MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.
Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua
2014-02-01
This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates.
Optimization of biotechnological systems through geometric programming
Marin-Sanguino, Alberto; Voit, Eberhard O; Gonzalez-Alcon, Carlos; Torres, Nestor V
2007-01-01
Background In the past, tasks of model based yield optimization in metabolic engineering were either approached with stoichiometric models or with structured nonlinear models such as S-systems or linear-logarithmic representations. These models stand out among most others, because they allow the optimization task to be converted into a linear program, for which efficient solution methods are widely available. For pathway models not in one of these formats, an Indirect Optimization Method (IOM) was developed where the original model is sequentially represented as an S-system model, optimized in this format with linear programming methods, reinterpreted in the initial model form, and further optimized as necessary. Results A new method is proposed for this task. We show here that the model format of a Generalized Mass Action (GMA) system may be optimized very efficiently with techniques of geometric programming. We briefly review the basics of GMA systems and of geometric programming, demonstrate how the latter may be applied to the former, and illustrate the combined method with a didactic problem and two examples based on models of real systems. The first is a relatively small yet representative model of the anaerobic fermentation pathway in S. cerevisiae, while the second describes the dynamics of the tryptophan operon in E. coli. Both models have previously been used for benchmarking purposes, thus facilitating comparisons with the proposed new method. In these comparisons, the geometric programming method was found to be equal or better than the earlier methods in terms of successful identification of optima and efficiency. Conclusion GMA systems are of importance, because they contain stoichiometric, mass action and S-systems as special cases, along with many other models. Furthermore, it was previously shown that algebraic equivalence transformations of variables are sufficient to convert virtually any types of dynamical models into the GMA form. Thus
A geometrical perspective for the bargaining problem.
Wong, Kelvin Kian Loong
2010-01-01
A new treatment to determine the Pareto-optimal outcome for a non-zero-sum game is presented. An equilibrium point for any game is defined here as a set of strategy choices for the players, such that no change in the choice of any single player will increase the overall payoff of all the players. Determining equilibrium for multi-player games is a complex problem. An intuitive conceptual tool for reducing the complexity, via the idea of spatially representing strategy options in the bargaining problem is proposed. Based on this geometry, an equilibrium condition is established such that the product of their gains over what each receives is maximal. The geometrical analysis of a cooperative bargaining game provides an example for solving multi-player and non-zero-sum games efficiently. PMID:20436675
The Pentagon Problem: Geometric Reasoning with Technology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zbiek, Rose Mary
1996-01-01
Presents an activity, involving pentagons and using a figure manipulator such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, that requires students to reason geometrically without making unsubstantiated assumptions based on diagrams. (MKR)
Geometrical aspects on the dark matter problem
Capistrano, A.J.S.; Cabral, L.A.
2014-09-15
In the present paper we apply Nash’s theory of perturbative geometry to the study of dark matter gravity in a higher-dimensional space–time. It is shown that the dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature of the standard cosmology. In order to test our model, we use a spherically symmetric metric embedded in a five-dimensional bulk. As a result, considering a sample of 10 low surface brightness and 6 high surface brightness galaxies, we find a very good agreement with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements. - Highlights: • The metric perturbation and the embedding lead naturally to a “brane-world”-like higher dimensional structure. • Nash’s theorem as a cornerstone of the formation of geometrical structures. • The dark matter gravitational perturbations at local scale can be explained by the extrinsic curvature. • A good agreement was found with the observed rotation curves of smooth hybrid alpha-HI measurements.
Iso-geometric analysis for neutron diffusion problems
Hall, S. K.; Eaton, M. D.; Williams, M. M. R.
2012-07-01
Iso-geometric analysis can be viewed as a generalisation of the finite element method. It permits the exact representation of a wider range of geometries including conic sections. This is possible due to the use of concepts employed in computer-aided design. The underlying mathematical representations from computer-aided design are used to capture both the geometry and approximate the solution. In this paper the neutron diffusion equation is solved using iso-geometric analysis. The practical advantages are highlighted by looking at the problem of a circular fuel pin in a square moderator. For this problem the finite element method requires the geometry to be approximated. This leads to errors in the shape and size of the interface between the fuel and the moderator. In contrast to this iso-geometric analysis allows the interface to be represented exactly. It is found that, due to a cancellation of errors, the finite element method converges more quickly than iso-geometric analysis for this problem. A fuel pin in a vacuum was then considered as this problem is highly sensitive to the leakage across the interface. In this case iso-geometric analysis greatly outperforms the finite element method. Due to the improvement in the representation of the geometry iso-geometric analysis can outperform traditional finite element methods. It is proposed that the use of iso-geometric analysis on neutron transport problems will allow deterministic solutions to be obtained for exact geometries. Something that is only currently possible with Monte Carlo techniques. (authors)
Control of tree water networks: A geometric programming approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sela Perelman, L.; Amin, S.
2015-10-01
This paper presents a modeling and operation approach for tree water supply systems. The network control problem is approximated as a geometric programming (GP) problem. The original nonlinear nonconvex network control problem is transformed into a convex optimization problem. The optimization model can be efficiently solved to optimality using state-of-the-art solvers. Two control schemes are presented: (1) operation of network actuators (pumps and valves) and (2) controlled demand shedding allocation between network consumers with limited resources. The dual of the network control problem is formulated and is used to perform sensitivity analysis with respect to hydraulic constraints. The approach is demonstrated on a small branched-topology network and later extended to a medium-size irrigation network. The results demonstrate an intrinsic trade-off between energy costs and demand shedding policy, providing an efficient decision support tool for active management of water systems.
The lawnmower problem and other geometric path covering problems
Fekete, S.; Arkin, E.; Mitchell, J.
1994-12-31
We discuss the Lawnmower Problem: Given a polygonal region, find the shortest closed path along which we have to move a given object (typically a square or a circle), such that any point of the region will be covered by the object for some position of it movement. In another version of the problem, known as the Milling Problem, the object has to stay within the region at all times. Practical motivations for considering the Lawnmower Problem come from manufacturing (spray painting, quality control), geography (aerial surveys), optimization (tour planning for a large number of clients with limited mobility), and gardening. The Milling Problem has gained attention by its importance for NC pocket machining. We show that both problems are NP-hard and discuss approximation methods for various versions of the problem.
Tangram solved? Prefrontal cortex activation analysis during geometric problem solving.
Ayaz, Hasan; Shewokis, Patricia A; Izzetoğlu, Meltem; Çakır, Murat P; Onaral, Banu
2012-01-01
Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated prefrontal and parietal cortices for mathematical problem solving. Mental arithmetic tasks have been used extensively to study neural correlates of mathematical reasoning. In the present study we used geometric problem sets (tangram tasks) that require executive planning and visuospatial reasoning without any linguistic representation interference. We used portable optical brain imaging (functional near infrared spectroscopy--fNIR) to monitor hemodynamic changes within anterior prefrontal cortex during tangram tasks. Twelve healthy subjects were asked to solve a series of computerized tangram puzzles and control tasks that required same geometric shape manipulation without problem solving. Total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration changes indicated a significant increase during tangram problem solving in the right hemisphere. Moreover, HbT changes during failed trials (when no solution found) were significantly higher compared to successful trials. These preliminary results suggest that fNIR can be used to assess cortical activation changes induced by geometric problem solving. Since fNIR is safe, wearable and can be used in ecologically valid environments such as classrooms, this neuroimaging tool may help to improve and optimize learning in educational settings. PMID:23366983
Geometric programming prediction of design trends for OMV protective structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mog, R. A.; Horn, J. R.
1990-01-01
The global optimization trends of protective honeycomb structural designs for spacecraft subject to hypervelocity meteroid and space debris are presented. This nonlinear problem is first formulated for weight minimization of the orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV) using a generic monomial predictor. Five problem formulations are considered, each dependent on the selection of independent design variables. Each case is optimized by considering the dual geometric programming problem. The dual variables are solved for in terms of the generic estimated exponents of the monomial predictor. The primal variables are then solved for by conversion. Finally, parametric design trends are developed for ranges of the estimated regression parameters. Results specify nonmonotonic relationships for the optimal first and second sheet mass per unit areas in terms of the estimated exponents.
Geometric differential evolution for combinatorial and programs spaces.
Moraglio, A; Togelius, J; Silva, S
2013-01-01
Geometric differential evolution (GDE) is a recently introduced formal generalization of traditional differential evolution (DE) that can be used to derive specific differential evolution algorithms for both continuous and combinatorial spaces retaining the same geometric interpretation of the dynamics of the DE search across representations. In this article, we first review the theory behind the GDE algorithm, then, we use this framework to formally derive specific GDE for search spaces associated with binary strings, permutations, vectors of permutations and genetic programs. The resulting algorithms are representation-specific differential evolution algorithms searching the target spaces by acting directly on their underlying representations. We present experimental results for each of the new algorithms on a number of well-known problems comprising NK-landscapes, TSP, and Sudoku, for binary strings, permutations, and vectors of permutations. We also present results for the regression, artificial ant, parity, and multiplexer problems within the genetic programming domain. Experiments show that overall the new DE algorithms are competitive with well-tuned standard search algorithms.
Geometric differential evolution for combinatorial and programs spaces.
Moraglio, A; Togelius, J; Silva, S
2013-01-01
Geometric differential evolution (GDE) is a recently introduced formal generalization of traditional differential evolution (DE) that can be used to derive specific differential evolution algorithms for both continuous and combinatorial spaces retaining the same geometric interpretation of the dynamics of the DE search across representations. In this article, we first review the theory behind the GDE algorithm, then, we use this framework to formally derive specific GDE for search spaces associated with binary strings, permutations, vectors of permutations and genetic programs. The resulting algorithms are representation-specific differential evolution algorithms searching the target spaces by acting directly on their underlying representations. We present experimental results for each of the new algorithms on a number of well-known problems comprising NK-landscapes, TSP, and Sudoku, for binary strings, permutations, and vectors of permutations. We also present results for the regression, artificial ant, parity, and multiplexer problems within the genetic programming domain. Experiments show that overall the new DE algorithms are competitive with well-tuned standard search algorithms. PMID:23270388
Study of Historical Geometric Problems by Means of CAS and DGS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hašek, Roman; Zahradník, Jan
2015-01-01
The use of the dynamic mathematics software GeoGebra to solve geometric problems on conics and loci from an 18th century textbook will be presented. In particular, examples will be shown of how the use of this program helped the authors to understand the method that our predecessors used to deal with conic sections together with solving loci…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mog, Robert A.; Price, D. Marvin
1990-01-01
A unique methodology providing global optimization of spacecraft protective structures is presented. The Geometric Programming optimization technique, which has a long history of application to structural design problems, is employed to minimize spacecraft weight of protective structural systems exposed to meteoroid and space debris hypervelocity impacts. The space debris and meteoroid environment are defined followed by the formulation of the general weight objective function. The Wilkinson, Burch, and Nysmith hypervelocity impact predictor models are then used in example cases to display Geometric Programming capabilities. Results show that global nonlinear design optimization can be performed for hypervelocity impact models that follow the Geometric Programming form.
GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING, CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM, AND THE ANTI-ENTROPY FUNCTION*
Duffin, R. J.; Zener, C.
1969-01-01
The culmination of this paper is the following duality principle of thermodynamics: maximum S = minimum S*. (1) The left side of relation (1) is the classical characterization of equilibrium. It says to maximize the entropy function S with respect to extensive variables which are subject to certain constraints. The right side of (1) is a new characterization of equilibrium and concerns minimization of an anti-entropy function S* with respect to intensive variables. Relation (1) is applied to the chemical equilibrium of a mixture of gases at constant temperature and volume. Then (1) specializes to minimum F = maximum F*, (2) where F is the Helmholtz function for free energy and F* is an anti-Helmholtz function. The right-side of (2) is an unconstrained maximization problem and gives a simplified practical procedure for calculating equilibrium concentrations. We also give a direct proof of (2) by the duality theorem of geometric programming. The duality theorem of geometric programming states that minimum cost = maximum anti-cost. (30) PMID:16591769
Failure of geometric electromagnetism in the adiabatic vector Kepler problem
Anglin, J.R.; Schmiedmayer, J.
2004-02-01
The magnetic moment of a particle orbiting a straight current-carrying wire may precess rapidly enough in the wire's magnetic field to justify an adiabatic approximation, eliminating the rapid time dependence of the magnetic moment and leaving only the particle position as a slow degree of freedom. To zeroth order in the adiabatic expansion, the orbits of the particle in the plane perpendicular to the wire are Keplerian ellipses. Higher-order postadiabatic corrections make the orbits precess, but recent analysis of this 'vector Kepler problem' has shown that the effective Hamiltonian incorporating a postadiabatic scalar potential ('geometric electromagnetism') fails to predict the precession correctly, while a heuristic alternative succeeds. In this paper we resolve the apparent failure of the postadiabatic approximation, by pointing out that the correct second-order analysis produces a third Hamiltonian, in which geometric electromagnetism is supplemented by a tensor potential. The heuristic Hamiltonian of Schmiedmayer and Scrinzi is then shown to be a canonical transformation of the correct adiabatic Hamiltonian, to second order. The transformation has the important advantage of removing a 1/r{sup 3} singularity which is an artifact of the adiabatic approximation.
Electric-magnetic duality and the geometric Langlands program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapustin, Anton; Witten, Edward
The geometric Langlands program can be described in a natural way bycompactifying on a Riemann surface C a twisted version of EUN=4 super Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions. The keyingredients are electric-magnetic duality of gauge theory, mirrorsymmetry of sigma-models, branes, Wilson and 't Hooft operators,and topological field theory. Seemingly esoteric notions of thegeometric Langlands program, such as Hecke eigensheaves and D-modules, arise naturally from the physics.
The Isosceles Three-Body Problem: a Global Geometric Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chesley, Steven Ross
1998-12-01
This study demonstrates the use of the Poincare map to determine the evolution of areas in the surface of section under a single iteration, rather than scrutinizing a few initial conditions for many iterations as is usually done. This new approach provides details on the underlying structure of what are simply 'chaotic seas' in the traditional surface-of-section plot. Furthermore, since many iterations of the map are not required, the present approach substantially avoids issues of numerical reliability. The isosceles three-body problem has been reduced to a two-dimensional area-preserving Poincare map f depending on two parameters: the mass ratio, and the total angular momentum. The region of allowable motion is divided into subregions according to a symbolic dynamics representation. In this new context one considers how the images of the subregions intersect with their preimages. This leads to an elegant geometric description of the dynamics in the chaotic regions, and to a nearly complete global description of the system. This description immediately provides the existence of various types of motion such as capture-escape, permanent capture, ejection-collision, etc., and their corresponding measures in the map domain. Moreover, this method can be used to show that certain dynamical behaviors are not permitted by the equations of motion. The problem is investigated in three stages. First, the planar (zero angular momentum) case with three equal masses is studied in considerable detail. In this case there exist two important invariant subsets under f. The first is a Cantor set with zero measure. The existence of this chaotic set follows from the fact that f is similar to the Smale horseshoe map in part of the domain. The second subset is an invariant KAM region with positive measure surrounding an elliptic fixed point-the 'main' periodic orbit. The second stage explores the bifurcations in the mass ratio for the planar case. Here the entire chaotic invariant set
Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Jim
1993-01-01
Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)
A solution to the surface intersection problem. [Boolean functions in geometric modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timer, H. G.
1977-01-01
An application-independent geometric model within a data base framework should support the use of Boolean operators which allow the user to construct a complex model by appropriately combining a series of simple models. The use of these operators leads to the concept of implicitly and explicitly defined surfaces. With an explicitly defined model, the surface area may be computed by simply summing the surface areas of the bounding surfaces. For an implicitly defined model, the surface area computation must deal with active and inactive regions. Because the surface intersection problem involves four unknowns and its solution is a space curve, the parametric coordinates of each surface must be determined as a function of the arc length. Various subproblems involved in the general intersection problem are discussed, and the mathematical basis for their solution is presented along with a program written in FORTRAN IV for implementation on the IBM 370 TSO system.
Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAllister, Alan
Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mangalgiri, P. D.; Prabhakaran, R.
1986-01-01
An algorithm for vectorized computation of stiffness matrices of an 8 noded isoparametric hexahedron element for geometric nonlinear analysis was developed. This was used in conjunction with the earlier 2-D program GAMNAS to develop the new program NAS3D for geometric nonlinear analysis. A conventional, modified Newton-Raphson process is used for the nonlinear analysis. New schemes for the computation of stiffness and strain energy release rates is presented. The organization the program is explained and some results on four sample problems are given. The study of CPU times showed that savings by a factor of 11 to 13 were achieved when vectorized computation was used for the stiffness instead of the conventional scalar one. Finally, the scheme of inputting data is explained.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soury-Lavergne, Sophie; Maschietto, Michela
2015-01-01
Our paper focuses on the relationship between spatial and geometrical knowledge in problem solving situations at primary school. We have created tasks that involve three different spaces: physical space, graphical space and geometrical space. We aim to study the specific role of graphical space as a bridge between the other two spaces using paper…
Computer modeling of electromagnetic problems using the geometrical theory of diffraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burnside, W. D.
1976-01-01
Some applications of the geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD), a high frequency ray optical solution to electromagnetic problems, are presented. GTD extends geometric optics, which does not take into account the diffractions occurring at edges, vertices, and various other discontinuities. Diffraction solutions, analysis of basic structures, construction of more complex structures, and coupling using GTD are discussed.
Geometric Series: A New Solution to the Dog Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dion, Peter; Ho, Anthony
2013-01-01
This article describes what is often referred to as the dog, beetle, mice, ant, or turtle problem. Solutions to this problem exist, some being variations of each other, which involve mathematics of a wide range of complexity. Herein, the authors describe the intuitive solution and the calculus solution and then offer a completely new solution…
Developing Shift Problems to Foster Geometrical Proof and Understanding
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palha, Sonia; Dekker, Rijkje; Gravemeijer, Koeno; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette
2013-01-01
Meaningful learning of formal mathematics in regular classrooms remains a problem in mathematics education. Research shows that instructional approaches in which students work collaboratively on tasks that are tailored to problem solving and reflection can improve students' learning in experimental classrooms. However, these sequences involve…
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…
Geometric projection filter: an efficient solution to the SLAM problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Paul M.; Durrant-Whyte, Hugh F.
2001-10-01
This paper is concerned with the simultaneous localization and map building (SLAM) problem. The SLAM problem asks if it is possible for an autonomous vehicle to start in an unknown location in an unknown environment and then to incrementally build a map of this environment while simultaneously using this map to compute absolute vehicle location. Conventional approaches to this problem are plagued with a prohibitively large increase in computation with the size of the environment. This paper offers a new solution to the SLAM problem that is both consistent and computationally feasible. The proposed algorithm builds a map expressing the relationships between landmarks which is then transformed into landmark locations. Experimental results are presented employing the new algorithm on a subsea vehicle using a scanning sonar sensor.
The Parabolas of Artzt in the Solution of a Geometric Problem of Minimum Length
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klaoudatos, Nikos
2011-01-01
The article describes the solution of a geometric problem and how this problem was formed. During the investigation process, I discovered that the inscribed parabola in a triangle, known as the parabola of Artzt, a mathematical subject developed almost 120 years ago, was the decisive idea which directed me towards the solution. Moreover, in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yildiz, Avni
2016-01-01
Geometric constructions have already been of interest to mathematicians. However, studies on geometric construction are not adequate in the relevant literature. Moreover, these studies generally focus on how secondary school gifted students solve non-routine mathematical problems. The present study aims to examine the geometric construction…
Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.
1981-01-01
The term 'trajectory problem' is taken to include problems that can arise, for instance, in connection with contour plotting, or in the application of continuation methods, or during phase-plane analysis. Geometrical techniques are used to construct difference methods for these problems to produce in turn explicit and implicit circularly exact formulae. Based on these formulae, a predictor-corrector method is derived which, when compared with a closely related standard method, shows improved performance. It is found that this latter method produces spurious limit cycles, and this behavior is partly analyzed. Finally, a simple variable-step algorithm is constructed and tested.
Geometric tools for solving the FDI problem for linear periodic discrete-time systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longhi, Sauro; Monteriù, Andrea
2013-07-01
This paper studies the problem of detecting and isolating faults in linear periodic discrete-time systems. The aim is to design an observer-based residual generator where each residual is sensitive to one fault, whilst remaining insensitive to the other faults that can affect the system. Making use of the geometric tools, and in particular of the outer observable subspace notion, the Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) problem is formulated and necessary and solvability conditions are given. An algorithmic procedure is described to determine the solution of the FDI problem.
von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen; Frazier, Brenda C; Lahr, Marta Mirazón
2007-09-01
Geometric morphometric methods rely on the accurate identification and quantification of landmarks on biological specimens. As in any empirical analysis, the assessment of inter- and intra-observer error is desirable. A review of methods currently being employed to assess measurement error in geometric morphometrics was conducted and three general approaches to the problem were identified. One such approach employs Generalized Procrustes Analysis to superimpose repeatedly digitized landmark configurations, thereby establishing whether repeat measures fall within an acceptable range of variation. The potential problem of this error assessment method (the "Pinocchio effect") is demonstrated and its effect on error studies discussed. An alternative approach involves employing Euclidean distances between the configuration centroid and repeat measures of a landmark to assess the relative repeatability of individual landmarks. This method is also potentially problematic as the inherent geometric properties of the specimen can result in misleading estimates of measurement error. A third approach involved the repeated digitization of landmarks with the specimen held in a constant orientation to assess individual landmark precision. This latter approach is an ideal method for assessing individual landmark precision, but is restrictive in that it does not allow for the incorporation of instrumentally defined or Type III landmarks. Hence, a revised method for assessing landmark error is proposed and described with the aid of worked empirical examples.
Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.
1982-01-01
An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.
Three-dimensional crack and contact problems with a general geometric configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yong, Z.; Hanson, M. T.
