage permanence. The assurance of safe and permanent storage of CO₂ at a storage site involves a detailed evaluation of the confining layers. Four suites of field data were recognized as crucial for determining storage permanence relative to the confining layers; seismic, core and petrophysical data from a wellbore, formation fluid samples, and in-situ formation tests. Core and petrophysical data were used to create a vertical heterogenic property model that defined porosity, permeability, displacement pressure, geomechanical strengths, and diagenetic history. These analyses identified four primary confining layers and multiple redundant confining layers. In-situ formation tests were used to evaluate fracture gradients, regional stress fields, baseline microseismic data, step-rate injection tests, and formation perforation responses. Seismic attributes, correlated with the vertical heterogenic property models, were calculated and used to create a 3-D volume model over the entire site. The seismic data provided the vehicle to transform the vertical heterogenic property model into a horizontal heterogenic property model, which allowed for the evaluation of confining layers across the entire study site without risking additional wellbore perforations. Lastly, formation fluids were collected and analyzed for geochemical and isotopic compositions from stacked reservoir systems. These data further tested primary confining layers, by evaluating the evidence of mixing between target reservoirs (mixing would imply an existing breach of primary confining layers). All data were propagated into a dynamic, heterogenic geologic

  17. Potential for in situ carbonation of peridotite for geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P.; Matter, J.; Streit, L.; Rudge, J.; Spiegelman, M.

    2008-12-01

    The rate of natural carbonation of tectonically exposed mantle peridotite during weathering and low temperature alteration can probably be enhanced to develop a significant sink for atmospheric CO2. Formation of solid carbonate minerals in situ constitutes an important alternative that should be explored. It may be less costly than ex situ mineral carbonation involving transport of solid reactants, grinding, heat treatment, and reaction in pressurized vessels. It is certainly safer and much easier to monitor than storage of super-critical CO2 fluid in pore space at depth. Natural carbonation of peridotite in the Samail ophiolite, an uplifted slice of oceanic crust and upper mantle in the Sultanate of Oman, is surprisingly rapid. Carbonate veins in mantle peridotite in Oman have an average 14C age of approx 26,000 years, and are not 30 to 95 million years old as previously believed. These data and reconnaissance mapping show that 10,000 to 100,000 tons per year of atmospheric CO2 are converted to solid carbonate minerals via peridotite weathering in Oman [1]. Peridotite carbonation can be accelerated via drilling, hydraulic fracture, input of purified CO2 at elevated pressure, and - particularly - increased temperature at depth. Our simple 1D thermal models suggest that, after an initial heating step, CO2 injected at 25 or 30°C can be heated by exothermic carbonation reactions that sustain high temperature and rapid reaction rates at depth with little expenditure of energy. In situ carbonation of peridotite could consume more than 1 billion tons of CO2 per year in Oman alone, affording a low-cost, safe and permanent method to store atmospheric CO2 [1]. In the appropriate PTX regime, solid volume changes associated with peridotite carbonation may induce reaction driven cracking as well as exothermic heating. If cracks expose fresh, new surface area to sustain continued reaction, carbonation rates could accelerate over time. Alternatively, if cracking is too slow

  18. Fluorous metal-organic frameworks with enhanced stability and high H2/CO2 storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-11-22

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation.

  19. Fluorous Metal-Organic Frameworks with Enhanced Stability and High H2/CO2 Storage Capacities

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da-Shuai; Chang, Ze; Li, Yi-Fan; Jiang, Zhong-Yi; Xuan, Zhi-Hong; Zhang, Ying-Hui; Li, Jian-Rong; Chen, Qiang; Hu, Tong-Liang; Bu, Xian-He

    2013-01-01

    A new class of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been synthesized by ligand-functionalization strategy. Systematic studies of their adsorption properties were performed at low and high pressure. Importantly, when fluorine was introduced into the framework via the functionalization, both the framework stabilities and adsorption capacities towards H2/CO2 were enhanced significantly. This consequence can be well interpreted by theoretical studies of these MOFs structures. In addition, one of these MOFs TKL-107 was used to fabricate mixed matrix membranes, which exhibit great potential for the application of CO2 separation. PMID:24264725

  20. The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: A comprehensive approach to study the long term fate of CO2 geological storage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, P.; Brown, S.; Dimier, A.; Pearce, J.; Frykman, P.; Maurand, N.; Le Gallo, Y.; Spiers, C. J.; Cremer, H.; Rutters, H.; Yalamas, T.

    2013-12-01

    The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project aims at significantly advance our knowledge of specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2: i) trapping mechanisms, ii) fluid-rock interactions and effects on mechanical integrity of fractured caprock and faulted systems and iii) leakage due to mechanical and chemical damage in the well vicinity, iv) brine displacement and fluid mixing at regional scale. A realistic framework is ensured through collaboration with two demonstration sites in deep saline sandstone formations: the onshore former NER300 West Lorraine candidate in France (ArcelorMittal GeoLorraine) and the offshore EEPR Don Valley (former Hatfield) site in UK operated by National Grid. Static earth models have been generated at reservoir and basin scale to evaluate both trapping mechanisms and fluid displacement at short (injection) and long (post injection) time scales. Geochemical trapping and reservoir behaviour is addressed through experimental approaches using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and through geochemical simulations. Collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland) (OPA), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose: - Characterization of elastic parameters in intact samples by measuring strain during an axial experiment, - A recording of hydraulic fracture flow properties by loading and shearing samples in order to create a 'realistic

  1. Comprenhensive Program of Engineering and Geologic Surveys for Designing and Constructing Radioactive Waste Storage Facilities in Hard Rock Massifs

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, T; Milovidov, V; Prokopoca, O; Jardine, L

