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Sample records for geology norm biology

  1. THE HIGH BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA IN RAMSAR IRAN: GEOLOGY, NORM, BIOLOGY, LNT, AND POSSIBLE REGULATORY FUN

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, P. A.

    2002-02-25

    The city of Ramsar Iran hosts some of the highest natural radiation levels on earth, and over 2000 people are exposed to radiation doses ranging from 1 to 26 rem per year. Curiously, inhabitants of this region seem to have no greater incidence of cancer than those in neighboring areas of normal background radiation levels, and preliminary studies suggest their blood cells experience fewer induced chromosomal abnormalities when exposed to 150 rem ''challenge'' doses of radiation than do the blood cells of their neighbors. This paper will briefly describe the unique geology that gives Ramsar its extraordinarily high background radiation levels. It will then summarize the studies performed to date and will conclude by suggesting ways to incorporate these findings (if they are borne out by further testing) into future radiation protection standards.

  2. Biology, norms, and personality: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    af Klinteberg, B

    1996-01-01

    The focus concerns psychobiological risk factors in the development of antisocial behavior among male and female subjects. Using longitudinal data, violent and nonviolent criminal offences were studied in relation to childhood vulnerability indicators, norm-breaking behavior in adolescence, and to personality traits and biochemical measures in adult age. Subsequently, levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were studied as related to personality and biochemical measures in adult age. Data were obtained from a representative group of 82 male and 87 female subjects as (1) teacher ratings of behavior at age 13, assumed to differentially reflect vulnerability to externalizing and internalizing psychosocial disturbances; (2) self-ratings of norm-breaking behaviors at age 15; (3) Karolinska Scales of Personality scores and biochemical measures at age 26-27 years, and (4) records for criminal offences up to age 40. In both the male and female groups, criminal offences during the life span were associated with childhood externalizing and adolescent norm-breaking behavior. Furthermore, in the male group, criminal and violent offences were associated with adult psychopathy-related personality traits and a biochemical indicator of psychosocial vulnerability; platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. Among female subjects, criminal offenders displayed significantly lower MAO activity in comparison to noncriminals. High levels of norm-breaking behavior in adolescence were associated with adult high impulsiveness, low socialization, and low platelet MAO activity in both male and female subjects. The results of the analyses were used as a basis for some theoretical and methodological conclusions.

  3. Variation in reaction norms: Statistical considerations and biological interpretation.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael B; Liefting, Maartje

    2016-09-01

    Analysis of reaction norms, the functions by which the phenotype produced by a given genotype depends on the environment, is critical to studying many aspects of phenotypic evolution. Different techniques are available for quantifying different aspects of reaction norm variation. We examine what biological inferences can be drawn from some of the more readily applicable analyses for studying reaction norms. We adopt a strongly biologically motivated view, but draw on statistical theory to highlight strengths and drawbacks of different techniques. In particular, consideration of some formal statistical theory leads to revision of some recently, and forcefully, advocated opinions on reaction norm analysis. We clarify what simple analysis of the slope between mean phenotype in two environments can tell us about reaction norms, explore the conditions under which polynomial regression can provide robust inferences about reaction norm shape, and explore how different existing approaches may be used to draw inferences about variation in reaction norm shape. We show how mixed model-based approaches can provide more robust inferences than more commonly used multistep statistical approaches, and derive new metrics of the relative importance of variation in reaction norm intercepts, slopes, and curvatures.

  4. A STUDY OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF GEOLOGICAL FORMATION TO THE NORM

    SciTech Connect

    Derald Chriss; Talmage P. Bursh

    2002-11-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are everywhere and we are constantly exposed to it. Natural radiation has been around since the beginning of the Earth and is found in our bodies, our food, and in the products we use. This study investigates the presence and activity of naturally occurring radioactive materials contained in produced water which is associated with oil and gas exploration. Specifically the principal radionuclide used to measure NORM was radium. We also measured , where possible, other parameters which may have had an effect on the NORM activity. Produced water samples from two different oil field sites, Fausse Pointe and North Broussard, have been used as test sites for this water analysis study. The overall purpose was to determine the specific, selected parameters associated with the produced waters, which are defined as the waters which are brought to the surface along with oil and natural gas. This study is also a precursor in an attempt to predict the activity of naturally occurring radioactive materials and the other factors which may affect the activity and/or occurrence of NORM in produced water samples. A control site used for comparison, was Lake Kernan on the Southern University Campus. The average reading for the first site, Fausse Point, was pH 6.39, with the total dissolved solids, and conductivity readings off scale for our system. The radium analysis of the Fausse Point site (avg value of 0.5291 pCi/mL) indicates a relatively ''hot'' NORM area of activity. This activity indicates a potential, future NORM regulatory problem for this site. The average reading for the second site, North Broussard, was pH 7.39, with the total dissolved solids, and conductivity readings again being very high. The radium analysis of the North Broussard site (avg. of 0.4697 pCi/mL) also indicates a relatively ''hot'' NORM area of activity. The average readings for our control site, Lake Kernan, were pH 7.29, total dissolved solids 62

  5. Geologic, geochemical, and geographic controls on NORM in produced water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal reservoirs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1995-08-01

    Water from Texas oil, gas, and geothermal wells contains natural radioactivity that ranges from several hundred to several thousand Picocuries per liter (pCi/L). This natural radioactivity in produced fluids and the scale that forms in producing and processing equipment can lead to increased concerns for worker safety and additional costs for handling and disposing of water and scale. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas operations are mainly caused by concentrations of radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra) and radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra), daughter products of uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) and thorium-232 ({sup 232}Th), respectively, in barite scale. We examined (1) the geographic distribution of high NORM levels in oil-producing and gas-processing equipment, (2) geologic controls on uranium (U), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) in sedimentary basins and reservoirs, (3) mineralogy of NORM scale, (4) chemical variability and potential to form barite scale in Texas formation waters, (5) Ra activity in Texas formation waters, and (6) geochemical controls on Ra isotopes in formation water and barite scale to explore natural controls on radioactivity. Our approach combined extensive compilations of published data, collection and analyses of new water samples and scale material, and geochemical modeling of scale Precipitation and Ra incorporation in barite.

  6. Evolutionary biology and chemical geology: a timely marriage.

    PubMed

    Cintas, Pedro

    2004-07-01

    For more than 150 years natural selection has been perceived to be the overwhelming force in evolution. Only in recent decades have we obtained new insights into environmental and physicochemical factors that participate with selection in a synergic way. Far from denying Darwin's theory, such neglected factors put order to the bewildering range of genotypes and morphologies found in living organisms and, more importantly, they place evolution in a planetary context where biology, geology, and chemistry can easily be integrated.

  7. Sex Education Representations in Spanish Combined Biology and Geology Textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cabeza, Belén; Sánchez-Bello, Ana

    2013-07-01

    Sex education is principally dealt with as part of the combined subject of Biology and Geology in the Spanish school curriculum. Teachers of this subject are not specifically trained to teach sex education, and thus the contents of their assigned textbooks are the main source of information available to them in this field. The main goal of this study was to determine what information Biology and Geology textbooks provide with regard to sex education and the vision of sexuality they give, but above all to reveal which perspectives of sex education they legitimise and which they silence. We analysed the textbooks in question by interpreting both visual and text representations, as a means of enabling us to investigate the nature of the discourse on sex education. With this aim, we have used a qualitative methodology, based on the content analysis. The main analytical tool was an in-house grid constructed to allow us to analyse the visual and textual representations. Our analysis of the combined Biology and Geology textbooks for Secondary Year 3 revealed that there is a tendency to reproduce models of sex education that take place within a framework of the more traditional discourses. Besides, the results suggested that the most of the sample chosen for this study makes a superficial, incomplete, incorrect or biased approach to sex education.

  8. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed. PMID:24131397

  9. Maintaining distinctions under threat: heterosexual men endorse the biological theory of sexuality when equality is the norm.

    PubMed

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan M; Hegarty, Peter

    2014-12-01

    According to social identity theory, group members sometimes react to threats to their group's distinctiveness by asserting the distinctiveness of their group. In four studies (n = 261) we tested the hypothesis that heterosexual men with a greater propensity to be threatened by homosexuality would react to egalitarian norms by endorsing biological theories of sexuality. Heterosexual men, but not women, with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group endorsed biological theories the most (Study 1). Heterosexual men with higher gender self-esteem, with heterosexist attitudes, who endorsed traditional gender roles, and with narrow prototypes of their gender in-group, endorsed the biological theories more when egalitarian norms rather than anti-egalitarian norms (Studies 2 and 3) or pro-minority ideologies that emphasized group differences (Study 4) were made salient. These findings show group-level reactive distinctiveness among members of a high-status group in a context of threat to the unique privileges that they once enjoyed.

  10. Mars Field Geology, Biology, and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  11. Mars Field Geology, Biology. and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  12. Determination of total mercury in biological and geological samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crock, James G.

    2005-01-01

    The analytical chemist is faced with several challenges when determining mercury in biological and geological materials. These challenges include widespread mercury contamination, both in the laboratory and the environment, possible losses of mercury during sample preparation and digestion, the wide range of mercury values commonly observed, ranging from the low nanogram per gram or per liter for background areas to hundreds of milligrams per kilogram in contaminated or ore-bearing areas, great matrix diversity, and sample heterogeneity1. These factors can be naturally occurring or anthropogenic, but must be addressed to provide a precise and accurate analysis. Although there are many instrumental methods available for the successful determination of mercury, no one technique will address all problems or all samples all of the time. The approach for the determination of mercury used at the U.S. Geological Survey, Crustal Imaging and Characterization Team, Denver Laboratories, utilizes a suite of complementary instrumental methods when approaching a study requiring mercury analyses. Typically, a study could require the analysis of waters, leachates or selective digestions of solids, vegetation, and biological materials such as tissue, bone, or shell, soils, rocks, sediments, coals, sludges, and(or) ashes. No one digestion or sample preparation method will be suitable for all of these matrices. The digestions typically employed at our laboratories include: (i) a closed-vessel microwave method using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by digestion/dilution with a nitric acid/sodium dichromate solution, (ii) a robotic open test-tube digestion with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, (iii) a sealed Teflon? vessel with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, (iv) a sealed glass bottle with nitric acid and sodium dichromate, or (v) open test tube digestion with nitric and sulfuric acids and vanadium pentoxide. The common factor in all these digestions is that they are

  13. Geology shapes biogeography: Quaternary river-capture explains New Zealand's biologically 'composite' Taieri River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Jonathan M.; Wallis, Graham P.; Burridge, Christopher P.; Craw, Dave

    2015-07-01

    Geological processes are hypothesised to strongly affect species distributions. In particular, a combination of geological and biological data has suggested that tectonic processes can drive vicariant isolation and speciation in freshwater-limited taxa. Here we synthesise geological and biological evidence to demonstrate a composite geological and biological history for New Zealand's 290-km long Taieri River. Specifically, we assess evidence from structural geology and petrology, combined with phylogenetic and biogeographic analysis of galaxiid fishes, to show that the modern Taieri River was formed via capture of the ancestral Kye Burn during the mid-late Quaternary. Molecular dating analyses support a late-Quaternary timeframe for the geologically-mediated divergence between formerly-connected sister taxa Galaxias depressiceps and G. 'teviot'. Fish biogeography lends further support to the geological hypothesis, as there is a substantial biogeographic disjunction between the lower- (ancestral) and upper (captured) portions of the Taieri River. Geological and biological data are assessed independently yet yield consilient patterns and timeframes for the evolutionary events inferred. Broadly, this study highlights the interplay between physical and biological processes in a geologically dynamic setting.

  14. Mass extinctions and ocean acidification: biological constraints on geological dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, J. E. N.

    2008-09-01

    The five mass extinction events that the earth has so far experienced have impacted coral reefs as much or more than any other major ecosystem. Each has left the Earth without living reefs for at least four million years, intervals so great that they are commonly referred to as ‘reef gaps’ (geological intervals where there are no remnants of what might have been living reefs). The causes attributed to each mass extinction are reviewed and summarised. When these causes and the reef gaps that follow them are examined in the light of the biology of extant corals and their Pleistocene history, most can be discarded. Causes are divided into (1) those which are independent of the carbon cycle: direct physical destruction from bolides, ‘nuclear winters’ induced by dust clouds, sea-level changes, loss of area during sea-level regressions, loss of biodiversity, low and high temperatures, salinity, diseases and toxins and extraterrestrial events and (2) those linked to the carbon cycle: acid rain, hydrogen sulphide, oxygen and anoxia, methane, carbon dioxide, changes in ocean chemistry and pH. By process of elimination, primary causes of mass extinctions are linked in various ways to the carbon cycle in general and ocean chemistry in particular with clear association with atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. The prospect of ocean acidification is potentially the most serious of all predicted outcomes of anthropogenic carbon dioxide increase. This study concludes that acidification has the potential to trigger a sixth mass extinction event and to do so independently of anthropogenic extinctions that are currently taking place.

  15. Geological Time, Biological Events and the Learning Transfer Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Claudia C.; Middendorf, Joan; Rehrey, George; Dalkilic, Mehmet M.; Cassidy, Keely

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension of geologic time does not come easily, especially for students who are studying the earth sciences for the first time. This project investigated the potential success of two teaching interventions that were designed to help non-science majors enrolled in an introductory geology class gain a richer conceptual understanding of the…

  16. Beyond the Golden Gate; oceanography, geology, biology, and environmental issues in the Gulf of the Farallones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.; Chin, John L.; Ueber, Edward; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    2001-01-01

    In the 1990's, the U.S. Geological Survey sponsored a multidisciplinary, multiagency investigation of the Gulf of the Farallones, which lies offshore of the San Francisco Bay region. This book discussess the results of the endeavor, covering the topics of oceanography and geology, biology and ecological niches, and issues of environmental management.

  17. Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Stephen P.

    2008-01-17

    This chapter summarizes the geology of the single-shell tank (SST) farms in the context of the region’s geologic history. This chapter is based on the information in the geology data package for the SST waste management areas and SST RFI Appendix E, which builds upon previous reports on the tank farm geology and Integrated Disposal Facility geology with information available after those reports were published.

  18. Reconstructing Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorgorio, Nuria; Planas, Nuria

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the constructs "cultural scripts" and "social representations", and on the basis of the empirical research we have been developing until now, we revisit the construct norms from a sociocultural perspective. Norms, both sociomathematical norms and norms of the mathematical practice, as cultural scripts influenced by social…

  19. Planetary biology--paleontological, geological, and molecular histories of life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A; Caraco, M Daniel; Thomson, J Michael; Gaucher, Eric A

    2002-05-01

    The history of life on Earth is chronicled in the geological strata, the fossil record, and the genomes of contemporary organisms. When examined together, these records help identify metabolic and regulatory pathways, annotate protein sequences, and identify animal models to develop new drugs, among other features of scientific and biomedical interest. Together, planetary analysis of genome and proteome databases is providing an enhanced understanding of how life interacts with the biosphere and adapts to global change.

  20. The College Commissions - Agriculture, Biology, Chemistry, Engineering, Geography, Geology, Mathematics, Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fooks, Joyce Lane

    Information concerning the eight science college commissions now in existence is provided. These commissions encompass the fields of agriculture, biology, chemistry, engineering, geography, geology, mathematics and physics. An overview of the primary functions and commitments of the commissions and consulting services offered is presented. Also…

  1. Biology and Geology Teachers' Domain-Specific Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Kubasko, Dennis S., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Interviews eight students enrolled in a secondary-science curriculum class and four experienced high school biology and geology teachers to determine reasons for disciplinary variance in the teaching of evolution. Finds variance imbedded in inherent differences in content and methodology of the two scientific disciplines. (Contains 27 references.)…

  2. The Treatment of Geological Time & the History of Life on Earth in High School Biology Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gerald; Decker, Todd; Barrow, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the importance of geological time in evolutionary biology, misconceptions about historical events in the history of life on Earth are common. Glenn (1990) has documented a decline from 1960 to 1989 in the amount of space devoted to the history of life in high school earth science textbooks, but we are aware of no similar study in…

  3. Biological and Geological Characteristics of the Gakkel Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Bailey, J.; Edmonds, H.; Forte, P.; Helmke, E.; Humphris, S.; Kemp, J.; Nakamura, K.; Reves-Sohn, R.; Singh, H.; Willis, C.

    2007-12-01

    `pebbly' material that may represent older microbial byproducts or inorganic material remnant of past microbial activity. The microbial mats were often associated with weak temperature (e.g., 0.07°C) and Eh anomalies (up to 80 mV) less than 3 meters above the mats, suggesting that they live in regions where reducing and slightly warm fluids are seeping through cracks in the fresh volcanic terrain. The rock margins adjacent to the microbial mats were orange-brown suggesting bio-chemical alteration. The microbial mat material may be sustained by weak fluid discharge from cracks in the young volcanic surfaces. Biological samples, including mat material, sponges, and amphipods were preserved for shore-based taxonomic, phylogenetic, and biogeographic analyses.

  4. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  5. Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Papers presented to the Conference on Large Body Impacts and Terrestrial Evolution: Geological, Climatological, and Biological Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The effects of large impacts on the environment are discussed and include thermal effects, atmospheric effects, changes in ocean temperatures, and geomagnetic anomalies. Biological factors such as extinction and increases in mutation development were investigated. Geological anomalies studied include stratigraphic gaps, extinction of entire boundary layers from the geological record, and geochemical oddities. Evidence was examined for impact cratering throughout the world.

  7. Environmental quality and preservation; bedrock beneath reefs; the importance of geology in understanding biological decline in a modern reef ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lidz, Barbara H.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental Quality and Preservation-Bedrock Beneath Reefs: the Importance of Geology in Understanding Biological Decline in a Modern Ecosystem' is a four-page and one-plate full-color discussion of the geologic framework and evolutionary history of the coral reef ecosystem that lines the outer shelf off the Florida Keys.

  8. Strategic Plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Status and Trends of Biological Resources Program: 2004-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dresler, Paul V.; Bartish, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides a broad range of national expertise in geography, geology, hydrology, and biology. The mission of the USGS is to provide reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; assist others in managing water, biological, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect quality of life. The USGS places a special emphasis on providing science to the land and resource management bureaus of the Department of the Interior (DOI). The Biological Resources Discipline activities assist in maintaining healthy ecosystems and natural resources so that these habitats can continue to provide food, energy, medicine, transportation, and recreation.

  9. NORM regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  10. Geological and biological heterogeneity of the Aleutian margin (1965-4822 m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathburn, A. E.; Levin, L. A.; Tryon, M.; Gieskes, J. M.; Martin, J. B.; Pérez, M. E.; Fodrie, F. J.; Neira, C.; Fryer, G. J.; Mendoza, G.; McMillan, P. A.; Kluesner, J.; Adamic, J.; Ziebis, W.

    2009-01-01

    Geological, biological and biogeochemical characterization of the previously unexplored margin off Unimak Island, Alaska between 1965 and 4822 m water depth was conducted to examine: (1) the geological processes that shaped the margin, (2) the linkages between depth, geomorphology and environmental disturbance in structuring benthic communities of varying size classes and (3) the existence, composition and nutritional sources of methane seep biota on this margin. The study area was mapped and sampled using multibeam sonar, a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera system. Our results provide the first characterization of the Aleutian margin mid and lower slope benthic communities (microbiota, foraminifera, macrofauna and megafauna), recognizing diverse habitats in a variety of settings. Our investigations also revealed that the geologic feature known as the “Ugamak Slide” is not a slide at all, and could not have resulted from a large 1946 earthquake. However, sediment disturbance appears to be a pervasive feature of this margin. We speculate that the deep-sea occurrence of high densities of Elphidium, typically a shallow-water foraminiferan, results from the influence of sediment redeposition from shallower habitats. Strong representation of cumacean, amphipod and tanaid crustaceans among the Unimak macrofauna may also reflect sediment instability. Although some faunal abundances decline with depth, habitat heterogeneity and disturbance generated by canyons and methane seepage appear to influence abundances of biota in ways that supercede any clear depth gradient in organic matter input. Measures of sediment organic matter and pigment content as well as C and N isotopic signatures were highly heterogeneous, although the availability of organic matter and the abundance of microorganisms in the upper sediment (1-5 cm) were positively correlated. We report the first methane seep on the Aleutian slope in the Unimak region (3263-3285 m), comprised of

  11. Laser ablation ICP-MS applications using the timescales of geologic and biologic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridley, W. I.

    2003-04-01

    Geochemists commonly examine geologic processes on timescales of 10^4--10^9 years, and accept that often age relations, e.g., chemical zoning in minerals, can only be measured in a relative sense. The progression of a geologic process that involves geochemical changes may be assessed using trace element microbeam techniques, because the textural, and therefore spatial context, of the analytical scheme can be preserved. However, quantification requires appropriate calibration standards. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is proving particularly useful now that appropriate standards are becoming available. For instance, trace element zoning patterns in primary sulfides (e.g., pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena) and secondary phases can be inverted to examine relative changes in fluid composition during cycles of hydrothermal mineralization. In turn such information provides insights into fluid sources, migration pathways and depositional processes. These studies have only become possible with the development of appropriate sulfide calibration standards. Another example, made possible with the development of appropriate silicate calibration standards, is the quantitative spatial mapping of REE variations in amphibolite-grade garnets. The recognition that the trace and major elements are decoupled provides a better understanding of the various sources of elements during metamorphic re-equilibration. There is also a growing realization that LA-ICP-MS has potential in biochemical studies, and geochemists have begun to turn their attention in this direction, working closely with biologists. Unlike many geologic processes, the timescales of biologic processes are measured in years to centuries and are frequently amenable to absolute dating. Examples that can be cited where LA-ICP-MS has been applied include annual trace metal variations in tree rings, corals, teeth, bones, bird feathers and various animal vibrissae (sea lion, walrus, wolf). The aim of such studies is

  12. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones.

  13. Quantification of layered patterns with structural anisotropy: a comparison of biological and geological systems.

    PubMed

    Smolyar, I; Bromage, T; Wikelski, M

    2016-03-01

    Large-scale patterns evident from satellite images of aeolian landforms on Earth and other planets; those of intermediate scale in marine and terrestrial sand ripples and sediment profiles; and small-scale patterns such as lamellae in the bones of vertebrates and annuli in fish scales are each represented by layers of different thicknesses and lengths. Layered patterns are important because they form a record of the state of internal and external factors that regulate pattern formation in these geological and biological systems. It is therefore potentially possible to recognize trends, periodicities, and events in the history of the formation of these systems among the incremental sequences. Though the structures and sizes of these 2-D patterns are typically scale-free, they are also characteristically anisotropic; that is, the number of layers and their absolute thicknesses vary significantly during formation. The aim of the present work is to quantify the structure of layered patterns and to reveal similarities and differences in the processing and interpretation of layered landforms and biological systems. To reach this goal we used N-partite graph and Boolean functions to quantify the structure of layers and plot charts for "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number". These charts serve as a source of information about events in the history of formation of layered systems. The concept of synchronization of layer formation across a 2-D plane is introduced to develop the procedure for plotting "layer thickness vs. layer number" and "layer area vs. layer number", which takes into account the structural anisotropy of layered patterns and increase signal-to-noise ratio in charts. Examples include landforms on Mars and Earth and incremental layers in human and iguana bones. PMID:27441261

  14. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    projects and the analytical approaches that can be applied to empirically and statistically link diverse datasets to create an integrative perspective on geological and biological data. In doing so, we highlight strengths and potential weaknesses of new methods and analyses, and provide recommendations for future interdisciplinary deep-drilling projects.

  15. Gusev Crater Paleolake: Two-Billion Years of Martian Geologic, (and Biologic?) History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Landheim, R.; Greeley, R.; Kuzmin, R.; McKay, C. P.

    1998-01-01

    Ancient Martian lakes are sites where the climatological, chemical, and possibly biological history of the planet has been recorded. Their potential to keep this global information in their sedimentary deposits, potential only shared with the polar layered-deposits, designates them as the most promising targets for the ongoing exploration of Mars in terms of science return and global knowledge about Mars evolution. Many of the science priority objectives of the Surveyor Program can be met by exploring ancient Martian lake beds. Among martian paleolakes, lakes in impact craters represent probably the most favorable sites to explore. Though highly destructive events when they occur, impacts may have provided in time a significant energy source for life, by generating heat, and at the contact of water and/or ice, deep hydrothermal systems, which are considered as favorable environments for life. In addition, impact crater lakes are changing environments, from thermally driven systems at the very first stage of their formation, to cold ice-protected potential oases in the more recent Martian geological times. Thus, they are plausible sites to study the progression of diverse microbiologic communities.

  16. Spectroscopic characterisation of biological vaterite: relations to synthetic and geological vaterites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, D. E.; Wehrmeister, U.; Soldati, A. L.; Hofmeister, W.

    2009-04-01

    The pair aragonite and calcite are some of the most intensively studied polymorphous minerals. These CaCO3 polymorphs are most commonly observed in biological minerals produced by marine molluscs, whereas in freshwater molluscs mostly aragonite and vaterite, the third CaCO3 polymorph is identified (e.g. Wehrmeister et al., 2007). Vaterite is the thermodynamically most unstable CaCO3 polymorph and is often discussed as a precursor phase in the mineralization of aragonite or calcite by organisms. Apart from these biological parageneses, vaterite is also known as rare small polycrystalline aggregates from geological occurrences. In laboratory crystallisation experiments, vaterite can be stabilized either kinetically or with the help of organic macromolecules (e.g. Falini et al., 2005). Despite considerable research on vaterite, it is less well known that the crystal structure of vaterite is not unobjectionably determined. Due to the overall small crystal sizes, single crystal XRD analysis of vaterite is very difficult and this could be one of the reasons for the lack of a conclusive determination of the crystal structure. At least four different crystal structure proposals have to be considered: One proposed vaterite to be pseudo hexagonal and to crystallise in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (Meyer 1959). In addition, three crystal structures with hexagonal unit cells are proposed: Kamhi (1963) and Meyer (1969) proposed the same crystal space group: P63/mmc, whereas the site symmetry of the carbonate ion is proposed to be different with 2mm and m, respectively. Lastly, Lippmann (1973) proposed a structure based on the high-temperature modification of YbBO3 with space group 6322. Here, we present new and complete Raman spectra for biological, geological and synthetic vaterite. The spectroscopic results are evaluated in light of all published crystal structures for vaterite and are aimed at gaining more detailed information about the crystallographic features of

  17. Integrated perspectives on geological and biological dynamics in ancient Lake Ohrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Leng, Melanie; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Leicher, Niklas; Just, Janna; Lacey, Jack; Baumgarten, Henrike; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Cvetkoska, Aleksandra; Vogel, Hendrik; Sadori, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is one of the very few lakes in the world that provides a continuous and high-resolution record of environmental change of >1.2 Ma. The outstanding number of endemic taxa (>300 endemic taxa) in Lake Ohrid in combination with its long existence makes Lake Ohrid a unique target to study the drivers of speciation and endemism. For this purpose, a 569 m long sediment sequence was recovered from the central part of the lake in spring 2013 within the scope of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO) project. In January 2016, the lowermost core sections of the 569 m long sediment sequence were opened. Ongoing work comprises core correlation to a composite sequence and various geological and biological analyses on the sediment material. Here, we present the results of analyses of the upper 248 m of this sequence, which covers the last ca. 640 ka according to an age model based on tephrostratigraphy as well as tuning of in situ physical and biogeochemical proxy data to orbital parameters and supported by paleomagnetic studies. The sedimentological, physical, and geochemical data from the sediment sequence indicate changes in primary productivity, water column stratification, and water depth of the lake, and in weathering and erosion processes in the catchment. These changes can be clearly correlated with orbitally driven environmental change, such as the intensity of glacial and interglacial periods as well as stadials and interstadials. These long-term changes are interspersed by short-term events, such as the deposition of tephra horizons. More than 30 tephra layers were found in the upper 248 m. The comparison of long-term and short-term environmental changes with paleontological and molecular clock analyses indicates that catastrophic extinction events in the endemic species community did not occur over the last 640 ka in Lake

  18. Biology as an integrated component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, Michael R.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey?s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to integrate chemical, physical, and biological data to assess the status of and trends in the Nation?s water quality at local, regional, and national levels. The Program consists of 60 study units (major river basins and large parts of aquifers) located throughout the Nation (fig. 1). Data are collected at stream, river, and ground-water sites that represent the Nation?s mix of major natural and human factors that influence water quality. Biological data are collected from streams and rivers, and include (1) fish and other aquatic organisms whose tissues are analyzed for a wide array of chemical contaminants; (2) characterizations of algal, benthic invertebrate, and fish communities; and (3) characterizations of vegetation growing in streams and along streambanks. These biological data are collected in conjunction with physical (streamflow, characterizations of instream, bank, and flood-plain habitats) and chemical data.

  19. Central Colorado Assessment Project - Application of integrated geologic, geochemical, biologic, and mineral resource studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Church, S.E.; Caine, J.S.; Schmidt, T.S.; deWitt, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative studies by USDA Forest Service, National Park Service supported by the USGS Mineral Resources Program (MRP), and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs (NCGMP) contributed to the mineral-resource assessment and included regional geologic mapping at the scale 1:100,000, collection and geochemical studies of stream sediments, surface water, and bedrock samples, macroinvertebrate and biofilm studies in the riparian environment, remote-sensing studies, and geochronology. Geoscience information available as GIS layers has improved understanding of the distribution of metallic, industrial, and aggregate resources, location of areas that have potential for their discovery or development, helped to understand the relation of tectonics, magmatism, and paleohydrology to the genesis of the metal deposits in the region, and provided insight on the geochemical and environmental effects that historical mining and natural, mineralized rock exposures have on surface water, ground water, and aquatic life.

  20. An x-ray tomography facility for quantitative prediction of mechanical and transport properties in geological, biological, and synthetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariou, Arthur; Senden, Tim J.; Sawkins, Tim J.; Knackstedt, Mark A.; Turner, Michael L.; Jones, Anthony C.; Saadatfar, Mohammad; Roberts, Ray J.; Limaye, Ajay; Arns, Christoph H.; Sheppard, Adrian P.; Sok, Rob M.

    2004-10-01

    A fully integrated X-ray tomography facility with the ability to generate tomograms with 20483 voxels at 2 micron spatial resolution was built to satisfy the requirements of a virtual materials testing laboratory. The instrument comprises of a continuously pumped micro-focus X-ray gun, a milli-degree rotation stage and a high resolution and large field X-ray camera, configured in a cone beam geometry with a circular trajectory. The purpose of this facility is to routinely analyse and investigate real world biological, geological and synthetic materials at a scale in which the traditional domains of physics, chemistry, biology and geology merge. During the first 2 years of operation, approximately 4 Terabytes of data have been collected, processed and analysed, both as static and in some cases as composite dynamic data sets. This incorporates over 300 tomograms with 10243 voxels and 50 tomograms with 20483 voxels for a wide range of research fields. Specimens analysed include sedimentary rocks, soils, bone, soft tissue, ceramics, fibre-reinforced composites, foams, wood, paper, fossils, sphere packs, bio-morphs and small animals. In this paper, the exibility of the facility is highlighted with some prime examples.

  1. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user.

  2. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  3. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.

  4. Stress-associated synchronization and desynchronization in geologic and biologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluchevsky, A. V.; Kluchevskaya, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    Variations in the annual numbers of representative earthquakes in three areas and six districts of the Baikal rift zone in 1964-2002 were subjected to correlation analysis. Episodes of significant correlations of shock flow rates were found against the background of chaotic seismic activity. They followed the rearrangements (catastrophes) of stresses in the lithosphere, which are also stressing factors for the whole rift geodynamic system. The episode of the late 1970s-early 1980s was particularly long and showed the maximum correlation. Therefore, it can be considered the principal event in seismic process synchronization in the Baikal Rift Zone. The same approach to data analysis revealed similar synchronization and desynchronization phenomena in the behavior of Baikalian turbellaria when they deviated from homeostasis as a result of illumination, which is a stress for this biologic system. Possible reasons for the behavior of biologic and geodynamic systems are discussed in terms of the synergetic concept of phenomena in living and nonliving nature.

  5. Using Grand Challenges to Teach Science: A Biology-Geology Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyford, M.; Myers, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    . Global Sustainability: Managing Earth's Resources (GEOL 1600) focuses on the energy-water climate nexus with a similar emphasis on STEM and non-STEM perspectives as LIFE 1002. Each week, there are three one hour lectures and a two hour lab. To set the stage for global and systems thinking, the concept of the Anthropocene and planetary boundaries are introduced early in the semester. Lectures focus on a variety of energy-water-climate topics and provide the content background for the labs. Labs are mini-case studies that address a variety of issues set in different global contexts, e.g. groundwater in Bangladesh, coal in China and petroleum in Saudi Arabia. Often the labs cover two weeks with one part covering science and the other economics. Unlike the other two courses, Energy: A Geological Perspective (GEOL 3650), is enrolled with half geology majors and half non-majors, representing almost every college on campus. Its organizational structure is similar to 1600. Labs focus on case studies, each lasting from 3 to 5 weeks, with each week addressing a different aspect of the same issue and social context, e.g. geology, economics, engineering, regulatory and political/social. Students, working in groups, present oral and written reports. Topics range from nuclear power and weapons in Iran to atmospheric emissions and global climate treaties.

  6. Using Fossil Shark Teeth to Illustrate Evolution and Introduce Basic Geologic Concepts in a High School Biology Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, J. G.; Nunn, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Shell Foundation sponsors a program at Louisiana State University called Shell Undergraduate Recruitment and Geoscience Education (SURGE). The purpose of SURGE is to help local high school science teachers incorporate geology into their classrooms by providing resources and training. As part of this program, a workshop for high school biology teachers was held at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge on June 3-5, 2007. We had the teachers do a series of activities on fossil shark teeth to illustrate evolution and introduce basic earth science concepts such as geologic time, superposition, and faunal succession and provided the teachers with lesson plans and materials. As an example, one of our exercises explores the evolution of the megatoothed shark lineage leading to Carcharocles megalodon, the largest predatory shark in history with teeth up to 17 cm long. Megatoothed shark teeth make excellent evolutionary subjects because they have a good fossil record and show continuous transitions in morphology from the Eocene to Pliocene. Our activity follows the learning cycle model. We take advantage of the curiosity of sharks shared by most people, and allow students to explore the variations among different shark teeth and explain the causes of those variations. The objectives of this exercise are to have the students: 1) sort fossil shark teeth into biologically reasonable species; 2) form hypotheses about evolutionary relationships among fossil shark teeth; and 3) describe and interpret evolutionary trends in the fossil Megatoothed lineage. To do the activity, students are divided into groups of 2-3 and given a shuffled set of 72 shark tooth cards with different images of megatoothed shark teeth. They are instructed to group the shark tooth cards into separate species of sharks. After sorting the cards, students are asked to consider the evolutionary relationships among their species and arrange their species chronologically according to the species first

  7. Earth is speaking: listen her! On-line questionnaire about anomalous geological and biological phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Quattrocchi, Fedora; Cantucci, Barbara; Mazzarini, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes can be associated with non-seismic phenomena which may manifest many weeks before and after the main shock. These phenomena are characterized by ground fractures and soil liquefactions at surface often coupled with degassing events, chemical alterations of water and soils, changes in temperature and/or waters level in the epicentral area. Further manifestations include radio disturbances and light emissions. On the other hand, anomalous behavior of animals has been reported to occur before environmental changes. The co-occurrence of several phenomena may be considered as a signal of subsurface changes, and their analysis may be used as possible forecast indicators for seismic events, landslides, damages in infrastructure (e.g., dam) and groundwaters contamination. In order to obtain an accurate statistical analysis of these factors, a pre-crisis large database over a prolonged period of time is a pre-requisite. To this end, we elaborated a questionnaire for the population to pick up signs about anomalous phenomena like as: animal behavior, geological manifestations, effect on vegetation, degassing, changes on aquifers, wells and springs. After the January 25, 2013, mainshock (ML 4.8) in the Garfagnana seismic district, the Bagni di Lucca Municipality was selected as pilot site for testing this questionnaire. The complexity, variety and extension of this territory (165 kmq) sound suitable for this project. Bagni di Lucca is located in the southern border of the Garfagnana seismogenic source, characterized by the carbonate Mesozoic sequences and the Tertiary terrigenous sedimentary deposits of the Tuscan Nappe. The questionnaire was published on Bagni di Lucca web site (https://docs.google.com/file/d/0Bzw3vOYX47XoTGltTVJRbkJuajA/edit) in collaboration with Municipal Commitee, Local Civil Protection and Local Red Cross, and sent by ordinary mail to the citizenry. It is possible to answer to the questionnaire, also anonymously, direct on line (https

  8. Hydrological, Geological, and Biological Site Characterization of Breccia Pipe Uranium Deposits in Northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea E.

    2010-01-01

    On July 21, 2009, U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar proposed a two-year withdrawal of about 1 million acres of Federal land near the Grand Canyon from future mineral entry. These lands are contained in three parcels: two parcels on U.S. Bureau of Land Management land to the north of the Grand Canyon (North and East Segregation Areas) and one on the Kaibab National Forest south of the Grand Canyon (South Segregation Area). The purpose of the two-year withdrawal is to examine the potential effects of restricting these areas from new mine development for the next 20 years. This proposed withdrawal initiated a period of study during which the effects of the withdrawal must be evaluated. At the direction of the Secretary, the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of short-term studies designed to develop additional information about the possible effects of uranium mining on the natural resources of the region. Dissolved uranium and other major, minor, and trace elements occur naturally in groundwater as the result of precipitation infiltrating from the surface to water-bearing zones and, presumably, to underlying regional aquifers. Discharges from these aquifers occur as seeps and springs throughout the region and provide valuable habitat and water sources for plants and animals. Uranium mining within the watershed may increase the amount of radioactive materials and heavy metals in the surface water and groundwater flowing into Grand Canyon National Park and the Colorado River, and deep mining activities may increase mobilization of uranium through the rock strata into the aquifers. In addition, waste rock and ore from mined areas may be transported away from the mines by wind and runoff.