1994-02-01
A NEW METHOD, based on point set theory and properties of orthogonal functions, is developed for determining exact solutions to three-dimensional crack and contact problems with complicated geometric configurations (e.g. a star-convex domain) in an infinite linear elastic medium. The governing equation is a two-dimensional Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. The central idea of this method is the chain extension of an exact solution from a regular subdomain to an irregular entire domain. Examples are given illustrating how this solution procedure can be used to obtain exact closed form solutions for a general Hertz contact problem and various crack problems in an inhomogeneous isotropic medium with an elastic modulus which is a power function of depth.
Measurement problem in PROGRAM UNIVERSE
Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.
1984-12-01
We present a discrete theory that meets the measurement problem in a new way. We generate a growing universe of bit strings, labeled by 2/sup 127/ + 136 strings organized by some representation of the closed, four level, combinatorial hierarchy, of bit-length N/sub 139/ greater than or equal to 139. The rest of the strings for each label, which grow in both length and number, are called addresses. The generating algorithm, called PROGRAM UNIVERSE, starts from a random choice between the two symbols ''0'' and ''1'' and grows (a) by discriminating between two randomly chosen strings and adjoining a novel result to the universe, or when the string so generated is not novel, by (b) adjoining a randomly chosen bit at the growing end of each string. We obtain, by appropriate definitions and interpretations, stable ''particles'' which satisfy the usual relativistic kinematics and quantized angular momentum without being localizable in a continuum space-time. The labeling scheme is congruent with the ''standard model'' of quarks and leptons with three generations, but for the problem at hand, the implementation of this aspect of the theory is unimportant. What matters most is that (a) these complicated ''particles'' have the periodicities familiar from relativistic ''deBroglie waves'' and resolve in a discrete way the ''wave-particle dualism'' and (b) can be ''touched'' by our discrete equivalent of ''soft photons'' in such a way as to follow, macroscopically, the usual Rutherford scattering trajectories with the associated bound states. Thus our theory could provide a discrete description of ''measurement'' in a way that allows no conceptual barrier between the ''micro'' and the ''macro'' worlds, if we are willing to base our physics on counting and exclude the ambiguities associated with the unobservable ''continuum''. 27 refs.
A New Program for Detecting the Geometrical Core of a Set of Structures of Macromolecular Complexes.
Vakulenko, Yu A; Nagaev, B E; Alexeevski, A V; Karyagina, A S; Spirin, S A
2016-04-01
Comparison of structures of homological proteins often helps to understand functionally significant features of these structures. This concerns not only structures of separate protein chains, but also structures of macromolecular complexes. In particular, a comparison of complexes of homologous proteins with DNA is significant for analysis of the recognition of DNA by proteins. We present program LCore for detecting geometrical cores of a family of structures; a geometrical core is a set of amino acid residues and nucleotides that disposed similarly in all structures of the family. We describe the algorithm of the program, its web interface, and an example of its application to analysis of complexes of homeodomains with DNA.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyukarev, Yu M.
2016-04-01
The ranks of the limit Weyl intervals are known to serve as the geometric measure of degeneracy of the solution set to a Stieltjes matrix moment problem. This paper puts forward the first operator measure of degeneracy for the solution set to a Stieltjes matrix moment problem in terms of the deficiency vectors of a pair of associated positive symmetric operators. A relationship between the geometric and operator measures of degeneracy for a Stieltjes matrix moment problem is established, from which some corollaries about the Stieltjes matrix moment problem are obtained.Bibliography 19 titles.
Geometric problem solving related to differences in sex and mathematical interests.
Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H
1979-06-01
Sex differences in Einstellung Effects were confounded by attitudinal factors. Hypothesizing that this was the case for spatial visualization and restructurization, we compared male and female college students' solutions of three elementary geometric problems. Used by Max Wertheimer to study productive thinking, they call for a Gestalt, spatial approach. In group administration to 86 calculus students, males did somewhat better than females, but the reverse held in classes where most women majored in mathematics. Individual administration to 200 Ss, balanced for sex and major, showed that female mathematics majors had more solutions than other females: e.g., 51 percent more compared to 26 percent sex differences. Four hints were available for restructuring each problem. The percentage needing all four hints was highest for male nonmathematics major and next highest for female mathematics majors (e.g., 75 and 23 percent, respectively). Embarrassment at needing hints in such "easy problems" and ego-involvement were factors. Thus, sex differences were less pronounced than differences related to mathematical abilities and interests and to task-and ego-concerns. PMID:469505
Geometric problem solving related to differences in sex and mathematical interests.
Luchins, A S; Luchins, E H
1979-06-01
Sex differences in Einstellung Effects were confounded by attitudinal factors. Hypothesizing that this was the case for spatial visualization and restructurization, we compared male and female college students' solutions of three elementary geometric problems. Used by Max Wertheimer to study productive thinking, they call for a Gestalt, spatial approach. In group administration to 86 calculus students, males did somewhat better than females, but the reverse held in classes where most women majored in mathematics. Individual administration to 200 Ss, balanced for sex and major, showed that female mathematics majors had more solutions than other females: e.g., 51 percent more compared to 26 percent sex differences. Four hints were available for restructuring each problem. The percentage needing all four hints was highest for male nonmathematics major and next highest for female mathematics majors (e.g., 75 and 23 percent, respectively). Embarrassment at needing hints in such "easy problems" and ego-involvement were factors. Thus, sex differences were less pronounced than differences related to mathematical abilities and interests and to task-and ego-concerns.
A discrete geometric formulation for eddy-current problems in fusion devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bettini, Paolo; Furno Palumbo, Maurizio; Specogna, Ruben
2014-03-01
All thermonuclear controlled fusion devices under construction or design have such high performances to require a special care in the dimensioning of various components, specifically from the electromagnetic point of view. To this purpose, it is fundamental to develop models which are both accurate (i.e. able to describe the physical phenomena) and predictive (i.e. useful not only to explain what happens in running experiments, but also to reliably extrapolate to other range of parameters). The dynamics of fusion plasmas is often conveniently described by Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics (MHD) equations, which predict that some unstable evolution modes may exist. On the other hand, the complexity of the intrinsically 3D model of the interactions between a realistic unstable plasma, the surrounding passive structures (important to guarantee a good MHD stability) and the active conductors (coils) require the numerical solution of challenging electromagnetic problems. In this work a discrete geometric formulation for eddy-current problems in the frequency domain is developed; the magnetic fields produced by a typical active coil system is calculated in the presence of 3D conductive structures.
Dynamic programming in applied optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavalishchin, Dmitry
2015-11-01
Features of the use dynamic programming in applied problems are investigated. In practice such problems as finding the critical paths in network planning and control, finding the optimal supply plan in transportation problem, objects territorial distribution are traditionally solved by special methods of operations research. It should be noted that the dynamic programming is not provided computational advantages, but facilitates changes and modifications of tasks. This follows from the Bellman's optimality principle. The features of the multistage decision processes construction in applied problems are provided.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Widder, Mirela; Gorsky, Paul
2013-01-01
In schools, learning spatial geometry is usually dependent upon a student's ability to visualize three dimensional geometric configurations from two dimensional drawings. Such a process, however, often creates visual obstacles which are unique to spatial geometry. Useful software programs which realistically depict three dimensional geometric…
Quantum Algorithm for Linear Programming Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joag, Pramod; Mehendale, Dhananjay
The quantum algorithm (PRL 103, 150502, 2009) solves a system of linear equations with exponential speedup over existing classical algorithms. We show that the above algorithm can be readily adopted in the iterative algorithms for solving linear programming (LP) problems. The first iterative algorithm that we suggest for LP problem follows from duality theory. It consists of finding nonnegative solution of the equation forduality condition; forconstraints imposed by the given primal problem and for constraints imposed by its corresponding dual problem. This problem is called the problem of nonnegative least squares, or simply the NNLS problem. We use a well known method for solving the problem of NNLS due to Lawson and Hanson. This algorithm essentially consists of solving in each iterative step a new system of linear equations . The other iterative algorithms that can be used are those based on interior point methods. The same technique can be adopted for solving network flow problems as these problems can be readily formulated as LP problems. The suggested quantum algorithm cansolveLP problems and Network Flow problems of very large size involving millions of variables.
Industrial Alcoholism Programs: The Problem, The Program, The Professional
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barry, Lawrence M.
1976-01-01
Alcoholism, as a national health problem, is receiving increasingly more attention from private industry as well as from federal and local government. The author addresses himself to the problem of alcoholism in industry and reviews the historical development of industrial alcoholism programs. He concludes with suggestions for the community…
Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana
2008-10-01
We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadjadi, Seyed Jafar; Hamidi Hesarsorkh, Aghil; Mohammadi, Mehdi; Bonyadi Naeini, Ali
2014-08-01
Coordination and harmony between different departments of a company can be an important factor in achieving competitive advantage if the company corrects alignment between strategies of different departments. This paper presents an integrated decision model based on recent advances of geometric programming technique. The demand of a product considers as a power function of factors such as product's price, marketing expenditures, and consumer service expenditures. Furthermore, production cost considers as a cubic power function of outputs. The model will be solved by recent advances in convex optimization tools. Finally, the solution procedure is illustrated by numerical example.
Bouchard, Bruno Vu, Thanh Nam
2010-04-15
We provide an obstacle version of the Geometric Dynamic Programming Principle of Soner and Touzi (J. Eur. Math. Soc. 4:201-236, 2002) for stochastic target problems. This opens the doors to a wide range of applications, particularly in risk control in finance and insurance, in which a controlled stochastic process has to be maintained in a given set on a time interval [0,T]. As an example of application, we show how it can be used to provide a viscosity characterization of the super-hedging cost of American options under portfolio constraints, without appealing to the standard dual formulation from mathematical finance. In particular, we allow for a degenerate volatility, a case which does not seem to have been studied so far in this context.
Program Helps Decompose Complicated Design Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rogers, James L., Jr.
1993-01-01
Time saved by intelligent decomposition into smaller, interrelated problems. DeMAID is knowledge-based software system for ordering sequence of modules and identifying possible multilevel structure for design problem. Displays modules in N x N matrix format. Requires investment of time to generate and refine list of modules for input, it saves considerable amount of money and time in total design process, particularly new design problems in which ordering of modules has not been defined. Program also implemented to examine assembly-line process or ordering of tasks and milestones.
Problems associated with community mental health programs.
Bindman, A J
1966-12-01
Community mental health programs vary in relation to their types of administrative and fiscal policy and structure. Discontinuity of services may increase due to proliferation of community-based programs, and community mental health personnel must be trained to deal with many needs and new programs. There will also be conflicts over individual professional interests versus community needs. Problems of staff recruitment will increase and concerted efforts are necessary to increase inservice education in order to re-shape professional roles. Psychologists in particular are interested in new developments in "community psychology" as a means of contributing to these efforts. PMID:24190853
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daher, Wajeeh M.
2014-04-01
Mathematical learning and teaching are increasingly seen as a multimodal experience involved in cultural and social semiotic registers and means, and as such social-cultural semiotic analysis is expected to shed light on learning and teaching processes occurring in the mathematics classroom. In this research, three social-cultural semiotic frameworks were utilised to analyse elementary school students' learning of a geometric relation: the semiotic bundle, the space of action, production and communication and the theoretical framework of attention, awareness and objectification. Educational mathematical situations are described, in addition to semiotic sets, registers and means emerging in the different mathematical situations and that are relevant to the three social-cultural semiotic frameworks which the current research utilizes. Further, the students, as a consequence of (1) their multimodal experience, (2) their connecting between the different mathematical situations and semiotic registers, and (3) the teacher's questions and tasks, could objectify the geometric relation between the lengths of the triangle's edges.
VLSI architectures for geometrical mapping problems in high-definition image processing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, K.; Lee, J.
1991-01-01
This paper explores a VLSI architecture for geometrical mapping address computation. The geometric transformation is discussed in the context of plane projective geometry, which invokes a set of basic transformations to be implemented for the general image processing. The homogeneous and 2-dimensional cartesian coordinates are employed to represent the transformations, each of which is implemented via an augmented CORDIC as a processing element. A specific scheme for a processor, which utilizes full-pipelining at the macro-level and parallel constant-factor-redundant arithmetic and full-pipelining at the micro-level, is assessed to produce a single VLSI chip for HDTV applications using state-of-art MOS technology.
Stalactite growth as a free-boundary problem: a geometric law and its platonic ideal.
Short, Martin B; Baygents, James C; Beck, J Warren; Stone, David A; Toomey, Rickard S; Goldstein, Raymond E
2005-01-14
The chemical mechanisms underlying the growth of cave formations such as stalactites are well known, yet no theory has yet been proposed which successfully accounts for the dynamic evolution of their shapes. Here we consider the interplay of thin-film fluid dynamics, calcium carbonate chemistry, and CO2 transport in the cave to show that stalactites evolve according to a novel local geometric growth law which exhibits extreme amplification at the tip as a consequence of the locally-varying fluid layer thickness. Studies of this model show that a broad class of initial conditions is attracted to an ideal shape which is strikingly close to a statistical average of natural stalactites.
Stalactite Growth as a Free-Boundary Problem: A Geometric Law and Its Platonic Ideal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Short, Martin B.; Baygents, James C.; Beck, J. Warren; Stone, David A.; Toomey, Rickard S.; Goldstein, Raymond E.
2005-01-01
The chemical mechanisms underlying the growth of cave formations such as stalactites are well known, yet no theory has yet been proposed which successfully accounts for the dynamic evolution of their shapes. Here we consider the interplay of thin-film fluid dynamics, calcium carbonate chemistry, and CO2 transport in the cave to show that stalactites evolve according to a novel local geometric growth law which exhibits extreme amplification at the tip as a consequence of the locally-varying fluid layer thickness. Studies of this model show that a broad class of initial conditions is attracted to an ideal shape which is strikingly close to a statistical average of natural stalactites.
A prefiltered cuckoo search algorithm with geometric operators for solving Sudoku problems.
Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Monfroy, Eric; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The Sudoku is a famous logic-placement game, originally popularized in Japan and today widely employed as pastime and as testbed for search algorithms. The classic Sudoku consists in filling a 9 × 9 grid, divided into nine 3 × 3 regions, so that each column, row, and region contains different digits from 1 to 9. This game is known to be NP-complete, with existing various complete and incomplete search algorithms able to solve different instances of it. In this paper, we present a new cuckoo search algorithm for solving Sudoku puzzles combining prefiltering phases and geometric operations. The geometric operators allow one to correctly move toward promising regions of the combinatorial space, while the prefiltering phases are able to previously delete from domains the values that do not conduct to any feasible solution. This integration leads to a more efficient domain filtering and as a consequence to a faster solving process. We illustrate encouraging experimental results where our approach noticeably competes with the best approximate methods reported in the literature. PMID:24707205
A prefiltered cuckoo search algorithm with geometric operators for solving Sudoku problems.
Soto, Ricardo; Crawford, Broderick; Galleguillos, Cristian; Monfroy, Eric; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The Sudoku is a famous logic-placement game, originally popularized in Japan and today widely employed as pastime and as testbed for search algorithms. The classic Sudoku consists in filling a 9 × 9 grid, divided into nine 3 × 3 regions, so that each column, row, and region contains different digits from 1 to 9. This game is known to be NP-complete, with existing various complete and incomplete search algorithms able to solve different instances of it. In this paper, we present a new cuckoo search algorithm for solving Sudoku puzzles combining prefiltering phases and geometric operations. The geometric operators allow one to correctly move toward promising regions of the combinatorial space, while the prefiltering phases are able to previously delete from domains the values that do not conduct to any feasible solution. This integration leads to a more efficient domain filtering and as a consequence to a faster solving process. We illustrate encouraging experimental results where our approach noticeably competes with the best approximate methods reported in the literature.
Plasmonics and the parallel programming problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishkin, Uzi; Smolyaninov, Igor; Davis, Chris
2007-02-01
While many parallel computers have been built, it has generally been too difficult to program them. Now, all computers are effectively becoming parallel machines. Biannual doubling in the number of cores on a single chip, or faster, over the coming decade is planned by most computer vendors. Thus, the parallel programming problem is becoming more critical. The only known solution to the parallel programming problem in the theory of computer science is through a parallel algorithmic theory called PRAM. Unfortunately, some of the PRAM theory assumptions regarding the bandwidth between processors and memories did not properly reflect a parallel computer that could be built in previous decades. Reaching memories, or other processors in a multi-processor organization, required off-chip connections through pins on the boundary of each electric chip. Using the number of transistors that is becoming available on chip, on-chip architectures that adequately support the PRAM are becoming possible. However, the bandwidth of off-chip connections remains insufficient and the latency remains too high. This creates a bottleneck at the boundary of the chip for a PRAM-On-Chip architecture. This also prevents scalability to larger "supercomputing" organizations spanning across many processing chips that can handle massive amounts of data. Instead of connections through pins and wires, power-efficient CMOS-compatible on-chip conversion to plasmonic nanowaveguides is introduced for improved latency and bandwidth. Proper incorporation of our ideas offer exciting avenues to resolving the parallel programming problem, and an alternative way for building faster, more useable and much more compact supercomputers.
Borghero, Francesco; Demontis, Francesco
2016-09-01
In the framework of geometrical optics, we consider the following inverse problem: given a two-parameter family of curves (congruence) (i.e., f(x,y,z)=c_{1},g(x,y,z)=c_{2}), construct the refractive-index distribution function n=n(x,y,z) of a 3D continuous transparent inhomogeneous isotropic medium, allowing for the creation of the given congruence as a family of monochromatic light rays. We solve this problem by following two different procedures: 1. By applying Fermat's principle, we establish a system of two first-order linear nonhomogeneous PDEs in the unique unknown function n=n(x,y,z) relating the assigned congruence of rays with all possible refractive-index profiles compatible with this family. Moreover, we furnish analytical proof that the family of rays must be a normal congruence. 2. By applying the eikonal equation, we establish a second system of two first-order linear homogeneous PDEs whose solutions give the equation S(x,y,z)=const. of the geometric wavefronts and, consequently, all pertinent refractive-index distribution functions n=n(x,y,z). Finally, we make a comparison between the two procedures described above, discussing appropriate examples having exact solutions. PMID:27607492
Lu, Bao-Liang; Ito, Koji
2003-09-01
In this paper we present a method for converting general nonlinear programming (NLP) problems into separable programming (SP) problems by using feedforward neural networks (FNNs). The basic idea behind the method is to use two useful features of FNNs: their ability to approximate arbitrary continuous nonlinear functions with a desired degree of accuracy and their ability to express nonlinear functions in terms of parameterized compositions of functions of single variables. According to these two features, any nonseparable objective functions and/or constraints in NLP problems can be approximately expressed as separable functions with FNNs. Therefore, any NLP problems can be converted into SP problems. The proposed method has three prominent features. (a) It is more general than existing transformation techniques; (b) it can be used to formulate optimization problems as SP problems even when their precise analytic objective function and/or constraints are unknown; (c) the SP problems obtained by the proposed method may highly facilitate the selection of grid points for piecewise linear approximation of nonlinear functions. We analyze the computational complexity of the proposed method and compare it with an existing transformation approach. We also present several examples to demonstrate the method and the performance of the simplex method with the restricted basis entry rule for solving SP problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moroni, Giovanni; Syam, Wahyudin P.; Petrò, Stefano
2014-08-01
Product quality is a main concern today in manufacturing; it drives competition between companies. To ensure high quality, a dimensional inspection to verify the geometric properties of a product must be carried out. High-speed non-contact scanners help with this task, by both speeding up acquisition speed and increasing accuracy through a more complete description of the surface. The algorithms for the management of the measurement data play a critical role in ensuring both the measurement accuracy and speed of the device. One of the most fundamental parts of the algorithm is the procedure for fitting the substitute geometry to a cloud of points. This article addresses this challenge. Three relevant geometries are selected as case studies: a non-linear least-squares fitting of a circle, sphere and cylinder. These geometries are chosen in consideration of their common use in practice; for example the sphere is often adopted as a reference artifact for performance verification of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a cylinder is the most relevant geometry for a pin-hole relation as an assembly feature to construct a complete functioning product. In this article, an improvement of the initial point guess for the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm by employing a chaos optimization (CO) method is proposed. This causes a performance improvement in the optimization of a non-linear function fitting the three geometries. The results show that, with this combination, a higher quality of fitting results a smaller norm of the residuals can be obtained while preserving the computational cost. Fitting an ‘incomplete-point-cloud’, which is a situation where the point cloud does not cover a complete feature e.g. from half of the total part surface, is also investigated. Finally, a case study of fitting a hemisphere is presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pallozzi Lavorante, Luca; Dirk Ebert, Hans
2008-07-01
Tensor3D is a geometric modeling program with the capacity to simulate and visualize in real-time the deformation, specified through a tensor matrix and applied to triangulated models representing geological bodies. 3D visualization allows the study of deformational processes that are traditionally conducted in 2D, such as simple and pure shears. Besides geometric objects that are immediately available in the program window, the program can read other models from disk, thus being able to import objects created with different open-source or proprietary programs. A strain ellipsoid and a bounding box are simultaneously shown and instantly deformed with the main object. The principal axes of strain are visualized as well to provide graphical information about the orientation of the tensor's normal components. The deformed models can also be saved, retrieved later and deformed again, in order to study different steps of progressive strain, or to make this data available to other programs. The shape of stress ellipsoids and the corresponding Mohr circles defined by any stress tensor can also be represented. The application was written using the Visualization ToolKit, a powerful scientific visualization library in the public domain. This development choice, allied to the use of the Tcl/Tk programming language, which is independent on the host computational platform, makes the program a useful tool for the study of geometric deformations directly in three dimensions in teaching as well as research activities.
Fifth SIAM conference on geometric design 97: Final program and abstracts. Final technical report
1997-12-31
The meeting was divided into the following sessions: (1) CAD/CAM; (2) Curve/Surface Design; (3) Geometric Algorithms; (4) Multiresolution Methods; (5) Robotics; (6) Solid Modeling; and (7) Visualization. This report contains the abstracts of papers presented at the meeting. Proceding the conference there was a short course entitled ``Wavelets for Geometric Modeling and Computer Graphics``.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikitenko, N. I.