    2002-12-27

    Geological, geophysical, and engineering-geological research conducted at the 'Yeniseisky' site obtained data on climatic, geomorphologic, geological conditions, structure and properties of composing rock, and conditions of underground water recharge and discharge. These results provide sufficient information to make an estimate of the suitability of locating a radioactive waste (R W) underground isolation facility at the Nizhnekansky granitoid massif

  2. Study on Optimum Capacity of Battery Energy Storage System for Wind Power Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Kikunaga, Yasuaki; Yona, Atsushi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    Generally, the battery is built with wind power generator to level the output power fluctuation of wind power generator, since output power fluctuation of wind power generator is large. However, if large battery is installed in power system, the capital cost for wind power system will increase. Hence, the smallest size of battery should be determined to save the capital cost. This paper evaluates the effect of the output power leveling by introducing battery, and optimal size of battery is determined. A generated power output of a wind generator is easily calculated by real wind speed data only. However, battery charge/discharge actions are changed by control parameters for battery, it is difficult to decided the optimum battery system capacity. In this paper, output power fluctuation of wind power generator with battery system is calculated and estimated, so that the power output deviation is less than specific value, then minimum capital cost is decided by optimum battery capacity. The proposed technique determines the optimum size and control parameters for installed battery.

  3. Test results for a high capacity cryocooler with internal thermal storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertele, Ted; Glaister, Dave; Gully, Wilfred; Hendershott, Paul; Levenduski, Robert; Marquardt, Eric; Wilson, Colin

    2012-06-01

    Ball Aerospace and Redstone Aerospace are developing a space cryocooler for cooling complex optical systems whose loads are intermittent. An example of such a system would be an Earth observation satellite that images for only a fraction of its orbit. If a cooler can store refrigeration during the lull and provide it when the system is active, the cooler can be considerably smaller than one sized to provide the full load continuously. Our cooler provides two stages of refrigeration, a stage of intermittent cooling at 35 K for a focal plane assembly and a stage of continuous cooling at 85 K for the surrounding thermal shields. The cooler provides the intermittent cooling by collecting liquid neon in a unique internal thermal storage tank and forwarding it to the focal plane when the heat loads are high. Our paper presents extensive performance data for neon at 35 K. It carries 2 W at 35 K for 30 minutes plus the 8.5 W of continuous cooling at 85 K for less than 300 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in an hour. For contrast, the same hardware was filled with nitrogen and tested at 82 K. It carries 5 W for 25 minutes plus 15 W of continuous cooling at 130 K for less than 220 W DC power. It is ready to cool again in a little over an hour. The system has many features for space system compatibility. Because the storage is located within an active control loop, the cooler can maintain the 35 K interface temperature to better than ± 0.1 K. Because it circulates liquid it can be located remotely, which solves many compatibility issues. And with careful liquid management, it can work in any orientation and in 0-g. In this paper our flight like equipment will be described, and its continuing evolution to flight will be discussed.

  4. Solid solution barium–strontium chlorides with tunable ammonia desorption properties and superior storage capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Bialy, Agata; Blanchard, Didier; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-15

    Metal halide ammines are very attractive materials for ammonia absorption and storage—applications where the practically accessible or usable gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are of critical importance. Here we present, that by combining advanced computational materials prediction with spray drying and in situ thermogravimetric and structural characterization, we synthesize a range of new, stable barium-strontium chloride solid solutions with superior ammonia storage densities. By tuning the barium/strontium ratio, different crystallographic phases and compositions can be obtained with different ammonia ab- and desorption properties. In particular it is shown, that in the molar range of 35–50% barium and 65–50% strontium, stable materials can be produced with a practically usable ammonia density (both volumetric and gravimetric) that is higher than any of the pure metal halides, and with a practically accessible volumetric ammonia densities in excess of 99% of liquid ammonia. - Graphical abstract: Thermal desorption curves of ammonia from Ba{sub x}Sr{sub (1−x)}Cl{sub 2} mixtures with x equal to 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 and atomic structure of Sr(NH{sub 3}){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Solid solutions of strontium and barium chloride were synthesized by spray drying. • Adjusting molar ratios led to different crystallographic phases and compositions. • Different molar ratios led to different ammonia ab-/desorption properties. • 35–50 mol% BaCl{sub 2} in SrCl{sub 2} yields higher ammonia density than any other metal halide. • DFT calculations can be used to predict properties of the mixtures.

  5. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  6. Can ionophobic nanopores enhance the energy storage capacity of electric-double-layer capacitors containing nonaqueous electrolytes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Cheng; Liu, Honglai; Henderson, Douglas; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    The ionophobicity effect of nanoporous electrodes on the capacitance and the energy storage capacity of nonaqueous-electrolyte supercapacitors is studied by means of the classical density functional theory (DFT). It has been hypothesized that ionophobic nanopores may create obstacles in charging, but they store energy much more efficiently than ionophilic pores. In this study, we find that, for both ionic liquids and organic electrolytes, an ionophobic pore exhibits a charging behavior different from that of an ionophilic pore, and that the capacitance-voltage curve changes from a bell shape to a two-hump camel shape when the pore ionophobicity increases. For electric-double-layer capacitors containing organic electrolytes, an increase in the ionophobicity of the nanopores leads to a higher capacity for energy storage. Without taking into account the effects of background screening, the DFT predicts that an ionophobic pore containing an ionic liquid does not enhance the supercapacitor performance within the practical voltage ranges. However, by using an effective dielectric constant to account for ion polarizability, the DFT predicts that, like an organic electrolyte, an ionophobic pore with an ionic liquid is also able to increase the energy stored when the electrode voltage is beyond a certain value. We find that the critical voltage for an enhanced capacitance in an ionic liquid is larger than that in an organic electrolyte. Our theoretical predictions provide further understanding of how chemical modification of porous electrodes affects the performance of supercapacitors. The authors are saddened by the passing of George Stell but are pleased to contribute this article in his memory. Some years ago, DH gave a talk at a Gordon Conference that contained an approximation that George had demonstrated previously to be in error in one of his publications. Rather than making this point loudly in the discussion, George politely, quietly, and privately pointed this out