  9. Addressing the Grand Challenge of atmospheric carbon dioxide: geologic sequestration vs. biological recycling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    On February 15, 2008, the National Academy of Engineering unveiled their list of 14 Grand Challenges for Engineering. Building off of tremendous advancements in the past century, these challenges were selected for their role in assuring a sustainable existence for the rapidly increasing global community. It is no accident that the first five Challenges on the list involve the development of sustainable energy sources and management of environmental resources. While the focus of this review is to address the single Grand Challenge of "develop carbon sequestration methods", is will soon be clear that several other Challenges are intrinsically tied to it through the principles of sustainability. How does the realm of biological engineering play a role in addressing these Grand Challenges? PMID:22047501

  10. Important geological and biological impacts of natural hydrocarbon seeps: Northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, H.H. )

    1993-11-01

    Large volumes of siliciclastic sediments, input especially during periods of lowered sea level, and compensating salt tectonics have produced a continental slope that is arguably the most complex in today's oceans. Faults associated with deformation of salt and shale provide the primary migration routes for hydrocarbon gases, crude oil, brines, and formation fluids to the modern sea floor. Since the mid 1980s, it has become increasingly clearer that this process has an extremely important impact on the geomorphology, sedimentology, and biology of the modern continental slope. Hydrocarbon source, flux rate, and water depth are important determinants of sea-floor response. Under rapid flux conditions mud volcanoes (to 1 km wide and 50 m high) result, and hydrate hills (rich with authigenic carbonates), carbonate lithoherms, and isolated communities of chemosymbiotic organisms with associated hardgrounds represent much slower flux responses. In numerous moderate- to low-flux cases, cold seep products function to support islands of productivity for communities of chemosymbiotic organisms that contribute both directly (shell material) and through chemical byproducts to the production of massive volumes of calcium-magnesium carbonate in the form of hardgrounds, stacked slabs, and discrete moundlike buildups (commonly >20m). Seep-related carbonates of the Gulf of Mexico continental slope, as well those formed through degassing of accretionary prisms along active margins, are now thought to create hardgrounds and discrete buildups that are excellent analogs for many problematic carbonate buildups in ancient deep-water siliciclastic rocks.

  11. Health norms in pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Barić, L; MacArthur, C

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted on a sample of pregnant women. The study had two aims: to develop a method of measuring social expectations (norms) and to find out how far women conform in their behaviour to these norms. The areas of behaviour were smoking, exercise, diet, alcohol, and medication. Pregnancy was found to be appropriate for this study because of the high degree of formalisation that this state enjoys in our society. The methods used for measuring norms in this study are an improvement on earlier methods, but further refinements are needed. The findings show that women generally do conform to the social expectations and that their behaviour is in accordance with three types of norms--that is, general, specific, and transitional. The implications for health education interventions are discussed. PMID:856369

  12. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists’ Subscription to Norms of Research

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; DeVries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists’ subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  13. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa S.; Ronning, Emily A.; De Vries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as an evaluative norm. (Contains 1…

  14. Extending the Mertonian Norms: Scientists' Subscription to Norms of Research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa S; Ronning, Emily A; Devries, Raymond; Martinson, Brian C

    2010-05-01

    This analysis, based on focus groups and a national survey, assesses scientists' subscription to the Mertonian norms of science and associated counternorms. It also supports extension of these norms to governance (as opposed to administration), as a norm of decision-making, and quality (as opposed to quantity), as a evaluative norm. PMID:21132074

  15. Vitrification of NORM wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, C.

    1994-05-01

    Vitrification of wastes is a relatively new application of none of man`s oldest manufacturing processes. During the past 25 years it has been developed and accepted internationally for immobilizing the most highly radioactive wastes from spent nuclear fuel. By the year 2005, there will be nine operating high-level radioactive vitrification plants. Many of the technical ``lessons learned`` from this international program can be applied to much less hazardous materials such as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). With the deployment of low capital and operating cost systems, vitrification should become a broadly applied process for treating a large variety of wastes. In many situations, the wastes can be transformed into marketable products. This paper will present a general description of waste vitrification, summarize some of its key advantages, provide some test data for a small sample of one NORM, and suggest how this process may be applied to NORM.

  16. [SKF-index as an indicator of biological age of hemostasis and blood vessels in children and adults in norm and pathology].

    PubMed

    Kuznik, B I; Fain, I A; Kaminski, A V; Maksimova, O G; Kustovskaya, E M

    2013-01-01

    A novel noninvasive method of an assessment of the hemostasis system and the vascular walls functioning is proposed. This method is based on the methodology of dynamic light scattering (DLS). New index SKF, which is derived from the previously established relationship between the intravascular mobility of the erythrocytes and the biological age, has been introduced. We demonstrated that the degree of the severity of the diseases correlates with the SKF index. More specifically, an increased value of the SKF index was found for the groups with cardio-vascular, oncological diseases and diabetes mellitus. In addition we provided evidences that the SKF index depends on the blood and plasma viscosity related to activity stage of the hemostasis system as well as on the functioning of the vascular walls.

  17. Initial Biological, Chemical, and Geological Observations After the 2005-6 Volcanic Eruption on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shank, T. M.; Govenar, B.; Buckman, K.; Fornari, D. J.; Soule, S. A.; Luther, G. W.; Lutz, R. A.; Vetriani, C.; Tolstoy, M.; Rubin, K. H.; Cowen, J. P.; von Damm, K. L.

    2006-12-01

    The 2006 discovery of a volcanic eruption on the East Pacific Rise provides a critical "time zero" for the initiation of integrated time-series studies of the biological, chemical, and geological processes at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. In April 2006, routine OBS investigations and results from subsequent water column surveys from the R/V Knorr suggested that a recent volcanic eruption had taken place along the mid-ocean ridge crest between 9°48'N-9°51'N. Within two weeks of these findings, a rapid event response cruise on board the R/V New Horizon was on site. Towed camera (TowCam) images (3 to 6 m above the seafloor) confirmed that a seafloor eruption covered over 16 km along axis and up to 1 km off-axis. Digital image documentation of the seafloor along the ridge crest from 9°46'N to 9°57'N revealed: 1) concentrated hydrothermal activity between 9°49'N and 9°51'N, with other active vent areas near 9°47'N and 9°53'N; 2) murky diffuse-flow in deep fissures, collapsed pits, and small cracks in sheet flows and lava remnants; 3) white microbial mats in extensive areas of vigorous diffuse-flow, surrounded by olive-brown "microbial" mats; 4) the apparent absence of either sessile megafauna in newly-venting areas or any intact pre-eruptive community; and 5) markedly small and abundant brachyuran crabs. During a 7-Alvin dive program (RESET06) three weeks later (June 2006), the faunal composition and distribution appeared to be most similar to observations immediately following the 1991 eruption in this region, and the style and type of apparent microbial mat/byproduct appeared most similar to March 1992. In April 1991, many of the microbial mats/byproducts were 10 cm thick and gelatinous. While a single small area (< 2 m2) in the 9°49' area was observed to have this appearance, the spatial extent of discrete vent areas with microbial mats/byproducts covering the seafloor was "in between" that observed in 1991 and 1992. However, in situ observations from Alvin

  18. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples. PMID:25464176

  19. Measurement of X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in biological and geological samples in the energy range of 7-12keV.

    PubMed

    Trunova, Valentina; Sidorina, Anna; Kriventsov, Vladimir

    2014-10-17

    Information about X-ray mass attenuation coefficients in different materials is necessary for accurate X-ray fluorescent analysis. The X-ray mass attenuation coefficients for energy of 7-12keV were measured in biological (Mussel and Oyster tissues, blood, hair, liver, and Cabbage leaves) and geological (Baikal sludge, soil, and Alaskite granite) samples. The measurements were carried out at the EXAFS Station of Siberian Synchrotron Radiation Center (VEPP-3). Obtained experimental mass attenuation coefficients were compared with theoretical values calculated for some samples.

  20. Social Norms: Do We Love Norms Too Much?

    PubMed Central

    Bell, David C.; Cox, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Social norms are often cited as the cause of many social phenomena, especially as an explanation for prosocial family and relationship behaviors. And yet maybe we love the idea of social norms too much, as suggested by our failure to subject them to rigorous test. Compared to the detail in social norms theoretical orientations, there is very little detail in tests of normative theories. To provide guidance to researchers who invoke social norms as explanations, we catalog normative orientations that have been proposed to account for consistent patterns of action. We call on researchers to conduct tests of normative theories and the processes such theories assert. PMID:25937833

  1. Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Ghose, Aditya

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Need for Norm-Aware Systems * Norms in human societies * Why should software systems be norm-aware? * Case Studies of Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems * Human-computer interactions * Virtual environments and multi-player online games * Extracting norms from big data and software repositories * Norms and Sustainability * Sustainability and green ICT * Norm awareness through software systems * Where To, From Here? * Conclusions

  2. NWEA FAQ: RIT Scale Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) conducts norming studies every several years to provide the best and most up-to-date information we can about student achievement and growth to better support educational decision-making. It is an important part of our commitment to our partners. The most recent NWEA norms were released in July 2015. Just…

  3. Autotrophy of green non-sulphur bacteria in hot spring microbial mats: biological explanations for isotopically heavy organic carbon in the geological record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van der Meer, M. T.; Schouten, S.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Ward, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    Inferences about the evidence of life recorded in organic compounds within the Earth's ancient rocks have depended on 13C contents low enough to be characteristic of biological debris produced by the well-known CO2 fixation pathway, the Calvin cycle. 'Atypically' high values have been attributed to isotopic alteration of sedimentary organic carbon by thermal metamorphism. We examined the possibility that organic carbon characterized by a relatively high 13C content could have arisen biologically from recently discovered autotrophic pathways. We focused on the green non-sulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus that uses the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway for inorganic carbon fixation and is geologically significant as it forms modern mat communities analogous to stromatolites. Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus spp. alone had relatively high 13C contents (-14.9%) and lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus that were also isotopically heavy (-8.9% to -18.5%). Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus in conjunction with cyanobacteria had a more typical Calvin cycle signature (-23.5%). However, lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus were isotopically enriched (-15.1% to -24.1%) relative to lipids typical of cyanobacteria (-33.9% to -36.3%). This suggests that, in mats formed by both cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus, autotrophy must have a greater effect on Chloroflexus carbon metabolism than the photoheterotrophic consumption of cyanobacterial photosynthate. Chloroflexus cell components were also selectively preserved. Hence, Chloroflexus autotrophy and selective preservation of its products constitute one purely biological mechanism by which isotopically heavy organic carbon could have been introduced into important Precambrian geological features.

  4. Autotrophy of green non-sulphur bacteria in hot spring microbial mats: biological explanations for isotopically heavy organic carbon in the geological record.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, M T; Schouten, S; de Leeuw, J W; Ward, D M

    2000-08-01

    Inferences about the evidence of life recorded in organic compounds within the Earth's ancient rocks have depended on 13C contents low enough to be characteristic of biological debris produced by the well-known CO2 fixation pathway, the Calvin cycle. 'Atypically' high values have been attributed to isotopic alteration of sedimentary organic carbon by thermal metamorphism. We examined the possibility that organic carbon characterized by a relatively high 13C content could have arisen biologically from recently discovered autotrophic pathways. We focused on the green non-sulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus that uses the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway for inorganic carbon fixation and is geologically significant as it forms modern mat communities analogous to stromatolites. Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus spp. alone had relatively high 13C contents (-14.9%) and lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus that were also isotopically heavy (-8.9% to -18.5%). Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus in conjunction with cyanobacteria had a more typical Calvin cycle signature (-23.5%). However, lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus were isotopically enriched (-15.1% to -24.1%) relative to lipids typical of cyanobacteria (-33.9% to -36.3%). This suggests that, in mats formed by both cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus, autotrophy must have a greater effect on Chloroflexus carbon metabolism than the photoheterotrophic consumption of cyanobacterial photosynthate. Chloroflexus cell components were also selectively preserved. Hence, Chloroflexus autotrophy and selective preservation of its products constitute one purely biological mechanism by which isotopically heavy organic carbon could have been introduced into important Precambrian geological features.

  5. Autotrophy of green non-sulphur bacteria in hot spring microbial mats: biological explanations for isotopically heavy organic carbon in the geological record.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, M T; Schouten, S; de Leeuw, J W; Ward, D M

    2000-08-01

    Inferences about the evidence of life recorded in organic compounds within the Earth's ancient rocks have depended on 13C contents low enough to be characteristic of biological debris produced by the well-known CO2 fixation pathway, the Calvin cycle. 'Atypically' high values have been attributed to isotopic alteration of sedimentary organic carbon by thermal metamorphism. We examined the possibility that organic carbon characterized by a relatively high 13C content could have arisen biologically from recently discovered autotrophic pathways. We focused on the green non-sulphur bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus that uses the 3-hydroxypropionate pathway for inorganic carbon fixation and is geologically significant as it forms modern mat communities analogous to stromatolites. Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus spp. alone had relatively high 13C contents (-14.9%) and lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus that were also isotopically heavy (-8.9% to -18.5%). Organic matter in mats constructed by Chloroflexus in conjunction with cyanobacteria had a more typical Calvin cycle signature (-23.5%). However, lipids diagnostic of Chloroflexus were isotopically enriched (-15.1% to -24.1%) relative to lipids typical of cyanobacteria (-33.9% to -36.3%). This suggests that, in mats formed by both cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus, autotrophy must have a greater effect on Chloroflexus carbon metabolism than the photoheterotrophic consumption of cyanobacterial photosynthate. Chloroflexus cell components were also selectively preserved. Hence, Chloroflexus autotrophy and selective preservation of its products constitute one purely biological mechanism by which isotopically heavy organic carbon could have been introduced into important Precambrian geological features. PMID:11234931

  6. How to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies to assess biotic-abiotic interactions on coastal dune systems: a new multidisciplinary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarti, Giovanni; Bertoni, Duccio; Bini, Monica; Ciccarelli, Daniela; Ribolini, Adriano; Ruocco, Matteo; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Alquini, Fernanda; Giaccari, Riccardo; Tordella, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Coastal dune systems are arguably one of the most dynamic environments because their evolution is controlled by many factors, both natural and human-related. Hence, they are often exposed to processes leading to erosion, which in turn determine serious naturalistic and economic losses. Most recent studies carried out on different dune fields worldwide emphasized the notion that a better definition of this environment needs an approach that systematically involves several disciplines, striving to merge every data collected from any individual analyses. Therefore, a new multidisciplinary method to study coastal dune systems has been conceived in order to integrate geology, biology, and modern wireless technologies. The aim of the work is threefold: i) to check the reliability of this new approach; ii) to provide a dataset as complete as ever about the factors affecting the evolution of coastal dunes; and iii) to evaluate the influence of any biotic and abiotic factors on plant communities. The experimentation site is located along the Pisa coast within the Migliarino - S. Rossore - Massaciuccoli Regional Park, a protected area where human influence is low (Tuscany, Italy). A rectangle of 100 x 200 m containing 50 grids of 20 x 20 m was established along the coastal dune systems from the coastline to the pinewood at the landward end of the backdune area. Sampling from each grid determined grain-size analysis carried out on surface sediment samples such as geologic aspects; topographic surveys performed by means of DGPS-RTK instruments; geophysical surveys conducted with a GPR equipment, which will be matched with core drilling activities; digital image analysis of high definition pictures taken by means of a remote controlled aircraft drone flying over the study area; biological data obtained by percent cover of each vascular plant species recorded in the sampling unit. Along with geologic and biologic methodologies, this research implemented the use of informatics

  7. A COLLABORATIVE EFFORT TO COLLECT BIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DATA TO QUANTIFY THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS WHICH INFLUENCE STREAM IMPAIRMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of the current condition is critical to the management of streams impaired by sediment and other non-point source stressors, which adversely affect both physical habitat and water quality. Impairment is generally assigned based on biological criteria, which are der...

  8. The Haskell norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advocate, Dev L.

    The matter of the viscosity of the mantle has started to become serious. In 1935, Norm Haskell estimated the viscosity to be about 1020 poise and there the matter stood for about half a century. For a little while, people worried about excess ellipticity of the Earth and attributed this to a “fossil bulge” that lagged the rotation rate. For this same little while, 1025 poise was thought to be the viscosity of the lower mantle, but then it was discovered that the equator was also out of shape by about the same amount, ruling out the “fossil bulge” idea. To cover their embarrassment, geodynamicists upped the viscosity of the mantle to 1021 by adopting S.I. (Satan's Invention) units. No one noticed for some time since it didn't really matter whether viscosity was given in stokes, poise, or pascal seconds. It was just a large number with a large uncertainty and no one had a feel for it anyway.

  9. Systeme, norme, usage: Etudes contrastives (System, Norm, Usage: Contrastive Studies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gak, Victor

    1989-01-01

    The comparison of languages can be an effective instructional technique if used well. The comparison of isolated elements is less effective than the examination of languages at several levels: system, norm, and usage. (MSE)

  10. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  11. Distinguishing geology from biology in the Ediacaran Doushantuo biota relaxes constraints on the timing of the origin of bilaterians.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; Thomas, Ceri-Wyn; Bengtson, Stefan; Kearns, Stuart L; Xiao, Shuhai; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Donoghue, Philip C J

    2012-06-22

    The Ediacaran Doushantuo biota has yielded fossils that include the oldest widely accepted record of the animal evolutionary lineage, as well as specimens with alleged bilaterian affinity. However, these systematic interpretations are contingent on the presence of key biological structures that have been reinterpreted by some workers as artefacts of diagenetic mineralization. On the basis of chemistry and crystallographic fabric, we characterize and discriminate phases of mineralization that reflect: (i) replication of original biological structure, and (ii) void-filling diagenetic mineralization. The results indicate that all fossils from the Doushantuo assemblage preserve a complex mélange of mineral phases, even where subcellular anatomy appears to be preserved. The findings allow these phases to be distinguished in more controversial fossils, facilitating a critical re-evaluation of the Doushantuo fossil assemblage and its implications as an archive of Ediacaran animal diversity. We find that putative subcellular structures exhibit fabrics consistent with preservation of original morphology. Cells in later developmental stages are not in original configuration and are therefore uninformative concerning gastrulation. Key structures used to identify Doushantuo bilaterians can be dismissed as late diagenetic artefacts. Therefore, when diagenetic mineralization is considered, there is no convincing evidence for bilaterians in the Doushantuo assemblage.

  12. A supplement to "Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples" (U.S. Geological Survey Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations, Book 5, Chapter A4)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1979-01-01

    The manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze waters to determine their biological and microbiological properties. It supplements ' Methods for Collection and Analysis of Aquatic Biological and Microbiological Samples ' (TWRI, Book 5, Chapter A4, 1977, edited by P. E. Greeson, T. A. Ehlke, G. A. Irwin, B. W. Lium, and K. V. Slack). Included are 5 new methods, a new section of selected taxonomic references for Ostracoda, and 6 revised methods.

  13. Professional Norms Guiding School Principals' Pedagogical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze the professional norms surrounding school development, with a special emphasis on school principals' pedagogical leadership. Design/methodology/approach: A norm perspective is used to identify possible links between legal norms, professional norms, and actions. The findings are based on…

  14. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

    PubMed

    Ball, Philip

    2015-04-19

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of 'Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750229

  15. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis'.

    PubMed

    Ball, Philip

    2015-04-19

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, 'The chemical basis of morphogenesis', on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of 'Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  16. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  17. Liberal Norms and Their Discontents.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Deborah A

    2012-09-01

    Recent analyses of the predominance of liberals in personality and social psychology have raised the possibility that this ideological imbalance is driven in part by active discrimination against conservatives. In this article, I review empirical evidence relevant to this possibility and find little support for it. The evidence points instead to a predominance of liberal views in academia more generally, driven by multiple factors including the consonance of academic work with the goals and values of liberals. Within the field of personality and social psychology, this concentration of liberal views has fostered strong liberal norms, which both intensify and exaggerate the field's ideological homogeneity. These liberal norms have unfortunate narrowing effects on research in personality and social psychology; remedies for these effects should focus on weakening the norms. PMID:26168510

  18. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency.

  19. Norm-establishing and norm-following in autonomous agency.

    PubMed

    Barandiaran, Xabier E; Egbert, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Living agency is subject to a normative dimension (good-bad, adaptive-maladaptive) that is absent from other types of interaction. We review current and historical attempts to naturalize normativity from an organism-centered perspective, identifying two central problems and their solution: (1) How to define the topology of the viability space so as to include a sense of gradation that permits reversible failure, and (2) how to relate both the processes that establish norms and those that result in norm-following behavior. We present a minimal metabolic system that is coupled to a gradient-climbing chemotactic mechanism. Studying the relationship between metabolic dynamics and environmental resource conditions, we identify an emergent viable region and a precarious region where the system tends to die unless environmental conditions change. We introduce the concept of normative field as the change of environmental conditions required to bring the system back to its viable region. Norm-following, or normative action, is defined as the course of behavior whose effect is positively correlated with the normative field. We close with a discussion of the limitations and extensions of our model and some final reflections on the nature of norms and teleology in agency. PMID:23373978

  20. Determination of halogens, with special reference to iodine, in geological and biological samples using pyrohydrolysis for preparation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography for measurement.

    PubMed

    Schnetger, B; Muramatsu, Y

    1996-11-01

    A method for determining iodine, bromine, chlorine and fluorine in geological and biological materials is described. In a quartz tube, solid material was heated to 1100 degrees C under a wet oxygen flow (pyrohydrolysis). By this process the halogens (I, Br, Cl, F) were separated from the matrix and then collected in a receiver solution. The chemical yield of iodine was determined by a radioactive tracer. ICP-MS and ion chromatographic measurements were used for the determination of the halogens. The method was optimized by investigating different experimental conditions. All four halogens can be trapped in the receiver solution from one combustion procedure. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by the analysis of environmental standard reference materials (rock, soil, milk, leaves, marine tissue). The concentrations in the materials analysed were in the ranges 0.006-50 mg kg-1 for I, 0.06-1300 mg kg-1 for Br, 50-1100 mg kg-1 for F and 400-11000 mg kg-1 for Cl. The lower values represent the practical detection limit of this method. The results obtained by the proposed method and the certified values are in good agreement.

  1. Determination of halogens, with special reference to iodine, in geological and biological samples using pyrohydrolysis for preparation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and ion chromatography for measurement.

    PubMed

    Schnetger, B; Muramatsu, Y

    1996-11-01

    A method for determining iodine, bromine, chlorine and fluorine in geological and biological materials is described. In a quartz tube, solid material was heated to 1100 degrees C under a wet oxygen flow (pyrohydrolysis). By this process the halogens (I, Br, Cl, F) were separated from the matrix and then collected in a receiver solution. The chemical yield of iodine was determined by a radioactive tracer. ICP-MS and ion chromatographic measurements were used for the determination of the halogens. The method was optimized by investigating different experimental conditions. All four halogens can be trapped in the receiver solution from one combustion procedure. Precision and accuracy were evaluated by the analysis of environmental standard reference materials (rock, soil, milk, leaves, marine tissue). The concentrations in the materials analysed were in the ranges 0.006-50 mg kg-1 for I, 0.06-1300 mg kg-1 for Br, 50-1100 mg kg-1 for F and 400-11000 mg kg-1 for Cl. The lower values represent the practical detection limit of this method. The results obtained by the proposed method and the certified values are in good agreement. PMID:8952450

  2. Geology of caves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, I.M.

    1991-01-01

    A cave is a natural opening in the ground extending beyond the zone of light and large enough to permit the entry of man. Occurring in a wide variety of rock types and caused by widely differing geological processes, caves range in size from single small rooms to intercorinecting passages many miles long. The scientific study of caves is called speleology (from the Greek words spelaion for cave and logos for study). It is a composite science based on geology, hydrology, biology, and archaeology, and thus holds special interest for earth scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. International Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Linn

    1977-01-01

    Briefly discusses recent international programs in various areas of geology, including land-use problems, coping with geological hazards, and conserving the environment while searching for energy and mineral resources. (MLH)

  4. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    Mathematical techniques used to solve geological problems are briefly discussed (including comments on use of geostatistics). Highlights of conferences/meetings and conference papers in mathematical geology are also provided. (JN)

  5. A P-Norm Robust Feature Extraction Method for Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Liu, Jin-Xing; Gao, Ying-Lian; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Wang, Xue-Song; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    In current molecular biology, it becomes more and more important to identify differentially expressed genes closely correlated with a key biological process from gene expression data. In this paper, based on the Schatten p-norm and Lp-norm, a novel p-norm robust feature extraction method is proposed to identify the differentially expressed genes. In our method, the Schatten p-norm is used as the regularization function to obtain a low-rank matrix and the Lp-norm is taken as the error function to improve the robustness to outliers in the gene expression data. The results on simulation data show that our method can obtain higher identification accuracies than the competitive methods. Numerous experiments on real gene expression data sets demonstrate that our method can identify more differentially expressed genes than the others. Moreover, we confirmed that the identified genes are closely correlated with the corresponding gene expression data. PMID:26201006

  6. Change IS the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are undergoing an evolution that is unprecedented since they were created. State and federal mandates, greater calls for accountability, and a stronger push for student success are causing community colleges to review and retool their campuses and their focus. In other words, change IS the new norm. It is time for community…

  7. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  8. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Pattiz

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. McCarthyism's Rhetorical Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Rebecca M.

    Rhetorical norms of early McCarthyist discourse reveal a reliance upon images of chaos and the body. Through such metaphors, rhetors crafted a model of discussion that feminized "democracy" and "tolerance" to support anti-Communist measures and de-legitimize their opponents. Political variety was coded as deviant to national identity. "Tolerance"…

  10. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  11. Disposal of NORM waste in salt caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Smith, K.P.; Tomasko, D.; Elcock, D.; Blunt, D.; Williams, G.P.

    1998-07-01

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, there are no fatal flaws that would prevent a state regulatory agency from approving cavern disposal of NORM. On the basis of the costs charged by caverns currently used for disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal caverns could be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  12. Conflicts and Changes in Textual Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Kjell Lars

    The notion of "textual norms" refers to sociocultural conventions that define the "well-formedness" of a text. Because well-formedness in texts is characterized by convention, different conventions may exist in a community and lead to norm conflicts when used in actual text generation. In this article, two types of norm conflict are described. In…

  13. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Richard T.

    Norms are tabulated for the Bender Gestalt Test, based on a group of 62 male and 73 female junior high school students in Utah. These norms are designed to fill a gap in norms which now range from 3 years through adult. The students in this group were aged 12 through 14. Standard Bender Gestalt cards were used. The tests were administered…

  14. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  15. Peer Group Norms and Accountability Moderate the Effect of School Norms on Children's Intergroup Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Luke; Rutland, Adam; Nesdale, Drew

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the interactive effects of school norms, peer norms, and accountability on children's intergroup attitudes. Participants (n = 229) aged 5-11 years, in a between-subjects design, were randomly assigned to a peer group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, learned their school either had an inclusion norm or not, and were…

  16. Separating subjective norms, university descriptive and injunctive norms, and U.S. descriptive and injunctive norms for drinking behavior intentions.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Sun; Klein, Katherine A; Smith, Sandi; Martell, Dennis

    2009-12-01

    The theory of planned behavior and the social norms approach both stress the important influence that normative perceptions have on behavioral intentions and behavior. These 2 approaches were used to examine the behavioral intention to limit drinking to 0 to 4 drinks. Further, this study examined whether perception of subjective norms, university- and U.S.-level descriptive norms, and university- and U.S.-level injunctive norms represented separate dimensions for this behavioral intention. A representative sample of 1,100 undergraduate students completed a Web-based survey. The results confirmed that the 5 types of norms were all unique constructs and showed that individuals' intentions to limit their alcohol consumption to 0 to 4 drinks were predicted by positive attitudes, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, U.S. descriptive norms, and U.S. injunctive norms. Subjective norms also moderated the relationship between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intention. University descriptive norms served as a moderator between attitudes and behavioral intentions and between perceived behavioral control and behavioral intentions. This study has important implications for norms-based theories and campaigns. PMID:20183383

  17. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  18. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  19. Photomicrography in the Geological Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the conversion of a standard biological brightfield microscope for examination of thin sections and characterize, in detail, the use of both black and white and color photomicrography in the geological sciences. Several illustrative examples on the use of transmitted and reflected polarized-light microscopy to solve geological problems…

  20. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, William L.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in geologic time with an introduction to the subject. Separate sections discuss the relative time scale, major divisions in geologic time, index fossils used as guides for telling the age of rocks, the atomic scale, and the age of the earth.…

  1. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  2. Physical geology

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, B.; Porter, S.

    1987-01-01

    The book integrates current thinking on processes (plate techtonics, chemical cycles, changes throughout geologic time). It is an introduction to investigations into the way the earth works, how mountains are formed, how the atmosphere, hydrosphere, crust and mantle interact with each other. Treatments on climate, paleoclimatology and landscape evolution are included, as is a discussion on how human activity affects geological interactions.

  3. Functional mapping of reaction norms to multiple environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiasheng; Zeng, Yanru; Huang, Jianqing; Hou, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Wu, Rongling

    2007-02-01

    Whether there are different genes involved in response to different environmental signals and how these genes interact to determine the final expression of the trait are of fundamental importance in agricultural and biological research. We present a statistical framework for mapping environment-induced genes (or quantitative trait loci, QTLs) of major effects on the expression of a trait that respond to changing environments. This framework is constructed with a maximum-likelihood-based mixture model, in which the mean and covariance structure of environment-induced responses is modelled. The means for responses to continuous environmental states, referred to as reaction norms, are approximated for different QTL genotypes by mathematical equations that were derived from fundamental biological principles or based on statistical goodness-of-fit to observational data. The residual covariance between different environmental states was modelled by autoregressive processes. Such an approach to studying the genetic control of reaction norms can be expected to be advantageous over traditional mapping approaches in which no biological principles and statistical structures are considered. We demonstrate the analytical procedure and power of this approach by modelling the photosynthetic rate process as a function of temperature and light irradiance. Our approach allows for testing how a QTL affects the reaction norm of photosynthetic rate to a specific environment and whether there exist different QTLs to mediate photosynthetic responses to temperature and light irradiance, respectively. PMID:17517157

  4. Overview of NORM and activities by a NORM licensed permanent decontamination and waste processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mirro, G.A.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of issues related to handling NORM materials, and provides a description of a facility designed for the processing of NORM contaminated equipment. With regard to handling NORM materials the author discusses sources of NORM, problems, regulations and disposal options, potential hazards, safety equipment, and issues related to personnel protection. For the facility, the author discusses: description of the permanent facility; the operations of the facility; the license it has for handling specific radioactive material; operating and safety procedures; decontamination facilities on site; NORM waste processing capabilities; and offsite NORM services which are available.

  5. Mathematical Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Richard B.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a continued trend toward practical applications in mathematical geology. Developments included work in interactive computer graphics, factor analysis, the vanishing tons problem, universal kriging, and resource estimating. (BB)

  6. Practical Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ian

    1975-01-01

    Geology is an ideal subject in which to introduce the "discovery" method of learning. Available from: National Institute of Adult Education (England and Wales), 35 Queen Anne St., London W1M OBL England. (BP)

  7. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  8. Low-loss Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy and Dielectric Function of Biological and Geological Polymorphs of CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katti, Kalpana S.; Qian, Maoxu; Frech, Daniel W.; Sarikaya, Mehmet

    1999-10-01

    Previous work on microstructural characterization has shown variations in terms of defects and organization of nanostructures in the two polymorphs of calcium carbonate, calcite, and aragonite in mollusc shells. Large variations in mechanical properties are observed between these sections which have been attributed to variations in composite microstructure as well as intrinsic properties of the inorganic phases. Here we present local low-loss electron energy-loss spectroscopic (EELS) study of calcitic and aragonitic regions of abalone shell that were compared to geological (single-crystal) counterpart polymorphs to reveal intrinsic differences that could be related to organismal effects in biomineralization. In both sets of samples, local dielectric function is computed using Kramer-Kronig analysis. The electronic structures of biogenic and geological calcitic materials are not significantly different. On the other hand, electronic structure of biogenic aragonite is remarkably different from that of geological aragonite. This difference is attributed to the increased contribution from single electron excitations in biogenic aragonite as compared to that of geological aragonite. Implications of these changes are discussed in the context of macromolecular involvement in the making of the microstructures and properties in biogenic phases.

  9. The Deanship and Its Faculty Interpreters: Do Mertonian Norms of Science Translate into Norms for Administration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Nathaniel J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents research comparing faculty-held norms for academic deans' behavior to Mertonian norms of science. Findings indicate that while some elements of Mertonian norms hold true, it is not the best pattern of grouping faculty expectations for deans. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)

  10. Destination: Geology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Louise

    2016-04-01

    "While we teach, we learn" (Roman philosopher Seneca) One of the most beneficial ways to remember a theory or concept is to explain it to someone else. The offer of fieldwork and visits to exciting destinations is arguably the easiest way to spark a students' interest in any subject. Geology at A-Level (age 16-18) in the United Kingdom incorporates significant elements of field studies into the curriculum with many students choosing the subject on this basis and it being a key factor in consolidating student knowledge and understanding. Geology maintains a healthy annual enrollment with interest in the subject increasing in recent years. However, it is important for educators not to loose sight of the importance of recruitment and retention of students. Recent flexibility in the subject content of the UK curriculum in secondary schools has provided an opportunity to teach the basic principles of the subject to our younger students and fieldwork provides a valuable opportunity to engage with these students in the promotion of the subject. Promotion of the subject is typically devolved to senior students at Hessle High School and Sixth Form College, drawing on their personal experiences to engage younger students. Prospective students are excited to learn from a guest speaker, so why not use our most senior students to engage and promote the subject rather than their normal subject teacher? A-Level geology students embarking on fieldwork abroad, understand their additional responsibility to promote the subject and share their understanding of the field visit. They will typically produce a series of lessons and activities for younger students using their newly acquired knowledge. Senior students also present to whole year groups in seminars, sharing knowledge of the location's geology and raising awareness of the exciting destinations offered by geology. Geology fieldwork is always planned, organised and led by the member of staff to keep costs low, with recent visits

  11. Social norms and diet in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lally, Phillippa; Bartle, Naomi; Wardle, Jane

    2011-12-01

    We hypothesized that adolescents misperceive social norms for food consumption, and aimed to test this, and examine associations between perceived norms and dietary behaviours. School pupils (n=264) in the UK, aged 16-19 years, completed a questionnaire about their own attitudes to, and intake of, fruits and vegetables, unhealthy snacks and sugar-sweetened drinks, and their perceptions of their peers' attitudes to (injunctive norms), and intake of (descriptive norms), the same foods. Misperceptions were calculated from differences between perceived norms and median self-reports of peer groups. Respondents overestimated their peers' intake of snacks by 1.8 portions a week, and sugar-sweetened drinks by 5.2 portions, and overestimated how positive their peers' attitudes were towards these behaviours. They underestimated their peers' consumption of fruits and vegetables by 3.2 portions per week and how positive their peers' attitudes were towards fruit and vegetables. Descriptive norms were strongly associated with intake of fruit and vegetables, sugar-sweetened drinks, and unhealthy snacks, explaining between 17% and 22% of the variance in consumption. There was no association between injunctive norms and intake. Descriptive norms indicated that misperceptions of peers' food intake were associated with respondents' own intake. Interventions to correct misperceptions have the potential to improve adolescents' diets.

  12. NORM Management in the Oil & Gas Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-08-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) accumulates at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in sludge and other waste media. Improper handling and disposal of NORM contaminated equipment and waste can create a potential radiation hazard to workers and the environment. Saudi Aramco Environmental Protection Department initiated a program to identify the extent, form and level of NORM contamination associated with the company operations. Once identified the challenge of managing operations which had a NORM hazard was addressed in a manner that gave due consideration to workers and environmental protection as well as operations' efficiency and productivity. The benefits of shared knowledge, practice and experience across the oil & gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance on NORM management. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  13. Adults' Attitudes about Children's Gender Norm Transgressions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

    This study examined college students' knowledge and attitudes regarding children's gender, and social and moral norms, and compared their evaluations of violation of each norm type. Participating were 140 female and 67 male college students ranging in age from 17 to 46 years, 33 of whom were parents. Subjects were asked questions related to toys,…

  14. Theoretical geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikeš, Daniel

    2010-05-01

    Theoretical geology Present day geology is mostly empirical of nature. I claim that geology is by nature complex and that the empirical approach is bound to fail. Let's consider the input to be the set of ambient conditions and the output to be the sedimentary rock record. I claim that the output can only be deduced from the input if the relation from input to output be known. The fundamental question is therefore the following: Can one predict the output from the input or can one predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? If one can, than the empirical/deductive method has changes, if one can't than that method is bound to fail. The fundamental problem to solve is therefore the following: How to predict the behaviour of a sedimentary system? It is interesting to observe that this question is never asked and many a study is conducted by the empirical/deductive method; it seems that the empirical method has been accepted as being appropriate without question. It is, however, easy to argument that a sedimentary system is by nature complex and that several input parameters vary at the same time and that they can create similar output in the rock record. It follows trivially from these first principles that in such a case the deductive solution cannot be unique. At the same time several geological methods depart precisely from the assumption, that one particular variable is the dictator/driver and that the others are constant, even though the data do not support such an assumption. The method of "sequence stratigraphy" is a typical example of such a dogma. It can be easily argued that all the interpretation resulting from a method that is built on uncertain or wrong assumptions is erroneous. Still, this method has survived for many years, nonwithstanding all the critics it has received. This is just one example of the present day geological world and is not unique. Even the alternative methods criticising sequence stratigraphy actually depart from the same

  15. Geological, hydrological, and biological issues related to the proposed development of a park at the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Trenham, Peter C.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Reichard, Eric G.; Tinsley, John C.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Meyer, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    A new park is being considered for the confluence of the Los Angeles River and the Arroyo Seco in Los Angeles County, California. Components of the park development may include creation of a temporary lake on the Los Angeles River, removal of channel lining along part of the Arroyo Seco, restoration of native plants, creation of walking paths, and building of facilities such as a boat ramp and a visitor center. This report, prepared in cooperation with the Mountains Recreation and Conservancy Authority, delineates the geological, hydrological, and biological issues that may have an impact on the park development or result from development at the confluence, and identifies a set a tasks to help address these science issues. Geologic issues of concern relate to surface faulting, earthquake ground motions, liquefaction, landsliding, and induced seismicity. Hydrologic issues of concern relate to the hydraulics and water quality of both surface water and ground water. Biological issues of concern include colonization-extinction dynamics, wildlife corridors, wildlife reintroduction, non-native species, ecotoxicology, and restoration of local habitat and ecology. Potential tasks include (1) basic data collection and follow-up monitoring, and (2) statistical and probabilistic analyses and simulation modeling of the seismic, hydraulic, and ecological processes that may have the greatest impact on the park. The science issues and associated tasks delineated for the proposed confluence park will also have transfer value for river restoration in other urban settings.

  16. Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albritton, Claude C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of the concept of geologic time. Develops the topic by using the major discoveries of geologists, beginning with Steno and following through to the discovery and use of radiometric dating. An extensive reference list is provided. (JM)

  17. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  18. Poisson image reconstruction with Hessian Schatten-norm regularization.