1981-12-01
The paper develops a difference method for solving inverse geometric problems of heat conduction relating to the determination of the coordinates of a moving boundary with respect to steps along the time axis. At every step, the desired function is expanded in a power series of the time coordinate; and the coefficients of this series are found through the multiple solution of direct heat-conduction problems for systems with moving phase boundaries. Numerical results indicate that the error of the solution of incorrectly stated inverse geometric problems differs only insignificantly from the error of the initial data.
Curvature and geodesic instabilities in a geometrical approach to the planar three-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnaswami, Govind S.; Senapati, Himalaya
2016-10-01
The Maupertuis principle allows us to regard classical trajectories as reparametrized geodesics of the Jacobi-Maupertuis (JM) metric on configuration space. We study this geodesic reformulation of the planar three-body problem with both Newtonian and attractive inverse-square potentials. The associated JM metrics possess translation and rotation isometries in addition to scaling isometries for the inverse-square potential with zero energy E. The geodesic flow on the full configuration space ℂ3 (with collision points excluded) leads to corresponding flows on its Riemannian quotients: the center of mass configuration space ℂ2 and shape space ℝ3 (as well as 𝕊3 and the shape sphere 𝕊2 for the inverse-square potential when E = 0). The corresponding Riemannian submersions are described explicitly in "Hopf" coordinates which are particularly adapted to the isometries. For equal masses subject to inverse-square potentials, Montgomery shows that the zero-energy "pair of pants" JM metric on the shape sphere is geodesically complete and has negative gaussian curvature except at Lagrange points. We extend this to a proof of boundedness and strict negativity of scalar curvatures everywhere on ℂ2, ℝ3, and 𝕊3 with collision points removed. Sectional curvatures are also found to be largely negative, indicating widespread geodesic instabilities. We obtain asymptotic metrics near collisions, show that scalar curvatures have finite limits, and observe that the geodesic reformulation "regularizes" pairwise and triple collisions on ℂ2 and its quotients for arbitrary masses and allowed energies. For the Newtonian potential with equal masses and zero energy, we find that the scalar curvature on ℂ2 is strictly negative though it could have either sign on ℝ3. However, unlike for the inverse-square potential, geodesics can encounter curvature singularities at collisions in finite geodesic time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lenarda, P.; Paggi, M.
2016-06-01
A comprehensive computational framework based on the finite element method for the simulation of coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical problems in photovoltaic laminates is herein proposed. While the thermo-mechanical problem takes place in the three-dimensional space of the laminate, moisture diffusion occurs in a two-dimensional domain represented by the polymeric layers and by the vertical channel cracks in the solar cells. Therefore, a geometrical multi-scale solution strategy is pursued by solving the partial differential equations governing heat transfer and thermo-elasticity in the three-dimensional space, and the partial differential equation for moisture diffusion in the two dimensional domains. By exploiting a staggered scheme, the thermo-mechanical problem is solved first via a fully implicit solution scheme in space and time, with a specific treatment of the polymeric layers as zero-thickness interfaces whose constitutive response is governed by a novel thermo-visco-elastic cohesive zone model based on fractional calculus. Temperature and relative displacements along the domains where moisture diffusion takes place are then projected to the finite element model of diffusion, coupled with the thermo-mechanical problem by the temperature and crack opening dependent diffusion coefficient. The application of the proposed method to photovoltaic modules pinpoints two important physical aspects: (i) moisture diffusion in humidity freeze tests with a temperature dependent diffusivity is a much slower process than in the case of a constant diffusion coefficient; (ii) channel cracks through Silicon solar cells significantly enhance moisture diffusion and electric degradation, as confirmed by experimental tests.
Research program with no ''measurement problem''
Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.
1985-07-01
The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is met by recognizing that the physicist participates when constructing and when applying the theory consisting of the formulated formal and measurement criteria (the expressions and rules) providing the necessary conditions which allow him to compute and measure facts, yet retains objectivity by requiring that these criteria, rules and facts be in corroborative equilibrium. We construct the particulate states of quantum physics by a recursive program which incorporates the non-determinism born of communication between asynchronous processes over a shared memory. Their quantum numbers and coupling constants arise from the construction via the unique 4-level combinatorial hierarchy. The construction defines indivisible quantum events with the requisite supraluminal correlations, yet does not allow supraluminal communication. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar, and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.
Correlates of Problem-Solving in Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chung, Choi-man
1988-01-01
Examines some correlates of programing ability that can predict the computer programing performance of students. Finds that students who score high on mathematics and spatial tests will score high on programing ability tests. Finds that boys perform significantly better than girls in programing ability, as do those who possess home computers. (KO)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talman, Richard
1999-10-01
Mechanics for the nonmathematician-a modern approach For physicists, mechanics is quite obviously geometric, yet the classical approach typically emphasizes abstract, mathematical formalism. Setting out to make mechanics both accessible and interesting for nonmathematicians, Richard Talman uses geometric methods to reveal qualitative aspects of the theory. He introduces concepts from differential geometry, differential forms, and tensor analysis, then applies them to areas of classical mechanics as well as other areas of physics, including optics, crystal diffraction, electromagnetism, relativity, and quantum mechanics. For easy reference, Dr. Talman treats separately Lagrangian, Hamiltonian, and Newtonian mechanics-exploring their geometric structure through vector fields, symplectic geometry, and gauge invariance respectively. Practical perturbative methods of approximation are also developed. Geometric Mechanics features illustrative examples and assumes only basic knowledge of Lagrangian mechanics. Of related interest . . . APPLIED DYNAMICS With Applications to Multibody and Mechatronic Systems Francis C. Moon A contemporary look at dynamics at an intermediate level, including nonlinear and chaotic dynamics. 1998 (0-471-13828-2) 504 pp. MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS Applied Mathematics for Scientists and Engineers Bruce Kusse and Erik Westwig A comprehensive treatment of the mathematical methods used to solve practical problems in physics and engineering. 1998 (0-471-15431-8) 680 pp.
Study Abroad Programs: Probleme und Loesungsvorschlage (Problems and Suggested Solutions)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schild, Kurt W.
1977-01-01
Describes an apparently very successful study program for Americans, conducted by Michigan State University in Mayen, Rheinland-Pfalz. The small (pop. 22,000) non-university city offered many advantages, including relatively low living costs. All students lived with German families. Various contacts are described, including weekend trips. (Text is…
Problems in Geometrical Optics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joyce, L. S.
1973-01-01
Ten laboratory exercises on optics are described to clarify concepts involving point objects and converging lenses producing real images. Mathematical treatment is kept to a minimum to stress concepts involved. (PS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsai, Shu-Er
Students with a semester or more of instruction often display remarkable naivety about the language that they have been studying and often prove unable to manage simple programming problems. The main purpose of this study was to create a set of problem-plan-program types for the BASIC programming language to help high school students build plans…
Preschool-Based Programs for Externalizing Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arnold, David H.; Brown, Sharice A.; Meagher, Susan; Baker, Courtney N.; Dobbs, Jennifer; Doctoroff, Greta L.
2006-01-01
Few mental health initiatives for young children have used classroom programs. Preschool-based efforts targeting externalizing behavior could help prevent conduct disorders. Additional benefits may include improved academic achievement and reduced risk for other mental health difficulties. Pro-grams that target multiple developmental domains are…
New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almond, J. C.
1966-01-01
Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.
Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farhat, Charbel; Geuzaine, Philippe; Grandmont, Céline
2001-12-01
Discrete geometric conservation laws (DGCLs) govern the geometric parameters of numerical schemes designed for the solution of unsteady flow problems on moving grids. A DGCL requires that these geometric parameters, which include among others grid positions and velocities, be computed so that the corresponding numerical scheme reproduces exactly a constant solution. Sometimes, this requirement affects the intrinsic design of an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) solution method. In this paper, we show for sample ALE schemes that satisfying the corresponding DGCL is a necessary and sufficient condition for a numerical scheme to preserve the nonlinear stability of its fixed grid counterpart. We also highlight the impact of this theoretical result on practical applications of computational fluid dynamics.
User's manual for GAMNAS: Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, J. D.; Dattaguru, B.
1984-01-01
GAMNAS (Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Structures) is a two dimensional finite-element stress analysis program. Options include linear, geometric nonlinear, material nonlinear, and combined geometric and material nonlinear analysis. The theory, organization, and use of GAMNAS are described. Required input data and results for several sample problems are included.
Program Planning with Problem Mapping to Better Understand Need
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forstadt, Leslie A.; Doore, Brian
2012-01-01
This article describes two methods for use in program development and refinement. Problem mapping and forcefield analysis are explained with a real-world example about parenting education. Both methods are visual and consider multiple causes and effects of a problem. The methods are effective for clearly thinking through a problem, identifying…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, SugHee; Chung, KwangSik; Yu, HeonChang
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to propose a training program for creative problem solving based on computer programming. The proposed program will encourage students to solve real-life problems through a creative thinking spiral related to cognitive skills with computer programming. With the goal of enhancing digital fluency through this proposed…
Cognitive Transfer of Computer Programming Skills and Analogous Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, Younghee
This study investigated the cognitive benefits of learning how to program by determining the degree of cognitive transfer of programming skills at a construct level to solving analogous problems in other domains. Subjects, who were students enrolled in four sections of the beginning Pascal programming course and two sections of a calculus course,…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ball, R. E.
1972-01-01
A digital computer program known as SATANS (static and transient analysis, nonlinear, shells) for the geometrically nonlinear static and dynamic response of arbitrarily loaded shells of revolution is presented. Instructions for the preparation of the input data cards and other information necessary for the operation of the program are described in detail and two sample problems are included. The governing partial differential equations are based upon Sanders' nonlinear thin shell theory for the conditions of small strains and moderately small rotations. The governing equations are reduced to uncoupled sets of four linear, second order, partial differential equations in the meridional and time coordinates by expanding the dependent variables in a Fourier sine or cosine series in the circumferential coordinate and treating the nonlinear modal coupling terms as pseudo loads. The derivatives with respect to the meridional coordinate are approximated by central finite differences, and the displacement accelerations are approximated by the implicit Houbolt backward difference scheme with a constant time interval. The boundaries of the shell may be closed, free, fixed, or elastically restrained. The program is coded in the FORTRAN 4 language and is dimensioned to allow a maximum of 10 arbitrary Fourier harmonics and a maximum product of the total number of meridional stations and the total number of Fourier harmonics of 200. The program requires 155,000 bytes of core storage.
Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noyes, H. P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M. J.
1985-07-01
The measurement problem of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not and) G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.
Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision
Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.
1985-07-01
The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact. 15 refs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tapan, Menekse Seden; Arslan, Cigdem
2009-01-01
The main purpose of this research is to determine to what extent preservice teachers use visual elements and mathematical properties when they are dealing with a geometrical construction activity. The axiomatic structure of the Euclidian geometry forms a coherent field of objects and relations of a theoretical nature; and thus it constitutes a…
Promising Parenting Programs for Reducing Adolescent Problem Behaviors
Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn-Wright, Anne; Klima, Tali
2013-01-01
Purpose Adolescent problem behaviors (substance use, delinquency, school dropout, pregnancy, and violence) are costly not only for individuals, but for entire communities. Policymakers and practitioners that are interested in preventing these problem behaviors are faced with many programming options. In this review, we discuss two criteria for selecting relevant parenting programs, and provide five examples of such programs. Design/methodology/approach The first criterion for program selection is theory based. Well-supported theories, such as the social development model, have laid out key family-based risk and protective factors for problem behavior. Programs that target these risk and protective factors are more likely to be effective. Second, programs should have demonstrated efficacy; these interventions have been called “evidence-based programs” (EBP). This review highlights the importance of evidence from rigorous research designs, such as randomized clinical trials, in order to establish program efficacy. Findings Nurse-Family Partnership, The Incredible Years, Positive Parenting Program, Strengthening Families 10–14, and Staying Connected with Your Teen are examined. The unique features of each program are briefly presented. Evidence showing impact on family risk and protective factors, as well as long-term problem behaviors, is reviewed. Finally, a measure of cost effectiveness of each program is provided. Originality/value We propose that not all programs are of equal value, and suggest two simple criteria for selecting a parenting program with a high likelihood for positive outcomes. Furthermore, although this review is not exhaustive, the five examples of EBPs offer a good start for policymakers and practitioners seeking to implement effective programs in their communities. Thus, this paper offers practical suggestions for those grappling with investments in child and adolescent programs on the ground. PMID:24416068
LENS* 4: a program for calculation of geometric optics of the human eye
Doss, J.D.
1982-10-01
A computer program (LENS* 4) has been written that may be used for ray-trace calculations of human or animal eyes. The user enters all relevant eye specifications, and the program calculates ray segments from a (specified) external object. From the ray calculations, the program yields data on image location, image distance from the retina, retinal spot size, and effective pupil diameter. The program also allows entry of simple corrective lens systems that simulate a contact lens or ordinary spectacles. Graphics output illustrating the eye cross section, corrective lens, and rays is provided either on the CRT, thermal printer, or graphics plotter. Although the program is written in BASIC, many of the statements (particularly in the graphics section) are peculiar to the Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer.
Logo Programming, Problem Solving, and Knowledge-Based Instruction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swan, Karen; Black, John B.
The research reported in this paper was designed to investigate the hypothesis that computer programming may support the teaching and learning of problem solving, but that to do so, problem solving must be explicitly taught. Three studies involved students in several grades: 4th, 6th, 8th, 11th, and 12th. Findings collectively show that five…
Solving quadratic programming problems by delayed projection neural network.
Yang, Yongqing; Cao, Jinde
2006-11-01
In this letter, the delayed projection neural network for solving convex quadratic programming problems is proposed. The neural network is proved to be globally exponentially stable and can converge to an optimal solution of the optimization problem. Three examples show the effectiveness of the proposed network.
Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2007-01-01
An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving…
A Comprehensive Early Intervention Program for Families With Problem Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daly, Pamela B.; And Others
This paper presents a parent training program developed as an alternative, non-residential treatment approach for families of delinquent youths. When a child is referred to the clinic for behavior problems such as aggressiveness, disobedience, theft, and truancy, the program includes the parents in the total treatment. The major goal is to teach…
Pupil Personnel Services: A Model. Programs, Trends, Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shumake, Franklin
As an attempt is made to develop pupil personnel programs throughout the United States, one faces many diverse problems: (1) diversity of background for pupil personnel specialists, (2) professional acceptance of other educators, (3) crystallization of purposes, and (4) need for a model program. The Rockdale County model is discussed in terms of…
A Linear Programming Solution to the Faculty Assignment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Breslaw, Jon A.
1976-01-01
Investigates the problem of assigning faculty to courses at a university. A program is developed that is both efficient, in that integer programming is not required, and effective, in that it facilitates interaction by administration in determining the optimal solution. The results of some empirical tests are also reported. (Author)
Problems in Choosing Tools and Methods for Teaching Programming
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vitkute-Adžgauskiene, Davia; Vidžiunas, Antanas
2012-01-01
The paper analyses the problems in selecting and integrating tools for delivering basic programming knowledge at the university level. Discussion and analysis of teaching the programming disciplines, the main principles of study programme design, requirements for teaching tools, methods and corresponding languages is presented, based on literature…
EZLP: An Interactive Computer Program for Solving Linear Programming Problems. Final Report.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarvis, John J.; And Others
Designed for student use in solving linear programming problems, the interactive computer program described (EZLP) permits the student to input the linear programming model in exactly the same manner in which it would be written on paper. This report includes a brief review of the development of EZLP; narrative descriptions of program features,…
Geometric intrinsic symmetries
Gozdz, A. Szulerecka, A.; Pedrak, A.
2013-08-15
The problem of geometric symmetries in the intrinsic frame of a many-body system (nucleus) is considered. An importance of symmetrization group notion is discussed. Ageneral structure of the intrinsic symmetry group structure is determined.
Parallel solution of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicol, David M.
1989-01-01
Parallel computation offers the potential for quickly solving large computational problems. However, it is often a non-trivial task to effectively use parallel computers. Solution methods must sometimes be reformulated to exploit parallelism; the reformulations are often more complex than their slower serial counterparts. We illustrate these points by studying the parallelization of sparse one-dimensional dynamic programming problems, those which do not obviously admit substantial parallelization. We propose a new method for parallelizing such problems, develop analytic models which help us to identify problems which parallelize well, and compare the performance of our algorithm with existing algorithms on a multiprocessor.
Tsichlaki, Elina; FitzHarris, Greg
2016-01-01
Maintaining appropriate nucleus size is important for cell health, but the mechanisms by which this is achieved are poorly understood. Controlling nucleus size is a particular challenge in early development, where the nucleus must downscale in size with progressive reductive cell divisions. Here we use live and fixed imaging, micromanipulation approaches, and small molecule analyses during preimplantation mouse development to probe the mechanisms by which nucleus size is determined. We find a close correlation between cell and nuclear size at any given developmental stage, and show that experimental cytoplasmic reduction can alter nuclear size, together indicating that cell size helps dictate nuclear proportions. Additionally, however, by creating embryos with over-sized blastomeres we present evidence of a developmental program that drives nuclear downscaling independently of cell size. We show that this developmental program does not correspond with nuclear import rates, but provide evidence that PKC activity may contribute to this mechanism. We propose a model in which nuclear size regulation during early development is a multi-mode process wherein nucleus size is set by cytoplasmic factors, and fine-tuned on a cell-by-cell basis according to cell size. PMID:27320842
Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with inexact probability distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamadameen, Abdulqader Othman; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati
2014-06-01
This study deals with multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with uncertainty probability distribution which are defined as fuzzy assertions by ambiguous experts. The problem formulation has been presented and the two solutions strategies are; the fuzzy transformation via ranking function and the stochastic transformation when α-. cut technique and linguistic hedges are used in the uncertainty probability distribution. The development of Sen's method is employed to find a compromise solution, supported by illustrative numerical example.
Multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with inexact probability distribution
Hamadameen, Abdulqader Othman; Zainuddin, Zaitul Marlizawati
2014-06-19
This study deals with multiobjective fuzzy stochastic linear programming problems with uncertainty probability distribution which are defined as fuzzy assertions by ambiguous experts. The problem formulation has been presented and the two solutions strategies are; the fuzzy transformation via ranking function and the stochastic transformation when α{sup –}. cut technique and linguistic hedges are used in the uncertainty probability distribution. The development of Sen’s method is employed to find a compromise solution, supported by illustrative numerical example.
Gold, Maria Eugenia Leone; Brochu, Christopher A; Norell, Mark A
2014-01-01
The phylogenetic position of the Indian gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is disputed--morphological characters place Gavialis as the sister to all other extant crocodylians, whereas molecular and combined analyses find Gavialis and the false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) to be sister taxa. Geometric morphometric techniques have only begun to be applied to this issue, but most of these studies have focused on the exterior of the skull. The braincase has provided useful phylogenetic information for basal crurotarsans, but has not been explored for the crown group. The Eustachian system is thought to vary phylogenetically in Crocodylia, but has not been analytically tested. To determine if gross morphology of the crocodylian braincase proves informative to the relationships of Gavialis and Tomistoma, we used two- and three-dimensional geometric morphometric approaches. Internal braincase images were obtained using high-resolution computerized tomography scans. A principal components analysis identified that the first component axis was primarily associated with size and did not show groupings that divide the specimens by phylogenetic affinity. Sliding semi-landmarks and a relative warp analysis indicate that a unique Eustachian morphology separates Gavialis from other extant members of Crocodylia. Ontogenetic expansion of the braincase results in a more dorsoventrally elongate median Eustachian canal. Changes in the shape of the Eustachian system do provide phylogenetic distinctions between major crocodylian clades. Each morphometric dataset, consisting of continuous morphological characters, was added independently to a combined cladistic analysis of discrete morphological and molecular characters. The braincase data alone produced a clade that included crocodylids and Gavialis, whereas the Eustachian data resulted in Gavialis being considered a basally divergent lineage. When each morphometric dataset was used in a combined analysis with discrete morphological and
EARLY DETECTION AND PROGRAMING FOR CHILDREN WITH SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MCGAHAN, F.E.
THE GALENA PARK SPECIAL PROGRAM IS AN EFFORT ON THE PART OF THE SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION TO DETECT, AT THE EARLIEST TIME, ANY STUDENT PROBLEM WHICH MAY LEAD TO DIFFICULTIES IN SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT. ALL PHASES OF PUPIL PERSONNEL SERVICES ARE PLACED UNDER ONE COORDINATOR TO EXPEDITE SERVICES TO THE CHILD IN DIFFICULTY. EARLY DETECTION OF POTENTIAL PROBLEM…
The toxic waste dump problem and a suggested insurance program
Fisher, A.
1980-01-01
The extent of the hazardous waste problem in the U.S. is explored. To emphasize the enormous scope of the problem, several recent cases involving hazardous waste disasters, including the Love Canal incident, are reviewed. Legislation related to toxic waste disposal is discussed. A Nat'l Hazardous Waste Insurance Program, based on the policies of the Nat'l Flood Insurance Program, is proposed. The rationale for government involvement in insurance provision is examined. The cost to taxpayers of this toxic waste insurance program will depend on several factors, including: the types of coverage available/ upper limits on each type of coverage/ the premium rates charged for each type of coverage/ the number and size of potential impact acres/ the number of people who would actually buy the insurance/ the actual incidence of hazardous waste damages/ and the time frame chosen for mapping all potential impact areas. (138 references)
Solving seismological problems using sgraph program: II-waveform modeling
Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.
2012-09-26
One of the seismological programs to manipulate seismic data is SGRAPH program. It consists of integrated tools to perform advanced seismological techniques. SGRAPH is considered a new system for maintaining and analyze seismic waveform data in a stand-alone Windows-based application that manipulate a wide range of data formats. SGRAPH was described in detail in the first part of this paper. In this part, I discuss the advanced techniques including in the program and its applications in seismology. Because of the numerous tools included in the program, only SGRAPH is sufficient to perform the basic waveform analysis and to solve advanced seismological problems. In the first part of this paper, the application of the source parameters estimation and hypocentral location was given. Here, I discuss SGRAPH waveform modeling tools. This paper exhibits examples of how to apply the SGRAPH tools to perform waveform modeling for estimating the focal mechanism and crustal structure of local earthquakes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindlein, Norbert; Leuchs, Gerd
This chapter shall discuss the basics and the applications of geometrical optical methods in modern optics. Geometrical optics has a long tradition and some ideas are many centuries old. Nevertheless, the invention of modern personal computers which can perform several million floating-point operations in a second also revolutionized the methods of geometrical optics and so several analytical methods lost importance whereas numerical methods such as ray tracing became very important. Therefore, the emphasis in this chapter is also on modern numerical methods such as ray tracing and some other systematic methods such as the paraxial matrix theory.