  7. Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrogen Storage Capacity in Mg-Na Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Abdessameud, S.; Mezbahul-Islam, M.; Medraj, M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems. PMID:25383361

  8. Enrichment of a mixed bacterial culture with a high polyhydroxyalkanoate storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katja; Jiang, Yang; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Muyzer, Gerard; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2009-04-13

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are microbial storage polymers that attract interest as bioplastics. PHAs can be produced with open mixed cultures if a suitable enrichment step based on the ecological role of PHA is used. An acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor operated with 1 day biomass residence time and with feast-famine cycles of 12 h was used to enrich a mixed culture of PHA producers. In subsequent fed-batch experiments under growth limiting conditions, the enriched mixed culture produced PHA up to a cellular content of 89 wt % within 7.6 h (average rate of 1.2 g/g/h). The PHA produced from acetate was the homopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate. The culture was dominated by a Gammaproteobacterium that showed little similarity on 16S rRNA level with known bacteria (<90% sequence similarity). The mixed culture process for PHA production does not require aseptic conditions. Waste streams rather than pure substrates could be used as raw materials. PMID:19193058

  9. Crystal structure of class III chitinase from pomegranate provides the insight into its metal storage capacity.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Taro; Zhao, Guanghua; Mikami, Bunzo

    2015-01-01

    Chitinase hydrolyzes the β-1,4-glycosidic bond in chitin. In higher plants, this enzyme has been regarded as a pathogenesis-related protein. Recently, we identified a class III chitinase, which functions as a calcium storage protein in pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed (PSC, pomegranate seed chitinase). Here, we solved a crystal structure of PSC at 1.6 Å resolution. Although its overall structure, including the structure of catalytic site and non-proline cis-peptides, was closely similar to those of other class III chitinases, PSC had some unique structural characteristics. First, there were some metal-binding sites with coordinated water molecules on the surface of PSC. Second, many unconserved aspartate residues were present in the PSC sequence which rendered the surface of PSC negatively charged. This acidic electrostatic property is in contrast to that of hevamine, well-characterized plant class III chitinase, which has rather a positively charged surface. Thus, the crystal structure provides a clue for metal association property of PSC.

  10. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys.

    PubMed

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems. PMID:25383361

  11. Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen storage capacity in Mg-Na alloys.

    PubMed

    Abdessameud, S; Mezbahul-Islam, M; Medraj, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic modeling of the H-Mg-Na system is performed for the first time in this work in order to understand the phase relationships in this system. A new thermodynamic description of the stable NaMgH3 hydride is performed and the thermodynamic models for the H-Mg, Mg-Na, and H-Na systems are reassessed using the modified quasichemical model for the liquid phase. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary system are estimated from the models of the binary systems and the ternary compound using CALPHAD technique. The constructed database is successfully used to reproduce the pressure-composition isotherms for MgH2 + 10 wt.% NaH mixtures. Also, the pressure-temperature equilibrium diagram and reaction paths for the same composition are predicted at different temperatures and pressures. Even though it is proved that H-Mg-Na does not meet the DOE hydrogen storage requirements for onboard applications, the best working temperatures and pressures to benefit from its full catalytic role are given. Also, the present database can be used for thermodynamic assessments of higher order systems.

  12. Site Characterization for CO2 Geologic Storage and Vice Versa -The Frio Brine Pilot as a Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Doughty, Christine

    2006-02-14

    Careful site characterization is critical for successfulgeologic sequestration of CO2, especially for sequestration inbrine-bearing formations that have not been previously used for otherpurposes. Traditional site characterization techniques such asgeophysical imaging, well logging, core analyses, interference welltesting, and tracer testing are all valuable. However, the injection andmonitoring of CO2 itself provides a wealth of additional information.Rather than considering a rigid chronology in which CO2 sequestrationoccurs only after site characterization is complete, we recommend thatCO2 injection and monitoring be an integral part of thesite-characterization process. The advantages of this approach arenumerous. The obvious benefit of CO2 injection is to provide informationon multi-phase flow properties, which cannot be obtained from traditionalsitecharacterization techniques that examine single-phase conditions.Additionally, the low density and viscosity of CO2 compared to brinecauses the two components to flow through the subsurface differently,potentially revealing distinct features of the geology. Finally, tounderstand sequestered CO2 behavior in the subsurface, there is nosubstitute for studying the movement of CO2 directly. Making CO2injection part of site characterization has practical benefits as well.The infrastructure for surface handling of CO2 (compression, heating,local storage) can be developed, the CO2 injection process can bedebugged, and monitoring techniques can be field-tested. Prior to actualsequestration, small amounts of CO2 may be trucked in. Later, monitoringaccompanying the actual sequestration operations may be used tocontinually refine and improve understanding of CO2 behavior in thesubsurface.

  13. Structural controls on leakage from a natural CO 2 geologic storage site: Central Utah, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dockrill, Ben; Shipton, Zoe K.