    PubMed

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Unser, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Poisson inverse problems arise in many modern imaging applications, including biomedical and astronomical ones. The main challenge is to obtain an estimate of the underlying image from a set of measurements degraded by a linear operator and further corrupted by Poisson noise. In this paper, we propose an efficient framework for Poisson image reconstruction, under a regularization approach, which depends on matrix-valued regularization operators. In particular, the employed regularizers involve the Hessian as the regularization operator and Schatten matrix norms as the potential functions. For the solution of the problem, we propose two optimization algorithms that are specifically tailored to the Poisson nature of the noise. These algorithms are based on an augmented-Lagrangian formulation of the problem and correspond to two variants of the alternating direction method of multipliers. Further, we derive a link that relates the proximal map of an l(p) norm with the proximal map of a Schatten matrix norm of order p. This link plays a key role in the development of one of the proposed algorithms. Finally, we provide experimental results on natural and biological images for the task of Poisson image deblurring and demonstrate the practical relevance and effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  19. Poisson image reconstruction with Hessian Schatten-norm regularization.

    PubMed

    Lefkimmiatis, Stamatios; Unser, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Poisson inverse problems arise in many modern imaging applications, including biomedical and astronomical ones. The main challenge is to obtain an estimate of the underlying image from a set of measurements degraded by a linear operator and further corrupted by Poisson noise. In this paper, we propose an efficient framework for Poisson image reconstruction, under a regularization approach, which depends on matrix-valued regularization operators. In particular, the employed regularizers involve the Hessian as the regularization operator and Schatten matrix norms as the potential functions. For the solution of the problem, we propose two optimization algorithms that are specifically tailored to the Poisson nature of the noise. These algorithms are based on an augmented-Lagrangian formulation of the problem and correspond to two variants of the alternating direction method of multipliers. Further, we derive a link that relates the proximal map of an l(p) norm with the proximal map of a Schatten matrix norm of order p. This link plays a key role in the development of one of the proposed algorithms. Finally, we provide experimental results on natural and biological images for the task of Poisson image deblurring and demonstrate the practical relevance and effectiveness of the proposed framework. PMID:23846472

  20. "Be Nice": Wikipedia norms for supportive communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reagle, Joseph M.

    2010-04-01

    Wikipedia is acknowledged to have been home to "some bitter disputes." Indeed, conflict at Wikipedia is said to be "as addictive as cocaine." Yet, such observations are not cynical commentary but motivation for a collection of social norms. These norms speak to the intentional stance and communicative behaviors Wikipedians should adopt when interacting with one another. In the following pages, I provide a survey of these norms on the English Wikipedia and argue that they can be characterized as supportive based on Jack Gibb's classic communication article "Defensive Communication."

  1. Legal forms and reproductive norms.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ruth

    2003-06-01

    This article draws on Pashukanis's concept of legal form and on O'Brien's concept of synthetic value to argue that legal form plays a role in reproductive relations by constructing legal subjects as the bearers of reproductive responsibilities. Pashukanis conceived of legal form as playing a particular role in capitalist exchange relations by interpellating subjects as the bearers of property rights. O'Brien argued that reproduction's specific value is synthetic value, which represents the value of integrating nature and reason in species continuity. Synthetic value is distinct from exchange value or emotional value which may also attach to reproductive process. By working through Pashukanis's method of extracting legal form from specific social relations and by adapting it to reproductive relations, an example is provided of how legal form analysis can be extended beyond the particular context of capitalist exchange relations. Just as legal form constitutes owners and non-owners as legal subjects, so it constitutes reproducers and non-reproducers. By tracing the way in which law attributes reproductive responsibility, legal form analysis shows us how law draws a line between wanting to attribute responsibility and not to attribute it, and this contradiction is a hook which social forces such as sexuality, gender, race, class and disability can latch on to in pushing legal form to shape reproductive responsibilities in a particular way. Each legal form is also externally contradicted by other legal forms. When law negotiates a balance between the reproductive norms of responsibilities and rights, it demonstrates how particular legal forms manage the interaction of different sets of social relations, such as reproduction and exchange. PMID:15871155

  2. U.S. Geological Survey programs in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The USGS also continues to monitor geologic conditions in Texas associated with rare but potentially dangerous earthquakes. Recently, the Nation Biological Service (now the Biological Resources Division) joined the USGS to continue their appraisal of the nation's biological resources.

  3. NORM -- The new kid on the block

    SciTech Connect

    Estey, H.P.

    1991-12-31

    The existence of radioactive materials in accumulations of scale and sludge in oil and gas production equipment is a relatively new issue. This developing issue first gained international attention in 1981 when significant radiation levels were detected on oil and gas production platforms in the North Sea; it didn`t become a domestic issue until 1986 when a similar situation was detected in a Mississippi pipe yard. Most published papers on the occurrence of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas production equipment have been based on studies of NORM-related activities in the United Kingdom (North Sea NORM). This paper addresses the occurrences and regulation of NORM in the US oil and gas production industry as experienced, witnessed and/or observed by the author over the past four years.

  4. Norms of reaction and diversifying selection.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1994-01-01

    The numbers of progeny produced by comparable numbers of female Drosophila melanogaster of 26 geographic strains on nine different culture media are examined in the context of norms of reaction. Having emphasized that diversifying selection is seldom discussed simultaneously with its seemingly related topic, norms of reaction, I present the following argument: diversifying selection has generally been viewed as involving sub-populations inhabiting separate localities and subject to different patterns of selection, norms of reaction as variation whose weighted average determines the relative fitnesses of different genotypes within individual sub-populations. Should environmental challenges frequently involve life or death (including sterility) outcomes, norms of reaction involving components of fitness engender diversifying selection within local populations (demes). PMID:7958938

  5. Social norms and their influence on eating behaviours.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-03-01

    Social norms are implicit codes of conduct that provide a guide to appropriate action. There is ample evidence that social norms about eating have a powerful effect on both food choice and amounts consumed. This review explores the reasons why people follow social eating norms and the factors that moderate norm following. It is proposed that eating norms are followed because they provide information about safe foods and facilitate food sharing. Norms are a powerful influence on behaviour because following (or not following) norms is associated with social judgements. Norm following is more likely when there is uncertainty about what constitutes correct behaviour and when there is greater shared identity with the norm referent group. Social norms may affect food choice and intake by altering self-perceptions and/or by altering the sensory/hedonic evaluation of foods. The same neural systems that mediate the rewarding effects of food itself are likely to reinforce the following of eating norms.

  6. How prescriptive norms influence causal inferences.

    PubMed

    Samland, Jana; Waldmann, Michael R

    2016-11-01

    Recent experimental findings suggest that prescriptive norms influence causal inferences. The cognitive mechanism underlying this finding is still under debate. We compare three competing theories: The culpable control model of blame argues that reasoners tend to exaggerate the causal influence of norm-violating agents, which should lead to relatively higher causal strength estimates for these agents. By contrast, the counterfactual reasoning account of causal selection assumes that norms do not alter the representation of the causal model, but rather later causal selection stages. According to this view, reasoners tend to preferentially consider counterfactual states of abnormal rather than normal factors, which leads to the choice of the abnormal factor in a causal selection task. A third view, the accountability hypothesis, claims that the effects of prescriptive norms are generated by the ambiguity of the causal test question. Asking whether an agent is a cause can be understood as a request to assess her causal contribution but also her moral accountability. According to this theory norm effects on causal selection are mediated by accountability judgments that are not only sensitive to the abnormality of behavior but also to mitigating factors, such as intentionality and knowledge of norms. Five experiments are presented that favor the accountability account over the two alternative theories. PMID:27591550

  7. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    PubMed Central

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  8. Adaptation and perceptual norms in color vision.

    PubMed

    Webster, Michael A; Leonard, Deanne

    2008-11-01

    Many perceptual dimensions are thought to be represented relative to an average value or norm. Models of norm-based coding assume that the norm appears psychologically neutral because it reflects a neutral response in the underlying neural code. We tested this assumption in human color vision by asking how judgments of "white" are affected as neural responses are altered by adaptation. The adapting color was varied to determine the stimulus level that did not bias the observer's subjective white point. This level represents a response norm at the stages at which sensitivity is regulated by the adaptation, and we show that these response norms correspond to the perceptually neutral stimulus and that they can account for how the perception of white varies both across different observers and within the same observer at different locations in the visual field. We also show that individual differences in perceived white are reduced when observers are exposed to a common white adapting stimulus, suggesting that the perceptual differences are due in part to differences in how neural responses are normalized. These results suggest a close link between the norms for appearance and coding in color vision and illustrate a general paradigm for exploring this link in other perceptual domains.

  9. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; preparation procedure for aquatic biological material determined for trace metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, Gerald L.

    1996-01-01

    A method for the chemical preparation of tissue samples that are subsequently analyzed for 22 trace metals is described. The tissue-preparation procedure was tested with three National Institute of Standards and Technology biological standard reference materials and two National Water Quality Laboratory homogenized biological materials. A low-temperature (85 degrees Celsius) nitric acid digestion followed by the careful addition of hydrogen peroxide (30-percent solution) is used to decompose the biological material. The solutions are evaporated to incipient dryness, reconstituted with 5 percent nitric acid, and filtered. After filtration the solutions were diluted to a known volume and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (CV-AAS). Many of the metals were determined by both ICP-MS and ICP-AES. This report does not provide a detailed description of the instrumental procedures and conditions used with the three types of instrumentation for the quantitation of trace metals determined in this study. Statistical data regarding recovery, accuracy, and precision for individual trace metals determined in the biological material tested are summarized.

  10. Preliminary assessment of geologic materials to minimize biological intrusion of low-level waste trench covers and plans for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Gladney, E.S.; Muller, M.

    1981-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. Past research on low-level waste shallow land burial methods has emphasized physical (i.e., water infiltration, soil erosion) and chemical (radionuclide leaching) processes that can cause radionuclide transport from a waste site. Preliminary results demonstrate that a sandy backfill material offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile. However, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion through cover profiles compared with sandy backfill soil. However, bentonite clay barrier systems appear to be degraded by plant roots through time. Desiccation of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of bentonite clay as a moisture and/or biological carrier unless due consideration is given to this interaction. Future experiments are described that further examine the effect of plant roots on clay barrier systems and that determine the effectiveness of proposed biological barriers on larger scales and under various stress conditions.

  11. Using Non-Normed Tests in Title I Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, Michael B.

    Research evidence relating to the utility of the RMC evaluation models of compensatory education employing non-normed tests is examined. The history and evolution of five early models into the current norm-referenced model utilizing a non-normed test (Model A2), non-normed versions of a comparison model (Model B2), and the regression model (Model…

  12. Geologic nozzles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, Kieffer S.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of the low characteristic velocities of geologic fluids has not been widely recognized, and as a result, the importance of supercritical and supersonic flow in geological processes has generally been underestimated. The lateral blast at Mount St. Helens, Washington, propelled a gas heavily laden with dust into the atmosphere. Because of the low sound speed in this gas (about 100 m/s), the flow was internally supersonic. Old Faithful Geyser, Wyoming, is a converging-diverging nozzle in which liquid water refilling the conduit during the recharge cycle changes during eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture with a very low sound velocity. The high sound speed of liquid water determines the characteristics of harmonic tremor observed at the geyser during the recharge interval, whereas the low sound speed of the liquid-vapor mixture influences the fluid flow characteristics of the eruption. At the rapids of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, the channel is constricted into the shape of a converging-diverging nozzle by the debris flows that enter from tributary canyons. Both subcritical and supercritical flow occur within the rapids. -from Author

  13. Learning the Norm of Internality: NetNorm, a Connectionist Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierry, Bollon; Adeline, Paignon; Pascal, Pansu

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to show that connectionist simulations can be used to model some of the socio-cognitive processes underlying the learning of the norm of internality. For our simulations, we developed a connectionist model which we called NetNorm (based on Dual-Network formalism). This model is capable of simulating the…

  14. Geological rhythms and cometary impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampino, M. R.; Strothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Time series analysis reveals two dominant, long-term periodicities approximately equal to 32 and 260 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. The cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, suggesting that periodic comet impacts strongly influence Earth processes.

  15. Marine Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Andel, Tjeerd H.

    Marine geology was blessed early, about 30 years ago, with two great textbooks, one by P.H. Kuenen, the other by Francis P. Shepard, but in more recent years, no one has dared synthesize a field that has become so diverse and is growing so rapidly. There are many texts written for the beginning undergraduate student, mostly by marine geologists, but none can be handed conveniently to a serious advanced student or given to a colleague interested in what the field has wrought. The reason for this regrettable state is obvious; only an active, major scholar could hope to write such a book well, but the years would pass, his students dwindle, his grants vanish. He himself might be out of date before his book was. Kennett has earned a large measure of gratitude for his attempt to undertake this task. His personal price must have been high but so are our rewards.

  16. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  17. Development, social norms, and assignment to task

    PubMed Central

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Economic development involves a structural transformation in the way people are allocated to tasks. There is a shift from self-provision to market exchange, facilitating specialization. There is also a shift from self-employment to wage employment in large firms and organizations, driven by innovation and increasing returns to scale. Changes in allocation mechanisms require changes in norms and attitudes. Because different labor assignment domains coexist, conflicts arise among norms that apply to different domains, possibly resulting in dysfunctional outcomes. I argue that religion, humanism, and schools have all played an important historical role in fostering the changes in social norms and attitudes that are needed to accompany structural changes in the way economies allocate workers to tasks. PMID:22198757

  18. True gender ratios and stereotype rating norms

    PubMed Central

    Garnham, Alan; Doehren, Sam; Gygax, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    We present a study comparing, in English, perceived distributions of men and women in 422 named occupations with actual real world distributions. The first set of data was obtained from previous a large-scale norming study, whereas the second set was mostly drawn from UK governmental sources. In total, real world ratios for 290 occupations were obtained for our perceive vs. real world comparison, of which 205 were deemed to be unproblematic. The means for the two sources were similar and the correlation between them was high, suggesting that people are generally accurate at judging real gender ratios, though there were some notable exceptions. Beside this correlation, some interesting patterns emerged from the two sources, suggesting some response strategies when people complete norming studies. We discuss these patterns in terms of the way real world data might complement norming studies in determining gender stereotypicality. PMID:26257681

  19. Mixed Norm Regularized Discrimination for Image Steganalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoming; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Dong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of image steganalysis is to detect the presence of hidden messages in cover images. Steganalysis can be considered as a pattern recognition process to decide which class a test image belongs to: the innocent photographic image or the stego-image. This paper presents a definition of mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm as an extension of L_{2,1} matrix norm. We incorporate discriminative mixed L_{p,q} matrix norm analysis to select the features which best preserve the data distribution, e.g., manifold structure, of the whole feature sets. Experiments on different data sets verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the selected features are more discriminate.

  20. Mixed-Norm Regularization for Brain Decoding

    PubMed Central

    Flamary, R.; Jrad, N.; Phlypo, R.; Congedo, M.; Rakotomamonjy, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the use of mixed-norm regularization for sensor selection in event-related potential (ERP) based brain-computer interfaces (BCI). The classification problem is cast as a discriminative optimization framework where sensor selection is induced through the use of mixed-norms. This framework is extended to the multitask learning situation where several similar classification tasks related to different subjects are learned simultaneously. In this case, multitask learning helps in leveraging data scarcity issue yielding to more robust classifiers. For this purpose, we have introduced a regularizer that induces both sensor selection and classifier similarities. The different regularization approaches are compared on three ERP datasets showing the interest of mixed-norm regularization in terms of sensor selection. The multitask approaches are evaluated when a small number of learning examples are available yielding to significant performance improvements especially for subjects performing poorly. PMID:24860614

  1. Male Scientists' Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession.

    PubMed

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-11-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  2. Ethical norms and the international governance of genetic databases and biobanks: findings from an international study.

    PubMed

    Capron, Alexander Morgan; Mauron, Alexandre; Elger, Bernice Simone; Boggio, Andrea; Ganguli-Mitra, Agomoni; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2009-06-01

    This article highlights major results of a study into the ethical norms and rules governing biobanks. After describing the methodology, the findings regarding four topics are presented: (1) the ownership of human biological samples held in biobanks; (2) the regulation of researchers' use of samples obtained from biobanks; (3) what constitutes "collective consent" to genetic research, and when it is needed; and (4) benefit sharing and remuneration of research participants. The paper then summarizes key lessons to be drawn from the findings and concludes by reflecting on the importance of such empirical research to inform future governance norms and practices. PMID:19623818

  3. Male Scientists’ Competing Devotions to Work and Family: Changing Norms in a Male-Dominated Profession

    PubMed Central

    Damaske, Sarah; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Lincoln, Anne E.; White, Virginia Johnston

    2014-01-01

    Using in-depth interviews with 74 men across different ranks in biology and physics at prestigious US universities, we ask to what extent changing norms of fatherhood and a flexible workplace affect men working in a highly male-dominated profession and what variation exists in family forms. We conceptualize four typologies of men: those forgoing children, egalitarian partners, neo-traditional dual-earners, and traditional breadwinners. Findings suggest male scientists hold strong work devotions yet a growing number seek egalitarian relationships, which they frame as reducing their devotion to work. The majority of men find the all-consuming nature of academic science conflicts with changing fatherhood norms. PMID:25419040

  4. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy. PMID:26074628

  5. Energizing and de-motivating effects of norm-conflict.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Rachel I; Fielding, Kelly S; Louis, Winnifred R

    2013-01-01

    Norms have a pervasive influence on behavior, yet previous research has not addressed that people often face conflicting norms from multiple ingroups. The current research addresses this gap in the context of proenvironmental behavior and demonstrates two effects predicted by the novel theoretical position we offer: People can be de-motivated by norm-conflict, or conversely, norm-conflict can encourage people to take action. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that norm-conflict is associated with increased perceived effectiveness for those with positive attitudes to the issue and reduced perceived effectiveness for those with moderate attitudes, and effectiveness perceptions mediated an indirect effect on behavioral intentions. Study 3 found that perceived effectiveness also moderates the effects of norm-conflict such that norm-conflict only influences intentions when perceived effectiveness is high. Norm-conflict is both positively and negatively related to behavioral decision making, suggesting additional considerations in the design of social norms-based interventions. PMID:23100542

  6. Old Geology and New Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 May 2003

    Mangala Vallis one of the large outflow channels that channeled large quantities of water into the northern lowlands, long ago on geological timescales. This valley is one of the few in the southern hemisphere, as well as one of the few west of the Tharsis bulge. A closer look at the channel shows more recent weathering of the old water channel: the walls of the channel show small, dark slope streaks that form in dusty areas; and much of the surrounding terrain has subtle linear markings trending from the upper left to the lower right, which are probably features sculpted and streamlined by the wind. Geology still shapes the surface of Mars today, but its methods over the eons have changed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6, Longitude 209.6 East (150.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in

  7. Precise determination of δ88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul

    2014-01-01

    We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our δ88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded δ88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of δ88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured δ88Sr values is typically ≤0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the δ87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the δ88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

  8. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province

    PubMed Central

    Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    waves and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are incised on the bank’s flanks. The most developed, hierarchized canyon system runs southwest of the bank, where it merges with other canyons coming from the southern bulges attached to some sections of the seamount flanks. These bulges are postulated as having an intrusive origin, as no major headwall landslide scars have been detected and their role as deposition areas for the submarine canyons seems to be minor. The results presented document how geological processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed. PMID:27243626

  9. Changing Conditions In The Yukon River Basin, Alaska: Biological, Geographical, And Hydrological Research Of The U.S. Geological Survey Alaska Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brabets, T. P.; Frenzel, S. A.; Markon, C.; Degange, A. R.

    2006-12-01

    To address the need for understanding past, present, and future conditions in the northern latitudes, the United States Geological Survey's (USGS) Alaska Science Center conducts extensive research in the Yukon River Basin. The basin originates in Canada and spans Alaska from east to west encompassing diverse landscapes in the Arctic and sub-Arctic. Within this large watershed, USGS research is focused on understanding the rapidly changing conditions in the land cover and fires, fish and wildlife populations, and the hydrologic cycle. Some of Alaska largest and most extensive fires occur in the Yukon River Basin. Research suggests that recent fire frequency outpaces the forest replenishment. To provide a more thorough assessment of current fires, and prediction of future fire threats, Landsat imagery with its 30-m spatial resolution and 30-year history allow for unprecedented analysis of historical and existing landscape cover, the effects of fire and climate change on lake drying, and updating of fire burn boundaries. Additionally, caribou have been shown to avoid burned areas for at least 60 years because forage lichens were eliminated and preferred forage may require over 100 years to reach pre-fire abundance. Glaciers in Alaska and in Canada feed the Tanana River, a major tributary to the Yukon River. Gulkana Glacier is one such glacier where the USGS has measured the mass balance continuously since 1966. There has been a cumulative mass loss of more than 15 meters water equivalent since 1966, with two-thirds of that loss occurring since 1990. Streamflow statistics from long-term gaging stations show a tendency for earlier ice break up in the spring and earlier snowmelt peak flows. Glacier-fed streams show higher summer flows as warmer temperatures increased glacier melt. To provide a better understanding of the factors that regulate salmon production, USGS has examined the characteristics of chum salmon spawning habitats and survival of juvenile salmon at two

  10. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jesus; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are incised on the bank's flanks. The most developed, hierarchized canyon system runs southwest of the bank, where it merges with other canyons coming from the southern bulges attached to some sections of the seamount flanks. These bulges are postulated as having an intrusive origin, as no major headwall landslide scars have been detected and their role as deposition areas for the submarine canyons seems to be minor. The results presented document how geological processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed. PMID:27243626

  11. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Jesus; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are incised on the bank's flanks. The most developed, hierarchized canyon system runs southwest of the bank, where it merges with other canyons coming from the southern bulges attached to some sections of the seamount flanks. These bulges are postulated as having an intrusive origin, as no major headwall landslide scars have been detected and their role as deposition areas for the submarine canyons seems to be minor. The results presented document how geological processes in the past and recent to subrecent oceanographic conditions and associated active processes determined the current physiography, morphology and sedimentary patterns of Concepcion Bank, including the development and decline of CWC mounds The setting of the seamount in the regional crustal structure is also discussed.

  12. Forging patterns and making waves from biology to geology: a commentary on Turing (1952) ‘The chemical basis of morphogenesis’

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Alan Turing was neither a biologist nor a chemist, and yet the paper he published in 1952, ‘The chemical basis of morphogenesis’, on the spontaneous formation of patterns in systems undergoing reaction and diffusion of their ingredients has had a substantial impact on both fields, as well as in other areas as disparate as geomorphology and criminology. Motivated by the question of how a spherical embryo becomes a decidedly non-spherical organism such as a human being, Turing devised a mathematical model that explained how random fluctuations can drive the emergence of pattern and structure from initial uniformity. The spontaneous appearance of pattern and form in a system far away from its equilibrium state occurs in many types of natural process, and in some artificial ones too. It is often driven by very general mechanisms, of which Turing's model supplies one of the most versatile. For that reason, these patterns show striking similarities in systems that seem superficially to share nothing in common, such as the stripes of sand ripples and of pigmentation on a zebra skin. New examples of ‘Turing patterns' in biology and beyond are still being discovered today. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750229

  13. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  14. Towards a Norm in South African Englishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johann L.; van Rooy, Bertus

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the perception and application of the norm in South African English with specific reference to Black South African English. Hypothesizes that South African English is in the hibernation and expansion phase. Three sets of data are presented and analyzed. (Author/VWL)

  15. Intergroup Evaluations and Norms about Learning Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Children's evaluations of classmates with learning difficulties tend to be less positive than their evaluations of classmates without learning difficulties; but it is not clear if these evaluations are associated with age, group norms, and group identification. These associations were examined within the context of inclusive elementary school…

  16. Criterion vs. Norm-referenced Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    1975-01-01

    A norm-referenced evaluation system, which evaluates the student in comparison to his peers, is rejected in favor of a criterion-referenced system. The latter, which rates the performance of a student on an absolute standard, makes for an individualized approach. Two kinds of tests are distinguished, the formative, administered during the course…

  17. Toleration and the Design of Norms.

    PubMed

    Floridi, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    One of the pressing challenges we face today-in a post-Westphalian order (emergence of the state as the modern, political information agent) and post-Bretton Woods world (emergence of non-state multiagent systems or MASs as "hyperhistorical" players in the global economy and politics)-is how to design the right kind of MAS that can take full advantage of the socio-economic and political progress made so far, while dealing successfully with the new global challenges that are undermining the best legacy of that very progress. This is the topic of the article. In it, I argue that (i) in order to design the right kind of MAS, we need to design the right kind of norms that constitute them; (ii) in order to design the right kind of constitutive norms, we need to identify and adopt the right kind of principles of normative design; (iii) toleration is one of those principles; (iv) unfortunately, its role as a foundation for the design of norms has been undermined by the "paradox of toleration"; (v) however, the paradox can be solved; (vi) so toleration can be re-instated as the right kind of foundational principle for the design of the right kind of norms that can constitute the right kind of MAS that can operate across cultures, societies and states, to help us to tackle the new global challenges facing us.

  18. Catalytic Majorization and ell_p Norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrun, Guillaume; Nechita, Ion

    2008-02-01

    An important problem in quantum information theory is the mathematical characterization of the phenomenon of quantum catalysis: when can the surrounding entanglement be used to perform transformations of a jointly held quantum state under LOCC (local operations and classical communication)? Mathematically, the question amounts to describe, for a fixed vector y, the set T( y) of vectors x such that we have x ⊗ z prec y ⊗ z for some z, where prec denotes the standard majorization relation. Our main result is that the closure of T(y) in the ell_1 norm can be fully described by inequalities on the ell_p norms: ||x||_p ≤ ||y||_p for all p ≥ 1. This is a first step towards a complete description of T( y) itself. It can also be seen as a ell_p -norm analogue of the Ky Fan dominance theorem about unitarily invariant norms. The proof exploits links with another quantum phenomenon: the possibiliy of multiple-copy transformations (x^{⊗ n} prec y^{⊗ n} for given n). The main new tool is a variant of Cramér’s theorem on large deviations for sums of i.i.d. random variables.

  19. Social Norms Theory and Concussion Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Garnett, Bernice R.; Baugh, Christine M.; Calzo, Jerel P.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary prevention of harm from sport-related concussion is contingent on immediate removal from play post-injury. To date, educational efforts to reduce the prevalent risk behavior of continued play while symptomatic have been largely ineffective. Social norms theory may hold promise as a foundation for more effective concussion education aimed…

  20. Contrasting Norm Referenced and Criterion Referenced Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Robert S.

    Differences in design between norm referenced measures (NRM) and criterion referenced measures (CRM) are reviewed, and some of the procedures proposed on designing and evaluating CRM are examined. Differences in design of NRM and CRM are said to arise from the different purposes that underlie each measure. In addition, there are differences among…

  1. Norming plans for the NIH Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Richard; Cook, Karon F.; Hays, Ron D.; Wallner-Allen, Kathleen; Korper, Samuel P.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Nord, Christine; Zill, Nicholas; Choi, Seung; Yost, Kathleen J.; Ustsinovich, Vitali; Brouwers, Pim; Hoffman, Howard J.; Gershon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The NIH Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function (NIH Toolbox) is a comprehensive battery of brief assessment tools. The purpose of this article is to describe plans to establish normative reference values for the NIH Toolbox measures. Methods: A large sample will be obtained from the US population for the purpose of calculating normative values. The sample will be stratified by age (ages 3–85 years), sex, and language preference (English or Spanish) and have a total sample size of at least 4,205. The sample will include a minimum of 25–100 individuals in each targeted demographic and language subgroup. Results: Norming methods will include poststratification adjustment calculated using iterative proportional fitting, also known as raking, so that the weighted sample will have the same distribution on key demographic variables as the US population described in the 2010 Census. Conclusions: As with any set of norms, users should be mindful of the reference population and make conclusions consistent with the limitations of normative sampling, since it is not a probability-based sample. However, the NIH Toolbox norming study has been designed to minimize bias and maximize representativeness and precision of estimates. The availability of a "toolbox" of normed measures will be an important foundation for addressing critical research questions in neurologic and behavioral health. PMID:23479550

  2. Geologic Technician New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Stanley E.

    1970-01-01

    Describes a developing two-year geologic technician program at Bakersfield College in which a student may major in five areas - geologic drafting, land and legal, geologic assistant, engineering or paleontology. (RR)

  3. Linking social norms to efficient conservation investment in payments for ecosystem services

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaodong; Lupi, Frank; He, Guangming; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-01-01

    An increasing amount of investment has been devoted to protecting and restoring ecosystem services worldwide. The efficiency of conservation investments, including payments for ecosystem services (PES), has been found to be affected by biological, political, economic, demographic, and social factors, but little is known about the effects of social norms at the neighborhood level. As a first attempt to quantify the effects of social norms, we studied the effects of a series of possible factors on people's intentions of maintaining forest on their Grain-to-Green Program (GTGP) land plots if the program ends. GTGP is one of the world's largest PES programs and plays an important role in global conservation efforts. Our study was conducted in China's Wolong Nature Reserve, home to the world-famous endangered giant pandas and >4,500 farmers. We found that, in addition to conservation payment amounts and program duration, social norms at the neighborhood level had significant impacts on program re-enrollment, suggesting that social norms can be used to leverage participation to enhance the sustainability of conservation benefits from PES programs. Moreover, our results demonstrate that economic and demographic trends also have profound implications for sustainable conservation. Thus, social norms should be incorporated with economic and demographic trends for efficient conservation investments. PMID:19564610

  4. Injunctive social norms primacy over descriptive social norms in retirement savings decisions.

    PubMed

    Croy, Gerry; Gerrans, Paul; Speelman, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Consistent with the global trend to shift responsibility for retirement income provision from the public purse to individuals has been encouragement to save more and to manage investment strategy. Analyzing data from 2,300 respondents to a randomly distributed questionnaire, this article focuses on the motivational importance of social norms. The study finds injunctive social norms (what is commonly approved or disapproved of) exert greater influence than descriptive social norms (what is commonly done) in predicting retirement savings intentions. Modeling employs the theory of planned behavior, and also finds injunctive social norm has predictive primacy over attitude and perceived behavioral control. Discussion advocates a balanced approach to intervention design, and identifies opportunities for the further study of normative message framing. PMID:21261135

  5. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences Among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth.

    PubMed

    Tropp, Linda R; O'Brien, Thomas C; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-09-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results showed that peer norms predicted greater comfort in intergroup contact, interest in cross-ethnic friendships, and higher contact quality, whereas longitudinal results showed that school norms predicted greater interest in cross-ethnic friendships over time. Distinct effects of school and peer norms were also observed for ethnic minority and majority youth in relation to perceived discrimination, suggesting differences in how they experience cross-ethnic relations within school environments. PMID:27684397

  6. Visible Geology - Interactive online geologic block modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockett, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geology is a highly visual science, and many disciplines require spatial awareness and manipulation. For example, interpreting cross-sections, geologic maps, or plotting data on a stereonet all require various levels of spatial abilities. These skills are often not focused on in undergraduate geoscience curricula and many students struggle with spatial relations, manipulations, and penetrative abilities (e.g. Titus & Horsman, 2009). A newly developed program, Visible Geology, allows for students to be introduced to many geologic concepts and spatial skills in a virtual environment. Visible Geology is a web-based, three-dimensional environment where students can create and interrogate their own geologic block models. The program begins with a blank model, users then add geologic beds (with custom thickness and color) and can add geologic deformation events like tilting, folding, and faulting. Additionally, simple intrusive dikes can be modelled, as well as unconformities. Students can also explore the interaction of geology with topography by drawing elevation contours to produce their own topographic models. Students can not only spatially manipulate their model, but can create cross-sections and boreholes to practice their visual penetrative abilities. Visible Geology is easy to access and use, with no downloads required, so it can be incorporated into current, paper-based, lab activities. Sample learning activities are being developed that target introductory and structural geology curricula with learning objectives such as relative geologic history, fault characterization, apparent dip and thickness, interference folding, and stereonet interpretation. Visible Geology provides a richly interactive, and immersive environment for students to explore geologic concepts and practice their spatial skills.; Screenshot of Visible Geology showing folding and faulting interactions on a ridge topography.

  7. Norms Regulating Self-Disclosure Among Polish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derlega, Valerian J.; Stepien, Ewa Gurnik

    1977-01-01

    In the first study reported most American norms governing reactions to self-disclosure to friends and strangers were replicated. In the second study American norms governing self-disclosure to males and females were not replicated. (Author/AM)

  8. A Review of Norms and Normative Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Moamin A.; Ahmad, Mohd Sharifuddin; Mustapha, Aida

    2014-01-01

    Norms and normative multiagent systems have become the subjects of interest for many researchers. Such interest is caused by the need for agents to exploit the norms in enhancing their performance in a community. The term norm is used to characterize the behaviours of community members. The concept of normative multiagent systems is used to facilitate collaboration and coordination among social groups of agents. Many researches have been conducted on norms that investigate the fundamental concepts, definitions, classification, and types of norms and normative multiagent systems including normative architectures and normative processes. However, very few researches have been found to comprehensively study and analyze the literature in advancing the current state of norms and normative multiagent systems. Consequently, this paper attempts to present the current state of research on norms and normative multiagent systems and propose a norm's life cycle model based on the review of the literature. Subsequently, this paper highlights the significant areas for future work. PMID:25110739

  9. A Modified CIPW Norm Calculation for Lunar Mare Basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, R. E.; Basu, A.

    2000-01-01

    CIPW norms of lunar mare basalts are anomalously low in pyroxene. A modified norm calculation allowing higher Ca, Ti, Al, Cr, and Mn in di' and hy' obtains closer matches between normative and modal mineralogy.

  10. The Norm Implementation Problem in Normative Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, D.; Gabbay, D.; van der Torre, L.

    The norm implementation problem consists in how to see to it that the agents in a system comply with the norms specified for that system by the system designer. It is part of the more general problem of how to synthesize or create norms for multi-agent systems, by, for example, highlighting the choice between regimentation and enforcement, or the punishment associated with a norm violation. In this paper we discuss how various ways to implement norms in a multi-agent system can be distinguished in a formal game-theoretic framework. In particular, we show how different types of norm implementation can all be uniformly specified and verified as types of transformations of extensive games. We introduce the notion of retarded preconditions to implement norms, and we illustrate the framework and the various ways to implement norms in the blocks world environment.

  11. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  12. Potential Applications of Social Norms Theory to Academic Advising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, social norms theory has become prevalent in student development literature and research. Subsequently, social norms interventions to change student behavior have spread across campuses nationwide through marketing campaigns. Theorists and practitioners have applied the social norms approach to primarily health-related student…

  13. A Call for a New National Norming Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn; Mangino, Evangelina

    Issues related to achieving adequate national norms are reviewed, and a new methodology is proposed that would work to provide a true measure of national achievement levels on an annual basis and would enable reporting results in current-year norms. Statistical methodology and technology could combine to create a national norming process that…

  14. Effects of Group Norms on Children's Intentions to Bully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesdale, Drew; Durkin, Kevin; Maass, Anne; Kiesner, Jeff; Griffiths, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    A minimal group study examined the effect of peer group norms on children's direct and indirect bullying intentions. Prior to an inter-group drawing competition, children (N = 85) aged seven and nine years were assigned to a group that had a norm of out-group dislike or out-group liking. Results indicated that, regardless of group norms, the…

  15. Norms of certain Jordan elementary operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Ji, Guoxing

    2008-10-01

    Let be a complex Hilbert space and let denote the algebra of all bounded linear operators on . For , the Jordan elementary operator UA,B is defined by UA,B(X)=AXB+BXA, . In this short note, we discuss the norm of UA,B. We show that if and ||UA,B||=||A||||B||, then either AB* or B*A is 0. We give some examples of Jordan elementary operators UA,B such that ||UA,B||=||A||||B|| but AB*[not equal to]0 and B*A[not equal to]0, which answer negatively a question posed by M. Boumazgour in [M. Boumazgour, Norm inequalities for sums of two basic elementary operators, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 342 (2008) 386-393].

  16. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  17. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jason M.; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L.; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C. Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  18. The Effects of Liking Norms and Descriptive Norms on Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Experiment.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jason M; Liu, Jinyu; Robinson, Eric L; Aveyard, Paul; Herman, C Peter; Higgs, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that social norm messages can be used to promote the selection of fruit and vegetables in low habitual consumers of these foods but it is unclear whether this effect is sustained over time. It is also unclear whether information about others' liking for a food (liking norm) could have the same effect. Using a 2 × 5 × 2 experimental design we investigated the effects of exposure to various messages on later intake from a food buffet and whether any effects were sustained 24 h after exposure in both low and high consumers of vegetables. There were three factors: delay (immediate food selection vs. food selection 24 h after exposure), message type (liking norm, descriptive norm, health message, vegetable variety condition, and neutral control message), and habitual consumption (low vs. high). The buffet consisted of three raw vegetables, three energy-dense foods, and two dips. For vegetables and non-vegetables there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay. There was a significant message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for vegetable consumption; however, follow up tests did not yield any significant effects. Examining each food individually, there were no main effects of message type, nor any main effect of delay, for any of the foods; however, there was a message × habitual vegetable consumption interaction for broccoli. Consumption of broccoli in the health message and descriptive norm conditions did not differ from the control neutral condition. However, habitually low consumers of vegetables increased their consumption of broccoli in the vegetable variety and liking norm conditions relative to habitual low vegetable consumers in the neutral control condition (p < 0.05). Further, investigation of the effects of the liking norm and vegetable variety condition on vegetable intake is warranted. This trial is listed as NCT02618174 at clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:27065913

  19. Establishing a NORM based radiation calibration facility.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J

    2016-05-01

    An environmental radiation calibration facility has been constructed by the Radiation and Nuclear Sciences unit of Queensland Health at the Forensic and Scientific Services Coopers Plains campus in Brisbane. This facility consists of five low density concrete pads, spiked with a NORM source, to simulate soil and effectively provide a number of semi-infinite uniformly distributed sources for improved energy response calibrations of radiation equipment used in NORM measurements. The pads have been sealed with an environmental epoxy compound to restrict radon loss and so enhance the quality of secular equilibrium achieved. Monte Carlo models (MCNP),used to establish suitable design parameters and identify appropriate geometric correction factors linking the air kerma measured above these calibration pads to that predicted for an infinite plane using adjusted ICRU53 data, are discussed. Use of these correction factors as well as adjustments for cosmic radiation and the impact of surrounding low levels of NORM in the soil, allows for good agreement between the radiation fields predicted and measured above the pads at both 0.15 m and 1 m. PMID:26921707

  20. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Mott T.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) geologists and the history of geology; (2) American historians and the history of geology; (3) history of geology in the 1980s; (4) sources for the history of geology (bibliographies, dictionaries, encyclopedias, handbooks, periodicals, public/official histories, compilations, and books); (5) research opportunities; and (6) other…

  1. Practical petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the scope and content of the field of petroleum geology from the standpoint of the practicing petroleum geologist. Includes chapters on basic geological concepts, the sedimentation process, accumulation of hydrocarbons, exploration, economic examination, drilling of exploratory wells, recovering oil and gas (reservoir geology), and the relationship of geology to the petroleum industry as a whole.