Neural network for solving convex quadratic bilevel programming problems.
He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie
2014-03-01
In this paper, using the idea of successive approximation, we propose a neural network to solve convex quadratic bilevel programming problems (CQBPPs), which is modeled by a nonautonomous differential inclusion. Different from the existing neural network for CQBPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Based on the theory of nonsmooth analysis, differential inclusions and Lyapunov-like method, the limit equilibrium points sequence of the proposed neural networks can approximately converge to an optimal solution of CQBPP under certain conditions. Finally, simulation results on two numerical examples and the portfolio selection problem show the effectiveness and performance of the proposed neural network.
Solution of simple numerical problems using spreadsheet programs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riggi, F.
1986-11-01
Spreadsheet programs are now extensively used for the analysis of business problems. A spreadsheet program reproduces the structure of a large page with columns and rows. The intersection of a column and a row defines a cell, each cell being identified by a column letter and a row number, starting at the upper left. The screen is a window over this matrix, whose dimensions depend on the machine's resources. Unlike that which occurs with paper spreadsheets, the elements (cells) of such a matrix structure can hold not only labels or numerical values but also mathematical formulae relating them to other matrix elements.
A Hybrid Constraint Programming Approach for Nurse Rostering Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, Rong; He, Fang
Due to the complexity of nurse rostering problems (NRPs), Constraint Programming (CP) approaches on their own have shown to be ineffective in solving these highly constrained problems. We investigate a two-stage hybrid CP approach on real world benchmark NRPs. In the first stage, a constraint satisfaction model is used to generate weekly rosters consist of high quality shift sequences satisfying a subset of constraints. An iterative forward search is then adapted to extend them to build complete feasible solutions. Variable and value selection heuristics are employed to improve the efficiency. In the second stage, a simple Variable Neighborhood Search is used to quickly improve the solution obtained. The basic idea of the hybrid approach is based on the observations that high quality nurse rosters consist of high quality shift sequences. By decomposing the problems into solvable sub-problems for CP, the search space of the original problems are significantly reduced. The results on benchmark problems demonstrate the efficiency of this hybrid CP approach when compared to the state-of-the-art approaches in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crasta, Graziano; Fragalà, Ilaria
2015-12-01
Given an open bounded subset Ω of {{R}^n}, which is convex and satisfies an interior sphere condition, we consider the pde {-Δ_{∞} u = 1} in Ω, subject to the homogeneous boundary condition u = 0 on ∂Ω. We prove that the unique solution to this Dirichlet problem is power-concave (precisely, 3/4 concave) and it is of class C 1( Ω). We then investigate the overdetermined Serrin-type problem, formerly considered in Buttazzo and Kawohl (Int Math Res Not, pp 237-247, 2011), obtained by adding the extra boundary condition {|nabla u| = a} on ∂Ω; by using a suitable P-function we prove that, if Ω satisfies the same assumptions as above and in addition contains a ball which touches ∂Ω at two diametral points, then the existence of a solution to this Serrin-type problem implies that necessarily the cut locus and the high ridge of Ω coincide. In turn, in dimension n = 2, this entails that Ω must be a stadium-like domain, and in particular it must be a ball in case its boundary is of class C 2.
Solution of the multiple dosing problem using linear programming.
Hacisalihzade, S S; Mansour, M
1985-07-01
A system theoretical approach to drug concentration-time data analysis is introduced after the discussion of some relevant concepts as they are used in system theory. The merits of this approach are demonstrated in multiple dosing problem. It is shown that dosage minimization without stringent constraints does not result in the desired therapeutic effect. In a different optimization the discrepancy between the actual and the desired time-histories of the relevant substance's plasma concentration is minimized. It is shown that both of these optimizations can be reduced to linear programming problems which are easily solvable with today's computers. These methods are demonstrated in a case study of dopaminergic substitution in Parkinson's disease where computer simulations show them to yield excellent results. Finally, the limits of this approach are also discussed.
Dynamic Programming for Structured Continuous Markov Decision Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicholas; Washington, Richard; Feng, Zhengzhu
2004-01-01
We describe an approach for exploiting structure in Markov Decision Processes with continuous state variables. At each step of the dynamic programming, the state space is dynamically partitioned into regions where the value function is the same throughout the region. We first describe the algorithm for piecewise constant representations. We then extend it to piecewise linear representations, using techniques from POMDPs to represent and reason about linear surfaces efficiently. We show that for complex, structured problems, our approach exploits the natural structure so that optimal solutions can be computed efficiently.
A recurrent neural network for solving bilevel linear programming problem.
He, Xing; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chaojie; Huang, Junjian
2014-04-01
In this brief, based on the method of penalty functions, a recurrent neural network (NN) modeled by means of a differential inclusion is proposed for solving the bilevel linear programming problem (BLPP). Compared with the existing NNs for BLPP, the model has the least number of state variables and simple structure. Using nonsmooth analysis, the theory of differential inclusions, and Lyapunov-like method, the equilibrium point sequence of the proposed NNs can approximately converge to an optimal solution of BLPP under certain conditions. Finally, the numerical simulations of a supply chain distribution model have shown excellent performance of the proposed recurrent NNs.
Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.
2014-04-01
This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myers-Breslin, Linda
Addressing the issues and problems faced by writing program administrators (WPAs) and writing center directors (WCDs), and how they can most effectively resolve the political, pedagogical, and financial questions that arise, this book presents essays from experienced WPAs and WCDs at a wide variety of institutions that offer scenarios and case…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasant, P.; Ganesan, T.; Elamvazuthi, I.
2012-11-01
A fairly reasonable result was obtained for non-linear engineering problems using the optimization techniques such as neural network, genetic algorithms, and fuzzy logic independently in the past. Increasingly, hybrid techniques are being used to solve the non-linear problems to obtain better output. This paper discusses the use of neuro-genetic hybrid technique to optimize the geological structure mapping which is known as seismic survey. It involves the minimization of objective function subject to the requirement of geophysical and operational constraints. In this work, the optimization was initially performed using genetic programming, and followed by hybrid neuro-genetic programming approaches. Comparative studies and analysis were then carried out on the optimized results. The results indicate that the hybrid neuro-genetic hybrid technique produced better results compared to the stand-alone genetic programming method.
A mathematical programming approach to stochastic and dynamic optimization problems
Bertsimas, D.
1994-12-31
We propose three ideas for constructing optimal or near-optimal policies: (1) for systems for which we have an exact characterization of the performance space we outline an adaptive greedy algorithm that gives rise to indexing policies (we illustrate this technique in the context of indexable systems); (2) we use integer programming to construct policies from the underlying descriptions of the performance space (we illustrate this technique in the context of polling systems); (3) we use linear control over polyhedral regions to solve deterministic versions for this class of problems. This approach gives interesting insights for the structure of the optimal policy (we illustrate this idea in the context of multiclass queueing networks). The unifying theme in the paper is the thesis that better formulations lead to deeper understanding and better solution methods. Overall the proposed approach for stochastic and dynamic optimization parallels efforts of the mathematical programming community in the last fifteen years to develop sharper formulations (polyhedral combinatorics and more recently nonlinear relaxations) and leads to new insights ranging from a complete characterization and new algorithms for indexable systems to tight lower bounds and new algorithms with provable a posteriori guarantees for their suboptimality for polling systems, multiclass queueing and loss networks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paraschiv, Irina; Olley, J. Gregory
This paper describes the "Problem Solving for Life" training program which trains adolescents and adults with mental retardation in skills for solving social problems. The program requires group participants to solve social problems by practicing two prerequisite skills (relaxation and positive self-statements) and four problem solving steps: (1)…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grebowsky, G. J.
1982-01-01
Present LANDSAT data formats are reviewed to clarify how the geodetic location and registration capabilities were defined for P-tape products and RBV data. Since there is only one geometric model used in the master data processor, geometric location accuracy of P-tape products depends on the absolute accuracy of the model and registration accuracy is determined by the stability of the model. Due primarily to inaccuracies in data provided by the LANDSAT attitude management system, desired accuracies are obtained only by using ground control points and a correlation process. The verification of system performance with regards to geodetic location requires the capability to determine pixel positions of map points in a P-tape array. Verification of registration performance requires the capability to determine pixel positions of common points (not necessarily map points) in 2 or more P-tape arrays for a given world reference system scene. Techniques for registration verification can be more varied and automated since map data are not required. The verification of LACIE extractions is used as an example.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayel Al-Srour, Nadia; Al-Ali, Safa M.; Al-Oweidi, Alia
2016-01-01
The present study aims to detect the impact of teacher training on creative writing and problem-solving using both Futuristic scenarios program to solve problems creatively, and creative problem solving. To achieve the objectives of the study, the sample was divided into two groups, the first consist of 20 teachers, and 23 teachers to second…
Symbolic programming language in molecular multicenter integral problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safouhi, Hassan; Bouferguene, Ahmed
It is well known that in any ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculation, the major task involves the computation of molecular integrals, among which the computation of three-center nuclear attraction and Coulomb integrals is the most frequently encountered. As the molecular system becomes larger, computation of these integrals becomes one of the most laborious and time-consuming steps in molecular systems calculation. Improvement of the computational methods of molecular integrals would be indispensable to further development in computational studies of large molecular systems. To develop fast and accurate algorithms for the numerical evaluation of these integrals over B functions, we used nonlinear transformations for improving convergence of highly oscillatory integrals. These methods form the basis of new methods for solving various problems that were unsolvable otherwise and have many applications as well. To apply these nonlinear transformations, the integrands should satisfy linear differential equations with coefficients having asymptotic power series in the sense of Poincaré, which in their turn should satisfy some limit conditions. These differential equations are very difficult to obtain explicitly. In the case of molecular integrals, we used a symbolic programming language (MAPLE) to demonstrate that all the conditions required to apply these nonlinear transformation methods are satisfied. Differential equations are obtained explicitly, allowing us to demonstrate that the limit conditions are also satisfied.
Teaching Introductory Programming to IS Students: Java Problems and Pitfalls
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pendergast, Mark O.
2006-01-01
This paper examines the impact the use of the Java programming language has had on the way our students learn to program and the success they achieve. The importance of a properly constructed first course in programming cannot be overstated. A course well experienced will leave students with good programming habits, the ability to learn on their…
Finding Trustworthy Experts to Help Problem Solving on the Programming Learning Forum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng
2010-01-01
The most important thing for learners in Programming Language subject is problem solving. During the practical programming project, various problems may occur and learners usually need consultation from the senior programmers (i.e. the experts) to assist them in solving the problems. Thus, the inquiry-based learning with learning forum is applied…
Difficulty in Establishing Problem Solving Programs within Regular Curriculums.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bogue, Carole
Many students are not skilled "thinkers" or "problem solvers." Extensive research has been conducted to describe the mental processes involved in problem solving in the hope of establishing a theoretical basis for training students to become more adept at reasoning. Certain problems become evident, however, when reviewing literature for designing…
COYOTE: a finite-element computer program for nonlinear heat-conduction problems
Gartling, D.K.
1982-10-01
COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program.
Zörnig, Peter
2015-08-01
We present integer programming models for some variants of the farthest string problem. The number of variables and constraints is substantially less than that of the integer linear programming models known in the literature. Moreover, the solution of the linear programming-relaxation contains only a small proportion of noninteger values, which considerably simplifies the rounding process. Numerical tests have shown excellent results, especially when a small set of long sequences is given.
METLIN-PC: An applications-program package for problems of mathematical programming
Pshenichnyi, B.N.; Sobolenko, L.A.; Sosnovskii, A.A.; Aleksandrova, V.M.; Shul`zhenko, Yu.V.
1994-05-01
The METLIN-PC applications-program package (APP) was developed at the V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on IBM PC XT and AT computers. The present version of the package was written in Turbo Pascal and Fortran-77. The METLIN-PC is chiefly designed for the solution of smooth problems of mathematical programming and is a further development of the METLIN prototype, which was created earlier on a BESM-6 computer. The principal property of the previous package is retained - the applications modules employ a single approach based on the linearization method of B.N. Pschenichnyi. Hence the name {open_quotes}METLIN.{close_quotes}
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CSR, Inc., Washington, DC.
This handbook is for administrators of programs in higher education settings which deal with alcohol and other drug (AOD) related problems. Chapter 1, "Defining the Problem, Issues, and Trends" examines the problem from various perspectives and presents the latest statistics on the extent of AOD use on campuses, specific problems affecting…
Deadlock and fictitiousness problem in parallel program specifications
Panfilenko, V.P.
1995-05-01
One of the directions of modern programming based on algebraic methods takes its origin in V.M. Glushkov`s theory of systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA). The SAA apparatus with appropriately interpreted operations is used for program design and allows compact structured representation of program schemas in the form of algebraic formulas. Modified systems of algorithmic algebras (SAA-M) additionally represent parallelism description tools.
Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient. PMID:27547676
Zhao, Yingfeng; Liu, Sanyang
2016-01-01
We present a practical branch and bound algorithm for globally solving generalized linear multiplicative programming problem with multiplicative constraints. To solve the problem, a relaxation programming problem which is equivalent to a linear programming is proposed by utilizing a new two-phase relaxation technique. In the algorithm, lower and upper bounds are simultaneously obtained by solving some linear relaxation programming problems. Global convergence has been proved and results of some sample examples and a small random experiment show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and efficient.
Modern Problems: Sociology Units. An Experimental Program for Grade 12.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marshall; Fennig, Lois
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Sociology; modern problems. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide contains two units, one on the problems of minority groups and the other on social pathology. Sub-sections of unit 2 include crime and criminals, criminal investigation, gun control, U.S. criminal law, criminal procedure,…
Effects of Language Features, Templates, and Procedural Skills on Problem-Solving In Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kong, Siu Cheung; Chung, Choi Man
1989-01-01
Presents a study that investigates the knowledge and skills that relate to computer programing. Finds that knowledge and procedural skills are related to computer programing. Recommends that since instruction in computer programing facilitates problem-solving, computer programing courses should be augmented to include teaching template and…
UNITE and Management Training Program for Workplace Communication & Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaufman, Sanda
This curriculum provides materials for a training program designed to enable front-line supervisors and union stewards to minimize production disruptions stemming from ongoing, unresolved conflicts among production workers. The program accomplishes this goal by giving participants the tools and confidence to design, implement, and run a process…
Problems of Implementing Offender Programs in the Community
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Astbury, Brad
2008-01-01
Rehabilitation of offenders is, at present, an important focus among many correctional departments. A substantial body of international research literature now exists to guide the design and development of new programs that aim to reduce re-offending. However, successful implementation of these programs has been challenging for many correctional…
Special Concretes and Field Problems; Instructor's Guide; Pilot Program Edition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Portland Cement Association, Cleveland, OH.
This guide, prepared for a 2-year program in junior colleges and technical institutes, is designed for a national program to train persons for employment as technicians in the cement and concrete industries. Included are 48 session oultines divided into four units of study. Each unit contains session objectives and outlines, presentation outlines,…
Duignan, P; Casswell, S
1989-01-01
This paper illustrates problems in the evaluation of community development programs for health promotion. It is based on the authors' retrospective process evaluation of the Wanganui Community Alcohol Action Program (WCAAP), a recent example of a health promotion program directed at reducing alcohol-related problems in a small New Zealand town. Described by its designers as a community-based program, it included coordination of community organizations, education, publicity and increased enforcement of drinking laws. Discussion of the problems in the evaluation of such programs puts them within the context of the substantial body of previous social science research in both evaluation and community development. This, it is argued, is a body of knowledge with which health promotion researchers need to be conversant. Community development programs usually stem from a process of negotiation between interest groups with differing objectives. This results in a changing definition of both the problem to be solved and the nature of the solution, making evaluation difficult. Community development is also likely to be seen as a new solution providing a panacea for old problems. This can lead to such programs being too ambitious. From the point of view of experimental design these programs are likely to have a number of technical problems. This paper argues that these problems are so significant that it often unwise to attempt large scale evaluations of community development programs. Rather, attention should be concentrated on critically assessing the policy-making process and disseminating previous knowledge about such programs.
Program planning, evaluation, and the problem of alcoholism.
Selig, A L
1975-01-01
Rational program planning and evaluation has been suggested as a necessary skill. First, a conceptual framework for planning and evaluation was presented and discussed, using the example of preventing alcoholism and providing services and rehabilitation for alcoholics. Second, a case study was presented, which is similar to that used by many professionals in their efforts to plan programs. Finally, some of the marked limitations of the case study were pointed out, when it was projected upon the conceptual framework. PMID:1109258
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodbury, R. F.; Oppenheim, I. J.
1987-01-01
Cognitive robot systems are ones in which sensing and representation occur, from which task plans and tactics are determined. Such a robot system accomplishes a task after being told what to do, but determines for itself how to do it. Cognition is required when the work environment is uncontrolled, when contingencies are prevalent, or when task complexity is large; it is useful in any robotic mission. A number of distinguishing features can be associated with cognitive robotics, and one emphasized here is the role of artificial intelligence in knowledge representation and in planning. While space telerobotics may elude some of the problems driving cognitive robotics, it shares many of the same demands, and it can be assumed that capabilities developed for cognitive robotics can be employed advantageously for telerobotics in general. The top level problem is task planning, and it is appropriate to introduce a hierarchical view of control. Presented with certain mission objectives, the system must generate plans (typically) at the strategic, tactical, and reflexive levels. The structure by which knowledge is used to construct and update these plans endows the system with its cognitive attributes, and with the ability to deal with contingencies, changes, unknowns, and so on. Issues of representation and reasoning which are absolutely fundamental to robot manipulation, decisions based upon geometry, are discussed here, not AI task planning per se.
Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
2010-01-01
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills…
Effects of Pascal and FORTRAN Programming on the Problem-Solving Abilities of College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Choi, Won Sik; Repman, Judi
1993-01-01
Describes a study that was conducted to determine whether learning to program a computer in Pascal or FORTRAN improved problem-solving skills of college students when compared to a control group and to determine which programing language was more effective in the development of problem-solving abilities. (26 references) (LRW)
Developing Student Programming and Problem-Solving Skills with Visual Basic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Siegle, Del
2009-01-01
Although most computer users will never need to write a computer program, many students enjoy the challenge of creating one. Computer programming enhances students' problem solving by forcing students to break a problem into its component pieces and reassemble it in a generic format that can be understood by a nonsentient entity. It promotes…
Documentation as Problem Solving for Literacy Outreach Programs
Girill, T R
2004-07-06
Age-appropriate technical writing lessons for underperforming high-school students can offer them an innovative, ''authentic'' way to improve how they read and write. Thus the techniques and principles of effective technical communication routinely applied at work also provide a positive response to one of today's great educational challenges. This workshop shows participants how to (1) introduce English and science teachers to the value of technical writing as a response to school literacy problems, (2) prepare plausible practice exercises to help students improve their basic literacy, and (3) recognize and respond to known literacy outreach pitfalls. Every effective literacy outreach project based on technical writing needs to address four key problems.
Modern Problems Economic Units. A Program for Grade Twelve.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carlson, Marshall; Hutton, Joseph
GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Modern problems, economic units. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material includes an outline of the Bloomington school philosophy, identification of main areas of modern economics, basic objectives, and techniques for evaluating objectives. The guide covers six units: a) importance…
Planning Education in College Geography Programs: The Problem of Development.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weaver, David C.
Guidelines are presented for developing and implementing planning-oriented geography curriculum and/or programs on the college level. The guidelines are based on three types of evidence: (1) published sources regarding the relationship between geography as an academic discipline and planning as a professional practice; (2) perceptions of…
PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING--PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
VALDMAN, ALBERT
THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED DURING THE PAST 6 YEARS IN SELF-INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES HAVE LED RESEARCHERS TO CONCLUDE THAT TOTAL PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION SEEMS PRODUCTIVE ONLY IN CASES WHERE THE TERMINAL BEHAVIOR TO BE ACHIEVED IS VERY LIMITED. EXPERIMENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT IT IS MOST USEFUL IN MODULES AT EARLY LEVELS FOR TEACHING…
Step and Hip, Humanistic Programs for Problem Secondary Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Graduate School of Education.
Alternative programs in open education for student teachers in both the Department and the Graduate School of Education at the University of Utah are making substantial contributions to promoting growth in education students; genuine interpersonal relationships between themselves and their students; and humanistic values, attitudes, and behaviors.…
Deviant Peer Influences in Programs for Youth Problems and Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dodge, Kenneth A., Ed.; Dishion, Thomas J., Ed.; Lansford, Jennifer E., Ed.
2006-01-01
Most interventions for at-risk youth are group based. Yet, emerging research indicates that young people often learn to become deviant by interacting with deviant peers. In this important volume, leading intervention and prevention experts from psychology, education, criminology, and related fields analyze how, and to what extent, programs that…
Prevention of ADHD Related Problems: A Universal Preschool Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Christiansen, Hanna; Hirsch, Oliver; König, Anika; Steinmayr, Ricarda; Roehrle, Bernd
2015-01-01
Purpose: Early onset of behavioral disorders is predictive of long term adverse outcomes. There are some indicated and selective early prevention programs for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one of the most common behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this paper is to present a universal preschool…
Patterns of Problem Solving and Its Peer Teaching Program: An Interdisciplinary Innovation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Manus, Lee Aura; Zipser, Dean
An interdisciplinary course in problem solving, entitled "patterns of problem solving," and its unique peer program offered at the University of California, Los Angeles, are described. The emphasis in the subject matter and approach is to expose the student to the wide range of alternative problem solving techniques and to enable the student to…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lower, Stephen K.