    2010-11-01

    Faults and associated fracture networks can significantly influence regional flow of groundwater, hydrocarbons and other fluids. The distribution of CO 2 springs and seeps along the Little Grand Wash fault and Salt Wash faults in central Utah is controlled by along-fault flow of CO 2-charged groundwater from shallow aquifers (<1 km deep). The same faults are the likely conduits that charge the shallow aquifers with CO 2 from depth. We document fault zone trace geometry and architecture, and evidence for palaeo-fluid flow within the footwalls of both faults. Evidence for palaeo-fluid flow consists of extensive bleaching of sandstones and some siltstones, mineralisation of carbonates and celestine veins and minor hydrocarbon staining. The field evidence shows that the pathways for multiple phases of fluid flow were structurally controlled utilising the fracture network developed in the damage zone of the faults. To investigate the likely effect of these faults on the regional fluid-migration pathways at depth, a 3D model of the faulted system was generated and a fault seal analysis applied to predict the cross-fault sealing capabilities of the studied faults. Due to the scarcity of subsurface data, the results are not conclusive but suggest probable multiple cross-fault leak points for fluids to migrate across the fault, in contrast to the field observations that indicate fault-parallel flow. This comparison of field observations to the modelling approach demonstrates the inability of conventional seal analysis techniques to predict fault-parallel fluid leakage and highlight the effects fracture networks in the damage zone, especially at structural complexities along the fault, have in producing pathways for vertical flow. Multiple fluids have utilised similar fault-parallel pathways over geological time demonstrating that such pathways have the potential to cause long-term leakage from hydrocarbon reservoirs and CO 2 storage sites.

  14. Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Sminchak

    2011-09-30

    The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

  15. CO{sub 2} Geologic Storage: Coupled Hydro-Chemo-Thermo-Mechanical Phenomena - From Pore-scale Processes to Macroscale Implications -

    SciTech Connect

    Santamarina, J. Carlos

    2013-05-31

    Global energy consumption will increase in the next decades and it is expected to largely rely on fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels is intimately related to CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for global warming. Geological CO{sub 2} storage aims to mitigate the global warming problem by sequestering CO{sub 2} underground. Coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical phenomena determine the successful operation and long term stability of CO{sub 2} geological storage. This research explores coupled phenomena, identifies different zones in the storage reservoir, and investigates their implications in CO{sub 2} geological storage. In particular, the research: Explores spatial patterns in mineral dissolution and precipitation (comprehensive mass balance formulation); experimentally determines the interfacial properties of water, mineral, and CO{sub 2} systems (including CO{sub 2}-water-surfactant mixtures to reduce the CO{sub 2}- water interfacial tension in view of enhanced sweep efficiency); analyzes the interaction between clay particles and CO{sub 2}, and the response of sediment layers to the presence of CO{sub 2} using specially designed experimental setups and complementary analyses; couples advective and diffusive mass transport of species, together with mineral dissolution to explore pore changes during advection of CO{sub 2}-dissolved water along a rock fracture; upscales results to a porous medium using pore network simulations; measures CO{sub 2} breakthrough in highly compacted fine-grained sediments, shale and cement specimens; explores sealing strategies; and experimentally measures CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} replacement in hydrate-bearing sediments during. Analytical, experimental and numerical results obtained in this study can be used to identify optimal CO{sub 2} injection and reservoir-healing strategies to maximize the efficiency of CO{sub 2} injection and to attain long-term storage.

  16. Comparative modeling of fault reactivation and seismicity in geologic carbon storage and shale-gas reservoir stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rinaldi, Antonio; Cappa, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The potential for fault reactivation and induced seismicity are issues of concern related to both geologic CO2 sequestration and stimulation of shale-gas reservoirs. It is well known that underground injection may cause induced seismicity depending on site-specific conditions, such a stress and rock properties and injection parameters. To date no sizeable seismic event that could be felt by the local population has been documented associated with CO2 sequestration activities. In the case of shale-gas fracturing, only a few cases of felt seismicity have been documented out of hundreds of thousands of hydraulic fracturing stimulation stages. In this paper we summarize and review numerical simulations of injection-induced fault reactivation and induced seismicity associated with both underground CO2 injection and hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs. The simulations were conducted with TOUGH-FLAC, a simulator for coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical modeling. In this case we employed both 2D and 3D models with an explicit representation of a fault. A strain softening Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model a slip-weakening fault slip behavior, enabling modeling of sudden slip that was interpreted as a seismic event, with a moment magnitude evaluated using formulas from seismology. In the case of CO2 sequestration, injection rates corresponding to expected industrial scale CO2 storage operations were used, raising the reservoir pressure until the fault was reactivated. For the assumed model settings, it took a few months of continuous injection to increase the reservoir pressure sufficiently to cause the fault to reactivate. In the case of shale-gas fracturing we considered that the injection fluid during one typical 3-hour fracturing stage was channelized into a fault along with the hydraulic fracturing process. Overall, the analysis shows that while the CO2 geologic sequestration in deep sedimentary formations are capable of producing notable events (e

  17. Dual hybrid strategy towards achieving high capacity and long-life lithium storage of ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ying; Cao, Minhua

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we propose a facile and efficient strategy for mitigating capacity fading of ZnO by co-hybridization of cobalt (Co) and N-doped carbon (C-N). The ZnO-based hybrid (ZnO/Co/C-N) is prepared by calcining metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) under a vacuum condition. In view of the unique microstructure of MOFs used in our case, the resultant hybrid displays a three dimensional (3D) spherical morphology with abundant pore structure. The electrochemical tests indicate that the ZnO/Co/C-N nanospheres exhibit excellent cycling stability, high specific capacity, and good rate capability. This work proposes a facile strategy for the synthesis of nanomaterials with unique microstructure, desired composition and high surface area, endowing an excellent lithium storage performance. The current route is convenient and cost-effective, and therefore it is highly promising for scaled-up production. Moreover, the method we adopted may be extended to synthesize other porous nanomaterials with desired composition.

  18. Cold storage to overcome dormancy affects the carbohydrate status and photosynthetic capacity of Rhododendron simsii.