  2. Simultaneous geologic scenario identification and flow model calibration with group-sparsity formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmohammadi, Azarang; Jafarpour, Behnam

    2016-06-01

    Adopting representative geologic connectivity scenarios is critical for reliable modeling and prediction of flow and transport processes in subsurface environments. Geologic scenarios are often developed by integrating several sources of information, including knowledge of the depositional environment, qualitative and quantitative data such as outcrop and well logs, and process-based geologic modeling. In general, flow and transport response data are usually not included in constructing geologic scenarios for a basin. Instead, these data are typically matched using a given prior geologic scenario as constraint. Since data limitations, modeling assumptions and subjective interpretations can lead to significant uncertainty in the adopted geologic scenarios, flow and transport data may also be useful for constraining the uncertainty in proposed geologic scenarios. Constraining geologic scenarios with flow-related data opens an interesting and challenging research area, which goes beyond the traditional model calibration formulations where the geologic scenario is assumed given. In this paper, a novel concept, known as group-sparsity regularization, is proposed as an effective formulation to constrain the uncertainty in the prior geologic scenario during subsurface flow model calibration. Given a collection of model realizations from several plausible geologic scenarios, the proposed method first applies the truncated singular value decomposition (TSVD) to compactly represent the models from each geologic scenario. The TSVD basis for representing each scenario forms a distinct group. The proposed approach searches over these groups (i.e., geologic scenarios) to eliminate inconsistent groups that are not supported by the observed flow/pressure data. The group-sparsity regularization minimizes a l1/l2mixed norm, where the l2-norm quantifies the contribution of each group and operates on the coefficients within the groups while the l1-norm, having a selection property, is

  3. An Abbreviated Tool for Assessing Feminine Norm Conformity: Psychometric Properties of the Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Mike C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The Conformity to Feminine Norms Inventory-45 (CFNI-45; Parent & Moradi, 2010) is an important tool for assessing level of conformity to feminine gender norms and for investigating the implications of such norms for women's functioning. The authors of the present study assessed the factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and…

  4. Measuring student understanding of geological time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-09-01

    There have been few discoveries in geology more important than deep time - the understanding that the universe has existed for countless millennia, such that man's existence is confined to the last milliseconds of the metaphorical geological clock. The influence of deep time is felt in a variety of sciences including geology, cosmology, and evolutionary biology. Thus, any student that wants to master these subjects must have a good understanding of geological time. Despite its critical importance, there has been very little attention given to geological time by science education researchers. Of the work that has been done, much of it ignores the cognitive basis for students' understanding of geological time. This work addresses this gap by presenting a validation study for a new instrument - the GeoTAT (Geological Time Aptitude Test). Consisting of a series of open puzzles, the GeoTAT tested the subjects' ability to reconstruct and represent the transformation in time of a series of geological structures. Montagnero (1992, 1996) terms this ability diachronic thinking. This instrument was distributed to a population of 285 junior and senior high school students with no background in geology, as well as 58 high school students majoring in geology. A comparison of the high school (grades 11-12) geology and non-geology majors indicated that the former group held a significant advantage over the latter in solving problems involving diachronic thinking. This relationship was especially strengthened by the second year of geological study (grade 12), with the key factor in this improvement being exposure to fieldwork. Fieldwork both improved the subjects' ability in understanding the 3-D factors influencing temporal organization, as well as providing them with experience in learning about the types of evidence that are critical in reconstructing a transformational sequence.

  5. Geological rhythms and cometary impacts.

    PubMed

    Rampino, M R; Stothers, R B

    1984-12-21

    Time-series analysis reveals two dominant, stable long-term periodicities approximately equal to 33 +/- 3 and 260 +/- 25 million years in the known series of geological and biological upheavals during the Phanerozoic Eon. Because the cycles of these episodes agree in period and phase with the cycles of impact cratering on Earth, these results suggest that periodic comet impacts strongly influence global tectonism and biological evolution. These two periodicities could arise from interactions of the solar system with interstellar clouds as the solar system moves cyclically through the Galaxy.

  6. Race-specific norms for coding face identity and a functional role for norms.

    PubMed

    Armann, Regine; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2011-11-09

    Models of face perception often adopt a framework in which faces are represented as points or vectors in a multidimensional space, relative to the average face that serves as a norm for encoding. Since faces are very similar in their configuration and share many visual properties, they could be encoded in one common space against one norm. However, certain face properties may result in grouping and "subclassification" of similar faces. We studied the processing of faces of different races, using high-level aftereffects, where exposure to one face systematically distorts the perception of a subsequently viewed face toward the "opposite" identity in face space. We measured identity aftereffects for adapt-test pairs that were opposite relative to race-specific (Asian and Caucasian) averages and pairs that were opposite relative to a "generic" average (both races morphed together). Aftereffects were larger for race-specific compared to mixed-race adapt-test pairs. These results suggest that race-specific norms are used to code identity because aftereffects are generally larger for adapt-test pairs drawn from trajectories passing through the norm (opposite pairs) than for those that do not. We also found that identification thresholds were lower when targets were distributed around race-specific averages than around the mixed-race average, suggesting that norm-based face encoding may play a functional role in facilitating identity discrimination.

  7. Distribution of scales containing NORM in different oilfields equipment.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Aba, A

    2005-10-01

    Evaluation has been made of the distribution of hard scales containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in a range of oilfield equipment in Syrian oilfields. One hundred and fifty-two scale samples from oilfield equipment were collected and analysed for radioactivity, elemental and mineralogical compositions. The average 226Ra, 228Ra and 224Ra concentrations in scales were found to be 174, 91 and 67 Bqg(-1), respectively; the highest value of 226Ra was found to be 1520 Bqg(-1). A gradual increase in 226Ra specific activity from down-hole tubulars to surface parts of the installations was observed. The 228Ra/226Ra mean activity ratio was observed to be 0.76, indicating a Th/U mass ratio of about 2.3. This value can be considered a fingerprint for the Th/U mass ratio of the geological formation of the reservoir. Radium isotopic data were also used to estimate the age of the deposited scales using the 224Ra/228Ra activity ratio; the highest average age (5.3 years) was found to be in scales collected from valves. Multiple regressions of the data have shown that 226Ra is more highly correlated with Ba and Sr content in scales (R2=0.92) than Ca. Around 77% of 226Ra was found to be incorporated with anhydrate barium strontium sulphate (R2=0.93), solubility in water being very low to negligible; lower levels of radium isotopes were found in calcite.

  8. Dictator Game Giving: The Importance of Descriptive versus Injunctive Norms

    PubMed Central

    Raihani, Nichola J.; McAuliffe, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Human behaviour is influenced by social norms but norms can entail two types of information. Descriptive norms refer to what others do in this context, while injunctive norms refer to what ought to be done to ensure social approval. In many real-world situations these norms are often presented concurrently meaning that their independent effects on behaviour are difficult to establish. Here we used an online Dictator Game to test how descriptive and injunctive norms would influence dictator donations when presented independently of one another. In addition, we varied the cost of complying with the norm: By stating that $0.20 or $0.50 cent donations from a $1 stake were normal or suggested, respectively. Specifying a higher target amount was associated with increased mean donation size. In contrast to previous studies, descriptive norms did not seem to influence giving behaviour in this context, whereas injunctive norms were associated with increased likelihood to give at least the target amount to the partner. This raises the question of whether injunctive norms might be more effective than descriptive norms at promoting prosocial behaviour in other settings. PMID:25493945

  9. Bundles of Norms About Teen Sex and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Sennott, Christie

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy is a cultural battleground in struggles over morality, education, and family. At its heart are norms about teen sex, contraception, pregnancy, and abortion. Analyzing 57 interviews with college students, we found that "bundles" of related norms shaped the messages teens hear. Teens did not think their communities encouraged teen sex or pregnancy, but normative messages differed greatly, with either moral or practical rationalizations. Teens readily identified multiple norms intended to regulate teen sex, contraception, abortion, childbearing, and the sanctioning of teen parents. Beyond influencing teens' behavior, norms shaped teenagers' public portrayals and post hoc justifications of their behavior. Although norm bundles are complex to measure, participants could summarize them succinctly. These bundles and their conflicting behavioral prescriptions create space for human agency in negotiating normative pressures. The norm bundles concept has implications for teen pregnancy prevention policies and can help revitalize social norms for understanding health behaviors.

  10. Geology and biology of Oceanographer submarine canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Uzmann, J.R.; Cooper, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Santonian beds more than 100 m thick are the oldest rocks collected from the canyon. Quaternary silty clay veneers the canyon walls in many places and is commonly burrowed by benthic organisms that cause extensive erosion of the canyon walls, especially in the depth zone (100-1300 m) inhabited by the crabs Geryon and Cancer. Bioerosion is minimal on high, near-vertical cliffs of sedimentary rock, in areas of continual sediment movement, and where the sea floor is paved by gravel. A thin layer of rippled, unconsolidated silt and sand is commonly present on the canyon walls and in the axis. Shelf sediments are transported from Georges Bank over the E rim and in the Canyon by the SW drift and storm currents; tidal currents and internal waves move the sediment downcanyon along the walls and axis.- from Authors

  11. CORPEX{reg_sign} NORM decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    Azrak, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes a commecial process which has been developed for application to the remediation of NORM deposits on metal parts or embedded in scales on such parts. The process employs a registered chemical process, involving non-RCRA regulated chemicals, which can remove fixed {sup 226,228}Radium, {sup 210}Lead, and {sup 210}Polonium. The author describes the capabilities of the chemical process which has been developed, the way it is offered to potential customers as a practical process, and numerous examples of its application in the field.

  12. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms assessed from mark-recaptures of wild fish in their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Esben M; Serbezov, Dimitar; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2014-05-01

    Reaction norms are a valuable tool in evolutionary biology. Lately, the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach, describing probabilities of maturing at combinations of age and body size, has been much applied for testing whether phenotypic changes in exploited populations of fish are mainly plastic or involving an evolutionary component. However, due to typical field data limitations, with imperfect knowledge about individual life histories, this demographic method still needs to be assessed. Using 13 years of direct mark-recapture observations on individual growth and maturation in an intensively sampled population of brown trout (Salmo trutta), we show that the probabilistic maturation reaction norm approach may perform well even if the assumption of equal survival of juvenile and maturing fish does not hold. Earlier studies have pointed out that growth effects may confound the interpretation of shifts in maturation reaction norms, because this method in its basic form deals with body size rather than growth. In our case, however, we found that juvenile body size, rather than annual growth, was more strongly associated with maturation. Viewed against earlier studies, our results also underscore the challenges of generalizing life-history patterns among species and populations. PMID:24967078

  13. U.S. Geological Survey silicate rock standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanagan, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has processed six silicate rocks to provide new reference samples to supplement G-1 and W-1. Complete conventional, rapid rock, and spectrochemical analyses by the U.S. Geological Survey are reported for a granite (replacement for G-1), a granodiorite, an andesite, a peridotite, a dunite, and a basalt. Analyses of variance for nickel, chromium, copper, and zirconium in each rock sample showed that for these elements, the rocks can be considered homogeneous. Spectrochemical estimates are given for the nickel, chromium, copper, and zirconium contents of the samples. The petrography of five of the six rocks is described and CIPW norms are presented. ?? 1967.

  14. Category Norms: An Updated and Expanded Version of the Battig and Montague (1969) Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Overschelde, James P.; Rawson, Katherine A.; Dunlosky, John

    2004-01-01

    The Battig and Montague (1969) category norms have been an invaluable tool for researchers in many fields, with a recent literature search revealing their use in over 1600 projects published in more than 200 different journals. Since 1969, numerous changes have occurred culturally that warrant the collection of new normative data. For instance, in…

  15. Geophysics & Geology Inspected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, E. R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Summarizes findings of a recently published report of the Canadian Geoscience Council, which includes the following topics regarding college geology: facilities; teaching; undergraduate enrollments; postgraduate enrollments; geologic research; and integration of Canadian geoscience with other countries. (CS)

  16. Geologic spatial analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, R.L.; Eliason, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the development of geologic spatial analysis research which focuses on conducting comprehensive three-dimensional analysis of regions using geologic data sets that can be referenced by latitude, longitude, and elevation/depth. (CBS)

  17. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  18. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement.

  19. Computational substrates of social norm enforcement by unaffected third parties.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Chark, Robin; Hsu, Ming; Chew, Soo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Enforcement of social norms by impartial bystanders in the human species reveals a possibly unique capacity to sense and to enforce norms from a third party perspective. Such behavior, however, cannot be accounted by current computational models based on an egocentric notion of norms. Here, using a combination of model-based fMRI and third party punishment games, we show that brain regions previously implicated in egocentric norm enforcement critically extend to the important case of norm enforcement by unaffected third parties. Specifically, we found that responses in the ACC and insula cortex were positively associated with detection of distributional inequity, while those in the anterior DLPFC were associated with assessment of intentionality to the violator. Moreover, during sanction decisions, the subjective value of sanctions modulated activity in both vmPFC and rTPJ. These results shed light on the neurocomputational underpinnings of third party punishment and evolutionary origin of human norm enforcement. PMID:26825438

  20. History of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Kennard B.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights geological history activities during 1982. These include formation of The History of Earth Sciences Societies, publication of a new journal ("Earth Sciences History: The Journal of the History of Earth Sciences Societies"), and presentation of the first history of geology award. Comments on geological history publications are also…

  1. Relations between convergence rates in Schatten p-norms

    SciTech Connect

    Albini, Paolo; Toigo, Alessandro; Umanita, Veronica

    2008-01-15

    In quantum estimation theory and quantum tomography, the quantum state obtained by sampling converges to the ''true'' unknown density matrix under topologies that are different from the natural notion of distance in the space of quantum states, i.e., the trace class norm. In this paper, we address such problem, finding relations between the rates of convergence in the Schatten p-norms and in the trace class norm.

  2. NORM management in the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Cowie, M; Mously, K; Fageeha, O; Nassar, R

    2012-01-01

    It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become contaminated with NORM, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings, and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, the general public, and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines, and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management that aim to enhance NORM monitoring; control of NORM-contaminated equipment; control of NORM waste handling and disposal; and protection, awareness, and training of workers. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  3. Base norms and discrimination of generalized quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Jenčová, A.

    2014-02-15

    We introduce and study norms in the space of hermitian matrices, obtained from base norms in positively generated subspaces. These norms are closely related to discrimination of so-called generalized quantum channels, including quantum states, channels, and networks. We further introduce generalized quantum decision problems and show that the maximal average payoffs of decision procedures are again given by these norms. We also study optimality of decision procedures, in particular, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition under which an optimal 1-tester for discrimination of quantum channels exists, such that the input state is maximally entangled.

  4. Using multiscale norms to quantify mixing and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2012-02-01

    Mixing is relevant to many areas of science and engineering, including the pharmaceutical and food industries, oceanography, atmospheric sciences and civil engineering. In all these situations one goal is to quantify and often then to improve the degree of homogenization of a substance being stirred, referred to as a passive scalar or tracer. A classical measure of mixing is the variance of the concentration of the scalar, which is the L2 norm of a mean-zero concentration field. Recently, other norms have been used to quantify mixing, in particular the mix-norm as well as negative Sobolev norms. These norms have the advantage that unlike variance they decay even in the absence of diffusion, and their decay corresponds to the flow being mixing in the sense of ergodic theory. General Sobolev norms weigh scalar gradients differently, and are known as multiscale norms for mixing. We review the applications of such norms to mixing and transport, and show how they can be used to optimize the stirring and mixing of a decaying passive scalar. We then review recent work on the less-studied case of a continuously replenished scalar field—the source-sink problem. In that case the flows that optimally reduce the norms are associated with transport rather than mixing: they push sources onto sinks, and vice versa.

  5. The NORM technology connection web site : streamlined access to NORM-related service company and regulatory information.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. P.; Richmond, P.; LePoire, D. J.; Arnish, J. J.; Johnson, R.

    2000-11-08

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed an Internet web site providing access to critical information needed to support decisions on the management and disposal of wastes containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The NORM Technology Connection web site provides current information on (1) service companies that provide support on NORM issues (e.g., site characterization and remediation, sample analysis, radiation safety training, disposal) and (2) existing applicable NORM regulations and guidelines. A third element of the site is an electronic mail list that allows users to post or respond to questions about the management of NORM. Development of the NORM Technology Connection web site was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. It is hosted and maintained by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The web site is publicly available; access is free, as is participation by any of the service companies.

  6. Thermal reaction norms can surmount evolutionary constraints: comparative evidence across leaf beetle species.

    PubMed

    Kutcherov, Dmitry

    2016-07-01

    One of the leitmotifs of the ecophysiological research on ectotherms is the variation and evolution of thermal reaction norms for biological rates. This long-standing issue is crucial both for our understanding of life-history diversification and for predicting the phenology of economically important species. A number of properties of the organism's thermal phenotype have been identified as potential constraints on the evolution of the rate-temperature relationship. This comparative study addresses several such constraints by testing whether the actual interspecific variation of thermal reaction norms across nearly hundred leaf beetle species agrees with the expected patterns. The results show that developmental rate and its temperature-dependent parameters are similar in closely related species and that the variation pattern depends on the taxonomic scale, the thermal reaction norms being mostly parallel for the representatives of distant subclades but intersecting more often farther down the phylogenetic tree. The parallel shift disagrees with the putative ubiquity of a positive slope-threshold relationship, whereby thermal reaction norms should normally intersect, and even more contradicts with the common-intersection hypothesis. The ability to develop in cooler conditions is not traded off at higher temperatures, which is an exception to the "warmer is better" principle. A comparison of high- and low-quality data indicates that some of these discrepancies with earlier findings may stem from a likely presence of noise in previous analyses, which may have affected the variation patterns observed. Overall, the failure to support the universality of the predicted patterns suggests that the evolution of thermal reaction norms in leaf beetles has largely overcome the hypothesized constraints.

  7. Thermal reaction norms can surmount evolutionary constraints: comparative evidence across leaf beetle species.

    PubMed

    Kutcherov, Dmitry

    2016-07-01

    One of the leitmotifs of the ecophysiological research on ectotherms is the variation and evolution of thermal reaction norms for biological rates. This long-standing issue is crucial both for our understanding of life-history diversification and for predicting the phenology of economically important species. A number of properties of the organism's thermal phenotype have been identified as potential constraints on the evolution of the rate-temperature relationship. This comparative study addresses several such constraints by testing whether the actual interspecific variation of thermal reaction norms across nearly hundred leaf beetle species agrees with the expected patterns. The results show that developmental rate and its temperature-dependent parameters are similar in closely related species and that the variation pattern depends on the taxonomic scale, the thermal reaction norms being mostly parallel for the representatives of distant subclades but intersecting more often farther down the phylogenetic tree. The parallel shift disagrees with the putative ubiquity of a positive slope-threshold relationship, whereby thermal reaction norms should normally intersect, and even more contradicts with the common-intersection hypothesis. The ability to develop in cooler conditions is not traded off at higher temperatures, which is an exception to the "warmer is better" principle. A comparison of high- and low-quality data indicates that some of these discrepancies with earlier findings may stem from a likely presence of noise in previous analyses, which may have affected the variation patterns observed. Overall, the failure to support the universality of the predicted patterns suggests that the evolution of thermal reaction norms in leaf beetles has largely overcome the hypothesized constraints. PMID:27547304

  8. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment.

  9. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter—the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions—observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  10. The cultural transmission of cooperative norms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; Liu, Yan; Ho, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative behavior depends on cultural environment, so what happens when people move from to a new culture governed by a new norm? The dynamics of culture-induced cooperation has not been well understood. We expose lab participants to a sequence of different subject pools while playing a constrained Trust Game. We find prior exposure to different subject pools does in fact influence cooperative behavior; first impressions matter-the primacy effect plays a stronger role than the recency effect; and selfish first impressions matter more than cooperative first impressions-observing selfish behavior by others had a longer-lasting and greater influence on behaviors than observing cooperative behavior by others. Moreover, three consecutive exposures to cooperative environments were needed to neutralize one exposure to a selfish environment. PMID:26578993

  11. The early evolution of eukaryotes - A geological perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, Andrew H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the goodness of fit between patterns of biological and environmental history implied by molecular phylogenies of eukaryotic organisms and the geological records of early eukaryote evolution. It was found that Precambrian geological records show evidence that episodic increases in biological diversity roughly coincided with episodic environmental changes and by sharp increases in atmospheric oxygen concentrations which significantly changed the earth surface environments. Although the goodness of fit among physical and biological changes is gratifyingly high, the records of these changes do not always coincide in time. The additional information in these fields that is needed for complete integration of geological and phylogenic records is suggested.

  12. How School Norms, Peer Norms, and Discrimination Predict Interethnic Experiences among Ethnic Minority and Majority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tropp, Linda R.; O'Brien, Thomas C.; González Gutierrez, Roberto; Valdenegro, Daniel; Migacheva, Katya; de Tezanos-Pinto, Pablo; Berger, Christian; Cayul, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This research tests how perceived school and peer norms predict interethnic experiences among ethnic minority and majority youth. With studies in Chile (654 nonindigenous and 244 Mapuche students, M = 11.20 and 11.31 years) and the United States (468 non-Hispanic White and 126 Latino students, M = 11.66 and 11.68 years), cross-sectional results…

  13. The Subjectivity of the Translator and Socio-Cultural Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pei, Denghua

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to probe into the dialectical relationship between the subjectivity of the translator and socio-cultural norms. The socio-cultural norms inevitably regulate the translator's translating activity, as acceptability of the translated text is the primary concern of most translators. However, this does not mean that the…

  14. Teaching the Sociocultural Norms of an Undergraduate Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couper, Graeme; Denny, Heather; Watkins, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The importance of teaching second language learners the pragmatic norms of relevant communities of practice is widely recognised. Familiarisation with these norms is also an important aspect of socialisation for native speakers entering a new community of practice. This study focuses on pragmatic instruction of English as an additional language…

  15. Parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Dhanesh; Kumar, Satish

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we define parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function and discuss their special cases and prove some properties similar to Kullback-Leibler information measure. From R-norm divergence measure new information measures have also been derived and their relations with different measures of entropy have been obtained and give its application in industrial engineering.

  16. Time Lag and Communication in Changing Unpopular Norms

    PubMed Central

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm. PMID:25880200

  17. Professional Development of PMRI Teachers for Introducing Social Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Dolk, Maarten; Zulkardi

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports implementation results of designing a workshop for mathematics teachers in introducing classroom social norms. The participants are eight mathematics teachers in primary and junior secondary level. Teachers learned and did some activities about social norms during the workshop. First, they watched an example of learning videos…

  18. The Maturation of Norms for Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the communication norms of the major forms of computer-mediated communication, including electronic mail, mailing lists, Usenet and other bulletin board systems, interactive messaging, multiuser domains (MUDs), and mass-broadcast media. New uses and the development of standards, or norms, are discussed. (Contains 11 references.) (LRW)

  19. easyCBM Norms. 2014 Edition. Technical Report #1409

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saven, Jessica L.; Tindal, Gerald; Irvin, P. Shawn; Farley, Dan; Alonzo, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Previous norms for the easyCBM assessment system were computed using scores from all students who took each measure for every grade and benchmark season (fall, winter, and spring). During the 2013-­14 school year, new national norms were developed to more accurately (proportionately) represent reading and mathematics performance by two variables:…

  20. Establishing Computer Science Professional Norms among High-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David; Pollack, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Norms govern the criteria by which students decide what is good and what is not good, and align their learning trajectories accordingly.We found that the high-school students' norm is to produce working, but not necessarily error-free, programs and to argue for their correctness solely on the basis of a few executions. Therefore, they prefer…

  1. Creation of Norms for the Purpose of Global Talent Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedricks, Cynthia A.; Robie, Chet; Harnisher, John V.

    2008-01-01

    Personality scores were used to construct three databases of global norms. The composition of the three databases varied according to percentage of cases by global region, occupational group, applicant status, and gender of the job candidate. Comparison of personality scores across the three norms databases revealed that the magnitude of the…

  2. Analyzing and Teaching English: The Problem of the Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. Vaughan

    1992-01-01

    Argues that, although academic study of English development English concentrates on the norm, definitions of the norm are not clear, and many cited examples betray a lack of knowledge of historical aspects of English. It is suggested that emphasis on communication in teaching practice may lead to acceptance of nonnormative language use. (JL)

  3. Linguistic Norms and Adult Roles in Play and Serious Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moller, Janus Spindler; Jorgensen, Jens Normann

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the ways in which minority students in the Danish public school system bring mono-lingually based norms into their poly-lingual peer group interaction. In sequential micro-analyses of interaction we show how the students use the voice of an authority in their reproduction and negotiation of linguistic norms. We base our…

  4. Family Norms in a Rapidly Industrializing Society: Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, David; Chaney, David

    1974-01-01

    A sample of 1123 young people in Hong Kong responded to a number of statements concerning family norms. Data suggest that with regard to relationships between husband and wife, and parents and children, views are more consonant with the norms of the Western conjugal family than the traditional Chinese family. (Author)

  5. Crystallization process to reduce NORM-containing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.G.; Kraemer, T.F.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes a process of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) waste reduction for scales, sludges, and soils. The process involves dissolution and fractional crystallization steps that concentrate the radioactive material into a small mass of barite. The concentration of radium in the product, barite, can be increased or decreased. The NORM-containing barite product is suitable for slurry injection into sandstone formations.

  6. Time lag and communication in changing unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Gërxhani, Klarita; Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Humans often coordinate their social lives through norms. When a large majority of people are dissatisfied with an existing norm, it seems obvious that they will change it. Often, however, this does not occur. We investigate how a time lag between individual support of a norm change and the change itself hinders such change, related to the critical mass of supporters needed to effectuate the change, and the (im)possibility of communicating about it. To isolate these factors, we utilize a laboratory experiment. As predicted, we find unambiguous effects of time lag on precluding norm change; a higher threshold for a critical mass does so as well. Communication facilitates choosing superior norms but it does not necessarily lead to norm change when the uncertainty on whether there will be a norm change in the future is high. Communication seems to help coordination on actions at the present but not the future. Hence, the uncertainty driven by time lag makes individuals choose the status quo, here the unpopular norm.

  7. Norms and Varieties of English and TESOL Teacher Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamid, M. Obaidul; Zhu, Lingyan; Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The growing recognition of the plurality of English underlying the World Englishes (WE) paradigm has problematised the conventional second language acquisition (SLA) views of errors. If English use in emerging English-speaking contexts is to be judged by local norms, as argued by WE scholars, applying exocentric norms in these contexts can be…

  8. Epistemological Norms and Companion Meanings in Science Classroom Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundqvist, Eva; Almqvist, Jonas; Ostman, Leif

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe two central epistemological norms related to the importance of making investigations and to scientific language and its logic. These norms have been identified in empirical material consisting of 200 video-recorded lessons in three different science classes. With regard to the learning of science and socialization, we…

  9. A Questionnaire Method for Measuring the Autonomy/Equality Norm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packard, John S.

    Lortie has described teacher sentiments that meld into a structure called the autonomy/equality norm. This norm helps preserve the separation of teaching from organizational and collegial purviews. As part of a larger study which looks for conditions that affect and are influenced by variations in task interdependence among teachers, an effort was…

  10. Gender Norms and Retaliatory Violence against Spouses and Acquaintances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feld, Scott L.; Felson, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines an experiment embedded within a nationally representative survey of adult Americans to investigate gender norms regarding retaliatory violence between spouses and acquaintances. Contrary to claims that societal norms permit violence within marriage, respondents disapproved of retaliatory violence against spouses more than…

  11. The malleability of injunctive norms among college students.

    PubMed

    Prince, Mark A; Carey, Kate B

    2010-11-01

    Alcohol use among college students has been associated with injunctive norms, which refer to the perceived acceptability of excessive drinking, and descriptive norms, which refer to perceptions of actual drinking. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a brief injunctive norms manipulation on both injunctive and descriptive norms about drinking alcohol and to explore differences in the malleability of norms across referent groups, sex, and gender role. Participants were 265 undergraduates (43% male, 70% freshmen) who completed a web-based survey for course credit. A randomly selected half was exposed to a page of information-based feedback about typical student injunctive norms. Relative to the control condition, the manipulation produced lower injunctive and descriptive norms related to typical students' drinking but no change in either type of norm related to close friends. Femininity was associated with less permissive normative beliefs about the acceptability of excessive drinking whereas masculinity was associated with elevated perceptions of peer drinking, but neither sex nor gender role moderated the manipulation effect. We conclude that perceptions of peer approval of drinking are malleable with a very brief information-based manipulation. PMID:20598806

  12. Ethnic diversity, traditional norms, and marriage behaviour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Nobles, Jenna

    2009-11-01

    What role do cultural norms play in shaping individual behaviour and how does this relationship change with rapid socio-economic development? While modernization and convergence theories predict a weakened relationship between culture and behaviour as individuals rely less on family and community members for economic opportunities, recent research suggests that such norms can persist and continue to influence behaviour. We explored this question for Indonesia, asking whether cultural norms for age at marriage and post-marriage residence-as embodied in local ethnicity-based laws and customs known as 'adat'-relate to actual marriage behaviour. We demonstrate that adat norms are strong predictors of marriage behaviour, both over time and net of large increases in educational attainment. Our results suggest more generally that traditional marriage norms can persist even when a society is in the process of rapid socio-economic development.

  13. Social Norms about a Health Issue in Work Group Networks

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance theorizing about how small groups understand health issues through the use of social network analysis. To achieve this goal, an adapted cognitive social structure examines group social norms around a specific health issue, H1N1 flu prevention. As predicted, individual’s attitudes, self-efficacy, and perceived social norms were each positively associated with behavioral intentions for at least one of the H1N1 health behaviors studied. Moreover, collective norms of the whole group were also associated with behavioral intentions, even after controlling for how individual group members perceive those norms. For members of work groups in which pairs were perceived to agree in their support for H1N1 vaccination, the effect of individually perceived group norms on behavioral intentions was stronger than for groups with less agreement. PMID:26389934

  14. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users.

  15. Marketing norm perception among medical representatives in Indian pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-03-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company's medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field.

  16. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    PubMed

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  17. Silence and table manners: when environments activate norms.

    PubMed

    Joly, Janneke F; Stapel, Diederik A; Lindenberg, Siegwart M

    2008-08-01

    Two studies tested the conditions under which an environment (e.g., library, restaurant) raises the relevance of environment-specific social norms (e.g., being quiet, using table manners). As hypothesized, the relevance of such norms is raised when environments are goal relevant ("I am going there later") and when they are humanized with people or the remnants of their presence (e.g., a glass of wine on a table). Two studies show that goal-relevant environments and humanized environments raise the perceived importance of norms (Study 1) and the intention to conform to norms (Study 2). Interestingly, in both studies, these effects reach beyond norms related to the environments used in the studies.

  18. The Geologic Nitrogen Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. W.; Goldblatt, C.

    2013-12-01

    N2 is the dominant gas in Earth's atmosphere, and has been so through the majority of the planet's history. Originally thought to only be cycled in significant amounts through the biosphere, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large degree of geologic cycling can occur as well. N is present in crustal rocks at 10s to 100s of ppm and in the mantle at 1s to perhaps 10s of ppm. In light of new data, we present an Earth-system perspective of the modern N cycle, an updated N budget for the silicate Earth, and venture to explain the evolution of the N cycle over time. In an fashion similar to C, N has a fast, biologically mediated cycle and a slower cycle driven by plate tectonics. Bacteria fix N2 from the atmosphere into bioavailable forms. N is then cycled through the food chain, either by direct consumption of N-fixing bacteria, as NH4+ (the primary waste form), or NO3- (the most common inorganic species in the modern ocean). Some organic material settles as sediment on the ocean floor. In anoxic sediments, NH4+ dominates; due to similar ionic radii, it can readily substitute for K+ in mineral lattices, both in sedimentary rocks and in oceanic lithosphere. Once it enters a subduction zone, N may either be volatilized and returned to the atmosphere at arc volcanoes as N2 or N2O, sequestered into intrusive igneous rocks (as NH4+?), or subducted deep into the mantle, likely as NH4+. Mounting evidence indicates that a significant amount of N may be sequestered into the solid Earth, where it may remain for long periods (100s m.y.) before being returned to the atmosphere/biosphere by volcanism or weathering. The magnitude fluxes into the solid Earth and size of geologic N reservoirs are poorly constrained. The size of the N reservoirs contained in the solid Earth directly affects the evolution of Earth's atmosphere. It is possible that N now sequestered in the solid Earth was once in the atmosphere, which would have resulted in a higher atmospheric pressure, and

  19. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.O. )

    1989-01-01

    This book presents an introduction to sedimentology as well as petroleum geology. It integrates both subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately. The author covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modelling forms the base for the part on petroleum geology. Subjects discussed include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  20. Suicidality, Economic Shocks, and Egalitarian Gender Norms

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Aaron; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Durkheim conceived of suicide as a product of social integration and regulation. Although the sociology of suicide has focused on the role of disintegration, to our knowledge, the interaction between integration and regulation has yet to be empirically evaluated. In this article we test whether more egalitarian gender norms, an important form of macro-regulation, protects men and women against suicidality during economic shocks. Using cross-national data covering 20 European Union countries from the years 1991 to 2011, including the recent economic crises in Europe, we first assessed the relation between unemployment and suicide. Then we evaluated potential effect modification using three measures of gender equality, the gender ratio in labour force participation, the gender pay gap, and women’s representation in parliament using multiple measures. We found no evidence of a significant, direct link between greater gender equality and suicide rates in either men or women. However, a greater degree of gender equality helped protect against suicidality associated with economic shocks. At relatively high levels of gender equality in Europe, such as those seen in Sweden and Austria, the relationship between rising unemployment rates and suicide in men disappeared altogether. Our findings suggest that more egalitarian forms of gender regulation may help buffer the suicidal consequences of economic shocks, especially in men. PMID:26877572

  1. Hazard of NORM from phosphorite of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sabiha-Javied; Tufail, M; Asghar, M

    2010-04-15

    In order to investigate the radiological hazard of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in phosphorite deposits of Pakistan, 26 samples of phosphorite were collected from the phosphorite mines near Abbottabad, and 20 samples of single superphosphate (SSP) fertilizer were obtained from the warehouses in Pakistan. Activity concentration in all the samples was assayed using HPGe detection system. Specific activity values of (238)U, (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in the samples of phosphorite were 550+/-156 (329-845), 206+/-72 (93-362), 511+/-189 (316-830) and 52+/-17 (23-81) Bq kg(-1), respectively; and those in SSP fertilizer due to these radionuclides were 637+/-44 (596-687), 164+/-24 (113-215), 589+/-44 (521-671) and 29+/-6 (16-45) Bq kg(-1), respectively. The results were compared with that of worldwide soil. Outdoor external dose rate due to gamma rays from phosphorite was calculated to be 276+/-94 (177-441) nGy h(-1) and external dose rate in a room made of phosphorite containing material was estimated to be 706+/-243 (455-1129) nGy h(-1). The concentration of radon was measured in phosphorite mines and in the warehouses for SSP fertilizer by an active method. Protective measures have been proposed to control the pollution in the phosphorite mining and processing, and fertilizer storage areas. PMID:19963319

  2. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  3. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  4. Options and cost for disposal of NORM waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-10-22

    Oil field waste containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is presently disposed of both on the lease site and at off-site commercial disposal facilities. The majority of NORM waste is disposed of through underground injection, most of which presently takes place at a commercial injection facility located in eastern Texas. Several companies offer the service of coming to an operator's site, grinding the NORM waste into a fine particle size, slurrying the waste, and injecting it into the operator's own disposal well. One company is developing a process whereby the radionuclides are dissolved out of the NORM wastes, leaving a nonhazardous oil field waste and a contaminated liquid stream that is injected into the operator's own injection well. Smaller quantities of NORM are disposed of through burial in landfills, encapsulation inside the casing of wells that are being plugged and abandoned, or land spreading. It is difficult to quantify the total cost for disposing of NORM waste. The cost components that must be considered, in addition to the cost of the operation, include analytical costs, transportation costs, container decontamination costs, permitting costs, and long-term liability costs. Current NORM waste disposal costs range from $15/bbl to $420/bbl.

  5. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  6. Interpreting Urban Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannibal, Joseph Timothy; Schmidt, Mark Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Describes field trips to urban locations for geological instruction. The program was developed by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Authors claim these field trips have been an effective and enjoyable way of conveying a wide variety of geological information to participants at all levels and backgrounds and have created favorable publicity.…

  7. People and Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on the many natural resources we extract from the earth's crust, including metals, graphite, and other minerals, as well as fossil fuels. Contains teaching activities such as a geologic scavenger hunt, a geology chronology, and the recycling of aluminum. Includes a reproducible handout for the activity on aluminum.…

  8. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    This second issue in a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications includes (1) a catalog of terrestrial craterform structures for northern Europe; (2) abstracts of results of the Planetary Geology Program, and (3) a list of the photographic holdings of regional planetary image facilities.

  9. Radiometric Dating in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are several aspects and methods of quantitatively measuring geologic time using a constant-rate natural process of radioactive decay. Topics include half lives and decay constants, radiogenic growth, potassium-argon dating, rubidium-strontium dating, and the role of geochronology in support of geological exploration. (DS)

  10. Glossary of geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.L.; Jackson, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    This third edition of the Glossary of Geology contains approximately 37,000 terms, or 1,000 more than the second edition. New entries are especially numerous in the fields of carbonate sedimentology, hydrogeology, marine geology, mineralogy, ore deposits, plate tectonics, snow and ice, and stratigraphic nomenclature. Many of the definitions provide background information.

  11. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  12. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woronow, A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in Planetary Geology is a new series intended to serve the planetary geology community with a form for quick and thorough communications. There are no set lists of acceptable topics or formats, and submitted manuscripts will not undergo a formal review. All submissions should be in a camera ready form, preferably spaced, and submitted to the editor.

  13. Geologic time scale bookmark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    This bookmark, designed for use with U.S. Geological Survey activities at the 2nd USA Science and Engineering Festival (April 26–29, 2012), is adapted from the more detailed Fact Sheet 2010–3059 "Divisions of Geologic Time." The information that it presents is widely sought by educators and students.