A brief overview of CHEMEX--a problem-solving, tutorial style computer-assisted instructional course--is provided and sample problems are offered. In CHEMEX, students receive problems in advance and attempt to solve them before moving through the computer program, which assists them in overcoming difficulties and serves as a review mechanism.…
Transfer Problems in Outdoor Management Development Programs and How to Overcome Them.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McGraw, Peter
This paper examines the issues and problems that arise in the transfer process in outdoor management development (OMD) programs. The transfer of learning from the outdoors back to the workplace is a crucial element of OMD. A review of general transfer problems and management development demonstrates that many of the transfer problems associated…
Solving mixed integer nonlinear programming problems using spiral dynamics optimization algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kania, Adhe; Sidarto, Kuntjoro Adji
2016-02-01
Many engineering and practical problem can be modeled by mixed integer nonlinear programming. This paper proposes to solve the problem with modified spiral dynamics inspired optimization method of Tamura and Yasuda. Four test cases have been examined, including problem in engineering and sport. This method succeeds in obtaining the optimal result in all test cases.
How Does Early Feedback in an Online Programming Course Change Problem Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2012-01-01
How does early feedback change the programming problem solving in an online environment and help students choose correct approaches? This study was conducted in a sample of students learning programming in an online course entitled Introduction to C++ and OOP (Object Oriented Programming) using the ANGEL learning management system platform. My…
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
34 CFR 356.11 - What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... fellowship program? 356.11 Section 356.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... REHABILITATION RESEARCH: RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS What Kinds of Activities Does the Department Support Under This Program? § 356.11 What types of problems may be researched under the fellowship program?...
A Program for Solving the Brain Ischemia Problem
DeGracia, Donald J.
2013-01-01
Our recently described nonlinear dynamical model of cell injury is here applied to the problems of brain ischemia and neuroprotection. We discuss measurement of global brain ischemia injury dynamics by time course analysis. Solutions to proposed experiments are simulated using hypothetical values for the model parameters. The solutions solve the global brain ischemia problem in terms of “master bifurcation diagrams” that show all possible outcomes for arbitrary durations of all lethal cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrements. The global ischemia master bifurcation diagrams: (1) can map to a single focal ischemia insult, and (2) reveal all CBF decrements susceptible to neuroprotection. We simulate measuring a neuroprotectant by time course analysis, which revealed emergent nonlinear effects that set dynamical limits on neuroprotection. Using over-simplified stroke geometry, we calculate a theoretical maximum protection of approximately 50% recovery. We also calculate what is likely to be obtained in practice and obtain 38% recovery; a number close to that often reported in the literature. The hypothetical examples studied here illustrate the use of the nonlinear cell injury model as a fresh avenue of approach that has the potential, not only to solve the brain ischemia problem, but also to advance the technology of neuroprotection. PMID:24961411
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Richard G., Jr.
Designed to provide background for the planning of collection preservation programs in the libraries of the University of California, this paper presents an overview of the preservation problem, makes specific recommendations for further programs within the University of California library system, and assesses the needs of the system with regard…
Bellingham Bay action program: Initial data summaries and problem identification
Decker, D.S.; Sonnerup, R.; Greene, J.J.
1989-08-01
The report provides a synthesis of information describing the geographic extent and severity of estuarine contamination in Bellingham Bay within Puget Sound in Washington State. Summaries of existing data are provided for chemical contamination of sediment and biota, microbial contamination, eutrophication and contaminant sources. Original, summarized, tabulated, and mapped data are presented. The objective of the report is to provide a mechanism for comprehensively evaluating pollution problems in the more urbanized embayments and for providing a basis for prioritizing corrective actions. A decision making framework is presented for evaluating and prioritizing both sub-areas within Bellingham Bay and specific contaminant sources.
Goldberg, P.W.
1993-04-01
In this paper we consider the problem of learning the positions of spheres in metric spaces, given as data randomly drawn points classified according to whether they are internal or external to an unknown sphere. The particular metrics under consideration are geometrical shape metrics, and the results are intended to be applicable to the problem of learning to identify a shape from related shapes classified according to whether they resemble it visually. While it is typically NP-hard to locate a central point for a hypothesis sphere, we find that it is however often possible to obtain a non-spherical hypothesis which can accurately predict whether further random points lie within the unknown sphere. We exhibit algorithms which achieve this, and in the process indicate useful general techniques for computational learning. Finally we exhibit a natural shape metric and show that it defines a class of spheres not predictable in this sense, subject to standard cryptographic assumptions.
Carbon dioxide problem: DOE program and a general assessment
Abarbanel, H.; Chamberlain, J.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Nierenberg, W.; Ruderman, M.
1980-10-01
From the view of a potential national or international policy on CO/sub 2/, progress towards these goals is reported along with suggestions for additions to and implementation of the present work. After the introduction, conclusions and recommendations are presented. The third and fourth sections contain discussions of the present research programs on the carbon cycle and on climate modeling. The fifth section considers physical effects of CO/sub 2/-induced climate change that may be of social or economic importance. The last section considers some early warning signals for climate changes due to increased atmospheric CO/sub 2/.
Helping solve Georgia's water problems - the USGS Cooperative Water Program
Clarke, John S.
2006-01-01
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) addresses a wide variety of water issues in the State of Georgia through the Cooperative Water Program (CWP). As the primary Federal science agency for water-resource information, the USGS monitors the quantity and quality of water in the Nation's rivers and aquifers, assesses the sources and fate of contaminants in aquatic systems, collects and analyzes data on aquatic ecosystems, develops tools to improve the application of hydrologic information, and ensures that its information and tools are available to all potential users. This broad, diverse mission cannot be accomplished effectively without the contributions of the CWP.
Wos, L.; McCune, W.
1988-01-01
In this paper, we offer a set of problems for evaluating the power of automated theorem-proving programs and the potential of new ideas. Since the problems published in the proceedings of the first CADE conference proved to be so useful, and since researchers are now far more disposed to implementing and testing their ideas, a new set of problems to complement those that have been widely studied is in order. In general, the new problems provide a far greater challenge for an automated theorem-proving program than those in the first set do. Indeed, to our knowledge, five of the six problems we propose for study have never been proved with a theorem-proving program. For each problem, we give a set of statements that can easily be translated into a standard set of clauses. We also state each problem in its mathematical and logical form. In many cases, we also provide a proof of the theorem from which a problem is taken so that one can measure a program's progress in its attempt to solve the problem. Two of the theorems we discuss are of especial interest in that they answer questions that had been open concerning the constructibility of two types of combinator. We also include a brief description of a new strategy for restricting the application of paramodulation. All of the problems we propose for study emphasize the role of equality. This paper is tutorial in nature.
Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.
1994-10-01
The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II, is presented in detail. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems and other types of diffusion problems. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in COYOTE II are also outlined. Instructions for use of the code are documented in SAND94-1179; examples of problems analyzed with the code are provided in SAND94-1180.
A New Bound for the Ration Between the 2-Matching Problem and Its Linear Programming Relaxation
Boyd, Sylvia; Carr, Robert
1999-07-28
Consider the 2-matching problem defined on the complete graph, with edge costs which satisfy the triangle inequality. We prove that the value of a minimum cost 2-matching is bounded above by 4/3 times the value of its linear programming relaxation, the fractional 2-matching problem. This lends credibility to a long-standing conjecture that the optimal value for the traveling salesman problem is bounded above by 4/3 times the value of its linear programming relaxation, the subtour elimination problem.
The general form of 0-1 programming problem based on DNA computing.
ZhiXiang, Yin; Fengyue, Zhang; Jin, Xu
2003-06-01
DNA computing is a novel method of solving a class of intractable computational problems, in which the computing speeds up exponentially with the problem size. Up to now, many accomplishments have been made to improve its performance and increase its reliability. In this paper, we solved the general form of 0-1 programming problem with fluorescence labeling techniques based on surface chemistry by attempting to apply DNA computing to a programming problem. Our method has some significant advantages such as simple encoding, low cost, and short operating time.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elkins, John, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.
The conference papers in this collection are grouped under the following topics: behavior problems in context; interpersonal relationships; initiatives by systems and schools; and programs in special settings. Papers included are: (1) National Trends in Discipline Policy Development (Roger Slee); (2) Balancing: The Protocols of Discipline (William…
A high-performance feedback neural network for solving convex nonlinear programming problems.
Leung, Yee; Chen, Kai-Zhou; Gao, Xing-Bao
2003-01-01
Based on a new idea of successive approximation, this paper proposes a high-performance feedback neural network model for solving convex nonlinear programming problems. Differing from existing neural network optimization models, no dual variables, penalty parameters, or Lagrange multipliers are involved in the proposed network. It has the least number of state variables and is very simple in structure. In particular, the proposed network has better asymptotic stability. For an arbitrarily given initial point, the trajectory of the network converges to an optimal solution of the convex nonlinear programming problem under no more than the standard assumptions. In addition, the network can also solve linear programming and convex quadratic programming problems, and the new idea of a feedback network may be used to solve other optimization problems. Feasibility and efficiency are also substantiated by simulation examples.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tapia, R. A.; Vanrooy, D. L.
1976-01-01
A quasi-Newton method is presented for minimizing a nonlinear function while constraining the variables to be nonnegative and sum to one. The nonnegativity constraints were eliminated by working with the squares of the variables and the resulting problem was solved using Tapia's general theory of quasi-Newton methods for constrained optimization. A user's guide for a computer program implementing this algorithm is provided.
An Integer Programming Formulation of the Minimum Common String Partition Problem.
Ferdous, S M; Rahman, M Sohel
2015-01-01
We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP) of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlundt, David G.; Flannery, Mary Ellen; Davis, Dianne L.; Kinzer, Charles K.; Pichert, James W.
1999-01-01
Examines a two-week summer program using problem-based learning and behavior therapy to help adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes improve their ability to cope with obstacles to dietary management. Improvements were observed in self-efficacy, problem-solving skills, and self-reported coping strategies. No significant changes were observed…
Arithmetical Problem Solving: A Program Demonstration by Teachers of the Mentally Handicapped.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cawley, John F.; Goodman, John O.
The purposes of the study were to investigate the effects of the combination of a trained teacher and a planned program on the problem solving abilities of mentally handicapped children, to develop measures of verbal problem solving (IDES) and arithmetic understanding (PUT), and to analyze the interrelationships among primary mental abilities and…
An Analysis of Problems in College Students' Participation in the Western China Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yumei, Yi
2008-01-01
Since its initiation in 2003, the College Student Western China Program has had several satisfying achievements. At the same time, however, problems exist in the project. This article gives a brief analysis of problems encountered in the project from the aspects of publicity and campaign work, plans and schedules, student participation, voluntary…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chernyaev, Yu. A.
2016-03-01
A numerical algorithm for minimizing a convex function on a smooth surface is proposed. The algorithm is based on reducing the original problem to a sequence of convex programming problems. Necessary extremum conditions are examined, and the convergence of the algorithm is analyzed.
Learning Problem-Solving through Making Games at the Game Design and Learning Summer Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Akcaoglu, Mete
2014-01-01
Today's complex and fast-evolving world necessitates young students to possess design and problem-solving skills more than ever. One alternative method of teaching children problem-solving or thinking skills has been using computer programming, and more recently, game-design tasks. In this pre-experimental study, a group of middle school…
A Pilot Study of a Self-Voicing Computer Program for Prealgebra Math Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beal, Carole R.; Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick W.
2011-01-01
Fourteen students with visual impairments in Grades 5-12 participated in the field-testing of AnimalWatch-VI-Beta. This computer program delivered 12 prealgebra math problems and hints through a self-voicing audio feature. The students provided feedback about how the computer program can be improved and expanded to make it accessible to all users.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allinjawi, Arwa A.; Al-Nuaim, Hana A.; Krause, Paul
2014-01-01
Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is…
Evaluation of College Reading and Study Skills Programs; Problems and Approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, William W.
The purpose of this paper was to bring together some of the most outstanding and significant research in recent years relating to the problems of evaluating college reading and study skills programs and the corresponding prospects and implications for improvement. The sections of the paper include: "Criterion Measures of Program Success," which is…
Developing a Pedagogical Problem Solving View for Mathematics Teachers with Two Reflection Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kramarski, Bracha
2009-01-01
The study investigated the effects of two reflection support programs on elementary school mathematics teachers' pedagogical problem solving view. Sixty-two teachers participated in a professional development program. Thirty teachers were assigned to the self-questioning (S_Q) training and thirty two teachers were assigned to the reflection…
Problems of Administrating an ESL Program in the People's Republic of China.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rice, Donna S.
Experiences and problems encountered in administering the English as a second language (ESL) program at the Beijing Municipal University System/State University of New York (Buffalo) English Language Training Center during the first year of its operation in 1981 are described and discussed. The program draws from all nine universities in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldhusen, John F.; And Others
1992-01-01
The COMET summer residential program at Purdue University (Indiana) offers gifted and talented youth in grades 4-6 a week of intensive study in a single content area. Courses stress specific problem-solving skills and development of a rich knowledge base. Extensive program evaluation by students, teachers, counselors, and parents was highly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, David W.; And Others
To find major problems with the National School Lunch Program, a study was conducted with 1,015 students, their parents, and 16 school lunch supervisors in 18 Washington school districts. When interviewed, only 2% of the students said the lunch program did not need any changes. The needed changes most often mentioned were for "different kinds of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm
2012-01-01
An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…
Averaging and Linear Programming in Some Singularly Perturbed Problems of Optimal Control
Gaitsgory, Vladimir; Rossomakhine, Sergey
2015-04-15
The paper aims at the development of an apparatus for analysis and construction of near optimal solutions of singularly perturbed (SP) optimal controls problems (that is, problems of optimal control of SP systems) considered on the infinite time horizon. We mostly focus on problems with time discounting criteria but a possibility of the extension of results to periodic optimization problems is discussed as well. Our consideration is based on earlier results on averaging of SP control systems and on linear programming formulations of optimal control problems. The idea that we exploit is to first asymptotically approximate a given problem of optimal control of the SP system by a certain averaged optimal control problem, then reformulate this averaged problem as an infinite-dimensional linear programming (LP) problem, and then approximate the latter by semi-infinite LP problems. We show that the optimal solution of these semi-infinite LP problems and their duals (that can be found with the help of a modification of an available LP software) allow one to construct near optimal controls of the SP system. We demonstrate the construction with two numerical examples.
Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allaire, Patricia R.; Bradley, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Focuses on geometric solutions of quadratic problems. Presents a collection of geometric techniques from ancient Babylonia, classical Greece, medieval Arabia, and early modern Europe to enhance the quadratic equation portion of an algebra course. (KHR)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji
2014-04-01
The typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover problem, which is a type of integer programming (IP) problem. To deal with LP and IP using statistical mechanics, a lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs is analyzed by a replica method. It is found that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by IP below the critical average degree c*=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for LP = IP extends the previous result c = 1, and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Solomon, Marianne; Woythal, Deb
2012-01-01
E. Paul Torrance, a pioneer in creative education, and his associates founded the Future Problem Solving Program (now FPSPI, or Future Problem Solving Program International) in the mid-1970s as a competitive, interscholastic program and as a curriculum project integrating creative problem-solving and future studies. Since its founding, the program…
Airborne Linear Array Image Geometric Rectification Method Based on Unequal Segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. M.; Li, C. R.; Zhou, M.; Hu, J.; Yang, C. M.
2016-06-01
As the linear array sensor such as multispectral and hyperspectral sensor has great potential in disaster monitoring and geological survey, the quality of the image geometric rectification should be guaranteed. Different from the geometric rectification of airborne planar array images or multi linear array images, exterior orientation elements need to be determined for each scan line of single linear array images. Internal distortion persists after applying GPS/IMU data directly to geometrical rectification. Straight lines may be curving and jagged. Straight line feature -based geometrical rectification algorithm was applied to solve this problem, whereby the exterior orientation elements were fitted by piecewise polynomial and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. However, atmospheric turbulence during the flight is unstable, equal piecewise can hardly provide good fitting, resulting in limited precision improvement of geometric rectification or, in a worse case, the iteration cannot converge. To solve this problem, drawing on dynamic programming ideas, unequal segmentation of line feature-based geometric rectification method is developed. The angle elements fitting error is minimized to determine the optimum boundary. Then the exterior orientation elements of each segment are fitted and evaluated with the straight line feature as constraint. The result indicates that the algorithm is effective in improving the precision of geometric rectification.
An application of a linear programing technique to nonlinear minimax problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiess, J. R.
1973-01-01
A differential correction technique for solving nonlinear minimax problems is presented. The basis of the technique is a linear programing algorithm which solves the linear minimax problem. By linearizing the original nonlinear equations about a nominal solution, both nonlinear approximation and estimation problems using the minimax norm may be solved iteratively. Some consideration is also given to improving convergence and to the treatment of problems with more than one measured quantity. A sample problem is treated with this technique and with the least-squares differential correction method to illustrate the properties of the minimax solution. The results indicate that for the sample approximation problem, the minimax technique provides better estimates than the least-squares method if a sufficient amount of data is used. For the sample estimation problem, the minimax estimates are better if the mathematical model is incomplete.
A PROGRAMED PRIMER ON PROGRAMING. VOLUME II, PRACTICAL PROBLEMS. SECOND EDITION.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MARKLE, SUSAN MEYER
KEY CONCEPTS, TERMS, AND TECHNIQUES IN PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE PRESENTED IN THIS PROGRAMED PRIMER, WHICH BEGINS BY DEMONSTRATING THE USE OF FORMAL AND THEMATIC PROMPTS IN THE UTILIZATION OF A STUDENT'S REPERTOIRE. NEW RESPONSES ARE INTRODUCED INTO THIS REPERTOIRE BY THE USE OF COPYING FRAMES, EMPHASIS PROMPTS, AND PANELS. THE DESIGN OF SEQUENCES…
IESIP - AN IMPROVED EXPLORATORY SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR PURE INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogle, F. R.
1994-01-01
IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.
A strictly improving linear programming alorithm based on a series of Phase 1 problems
Leichner, S.A.; Dantzig, G.B.; Davis, J.W.
1992-04-01
When used on degenerate problems, the simplex method often takes a number of degenerate steps at a particular vertex before moving to the next. In theory (although rarely in practice), the simplex method can actually cycle at such a degenerate point. Instead of trying to modify the simplex method to avoid degenerate steps, we have developed a new linear programming algorithm that is completely impervious to degeneracy. This new method solves the Phase II problem of finding an optimal solution by solving a series of Phase I feasibility problems. Strict improvement is attained at each iteration in the Phase I algorithm, and the Phase II sequence of feasibility problems has linear convergence in the number of Phase I problems. When tested on the 30 smallest NETLIB linear programming test problems, the computational results for the new Phase II algorithm were over 15% faster than the simplex method; on some problems, it was almost two times faster, and on one problem it was four times faster.
Boras, Sofija; Zuckerman, Zora Itković
2008-09-01
This aimed to measure the influence of the Monitored Youth Mentoring Program (MYMP) for adolescents with behavioural problems and behavioural disorders. The MYMP commenced in 1997 and was completed in 2003. The model of the program was for one university student of Pedagogy to mentor one pupil between the ages of 13 and 17 years, demonstrating risk seeking behaviours for a whole school year. The specimen group was made up of 141 pupils, approximately 20 pupils from each year level. The short-term goal was to influence positive change in participants demonstrating risk seeking behaviour. The long-term goal was to enhance the respective school's programs to enable preventative approaches to lessen negative and risk seeking behaviours amongst pupils with behavioural problems and behavioural disorders. The research results demonstrate statistically significant success of the applied program in two measured variables. Firstly, learning success (p < 0.05), and secondly a decrease in truancy and disciplinary misdemeanours (p < 0.05). Both of which were observed in participants with behavioural problems. The program was not as successful for participants with behavioural disorders, but not without some effect. Although the program can be generally described as achieving a medium level of success, the fact that there was a lack of progressive worsening in participant's behaviour is a substantial bi-product of the program. The mentors involved in the program made it extremely clear by their feedback that, MYMP positively enhanced their formal Pedagogy training, through hands-on practise that they otherwise would not have received through their academic programs. They were provided with vital exposure to a preventative program and managed to gain insight into the possibilities of introducing early intervention and prevention into Croatian schools. PMID:18982754
[Self-help program: a new tool to facilitate the access to treatment for problem gamblers].
Saeremans, M; Noël, X; Verbanck, P
2015-01-01
Shame, fear of stigmatization, denial, accessibility to and the cost of treatment program may explain why only a small proportion of problem gamblers sought clinical treatment. In the hope to overcome these barriers, the Gambling Clinic and Other Behavioral Addictions of C.H.U. Brugmann (Brussels) has developed its own self-help program for excessive gamblers. Our goals were to foster readiness to change gambling behaviors and when appropriate to facilitate the transition from self-help program to classical face-to-face clinical intervention. In a sample of 172 problem gamblers who participated, 40% had never sought help (e.g., clinical treatment) and/or never attempted quit gambling. Interestingly, for some, internet-based self-help treatment preceded their determination for seeking a traditional face-to-face therapeutic setting. Those results led us to discuss this program as a valid clinical tool within a broader health care setting in excessive gamblers. PMID:26164965
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lansing, F. L.
1979-01-01
A computer program which can distinguish between different receiver designs, and predict transient performance under variable solar flux, or ambient temperatures, etc. has a basic structure that fits a general heat transfer problem, but with specific features that are custom-made for solar receivers. The code is written in MBASIC computer language. The methodology followed in solving the heat transfer problem is explained. A program flow chart, an explanation of input and output tables, and an example of the simulation of a cavity-type solar receiver are included.
Forneris, Tanya; Danish, Steven J; Scott, David L
2007-01-01
The Going for the Goal (GOAL) program is designed to teach adolescents life skills. There have been few efforts to assess whether the skills that GOAL is designed to teach are being learned by adolescents involved in the program. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of GOAL on the acquisition of skills in the areas of setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support. Interviews were conducted with twenty adolescents. Those who participated in GOAL reported that they had learned how to set goals, to solve problems effectively, and to seek the appropriate type of social support.