    PubMed

    Christiaens, A; De Keyser, E; Lootens, P; Pauwels, E; Roldán-Ruiz, I; De Riek, J; Gobin, B; Van Labeke, M-C

    2015-01-01

    Global warming leads to increasing irregular and unexpected warm spells during autumn, and therefore natural chilling requirements to break dormancy are at risk. Controlled cold treatment can provide an answer to this problem. Nevertheless, artificial cold treatment will have consequences for carbon reserves and photosynthesis. In this paper, the effect of dark cold storage at 7 °C to break flower bud dormancy in the evergreen Rhododendron simsii was quantified. Carbohydrate and starch content in leaves and flower buds of an early ('Nordlicht'), semi-early ('M. Marie') and late ('Mw. G. Kint') flowering cultivar showed that carbon loss due to respiration was lowest in 'M. Marie', while 'Mw. G. Kint' was completely depleted of starch reserves at the end of cold treatment. Gene isolation resulted in a candidate gene for sucrose synthase (SUS) RsSus, which appears to be homologous to AtSus3 and had a clear increase in expression in leaves during cold treatment. Photosynthesis measurements on 'Nordlicht' and the late-flowering cultivar 'Thesla' showed that during cold treatment, dark respiration decreased 58% and 63%, respectively. Immediately after cold treatment, dark respiration increased and stabilised after 3 days. The light compensation point followed the same trend as dark respiration. Quantum efficiency showed no significant changes during the first days after cold treatment, but was significantly higher than in plants with dormant flower buds at the start of cold treatment. In conclusion, photosynthesis stabilised 3 days after cold treatment and was improved compared to the level before cold treatment.

  19. Integration of Geologic and Geophysical Data to Model Hydrostratigraphy Under a Recharge Pond for Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, V.; Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R. J.; Jenni, S.; Will, R.; Lear, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Harkins Slough Recharge Pond (HSRP) near Watsonville, CA, was developed to lessen the adverse impacts of excessive groundwater pumping in the Pajaro Valley. Storm-flow run-off is filtered and diverted into the pond during the winter, percolates through the base of the pond to the alluvial aquifer, and is recovered in the summer. The pond faces two operational challenges. The first is a decrease in the infiltration rate throughout the winter, reducing the amount of run-off that can percolate into the aquifer. The second is a recovery rate of less than 25%. Operators need a clearer understanding of the hydrologic processes governing the movement and storage of water beneath the pond. Efforts to characterize hydrologic processes at the HSRP have resulted in the acquisition of numerous data sets. Geologic data include lithologic descriptions from shallow cores and drillers’ logs of ten, ~50 m deep wells. An additional nine monitoring wells were used to measure hydraulic head every 15 minutes throughout the year. Geophysical surveys, including shallow shear-wave reflection, ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, and seismic cone penetration testing, were collected along the base of the HSRP in Summer 2007 when the pond was drained. In addition, four probes collected 1D resistivity profiles every 3 minutes throughout an infiltration cycle in the winter of 2007-2008. We combined these data, using PETREL software, into a model describing the hydrostratigraphy beneath the pond, and then used ECLIPSE to simulate the variably-saturated flow behavior. The extent of our model, 380 m by 390 m, roughly matches the size of the pond, and extends to a depth of ~60 m. We input all data using the resolution at which they were acquired; this ranged from 0.2 m resolution for the shallow cores to ~3 m resolution for seismic data. The GPR and electrical data were input as images and used with the seismic data to identify hydrostratigraphic boundaries. We elected to use 12

  20. H2O storage capacity of olivine at 5-8 GPa and consequences for dehydration partial melting of the upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardia, P.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Tenner, T. J.

    2012-09-01

    The H2O storage capacities of peridotitic minerals place crucial constraints on the onset of hydrous partial melting in the mantle. The storage capacities of minerals in equilibrium with a peridotite mineral assemblage (“peridotite-saturated” minerals) are lower than when the minerals coexist only with fluid because hydrous partial melt is stabilized at a lower activity of H2O. Here, we determine peridotite-saturated olivine H2O storage capacities from 5 to 8 GPa and 1400-1500 °C in layered experiments designed to grow large (∼100-150 μm) olivine crystals in equilibrium with the full hydrous peridotite assemblage (melt+ol+opx+gar+cpx). The peridotite-saturated H2O storage capacity of olivine at 1450 °C rises from 57±26 ppm (by wt.) at 5 GPa to 254±60 ppm at 8 GPa. Combining these with results of a parallel study at 10-13 GPa (Tenner et al., 2011, CMP) yields a linear relation applicable from 5 to 13 GPa for peridotite-saturated H2O storage capacity of olivine at 1450 °C, CH2Oolivine(ppm)=57.6(±16)×P(GPa)-169(±18). Storage capacity diminishes with increasing temperature, but is unaffected by variable total H2O concentration between 0.47 and 1.0 wt%. Both of these are as predicted for the condition in which the water activity in the melt is governed principally by the cryoscopic requirement of melt stability for a given temperature below the dry solidus. Measured olivine storage capacities are in agreement or slightly greater than those predicted by a model that combines data from experimental freezing point depression and olivine/melt partition coefficients of H2O (Hirschmann et al., 2009). Considering the temperature along the mantle geotherm, as well as available constraints on garnet/olivine and pyroxene/olivine partitioning of H2O (DH2Ogar/ol,DH2Opx/ol), we estimate the peridotite H2O storage capacity in the low velocity zone. The CH2O required to initiate melting between 150 and 250 km depth is between 270 and 855 ppm. We conclude that hydrous

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.