  14. Morality and prosocial behavior: the role of awareness, responsibility, and norms in the norm activation model.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Judith I M; Steg, Linda

    2009-08-01

    The authors examined the relationships between variables included in the Norm Activation Model (NAM; S. H. Schwartz, 1977) of prosocial behavior. Specifically, they evaluated the strength of 2 commonly used interpretations of this model: the NAM as a mediator model and the NAM as a moderator model. For the most part, 5 studies focusing on a variety of prosocial intentions and behavior support the NAM as a mediator model. Furthermore, these studies validate past research by showing that variables included in the NAM are powerful in explaining a diversity of prosocial intentions and behavior in the social and environmental contexts.

  15. Field Geology/Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Jakes, Petr; Jaumann, Ralf; Marshall, John; Moses, Stewart; Ryder, Graham; Saunders, Stephen; Singer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The field geology/process group examined the basic operations of a terrestrial field geologist and the manner in which these operations could be transferred to a planetary lander. Four basic requirements for robotic field geology were determined: geologic content; surface vision; mobility; and manipulation. Geologic content requires a combination of orbital and descent imaging. Surface vision requirements include range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging. The minimum mobility for useful field geology depends on the scale of orbital imagery. Manipulation requirements include exposing unweathered surfaces, screening samples, and bringing samples in contact with analytical instruments. To support these requirements, several advanced capabilities for future development are recommended. Capabilities include near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy, hyper-spectral imaging, multispectral microscopy, artificial intelligence in support of imaging, x ray diffraction, x ray fluorescence, and rock chipping.

  16. Analysis of Geological Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Neville J.; Cosgrove, John W.

    1990-08-01

    A knowledge of structural geology is fundamental to understanding the processes by which the earth's crust has evolved. It is a subject of fundamental importance to students of geology, experienced field geologists and academic researchers as well as to petroleum and mining engineers. In contrast to many structural textbooks which dwell upon geometrical descriptions of geological structures, this book emphasises mechanical principles and the way in which they can be used to understand how and why a wide range of geological structures develop. Structures on all scales are considered but the emphasis of the book is on those that can be seen on the scale of hand specimen or outcrop. Drawing on their considerable teaching experience the authors present a coherent and lucid analysis of geological structures which will be welcomed by a wide variety of earth scientists.

  17. An H-infinity norm minimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muse, Jonathan A.

    This dissertation seeks to merge the ideas from robust control theory such as Hinfinity control design and the Small Gain Theorem, L stability theory and Lyapunov stability from nonlinear control, and recent theoretical achievements in adaptive control. The fusion of frequency domain and linear time domain ideas allows the derivation of an H infinity Norm Minimization Approach (H infinity-NMA) for adaptive control architecture that permits a control designer to simplify the adaptive tuning process and tune the uncertainty compensation characteristics via linear control design techniques, band limit the adaptive control signal, efficiently handle redundant actuators, and handle unmatched uncertainty and matched uncertainty in a single design framework. The two stage design framework is similar to that used in robust control, but without sacrificing performance. The first stage of the design considers an ideal system with the system uncertainty completely known. For this system, a control law is designed using linear Hinfinity theory. Then in the second stage, an adaptive process is implemented that emulates the behavior of the ideal system. If the linear Hinfinity design is applied to control the emulated system, it then guarantees closed loop system stability of the actual system. All of this is accomplished while providing notions of transient performance bounds between the ideal system and the true system. Extensions to the theory include architectures for a class of output feedback systems, limiting the authority of an adaptive control system, and a method for improving the performance of an adaptive system with slow dynamics without any modification terms. Applications focus on using aerodynamic flow control for aircraft flight control and the Crew Launch Vehicle.

  18. Multiscale flat norm signatures for shapes and images

    SciTech Connect

    Sandine, Gary; Morgan, Simon P; Vixie, Kevin R; Clawson, Keth; Asaki, Thomas J; Price, Brandon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we begin to explore the application of the multiscale flat norm introduced in Morgan and Vixie to shape and image analysis. In particular, we look at the use of the multiscale flat norm signature for the identification of shapes. After briefly reviewing the multiscale flat norm, the L{sup 1}TV functional and the relation between these two, we introduce multiscale signatures that naturally follow from the multiscale flat norm and its components. A numerical method based on the min-cut, max-flow graph-cut is briefly recalled. We suggest using L{sup 2} minimization, rather than the usual Crofton's formula based approximation, for choosing the required weights. The resulting weights have the dual benefits of being analytically computable and of giving more accurate approximations to the anisotropic TV energy. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of the signatures on simple shape classification tasks.

  19. PREDICTORS AND CONSEQUENCES OF ADOLESCENTS’ NORMS AGAINST TEENAGE PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    African American and Latino teenagers and communities are frequently assumed to have weaker norms against teenage pregnancy than whites. Despite their importance, adolescents’ norms about teenage pregnancy have not been measured or their correlates and consequences documented. This study examines individual-level and contextual variation in adolescents’ embarrassment at the prospect of a teenage pregnancy and its relationship with subsequent teenage pregnancy. Descriptive analyses find that norms vary by gender and individual- and neighborhood-level race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES). In multivariate analyses, neighborhood-level racial/ethnic associations with embarrassment are explained by neighborhood-level SES. Embarrassment is associated with a lower likelihood of subsequent teenage pregnancy but does not mediate racial, ethnic, or socioeconomic influences, underscoring the importance of both norms and structural factors for understanding teenage fertility. PMID:21921969

  20. Norm Referenced and Criterion Based Measures with Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacTurk, Robert H.; Neisworth, John T.

    1978-01-01

    Seventeen handicapped and nonhandicapped preschool children were given both the norm referenced Gesell Developmental Schedules and the criterion based HICOMP progress measure on a quarterly (10 week) basis. (Author/SBH)

  1. Computer-Delivered Social Norm Message Increases Pain Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Pulvers, Kim; Schroeder, Jacquelyn; Limas, Eleuterio F.; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background Few experimental studies have been conducted on social determinants of pain tolerance. Purpose This study tests a brief, computer-delivered social norm message for increasing pain tolerance. Methods Healthy young adults (N=260; 44 % Caucasian; 27 % Hispanic) were randomly assigned into a 2 (social norm)×2 (challenge) cold pressor study, stratified by gender. They received standard instructions or standard instructions plus a message that contained artifically elevated information about typical performance of others. Results Those receiving a social norm message displayed significantly higher pain tolerance, F(1, 255)=26.95, p<.001, ηp2=.10 and pain threshold F(1, 244)=9.81, p=.002, ηp2=.04, but comparable pain intensity, p>.05. There were no interactions between condition and gender on any outcome variables, p>.05. Conclusions Social norms can significantly increase pain tolerance, even with a brief verbal message delivered by a video. PMID:24146086

  2. Essential Elements of Geologic Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Elmer James

    1988-01-01

    Described is a report outline for geologic reports. Essential elements include title; abstract; introduction; stratigraphy; petrography; geochemistry; petrology; geophysics; structural geology; geologic history; modeling; economics; conclusions; and recommendations. (Author/CW)

  3. Formation evaluation: Geological procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume goes beyond a discussion of petroleum geology and the techniques of hydrocarbon (oil and gas) logging as a reservoir evaluation tool. It provides the logging geologist with a review of geological techniques and classification systems that will ensure the maximum development of communicable geological information. Contents include: 1. Introduction--cuttings recovery, cutting sampling, core sampling, rock classification; 2. Detrital rocks--classification, description; 3. Carbonate rocks--classification, description; 4. Chemical rocks-introduction, siliceous rocks, ferruginous rocks, aluminous rocks, phosphatic rocks, aluminous rocks, carbonaceous rocks; 5. Igneous and metamorpbic rocks; Appendix; References and Index.

  4. Geometry and dynamics of one-norm geometric quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen; Mateus, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the geometry of one-norm geometric quantum discord and present a geometric interpretation of one-norm geometric quantum discord for a class of two-qubit states. It is found that one-norm geometric quantum discord has geometric behavior different from that described in Lang and Caves (Phys Rev Lett 105:150501, 2010), Li et al. (Phys Rev A 83:022321, 2011) and Yao et al. (Phys Lett A 376:358-364, 2012). We also compare the dynamics of the one-norm geometric quantum discord and other measures of quantum correlations under correlated noise. It is shown that different decoherent channels bring different influences to quantum correlations measured by concurrence, entropic quantum discord and geometric quantum discord, which depend on the memory parameter and decoherence parameter. We lay emphasis on the behaviors such as entanglement sudden death and sudden transition of quantum discord. Finally, we study the dynamical behavior of one-norm geometric quantum discord in one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model by utilizing the quantum renormalization group method. It is shown that the one-norm geometric quantum discord demonstrates quantum phase transition through renormalization group approach.

  5. Improving ensemble forecasting with q-norm bred vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Rodriguez, Miguel Angel

    2016-04-01

    Error breeding is a popular and simple method to generate initial perturbations for use in ensemble forecasting that is used for operational purposes in many weather/climate centres worldwide. There is a widespread belief among practitioners that the type of norm used in the periodic normalizations of BVs does not have an effect on the performance of ensemble forecasting systems. However, we have recently reported that BVs constructed with different norms have indeed very different dynamical and spatial properties. In particular, BVs constructed with the 0-norm or geometric norm has nice properties (e.g. enhancement of the ensemble diversity), which in principle render it more adequate to construct ensembles than other norm types like the Euclidean one. These advantages are clearly demonstrated here in a simple experiment of ensemble forecasting for the Lorenz-96 model with ensembles of BVs. Our simple numerical assimilation experiment shows how the increased statistical diversity of geometric BVs leads to improved scores regarding forecasting capabilities as compared with BVs constructed with the standard Euclidean norm.

  6. Diversity-induced resonance in the response to social norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessone, Claudio J.; Sánchez, Angel; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we focus on diversity-induced resonance, which was recently found in bistable, excitable, and other physical systems. We study the appearance of this phenomenon in a purely economic model of cooperating and defecting agents. An agent's contribution to a public good is seen as a social norm, so defecting agents face a social pressure, which decreases if free riding becomes widespread. In this model, diversity among agents naturally appears because of the different sensitivities towards the social norm. We study the evolution of cooperation as a response to the social norm (i) for the replicator dynamics and (ii) for the logit dynamics by means of numerical simulations. Diversity-induced resonance is observed as a maximum in the response of agents to changes in the social norm as a function of the degree of heterogeneity in the population. We provide an analytical, mean-field approach for the logit dynamics and find very good agreement with the simulations. From a socioeconomic perspective, our results show that, counterintuitively, diversity in the individual sensitivity to social norms may result in a society that better follows such norms as a whole, even if part of the population is less prone to follow them.

  7. Old wine in new bottles: reaction norms in salmonid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, J A

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variability in reaction norms reflects differences in the ability of individuals, populations and ultimately species to respond to environmental change. By increasing our understanding of how genotype × environment interactions influence evolution, studies of genetic variation in phenotypic plasticity serve to refine our capacity to predict how populations will respond to natural and anthropogenic environmental variability, including climate change. Given the extraordinary variability in morphology, behaviour and life history in salmonids, one might anticipate the research milieu on reaction norms in these fishes to be empirically rich and intellectually engaging. Here, I undertake a review of genetic variability in continuous and discontinuous (threshold) norms of reaction in salmonid fishes, as determined primarily (but not exclusively) by common-garden experiments. Although in its infancy from a numerical publication perspective, there is taxonomically broad evidence of genetic differentiation in continuous, threshold and bivariate reaction norms among individuals, families and populations (including inter-population hybrids and backcrosses) for traits as divergent as embryonic development, age and size at maturity, and gene expression. There is compelling inferential evidence that plasticity is heritable and that population differences in reaction norms can reflect adaptive responses, by natural selection, to local environments. As a stimulus for future work, a series of 20 research questions are identified that focus on reaction-norm variability, selection, costs and constraints, demographic and conservation consequences, and genetic markers and correlates of phenotypic plasticity. PMID:21224878

  8. Understanding multiple levels of norms about teen pregnancy and their relationships to teens' sexual behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-06-01

    Researchers seeking to understand teen sexual behaviors often turn to age norms, but they are difficult to measure quantitatively. Previous work has usually inferred norms from behavioral patterns or measured group-level norms at the individual level, ignoring multiple reference groups. Capitalizing on the multilevel design of the Add Health survey, we measure teen pregnancy norms perceived by teenagers, as well as average norms at the school and peer network levels. School norms predict boys' perceived norms, while peer network norms predict girls' perceived norms. Peer network and individually perceived norms against teen pregnancy independently and negatively predict teens' likelihood of sexual intercourse. Perceived norms against pregnancy predict increased likelihood of contraception among sexually experienced girls, but sexually experienced boys' contraceptive behavior is more complicated: When both the boy and his peers or school have stronger norms against teen pregnancy he is more likely to contracept, and in the absence of school or peer norms against pregnancy, boys who are embarrassed are less likely to contracept. We conclude that: (1) patterns of behavior cannot adequately operationalize teen pregnancy norms, (2) norms are not simply linked to behaviors through individual perceptions, and (3) norms at different levels can operate independently of each other, interactively, or in opposition. This evidence creates space for conceptualizations of agency, conflict, and change that can lead to progress in understanding age norms and sexual behaviors.

  9. Economic Geology (Oil & Gas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geotimes, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Briefly reviews the worldwide developments in petroleum geology in 1971, including exploration, new fields, and oil production. This report is condensed from the October Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. (PR)

  10. Geology of icy satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinnon, W. B.

    1985-01-01

    The geology of the major icy satellites of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune is discussed in terms of the four major processes that shape icy satellite surfaces: impact cratering, volcanism, tectonism, and interactions with planetary magnetospheres and solar radiation. The role of these processes in creating the differences that exist among the satellites, in particular the orderly progression of geological properties in the Jovian satellites, is emphasized. Important questions left open after the Voyager missions are summarized.

  11. Advances in Planetary Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, John A., III; Nedell, Susan S.

    1987-01-01

    The surface of Mars displays a broad range of channel and valley features. There is as great a range in morphology as in scale. Some of the features of Martian geography are examined. Geomorphic mapping, crater counts on selected surfaces, and a detailed study of drainage basins are used to trace the geologic evolution of the Margaritifer Sinus Quandrangle. The layered deposits in the Valles Marineris are described in detail and the geologic processes that could have led to their formation are analyzed.

  12. Fractional norm regularization: learning with very few relevant features.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Ata

    2013-06-01

    Learning in the presence of a large number of irrelevant features is an important problem in high-dimensional tasks. Previous studies have shown that L1-norm regularization can be effective in such cases while L2-norm regularization is not. Furthermore, work in compressed sensing suggests that regularization by nonconvex (e.g., fractional) semi-norms may outperform L1-regularization. However, for classification it is largely unclear when this may or may not be the case. In addition, the nonconvex problem is harder to solve than the convex L1 problem. In this paper, we provide a more in-depth analysis to elucidate the potential advantages and pitfalls of nonconvex regularization in the context of logistic regression where the regularization term employs the family of Lq semi-norms. First, using results from the phenomenon of concentration of norms and distances in high dimensions, we gain intuition about the working of sparse estimation when the dimensionality is very high. Second, using the probably approximately correct (PAC)-Bayes methodology, we give a data-dependent bound on the generalization error of Lq-regularized logistic regression, which is applicable to any algorithm that implements this model, and may be used to predict its generalization behavior from the training set alone. Third, we demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by experiments and applications, where the PAC-Bayes bound is used to guide the choice of semi-norm in the regularization term. The results support the conclusion that the optimal choice of regularization depends on the relative fraction of relevant versus irrelevant features, and a fractional norm with a small exponent is most suitable when the fraction of relevant features is very small.

  13. Geological considerations in hazardouswaste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartwright, K.; Gilkeson, R.H.; Johnson, T.M.

    1981-01-01

    Present regulations assume that long-term isolation of hazardous wastes - including toxic chemical, biological, radioactive, flammable and explosive wastes - may be effected by disposal in landfills that have liners of very low hydraulic conductivity. In reality, total isolation of wastes in humid areas is not possible; some migration of leachate from wastes buried in the gound will always occur. Regulations should provide performance standards applicable on a site-by-site basis rather than rigid criteria for site selection and design. The performance standards should take into account several factors: (1) the categories, segregation, degradation and toxicity of the wastes; (2) the site hydrogeology, which governs the direction and rate of contaminant transport; (3) the attenuation of contaminants by geochemical interactions with geologic materials; and (4) the release rate of unattenuated pollutants to surface or groundwater. An adequate monitoring system is essential. The system should both test the extent to which the operation of the site meets performance standards and provide sufficient warning of pollution problems to allow implementation of remedial measures. In recent years there has been a trend away from numerous, small disposal sites toward fewer and larger sites. The size of a disposal site should be based on the attenuation capacity of the geologic material, which has a finite, though generally not well-defined, limit. For slowly degradable wastes, engineered sites with leachate-collection systems appear to be only a temporary solution since the leachate collected will also require final disposal. ?? 1981.

  14. The development of the norm against the use of poison: what literature tells us.

    PubMed

    Moon, John Ellis van Courtland

    2008-03-01

    The use of chemical and biological weapons on the battlefield is considered by most commentators--and by international law--as more abhorrent than the use of nearly all other weapons, including ones meant either to kill secretly or to kill terribly, as do fire or burial alive. I ask why this is so. I explore this question through the study of imagery patterns in Western literature and campaigns against food contamination and environmental pollution. I find that the norm against chemical and biological weapons builds upon a taboo against poisons, a prohibition widely accepted in military manuals as distinguishing soldierly conduct from criminal conduct, especially those forms of conduct made criminal by the employment of treachery, invisibility, and transformation. PMID:19213304

  15. Adolescent Subtest Norms for the ImPACT Neurocognitive Battery.

    PubMed

    Henry, Luke C; Sandel, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    The neurocognitive testing of sports concussion for injury management and return-to-play decisions has long been considered the gold standard in evaluation of the injury. Computerized testing batteries are frequently employed, with the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) being the most used of all the current testing platforms to evaluate concussion. ImPACT's clinical report yields four normed composite scores (Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, Visual Motor Speed, and Reaction Time) and another composite score that is not normed but is used as a validity measure (Impulse Control), as well as their corresponding subtest scores, which are not normed. The current study provides normative data on each of the subtests used to calculate the composite scores. Normative data are separated by gender for athletes aged 13 to 21 years old and are stratified by the norm age brackets already employed by the ImPACT. These norms may be helpful in the interpretation of the ImPACT clinical report and further delineation of areas of neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:25412432

  16. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room. PMID:23130617

  17. Caught between cultures: cultural norms in Jungian psychodynamic process.

    PubMed

    Heyer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    In our increasingly mobile world, more of us are caught between cultures rather than in one culture. We straddle different ethnic, racial, political, geographical, and religious groups, forced into awareness of the precarious nature of our self-definition, involuntarily gazing at the constructed nature of our cultural norms, unable to avoid reckoning with the choices of which collective to honour. The impossibility of separating individual from collective is foundational to work as Jungian practitioners, but a paradox of individuation is becoming free of the control of collective norms while simultaneously living within those very norms. In such a conflict it becomes easy to overlook the fact that when the norms we have incorporated into ourselves are from cultures vastly different from the one in which we live, the cacophony can be overwhelming. In this paper, I will draw from postmodern theorists such as Derrida, Foucault and Irigaray in an effort to re-imagine the role of culture in psychodynamic process. The case of a Muslim Iranian man working with a Christian American woman analyst will be used to explore the complexity of a multitude of cultural norms present in the consulting room.

  18. Marketing Norm Perception Among Medical Representatives in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry

    PubMed Central

    Nagashekhara, Molugulu; Agil, Syed Omar Syed; Ramasamy, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Study of marketing norm perception among medical representatives is an under-portrayed component that deserves further perusal in the pharmaceutical industry. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of marketing norms among medical representatives. The research design is quantitative and cross sectional study with medical representatives as unit of analysis. Data is collected from medical representatives (n=300) using a simple random and cluster sampling using a structured questionnaire. Results indicate that there is no difference in the perception of marketing norms among male and female medical representatives. But there is a difference in opinion among domestic and multinational company’s medical representatives. Educational back ground of medical representatives also shows the difference in opinion among medical representatives. Degree holders and multinational company medical representatives have high perception of marketing norms compare to their counterparts. The researchers strongly believe that mandatory training on marketing norms is beneficial in decision making process during the dilemmas in the sales field. PMID:24826035

  19. Chapter 4: Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, J; Herzog, H

    2006-06-14

    Carbon sequestration is the long term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. The largest potential reservoirs for storing carbon are the deep oceans and geological reservoirs in the earth's upper crust. This chapter focuses on geological sequestration because it appears to be the most promising large-scale approach for the 2050 timeframe. It does not discuss ocean or terrestrial sequestration. In order to achieve substantial GHG reductions, geological storage needs to be deployed at a large scale. For example, 1 Gt C/yr (3.6 Gt CO{sub 2}/yr) abatement, requires carbon capture and storage (CCS) from 600 large pulverized coal plants ({approx}1000 MW each) or 3600 injection projects at the scale of Statoil's Sleipner project. At present, global carbon emissions from coal approximate 2.5 Gt C. However, given reasonable economic and demand growth projections in a business-as-usual context, global coal emissions could account for 9 Gt C. These volumes highlight the need to develop rapidly an understanding of typical crustal response to such large projects, and the magnitude of the effort prompts certain concerns regarding implementation, efficiency, and risk of the enterprise. The key questions of subsurface engineering and surface safety associated with carbon sequestration are: (1) Subsurface issues: (a) Is there enough capacity to store CO{sub 2} where needed? (b) Do we understand storage mechanisms well enough? (c) Could we establish a process to certify injection sites with our current level of understanding? (d) Once injected, can we monitor and verify the movement of subsurface CO{sub 2}? (2) Near surface issues: (a) How might the siting of new coal plants be influenced by the distribution of storage sites? (b) What is the probability of CO{sub 2} escaping from injection sites? What are the attendant risks? Can we detect leakage if it occurs? (3) Will surface leakage negate or reduce the

  20. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    As the nation's largest water, earth and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial, scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every state by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy and mineral resources.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Information Sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    As the Nation's largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with more than 2,000 organizations across the country to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and other customers. This information is gathered in every State by USGS scientists to minimize the loss of life and property from natural disasters, to contribute to the conservation and the sound economic and physical development of the Nation's natural resources, and to enhance the quality of life by monitoring water, biological, energy, and mineral resources

  2. Hydrogeochemical and production controls on NORM in oil- and gas-field operations. [Quarterly report], January 1, 1994--March 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.S.

    1994-04-30

    This project is designed to investigate the geochemical, geological, and production parameters that control the occurrence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in oil-and gas-field operations. Relations between reservoir setting and NORM content of brine and scale will be interpreted on the basis of the geochemistry of natural radioactivity in oil and gas reservoirs, the compositions of produced water and production-equipment scale, and geochemical modeling to determine the type and amount of scale that can form as produced waters are transported from reservoir to land surface. Our goal is to develop screening criteria that will enable oil- and gas-field operators to identify geologic, geographic, and production characteristics that can lead to high NORM accumulations in equipment and waste. Efforts during the first quarter of 1994 focused on 5 activities. First, we continued to add data to our file of produced- and formation-water chemistry from wells throughout Texas. Second, we received Ra-226 analyses for 36 produced-water samples from wells in the Texas Panhandle and central Texas. Third, we coordinated with API and EG&G, Idaho, to obtain NORM scale samples for mineralogy analysis. Fourth, we arranged and completed a trip to west Texas to sample oil and gas wells from the Central Basin Platform/Midland Basin area. Fourth, we continued data synthesis and interpretation and began preparing our draft final report. In order to be able to include results of mineralogical and radical analyses of NORM scale in our final report, we will have requested a no-cost contract extension.

  3. Impact of Norm Perceptions and Guilt on Audience Response to Anti-Smoking Norm PSAs: The Case of Korean Male Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyegyu; Paek, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how norm appeals and guilt influence smokers' behavioural intention. Design: Quasi-experimental design. Setting: South Korea. Method: Two hundred and fifty-five male smokers were randomly assigned to descriptive, injunctive, or subjective anti-smoking norm messages. After they viewed the norm messages, their norm…

  4. The Role of Values, Moral Norms, and Descriptive Norms in Building Occupant Responses to an Energy-Efficiency Pilot Program and to Framing of Related Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arpan, Laura M.; Barooah, Prabir; Subramany, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This study examined building occupants' responses associated with an occupant-based energy-efficiency pilot in a university building. The influence of occupants' values and norms as well as effects of two educational message frames (descriptive vs. moral norms cues) on program support were tested. Occupants' personal moral norm to conserve energy…

  5. Geologic map of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  6. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  7. The geology of Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, E. M.; Lucchitta, B. K.; Wilhelms, D. E.; Plescia, J. B.; Squyres, S. W.

    A broad outline of the geologic history of Ganymede is presented, obtained from a first attempt to map the geology on a global scale and to interpret the characteristics of the observed geologic units. Features of the ancient cratered terrain such as craters and palimpsests, furrows and troughs, are discussed. The grooved terrain is described, including its sulci and cells, and the age relation of these units is considered along with the structure and origin of this terrain. The Gilgamesh Basin and Western Equatorial Basin in the post grooved terrain are treated, as are the bright and dark ray craters and the regolith. The development of all these regions and features is discussed in context. For the regolith, this includes the effect of water migration, sputtering, and thermal annealing. The histories of the ancient cratered terrain, the grooved terrain, and the post grooved terrain are presented.

  8. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  9. Geological fakes and frauds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffell, Alastair; Majury, Niall; Brooks, William E.

    2012-02-01

    Some geological fakes and frauds are carried out solely for financial gain (mining fraud), whereas others maybe have increasing aesthetic appeal (faked fossils) or academic advancement (fabricated data) as their motive. All types of geological fake or fraud can be ingenious and sophisticated, as demonstrated in this article. Fake gems, faked fossils and mining fraud are common examples where monetary profit is to blame: nonetheless these may impact both scientific theory and the reputation of geologists and Earth scientists. The substitution or fabrication of both physical and intellectual data also occurs for no direct financial gain, such as career advancement or establishment of belief (e.g. evolution vs. creationism). Knowledge of such fakes and frauds may assist in spotting undetected geological crimes: application of geoforensic techniques helps the scientific community to detect such activity, which ultimately undermines scientific integrity.

  10. Sedimentology and petroleum geology

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorlykke, K.

    1989-01-01

    In this introduction to sedimentology and petroleum geology the subjects, which are closely related but mostly treated separately, are integrated. The first part covers the basic aspects of sedimentology, sedimentary geochemistry and diagenesis, including brief discussions of flow in rivers and channels, types of sediment transport, lake and river deposits, deltas (river-dominated, tide-dominated, and wave-dominated) and the water budget. Principles of stratigraphy, seismic stratigraphy and basin modeling form the basis for the last part on petroleum geology. Here subjects include the composition of kerogen and hydrocarbons, theories of migration and trapping of hydrocarbons and properties of reservoir rocks. Finally, short introductions to well logging and production geology are given.

  11. Global sedimentary geology program

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, R.N.; Clifton, H.E.; Weimer, R.J.

    1986-07-01

    The Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, in collaboration with the International Association of Sedimentologists and the International Union of Geological Sciences Committee on Sedimentology, is developing a new international study under the provisional title of Global Sedimentary Geology Program (GSGP). Initially, three research themes are being considered: (1) event stratigraphy-the documentation of examples of mass extinctions, eustatic fluctuations in sea level, major episodes of volcanisms, and changes in ocean composition; (2) facies models in time and space-an expansion of the existing data base of examples of facies models (e.G., deltas, fluvial deposits, and submarine fans) and global-scale study of the persistence of facies at various times in geologic history; and (3) sedimentary indices of paleogeography and tectonics-the use of depositional facies and faunas in paleogeography and in assessing the timing, locus, and characteristics of tectonism. Plans are being developed to organize pilot projects in each of these themes.

  12. Alaskan North Slope Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Warren

    The discovery well for the Prudhoe Bay field, the largest oil accumulatn yet found in the United States, was drilled on the Arctic coast of Alaska by ARCO and Exxon in 1968. A decade of exploratory geology and increasingly detailed geophysical surveys, mostly by Sinclair and British Petroleum in the early years, but then by a number of companies, preceded the discovery. Systematic U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reconnaissance of the Brooks Range—the great mountain system of northern Alaska—had begun in the 1940s and was accelerated after the discovery, as was industry work. In the last decade, scientists from the Alaska Division of Geology and Geophysics and from various universities have become increasingly involved. This modestly priced two-volume work presents hitherto unavailable summaries of much of this modern work.

  13. L1-norm-based common spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haixian; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Wenming

    2012-03-01

    Common spatial patterns (CSP) is a commonly used method of spatial filtering for multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The formulation of the CSP criterion is based on variance using L2-norm, which implies that CSP is sensitive to outliers. In this paper, we propose a robust version of CSP, called CSP-L1, by maximizing the ratio of filtered dispersion of one class to the other class, both of which are formulated by using L1-norm rather than L2-norm. The spatial filters of CSP-L1 are obtained by introducing an iterative algorithm, which is easy to implement and is theoretically justified. CSP-L1 is robust to outliers. Experiment results on a toy example and datasets of BCI competitions demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. PMID:22147288

  14. Evaluation of RxNorm for Medication Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Freimuth, Robert R.; Wix, Kelly; Zhu, Qian; Siska, Mark; Chute, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential use of RxNorm to provide standardized representations of generic drug name and route of administration to facilitate management of drug lists for clinical decision support (CDS) rules. We found a clear representation of generic drug name but not route of administration. We identified several issues related to data quality, including erroneous or missing defined relationships, and the use of different concept hierarchies to represent the same drug. More importantly, we found extensive semantic precoordination of orthogonal concepts related to route and dose form, which would complicate the use of RxNorm for drug-based CDS. This study demonstrated that while RxNorm is a valuable resource for the standardization of medications used in clinical practice, additional work is required to enhance the terminology so that it can support expanded use cases, such as managing drug lists for CDS. PMID:25954360

  15. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  16. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding.

  17. Done 4: analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cristel Antonia; Clapp, John D; Dejong, William

    2005-01-01

    College students commonly believe their peers engage in higher levels of dangerous drinking than is actually the case. Social norms marketing campaigns attempt to correct these misperceptions, decrease the perceived normative pressure to drink, and thereby drive down high-risk alcohol consumption. In this case study, we critically examined "Done 4," an unsuccessful social norms marketing campaign conducted as part of a comprehensive prevention trial at a large urban university. As part of this analysis, undergraduate marketing students were shown the principal print advertisement used in the campaign and asked to complete an advertising analysis questionnaire. The results of this case study suggest that the advertisement was poorly constructed, which decreased its effectiveness and led to confusion about the social norms message. We discuss implications of these findings for future prevention campaigns and new research.

  18. From Abstract to Concrete Norms in Agent Institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossi, Davide; Dignum, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Norms specifying constraints over institutions are stated in such a form that allows them to regulate a wide range of situations over time without need for modification. To guarantee this stability, the formulation of norms need to abstract from a variety of concrete aspects, which are instead relevant for the actual operationalization of institutions. If agent institutions are to be built, which comply with a set of abstract requirements, how can those requirements be translated in more concrete constraints the impact of which can be described directly in the institution? In this work we make use of logical methods in order to provide a formal characterization of the translation rules that operate the connection between abstract and concrete norms. On the basis of this characterization, a comprehensive formalization of the notion of institution is also provided.

  19. Injunctive Norms and Problem Gambling among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Lostutter, Ty W.; Whiteside, Ursula; Fossos, Nicole; Walker, Denise D.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationships among injunctive norms and college student gambling. In study 1 we evaluated the accuracy of perceptions of other students’ approval of gambling and the relationship between perceived approval and gambling behavior. In study 2 we evaluated gambling behavior as a function of perceptions of approval of other students, friends, and family. In study 1, which included 2524 college students, perceptions of other students’ approval of gambling were found to be overestimated and were negatively associated with gambling behavior. The results of study 2, which included 565 college students, replicated the findings of study 1 and revealed positive associations between gambling behavior and perceived approval of friends and family. Results highlight the complexity of injunctive norms and the importance of considering the reference group (e.g., peers, friends, family members) in their evaluation. Results also encourage caution in considering the incorporation of injunctive norms in prevention and intervention approaches. PMID:17394053

  20. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  1. Geologic and geophysical maps of the El Casco 7.5′ quadrangle, Riverside County, southern California, with accompanying geologic-map database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, J.C.; Morton, D.M.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Geologic information contained in the El Casco database is general-purpose data applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. The term “general-purpose” means that all geologic-feature classes have minimal information content adequate to characterize their general geologic characteristics and to interpret their general geologic history. However, no single feature class has enough information to definitively characterize its properties and origin. For this reason the database cannot be used for site-specific geologic evaluations, although it can be used to plan and guide investigations at the site-specific level.

  2. Soft learning vector quantization and clustering algorithms based on non-Euclidean norms: single-norm algorithms.

    PubMed

    Karayiannis, Nicolaos B; Randolph-Gips, Mary M

    2005-03-01

    This paper presents the development of soft clustering and learning vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms that rely on a weighted norm to measure the distance between the feature vectors and their prototypes. The development of LVQ and clustering algorithms is based on the minimization of a reformulation function under the constraint that the generalized mean of the norm weights be constant. According to the proposed formulation, the norm weights can be computed from the data in an iterative fashion together with the prototypes. An error analysis provides some guidelines for selecting the parameter involved in the definition of the generalized mean in terms of the feature variances. The algorithms produced from this formulation are easy to implement and they are almost as fast as clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm. An experimental evaluation on four data sets indicates that the proposed algorithms outperform consistently clustering algorithms relying on the Euclidean norm and they are strong competitors to non-Euclidean algorithms which are computationally more demanding.

  3. Experimentation in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory simulations of geological processes on the terrestrial planets are described, summarizing results published during the period 1983-1986. Included are studies of wind-driven processes on Mars and Venus (using the special wind-tunnel facilities at NASA Ames); simulations of shock-induced loss of volatiles from solids; equation-of-state determinations; impact experiments simulating cratering, spallation, regolith formation, and disruption; fluid-flow simulations of channel formation on Mars; and dust studies. The use of the microgravity environment of the Space Station for planetary-geology experiments is briefly considered.

  4. Planetary geological processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Rosaly M. C.; Solomonidou, Anezina

    2014-11-01

    In this introduction to planetary geology, we review the major geologic processes affecting the solid bodies of the solar system, namely volcanism, tectonism, impact cratering, and erosion. We illustrate the interplay of these processes in different worlds, briefly reviewing how they affect the surfaces of the Earth's Moon, Mercury, Venus and Mars, then focusing on two very different worlds: Jupiter's moon Io, the most volcanically active object in the solar system, and Saturn's moon Titan, where the interaction between a dense atmosphere and the surface make for remarkably earth-like landscapes despite the great differences in surface temperature and composition.

  5. Image restoration by minimizing zero norm of wavelet frame coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Chenglong; Dong, Bin; Hou, Likun; Shen, Zuowei; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Xue

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we propose two algorithms, namely the extrapolated proximal iterative hard thresholding (EPIHT) algorithm and the EPIHT algorithm with line-search, for solving the {{\\ell }}0-norm regularized wavelet frame balanced approach for image restoration. Under the theoretical framework of Kurdyka-Łojasiewicz property, we show that the sequences generated by the two algorithms converge to a local minimizer with linear convergence rate. Moreover, extensive numerical experiments on sparse signal reconstruction and wavelet frame based image restoration problems including CT reconstruction, image deblur, demonstrate the improvement of {{\\ell }}0-norm based regularization models over some prevailing ones, as well as the computational efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  6. Local Adaptation at the Transcriptome Level in Brown Trout: Evidence from Early Life History Temperature Genomic Reaction Norms

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Kristian; Hansen, Michael Møller; Normandeau, Eric; Mensberg, Karen-Lise D.; Frydenberg, Jane; Larsen, Peter Foged; Bekkevold, Dorte; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Local adaptation and its underlying molecular basis has long been a key focus in evolutionary biology. There has recently been increased interest in the evolutionary role of plasticity and the molecular mechanisms underlying local adaptation. Using transcriptome analysis, we assessed differences in gene expression profiles for three brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations, one resident and two anadromous, experiencing different temperature regimes in the wild. The study was based on an F2 generation raised in a common garden setting. A previous study of the F1 generation revealed different reaction norms and significantly higher QST than FST among populations for two early life-history traits. In the present study we investigated if genomic reaction norm patterns were also present at the transcriptome level. Eggs from the three populations were incubated at two temperatures (5 and 8 degrees C) representing conditions encountered in the local environments. Global gene expression for fry at the stage of first feeding was analysed using a 32k cDNA microarray. The results revealed differences in gene expression between populations and temperatures and population × temperature interactions, the latter indicating locally adapted reaction norms. Moreover, the reaction norms paralleled those observed previously at early life-history traits. We identified 90 cDNA clones among the genes with an interaction effect that were differently expressed between the ecologically divergent populations. These included genes involved in immune- and stress response. We observed less plasticity in the resident as compared to the anadromous populations, possibly reflecting that the degree of environmental heterogeneity encountered by individuals throughout their life cycle will select for variable level of phenotypic plasticity at the transcriptome level. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of transcriptome approaches to identify genes with different temperature reaction norms. The

  7. Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Included are a teacher's guidebook and two filmstrips, "Geology of Wisconsin," and associated materials. The following are described: outline of objectives; suggested use of the filmstrips and guidebook; outline of the filmstrip content; four pages of illustrations suitable for duplication; a test for each filmstrip; and a list of additional…

  8. Life on Guam: Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Gail

    This unit is part of a series of materials produced by a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, they can be adapted to other localities. This unit is designed to acquaint the students with the geology of…

  9. Geological processes and evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Head, J.W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M.P.; Hartmann, W.K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L.E.; Carr, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  10. Advances in planetary geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    A wide variety of topics on planetary geology are presented. Subjects include stratigraphy and geomorphology of Copernicus, the Mamers valle region, and other selected regions of Mars and the Moon. Crater density and distribution are discussed for Callisto and the lunar surface. Spectroscopic analysis is described for Europa and Ganymede.

  11. Geology: The Active Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Geology: The Active Earth." Contents are organized into the following…

  12. Geology 12. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication, developed by the Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia, Canada, is a teaching guide for the Geology 12 course. The course is intended to provide secondary school students with the background and desire to investigate their earth, its materials and its processes. The guide consists of the following four sections: (1)…

  13. Digital solar system geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Kozak, R. C.; Isbell, Nancy K.

    1991-01-01

    All available synoptic maps of the solid-surface bodies of the Solar System were digitized for presentation in the planned Atlas of the Solar System by Greeley and Batson. Since the last report (Batson et al., 1990), preliminary Uranian satellite maps were replaced with improved versions, Galilean satellite geology was simplified and digitized, structure was added to many maps, and the maps were converted to a standard format, with corresponding standing colors for the mapped units. Following these changes, the maps were re-reviewed by their authors and are now undergoing final editing before preparation for publication. In some cases (for Mercury, Venus, and Mars), more detailed maps were digitized and then simplified for the Atlas. Other detailed maps are planned to be digitized in the coming year for the Moon and the Galilean satellites. For most of the remaining bodies such as the Uranian satellites, the current digitized versions contain virtually all the detail that can be mapped given the available data; those versions will be unchanged for the Atlas. These digital geologic maps are archived at the digital scale of 1/16 degree/ pixel, in sinusoidal format. The availability of geology of the Solar System in a digital database will facilitate comparisons and integration with other data: digitized lunar geologic maps have already been used in a comparison with Galileo SSI observations of the Moon.