Solution of Mixed-Integer Programming Problems on the XT5
Hartman-Baker, Rebecca J; Busch, Ingrid Karin; Hilliard, Michael R; Middleton, Richard S; Schultze, Michael
2009-01-01
In this paper, we describe our experience with solving difficult mixed-integer linear programming problems (MILPs) on the petaflop Cray XT5 system at the National Center for Computational Sciences at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We describe the algorithmic, software, and hardware needs for solving MILPs and present the results of using PICO, an open-source, parallel, mixed-integer linear programming solver developed at Sandia National Laboratories, to solve canonical MILPs as well as problems of interest arising from the logistics and supply chain management field.
Geometric Algebra for Physicists
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Chris; Lasenby, Anthony
2007-11-01
Preface; Notation; 1. Introduction; 2. Geometric algebra in two and three dimensions; 3. Classical mechanics; 4. Foundations of geometric algebra; 5. Relativity and spacetime; 6. Geometric calculus; 7. Classical electrodynamics; 8. Quantum theory and spinors; 9. Multiparticle states and quantum entanglement; 10. Geometry; 11. Further topics in calculus and group theory; 12. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian techniques; 13. Symmetry and gauge theory; 14. Gravitation; Bibliography; Index.
Digital program for solving the linear stochastic optimal control and estimation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geyser, L. C.; Lehtinen, B.
1975-01-01
A computer program is described which solves the linear stochastic optimal control and estimation (LSOCE) problem by using a time-domain formulation. The LSOCE problem is defined as that of designing controls for a linear time-invariant system which is disturbed by white noise in such a way as to minimize a performance index which is quadratic in state and control variables. The LSOCE problem and solution are outlined; brief descriptions are given of the solution algorithms, and complete descriptions of each subroutine, including usage information and digital listings, are provided. A test case is included, as well as information on the IBM 7090-7094 DCS time and storage requirements.
Facing the PA team growth problem in space programs: The Hermes approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernede, G.
1991-08-01
The increasing need for product assurance (PA) in space programs makes finding skilled and trained engineers willing to work in the PA field a top level difficulty. Few engineers are available and exchanging them from one project to another is not a solution. No reservoir of talent exists for the time being in Europe. Educational efforts have started in several countries to have product assurance techniques become part of basic engineering knowledge. These efforts will bring strong improvement compared to today's situation but not in time for programs such as Hermes. Peculiar solutions must be developed. Approaches used to solve this problem within the Hermes program are outlined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn; Reid, M. Jamila
2003-01-01
This article describes the Dina Dinosaur Social, Emotional and Problem Solving Child Training Program for young children with conduct problems. The program emphasizes training children in skills such as emotional literacy, empathy or perspective taking, friendship and communication skills, anger management, interpersonal problem solving, and…
The Effectiveness of a CBI Program for Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Middle Level Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Langholz, Judith; Smaldino, Sharon E.
This study focuses on the effectiveness of "Solutions Unlimited," a computer software program developed to teach problem solving to middle level students. Fifty-one fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (21 girls and 30 boys) attending a private school in a small mid-west community were the subjects for this experiment; none had received prior training…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stefan, Catrinel A.; Miclea, Mircea
2013-01-01
This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a multifocused (child-, teacher- and parent-focused) prevention program for Romanian preschoolers, targeting social--emotional competence development, as well as reduction of behavior problems. Fourteen classrooms were randomly assigned to the intervention and control conditions. Subsequent…
Interactive distance learning in orthodontic residency programs: problems and potential solutions.
Klein, Katherine P; Hannum, Wallace H; Fields, Henry W; Proffit, William R
2012-03-01
Sharing resources through distance education has been proposed as one way to deal with a lack of full-time faculty members and maintain high-quality content in orthodontic residency programs. To keep distance education for orthodontic residents cost-effective while retaining interaction, a blended approach was developed that combines observation of web-based seminars with live post-seminar discussions. To evaluate this approach, a grant from the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) opened free access during the 2009-10 academic year to twenty-five recorded seminars in four instructional sequences to all sixty-three orthodontic programs in the United States and Canada. The only requirement was to also participate in the evaluation. Just over half (52 percent) of the U.S. programs chose to participate; the primary reason for participating was because faculty members wanted their residents to have exposure to other faculty members and ideas. The non-participating programs cited technical and logistical problems and their own ability to teach these subjects satisfactorily as reasons. Although participating distant faculty members and residents were generally pleased with the experience, problems in both educational and technical aspects were observed. Educationally, the biggest problem was lack of distant resident preparation and expectation of a lecture rather than a seminar. Technically, the logistics of scheduling distant seminars and uneven quality of the audio and video recordings were the major concerns of both residents and faculty members. Proposed solutions to these educational and technical problems are discussed.
A Problem Solving Program to Aid Stress Reduction in Sixth Grade Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horton, Janice M.
Stress is a part of everyday life for adolescents with puberty as stress affecting sixth grade students (N=27) was addressed in a junior high school with a program designed to reduce stress through problem solving. Two evaluation devices, the Barksdale Stress Evaluation and the "My Stress Level" Test were used for pre- and post-test comparison. In…
Keeping Fit with Asta O'Donnell. An Exercise Program for Problem Backs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Donnell, Asta
An estimated 75 million people in the United States suffer from some type of back problem. Most are caused by muscle strain and improper posture. This book describes an exercise program designed to relieve muscle strain, improve and correct posture, and reduce stress and tension. The book is divided into four sections: "Warm Ups,""Basic Exercise…
Universal algorithms and programs for calculating the motion parameters in the two-body problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakhshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.
1979-01-01
The algorithms and FORTRAN programs for computing positions and velocities, orbital elements and first and second partial derivatives in the two-body problem are presented. The algorithms are applicable for any value of eccentricity and are convenient for computing various navigation parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Lin; Yufeng, Wang; Agho, Kingsley; Jacobs, Jennifer
2011-01-01
Background: To evaluate the effect on problem behaviors of a universal school-based prevention curriculum of third grade students. Methods: Six regular classes in 1 elementary school were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 208) or control (n = 209) group. A 13-session program was offered to students in the intervention group. The Achenbach…
Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.
2015-01-01
The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Havighurst, Sophie S.; Wilson, Katherine R.; Harley, Ann E.; Kehoe, Christiane; Efron, Daryl; Prior, Margot R.
2013-01-01
This study evaluated a 6-session group parenting program, "Tuning into Kids" (TIK), as treatment for young children (aged 4.0-5.11 years) with behavior problems. TIK targets parent emotion socialization (parent emotion awareness, regulation and emotion coaching skills). Fifty-four parents, recruited via a child behavior clinic, were randomized…
Use of the Rasch Model to Solve Data Problems Encountered by the California Assessment Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Richard K.
Four problems faced by the staff of the California Assessment Program (CAP) were solved by applying Rasch scaling techniques: (1) item cultural bias in the Entry Level Test (ELT) given to all first grade pupils; (2) nonlinear regression analysis of the third grade Reading Test scores; (3) comparison of school growth from grades two to three, using…
Comparison of Cursive Handwriting Instruction Programs among Students without Identified Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shimel, Kristin; Candler, Catherine; Neville-Smith, Marsha
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of cursive handwriting programs in improving letter legibility and form in third-grade students without identified handwriting problems. Four months into the school year, cursive handwriting was assessed for a sample of convenience of 50 third-grade students. Subsequently, students received…
Problems of Administrative Change in Selected Programs for the Reeducation of Women.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Addis, Margaret Emily
Nine educational institutions were studied through visits and interviews to find out their problems in the creation of programs for the reeducation of women. Six were in the East and three in the Midwest; they included public and private universities, technical and liberal arts colleges for women, residential and nonresidential, large and small.…
Effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids Parenting Program on Children's Externalizing Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knox, Michele; Burkhart, Kimberly; Howe, Tasha
2011-01-01
Eighty-seven parents and primary caregivers of children aged 10 years or younger participated in a study examining the effects of the ACT Raising Safe Kids program on children's behavior. It was hypothesized that children of caregivers who complete ACT-RSK would demonstrate reduced behavior problems compared to children of caregivers in a…
A new gradient-based neural network for solving linear and quadratic programming problems.
Leung, Y; Chen, K Z; Jiao, Y C; Gao, X B; Leung, K S
2001-01-01
A new gradient-based neural network is constructed on the basis of the duality theory, optimization theory, convex analysis theory, Lyapunov stability theory, and LaSalle invariance principle to solve linear and quadratic programming problems. In particular, a new function F(x, y) is introduced into the energy function E(x, y) such that the function E(x, y) is convex and differentiable, and the resulting network is more efficient. This network involves all the relevant necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for convex quadratic programming problems. For linear programming and quadratic programming (QP) problems with unique and infinite number of solutions, we have proven strictly that for any initial point, every trajectory of the neural network converges to an optimal solution of the QP and its dual problem. The proposed network is different from the existing networks which use the penalty method or Lagrange method, and the inequality constraints are properly handled. The simulation results show that the proposed neural network is feasible and efficient.
Analysis of the Effect of a Social Problem-Solving Program on the Aggression of Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Secer, Zarife; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay
2011-01-01
The aim of this research was to establish the effect of a social problem-solving training program for 8th grade students. In the experimental group, 14 students were 14 years old and 1 student was 15 years old. In the control group, 13 students were 14 years old and 2 students were 15 years old. The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) was administered…
A Summer Pre-Entry Program for Minority Students Incorporating Problem-Based Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pickell, Garfield C.; And Others
1991-01-01
The University of California, Davis, medical school's intensive summer preentry program for disadvantaged minority students, which previews the first year curriculum, has incorporated a problem-based learning component to augment and prolong its effects. Objective measures of course effectiveness are unavailable; however, self-esteem, study…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin
2014-01-01
Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…
Enhancing Problem-Solving Capabilities Using Object-Oriented Programming Language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Unuakhalu, Mike F.
2009-01-01
This study integrated object-oriented programming instruction with transfer training activities in everyday tasks, which might provide a mechanism that can be used for efficient problem solving. Specifically, a Visual BASIC embedded with everyday tasks group was compared to another group exposed to Visual BASIC instruction only. Subjects were 40…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
ALI KHAN, ANSAR
THE AUTHOR DISCUSSES THE NEED FOR FUNCTIONAL, SEQUENTIAL PROGRAMS OF LITERACY, VOCATIONAL, LIBERAL, POLITICAL, AND HUMAN RELATIONS EDUCATION IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN. PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES ARE SEEN IN THE OCCUPATIONAL CASTE SYSTEM, FAMILY STRUCTURES, ATTITUDES TOWARD THE EDUCATION OF BOYS AND GIRLS, POOR MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION AND…
Clinical Trail Outcomes of the Mexican American Problem Solving Program (MAPS)
Cowell, Julia Muennich; McNaughton, Diane; Ailey, Sarah; Gross, Deborah; Fogg, Louis
2010-01-01
Depression among Mexican immigrant women and children exceeds national prevalence rates. Given the influence of maternal depression on children, a clinical trial testing the effects of the Mexican American Problem Solving (MAPS) program was designed to address depression symptoms of Mexican immigrant women and their fourth and fifth grade children (302 dyads) through a linked home visiting and after school program compared to peers in a control group. Schools were randomized to intervention and control groups. There were statistically significant improvements in the children’s health conceptions and family problem solving communication, factors predictive of mental health. Improvements in children’s depression symptoms in the intervention group approached statistical significance. These promising results suggest that refined school based nursing interventions be included in community strategies to address the serious mental health problems that Mexican immigrants face. PMID:20877438
Convergence of neural networks for programming problems via a nonsmooth Lojasiewicz inequality.
Forti, Mauro; Nistri, Paolo; Quincampoix, Marc
2006-11-01
This paper considers a class of neural networks (NNs) for solving linear programming (LP) problems, convex quadratic programming (QP) problems, and nonconvex QP problems where an indefinite quadratic objective function is subject to a set of affine constraints. The NNs are characterized by constraint neurons modeled by ideal diodes with vertical segments in their characteristic, which enable to implement an exact penalty method. A new method is exploited to address convergence of trajectories, which is based on a nonsmooth Lojasiewicz inequality for the generalized gradient vector field describing the NN dynamics. The method permits to prove that each forward trajectory of the NN has finite length, and as a consequence it converges toward a singleton. Furthermore, by means of a quantitative evaluation of the Lojasiewicz exponent at the equilibrium points, the following results on convergence rate of trajectories are established: (1) for nonconvex QP problems, each trajectory is either exponentially convergent, or convergent in finite time, toward a singleton belonging to the set of constrained critical points; (2) for convex QP problems, the same result as in (1) holds; moreover, the singleton belongs to the set of global minimizers; and (3) for LP problems, each trajectory converges in finite time to a singleton belonging to the set of global minimizers. These results, which improve previous results obtained via the Lyapunov approach, are true independently of the nature of the set of equilibrium points, and in particular they hold even when the NN possesses infinitely many nonisolated equilibrium points.
Application of an interactive computer program to manage a problem-based dental curriculum.
McGrath, Colman; Comfort, Margaret B; Luo, Yan; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Clark, Christopher D
2006-04-01
Managing the change from traditional to problem-based learning (PBL) curricula is complex because PBL employs problem cases as the vehicle for learning. Each problem case covers a wide range of different learning issues across many disciplines and is coordinated by different facilitators drawn from the school's multidisciplinary pool. The objective of this project was to adapt an interactive computer program to manage a problem-based dental curriculum. Through application of a commercial database software--CATs (Curriculum Analysis Tools)--an electronic database for all modules of a five-year problem-based program was developed. This involved inputting basic information on each problem case relating to competencies covered, key words (learning objectives), participating faculty, independent study, and homework assignments, as well as inputting information on contact hours. General reports were generated to provide an overview of the curriculum. In addition, competency, key word, manpower, and clock-hour reports at three levels (individual PBL course component, yearly, and the entire curriculum) were produced. Implications and uses of such reports are discussed. The adaptation of electronic technology for managing dental curricula for use in a PBL curriculum has implications for all those involved in managing new-style PBL dental curricula and those who have concerns about managing the PBL process. PMID:16595531
Exploring New Geometric Worlds
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nirode, Wayne
2015-01-01
When students work with a non-Euclidean distance formula, geometric objects such as circles and segment bisectors can look very different from their Euclidean counterparts. Students and even teachers can experience the thrill of creative discovery when investigating these differences among geometric worlds. In this article, the author describes a…
The Strengthening Families Program 10-14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill.
Semeniuk, Y; Brown, R L; Riesch, S K; Zywicki, M; Hopper, J; Henriques, J B
2010-06-01
The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention&23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study.
Understanding change among multi-problem families: Learnings from a formative program assessment.
Millett, Lina Sapokaite; Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Echele, Greg; Moussette, Pam; Atkins, Valerie
2016-10-01
This paper describes the implementation of a long-term voluntary intervention to prevent chronic maltreatment among multi-problem families with histories of child welfare involvement. A small formative evaluation included a limited number of interviews with program participants during the first year of program implementation (n=10), a retrospective case file review (n=17) of closed cases following the first three years of implementation, and notes from ongoing meetings and discussion with program staff. Findings regarding client engagement, long-term interaction between risk and services, and program refinement are discussed. Despite the program's voluntary nature, positive comments from families, and extensive engagement strategies, only about 22% of families remained engaged for the full two-year program. Material hardship was one of the most persistent risk factors from baseline to termination. In many cases, unforeseen negative events occurred that, at least partly, derailed progress. In all cases, progress made was not reflective of a consistent linear process used in the design of most child welfare programs. Implications for program theory and design are discussed.
Understanding change among multi-problem families: Learnings from a formative program assessment.
Millett, Lina Sapokaite; Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Echele, Greg; Moussette, Pam; Atkins, Valerie
2016-10-01
This paper describes the implementation of a long-term voluntary intervention to prevent chronic maltreatment among multi-problem families with histories of child welfare involvement. A small formative evaluation included a limited number of interviews with program participants during the first year of program implementation (n=10), a retrospective case file review (n=17) of closed cases following the first three years of implementation, and notes from ongoing meetings and discussion with program staff. Findings regarding client engagement, long-term interaction between risk and services, and program refinement are discussed. Despite the program's voluntary nature, positive comments from families, and extensive engagement strategies, only about 22% of families remained engaged for the full two-year program. Material hardship was one of the most persistent risk factors from baseline to termination. In many cases, unforeseen negative events occurred that, at least partly, derailed progress. In all cases, progress made was not reflective of a consistent linear process used in the design of most child welfare programs. Implications for program theory and design are discussed. PMID:27419622
Second-quantized formulation of geometric phases
Deguchi, Shinichi; Fujikawa, Kazuo
2005-07-15
The level crossing problem and associated geometric terms are neatly formulated by the second-quantized formulation. This formulation exhibits a hidden local gauge symmetry related to the arbitrariness of the phase choice of the complete orthonormal basis set. By using this second-quantized formulation, which does not assume adiabatic approximation, a convenient exact formula for the geometric terms including off-diagonal geometric terms is derived. The analysis of geometric phases is then reduced to a simple diagonalization of the Hamiltonian, and it is analyzed both in the operator and path-integral formulations. If one diagonalizes the geometric terms in the infinitesimal neighborhood of level crossing, the geometric phases become trivial (and thus no monopole singularity) for arbitrarily large but finite time interval T. The integrability of Schroedinger equation and the appearance of the seemingly nonintegrable phases are thus consistent. The topological proof of the Longuet-Higgins' phase-change rule, for example, fails in the practical Born-Oppenheimer approximation where a large but finite ratio of two time scales is involved and T is identified with the period of the slower system. The difference and similarity between the geometric phases associated with level crossing and the exact topological object such as the Aharonov-Bohm phase become clear in the present formulation. A crucial difference between the quantum anomaly and the geometric phases is also noted.
On the Performance of Different Genetic Programming Approaches for the SORTING Problem.
Wagner, Markus; Neumann, Frank; Urli, Tommaso
2015-01-01
In genetic programming, the size of a solution is typically not specified in advance, and solutions of larger size may have a larger benefit. The flexibility often comes at the cost of the so-called bloat problem: individuals grow without providing additional benefit to the quality of solutions, and the additional elements can block the optimization process. Consequently, problems that are relatively easy to optimize cannot be handled by variable-length evolutionary algorithms. In this article, we analyze different single- and multiobjective algorithms on the sorting problem, a problem that typically lacks independent and additive fitness structures. We complement the theoretical results with comprehensive experiments to indicate the tightness of existing bounds, and to indicate bounds where theoretical results are missing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizutani, E.
2015-09-01
In this journal, Pantoja has described a deterministic optimal control problem in which his stagewise Newton procedure yields an exact optimal solution whereas differential dynamic programming (DDP) does not. This problem is also quoted by Coleman and Liao (in another journal) as a correct instance with some emphasis on the advantage of Pantoja's procedure over DDP. Pantoja argues that the problem involves nonlinear dynamics in his terminal-cost problem formulation, and therefore DDP and stagewise Newton methods are different. The purpose of this paper is to show that, while for a general nonlinear optimal control problem DDP and Pantoja's method differ, his problem has a special structure such that it is a false example of this claim; more specifically, the reason is twofold. First, he made an obvious algebraic error in his computation. Second, his example is equivalent to a problem of linear dynamics and quadratic criterion (LQ in short). It is true that when a general LQ that involves quadratic stage costs is transformed to a terminal-cost problem, the nonlinear (quadratic) state dynamics would result from each quadratic stage cost of the LQ. Yet the LQ-solution procedure remains the same, i.e., with the same discrete (Riccati) recurrence equations that can be derived by classical dynamic programming. This means that DDP obtains the exact minimum point of the transformed terminal-cost criterion just as does the Newton method. Using a standard LQ of general type, we formally prove this equivalence in its terminal-cost version even with nonlinear state dynamics.
Stable computation of search directions for near-degenerate linear programming problems
Hough, P.D.
1997-03-01
In this paper, we examine stability issues that arise when computing search directions ({delta}x, {delta}y, {delta} s) for a primal-dual path-following interior point method for linear programming. The dual step {delta}y can be obtained by solving a weighted least-squares problem for which the weight matrix becomes extremely il conditioned near the boundary of the feasible region. Hough and Vavisis proposed using a type of complete orthogonal decomposition (the COD algorithm) to solve such a problem and presented stability results. The work presented here addresses the stable computation of the primal step {delta}x and the change in the dual slacks {delta}s. These directions can be obtained in a straight-forward manner, but near-degeneracy in the linear programming instance introduces ill-conditioning which can cause numerical problems in this approach. Therefore, we propose a new method of computing {delta}x and {delta}s. More specifically, this paper describes and orthogonal projection algorithm that extends the COD method. Unlike other algorithms, this method is stable for interior point methods without assuming nondegeneracy in the linear programming instance. Thus, it is more general than other algorithms on near-degenerate problems.
State of art and key problems of OOP for FE programming in engineering analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Heng; Zhou, Yunyun
2013-03-01
Object-oriented programming (OOP) has been the most important development method, especially for huge and complicated program systems, since OOP can overcome structural complexity of code, strong coupling among modules and poor maintenance shortcomings in traditional structural programming. Since B.W.R.Forde applied OOP to Finite Element (FE) firstly in 1990, the research in this field has not been stopped. Scholars have taken many positive and useful attempts on study of OOP in FE programming from different aspects. The state of the art of OOP in FE and current development has been reviewed, and the key problems in the OOP FEM fields thus are pointed out, thus prospects of OOP in FE code design are put forward.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pesquies, P. C.; Milhaud, C.; Nogues, C.; Klein, M.; Cailler, B.; Bost, R.
The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies—in addition to human experimentation—the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study.
Glass, Micheal W.; Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; Gartling, David K.