    1981-09-01

    Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)

  2. Imaging cross fault multiphase flow using time resolved high pressure-temperature synchrotron fluid tomography: implications for the geological storage of carbon dioxide within sandstone saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seers, Thomas; Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin; Dobson, Kate; Hodgetts, David; Lee, Peter; Menke, Hannah; Singh, Kamaljit; Parsons, Aaron

    2015-04-01

    Applied shear stresses within high porosity granular rocks result in characteristic deformation responses (rigid grain reorganisation, dilation, isovolumetric strain, grain fracturing and/or crushing) emanating from elevated stress concentrations at grain contacts. The strain localisation features produced by these processes are generically termed as microfaults (also shear bands), which occur as narrow tabular regions of disaggregated, rotated and/or crushed grains. Because the textural priors that favour microfault formation make their host rocks (esp. porous sandstones) conducive to the storage of geo-fluids, such structures are often abundant features within hydrocarbon reservoirs, aquifers and potential sites of CO2 storage (i.e. sandstone saline aquifers). The porosity collapse which accompanies microfault formation typically results in localised permeability reduction, often encompassing several orders of magnitude. Given that permeability is the key physical parameter that governs fluid circulation in the upper crust, this petrophysical degradation implicates microfaults as being flow impeding structures which may act as major baffles and/or barriers to fluid flow within the subsurface. Such features therefore have the potential to negatively impact upon hydrocarbon production or CO2 injection, making their petrophysical characterisation of considerable interest. Despite their significance, little is known about the pore-scale processes involved in fluid trapping and transfer within microfaults, particularly in the presence of multiphase flow analogous to oil accumulation, production and CO2 injection. With respect to the geological storage of CO2 within sandstone saline aquifers it has been proposed that even fault rocks with relatively low phyllosilicate content or minimal quartz cementation may act as major baffles or barriers to migrating CO2 plume. Alternatively, as ubiquitous intra-reservoir heterogeneities, micro-faults also have the potential to

  3. Protein carbonylation and water-holding capacity of pork subjected to frozen storage: effect of muscle type, premincing, and packaging.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Heinonen, Marina; Puolanne, Eero

    2011-05-25

    The present work aimed to study the relationship between protein carbonylation and the loss of water-holding capacity (WHC) occurring during frozen storage of porcine muscles. Pork samples corresponding to two different muscle types, glycolytic M. longissimus dorsi (LD) and oxidative M. psoas major (PM), and subjected to two different premincing, minced (MINCED) and intact pork pieces (INTACT), and packaging, vacuum packaged (VACUUM) and packed in oxygen-permeable bags (OXYGEN), procedures were frozen (-18 °C/12 weeks) and analyzed at sampling times upon thawing (weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12) for the relative amount of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (AAS and GGS, respectively), and their ability to hold water using two different techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with the loss of WHC, and both phenomena were found to be more intense in LD muscles and in MINCED and OXYGEN pork samples. The loss in WHC was from ca. 10 to 30% in 12 weeks, depending on the method of determination. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may decrease the WHC of pork samples are thoroughly discussed in the present paper. Besides the likely impact of protein carbonylation in the water-myofibrillar protein relationships, the implication of AAS and GGS in further reactions including plausible cross-linking would explain the decrease of these semialdehydes by the end of frozen storage and would reinforce their liability in the loss of WHC of porcine muscles. The exact nature of these reactions, however, should be investigated in further studies.

  4. A workflow for handling heterogeneous 3D models with the TOUGH2 family of codes: Applications to numerical modeling of CO 2 geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audigane, Pascal; Chiaberge, Christophe; Mathurin, Frédéric; Lions, Julie; Picot-Colbeaux, Géraldine

    2011-04-01

    This paper is addressed to the TOUGH2 user community. It presents a new tool for handling simulations run with the TOUGH2 code with specific application to CO 2 geological storage. This tool is composed of separate FORTRAN subroutines (or modules) that can be run independently, using input and output files in ASCII format for TOUGH2. These modules have been developed specifically for modeling of carbon dioxide geological storage and their use with TOUGH2 and the Equation of State module ECO2N, dedicated to CO 2-water-salt mixture systems, with TOUGHREACT, which is an adaptation of TOUGH2 with ECO2N and geochemical fluid-rock interactions, and with TOUGH2 and the EOS7C module dedicated to CO 2-CH 4 gas mixture is described. The objective is to save time for the pre-processing, execution and visualization of complex geometry for geological system representation. The workflow is rapid and user-friendly and future implementation to other TOUGH2 EOS modules for other contexts (e.g. nuclear waste disposal, geothermal production) is straightforward. Three examples are shown for validation: (i) leakage of CO 2 up through an abandoned well; (ii) 3D reactive transport modeling of CO 2 in a sandy aquifer formation in the Sleipner gas Field, (North Sea, Norway); and (iii) an estimation of enhanced gas recovery technology using CO 2 as the injected and stored gas to produce methane in the K12B Gas Field (North Sea, Denmark).

  5. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  6. The Importance of Processing Automaticity and Temporary Storage Capacity to the Differences in Comprehension between Skilled and Less-Skilled College-Age Deaf Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Leonard P.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, 16 skilled adult readers who are deaf and 14 less skilled readers completed a battery of experimental tasks that generated multiple indicators of storage capacity and automaticity. Results indicate less skilled readers must invest significantly more conscious mental effort than skilled readers to complete basic operations of…

  7. A Bayesian Belief Network Approach to Explore Alternative Decisions for Sediment Control and water Storage Capacity at Lago Lucchetti, Puerto Rico

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Bayesian belief network (BBN) was developed to characterize the effects of sediment accumulation on the water storage capacity of Lago Lucchetti (located in southwest Puerto Rico) and to forecast the life expectancy (usefulness) of the reservoir under different management scena...