  14. Appendix E: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

  15. Geological and Inorganic Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, L. L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review focusing on techniques and their application to the analysis of geological and inorganic materials that offer significant changes to research and routine work. Covers geostandards, spectroscopy, plasmas, microbeam techniques, synchrotron X-ray methods, nuclear activation methods, chromatography, and electroanalytical methods.…

  16. Briefing on geological sequestration

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geological sequestration (GS) is generally recognized as the injection and long-term (e.g., hundreds to thousands of years) trapping of gaseous, liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface media – primarily saline formations, depleted or nearly depleted oil and gas...

  17. Geological Processes and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, J. W.; Greeley, R.; Golombek, M. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Masson, P.; Neukum, G.; Nyquist, L. E.; Carr, M. H.

    2001-04-01

    Geological mapping and establishment of stratigraphic relationships provides an overview of geological processes operating on Mars and how they have varied in time and space. Impact craters and basins shaped the crust in earliest history and as their importance declined, evidence of extensive regional volcanism emerged during the Late Noachian. Regional volcanism characterized the Early Hesperian and subsequent to that time, volcanism was largely centered at Tharsis and Elysium, continuing until the recent geological past. The Tharsis region appears to have been largely constructed by the Late Noachian, and represents a series of tectonic and volcanic centers. Globally distributed structural features representing contraction characterize the middle Hesperian. Water-related processes involve the formation of valley networks in the Late Noachian and into the Hesperian, an ice sheet at the south pole in the middle Hesperian, and outflow channels and possible standing bodies of water in the northern lowlands in the Late Hesperian and into the Amazonian. A significant part of the present water budget occurs in the present geologically young polar layered terrains. In order to establish more firmly rates of processes, we stress the need to improve the calibration of the absolute timescale, which today is based on crater count systems with substantial uncertainties, along with a sampling of rocks of unknown provenance. Sample return from carefully chosen stratigraphic units could calibrate the existing timescale and vastly improve our knowledge of Martian evolution.

  18. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  19. Glacial Geology of Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    This publication is a teacher's resource and guidebook for the presentation of the three filmstrips in the "Glacial Geology of Wisconsin" series. The first filmstrip is subtitled, "Evidence of the Glaciers," the second "How the Glaciers Reshaped the Landscape," and the third "Fossils of the Ice Age." Included are a list of objectives, an outline…

  20. Geological Field Trip Guidebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Harriet E.

    1978-01-01

    Geological field trip guidebooks, developed for use during a field trip or field conference, are considered ephemeral publications by their compilers and publishers. Too few copies are printed and little attention is paid to bibliographic format and information. These difficulties are discussed and recommendations are made to alleviate the…

  1. Public perceptions of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Anderson, Mark; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2014-05-01

    Geological issues are increasingly intruding on the everyday lives of ordinary people. Whether it be onshore exploration and extraction of oil and gas, deep injection of water for geothermal power or underground storage of carbon dioxide and radioactive waste, many communities across Europe are being faced with potentially contested geological activity under their backyard. As well as being able to communicate the technical aspects of such work, geoscience professionals also need to appreciate that for most people the subsurface is an unfamiliar realm. In order to engage communities and individuals in effective dialogue about geological activities, an appreciation of what 'the public' already know and what they want to know is needed, but this is a subject that is in its infancy. In an attempt to provide insight into these key issues, this study examines the concerns the public have, relating to geology, by constructing 'Mental Models' of people's perceptions of the subsurface. General recommendations for public engagement strategies will be presented based on the results of selected case studies; specifically expert and non-expert mental models for communities in the south-west of England.

  2. Ways of giving benefits in marriage: norm use, relationship satisfaction, and attachment-related variability.

    PubMed

    Clark, Margaret S; Lemay, Edward P; Graham, Steven M; Pataki, Sherri P; Finkel, Eli J

    2010-07-01

    Couples reported on bases for giving support and on relationship satisfaction just prior to and approximately 2 years into marriage. Overall, a need-based, noncontingent (communal) norm was seen as ideal and was followed, and greater use of this norm was linked to higher relationship satisfaction. An exchange norm was seen as not ideal and was followed significantly less frequently than was a communal norm; by 2 years into marriage, greater use of an exchange norm was linked with lower satisfaction. Insecure attachment predicted greater adherence to an exchange norm. Idealization of and adherence to a communal norm dropped slightly across time. As idealization of a communal norm and own use and partner use of a communal norm decreased, people high in avoidance increased their use of an exchange norm, whereas people low in avoidance decreased their use of an exchange norm. Anxious individuals evidenced tighter links between norm use and marital satisfaction relative to nonanxious individuals. Overall, a picture of people valuing a communal norm and striving toward adherence to a communal norm emerged, with secure individuals doing so with more success and equanimity across time than insecure individuals.

  3. Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helemskii, A. Ya

    2013-07-01

    In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l_1(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l_1^0(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  4. Social Norms Tactics to Promote a Campus Alcohol Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinci, Debra M.; Philen, Robert C.; Walch, Susan E.; Kennedy, Rebecca; Harrell, Mica; Rime, Carla; Matthews, Jaclyn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Social norms posters usually contain a normative message, branding, campaign tagline and sponsoring coalition/contact information. There are limited data on which campaign components promote recognition of Campus Alcohol Coalitions (CAC). Purpose: To determine the most effective media channels/incentives to promote recognition of CAC…

  5. Abstinence, Social Norms, and Drink Responsibly Messages: A Comparison Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Kruger, Jessica Sloan; Deakins, Bethany A.; Paprzycki, Peter; Blavos, Alexis A.; Hutzelman, Erin N.; Diehr, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine which type of prevention message (abstinence, social norms, or responsible drinking) was most effective at reducing alcohol consumption. Participants: The subjects from this study included 194 college students from a public university. Methods: Researchers employed a quasi-experimental design,…

  6. State Norms for the North Carolina Testing Program. 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Accountability/Testing.

    This publication provides a reference for educators and others interested in conducting comparative studies relative to North Carolina tests. It includes norms, tables, and other statistical information for all state-developed tests (state-mandated and local-option tests for which baseline data are available) that were administered during the…

  7. Children's Judgments of Inequitable Distributions That Conform to Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether distributions by sex are judged to be unfair, children at ages 6, 8, and 10, and adults (N = 96), judged an authority distributing items to children by using different methods (i.e., randomly or by sex), types of items (i.e., related or unrelated to gender norms), and differences in the equivalency of the items (i.e.,…

  8. Some classes of t-norms and fuzzy metric spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Company, Francisco; Tirado, Pedro

    2012-09-01

    Recently, V. Gregori, S. Morillas and A. Sapena have discussed [On a class of completable fuzzy metric spaces, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 161 (2010), 2193-2205] the so-called strong fuzzy metrics when looking for a class of completable fuzzy metric spaces in the sense of A. George and P. Veeramani and state the question of finding a non-strong fuzzy metric space for a continuous t-norm different from the minimum. Later on, J. Gutiérrez García and S. Romaguera solved this question [Examples of non-strong fuzzy metrics, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 162 (2011) 91-93] by means of two examples for the product and the Lukasiewicz t-norm, respectively. In this direction they posed to find further examples of non-strong fuzzy metrics for continuous t-norm that are greater than the product but different from minimum. In this paper we obtain, among others facts on t-norms and fuzzy metric spaces, an example of this kind.

  9. Measuring Vocational Interests: A Call for Multi-Sample Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Roland; Goddard, Richard; Patton, Wendy

    2000-01-01

    Unemployed managers (n=95) completed the Vocational Interest Survey for Australia. Compared to a sample of secondary students, they had higher interest in vocational activities; they were able to discriminate more dimensions of vocational interests than a nonmanagerial sample did. Multisample norming was recommended. (SK)

  10. Implementing Social Norm Pedagogy to Impact Students' Personal Health Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Mary M.; Stover, Sheri

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative exploratory research study describes the incorporation of Social Norms as a unique pedagogical method in an undergraduate Health Behaviors course (N = 32). With the use of an audience response system (clickers), students anonymously answered health-behavior related questions. Aggregate data from the class was compared to state…

  11. Norm Formation or Conditioning? A Study in Divergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. Sherwood; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This article examines the idea that social norms are not permanently incorporated into a person's personality. The author presents the argument that in a group situation subjects are conditioned toward similarity while afterward, the individual's behavior gradually returns to an "operant level". Tests show this argument to be essentially true.…

  12. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    PubMed

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators.

  13. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  14. Defectors, not norm violators, are punished by third-parties.

    PubMed

    Bone, Jonathan; Silva, Antonio S; Raihani, Nichola J

    2014-07-01

    Punishment of defectors and cooperators is prevalent when their behaviour deviates from the social norm. Why atypical behaviour is more likely to be punished than typical behaviour remains unclear. One possible proximate explanation is that individuals simply dislike norm violators. However, an alternative possibility exists: individuals may be more likely to punish atypical behaviour, because the cost of punishment generally increases with the number of individuals that are punished. We used a public goods game with third-party punishment to test whether punishment of defectors was reduced when defecting was typical, as predicted if punishment is responsive to norm violation. The cost of punishment was fixed, regardless of the number of players punished, meaning that it was not more costly to punish typical, relative to atypical, behaviour. Under these conditions, atypical behaviour was not punished more often than typical behaviour. In fact, most punishment was targeted at defectors, irrespective of whether defecting was typical or atypical. We suggest that the reduced punishment of defectors when they are common might often be explained in terms of the costs to the punisher, rather than responses to norm violators. PMID:25079496

  15. Ethical and Professional Norms in Community-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campano, Gerald; Ghiso, María Paula; Welch, Bethany J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article Gerald Campano, María Paula Ghiso, and Bethany J. Welch explore the role of ethical and professional norms in community-based research, especially in fostering trust within contexts of cultural diversity, systemic inequity, and power asymmetry. The authors present and describe a set of guidelines for community-based research that…

  16. Turkish Children's Human Figure Drawings: Can We Borrow Norms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Serap

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide preliminary data on norms for the Human Drawings test for children ages 5-11, in Turkey. Four hundred and thirty children from two different schools, in two different socio-economic levels, were given the Human Figure Drawings. One was a private school in an affluent part of the city, and the other one…

  17. Conceptualizing Academic Norms in Middle School: A Social Network Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise

    2015-01-01

    A wide body of research has documented the relationship between social norms and individual behaviors. There is growing evidence that academic behaviors in early adolescence--when most children begin middle school--may be subject to normative influence as well. However, the structure and composition of peer relationships within middle schools have…

  18. Estimation of Occupational Test Norms from Job Analysis Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mecham, Robert C.

    Occupational norms exist for some tests, and differences in the distributions of test scores by occupation are evident. Sampling error (SE), situationally specific factors (SSFs), and differences in job content (DIJCs) were explored as possible reasons for the observed differences. SE was explored by analyzing 742 validity studies performed by the…

  19. Stages of Ethical Reasoning and Moral Norms of Carib Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorsuch, Richard L.; Barnes, M. Louise

    1973-01-01

    Ethical development was investigated in a cross-cultural context by examining both the cognitive structure of ethical reasoning and the content of perceived moral norms in black Carib boys of British Honduras in the framework of stage theory. (Author/JM)

  20. Students' Concern about Indebtedness: A Rank Based Social Norms Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrovandi, Silvio; Wood, Alex M.; Maltby, John; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new model of students' concern about indebtedness within a rank-based social norms framework. Study 1 found that students hold highly variable beliefs about how much other students will owe at the end of their degree. Students' concern about their own anticipated debt--and their intention of taking on a part-time job during…

  1. Evaluating Theory-Based Evaluation: Information, Norms, and Adherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, W. Jake; Sisco, Melissa; Hill, Dawn; Malter, Frederic; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose

    2012-01-01

    Programmatic social interventions attempt to produce appropriate social-norm-guided behavior in an open environment. A marriage of applicable psychological theory, appropriate program evaluation theory, and outcome of evaluations of specific social interventions assures the acquisition of cumulative theory and the production of successful social…

  2. Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…

  3. Wired: Energy Drinks, Jock Identity, Masculine Norms, and Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…

  4. Children's Reasoning about Norms and Traits as Motives for Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.; Shiverick, Sean M.

    2004-01-01

    Two important sources of information for social judgments are personality dispositions (traits) and social norms. Existing research suggests that young children do not find traits salient. To what extent might they rely on a different source of information? Two experiments explored how information about preferences (what someone likes) and rules…

  5. Division of Chemical Education: Condensed Norms: ACS Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Condensed norms are presented for the most recent American Chemical Society examinations. These are the polymer chemistry form 1978, organic chemistry form 1978, physical chemistry form 1976 I, brief qualitative analysis form 1977B, and brief organic chemistry form 1977B examinations. (BB)

  6. Lack of Acceptance of Reciprocity Norms in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies investigated preschool children's acceptance of the reciprocity norms that allow retaliation and that require returning favors. Children viewed cartoons that portrayed animal puppets involved in reciprocal or nonreciprocal aggressive and prosocial behavior. They were then asked to evaluate the actor in each cartoon as "good" or "bad"…

  7. Norming Clinical Questionnaires with Multiple Regression: The Pain Cognition List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2005-01-01

    Questionnaires for measuring patients' feelings or beliefs are commonly used in clinical settings for diagnostic purposes, clinical decision making, or treatment evaluation. Raw scores of a patient can be evaluated by comparing them with norms based on a reference population. Using the Pain Cognition List (PCL-2003) as an example, this article…

  8. Nonconvex Nonsmooth Low Rank Minimization via Iteratively Reweighted Nuclear Norm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Canyi; Tang, Jinhui; Yan, Shuicheng; Lin, Zhouchen

    2016-02-01

    The nuclear norm is widely used as a convex surrogate of the rank function in compressive sensing for low rank matrix recovery with its applications in image recovery and signal processing. However, solving the nuclear norm-based relaxed convex problem usually leads to a suboptimal solution of the original rank minimization problem. In this paper, we propose to use a family of nonconvex surrogates of L0-norm on the singular values of a matrix to approximate the rank function. This leads to a nonconvex nonsmooth minimization problem. Then, we propose to solve the problem by an iteratively re-weighted nuclear norm (IRNN) algorithm. IRNN iteratively solves a weighted singular value thresholding problem, which has a closed form solution due to the special properties of the nonconvex surrogate functions. We also extend IRNN to solve the nonconvex problem with two or more blocks of variables. In theory, we prove that the IRNN decreases the objective function value monotonically, and any limit point is a stationary point. Extensive experiments on both synthesized data and real images demonstrate that IRNN enhances the low rank matrix recovery compared with the state-of-the-art convex algorithms. PMID:26841392

  9. Evolving norms at the intersection of health and trade.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-06-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policy making as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them -- particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO) -- have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance -- the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade -- we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly twenty-five years. Our analytic framework focuses on the actors that advance, defend, and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively into their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

  10. Changing Values and Norms in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio M.; Amaral, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify emerging changes in the values and norms related to governance and management in Portuguese higher education and to identify how different kinds of stakeholders perceive these changes. The University Autonomy Act (1988) and the Polytechnics Autonomy Act (1990) by transferring greater responsibility…

  11. Seeding Social Norms about Energy Conservation among Girl Scouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Debra; Puttick, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Three studies examined whether a social norm message (SNM) to Girl Scouts who had completed an energy conservation program would impact behavior and attitudes. Studies 1 and 2 were conducted with girls recently completing the program, study 3 was conducted with girls completing the program one year earlier. Results suggest that the SNM may impact…

  12. Social anxiety and social norms in individualistic and collectivistic countries

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Sina-Simone; Heinrichs, Nina; Alden, Lynn; Rapee, Ronald M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Chen, Junwen; Ja Oh, Kyung; Bögels, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Social anxiety is assumed to be related to cultural norms across countries. Heinrichs and colleagues [1] compared individualistic and collectivistic countries and found higher social anxiety and more positive attitudes toward socially avoidant behaviors in collectivistic than in individualistic countries. However, the authors failed to include Latin American countries in the collectivistic group. Methods To provide support for these earlier results within an extended sample of collectivistic countries, 478 undergraduate students from individualistic countries were compared with 388 undergraduate students from collectivistic countries (including East Asian and Latin American) via self report of social anxiety and social vignettes assessing social norms. Results As expected, the results of Heinrichs and colleagues [1] were replicated for the individualistic and Asian countries but not for Latin American countries. Latin American countries displayed the lowest social anxiety levels, whereas the collectivistic East Asian group displayed the highest. Conclusions These findings indicate that while culture-mediated social norms affect social anxiety and might help to shed light on the etiology of social anxiety disorder, the dimension of individualism-collectivism may not fully capture the relevant norms. PMID:21049538

  13. Norms for College Students. Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    This document presents an analysis of a normative study done to determine physical fitness norms of college age young adults. Data for this normative study were collected under the supervision of 24 coinvestigators who were affiliated with institutions distributed in all regions of the United States. The study presents the derivation of the…

  14. Classic Conversational Norms in Modern Computer-Mediated Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oeberst, Aileen; Moskaliuk, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether conversational norms that have been observed for face-to-face communication also hold in the context of a specific type of computer-mediated communication: collaboration (such as in Wikipedia). Specifically, we tested adherence to Grice's (1975) maxim of relation--the implicit demand to contribute information that is…

  15. Norms of Descriptive Adjective Responses to Common Nouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Janet L.

    This paper gives the results of a controlled experiment on word association. The purpose was to establish norms of commonality of primary descriptive adjective responses to common nouns. The stimuli consisted of 203 common nouns selected from 10 everyday topics of conversation, approximately 20 from each topic. There were 350 subjects, 50% male,…

  16. Norm Formation, Social Conformity, and the Confederating Function of Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Observed the ways in which norm formation and social conformity are engaged in the joke setting. Despite the "cautious" operational definition of the convergence concept, the basic finding of convergence nevertheless seems fairly absolute and pertinent to the individual's day-to-day social relations. (Author/BL)

  17. Metric freeness and projectivity for classical and quantum normed modules

    SciTech Connect

    Helemskii, A Ya

    2013-07-31

    In functional analysis, there are several diverse approaches to the notion of projective module. We show that a certain general categorical scheme contains all basic versions as special cases. In this scheme, the notion of free object comes to the foreground, and, in the best categories, projective objects are precisely retracts of free ones. We are especially interested in the so-called metric version of projectivity and characterize the metrically free classical and quantum (= operator) normed modules. Informally speaking, so-called extremal projectivity, which was known earlier, is interpreted as a kind of 'asymptotical metric projectivity'. In addition, we answer the following specific question in the geometry of normed spaces: what is the structure of metrically projective modules in the simplest case of normed spaces? We prove that metrically projective normed spaces are precisely the subspaces of l{sub 1}(M) (where M is a set) that are denoted by l{sub 1}{sup 0}(M) and consist of finitely supported functions. Thus, in this case, projectivity coincides with freeness. Bibliography: 28 titles.

  18. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  19. Empathetic Responsiveness, Group Norms, and Prosocial Affiliations in Bullying Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Mele-Taylor, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relationships among gender, empathetic responsiveness, perceived group norms, prosocial affiliations, and bullying roles were examined for 262 fifth- through eighth-grade students (n = 141 males; n = 121 females). According to the Bullying Participant Roles Survey (BPRS), participants were identified as defenders (n = 135;…

  20. Nerds and Freaks: A Theory of Student Culture and Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Bishop, Matthew; Gelbwasser, Lara; Green, Shanna; Zuckerman, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This paper looks at the relationship between the study behavior and academic engagement of individual students, the norms and attitudes of close friends, and the peer culture of school. The authors are particularly interested in how the academic orientation of a student and his or her close friends invites or protects him or her from harassment by…

  1. Building a Framework to Study the Hetero Norm in Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    To improve equality in schools and to facilitate the identification of oppressive features of the classroom, a framework to indicate the heterosexual norm and its consequences is needed. The purpose of this paper is to construct this framework through a review of literature focusing on the school setting and texts related to equality in Swedish…

  2. Evolving norms at the intersection of health and trade.

    PubMed

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-06-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policy making as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them -- particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO) -- have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance -- the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade -- we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly twenty-five years. Our analytic framework focuses on the actors that advance, defend, and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively into their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol.

  3. Evolving Norms at the Intersection of Health and Trade

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing tension at the intersection of health and economic policymaking as global governance has increased across sectors. This tension has been particularly evident between tobacco control and trade policy, as the international norms that frame them – particularly the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and the World Trade Organization (WTO) – have continued to institutionalize. Using five case studies of major tobacco-related trade disputes from the principal multilateral system of trade governance – the WTO/General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade – we trace the evolution of these interacting norms over nearly 25 years. Our analytic framework particularly focuses on the actors that advance, defend and challenge these norms. We find that an increasingly broad network, which includes governments, intergovernmental organizations, non-governmental organizations and members of the epistemic community, is playing a more active role in seeking to resolve these tensions. Moreover, key economic actors are beginning to incorporate health more actively in their messaging and activities. We also demonstrate that the most recent resonant messages reflect a more nuanced integration of the two norms. The tobacco control example has direct relevance to related policy areas, including environment, safety, access to medicines, diet, and alcohol. PMID:24603086

  4. The Effect of Group Norms on Bystander Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Irwin A.

    1971-01-01

    Forty members of service and social groups were compared for intervention in a simulated emergency situation during the experimental discussion. Service group members were more likely to intervene than social group members, and intervention was made more probable when group norms were made salient in the discussion. (Author/SD)

  5. 42 CFR 476.100 - Use of norms and criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... use national admission norms. (b) Use of criteria. In assessing the need for and appropriateness of an... conduct of review a QIO must— (1) Establish written criteria based upon typical patterns of practice in the QIO area, or use national criteria where appropriate; and (2) Establish written criteria...

  6. Robust frequency-domain elastic Full Waveform Inversion: which norm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brossier, R.; Operto, S. O.; Virieux, J.

    2009-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is becoming a powerful and efficient tool to derive high resolution models of subsurface visco-elastic parameters at different scales. In the frequency-domain (FD), 2D FWI is computationally affordable from both modeling and inversion viewpoints, because the inversion can be limited to few discrete frequencies when applied to wide-aperture acquisition geometries. However, FWI is an ill-posed data-fitting procedure that is sensitive to noise, inaccuracies of the starting model and definition of multi-parameter classes. The impact of the noise in FD FWI, when applied to decimated data sets, has been marginally illustrated in the past. We investigate here the sensitivities and performances of different minimization functionals, such as the least-square norm (L2), the least-absolute-values norm (L1), and some combinations of both (the Huber and the so-called Hybrid criteria), using realistic onshore and offshore synthetic case studies. The minimization functionals are implemented in a massively-parallel, 2D elastic FD FWI algorithm for imaging P- and S-wave velocities (VP and VS). Results show that the L1 norm provides the most reliable models, even when only few discrete frequencies are used in the inversion and when outliers pollute the data. The L2 norm can provide reliable results in the presence of uniform white noise if the data redundancy is increased by refining the frequency sampling interval in the inversion, at the expense of the computational efficiency. The Huber and the Hybrid criteria are shown to be sensitive to a threshold, which controls the transition between the L1 and L2 behaviors, and which requires tedious trial-and-error investigations for reliable estimation. The L1 norm provides a robust alternative to the L2 norm for the inversion of decimated data sets in the framework of efficient FD FWI. Synthetic onshore SEG/EAGE overthrust model experiment. Body and surface waves are jointly inverted. (a-b) true VP and VS

  7. Anisotropic norm-oriented mesh adaptation for a Poisson problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brèthes, Gautier; Dervieux, Alain

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel formulation for the mesh adaptation of the approximation of a Partial Differential Equation (PDE). The discussion is restricted to a Poisson problem. The proposed norm-oriented formulation extends the goal-oriented formulation since it is equation-based and uses an adjoint. At the same time, the norm-oriented formulation somewhat supersedes the goal-oriented one since it is basically a solution-convergent method. Indeed, goal-oriented methods rely on the reduction of the error in evaluating a chosen scalar output with the consequence that, as mesh size is increased (more degrees of freedom), only this output is proven to tend to its continuous analog while the solution field itself may not converge. A remarkable quality of goal-oriented metric-based adaptation is the mathematical formulation of the mesh adaptation problem under the form of the optimization, in the well-identified set of metrics, of a well-defined functional. In the new proposed formulation, we amplify this advantage. We search, in the same well-identified set of metrics, the minimum of a norm of the approximation error. The norm is prescribed by the user and the method allows addressing the case of multi-objective adaptation like, for example in aerodynamics, adaptating the mesh for drag, lift and moment in one shot. In this work, we consider the basic linear finite-element approximation and restrict our study to L2 norm in order to enjoy second-order convergence. Numerical examples for the Poisson problem are computed.

  8. Vesta: A Geological Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.

    2012-04-01

    Observations from the Dawn spacecraft [1] enable the derivation of the asteroid 4Vesta's shape, facilitate mapping of the surface geology, and provide the first evidence for interpreting Vesta's geological evolution. Science data were acquired during the approach to Vesta, a circular polar (Survey) orbit at an altitude of 2700 km providing ~ 230 m/pix camera scale, and during a circular high-altitude mapping orbit (HAMO) at 700 km altitude with a camera scale of ~ 65 m/pixel. Currently Dawn is orbiting Vesta in a low-altitude mapping orbit (LAMO) at 210 km altitude, yielding a global image coverage of ~20 m/pixel at the time of EGU [2,3,4,5]. Geomorphology and distribution of surface features provide evidence for impact cratering, tectonic activity, and regolith and probable volcanic processes. Craters with dark rays, bright rays, and dark rim streaks have been observed, suggesting buried stratigraphy. The largest fresh craters retain a simple bowl-shaped morphology, with depth/diameter ratios roughly comparable to lunar values. The largest crater Rheasilvia, an ~500 km diameter depression at the south pole, includes an incomplete inward facing cuspate scarp and a large central mound surrounded by unusual complex arcuate ridge and groove patterns, and overlies an older ~400 km wide basin. A set of large equatorial troughs is related to these south polar structures. Vesta exhibits rugged topography ranging from -22 km to +19 km relative to a best fit ellipsoidal shape. Vesta's topography has a much greater range in elevation relative to its radius (15%) than do the Moon and Mars (1%) or the Earth (0.3%), but less than highly battered smaller asteroids like Lutetia (40%). This also identifies Vesta as a transitional body between asteroids and planets. The surface of Vesta exhibits very steep topographic slopes that are near the angle of repose. Impacts onto these steep surfaces, followed by slope failure, make resurfacing - due to impacts and their associated

  9. Geologic Map Database of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeser, Douglas B.; Shock, Nancy; Green, Gregory N.; Dumonceaux, Gayle M.; Heran, William D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to release a digital geologic map database for the State of Texas. This database was compiled for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Minerals Program, National Surveys and Analysis Project, whose goal is a nationwide assemblage of geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data. This release makes the geologic data from the Geologic Map of Texas available in digital format. Original clear film positives provided by the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology were photographically enlarged onto Mylar film. These films were scanned, georeferenced, digitized, and attributed by Geologic Data Systems (GDS), Inc., Denver, Colorado. Project oversight and quality control was the responsibility of the U.S. Geological Survey. ESRI ArcInfo coverages, AMLs, and shapefiles are provided.

  10. Using Snow to Teach Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Charles

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan, directed at middle school students and older, describes using snow to study the geological processes of solidification of molten material, sedimentation, and metamorphosis. Provides background information on these geological processes. (MCO)

  11. Geology of California. Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, R.M.; Webb, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Two introductory chapters familiarize readers with basic geologic concepts. The following chapters describe the geology of each of California's 11 geomorphic provinces; the San Andreas fault and offshore geology are discussed in two separate chapters. Four appendices acquaint readers with technical words and terms, common minerals and rocks in California, geologic time, and geologic theories that pertain to California. During the 1960s evidence collected from the east Pacific sea floor off the western coast of North America gave scientists supporting data for Alfred Wegener's 1910 theory of continental drift. In addition to the confirmation of continental drift, since the 1960s scientists have discovered paleomagnetism, sea-floor spreading, exotic and suspect terranes, and polar wandering. These important concepts have had far reaching effects about how we understand the geology of California and how this region has evolved through geologic time. Improved investigative procedures enable earth scientists to comprehend previously puzzling aspects of California's geology.

  12. Healthy and unhealthy social norms and food selection. Findings from a field-experiment.

    PubMed

    Mollen, Saar; Rimal, Rajiv N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2013-06-01

    The behavior of others in people's social environment (i.e., descriptive norms), as well as their opinions regarding appropriate actions (i.e., injunctive norms) strongly influence people's decisions and actions. The goal of this study was to extend prior laboratory research on the influence of social norms on food choices, by conducting a field-experiment in an on-campus food court. One of three different messages was posted on a given day: a healthy descriptive norm, healthy injunctive norm, or an unhealthy descriptive norm. Effects of these social norms messages on food choice were compared against each other and a no-message control condition. In total, 687 students reported their food choice through a questionnaire provided to them. Food choices were analyzed for participants who reported being exposed to one of the social norms signs and those in the control condition (N=220). Findings showed that the healthy descriptive norm resulted in more healthy food choices, compared to an unhealthy descriptive norm, as well as the control condition. The difference between the injunctive healthy norm and the control condition was not significant, though those in the injunctive norm condition did make more healthy decisions, than those in the unhealthy descriptive norm condition. Implications with regard to theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23402712

  13. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  14. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  15. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  16. Principles of nuclear geology

    SciTech Connect

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    1985-01-01

    This book treats the basic principles of nuclear physics and the mineralogy, geochemistry, distribution and ore deposits of uranium and thorium. The application of nuclear methodology in radiogenic heat and thermal regime of the earth, radiometric prospecting, isotopic age dating, stable isotopes and cosmic-ray produced isotopes is covered. Geological processes, such as metamorphic chronology, petrogenesis, groundwater movement, and sedimentation rate are focussed on.

  17. Geologic map of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Hults, Chad P.; Mull, Charles G.; Karl, Susan M.

    2015-12-31

    This Alaska compilation is unique in that it is integrated with a rich database of information provided in the spatial datasets and standalone attribute databases. Within the spatial files every line and polygon is attributed to its original source; the references to these sources are contained in related tables, as well as in stand-alone tables. Additional attributes include typical lithology, geologic setting, and age range for the map units. Also included are tables of radiometric ages.

  18. Integrating geology and perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, P.F. de; Souza Padilha, S.T.C. de

    1997-02-01

    Perforating is a very common well completion operation. Usually, it is considered to be as simple as making holes in casing. Actually, perforating is one of the most critical tasks for establishing a path from reservoir rock to borehole form which hydrocarbons can flow to surface. The objective of this article is to relate perforating technology with geological aspects and completion type to determine the best shooting equipment (gun type, charge and differential pressure) to perform the most efficient perforating job. Several subjects related to formation geology are taken into account for a shooting job, such as: compressive strength, reservoir pressure and thickness, lithology type, porosity and permeability, ratio between horizontal and vertical permeabilities, and fluid type. Gun geometry used in the oil industry incorporates several parameters, including shot density, hole entrance diameter, gun phase and jet penetration. API tests are done on perforating guns to define applicability and performance. A new geometrical parameter is defined as the relative angle of the jet, which is the angle between the jet tunnel and formation dip. GEOCAN is a methodology which relates geology to gun geometry and type to define the most efficient gun system for perforated completions. It uses the intelligent perforating technique with the SPAN (Schlumberger Perforating Analysis) program to confirm optimum gun choice.

  19. The Geology of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.

    1995-01-01

    The geology of Callisto is not boring. Although cratered terrain dominates Callisto (a key end-member of the Jovian satellite system), a number of more interesting features are apparent. Cratered terrain is broken into irregular map-able bright and dark subunits that vary in albedo by a factor of 2, and several relatively smooth units are depleted of small craters. Some of these areas may have been volcanically resurfaced. Lineaments, including parallel and radial sets, may be evidence for early global tectonism. Frost deposition occurs in cold traps, and impact scars have formed from tidally disrupted comets. Geologic evidence suggests that Callisto does have a chemically differentiated crust. Central pit and central dome craters and palimpsests are common. The preferred interpretation is that a relatively ice-rich material, at depths of 5 km or more, has been mobilized during impact and exposed as domes or palimpsests. The close similarity in crater morphologies and dimensions indicates that the outermost 10 km or so of Callisto may be as differentiated as on Ganymede. The geology of cratered terrain on Callisto is simpler than that of cratered terrain on Ganymede, however. Orbital evolution and tidal heating may provide the answer to the riddle of why Callisto and Ganymede are so different (Malhotra, 1991). We should expect a few surprises and begins to answer some fundamental questions when Callisto is observed by Galileo in late 1996.

  20. Interactive geologic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Glaeser, J.D.; Krajewski, S.A.

    1984-04-01

    Improved success in finding hydrocarbons and minerals depends on developing geologic models from seismic, gravity, and magnetic data that most closely approximate real-world settings. Although data processing remains the chore of mainframe and minicomputers, interpretations and modeling of geologic and geophysical information now are best accomplished on personal computers because these computers afford the explorationist maximum freedom to shape and fine tune geophysical evaluations. Three case histories use the GEOSIM geophysical modeling systems to delineate exploration targets. The first example is Silurian Niagaran reef trends in the Michigan basin. Here, differences in seismic reef anomalies result from variations in carbonate-evaporite stratigraphy encasing the reefs, reef geometry, and reef reservoir parameters. These variations which influence real seismic-response differences can be successfully matched using appropriate geologic models in generating synthetic seismic reef anomalies. The second example applies gravity and magnetic data to seismic modeling of a Wyoming coal field. Detailed seismic stratigraphy helps locate those portions of the field having multiple seams, although it does not resolve individual economic zones. Gravity data do identify pinchout margins of multiseam zones and pinchouts between principal coals. Magnetic data are then used to delineate the burn (clinker) margin. Seismic modeling of subtle stratigraphic traps is the broader area of exploration interest contained in the first 2 examples. In the third, successfully modeled and tested examples of lateral changes in deltaic facies and of faulted, unconformity-bounded continent-margin sequences are shown to be successful guides to reinterpretation of seismic data.

  1. Queering high school biology textbooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Vicky L.; Broadway, Francis S.

    2004-08-01

    As teachers committed to educating all students, we need to learn more about how instructional materials shape representations of sexuality and gender. Through its insistent deconstruction of the norms that structure practice and belief, queer theory offers perspectives from which science educators can question assumptions embedded in textbooks. This article applies queer theory to analyze eight biology textbooks used in the United States. Specifically, we ask how biology textbooks address sexuality outside the heterosexual norm and if they propagate heteronormative attitudes. The textbooks examined offer deafening silences, antiseptic factoids, socially sanitized concepts, and politically correct binary-gendered illustrations. In these textbooks, the term homosexuality was used only in the context of AIDS where, along with iv drug users, they were identified as an affected group. The pervasive acceptance of heteronormative behavior privileges students that fit the heterosexual norm, and oppresses through omission and silence those who do not. We offer implications for practice to help science educators broaden their perspectives on the constructs of sexuality and gender to construct new ways of knowing and understanding differences in science classrooms and the natural world.

  2. The hitchhiker's guide to altruism: gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms.

    PubMed

    Gintis, Herbert

    2003-02-21

    An internal norm is a pattern of behavior enforced in part by internal sanctions, such as shame, guilt and loss of self-esteem, as opposed to purely external sanctions, such as material rewards and punishment. The ability to internalize norms is widespread among humans, although in some so-called "sociopaths", this capacity is diminished or lacking. Suppose there is one genetic locus that controls the capacity to internalize norms. This model shows that if an internal norm is fitness enhancing, then for plausible patterns of socialization, the allele for internalization of norms is evolutionarily stable. This framework can be used to model Herbert Simon's (1990) explanation of altruism, showing that altruistic norms can "hitchhike" on the general tendency of internal norms to be personally fitness-enhancing. A multi-level selection, gene-culture coevolution argument then explains why individually fitness-reducing internal norms are likely to be prosocial as opposed to socially harmful.

  3. Tsunami geology in paleoseismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yuichi Nishimura,; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-oki disasters dramatically demonstrated the destructiveness and deadliness of tsunamis. For the assessment of future risk posed by tsunamis it is necessary to understand past tsunami events. Recent work on tsunami deposits has provided new information on paleotsunami events, including their recurrence interval and the size of the tsunamis (e.g. [187–189]). Tsunamis are observed not only on the margin of oceans but also in lakes. The majority of tsunamis are generated by earthquakes, but other events that displace water such as landslides and volcanic eruptions can also generate tsunamis. These non-earthquake tsunamis occur less frequently than earthquake tsunamis; it is, therefore, very important to find and study geologic evidence for past eruption and submarine landslide triggered tsunami events, as their rare occurrence may lead to risks being underestimated. Geologic investigations of tsunamis have historically relied on earthquake geology. Geophysicists estimate the parameters of vertical coseismic displacement that tsunami modelers use as a tsunami's initial condition. The modelers then let the simulated tsunami run ashore. This approach suffers from the relationship between the earthquake and seafloor displacement, the pertinent parameter in tsunami generation, being equivocal. In recent years, geologic investigations of tsunamis have added sedimentology and micropaleontology, which focus on identifying and interpreting depositional and erosional features of tsunamis. For example, coastal sediment may contain deposits that provide important information on past tsunami events [190, 191]. In some cases, a tsunami is recorded by a single sand layer. Elsewhere, tsunami deposits can consist of complex layers of mud, sand, and boulders, containing abundant stratigraphic evidence for sediment reworking and redeposition. These onshore sediments are geologic evidence for tsunamis and are called ‘tsunami deposits’ (Figs. 26

  4. Social influences on the motivation to quit smoking: main and moderating effects of social norms.

    PubMed

    Dohnke, Birte; Weiss-Gerlach, Edith; Spies, Claudia D

    2011-04-01

    The present study extends the previous research on the social influences on quitting by investigating inconsistencies between different types of social norms and their main and moderating effects on quitting intentions. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) served as the theoretical framework. Social influences were operationalised by subjective quitting norm (significant others' expectations that one should quit), descriptive quitting norm (significant others' quitting behaviour), and descriptive smoking norm (partner's smoking). Because gender differences had previously been reported, norm effects were also analysed with respect to gender. A total of 168 smokers who had a partner (47% men, mean age M=34, SD=16) completed measures of TPB variables (including subjective quitting norm), descriptive quitting norm, descriptive smoking norm, and smoking behaviour. Subjective and descriptive quitting norms were more inconsistent in women than in men. The descriptive quitting norm enhanced the TPB prediction of intention by 5%. A three-way interaction accounted for an additional 3% of the variance and revealed both that subjective and descriptive quitting norms interacted in their prediction and that gender moderated this effect: the subjective quitting norm correlated positively to quitting intention only in women with a strong descriptive quitting norm. All analyses were controlled for number of cigarettes per day. These findings confirmed that it is important to distinguish subjective and descriptive norms and that differences exist in how these norms motivate women and men to quit smoking. Consistent quitting norms such as quitting of significant others in combination with their expectations that one should quit appear to be less common but more important in women to form a corresponding intention.