2010-03-01
The need for the engineering analysis of systems in which the transport of thermal energy occurs primarily through a conduction process is a common situation. For all but the simplest geometries and boundary conditions, analytic solutions to heat conduction problems are unavailable, thus forcing the analyst to call upon some type of approximate numerical procedure. A wide variety of numerical packages currently exist for such applications, ranging in sophistication from the large, general purpose, commercial codes, such as COMSOL, COSMOSWorks, ABAQUS and TSS to codes written by individuals for specific problem applications. The original purpose for developing the finite element code described here, COYOTE, was to bridge the gap between the complex commercial codes and the more simplistic, individual application programs. COYOTE was designed to treat most of the standard conduction problems of interest with a user-oriented input structure and format that was easily learned and remembered. Because of its architecture, the code has also proved useful for research in numerical algorithms and development of thermal analysis capabilities. This general philosophy has been retained in the current version of the program, COYOTE, Version 5.0, though the capabilities of the code have been significantly expanded. A major change in the code is its availability on parallel computer architectures and the increase in problem complexity and size that this implies. The present document describes the theoretical and numerical background for the COYOTE program. This volume is intended as a background document for the user's manual. Potential users of COYOTE are encouraged to become familiar with the present report and the simple example analyses reported in before using the program. The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, COYOTE, is presented in detail. COYOTE is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems
White, Jeffry L; Altschuld, James W; Lee, Yi-Fang
2008-08-01
The retention rates for African-Americans, Hispanics, and Native-Americans in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are lower than those of White or Asian college students. In response, the National Science Foundation formed statewide partnerships of universities to develop programs to address this disparity. The deliberations and experiences in evaluating one such partnership are retrospectively reviewed. Problems and issues encountered during conceptualization and implementation are presented. Lessons learned from this endeavor should generalize to similar situations and provide guidance for others new to or interested in evaluating STEM retention programs as well as those evaluating collaborative endeavors.
SAGUARO: a finite-element computer program for partially saturated porous flow problems
Eaton, R.R.; Gartling, D.K.; Larson, D.E.
1983-06-01
SAGUARO is a finite element computer program designed to calculate two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. Program capabilities, user instructions and a sample problem are presented in this manual.
SAGUARO: A finite-element computer program for partially saturated porous flow problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Easton, R. R.; Gartling, D. K.; Larson, D. E.
1983-11-01
SAGUARO is finite element computer program designed to calculate two-dimensional flow of mass and energy through porous media. The media may be saturated or partially saturated. SAGUARO solves the parabolic time-dependent mass transport equation which accounts for the presence of partially saturated zones through the use of highly non-linear material characteristic curves. The energy equation accounts for the possibility of partially saturated regions by adjusting the thermal capacitances and thermal conductivities according to the volume fraction of water present in the local pores. Program capabilities, user instructions and a sample problem are presented in this manual.
Kim, D.; Ghanem, R.
1994-12-31
Multigrid solution technique to solve a material nonlinear problem in a visual programming environment using the finite element method is discussed. The nonlinear equation of equilibrium is linearized to incremental form using Newton-Rapson technique, then multigrid solution technique is used to solve linear equations at each Newton-Rapson step. In the process, adaptive mesh refinement, which is based on the bisection of a pair of triangles, is used to form grid hierarchy for multigrid iteration. The solution process is implemented in a visual programming environment with distributed computing capability, which enables more intuitive understanding of solution process, and more effective use of resources.
Impossible Geometric Constructions: A Calculus Writing Project
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Awtrey, Chad
2013-01-01
This article discusses a writing project that offers students the opportunity to solve one of the most famous geometric problems of Greek antiquity; namely, the impossibility of trisecting the angle [pi]/3. Along the way, students study the history of Greek geometry problems as well as the life and achievements of Carl Friedrich Gauss. Included is…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
The results are reported of the NASA/Drexel research effort which was conducted in two separate phases. The initial phase stressed exploration of the problem from the point of view of three primary research areas and the building of a multidisciplinary team. The final phase consisted of a clinical demonstration program in which the research associates consulted with the County Executive of New Castle County, Delaware, to aid in solving actual problems confronting the County Government. The three primary research areas of the initial phase are identified as technology, management science, and behavioral science. Five specific projects which made up the research effort are treated separately. A final section contains the conclusions drawn from total research effort as well as from the specific projects.
Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damci Kurt, Pelin
This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.
An integer programming approach to the phase problem for centrosymmetric structures.
Vaia, Anastasia; Sahinidis, Nikolaos V
2003-09-01
The problem addressed in this paper is the determination of three-dimensional structures of centrosymmetric crystals from X-ray diffraction measurements. The 'minimal principle' that a certain quantity is minimized only by the crystal structure is employed to solve the phase problem. The mathematical formulation of the minimal principle is a nonconvex nonlinear optimization problem. To date, local optimization techniques and advanced computer architectures have been used to solve this problem, which may have a very large number of local optima. In this paper, the minimal principle model is reformulated for the case of centrosymmetric structures into an integer programming problem in terms of the missing phases. This formulation is solvable by well established combinatorial optimization techniques that are guaranteed to provide the global optimum in a finite number of steps without explicit enumeration of all possible combinations of phases. Computational experience with the proposed method on a number of structures of moderate complexity is provided and demonstrates that the approach yields a fast and reliable method that resolves the crystallographic phase problem for the case of centrosymmetric structures. PMID:12944609
An integer programming model for gate assignment problem at airline terminals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chun, Chong Kok; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina
2015-05-01
In this paper, we concentrate on a gate assignment problem (GAP) at the airlines terminal. Our problem is to assign an arrival plane to a suitable gate. There are two considerations needed to take. One of its is passenger walking distance from arrival gate to departure gate while another consideration is the transport baggage distance from one gate to another. Our objective is to minimize the total distance between the gates that related to assign the arrival plane to the suitable gates. An integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed to solve this gate assignment problem. We also conduct a computational experiment using CPLEX 12.1 solver in AIMMS 3.10 software to analyze the performance of the model. Results of the computational experiments are presented. The efficiency of flights assignment is depends on the ratio of the weight for both total passenger traveling distances and total baggage transport distances.
Geometrical method of decoupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumgarten, C.
2012-12-01
The computation of tunes and matched beam distributions are essential steps in the analysis of circular accelerators. If certain symmetries—like midplane symmetry—are present, then it is possible to treat the betatron motion in the horizontal, the vertical plane, and (under certain circumstances) the longitudinal motion separately using the well-known Courant-Snyder theory, or to apply transformations that have been described previously as, for instance, the method of Teng and Edwards. In a preceding paper, it has been shown that this method requires a modification for the treatment of isochronous cyclotrons with non-negligible space charge forces. Unfortunately, the modification was numerically not as stable as desired and it was still unclear, if the extension would work for all conceivable cases. Hence, a systematic derivation of a more general treatment seemed advisable. In a second paper, the author suggested the use of real Dirac matrices as basic tools for coupled linear optics and gave a straightforward recipe to decouple positive definite Hamiltonians with imaginary eigenvalues. In this article this method is generalized and simplified in order to formulate a straightforward method to decouple Hamiltonian matrices with eigenvalues on the real and the imaginary axis. The decoupling of symplectic matrices which are exponentials of such Hamiltonian matrices can be deduced from this in a few steps. It is shown that this algebraic decoupling is closely related to a geometric “decoupling” by the orthogonalization of the vectors E→, B→, and P→, which were introduced with the so-called “electromechanical equivalence.” A mathematical analysis of the problem can be traced down to the task of finding a structure-preserving block diagonalization of symplectic or Hamiltonian matrices. Structure preservation means in this context that the (sequence of) transformations must be symplectic and hence canonical. When used iteratively, the decoupling
A Two-Stage Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programming Approach to the Smart House Scheduling Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozoe, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Masao
A “Smart House” is a highly energy-optimized house equipped with photovoltaic systems (PV systems), electric battery systems, fuel cell cogeneration systems (FC systems), electric vehicles (EVs) and so on. Smart houses are attracting much attention recently thanks to their enhanced ability to save energy by making full use of renewable energy and by achieving power grid stability despite an increased power draw for installed PV systems. Yet running a smart house's power system, with its multiple power sources and power storages, is no simple task. In this paper, we consider the problem of power scheduling for a smart house with a PV system, an FC system and an EV. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming problem, and then extend it to a stochastic programming problem involving recourse costs to cope with uncertain electricity demand, heat demand and PV power generation. Using our method, we seek to achieve the optimal power schedule running at the minimum expected operation cost. We present some results of numerical experiments with data on real-life demands and PV power generation to show the effectiveness of our method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi
2011-05-01
Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.
Solving seismological problems using SGRAPH program: I-source parameters and hypocentral location
Abdelwahed, Mohamed F.
2012-09-26
SGRAPH program is considered one of the seismological programs that maintain seismic data. SGRAPH is considered unique for being able to read a wide range of data formats and manipulate complementary tools in different seismological subjects in a stand-alone Windows-based application. SGRAPH efficiently performs the basic waveform analysis and solves advanced seismological problems. The graphical user interface (GUI) utilities and the Windows facilities such as, dialog boxes, menus, and toolbars simplified the user interaction with data. SGRAPH supported the common data formats like, SAC, SEED, GSE, ASCII, and Nanometrics Y-format, and others. It provides the facilities to solve many seismological problems with the built-in inversion and modeling tools. In this paper, I discuss some of the inversion tools built-in SGRAPH related to source parameters and hypocentral location estimation. Firstly, a description of the SGRAPH program is given discussing some of its features. Secondly, the inversion tools are applied to some selected events of the Dahshour earthquakes as an example of estimating the spectral and source parameters of local earthquakes. In addition, the hypocentral location of these events are estimated using the Hypoinverse 2000 program operated by SGRAPH.
Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.
2011-01-01
Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2008-01-01
Many students experience difficulties in solving applied physics problems. Most programs that want students to improve problem-solving skills are concerned with the development of content knowledge. Physhint is an example of a student-controlled computer program that supports students in developing their strategic knowledge in combination with…
Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korsmeryer, D. J.; Schreiner, J. A.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Programs Study of the Space Shuttle Programs (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were: to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The Study determined that the extant SSP PRACA systems accomplished a project level support capability through the use of a large pool of domain experts and a variety of distributed formal and informal database systems. This operational model is vulnerable to staff turnover and loss of the vast corporate knowledge that is not currently being captured by the PRACA system. A need for a Program-level PRACA system providing improved insight, unification, knowledge capture, and collaborative tools was defined in this study.
Geometric mean for subspace selection.
Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J
2009-02-01
Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions. PMID:19110492
Geometric mean for subspace selection.
Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong; Wu, Xindong; Maybank, Stephen J
2009-02-01
Subspace selection approaches are powerful tools in pattern classification and data visualization. One of the most important subspace approaches is the linear dimensionality reduction step in the Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (FLDA), which has been successfully employed in many fields such as biometrics, bioinformatics, and multimedia information management. However, the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA has a critical drawback: for a classification task with c classes, if the dimension of the projected subspace is strictly lower than c - 1, the projection to a subspace tends to merge those classes, which are close together in the original feature space. If separate classes are sampled from Gaussian distributions, all with identical covariance matrices, then the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA maximizes the mean value of the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergences between different classes. Based on this viewpoint, the geometric mean for subspace selection is studied in this paper. Three criteria are analyzed: 1) maximization of the geometric mean of the KL divergences, 2) maximization of the geometric mean of the normalized KL divergences, and 3) the combination of 1 and 2. Preliminary experimental results based on synthetic data, UCI Machine Learning Repository, and handwriting digits show that the third criterion is a potential discriminative subspace selection method, which significantly reduces the class separation problem in comparing with the linear dimensionality reduction step in FLDA and its several representative extensions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclain, A. G.; Rao, C. S. R.
1976-01-01
A hybrid chemical kinetic computer program was assembled which provides a rapid solution to problems involving flowing or static, chemically reacting, gas mixtures. The computer program uses existing subroutines for problem setup, initialization, and preliminary calculations and incorporates a stiff ordinary differential equation solution technique. A number of check cases were recomputed with the hybrid program and the results were almost identical to those previously obtained. The computational time saving was demonstrated with a propane-oxygen-argon shock tube combustion problem involving 31 chemical species and 64 reactions. Information is presented to enable potential users to prepare an input data deck for the calculation of a problem.
Creativity and Motivation for Geometric Tasks Designing in Education
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rumanová, Lucia; Smiešková, Edita
2015-01-01
In this paper we focus on creativity needed for geometric tasks designing, visualization of geometric problems and use of ICT. We present some examples of various problems related to tessellations. Altogether 21 students--pre-service teachers participated in our activity within a geometry course at CPU in Nitra, Slovakia. Our attempt was to…
Descriptive Geometry and Geometric Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adams, J. Alan
1988-01-01
Describes experiences for engineering students to develop spatial awareness and reasoning capability. Describes geometric modeling, basic geometric concepts, operations, surface modeling, and conclusions. (YP)
Hasuike, Takashi; Ishii, Hiroaki; Katagiri, Hideki
2009-10-08
This paper considers a bi-criteria general 0-1 random fuzzy programming problem based on the degree of necessity which include some previous 0-1 stochastic and fuzzy programming problems. The proposal problem is not well-defined due to including randomness and fuzziness. Therefore, by introducing chance constraint and fuzzy goals for objectives, and considering the maximization of the aspiration level for total profit and the degree of necessity that the objective function's value satisfies the fuzzy goal, the main problem is transformed into a deterministic equivalent problem. Furthermore, by using the assumption that each random variable is distributed according to a normal distribution, the problem is equivalently transformed into a basic 0-1 programming problem, and the efficient strict solution method to find an optimal solution is constructed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasuike, Takashi; Katagiri, Hideki; Ishii, Hiroaki
2009-10-01
This paper considers a bi-criteria general 0-1 random fuzzy programming problem based on the degree of necessity which include some previous 0-1 stochastic and fuzzy programming problems. The proposal problem is not well-defined due to including randomness and fuzziness. Therefore, by introducing chance constraint and fuzzy goals for objectives, and considering the maximization of the aspiration level for total profit and the degree of necessity that the objective function's value satisfies the fuzzy goal, the main problem is transformed into a deterministic equivalent problem. Furthermore, by using the assumption that each random variable is distributed according to a normal distribution, the problem is equivalently transformed into a basic 0-1 programming problem, and the efficient strict solution method to find an optimal solution is constructed.
A Fuzzy Goal Programming for a Multi-Depot Distribution Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunkaew, Wuttinan; Phruksaphanrat, Busaba
2010-10-01
A fuzzy goal programming model for solving a Multi-Depot Distribution Problem (MDDP) is proposed in this research. This effective proposed model is applied for solving in the first step of Assignment First-Routing Second (AFRS) approach. Practically, a basic transportation model is firstly chosen to solve this kind of problem in the assignment step. After that the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) model is used to compute the delivery cost in the routing step. However, in the basic transportation model, only depot to customer relationship is concerned. In addition, the consideration of customer to customer relationship should also be considered since this relationship exists in the routing step. Both considerations of relationships are solved using Preemptive Fuzzy Goal Programming (P-FGP). The first fuzzy goal is set by a total transportation cost and the second fuzzy goal is set by a satisfactory level of the overall independence value. A case study is used for describing the effectiveness of the proposed model. Results from the proposed model are compared with the basic transportation model that has previously been used in this company. The proposed model can reduce the actual delivery cost in the routing step owing to the better result in the assignment step. Defining fuzzy goals by membership functions are more realistic than crisps. Furthermore, flexibility to adjust goals and an acceptable satisfactory level for decision maker can also be increased and the optimal solution can be obtained.
Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji
2016-05-01
Typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover (min-VC), a type of integer programming (IP) problem. A lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs of α-uniform hyperedges is proposed to express both the LP and IP problems of the min-VC in the common statistical mechanical model with a one-parameter family. Statistical mechanical analyses reveal for α=2 that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by the IP below the critical average degree c=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for good accuracy of the relaxation extends the mathematical result c=1 and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP. The LP relaxation for the minimum hitting sets with α≥3, minimum vertex covers on α-uniform random graphs, is also studied. Analytic and numerical results strongly suggest that the LP relaxation fails to estimate optimal values above the critical average degree c=e/(α-1) where the replica symmetry is broken. PMID:27301006
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji
2016-05-01
Typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover (min-VC), a type of integer programming (IP) problem. A lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs of α -uniform hyperedges is proposed to express both the LP and IP problems of the min-VC in the common statistical mechanical model with a one-parameter family. Statistical mechanical analyses reveal for α =2 that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by the IP below the critical average degree c =e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for good accuracy of the relaxation extends the mathematical result c =1 and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP. The LP relaxation for the minimum hitting sets with α ≥3 , minimum vertex covers on α -uniform random graphs, is also studied. Analytic and numerical results strongly suggest that the LP relaxation fails to estimate optimal values above the critical average degree c =e /(α -1 ) where the replica symmetry is broken.
Takabe, Satoshi; Hukushima, Koji
2016-05-01
Typical behavior of the linear programming (LP) problem is studied as a relaxation of the minimum vertex cover (min-VC), a type of integer programming (IP) problem. A lattice-gas model on the Erdös-Rényi random graphs of α-uniform hyperedges is proposed to express both the LP and IP problems of the min-VC in the common statistical mechanical model with a one-parameter family. Statistical mechanical analyses reveal for α=2 that the LP optimal solution is typically equal to that given by the IP below the critical average degree c=e in the thermodynamic limit. The critical threshold for good accuracy of the relaxation extends the mathematical result c=1 and coincides with the replica symmetry-breaking threshold of the IP. The LP relaxation for the minimum hitting sets with α≥3, minimum vertex covers on α-uniform random graphs, is also studied. Analytic and numerical results strongly suggest that the LP relaxation fails to estimate optimal values above the critical average degree c=e/(α-1) where the replica symmetry is broken.
Geometric Algebra Software for Teaching Complex Numbers, Vectors and Spinors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lounesto, Pertti; And Others
1990-01-01
Presents a calculator-type computer program, CLICAL, in conjunction with complex number, vector, and other geometric algebra computations. Compares the CLICAL with other symbolic programs for algebra. (Author/YP)
Geometrical optical illusionists.
Wade, Nicholas J
2014-01-01
Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly.
Inflation from geometrical tachyons
Thomas, Steven; Ward, John
2005-10-15
We propose an alternative formulation of tachyon inflation using the geometrical tachyon arising from the time dependent motion of a BPS D3-brane in the background geometry due to k parallel NS5-branes arranged around a ring of radius R. Because of the fact that the mass of this geometrical tachyon field is {radical}(2/k) times smaller than the corresponding open-string tachyon mass, we find that the slow-roll conditions for inflation and the number of e-foldings can be satisfied in a manner that is consistent with an effective 4-dimensional model and with a perturbative string coupling. We also show that the metric perturbations produced at the end of inflation can be sufficiently small and do not lead to the inconsistencies that plague the open-string tachyon models. Finally we argue for the existence of a minimum of the geometrical tachyon potential which could give rise to a traditional reheating mechanism.
Geometrical optical illusionists.
Wade, Nicholas J
2014-01-01
Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly. PMID:25507310
Geometrical optical illusionists.
Wade, Nicholas J
2014-01-01
Geometrical optical illusions were given this title by Oppel in 1855. Variants on such small distortions of visual space were illustrated thereafter, many of which bear the names of those who first described them. Some original forms of the geometrical optical illusions are shown together with 'perceptual portraits' of those who described them. These include: Roget, Chevreul, Fick, Zöllner, Poggendorff, Hering, Kundt, Delboeuf Mach, Helmholtz, Hermann, von Bezold, Müller-Lyer, Lipps, Thiéry, Wundt, Münsterberg, Ebbinghaus, Titchener, Ponzo, Luckiesh, Sander, Ehrenstein, Gregory, Heard, White, Shepard, and. Lingelbach. The illusions are grouped under the headings of orientation, size, the combination of size and orientation, and contrast. Early theories of illusions, before geometrical optical illusions were so named, are mentioned briefly. PMID:25420326
Graff, Mario; Poli, Riccardo; Flores, Juan J
2013-01-01
Modeling the behavior of algorithms is the realm of evolutionary algorithm theory. From a practitioner's point of view, theory must provide some guidelines regarding which algorithm/parameters to use in order to solve a particular problem. Unfortunately, most theoretical models of evolutionary algorithms are difficult to apply to realistic situations. However, in recent work (Graff and Poli, 2008, 2010), where we developed a method to practically estimate the performance of evolutionary program-induction algorithms (EPAs), we started addressing this issue. The method was quite general; however, it suffered from some limitations: it required the identification of a set of reference problems, it required hand picking a distance measure in each particular domain, and the resulting models were opaque, typically being linear combinations of 100 features or more. In this paper, we propose a significant improvement of this technique that overcomes the three limitations of our previous method. We achieve this through the use of a novel set of features for assessing problem difficulty for EPAs which are very general, essentially based on the notion of finite difference. To show the capabilities or our technique and to compare it with our previous performance models, we create models for the same two important classes of problems-symbolic regression on rational functions and Boolean function induction-used in our previous work. We model a variety of EPAs. The comparison showed that for the majority of the algorithms and problem classes, the new method produced much simpler and more accurate models than before. To further illustrate the practicality of the technique and its generality (beyond EPAs), we have also used it to predict the performance of both autoregressive models and EPAs on the problem of wind speed forecasting, obtaining simpler and more accurate models that outperform in all cases our previous performance models. PMID:23136918
Sabar, Nasser R; Ayob, Masri; Kendall, Graham; Qu, Rong
2015-02-01
Hyper-heuristics are search methodologies that aim to provide high-quality solutions across a wide variety of problem domains, rather than developing tailor-made methodologies for each problem instance/domain. A traditional hyper-heuristic framework has two levels, namely, the high level strategy (heuristic selection mechanism and the acceptance criterion) and low level heuristics (a set of problem specific heuristics). Due to the different landscape structures of different problem instances, the high level strategy plays an important role in the design of a hyper-heuristic framework. In this paper, we propose a new high level strategy for a hyper-heuristic framework. The proposed high-level strategy utilizes a dynamic multiarmed bandit-extreme value-based reward as an online heuristic selection mechanism to select the appropriate heuristic to be applied at each iteration. In addition, we propose a gene expression programming framework to automatically generate the acceptance criterion for each problem instance, instead of using human-designed criteria. Two well-known, and very different, combinatorial optimization problems, one static (exam timetabling) and one dynamic (dynamic vehicle routing) are used to demonstrate the generality of the proposed framework. Compared with state-of-the-art hyper-heuristics and other bespoke methods, empirical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is able to generalize well across both domains. We obtain competitive, if not better results, when compared to the best known results obtained from other methods that have been presented in the scientific literature. We also compare our approach against the recently released hyper-heuristic competition test suite. We again demonstrate the generality of our approach when we compare against other methods that have utilized the same six benchmark datasets from this test suite. PMID:24951713
Graff, Mario; Poli, Riccardo; Flores, Juan J
2013-01-01
Modeling the behavior of algorithms is the realm of evolutionary algorithm theory. From a practitioner's point of view, theory must provide some guidelines regarding which algorithm/parameters to use in order to solve a particular problem. Unfortunately, most theoretical models of evolutionary algorithms are difficult to apply to realistic situations. However, in recent work (Graff and Poli, 2008, 2010), where we developed a method to practically estimate the performance of evolutionary program-induction algorithms (EPAs), we started addressing this issue. The method was quite general; however, it suffered from some limitations: it required the identification of a set of reference problems, it required hand picking a distance measure in each particular domain, and the resulting models were opaque, typically being linear combinations of 100 features or more. In this paper, we propose a significant improvement of this technique that overcomes the three limitations of our previous method. We achieve this through the use of a novel set of features for assessing problem difficulty for EPAs which are very general, essentially based on the notion of finite difference. To show the capabilities or our technique and to compare it with our previous performance models, we create models for the same two important classes of problems-symbolic regression on rational functions and Boolean function induction-used in our previous work. We model a variety of EPAs. The comparison showed that for the majority of the algorithms and problem classes, the new method produced much simpler and more accurate models than before. To further illustrate the practicality of the technique and its generality (beyond EPAs), we have also used it to predict the performance of both autoregressive models and EPAs on the problem of wind speed forecasting, obtaining simpler and more accurate models that outperform in all cases our previous performance models.