  8. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2011-06-30

    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km2 study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO2 injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO2 injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  9. sRecovery Act: Geologic Characterization of the South Georgia Rift Basin for Source Proximal CO2 Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, Michael

    2014-09-30

    This study focuses on evaluating the feasibility and suitability of using the Jurassic/Triassic (J/TR) sediments of the South Georgia Rift basin (SGR) for CO2 storage in southern South Carolina and southern Georgia The SGR basin in South Carolina (SC), prior to this project, was one of the least understood rift basin along the east coast of the U.S. In the SC part of the basin there was only one well (Norris Lightsey #1) the penetrated into J/TR. Because of the scarcity of data, a scaled approach used to evaluate the feasibility of storing CO2 in the SGR basin. In the SGR basin, 240 km (~149 mi) of 2-D seismic and 2.6 km2 3-D (1 mi2) seismic data was collected, process, and interpreted in SC. In southern Georgia 81.3 km (~50.5 mi) consisting of two 2-D seismic lines were acquired, process, and interpreted. Seismic analysis revealed that the SGR basin in SC has had a very complex structural history resulting the J/TR section being highly faulted. The seismic data is southern Georgia suggest SGR basin has not gone through a complex structural history as the study area in SC. The project drilled one characterization borehole (Rizer # 1) in SC. The Rizer #1 was drilled but due to geologic problems, the project team was only able to drill to 1890 meters (6200 feet) instead of the proposed final depth 2744 meters (9002 feet). The drilling goals outlined in the original scope of work were not met. The project was only able to obtain 18 meters (59 feet) of conventional core and 106 rotary sidewall cores. All the conventional core and sidewall cores were in sandstone. We were unable to core any potential igneous caprock. Petrographic analysis of the conventional core and sidewall cores determined that the average porosity of the sedimentary material was 3.4% and the average permeability was 0.065 millidarcy. Compaction and diagenetic studies of the samples determined there would not be any porosity or permeability at depth in SC. In Georgia there appears to be porosity in

  10. Low Temperature Vacuum Synthesis of Triangular CoO Nanocrystal/Graphene Nanosheets Composites with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei

    2015-01-01

    CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g−1 after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance. PMID:25961670

  11. Low Temperature Vacuum Synthesis of Triangular CoO Nanocrystal/Graphene Nanosheets Composites with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei

    2015-05-11

    CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g(-1) after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance.

  12. Low Temperature Vacuum Synthesis of Triangular CoO Nanocrystal/Graphene Nanosheets Composites with Enhanced Lithium Storage Capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qun; Cheng, Jianli; Li, Xiaodong; Wang, Bin; Huang, Ling; Nie, Fude; Ni, Wei

    2015-05-01

    CoO nanocrystal/graphene nanosheets (GNS) composites, consisting of a triangular CoO nanocrystal of 2~20 nm on the surface of GNS, are synthesized by a mild synthetic method. First, cobalt acetate tetrahydrate is recrystallized in the alcohol solution at a low temperature. Then, graphene oxide mixed with cobalt-precursor followed by high vacuum annealing to form the CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites. The CoO nanocrystal/GNS composites exhibit a high reversible capacity of 1481.9 m Ah g-1 after 30 cycles with a high Coulombic efficiency of over 96% when used as anode materials for lithium ion battery. The excellent electrochemical performances may be attributed to the special structure of the composites. The well-dispersed triangular CoO nanocrystal on the substrate of conductive graphene can not only have a shorter diffusion length for lithium ions, better stress accommodation capability during the charge-discharge processes and more accessible active sites for lithium-ion storage and electrolyte wetting, but also possess a good conductive network, which can significantly improve the whole electrochemical performance.

  13. Regional geological assessment of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence of the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins relative to potential storage/disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Lomenick, T.F.; Gonzales, S.; Johnson, K.S.; Byerly, D.

    1983-01-01

    The thick and regionally extensive sequence of shales and associated clastic sedimentary rocks of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age has been considered among the nonsalt geologies for deep subsurface containment of high-level radioactive wastes. This report examines some of the regional and basin-specific characteristics of the black and associated nonblack shales of this sequence within the Appalachian, Illinois, and Michigan basins of the north-central and eastern United States. Principal areas where the thickness and depth of this shale sequence are sufficient to warrant further evaluation are identified, but no attempt is made to identify specific storage/disposal sites. Also identified are other areas with less promise for further study because of known potential conflicts such as geologic-hydrologic factors, competing subsurface priorities involving mineral resources and groundwater, or other parameters. Data have been compiled for each basin in an effort to indicate thickness, distribution, and depth relationships for the entire shale sequence as well as individual shale units in the sequence. Included as parts of this geologic assessment are isopach, depth information, structure contour, tectonic elements, and energy-resource maps covering the three basins. Summary evaluations are given for each basin as well as an overall general evaluation of the waste storage/disposal potential of the Devonian-Mississippian shale sequence,including recommendations for future studies to more fully characterize the shale sequence for that purpose. Based on data compiled in this cursory investigation, certain rock units have reasonable promise for radioactive waste storage/disposal and do warrant additional study.

  14. Hydrologic considerations for estimation of storage-capacity requirements of impounding and side-channel reservoirs for water supply in Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koltun, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides data and methods to aid in the hydrologic design or evaluation of impounding reservoirs and side-channel reservoirs used for water supply in Ohio. Data from 117 streamflow-gaging stations throughout Ohio were analyzed by means of nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques to develop relations between storage requirements, water demand, duration, and frequency. Information also is provided on minimum runoff for selected durations and frequencies. Systematic record lengths for the streamflow-gaging stations ranged from about 10 to 75 years; however, in many cases, additional streamflow record was synthesized. For impounding reservoirs, families of curves are provided to facilitate the estimation of storage requirements as a function of demand and the ratio of the 7-day, 2-year low flow to the mean annual flow. Information is provided with which to evaluate separately the effects of evaporation on storage requirements. Comparisons of storage requirements for impounding reservoirs determined by nonsequential-mass-curve-analysis techniques with storage requirements determined by annual-mass-curve techniques that employ probability routing to account for carryover-storage requirements indicate that large differences in computed required storages can result from the two methods, particularly for conditions where demand cannot be met from within-year storage. For side-channel reservoirs, tables of demand-storage-frequency information are provided for a primary pump relation consisting of one variable-speed pump with a pumping capacity that ranges from 0.1 to 20 times demand. Tables of adjustment ratios are provided to facilitate determination of storage requirements for 19 other pump sets consisting of assorted combinations of fixed-speed pumps or variable-speed pumps with aggregate pumping capacities smaller than or equal to the primary pump relation. The effects of evaporation on side-channel reservoir storage requirements are incorporated into the