  5. Recent Geological and Hydrological Activity in Amazonis and Elysium Basins and Their Link, Marte Valles (AME): Prime Target for Future Reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Robbins, S. J.; Hynek, B. M.

    2012-03-01

    Amazonis and Elysium basins and their link, Marte Vallis (AME), uniquely point to a geologically and hydrologically active Mars. We will present evidence for why AME reconnaissance can help address whether Mars is geologically, hydrologically, and biologically active.

  6. The encyclopedia of applied geology

    SciTech Connect

    Finkl, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    This compendium of engineering geology data includes contributions by experts from many countries. Topics center around the field of engineering geology, with special focus on landscapes, earth materials, and the ''management'' of geological processes. How to use geology to serve man is given particular attention. More than 80 entries deal with hydrology, rock structure monitoring, soil mechanics, and engineering geology. Facts are provided on earth science information and sources, electrokinetics, forensic geology, geogryology, nuclear plant siting, photogrammetry, tunnels and tunneling, urban geomorphology, and well data systems. This guide explains the geology of alluvial plains, arid lands, beaches and coasts, delataic plains, cold regions, glacial landscapes, and urban environments. Detailed analyses are given of the geotechnical properties of caliche, clay, duricrust, soil, laterite, marine sediments, and rocks.

  7. Norms about Nonmarital Pregnancy and Willingness to Provide Resources to Unwed Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Contested social norms underlie public concern about adults' and teenagers' nonmarital pregnancy. The original, vignette-based National Pregnancy Norms Survey (N = 812) measures these norms and related sanctions. Descriptive analyses report embarrassment at the prospect of a nonmarital pregnancy by age and gender of hypothetical prospective…

  8. The Role of Injunctive Norms and Alcohol Use during the First-Semester of College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Laura L.; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2014-01-01

    Injunctive norms, or perceived peer approval of drinking is a potentially important influence on college student drinking. Few studies on college student drinking have attended to injunctive norms during the first few months of college. Longitudinal data from 534 first semester freshmen are used to describe the contributions of injunctive norms to…

  9. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  10. Randomizing quantum states to Shatten p -norm for all p ≥ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Kabgyun

    2014-12-04

    We formularize a method for randomizing quantum states with respect to the Shatten p-norms (p ≥ 1) in trace class. In particular, this work includes the operator norm, p = ∞, and the trace norm, p = 1, simultaneously in a single statement via McDiarmid's inequality and a net construction.

  11. Deviancy from the Norms of Science: The Effects of Anomie and Alienation in the Academic Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A study applying anomie theory to behavior of college faculty, especially as alienation from the academic reward system results in deviation from professional norms of communality, disinterestedness, universalism, and organized skepticism, is reported. Implications for use of norms as interpretive devices, ambivalence of academics toward norms,…

  12. Non-Traditional Socio-Mathematical Norms in Undergraduate Real Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2009-01-01

    This study builds upon the framework of classroom norms (Cobb, Wood, & Yackel, 1993) and socio-mathematical norms (Cobb & Yackel, 1996) to understand how non-traditional socio-mathematical norms influence student reasoning and transitions to advanced mathematical thinking in undergraduate real analysis. The research involves a qualitative…

  13. Do Descriptive Norms Solve Social Dilemmas? Conformity and Contributions in Collective Action Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Kyle; Simpson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Collective action researchers have focused on injunctive norms that specify approved behavior as a panacea for collective action problems. We investigate whether descriptive norms (similar behavior) can also solve these problems. We argue that descriptive norms generate social identification, which then sustains conformity to expectations.…

  14. Group Norms and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship: A Role for Group Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Deborah J.; Hogg, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies provided support for the proposal that the role of norms in attitude-behavior relations can be useful reconceptualized for the perspective of social identity/self- categorization theory. Study one examined group norms as they influenced subjects to engage in regular exercise. Study two examined group norms as they influenced subjects…

  15. Professional Norms in School Leadership: Change Efforts in Implementation of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Ulf; Wickenberg, Per

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies and analyses professional norms as a means of illuminating school cultures and how norms are distributed in the system. Of special interest is the role of school leaders and how they lead, organize and realise school development. The study research question is: What professional norms do school leaders highlight in change…

  16. European and American WAIS III Norms: Cross-National Differences in Performance Subtest Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2010-01-01

    For this study, European WAIS III performance subtest norms were compared to the original US norms. When European WAIS III raw scores were scored using US norms, the resulting perceptual organization index (POI) means were significantly higher than the processing speed index (PSI) means. The POI/PSI difference is roughly 5-10 points for the German…

  17. Jimmy's Baby Doll and Jenny's Truck: Young Children's Reasoning about Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare; Turiel, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    To assess the flexibility of reasoning about gender, children ages 4, 6, and 8 years (N = 72) were interviewed about gender norms when different domains were highlighted. The majority of participants at all ages judged a reversal of gender norms in a different cultural context to be acceptable. They also judged gender norms as a matter of personal…

  18. Reduced rank regression via adaptive nuclear norm penalization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Dong, Hongbo; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Summary We propose an adaptive nuclear norm penalization approach for low-rank matrix approximation, and use it to develop a new reduced rank estimation method for high-dimensional multivariate regression. The adaptive nuclear norm is defined as the weighted sum of the singular values of the matrix, and it is generally non-convex under the natural restriction that the weight decreases with the singular value. However, we show that the proposed non-convex penalized regression method has a global optimal solution obtained from an adaptively soft-thresholded singular value decomposition. The method is computationally efficient, and the resulting solution path is continuous. The rank consistency of and prediction/estimation performance bounds for the estimator are established for a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Simulation studies and an application in genetics demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25045172

  19. Organizational citizenship behavior in work groups: a group norms approach.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Naumann, Stefanie E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between unit-level organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and unit outcomes has been well established in recent years, the conceptual development of OCB at the unit level of analysis has not been adequately addressed. In an effort to fill this conceptual gap and to spur future research, the authors apply the literature on group norms to the concept of OCB. The resulting framework suggests a cyclical relationship between individual- and group-level processes and ultimately offers an explanation for how OCB norms are established and maintained in work groups. The authors demonstrate how this framework incorporates past research on the relationship between unit-level OCB and unit outcomes and how it extends previous research by suggesting multiple directions for future efforts related to unit-level OCB.

  20. Kolkata Paise Restaurant Problem and the Cyclically Fair Norm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Priyodorshi; Mitra, Manipushpak; Mukherjee, Conan

    In this paper we revisit the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem by allowing for a more general (but common) preference of the n customers defined over the set of n restaurants. This generalization allows for the possibility that each pure strategy Nash equilibrium differs from the Pareto efficient allocation. By assuming that n is small and by allowing for mutual interaction across all customers we design strategies to sustain cyclically fair norm as a sub-game perfect equilibrium of the Kolkata Paise Restaurant problem. We have a cyclically fair norm if n strategically different Pareto efficient strategies are sequentially sustained in a way such that each customer gets serviced in all the n restaurants exactly once between periods 1 and n and then again the same process is repeated between periods (n+1) and 2n and so on.

  1. Effects of norm referent salience on young people's dietary orientation.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mark; Khan, Sammyh S; Qin, Qi

    2015-02-01

    We examined the effects of making salient different norm referents on young people's dietary orientation. Participants were exposed to a referent who was either of similar age to themselves or older before reporting their normative beliefs, attitudes and intentions concerning dietary behavior. As predicted, exposure to the older referent was associated with stronger perceptions that eating five portions of fruit and vegetables each day was normative. Compared to those exposed to the same-age referent, participants exposed to the older referent reported more positive attitudes towards eating "five-a-day" and stronger intentions to do so over the coming week. Referent salience was also associated with a behavioral outcome, with those participants exposed to the older referent more likely to take a piece of fruit upon completion of the study (OR: 4.97, 95% CI: 1.39-17.82). The implications of these findings for norms-based interventions for changing dietary behavior are discussed. PMID:25447012

  2. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S.

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  3. [Laboratory animals and official Mexican norms (NOM-062-ZOO-1999)].

    PubMed

    de Aluja, Aline S

    2002-01-01

    This article concerns animal experimentation and official Mexican norm Nom 0062-Zoo-1999 entitled Technical specifications for the production, care and use of laboratory animals. The history of animal experimentation is briefly resumed. During the nineteenth century, doubts arose as to the right to expose animals to experimental procedures that frequently cause pain and suffering. The first law which protected animals against cruelty was passed in Great Britain in 1876; subsequently, other nations approved similar legislation. During the second part of the twentieth century, opposition to animal experimentation grew. Other groups, mainly scientists and pharmaceutical concerns, defended the right to use animals in research. New knowledge concerning the neurophysiology, cognitive capacity, and the animal faculty to experience pain is briefly mentioned. Guidelines on care and use of animals used in research published in several countries are listed. Finally, the recently published Mexican legislation (Norm) referring to production, care and use of laboratory animals is discussed and its benefits are stressed.

  4. Digital Social Norm Enforcement: Online Firestorms in Social Media.

    PubMed

    Rost, Katja; Stahel, Lea; Frey, Bruno S

    2016-01-01

    Actors of public interest today have to fear the adverse impact that stems from social media platforms. Any controversial behavior may promptly trigger temporal, but potentially devastating storms of emotional and aggressive outrage, so called online firestorms. Popular targets of online firestorms are companies, politicians, celebrities, media, academics and many more. This article introduces social norm theory to understand online aggression in a social-political online setting, challenging the popular assumption that online anonymity is one of the principle factors that promotes aggression. We underpin this social norm view by analyzing a major social media platform concerned with public affairs over a period of three years entailing 532,197 comments on 1,612 online petitions. Results show that in the context of online firestorms, non-anonymous individuals are more aggressive compared to anonymous individuals. This effect is reinforced if selective incentives are present and if aggressors are intrinsically motivated. PMID:27315071

  5. Acceptance and expectance: Cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tine; Crespigny, Charlotte De; Delmar, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption levels in Denmark are high with the risk of increased morbidity and mortality in the population. It is suggested that people's views of “normal” use of alcohol must be the platform for formulating effective alcohol education and prevention strategies. However, little is known about the cultural norms for alcohol use. The aim of this article is to examine the perceptions of cultural norms for alcohol use in Denmark among different age groups and the similarities and differences between the groups, including examining how people construct and negotiate the cultural norms for drinking. Five focus group interviews were conducted with one group per the following age groups: 16–20; 21–34; 35–44; 45–64; and 65–82. These groups consisted of both men and women with five to six participants in each group (a total of 27). Thematic analysis was performed with the aim of developing themes that reflected the cultural norms for alcohol use. The unifying theme of this research was Danish people's acceptance and expectance of social drinking. Alcohol is widely accepted and associated with mutual expectations to drink, leading to identification of cultural influences and facilitation to drink. The social drinking context plays an important role in people's perceptions of the normality of drinking. This includes the selection of particular beverages, and regularly leads to consumption above the recommended levels for low risk to health. This calls for public health attention that promotes low risk drinking in the social context and aims to prevent and reduce serious alcohol-related harm and health problems across the population. PMID:22065980

  6. A dose assessment associated with landspreading petroleum industry NORM.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnish, J. J.; Smith, K. P.; Blunt, D. L.; Environmental Assessment

    2002-04-01

    As a result of oil and gas production and processing operations, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) sometimes accumulates at elevated concentrations in byproduct waste streams. The primary radionuclide of concern in NORM wastes are radium-226 (Ra-226) of the uranium-238 decay series; radium-228 of the thorium-232 decay series is also present, but usually at lower concentrations. The production waste streams most likely to be contaminated by elevated radium concentrations include produced water, scale, and sludge. Scales and sludges removed from production equipment sometimes are disposed of by landspreading, a method in which wastes are spread over the soil surface to allow the hydrocarbon component of the wastes to degrade. The disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes by landspreading was modeled to evaluate potential radiological doses to the general public. A variety of future land use scenarios - including residential, industrial, recreational, and agricultural scenarios - were considered. The waste streams considered included scales and sludges containing NORM above background levels. The RESRAD computer code was used to estimate the radiological doses for the maximally exposed receptor for each scenario. Depending on the land-use scenario, potential exposure pathways evaluated for the general public included external radiation; inhalation of contaminated particulates; inhalation of indoor and outdoor radon-222; inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil; and ingestion of crops, milk, and meat grown on the property. Potential doses were modeled for a unit concentration of 1 Bq g{sup -1} of Ra-226 in soil. Because dose increases linearly with radium concentration, doses were extrapolated for a range of radium concentrations.

  7. What are parasitologists doing in the United States Geological Survey?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) was formed in 1879 as the nation's primary natural science and information agency. The mission of the agency is to provide scientific information to a??describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life.a?? Prior to 1996, the USGS comprised 3 divisions or disciplines: geology, mapping, and water. Historically, the agency was most noted for cartographic products that were used widely by both government and private sector. With the inclusion of the National Biological Service into the USGS in 1996 as the Biological Resource Discipline (BRD), a living resources dimension was added to the earth sciences character of the USGS. With the addition of BRD, the bureau is able now to contribute both the physical and biological sciences to address the nation's resource management problems.

  8. Systematic approach to characterisation of NORM in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Pengvanich, P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to provide information on the systematic approach that has been developed for the measurement of natural radiation exposure and the characterisation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in terms of occurrence and distribution in various industrial processes, including the produced waste from the mineral industries in Thailand. The approach can be adapted for various types of study areas. The importance of collaboration among research institutions is discussed. Some developments include 25 documents; the redesign of the field equipment, such as the gamma survey meter, for convenient access to conduct measurement in various study areas; the method to collect and analyse radon gas from a natural gas pipeline and the manganese dioxide fibre to adsorb radium on-site for laboratory analysis. The NORM project in Thailand has been carried out for more than 10 y to support the development of NORM regulation in Thailand. In the previous studies as well as current, international standards for action levels have been adopted for safety purpose.

  9. Fast calculation of the `ILC norm' in iterative learning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Justin K.; van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss and demonstrate a method for the exploitation of matrix structure in computations for iterative learning control (ILC). In Barton, Bristow, and Alleyne [International Journal of Control, 83(2), 1-8 (2010)], a special insight into the structure of the lifted convolution matrices involved in ILC is used along with a modified Lanczos method to achieve very fast computational bounds on the learning convergence, by calculating the 'ILC norm' in ? computational complexity. In this paper, we show how their method is equivalent to a special instance of the sequentially semi-separable (SSS) matrix arithmetic, and thus can be extended to many other computations in ILC, and specialised in some cases to even faster methods. Our SSS-based methodology will be demonstrated on two examples: a linear time-varying example resulting in the same ? complexity as in Barton et al., and a linear time-invariant example where our approach reduces the computational complexity to ?, thus decreasing the computation time, for an example, from the literature by a factor of almost 100. This improvement is achieved by transforming the norm computation via a linear matrix inequality into a check of positive definiteness - which allows us to further exploit the almost-Toeplitz properties of the matrix, and additionally provides explicit upper and lower bounds on the norm of the matrix, instead of the indirect Ritz estimate. These methods are now implemented in a MATLAB toolbox, freely available on the Internet.

  10. Maximum-entropy probability distributions under Lp-norm constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolinar, S.

    1991-01-01

    Continuous probability density functions and discrete probability mass functions are tabulated which maximize the differential entropy or absolute entropy, respectively, among all probability distributions with a given L sub p norm (i.e., a given pth absolute moment when p is a finite integer) and unconstrained or constrained value set. Expressions for the maximum entropy are evaluated as functions of the L sub p norm. The most interesting results are obtained and plotted for unconstrained (real valued) continuous random variables and for integer valued discrete random variables. The maximum entropy expressions are obtained in closed form for unconstrained continuous random variables, and in this case there is a simple straight line relationship between the maximum differential entropy and the logarithm of the L sub p norm. Corresponding expressions for arbitrary discrete and constrained continuous random variables are given parametrically; closed form expressions are available only for special cases. However, simpler alternative bounds on the maximum entropy of integer valued discrete random variables are obtained by applying the differential entropy results to continuous random variables which approximate the integer valued random variables in a natural manner. All the results are presented in an integrated framework that includes continuous and discrete random variables, constraints on the permissible value set, and all possible values of p. Understanding such as this is useful in evaluating the performance of data compression schemes.

  11. Characterization of NORM solid waste produced from the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Doubal, Wael; Al Abdullah, Jamal; Khalily, Hussam; Abdul Ghani, Basem; Safia, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of scales in the production pipe lines is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. Thus, an accurate determination of the activity of the radionuclides in scale samples is essential for environmental protection. The present study focuses on the characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in scales generated from the petroleum industry to develop a suitable NORM waste management plan. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in 32 representative samples, collected from a number of drums at the NORM Decontamination Facility storage, were determined using gamma spectrometry. It was found that the highest concentrations were 2922, 254 and 1794 Bq g(-1) for 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, respectively. A comparison to the reported worldwide values was made. Statistical approaches, namely Box plot, ANOVA and principal components analysis were applied on the total results. Maximal correlation was demonstrated by 226Ra activity concentration and count per second (cps) to density ratio. To obtain an accurate characterization of the radionuclides studied in the scale samples, method validation of gamma measurement procedure was carried out, in which minimum detectable activity, repeatability, intermediate precision and assessment of uncertainty were the parameters investigated. The work is a forefront for the proper and safe disposal of such radioactive wastes. PMID:25358443

  12. Reading between the lines: Societal norms in Sierra Leonean readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brams, Patricia

    1980-12-01

    A content analysis of primary school readers of Sierra Leone revealed that the particular modern and traditional normative aspirations expressed in the National Development Plan for 1974/75-1978/79 were also generally reflected in the children's readers. Compared to the 1964 readers, the first indigenous readers developed circa 1977 contained markedly greater emphasis on traditional norms, though modernity norms continued to dominate, and substantially less emphasis on Efficacy (a central aspect of modernity) and on Non-parochial Affiliation. This closely corresponded with the intent of the National Plan to continue on a modernizing course employing the traditional norms of Manual Labor and Social Cohesion in a grassroots effort to develop the agricultural sector, with nationalism in a less important role. Apart from lesser emphasis on Efficacy and underemphasis on the Value of Education which were discordant with national goals, the 1977 readers seem to provide children and teachers with a fairly accurate image of the national ethos. This may help to account for the generally positive relationship that has been found between schooling and economic development.

  13. Characterization of NORM solid waste produced from the petroleum industry.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Doubal, Wael; Al Abdullah, Jamal; Khalily, Hussam; Abdul Ghani, Basem; Safia, Bassam

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of scales in the production pipe lines is a common problem in the oil industry, reducing fluid flow and leading to costly remediation and disposal programmes. Thus, an accurate determination of the activity of the radionuclides in scale samples is essential for environmental protection. The present study focuses on the characterization of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in scales generated from the petroleum industry to develop a suitable NORM waste management plan. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb in 32 representative samples, collected from a number of drums at the NORM Decontamination Facility storage, were determined using gamma spectrometry. It was found that the highest concentrations were 2922, 254 and 1794 Bq g(-1) for 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb, respectively. A comparison to the reported worldwide values was made. Statistical approaches, namely Box plot, ANOVA and principal components analysis were applied on the total results. Maximal correlation was demonstrated by 226Ra activity concentration and count per second (cps) to density ratio. To obtain an accurate characterization of the radionuclides studied in the scale samples, method validation of gamma measurement procedure was carried out, in which minimum detectable activity, repeatability, intermediate precision and assessment of uncertainty were the parameters investigated. The work is a forefront for the proper and safe disposal of such radioactive wastes.

  14. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  15. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  16. Okinawa, Japan: Geologic Battleground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymack, S. W.; Carrington, M. P.; Harpp, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    One of our main goals as instructors, particularly in introductory courses, is to impart students with an appreciation of how geology has influenced the course of human events. Despite the apparent accessibility of such topics, communicating this in a lively, relevant, and effective way often proves difficult. We use a series of historical events, the Pacific island hopping campaign of WWII, to engage students in an active, guided inquiry exercise to explore how terrain and the underlying geology of an area can shape historical events. Teams of students are assigned the role of planning either the defense or occupation of Okinawa Island, in the Ryukyu arc, in a theoretical version of the 1945 conflict. Students are given a package of information, including geologic and topographic maps, a list of military resources available to them at the time, and some historical background. Students also have access to "reconnaissance" images, 360o digital panoramas of the landscape of Okinawa, keyed to their maps. Each team has a week to plan their strategies and carry out additional research, which they subsequently bring to the table in the form of a written battle plan. With an instructor as arbiter, teams alternate drawing their maneuvers on a map of the island, to which the other team then responds. This continues one move at a time, until the instructor declares a victor. Throughout the exercise, the instructor guides students through analysis of each strategic decision in light of the island's structure and topography, with an emphasis on the appropriate interpretation of the maps. Students soon realize that an understanding of the island's terrain literally meant the difference between life and death for civilians and military participants alike in 1945. The karst landscape of Okinawa posed unique obstacles to both the Japanese and the American forces, including difficult landing sites, networks of natural caves, and sequences of hills aligned perpendicular to the

  17. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  18. Goethe's Italian Journey and the geological landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Panizza, Mario

    2015-04-01

    "integrated", meaning integration between natural components, including geological, biological and anthropogenic elements, climate, history, architecture, literature etc. Secondly, Goethe's scientific intuitions (in this case the geological ones) were compared with the evolution of scientific knowledge up to most recent times, which at times confirm what Goethe had already realised. This project is based on the description of the stages of his journey, in the light of modern results of investigations carried out in geology, geomorphology, mineralogy etc. This research is grateful for the contributions of many geologists from various universities and Italian research institutions from the Alps to Sicily. Goethe's Italian journey as revisited in this paper aims to stimulate the interest of the reader in the "geological" component of the environment in which we live by means of an "integrated" approach.

  19. Geologic Mapping of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Katherine H.

    1998-05-01

    Planetary geologic mapping involves integrating a terrestrial-based understanding of surface and subsurface processes and mapping principles to investigate scientific questions. Mars mappers must keep in mind that physical processes, such as wind and flowing water on Mars, are or were different from terrestrial processes because the planetary atmospheres have changed differently over time. Geologic mapping of Mars has traditionally been done by hand using overlays on photomosaics of Viking Orbiter and Mariner images. Photoclinometry and shadow measurements have been used to determine elevations, and the distribution and size of craters have been used to determine the relative ages of surfaces- more densely cratered surfaces are older. Some mappers are now using computer software (ranging from Photoshop to ArcInfo) to facilitate mapping, though their applications must be carefully executed so that registration of the images remains true. Images and some mapping results are now available on the internet, and new data from recent missions to Mars (Pathfinder and Surveyor) will offer clarifying information to mapping efforts. This paper consists chiefly of pictures and diagrams.

  20. Geology of Kilauea volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.B. . Federal Center); Trusdell, F.A. . Hawaiian Volcano Observatory)

    1993-08-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower east rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. 71 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Geology of kilauea volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, R.B.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of the structure, stratigraphy, petrology, drill holes, eruption frequency, and volcanic and seismic hazards of Kilauea volcano. All the volcano is discussed, but the focus is on its lower cast rift zone (LERZ) because active exploration for geothermal energy is concentrated in that area. Kilauea probably has several separate hydrothermal-convection systems that develop in response to the dynamic behavior of the volcano and the influx of abundant meteoric water. Important features of some of these hydrothermal-convection systems are known through studies of surface geology and drill holes. Observations of eruptions during the past two centuries, detailed geologic mapping, radiocarbon dating, and paleomagnetic secular-variation studies indicate that Kilauea has erupted frequently from its summit and two radial rift zones during Quaternary time. Petrologic studies have established that Kilauea erupts only tholeiitic basalt. Extensive ash deposits at Kilauea's summit and on its LERZ record locally violent, but temporary, disruptions of local hydrothermal-convection systems during the interaction of water or steam with magma. Recent drill holes on the LERZ provide data on the temperatures of the hydrothermal-convection systems, intensity of dike intrusion, porosity and permeability, and an increasing amount of hydrothermal alteration with depth. The prehistoric and historic record of volcanic and seismic activity indicates that magma will continue to be supplied to deep and shallow reservoirs beneath Kilauea's summit and rift zones and that the volcano will be affected by eruptions and earthquakes for many thousands of years. ?? 1993.

  2. The Influence of Social Norms on Advancement Through Bystander Stages for Preventing Interpersonal Violence.

    PubMed

    Deitch-Stackhouse, Jacqueline; Kenneavy, Kristin; Thayer, Richard; Berkowitz, Alan; Mascari, Janine

    2015-10-01

    This research evaluates the impact of social norms on the advancement through the bystander stages toward prosocial (active) intervention in interpersonal violence (IPV): emotional abuse, physical violence, controlling behavior, sexual violence, and stalking. The influence of social norms on bystander behavior across stages and types of violence varies. Accurate social norms perceptions are associated with routine intervention, although social norms misperceptions are not always a strong deterrent to intervention. Interpretation of a violent situation as problematic predicts increased willingness to intervene. Implications for the development of social norms antiviolence campaigns and strategies for reducing barriers to prosocial intervention are discussed. PMID:26175519

  3. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  4. Terrestrial analogs, planetary geology, and the nature of geological reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    2014-05-01

    Analogical reasoning is critical to planetary geology, but its role can be misconstrued by those unfamiliar with the practice of that science. The methodological importance of analogy to geology lies in the formulation of genetic hypotheses, an absolutely essential component of geological reasoning that was either ignored or denigrated by most 20th century philosophers of science, who took the theoretical/ experimental methodology of physics to be the sole model for all of scientific inquiry. Following the seminal 19th century work of Grove Karl Gilbert, an early pioneer of planetary geology, it has long been recognized that broad experience with and understanding of terrestrial geological phenomena provide geologists with their most effective resource for the invention of potentially fruitful, working hypotheses. The actions of (1) forming such hypotheses, (2) following their consequences, and (3) testing those consequences comprise integral parts of effective geological practice in regard to the understanding of planetary surfaces. Nevertheless, the logical terminology and philosophical bases for such practice will be unfamiliar to most planetary scientists, both geologists and nongeologists. The invention of geological hypotheses involves both inductive inferences of the type Gilbert termed “empiric classification” and abductive inferences of a logical form made famous by the 19th century American logician Charles Sanders Peirce. The testing and corroboration of geological hypotheses relies less on the correspondence logic of theoretical/ experimental sciences, like physics, and more on the logic of consistency, coherence, and consilience that characterizes the investigative and historical sciences of interpretation exemplified by geology.

  5. Geologically current plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Argus, Donald F.

    2010-04-01

    We describe best-fitting angular velocities and MORVEL, a new closure-enforced set of angular velocities for the geologically current motions of 25 tectonic plates that collectively occupy 97 per cent of Earth's surface. Seafloor spreading rates and fault azimuths are used to determine the motions of 19 plates bordered by mid-ocean ridges, including all the major plates. Six smaller plates with little or no connection to the mid-ocean ridges are linked to MORVEL with GPS station velocities and azimuthal data. By design, almost no kinematic information is exchanged between the geologically determined and geodetically constrained subsets of the global circuit-MORVEL thus averages motion over geological intervals for all the major plates. Plate geometry changes relative to NUVEL-1A include the incorporation of Nubia, Lwandle and Somalia plates for the former Africa plate, Capricorn, Australia and Macquarie plates for the former Australia plate, and Sur and South America plates for the former South America plate. MORVEL also includes Amur, Philippine Sea, Sundaland and Yangtze plates, making it more useful than NUVEL-1A for studies of deformation in Asia and the western Pacific. Seafloor spreading rates are estimated over the past 0.78 Myr for intermediate and fast spreading centres and since 3.16 Ma for slow and ultraslow spreading centres. Rates are adjusted downward by 0.6-2.6mmyr-1 to compensate for the several kilometre width of magnetic reversal zones. Nearly all the NUVEL-1A angular velocities differ significantly from the MORVEL angular velocities. The many new data, revised plate geometries, and correction for outward displacement thus significantly modify our knowledge of geologically current plate motions. MORVEL indicates significantly slower 0.78-Myr-average motion across the Nazca-Antarctic and Nazca-Pacific boundaries than does NUVEL-1A, consistent with a progressive slowdown in the eastward component of Nazca plate motion since 3.16 Ma. It also

  6. Update on cavern disposal of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    1998-09-22

    Some types of oil and gas production and processing wastes contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). If NORM is present at concentrations above regulatory levels in oil field waste, the waste requires special disposal practices. The existing disposal options for wastes containing NORM are limited and costly. Argonne National Laboratory has previously evaluated the feasibility, legality, risk and economics of disposing of nonhazardous oil field wastes, other than NORM waste, in salt caverns. Cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste, other than NORM waste, is occurring at four Texas facilities, in several Canadian facilities, and reportedly in Europe. This paper evaluates the legality, technical feasibility, economics, and human health risk of disposing of NORM-contaminated oil field wastes in salt caverns as well. Cavern disposal of NORM waste is technically feasible and poses a very low human health risk. From a legal perspective, a review of federal regulations and regulations from several states indicated that there are no outright prohibitions against NORM disposal in salt caverns or other Class II wells, except for Louisiana which prohibits disposal of radioactive wastes or other radioactive materials in salt domes. Currently, however, only Texas and New Mexico are working on disposal cavern regulations, and no states have issued permits to allow cavern disposal of NORM waste. On the basis of the costs currently charged for cavern disposal of nonhazardous oil field waste (NOW), NORM waste disposal in caverns is likely to be cost competitive with existing NORM waste disposal methods when regulatory agencies approve the practice.

  7. The Moderating Role of Cognitive Capacities in the Association Between Social Norms and Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Samuel N.; Colder, Craig R.; Hawk, Larry W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The literature documents two related yet distinct social normative influences on adolescent drinking. Descriptive norms refer to perceptions of how much others engage in a particular behavior whereas injunctive norms refer to the extent to which others approve of a particular behavior. Theoretical formulations suggest that whether descriptive or injunctive norms guide drinking behavior depends on cognitive factors related to executive functioning. Cognitive capacities, specifically inhibitory control and preplanning, were tested as moderators of the association between social norms and alcohol use using a longitudinal design and community sample of adolescents. Method This longitudinal study included 387 adolescents and three annual waves of data. Behavioral tasks assessed inhibitory control (Stop Signal Task) and preplanning (Tower of London) and social norms and drinking were assessed using self-report measures. Results Significant interactions were found for descriptive and injunctive norms with preplanning and descriptive norms with inhibitory control. As hypothesized, descriptive norms were stronger prospective predictors of alcohol use at low levels of cognitive preplanning whereas injunctive norms were stronger prospective predictors at high levels of cognitive preplanning. Descriptive norms prospectively predicted alcohol use at high, but not at low levels of inhibitory control. Conclusion These findings highlight the complexity of normative influences and suggest that descriptive and injunctive norms have differential effects on future drinking for individuals with different cognitive capacities. PMID:26009807

  8. A case study on the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jina; Song, Jinwoong

    2016-03-01

    The teaching and learning of science in school are influenced by various factors, including both individual factors, such as member beliefs, and social factors, such as the power structure of the class. To understand this complex context affected by various factors in schools, we investigated the formation and sharing process of science classroom norms in connection with these factors. By examining the developmental process of science classroom norms, we identified how the norms were realized, shared, and internalized among the members. We collected data through classroom observations and interviews focusing on two elementary science classrooms in Korea. From these data, factors influencing norm formation were extracted and developed as stories about norm establishment. The results indicate that every science classroom norm was established, shared, and internalized differently according to the values ingrained in the norms, the agent of norm formation, and the members' understanding about the norm itself. The desirable norms originating from values in science education, such as having an inquiring mind, were not established spontaneously by students, but were instead established through well-organized norm networks to encourage concrete practice. Educational implications were discussed in terms of the practice of school science inquiry, cultural studies, and value-oriented education.

  9. The Relative Impact of Injunctive Norms on College Student Drinking: The Role of Reference Group

    PubMed Central

    Neighbors, Clayton; O’Connor, Roisin M.; Lewis, Melissa A.; Chawla, Neharika; Lee, Christine M.; Fossos, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This research evaluated the importance of reference groups in the relationships among injunctive norms and alcohol consumption for college student drinkers. First year students (N = 811; 58% female) completed online assessments of their drinking behavior, as well as their perceptions of the approval (injunctive norms) and prevalence (descriptive norms) of drinking by others Injunctive norms were evaluated with respect to typical students, typical same-sex students, friends, and parents. Descriptive norms were evaluated with respect to typical students and typical same-sex students. Results suggested that for injunctive norms, only perceptions of proximal reference groups (friends and parents) are positively associated with drinking behavior. However, when considered in the context of multiple referents and norms, injunctive norms for more distal groups (typical students/same sex students) were negatively associated with personal drinking whereas descriptive norms for distal referents remained positively associated with drinking. Results suggest that injunctive norms are more complex than descriptive norms and these complexities warrant important consideration in the development of intervention strategies. PMID:19071984

  10. Current Trends in the study of Gender Norms and Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Paul J.; Agnew-Brune, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Gender norms are recognized as one of the major social determinants of health and gender norms can have implications for an individual’s health behaviors. This paper reviews the recent advances in research on the role of gender norms on health behaviors most associated with morbidity and mortality. We find that (1) the study of gender norms and health behaviors is varied across different types of health behaviors, (2) research on masculinity and masculine norms appears to have taken on an increasing proportion of studies on the relationship between gender norms and health, and (3) we are seeing new and varied populations integrated into the study of gender norms and health behaviors. PMID:26075291

  11. The social side of sanctions: personal and social norms as moderators of deterrence.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael

    2004-10-01

    In a survey of Australian citizens (valid N = 1,406), personal and social norms were found to moderate effects of deterrence on tax evasion. Personal, internalized norms of tax honesty were negatively related to tax evasion and moderated the effects of deterrence variables (i.e., sanction severity), suggesting deterrence effects only when individual ethics were weak. Perceived social norms, beyond those internalized as personal norms, were not directly related to tax evasion but moderated the effects of sanction severity. Only when social norms were seen as strongly in favor of tax honesty was sanction severity negatively related to tax evasion. This result held only for respondents who did not identify strongly as Australians. Hence, when internalized, norms delimit effects of deterrence; when considered external to one's self norms boost deterrence effects, giving social meaning to formal sanctions.

  12. Semantic feature production norms for a large set of living and nonliving things.

    PubMed

    McRae, Ken; Cree, George S; Seidenberg, Mark S; McNorgan, Chris

    2005-11-01

    Semantic features have provided insight into numerous behavioral phenomena concerning concepts, categorization, and semantic memory in adults, children, and neuropsychological populations. Numerous theories and models in these areas are based on representations and computations involving semantic features. Consequently, empirically derived semantic feature production norms have played, and continue to play, a highly useful role in these domains. This article describes a set of feature norms collected from approximately 725 participants for 541 living (dog) and nonliving (chair) basic-level concepts, the largest such set of norms developed to date. This article describes the norms and numerous statistics associated with them. Our aim is to make these norms available to facilitate other research, while obviating the need to repeat the labor-intensive methods involved in collecting and analyzing such norms. The full set of norms may be downloaded from www.psychonomic.org/archive. PMID:16629288

  13. The social side of sanctions: personal and social norms as moderators of deterrence.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael

    2004-10-01

    In a survey of Australian citizens (valid N = 1,406), personal and social norms were found to moderate effects of deterrence on tax evasion. Personal, internalized norms of tax honesty were negatively related to tax evasion and moderated the effects of deterrence variables (i.e., sanction severity), suggesting deterrence effects only when individual ethics were weak. Perceived social norms, beyond those internalized as personal norms, were not directly related to tax evasion but moderated the effects of sanction severity. Only when social norms were seen as strongly in favor of tax honesty was sanction severity negatively related to tax evasion. This result held only for respondents who did not identify strongly as Australians. Hence, when internalized, norms delimit effects of deterrence; when considered external to one's self norms boost deterrence effects, giving social meaning to formal sanctions. PMID:15638209

  14. Geologic map of Io

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  15. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twenty-Three. Geology (Part One). Free Response Testing Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopley, Ken; And Others

    The first of several planned volumes of Free Response Test Items contains geology questions developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the New South Wales Department of Education. Two additional geology volumes and biology and chemistry volumes are in preparation. The questions in this volume were written and reviewed by practicing…

  16. [Restricting effects of geologic background system on genuine crude drugs in Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Yi, S; Zhang, A; Zhao, P; Lou, Z; Xiao, X; Li, Z

    1996-01-01

    The distribution, growth, output and quality of genuine crude drugs are restricted by geologic background system (GBS), whose extensional vector system "rock-->soil-->medicinal plants" accomplishes the unity of geological grand cycle and biological pulmonary circulation. This article describes how genuine crude drugs in Sichuan, such as Coptis chinensis, etc. for example, are restricted by GBS.

  17. Practical aspects of geological prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Mallio, W.J.; Peck, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    Nuclear waste disposal requires that geology be a predictive science. The prediction of future events rests on (1) recognizing the periodicity of geologic events; (2) defining a critical dimension of effect, such as the area of a drainage basin, the length of a fault trace, etc; and (3) using our understanding of active processes the project the frequency and magnitude of future events in the light of geological principles. Of importance to nuclear waste disposal are longer term processes such as continental denudation and removal of materials by glacial erosion. Constant testing of projections will allow the practical limits of predicting geological events to be defined. 11 refs.

  18. Geology orbiter comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.; Blasius, K. R.; Davis, D. R.; Pang, K. D.; Shreve, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    Instrument requirements of planetary geology orbiters were examined with the objective of determining the feasibility of applying standard instrument designs to a host of terrestrial targets. Within the basic discipline area of geochemistry, gamma-ray, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic spectroscopy remote sensing techniques were considered. Within the discipline area of geophysics, the complementary techniques of gravimetry and radar were studied. Experiments using these techniques were analyzed for comparison at the Moon, Mercury, Mars and the Galilean satellites. On the basis of these comparative assessments, the adaptability of each sensing technique was judged as a basic technique for many targets, as a single instrument applied to many targets, as a single instrument used in different mission modes, and as an instrument capability for nongeoscience objectives.

  19. Geological consequences of superplumes

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.L. )

    1991-10-01

    Superplumes are suggested to have caused the period of constant normal magnetic polarity in mid-Cretaceous time (124-83 Ma) and, possibly, the period of constant reversed polarity in Pennsylvania-Permian time (323-248 Ma). These times coincide with increases in world temperature, deposition of black shales, oil generation, and eustatic sea level in the mid-Cretaceous, and increased coal generation and gas accumulation in the Pennsylvanian-Permian, accompanied by an intracratonic Pennsylvanian transgression of epicontinental seas. These geologic anomalies are associated with episodes of increased world-wide ocean-crust production and mantle outgassing, especially of carbon and nutrients. These superplumes originated just above the core-mantle boundary, significantly increased convection in the outer core, and stopped the magnetic field reversal process for 41 m.y. in the Cretaceous and 75 m.y. in Pennsylvanian-Permian time.

  20. Geology of National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  1. Geologic mapping of Europa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  2. Geology and land use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The geologic limitations for building sites of some areas can be overcome, in part, by skilled engineering and expensive construction practices. But the costs can be prohibitively high, and the solutions are not always completely effective. In "earthquake country," history has shown that costs are highest and risk factors most uncertain in a few easily recognized settings: unstable hill sloped, land at the edge of rapidly eroding sea cliffs, lowlands underlain by saturated estuarine mud of ill, and areas near faults capable of producing magnitude 7 or greater earthquakes. Safety immediately after an earthquake is also a concern in these places, for extreme damage and ground distortion may impede or prevent timely access by emergency equipment. 

  3. Geology of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.; Chyba, C.; Head, J. W.; McCord, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Europa is a rocky object of radius 1565 km (slightly smaller than Earth s moon) and has an outer shell of water composition estimated to be of order 100 km thick, the surface of which is frozen. The total volume of water is about 3 x 10(exp 9) cubic kilometers, or twice the amount of water on Earth. Moreover, like its neighbor Io, Europa experiences internal heating generated from tidal flexing during its eccentric orbit around Jupiter. This raises the possibility that some of the water beneath the icy crust is liquid. The proportion of rock to ice, the generation of internal heat, and the possibility of liquid water make Europa unique in the Solar System. In this chapter, we outline the sources of data available for Europa (with a focus on the Galileo mission), review previous and on-going research on its surface geology, discuss the astrobiological potential of Europa, and consider plans for future exploration.

  4. [Endothelial glycocalyx of blood circulation. II. Biological functions, state at norm and pathology, bioengineering application].

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Turashev, A D

    2014-01-01

    In normal state, a complex multicomponent system called glycocalyx is present on the surface of endothelial vascular system. Due to complexity of its composition and location on the border between vessel wall and blood circulation, glycocalyx participates in a number of functions supporting the metabolism of the vascular wall. In pathological conditions undergo complete or partial loss of this structure, which leads to inconsistencies in the vascular wall and change its functions. The functions of endothelial glycocalyx are its involvement in the regulation of vascular permeability, transduction and transformation by the shear stress of blood flow on endothelium, the molecular regulation of glycocalyx microenvironment and its interaction with circulating blood cells. Also briefly be considered participation of glycocalyx in the implementation of cardiovascular diseases, their correction, bioengineering application of glycocalyx and its components.

  5. The evolutionary biology of sex.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Brian

    2006-09-01

    In 1861, Charles Darwin wrote "We do not even in the least know the final cause of sexuality; why new beings should be produced by the union of the two sexual elements, instead of by a process of parthenogenesis". It was hardly possible to begin to answer this question at that time, in view of the contemporary lack of knowledge of genetics and cell biology. Since then, research into the cellular basis of reproduction has shown that sexual reproduction is the norm for the majority of eukaryotes, with huge consequences for their biology. The evolution of sex and some of its consequences are the subject of the series of reviews, and a Primer, in this special issue of Current Biology.

  6. Geologic Framework Model (GFM2000)

    SciTech Connect

    T. Vogt

    2004-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to document the geologic framework model, version GFM2000 with regard to input data, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations, and validation of the model results, and the differences between GFM2000 and previous versions. The version number of this model reflects the year during which the model was constructed. This model supersedes the previous model version, documented in Geologic Framework Model (GFM 3.1) (CRWMS M&O 2000 [DIRS 138860]). The geologic framework model represents a three-dimensional interpretation of the geology surrounding the location of the monitored geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. The geologic framework model encompasses and is limited to an area of 65 square miles (168 square kilometers) and a volume of 185 cubic miles (771 cubic kilometers). The boundaries of the geologic framework model (shown in Figure 1-1) were chosen to encompass the exploratory boreholes and to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the unsaturated zone (UZ). The upper surface of the model is made up of the surface topography and the depth of the model is constrained by the inferred depth of the Tertiary-Paleozoic unconformity. The geologic framework model was constructed from geologic map and borehole data. Additional information from measured stratigraphic sections, gravity profiles, and seismic profiles was also considered. The intended use of the geologic framework model is to provide a geologic framework over the area of interest consistent with the level of detailed needed for hydrologic flow and radionuclide transport modeling through the UZ and for repository design. The model is limited by the availability of data and relative amount of geologic complexity found in an area. The geologic framework model is inherently limited by scale and content. The grid spacing used in the

  7. The role of neighborhoods in shaping perceived norms: An exploration of neighborhood disorder and norms among injection drug users in Baltimore, MD

    PubMed Central

    Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A.; Siconolfi, Dan E.; Tobin, Karin E.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    A large literature suggests that social norms contribute to HIV and substance use related behaviors. Less attention has been given to neighborhood factors that may contribute to the development of norms about risky behaviors. We examined the cross-sectional associations between perceptions of one’s neighborhood and norms of perceived prevalence of, and peer support for sex exchange and risky injection behaviors. The sample consisted of 719 people who reported injecting heroin and cocaine and did not move in the past 6 months in Baltimore, MD. Living in a neighborhood with disorder was associated with believing that others exchanged sex, practiced risky injection behaviors (descriptive norms) and approved of risky injection behavior (injunctive norms). PMID:25840353

  8. Synthetic geology - Exploring the "what if?" in geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Robertson, J.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial and temporal extent of geological phenomena makes experiments in geology difficult to conduct, if not entirely impossible and collection of data is laborious and expensive - so expensive that most of the time we cannot test a hypothesis. The aim, in many cases, is to gather enough data to build a predictive geological model. Even in a mine, where data are abundant, a model remains incomplete because the information at the level of a blasting block is two orders of magnitude larger than the sample from a drill core, and we have to take measurement errors into account. So, what confidence can we have in a model based on sparse data, uncertainties and measurement error? Synthetic geology does not attempt to model the real world in terms of geological processes with all their uncertainties, rather it offers an artificial geological data source with fully known properties. On the basis of this artificial geology, we can simulate geological sampling by established or future technologies to study the resulting dataset. Conducting these experiments in silico removes the constraints of testing in the field or in production, and provides us with a known ground-truth against which the steps in a data analysis and integration workflow can be validated.Real-time simulation of data sources can be used to investigate crucial questions such as the potential information gain from future sensing capabilities, or from new sampling strategies, or the combination of both, and it enables us to test many "what if?" questions, both in geology and in data engineering. What would we be able to see if we could obtain data at higher resolution? How would real-time data analysis change sampling strategies? Does our data infrastructure handle many new real-time data streams? What feature engineering can be deducted for machine learning approaches? By providing a 'data sandbox' able to scale to realistic geological scenarios we hope to start answering some of these questions.

  9. Eating disorder examination questionnaire: norms for young adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Carter, J C; Stewart, D A; Fairburn, C G

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports young adolescent female norms for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The standardization sample was comprised of 808 girls aged between 12 and 14 years from three single-sex schools (one private and two state schools). Means, standard deviations and percentile ranks for raw EDE-Q subscale scores are presented. Prevalence figures for key eating disorder behaviors over the previous two weeks were as follows: 4% self-induced vomiting; 1% laxative misuse; 0.4% diuretic misuse; and 8% regular binge eating. PMID:11341255

  10. Maximum norm contractivity of discretization schemes for the heat equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaijevanger, J. F. B. M.

    A necessary and sufficient condition for maximum norm contractivity of a large class of discretization methods for solving the heat equations previously obtained is studied. Specializing this result for the well known Crank-Nicolson method the criterion delta t/(delta x) squared is less than or equal to 3/2, which is less restrictive than the weakest presently available sufficient condition delta t/(delta x) squared is less than or equal to 1 is arrived at. A comparison is made with other stability criteria and with sufficient conditions which are based on the concept of absolute monotonicity. The construction of some optimal explicit schemes are presented in the conclusion.

  11. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  12. Significance of norms and completeness in variational based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storch, Joel A.

    1989-01-01

    By means of a simple structural problem, an important requirement often overlooked in practice on the basis functions used in Rayleigh-Ritz-Galerkin type methods is brought into focus. The problem of the static deformation of a uniformly loaded beam is solved variationally by expanding the beam displacement in a Fourier Cosine series. The potential energy functional is rendered stationary subject to the geometric boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that the variational approach does not converge to the true solution. The object is to resolve this paradox, and in so doing, indicate the practical implications of norms and completeness in an appropriate inner product space.

  13. Masculine ideology, norms, and HIV prevention among young Black men

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Applewhite, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included. PMID:25525415

  14. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures. PMID:26621713

  15. How culture gets embrained: Cultural differences in event-related potentials of social norm violations.

    PubMed

    Mu, Yan; Kitayama, Shinobu; Han, Shihui; Gelfand, Michele J

    2015-12-15

    Humans are unique among all species in their ability to develop and enforce social norms, but there is wide variation in the strength of social norms across human societies. Despite this fundamental aspect of human nature, there has been surprisingly little research on how social norm violations are detected at the neurobiological level. Building on the emerging field of cultural neuroscience, we combine noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) with a new social norm violation paradigm to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the detection of norm violations and how they vary across cultures. EEG recordings from Chinese and US participants (n = 50) showed consistent negative deflection of event-related potential around 400 ms (N400) over the central and parietal regions that served as a culture-general neural marker of detecting norm violations. The N400 at the frontal and temporal regions, however, was only observed among Chinese but not US participants, illustrating culture-specific neural substrates of the detection of norm violations. Further, the frontal N400 predicted a variety of behavioral and attitudinal measurements related to the strength of social norms that have been found at the national and state levels, including higher culture superiority and self-control but lower creativity. There were no cultural differences in the N400 induced by semantic violation, suggesting a unique cultural influence on social norm violation detection. In all, these findings provided the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the neurobiological foundations of social norm violation detection and its variation across cultures.

  16. Boosting safety behaviour: Descriptive norms encourage child booster seat usage amongst low involvement parents.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer; Whelan, Jodie; Pirouz, Dante M; Snowdon, Anne W

    2016-07-01

    Campaigns advocating behavioural changes often employ social norms as a motivating technique, favouring injunctive norms (what is typically approved or disapproved) over descriptive norms (what is typically done). Here, we investigate an upside to including descriptive norms in health and safety appeals. Because descriptive norms are easy to process and understand, they should provide a heuristic to guide behaviour in those individuals who lack the interest or motivation to reflect on the advocated behaviour more deeply. When those descriptive norms are positive - suggesting that what is done is consistent with what ought to be done - including them in campaigns should be particularly beneficial at influencing this low-involvement segment. We test this proposition via research examining booster seat use amongst parents with children of booster seat age, and find that incorporating positive descriptive norms into a related campaign is particularly impactful for parents who report low involvement in the topic of booster seat safety. Descriptive norms are easy to state and easy to understand, and our research suggests that these norms resonate with low involvement individuals. As a result, we recommend incorporating descriptive norms when possible into health and safety campaigns. PMID:27085145

  17. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  18. Explaining Fertility Norms in the Netherlands: The Influence of Sociodemographics, Family Networks, and Life Course Events on Pronatalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noordhuizen, Suzanne; de Graaf, Paul M.; Sieben, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This study advances our understanding of fertility norms by examining whether fertility norms remain stable over time. In addition, this article also investigates whether these norms are influenced by (a) sociodemographic background characteristics; (b) fertility norms of close family members: partners, siblings, parents, and children; and (c)…

  19. Geologic mapping of Argyre Planitia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorsline, Donn S.; Parker, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the results from the geologic mapping of the central and southern Argyre basin of Mars. At the Mars Geologic Mapper's Meeting in Flagstaff during July, 1993, Dave Scott (United States Geological Survey, Mars Geologic Mapping Steering Committee Chair) recommended that all four quadrangles be combined into a single 1:1,000,000 scale map for publication. It was agreed that this would be cost-effective and that the decrease in scale would not compromise the original science goals of the mapping. Tim Parker completed mapping on the 1:500,000 scale base maps, for which all the necessary materials had already been produced, and included the work as a chapter in his dissertation, which was completed in the fall of 1994. Geologic mapping of the two southernmost quadrangles (MTM -55036 and MTM -55043; MTM=Mars Transverse Mercator) was completed as planned during the first year of work. These maps and a detailed draft of the map text were given a preliminary review by Dave Scott during summer, 1993. Geologic mapping of the remaining two quadrangles (MTM -50036 and MTM -50043) was completed by summer, 1994. Results were described at the Mars Geologic Mappers Meeting, held in Pocatello, Idaho, during July, 1994. Funds for the third and final year of the project have been transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, where Tim Parker will revise and finalize all maps and map text for publication by the United States Geological Survey at the 1:1,000,000 map scale.

  20. Creationism, Uniformitarianism, Geology and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1983-01-01

    Points out that the most basic of creationist attacks of geology, their claim that uniformitarianism is an unreliable basis for interpreting the past, fail because the uniformitarianism they describe is no longer a part of geology. Indicates that modern uniformitarianism is merely the philosophical principle of simplicity. (Author/JN)

  1. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  2. Remote sensing aids geologic mapping.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques have been applied to general geologic mapping along the Rio Grande rift zone in central Colorado. A geologic map of about 1,100 square miles was prepared utilizing (1) prior published and unpublished maps, (2) detailed and reconnaissance field maps made for this study, and (3) remote sensor data interpretations. The map is to be used for interpretation of the complex Cenozoic tectonic and geomorphic histories of the area. Regional and local geologic mapping can be aided by the proper application of remote sensing techniques. Conventional color and color infrared photos contain a large amount of easily-extractable general geologic information and are easily used by geologists untrained in the field of remote sensing. Other kinds of sensor data used in this study, with the exception of SLAR imagery, were generally found to be impractical or unappropriate for broad-scale general geologic mapping.

  3. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable. PMID:26267268

  4. Attitude Ambivalence, Friend Norms, and Adolescent Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, Zachary P.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.; Alvaro, Eusebio M.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the moderating effects of attitudinal ambivalence on adolescent marijuana use in the context of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). With data from the National Survey of Parents and Youth (N=1,604), two hierarchical multiple regression models were developed to examine the association of ambivalent attitudes, intentions, and later marijuana use. The first model explored the moderating effect of ambivalence on intentions to use marijuana; the second tested the moderation of ambivalence on actual marijuana use 1 year later. Results across both analyses suggest that ambivalence moderated the association of friend norms and subsequent adolescent marijuana use: friend norms were better predictors of marijuana intentions (β=0.151, t=2.29, p=0.02) and subsequent use when adolescents were attitudinally ambivalent about marijuana use (β=0.071, t=2.76, p= 0.006). These results suggest that preventive programs that affect the certainty with which adolescents holds pro- or antimarijuana attitudes may influence the likelihood of their resistance to, initiation, or continuance of marijuana use. PMID:23404670

  5. Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced. PMID:25088047

  6. Soft Tissue Esthetic Norms for Mahabubnagar Population of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Sinojiya, Jay; Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Pyata, Jaipal Reddy; Mallikarjun, Vankre; Reddy, C. Manjunatha

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The Aim of the study was to establish Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for skeletal and dental relationships amongst the Mahabubnagar adult population. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (30 Males & 30 Females) subjects from different part of Mahabubnagar in the age group 18-25 Years (Mean age 21.3 Years) were selected at random for the study and lateral cephalograms were taken. All the cephalograms were traced by two operators using conventional hand tracing. The parameters used in the study were taken from Arnett and Bergman soft tissue cephalometric analysis (STCA). Overall 46 measurements including 40 linear, 6 angular parameters were used. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated. The difference between males and females were evaluated using student t-test. Results: The values obtained from the study showed significant difference in most of the parameters from that of Arnett et al., norms and between males and females within Mahabubnagar population. Conclusion: Males had thicker soft tissue structures, acute nasolabial angle, increased facial lengths and heights, increased midface deficiency, recessive lower face, more convex profile and less upright mandibular incisors than females within Mahabubnagar population. PMID:24596789

  7. Least-squares RTM with L1 norm regularisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Yao, Gang; Cao, Jingjie; Wang, Yanghua

    2016-10-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM), for imaging complex Earth models, is a reversal procedure of the forward modelling of seismic wavefields, and hence can be formulated as an inverse problem. The least-squares RTM method attempts to minimise the difference between the observed field data and the synthetic data generated by the migration image. It can reduce the artefacts in the images of a conventional RTM which uses an adjoint operator, instead of an inverse operator, for the migration. However, as the least-squares inversion provides an average solution with minimal variation, the resolution of the reflectivity image is compromised. This paper presents the least-squares RTM method with a model constraint defined by an L1-norm of the reflectivity image. For solving the least-squares RTM with L1 norm regularisation, the inversion is reformulated as a ‘basis pursuit de-noise (BPDN)’ problem, and is solved directly using an algorithm called ‘spectral projected gradient for L1 minimisation (SPGL1)’. Three numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the method which can mitigate artefacts and produce clean images with significantly higher resolution than the least-squares RTM without such a constraint.

  8. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-12-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain-loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference.

  9. Minimal norm constrained interpolation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    In computational fluid dynamics and in CAD/CAM, a physical boundary is usually known only discreetly and most often must be approximated. An acceptable approximation preserves the salient features of the data such as convexity and concavity. In this dissertation, a smooth interpolant which is locally concave where the data are concave and is locally convex where the data are convex is described. The interpolant is found by posing and solving a minimization problem whose solution is a piecewise cubic polynomial. The problem is solved indirectly by using the Peano Kernal theorem to recast it into an equivalent minimization problem having the second derivative of the interpolant as the solution. This approach leads to the solution of a nonlinear system of equations. It is shown that Newton's method is an exceptionally attractive and efficient method for solving the nonlinear system of equations. Examples of shape-preserving interpolants, as well as convergence results obtained by using Newton's method are also shown. A FORTRAN program to compute these interpolants is listed. The problem of computing the interpolant of minimal norm from a convex cone in a normal dual space is also discussed. An extension of de Boor's work on minimal norm unconstrained interpolation is presented.

  10. Effects of Soundscapes on Perceived Crowding and Encounter Norms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Oh; Shelby, Bo

    2011-07-01

    Soundscapes in recreation settings are becoming an important issue, but there are few studies of the effects of sounds on recreation experiences, especially crowding perceptions and encounter norms. This study compared effects of six types of sounds (an airplane, a truck engine, children playing, birds, water, and a control) on perceived crowding (PC) and encounter norms for hikers. Data were collected from 47 college students through lab experiments using simulated images, with moving hikers inserted in the original photo taken in the Jungmeori area of Mudeungsan Provincial Park in Korea. Overall, the motor-made sounds of the airplane and truck engine increased PC and decreased acceptability ratings, and the natural sounds of birds and water decreased PC and increased acceptability ratings. Ratings of the sound of children playing were similar to those in the control (i.e., no sound). In addition, as numbers of hikers increased, the overall effects of sounds decreased, and there were few significant differences in PC or acceptability ratings at the highest encounter levels. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed.

  11. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected. PMID:26666577

  12. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi

    2014-01-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain–loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference. PMID:24396005

  13. An overview of Pennsylvania`s experience with NORM

    SciTech Connect

    Yusko, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    Although Pennsylvania may be thought of as the state who brought you indoor radon, courtesy of a discovery of a residence with radon concentrations in excess of a few thousand picocuries per liter, this is not the states only claim to NORM fame. In the early years of the twentieth century, Pennsylvania was the largest producer of radium, utilizing its industrial base to produce large quantities of this {open_quotes}miracle cure{close_quotes} from ores mined in the West, and transported to a separation and purification facility in Western Pennsylvania. The company successfully held off foreign and political pressure, and generated large quantities of uranium tailings as well, until a fire one New Year`s Eve destroyed the separation plant, and the company faded from view. The tailings were remediated as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings, Remedial Action Project, on the only site east of the Mississippi River. This article goes on to discuss the states experiences with NORM in various projects, coming in contact with human populations from different sources.

  14. Recovery of NORM from scales generated by oil extraction.

    PubMed

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam; Ghani, Basem Abdul; Al Abdulah, Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Scales, containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), are a major problem in oil production that lead to costly remediation and disposal programmes. In view of environmental protection, radio and chemical characterisation is an essential step prior to waste treatment. This study focuses on developing of a protocol to recover (226)Ra and (210)Pb from scales produced by petroleum industry. X-ray diffractograms of the scales indicated the presence of barite-strontium (Ba0.75Sr0.25SO4) and hokutolite (Ba0.69Pb0.31SO4) as main minerals. Quartz, galena and Ca2Al2SiO6(OH)2 or sphalerite and iron oxide were found in minor quantities. Incineration to 600 °C followed by enclosed-digestion and acid-treatment gave complete digestion. Using (133)Ba and (210)Pb tracers as internal standards gave recovery ranged 87-91% for (226)Ra and ca. 100% for (210)Pb. Radium was finally dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, while (210)Pb dissolved in the former solution as well as in 8 M nitric acid. Dissolving the scales would provide better estimation of their radionuclides contents, facilitate the determination of their chemical composition, and make it possible to recycle NORM wastes in terms of radionuclides production. PMID:26773509

  15. Genetics of Growth Reaction Norms in Farmed Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, Panya; Mulder, Han; Gjerde, Bjarne; Koskinen, Heikki; Lillehammer, Marie; Kause, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout is farmed globally under diverse uncontrollable environments. Fish with low macroenvironmental sensitivity (ES) of growth is important to thrive and grow under these uncontrollable environments. The ES may evolve as a correlated response to selection for growth in one environment when the genetic correlation between ES and growth is nonzero. The aims of this study were to quantify additive genetic variance for ES of body weight (BW), defined as the slope of reaction norm across breeding environment (BE) and production environment (PE), and to estimate the genetic correlation (rg(int, sl)) between BW and ES. To estimate heritable variance of ES, the coheritability of ES was derived using selection index theory. The BW records from 43,040 rainbow trout performing either in freshwater or seawater were analysed using a reaction norm model. High additive genetic variance for ES (9584) was observed, inferring that genetic changes in ES can be expected. The coheritability for ES was either -0.06 (intercept at PE) or -0.08 (intercept at BE), suggesting that BW observation in either PE or BE results in low accuracy of selection for ES. Yet, the rg(int, sl) was negative (-0.41 to -0.33) indicating that selection for BW in one environment is expected to result in more sensitive fish. To avoid an increase of ES while selecting for BW, it is possible to have equal genetic gain in BW in both environments so that ES is maintained stable.

  16. Bah humbug: Unexpected Christmas cards and the reciprocity norm.

    PubMed

    Meier, Brian P

    2016-01-01

    The reciprocity norm refers to the expectation that people will help those who helped them. A well-known study revealed that the norm is strong with Christmas cards, with 20% of people reciprocating a Christmas card received from a stranger. I attempted to conceptually replicate and extend this effect. In Study 1, 755 participants received a Christmas card supposedly from a more- versus less-similar stranger. The reciprocation rate was unexpectedly low (2%), which did not allow for a test of a similarity effect. Two potential reasons for this low rate were examined in Study 2 in which 494 participants reported their likelihood of reciprocating a Christmas card from a stranger as well as their felt suspicions/threat about the card and their frequency of e-mail use. Reciprocation likelihood was negatively correlated with perceived threat/suspicion and e-mail use. It appears that reciprocating a gift from a stranger in offline settings may be less likely than expected.

  17. Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Susanne; Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2015-03-01

    It is commonly believed that during adolescence children become increasingly influenced by peers at the expense of parents. To test the strength of this tendency with regards to healthy eating (fruit and vegetable intake), a survey was completed by 757 adolescent-parent dyads. Our theoretical framework builds on social cognitive theory and the focus theory of normative conduct, and data are analysed by means of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The study reveals that when it comes to adolescents' fruit and vegetable intake, parents remain the main influencer, with what they do (descriptive norms) being more important than what they say (injunctive norms). The study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of what influences adolescent healthy eating, including the social influence of parents and friends, while also taking adolescent self-efficacy and outcome expectations into account. No previous studies have included all these factors in the same analysis. The study has a number of important implications: (1) healthy eating interventions should aim at strengthening self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations among adolescents, (2) the family context should be included when implementing healthy eating interventions and (3) parents' awareness of their influence on their children's healthy eating should be reinforced.

  18. Soft Tissue Cephalometric Norms for Central India (Malwa) Female Population

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Shweta; Baheti, Kamalshikha; Hansraj, Varun; Rishad, Mohamed; Kanungo, Himanshu; Bejoy, Pulayampatt Unni

    2014-01-01

    Background: The various soft tissue traits that contribute to an aesthetically pleasing face. This should be considered during orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present study was to propose soft tissue norms for Central Indian (Malwa) female population. Materials and Methods: Facial photographs of 78 patients of age group 18-26 years were taken in Department of Orthodontics, Rau, Indore, which were then subjected to a selection process and 30 top scorers (30 females) were selected. Lateral cephalograms of individuals were taken and soft tissue profile as well as related osseous and dental structures standard tracing were made on the acetate matte tracing paper. Then eighteen soft tissue traits were studied as described by Bergman. Results: The present study showed that, a mild convexity of the face and the resulting tendency toward Class II in females is acceptable esthetically. A fuller upper lip is considered balanced and esthetic. Increase in lip incompetency is considered unaesthetic. Conclusion: A mild convexity of the face and the resulting tendency toward Class II in females is acceptable esthetically. Individual norms are necessary for a population in order to plan and deliver quality treatment. PMID:25395794

  19. Neural basis of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Yu, Hongbo; Shen, Bo; Yu, Rongjun; Zhou, Zhiheng; Zhang, Guoping; Jiang, Yushi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-12-01

    Humans are willing to punish norm violations even at a substantial personal cost. Using fMRI and a variant of the ultimatum game and functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated how the brain differentially responds to fairness in loss and gain domains. Participants (responders) received offers from anonymous partners indicating a division of an amount of monetary gain or loss. If they accept, both get their shares according to the division; if they reject, both get nothing or lose the entire stake. We used a computational model to derive perceived fairness of offers and participant-specific inequity aversion. Behaviorally, participants were more likely to reject unfair offers in the loss (vs gain) domain. Neurally, the positive correlation between fairness and activation in ventral striatum was reduced, whereas the negative correlations between fairness and activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were enhanced in the loss domain. Moreover, rejection-related dorsal striatum activation was higher in the loss domain. Furthermore, the gain-loss domain modulates costly punishment only when unfair behavior was directed toward the participants and not when it was directed toward others. These findings provide neural and computational accounts of increased costly norm enforcement under adversity and advanced our understanding of the context-dependent nature of fairness preference. PMID:24396005

  20. Fixed-Order Mixed Norm Designs for Building Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.; Calise, Anthony J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the use of H2, mu-synthesis, and mixed H2/mu methods to construct full order controllers and optimized controllers of fixed dimensions. The benchmark problem definition is first extended to include uncertainty within the controller bandwidth in the form of parametric uncertainty representative of uncertainty in the natural frequencies of the design model. The sensitivity of H2 design to unmodeled dynamics and parametric uncertainty is evaluated for a range of controller levels of authority. Next, mu-synthesis methods are applied to design full order compensators that are robust to both unmodeled dynamics and to parametric uncertainty. Finally, a set of mixed H2/mu compensators are designed which are optimized for a fixed compensator dimension. These mixed norm designs recover the H2 design performance levels while providing the same levels of robust stability as the mu designs. It is shown that designing with the mixed norm approach permits higher levels of controller authority for which the H2 designs are destabilizing. The benchmark problem is that of an active tendon system. The controller designs are all based on the use of acceleration feedback.

  1. Habitat geology studies on and near Georges Bank, off New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Marine habitat geology is the study of the distribution of geologic materials that form the seabed, the geologic processes (such as sediment movement and deposition) that affect the seabed, and the interplay of geologic factors and species behavior that gives rise to biological habitats in general and to specific habitats deemed essential to the success of a particular species (essential fish habitats, EFH's). Georges Bank was once the premier East Coast fishing ground for groundfish and scallops. The decline of groundfish species due to overfishing contributed to the increasingly restrictive management of fish stocks and a need to identify and protect EFH's.

  2. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurfacemore » reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.« less

  3. Geologic Sequestration Software Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Gary; Bonneville, PNNL Alain; Sivaramakrishnan, PNNL Chandrika; Purohit, PNNL Sumit; White, PNNL Signe; Lansing, PNNL Carina; Gosink, PNNL Luke; Guillen, PNNL Zoe; Moeglein, PNNL William; Gorton, PNNL Ian; PNNL,

    2013-11-04

    GS3 is the bundling of the Geological Sequestration Software Suite domain tools with the Velo wiki user interface, rich client interface, and data store. Velo is an application domain independent collaborative user environment for modeling and simulation. Velo has a web browser based wiki interface integrated with a sophisticated content management system supporting data and knowledge management required for large-scale scientific modeling projects. GS3 adds tools and capability specifically in the area of modeling subsurface reservoirs for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Velo is a core software framework to create scientific domain user environments. Velo is not tied to a specific domain although it provides novel capability needed by many application areas. A well-defined Velo integration layer allows custom applications such as GS3 to leverage the core Velo components to reduce development cost/time and ultimately provide a more capable software product. Compared with previous efforts like ECCE and SALSSA, Velo is a major advancement being a web browser based interface, having a more comprehensive data management architecture, and having intrinsic support for collaboration through the wiki. GS3 adds specific domain tools for looking at site data, developing conceptual and numerical models, building simulation input files, launching and monitoring the progress of those simulations and being able to look at and interpret simulation output.

  4. Multiwell experiment: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The general objective of the Multiwell Experiment geology study is the detailed characterization of the low-permeability gas reservoirs of the Mesaverde Formation at the MWX site. The ultimate objective of the study is the understanding of how the detailed characteristics affect completion, stimulation, and production of these reservoirs, and the successful extrapolation of this knowledge to other low-permeability reservoirs. Low-permeability sandstone reservoirs contain significant reserves of natural gas in the US, but these reserves are difficult to exploit. Much of this difficulty is attributable to an insufficient data base on the sedimentological and fracture characteristics of the reservoirs. These characteristics strongly control not only reservoir porosity and permeability, but they also control total reservoir volume, internal reservoir heterogeneity, and susceptibility of the reservoir to damage by different drilling and stimulation techniques. The recognition alone by operators that these are indeed controlling factors is a significant step in the utilization of the low-permeability reserves, and this is one of the important results of this study. However, the implementation of techniques that have been derived using the data base assembled from this study is the next step of the program. 15 refs.

  5. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms. PMID:27318174

  6. Does neighborhood social cohesion modify the relationship between neighborhood social norms and smoking behaviors in Mexico?

    PubMed

    Lozano, Paula; Fleischer, Nancy L; Moore, Spencer; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Thrasher, James F

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined relationships of neighborhood social norms and neighborhood social cohesion with smoking behavior in a cohort of adult Mexican smokers. Neighborhood anti-smoking norms were measured as the proportion of residents in each neighborhood who believed that society disapproves of smoking. Perceived social cohesion was measured using a 5-item cohesion scale and aggregated to the neighborhood level. Higher neighborhood anti-smoking norms were associated with less successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the relationship between neighborhood social norms and two smoking behaviors: smoking intensity and quit attempts. Residents of neighborhoods with weaker anti-smoking norms and higher social cohesion had lower smoking intensity and more quit attempts than residents living in other areas. Social cohesion may help buffer smoking behavior in areas with weak social norms.

  7. The "is" and the "ought": How do perceived social norms influence safety behaviors at work?

    PubMed

    Fugas, Carla S; Meliá, José L; Silva, Silvia A

    2011-01-01

    Despite a widespread view that social norms have an important contextual influence on health attitudes and behaviors, the impact of normative influences on safety behaviors has received very little attention. The current study proposes that supervisors' and coworkers' descriptive and injunctive safety norms influence proactive and compliance safety behaviors. Longitudinal results from 132 workers in a passenger transportation company support the link between coworkers' descriptive safety norms (at Time 1) and proactive safety practices (at Time 2). Crystallization of supervisor' injunctive safety norms (at Time 2) moderated the effect of coworkers' descriptive safety norms (at Time 1) on self-reported proactive safety behavior (at Time 2). These findings emphasize the differences between supervisors' and coworkers' descriptive and injunctive norms as sources of social influence on compliance and proactive safety behavior.

  8. Social norms, social networks, and HIV risk behavior among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Latkin, C A; Kuramoto, S J; Davey-Rothwell, M A; Tobin, K E

    2010-10-01

    Social network structure and norms are linked to HIV risk behavior. However little is known about the gradient of norm of HIV risk that exists among social networks. We examined the association between injection risk network structure and HIV risk norms among 818 injection drug users (IDUs). IDUs were categorized into four distinct groups based on their risk behaviors with their drug networks: no network members with whom they shared cookers or needles, only cooker-sharing member, one needle-sharing member, and multiple needle-sharing members. The riskiest group, networks of multiple needle sharers, was more likely to endorse both risky needle-sharing and sex norms. Networks of only cooker sharers were less likely to endorse high-risk norms, as compared to the networks with no sharing. There were also differences based on gender. Future HIV prevention interventions for IDUs should target both injection and sex risk norms, particularly among IDUs in the multiple needle-sharing networks.

  9. Unraveling the mystery of Brazilian jeitinho: a cultural exploration of social norms.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Fischer, Ronald; Porto, Juliana Barreiros; Pilati, Ronaldo; Milfont, Taciano L

    2012-03-01

    Two studies explore the structure and psychological makeup of jeitinho, a Brazilian indigenous construct associated with problem-solving strategies in strong hierarchies. Study 1 used a scenario approach with nonstudent participants and demonstrated that jeitinho can be described by a three-dimensional structure: corruption, creativity, and social norm breaking. Study 2 used individual and social norm scenarios in nonstudent samples and demonstrated that moral leniency is associated with more corruption and social norm breaking. Furthermore, only in the personal but not the social norm condition was greater social dominance orientation associated with more corruption and social norm breaking. Jeitinho is not a monolitical construct, but it is a complex sociocultural strategy that has distinct functional components at the personal and normative levels. Theoretical advances in the understanding of social norms and indigenous psychology by examining both culture-specific and general social-psychological processes are outlined.

  10. Approaches to Supporting the Analysis of Historical Medication Datasets with RxNorm

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Lee B.; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate approaches to supporting the analysis of historical medication datasets with RxNorm. Methods We created two sets of National Drug Codes (NDCs). One is based on historical NDCs harvested from versions of RxNorm from 2007 to present. The other comprises all sources of NDCs in the current release of RxNorm, including proprietary sources. We evaluated these two resources against four sets of NDCs obtained from various sources. Results: In two historical medication datasets, 14–19% of the NDCs were obsolete, but 91–96% of these obsolete NDCs could be recovered and mapped to active drug concepts. Conclusion: Adding historical data significantly increases NDC mapping to active RxNorm drugs. A service for mapping historical NDC datasets leveraging RxNorm was added to the RxNorm API and is available at https://rxnav.nlm.nih.gov/. PMID:26958241

  11. Early animal evolution: emerging views from comparative biology and geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Carroll, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Cambrian appearance of fossils representing diverse phyla has long inspired hypotheses about possible genetic or environmental catalysts of early animal evolution. Only recently, however, have data begun to emerge that can resolve the sequence of genetic and morphological innovations, environmental events, and ecological interactions that collectively shaped Cambrian evolution. Assembly of the modern genetic tool kit for development and the initial divergence of major animal clades occurred during the Proterozoic Eon. Crown group morphologies diversified in the Cambrian through changes in the genetic regulatory networks that organize animal ontogeny. Cambrian radiation may have been triggered by environmental perturbation near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary and subsequently amplified by ecological interactions within reorganized ecosystems.

  12. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  13. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  14. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  15. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  16. 30 CFR 780.22 - Geologic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Geologic information shall include, at a minimum the following: (1) A description of the geology of the... adversely impacted by mining. The description shall include the areal and structural geology of the...

  17. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study

  18. Prosocial norms as a positive youth development construct: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Siu, Andrew M H; Shek, Daniel T L; Law, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc.) was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms.

  19. A towel less: social norms enhance pro-environmental behavior in hotels.

    PubMed

    Reese, Gerhard; Loew, Kristina; Steffgen, Georges

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that normative appeals to engage in environmentally friendly behavior were most effective when they were accompanied by a provincial norm (e.g., when norms matched individuals' immediate situational circumstances). Analyzing hotel guests' towel-use during their stay, the current study tests whether messages employing provincial norms were more effective in reducing towel-use than standard environmental messages. In line with previous findings, guests of two hotels used significantly fewer towels when provincial normative appeals--rather than standard environmental messages--were communicated. These findings corroborate to the body of research demonstrating the power of social norms on environmental behavior.

  20. Prosocial Norms as a Positive Youth Development Construct: A Conceptual Review

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Law, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Prosocial norms like reciprocity, social responsibility, altruism, and volunteerism are ethical standards and beliefs that youth development programs often want to promote. This paper reviews evolutionary, social-cognitive, and developmental theories of prosocial development and analyzes how young people learn and adopt prosocial norms. The paper showed that very few current theories explicitly address the issue of how prosocial norms, in form of feelings of moral obligations, may be challenged by a norm of self-interest and social circumstances when prosocial acts are needed. It is necessary to develop theories which put prosocial norms as a central construct, and a new social cognitive theory of norm activation has the potential to help us understand how prosocial norms may be applied. This paper also highlights how little we know about young people perceiving and receiving prosocial norms and how influential of school policies and peer influence on the prosocial development. Lastly, while training of interpersonal competence (e.g., empathy, moral reasoning, etc.) was commonly used in the youth development, their effectiveness was not systematically evaluated. It will also be interesting to examine how computer and information technology or video games may be used in e-learning of prosocial norms. PMID:22666157