  15. Reactive transport modeling to quantify trace element release into fresh groundwater in case of CO2 leak from deep geological storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lions, J.; Jakymiw, C.; Devau, N.; Barsotti, V.; Humez, P.

    2014-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is one of the options considered for the mitigation of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. A deep geological CO2 storage is not expected to leak but potential impacts on groundwater have to be studied. A better understanding on how it could affect groundwater quality, aquifer minerals and trace elements is necessary to characterize a future storage site. Moreover, monitoring and remediation solutions have to be evaluated before storage operations. As part of the ANR project CIPRES, we present here reactive transport works. In a 3D model using ToughReact v.2, we perform different CO2 leakage scenarios in a confined aquifer, considering CO2 gas leakage. The model is based on the Albian aquifer, a strategic water resource. It takes into account groundwater and rock chemistry of the Albian green sand layer (Quartz, Glauconite, Kaolinite) at 700 m deep. The geochemical model was elaborated from experimental data. The aquifer consists in a mesh, divided roughly in 20000 cells making a 60 m thick and a 500 m large layer. Furthermore, cells are subdivided near the leakage point to consider local phenomena (secondary precipitation, sorption/desorption...). The chemical model takes into account kinetics for mineral dissolution, ion exchange and surface complexation. We highlight the importance of sorption processes on trace element transport (As, Zn and Ni) in fresh groundwater. Moreover, we distinguish different geochemical behavior (CO2 plume shape, secondary precipitation, desorption...) according to different horizontal flow rates influenced by the hydrodynamics (regional gradient). Understanding how geochemical processes and regional flows influence water chemistry, allows to ascertain measurement monitoring and verification plan and remediation works in case of leak considering a given location.

  16. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  17. Structure and water storage capacity of a small karst aquifer based on stream discharge in southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Tonggang; Chen, Hongsong; Wang, Kelin

    2016-03-01

    Karst spring/stream discharge reflects the global configuration of the aquifer. However, quantitative description of the aquifer structure such as effective porosity (neff) and water storage capacity by the discharge analysis is difficult because of the complex conduit/fracture system. This study attempted to quantify the characteristics of karst aquifer based on discharge recession and time series analysis methods. Three recession models, including modified Maillet, Mangin and Boussinesq models, were evaluated to choose the most suitable one for analyzing the aquifer structure, and auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions were applied to study the aquifer response in both year and rainfall event time scales. The results showed that the modified Maillet model was more suitable in the study catchment with Mangin model overestimating and Boussinesq model underestimating the discharge. The neff was 3.73% for the total aquifer, and it was 0.07%, 0.33% and 3.33% for the conduit, fracture and matrix, respectively. Based on a case study of a rainfall event with precipitation of 68 mm, the water volumes drained by the three media were 25.43%, 33.40% and 41.17%, respectively. This indicates that, although conduit network is not very developed with lower neff, it is still an important water transmissive element (draining more than a quarter of water after the rainfall event). The memory time of the aquifer was 4 days for the year scale and 8 h for the rainfall event (68 mm) scale. This demonstrates that the aquifer has a well developed drainage system with a quick response to the rainfall. The above results provide further insights for hydrological processes modeling and water resources management for the small catchment in karst regions.

  18. Aluminum-doped ceria-zirconia solid solutions with enhanced thermal stability and high oxygen storage capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A facile solvothermal method to synthesize aluminum-doped ceria-zirconia (Ce0.5Zr0.5-xAlxO2-x/2, x = 0.1 to 0.4) solid solutions was carried out using Ce(NH4)2(NO3)6, Zr(NO3)3·2H2O Al(NO3)3·9H2O, and NH4OH as the starting materials at 200°C for 24 h. The obtained solid solutions from the solvothermal reaction were calcined at 1,000°C for 20 h in air atmosphere to evaluate the thermal stability. The synthesized Ce0.5Zr0.3Al0.2O1.9 particle was characterized for the oxygen storage capacity (OSC) in automotive catalysis. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and the Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) technique were employed. The OSC values of all samples were measured at 600°C using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis. Ce0.5Zr0.3Al0.2O1.9 solid solutions calcined at 1,000°C for 20 h with a BET surface area of 18 m2 g−1 exhibited a considerably high OSC of 427 μmol-O g−1 and good OSC performance stability. The same synthesis route was employed for the preparation of the CeO2 and Ce0.5Zr0.5O2. The incorporation of aluminum ion in the lattice of ceria-based catalyst greatly enhanced the thermal stability and OSC. PMID:23025588

  19. Structural-geological models of the Ketzin CO2 storage pilot site used for site evaluation, dynamic reservoir simulations, and monitoring purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norden, Ben; Kling, Christian; Frykman, Peter; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2013-04-01

    The saline aquifer of the Stuttgart Formation (Upper Triassic) is used for a carbon dioxide (CO2) storage research project at Ketzin, about 25 km west of Berlin (Germany). The structural and lithological site characterization relies on a comprehensive data set, consisting of former exploration data (hydrocarbon and natural gas storage exploration) and of the recent exploration, production, and monitoring data acquired a