Sabar, Nasser R; Ayob, Masri; Kendall, Graham; Qu, Rong
2015-02-01
Hyper-heuristics are search methodologies that aim to provide high-quality solutions across a wide variety of problem domains, rather than developing tailor-made methodologies for each problem instance/domain. A traditional hyper-heuristic framework has two levels, namely, the high level strategy (heuristic selection mechanism and the acceptance criterion) and low level heuristics (a set of problem specific heuristics). Due to the different landscape structures of different problem instances, the high level strategy plays an important role in the design of a hyper-heuristic framework. In this paper, we propose a new high level strategy for a hyper-heuristic framework. The proposed high-level strategy utilizes a dynamic multiarmed bandit-extreme value-based reward as an online heuristic selection mechanism to select the appropriate heuristic to be applied at each iteration. In addition, we propose a gene expression programming framework to automatically generate the acceptance criterion for each problem instance, instead of using human-designed criteria. Two well-known, and very different, combinatorial optimization problems, one static (exam timetabling) and one dynamic (dynamic vehicle routing) are used to demonstrate the generality of the proposed framework. Compared with state-of-the-art hyper-heuristics and other bespoke methods, empirical results demonstrate that the proposed framework is able to generalize well across both domains. We obtain competitive, if not better results, when compared to the best known results obtained from other methods that have been presented in the scientific literature. We also compare our approach against the recently released hyper-heuristic competition test suite. We again demonstrate the generality of our approach when we compare against other methods that have utilized the same six benchmark datasets from this test suite.
Liu, Derong; Li, Hongliang; Wang, Ding
2015-06-01
In this paper, we establish error bounds of adaptive dynamic programming algorithms for solving undiscounted infinite-horizon optimal control problems of discrete-time deterministic nonlinear systems. We consider approximation errors in the update equations of both value function and control policy. We utilize a new assumption instead of the contraction assumption in discounted optimal control problems. We establish the error bounds for approximate value iteration based on a new error condition. Furthermore, we also establish the error bounds for approximate policy iteration and approximate optimistic policy iteration algorithms. It is shown that the iterative approximate value function can converge to a finite neighborhood of the optimal value function under some conditions. To implement the developed algorithms, critic and action neural networks are used to approximate the value function and control policy, respectively. Finally, a simulation example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed algorithms.
Coelho, Clarimar José; Galvão, Roberto K H; de Araújo, Mário César U; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; da Silva, Edvan Cirino
2003-01-01
A novel strategy for the optimization of wavelet transforms with respect to the statistics of the data set in multivariate calibration problems is proposed. The optimization follows a linear semi-infinite programming formulation, which does not display local maxima problems and can be reproducibly solved with modest computational effort. After the optimization, a variable selection algorithm is employed to choose a subset of wavelet coefficients with minimal collinearity. The selection allows the building of a calibration model by direct multiple linear regression on the wavelet coefficients. In an illustrative application involving the simultaneous determination of Mn, Mo, Cr, Ni, and Fe in steel samples by ICP-AES, the proposed strategy yielded more accurate predictions than PCR, PLS, and nonoptimized wavelet regression. PMID:12767151
On large-scale nonlinear programming techniques for solving optimal control problems
Faco, J.L.D.
1994-12-31
The formulation of decision problems by Optimal Control Theory allows the consideration of their dynamic structure and parameters estimation. This paper deals with techniques for choosing directions in the iterative solution of discrete-time optimal control problems. A unified formulation incorporates nonlinear performance criteria and dynamic equations, time delays, bounded state and control variables, free planning horizon and variable initial state vector. In general they are characterized by a large number of variables, mostly when arising from discretization of continuous-time optimal control or calculus of variations problems. In a GRG context the staircase structure of the jacobian matrix of the dynamic equations is exploited in the choice of basic and super basic variables and when changes of basis occur along the process. The search directions of the bound constrained nonlinear programming problem in the reduced space of the super basic variables are computed by large-scale NLP techniques. A modified Polak-Ribiere conjugate gradient method and a limited storage quasi-Newton BFGS method are analyzed and modifications to deal with the bounds on the variables are suggested based on projected gradient devices with specific linesearches. Some practical models are presented for electric generation planning and fishery management, and the application of the code GRECO - Gradient REduit pour la Commande Optimale - is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, Papun; Chakraborti, Debjani
2010-10-01
This paper describes how the genetic algorithms (GAs) can be efficiently used to fuzzy goal programming (FGP) formulation of optimal power flow problems having multiple objectives. In the proposed approach, the different constraints, various relationships of optimal power flow calculations are fuzzily described. In the model formulation of the problem, the membership functions of the defined fuzzy goals are characterized first for measuring the degree of achievement of the aspiration levels of the goals specified in the decision making context. Then, the achievement function for minimizing the regret for under-deviations from the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership goals to the extent possible on the basis of priorities is constructed for optimal power flow problems. In the solution process, the GA method is employed to the FGP formulation of the problem for achievement of the highest membership value (unity) of the defined membership functions to the extent possible in the decision making environment. In the GA based solution search process, the conventional Roulette wheel selection scheme, arithmetic crossover and random mutation are taken into consideration to reach a satisfactory decision. The developed method has been tested on IEEE 6-generator 30-bus System. Numerical results show that this method is promising for handling uncertain constraints in practical power systems.
Wildlife and oil shale: a problem analysis and research program: volume 2, appendix and bibliography
Burke, Hubert D.
1975-01-01
This appendix is designed to apply to the program of studies recommended in the problem analysis and research program Volume I. It has two purposes: (1) to provide reference that may be used in the preparation of requests for proposals or for studies, and (2) to suggest a core group of references for a reference library for research. The references that follow are listed taxonomically as follows: A. Aquatic Ecosystems B. Water Quality C. Terrestrial Ecosystems D. Industrial Impacts on Wildlife E. Reptiles and Amphibians F. Blood-sucking Arthropods and Disease Vectors This bibliography is not integrated because it was believed that it would be more useful with the sources separate. It also does not attempt to cover the entire field. It is, however, a listing that will be most useful in the description of the region and its environmental processes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil
2009-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jiuping; Zeng, Ziqiang; Han, Bernard; Lei, Xiao
2013-07-01
This article presents a dynamic programming-based particle swarm optimization (DP-based PSO) algorithm for solving an inventory management problem for large-scale construction projects under a fuzzy random environment. By taking into account the purchasing behaviour and strategy under rules of international bidding, a multi-objective fuzzy random dynamic programming model is constructed. To deal with the uncertainties, a hybrid crisp approach is used to transform fuzzy random parameters into fuzzy variables that are subsequently defuzzified by using an expected value operator with optimistic-pessimistic index. The iterative nature of the authors' model motivates them to develop a DP-based PSO algorithm. More specifically, their approach treats the state variables as hidden parameters. This in turn eliminates many redundant feasibility checks during initialization and particle updates at each iteration. Results and sensitivity analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the authors' optimization method, which is very effective as compared to the standard PSO algorithm.
Stuckless, J.S.; VanTrump, G.
1979-01-01
A revised version of Graphic Normative Analysis Program (GNAP) has been developed to allow maximum flexibility in the evaluation of chemical data by the occasional computer user. GNAP calculates ClPW norms, Thornton and Tuttle's differentiation index, Barth's cations, Niggli values and values for variables defined by the user. Calculated values can be displayed graphically in X-Y plots or ternary diagrams. Plotting can be done on a line printer or Calcomp plotter with either weight percent or mole percent data. Modifications in the original program give the user some control over normative calculations for each sample. The number of user-defined variables that can be created from the data has been increased from ten to fifteen. Plotting and calculations can be based on the original data, data adjusted to sum to 100 percent, or data adjusted to sum to 100 percent without water. Analyses for which norms were previously not computable are now computed with footnotes that show excesses or deficiencies in oxides (or volatiles) not accounted for by the norm. This report contains a listing of the computer program, an explanation of the use of the program, and the two sample problems.
Optimization approach for the evaluation of geometric errors in computer-aided inspection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Guohua
Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a set of standards that defines a clear and concise mathematical language for communicating product definition. A design based on GD&T clearly reflects the functional requirements of a product, provides unique definition of a drawing among design, manufacturing and inspection engineers and conveys the design intention clearly without any ambiguity. The latest version of this standard is ASME Y14.5M-1994. Traditional methods for the inspection of geometric tolerances have been mostly with the use of functional gages and Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM). Function gages are very expensive and only provide a yes/no result. CMMs have embedded algorithms to verify geometric tolerances according to the design specification. However, it has been shown that these embedded algorithms neither provide accurate evaluation of geometric errors nor do they conform to the ASME standards. High accuracy requirements in the manufacture of precision parts with complex geometries have made accurate evaluation and verification of geometric tolerances very critical. Over the years, researchers have developed many algorithms to evaluate some of the geometric errors. However, there is still a significant lack of evaluation procedures for complex geometric errors. In this dissertation, mathematical models have been built for the evaluation of a certain set of complex geometric characteristics. The concentration has been on the evaluation of 3D feature relating positional error, cylindricity error and straightness error of spatial line. Research has been carried out to understand the mathematical natures of these problems. Based on the research results, efficient solution methodologies have been developed according to the ASME standards. A robust and efficient procedure has also been developed for the identification of candidate datum sets. The proposed procedures have been implemented using the C++ or C programming language. Experimental
PREFACE: Geometrically frustrated magnetism Geometrically frustrated magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardner, Jason S.
2011-04-01
Frustrated magnetism is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics that has grown tremendously over the past 20 years. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement in the field of geometrically frustrated magnets and is inspired by the 2010 Highly Frustrated Magnetism (HFM 2010) meeting in Baltimore, MD, USA. Geometric frustration is a broad phenomenon that results from an intrinsic incompatibility between some fundamental interactions and the underlying lattice geometry based on triangles and tetrahedra. Most studies have centred around the kagomé and pyrochlore based magnets but recent work has looked at other structures including the delafossite, langasites, hyper-kagomé, garnets and Laves phase materials to name a few. Personally, I hope this issue serves as a great reference to scientist both new and old to this field, and that we all continue to have fun in this very frustrated playground. Finally, I want to thank the HFM 2010 organizers and all the sponsors whose contributions were an essential part of the success of the meeting in Baltimore. Geometrically frustrated magnetism contents Spangolite: an s = 1/2 maple leaf lattice antiferromagnet? T Fennell, J O Piatek, R A Stephenson, G J Nilsen and H M Rønnow Two-dimensional magnetism and spin-size effect in the S = 1 triangular antiferromagnet NiGa2S4 Yusuke Nambu and Satoru Nakatsuji Short range ordering in the modified honeycomb lattice compound SrHo2O4 S Ghosh, H D Zhou, L Balicas, S Hill, J S Gardner, Y Qi and C R Wiebe Heavy fermion compounds on the geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice M S Kim and M C Aronson A neutron polarization analysis study of moment correlations in (Dy0.4Y0.6)T2 (T = Mn, Al) J R Stewart, J M Hillier, P Manuel and R Cywinski Elemental analysis and magnetism of hydronium jarosites—model kagome antiferromagnets and topological spin glasses A S Wills and W G Bisson The Herbertsmithite Hamiltonian: μSR measurements on single crystals
Plueck, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hautmann, Christopher; Hanisch, Charlotte; Jaenen, Nicola; Doepfner, Manfred
2015-02-01
Externalizing behavior is common in preschool children and shows stability over the lifespan implying that strategies for early intervention and prevention are needed. Improving parenting reduces child behavior problems but it is unproven whether the effects transfer to kindergarten. Strategies implemented directly by teachers in the kindergarten may be a promising approach. The effectiveness of the teacher's module of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP-TE) was investigated in a study using a within-subject control group design. Each of the 144 teachers enrolled identified one child with externalizing problem behavior (aged 3-6 years) and rated that child's behavior problems [broadband externalizing, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder] as well as their own behavior (attending skills) and burden by the child. Changes in child symptoms and teacher behavior or burden during the 3-month waiting period (control) and 3-month treatment period were compared. Stability of treatment effects at both 3- and 12-months follow-up after treatment was examined. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that, despite a reduction in externalizing behavior and ADHD scores during the waiting period, all child problem behavior scores decreased during the treatment period compared with the waiting period. The teacher's behavior also improved and their burden decreased. These treatment effects were stable during follow-up for the subsample remaining in the kindergarten for up to 1 year. This study shows that a teacher-based intervention alone is associated with improvements in both the externalizing behavior of preschoolers and teacher behavior and burden. Indications of long-term stability of effects were found.
Plueck, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hautmann, Christopher; Hanisch, Charlotte; Jaenen, Nicola; Doepfner, Manfred
2015-02-01
Externalizing behavior is common in preschool children and shows stability over the lifespan implying that strategies for early intervention and prevention are needed. Improving parenting reduces child behavior problems but it is unproven whether the effects transfer to kindergarten. Strategies implemented directly by teachers in the kindergarten may be a promising approach. The effectiveness of the teacher's module of the Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem Behavior (PEP-TE) was investigated in a study using a within-subject control group design. Each of the 144 teachers enrolled identified one child with externalizing problem behavior (aged 3-6 years) and rated that child's behavior problems [broadband externalizing, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder] as well as their own behavior (attending skills) and burden by the child. Changes in child symptoms and teacher behavior or burden during the 3-month waiting period (control) and 3-month treatment period were compared. Stability of treatment effects at both 3- and 12-months follow-up after treatment was examined. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that, despite a reduction in externalizing behavior and ADHD scores during the waiting period, all child problem behavior scores decreased during the treatment period compared with the waiting period. The teacher's behavior also improved and their burden decreased. These treatment effects were stable during follow-up for the subsample remaining in the kindergarten for up to 1 year. This study shows that a teacher-based intervention alone is associated with improvements in both the externalizing behavior of preschoolers and teacher behavior and burden. Indications of long-term stability of effects were found. PMID:24752568
Geometric Series via Probability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tesman, Barry
2012-01-01
Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ives, David
1995-01-01
This paper presents a highly automated hexahedral grid generator based on extensive geometrical and solid modeling operations developed in response to a vision of a designer-driven one day turnaround CFD process which implies a designer-driven one hour grid generation process.
1500 System Geometric Dictionary.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peloquin, Paul V.
A general description is provided of the "geometric dictionary," a graphic display aid, used by the Computer-Assisted Instruction Laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University. The purpose of the description is to enable the reader to duplicate and use the dictionary on any cathode ray tube terminal of the IBM 1500 system. The major advantages…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smart, Julie; Marshall, Jeff
2007-01-01
Children possess a genuine curiosity for exploring the natural world around them. One third grade teacher capitalized on this inherent trait by leading her students on "A Geometric Scavenger Hunt." The four-lesson inquiry investigation described in this article integrates mathematics and science. Among the students' discoveries was the fact that…
Pragmatic geometric model evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamer, Robert
2015-04-01
Quantification of subsurface model reliability is mathematically and technically demanding as there are many different sources of uncertainty and some of the factors can be assessed merely in a subjective way. For many practical applications in industry or risk assessment (e. g. geothermal drilling) a quantitative estimation of possible geometric variations in depth unit is preferred over relative numbers because of cost calculations for different scenarios. The talk gives an overview of several factors that affect the geometry of structural subsurface models that are based upon typical geological survey organization (GSO) data like geological maps, borehole data and conceptually driven construction of subsurface elements (e. g. fault network). Within the context of the trans-European project "GeoMol" uncertainty analysis has to be very pragmatic also because of different data rights, data policies and modelling software between the project partners. In a case study a two-step evaluation methodology for geometric subsurface model uncertainty is being developed. In a first step several models of the same volume of interest have been calculated by omitting successively more and more input data types (seismic constraints, fault network, outcrop data). The positions of the various horizon surfaces are then compared. The procedure is equivalent to comparing data of various levels of detail and therefore structural complexity. This gives a measure of the structural significance of each data set in space and as a consequence areas of geometric complexity are identified. These areas are usually very data sensitive hence geometric variability in between individual data points in these areas is higher than in areas of low structural complexity. Instead of calculating a multitude of different models by varying some input data or parameters as it is done by Monte-Carlo-simulations, the aim of the second step of the evaluation procedure (which is part of the ongoing work) is to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gulland, E.-K.; Veenendaal, B.; Schut, A. G. T.
2012-07-01
Problem-solving knowledge and skills are an important attribute of spatial sciences graduates. The challenge of higher education is to build a teaching and learning environment that enables students to acquire these skills in relevant and authentic applications. This study investigates the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face teaching and online learning technologies in supporting the student learning of problem-solving and computer programming skills, techniques and solutions. The student cohort considered for this study involves students in the surveying as well as geographic information science (GISc) disciplines. Also, students studying across a range of learning modes including on-campus, distance and blended, are considered in this study. Student feedback and past studies reveal a lack of student interest and engagement in problem solving and computer programming. Many students do not see such skills as directly relevant and applicable to their perceptions of what future spatial careers hold. A range of teaching and learning methods for both face-to-face teaching and distance learning were introduced to address some of the perceived weaknesses of the learning environment. These included initiating greater student interaction in lectures, modifying assessments to provide greater feedback and student accountability, and the provision of more interactive and engaging online learning resources. The paper presents and evaluates the teaching methods used to support the student learning environment. Responses of students in relation to their learning experiences were collected via two anonymous, online surveys and these results were analysed with respect to student pass and retention rates. The study found a clear distinction between expectations and engagement of surveying students in comparison to GISc students. A further outcome revealed that students who were already engaged in their learning benefited the most from the interactive learning resources and
Geometric Models for Collaborative Search and Filtering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bitton, Ephrat
2011-01-01
This dissertation explores the use of geometric and graphical models for a variety of information search and filtering applications. These models serve to provide an intuitive understanding of the problem domains and as well as computational efficiencies to our solution approaches. We begin by considering a search and rescue scenario where both…
An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogle, F. R.
1990-01-01
The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.
Learning to solve planning problems efficiently by means of genetic programming.
Aler, R; Borrajo, D; Isasi, P
2001-01-01
Declarative problem solving, such as planning, poses interesting challenges for Genetic Programming (GP). There have been recent attempts to apply GP to planning that fit two approaches: (a) using GP to search in plan space or (b) to evolve a planner. In this article, we propose to evolve only the heuristics to make a particular planner more efficient. This approach is more feasible than (b) because it does not have to build a planner from scratch but can take advantage of already existing planning systems. It is also more efficient than (a) because once the heuristics have been evolved, they can be used to solve a whole class of different planning problems in a planning domain, instead of running GP for every new planning problem. Empirical results show that our approach (EvoCK) is able to evolve heuristics in two planning domains (the blocks world and the logistics domain) that improve PRODIGY4.0 performance. Additionally, we experiment with a new genetic operator --Instance-Based Crossover--that is able to use traces of the base planner as raw genetic material to be injected into the evolving population.
An integer programming formulation of the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem.
Catanzaro, Daniele; Labbé, Martine; Halldórsson, Bjarni V
2013-01-01
A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) event occurs when, by the laws of Mendelian inheritance, an individual should be heterozygote at a given site but, due to a deletion polymorphism, is not. Deletions play an important role in human disease and their detection could provide fundamental insights for the development of new diagnostics and treatments. In this paper, we investigate the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem (PLOHP), i.e., the problem of partitioning suspected polymorphisms from a set of individuals into a minimum number of deletion areas. Specifically, we generalize Halldórsson et al.'s work by providing a more general formulation of the PLOHP and by showing how one can incorporate different recombination rates and prior knowledge about the locations of deletions. Moreover, we show that the PLOHP can be formulated as a specific version of the clique partition problem in a particular class of graphs called undirected catch-point interval graphs and we prove its general $({\\cal NP})$-hardness. Finally, we provide a state-of-the-art integer programming (IP) formulation and strengthening valid inequalities to exactly solve real instances of the PLOHP containing up to 9,000 individuals and 3,000 SNPs. Our results give perspectives on the mathematics of the PLOHP and suggest new directions on the development of future efficient exact solution approaches.
On the location selection problem using analytic hierarchy process and multi-choice goal programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Hui-Ping; Chang, Ching-Ter; Ku, Cheng-Yuan
2013-01-01
Location selection is a crucial decision in cost/benefit analysis of restaurants, coffee shops and others. However, it is difficult to be solved because there are many conflicting multiple goals in the problem of location selection. In order to solve the problem, this study integrates analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and multi-choice goal programming (MCGP) as a decision aid to obtain an appropriate house from many alternative locations that better suit the preferences of renters under their needs. This study obtains weights from AHP and implements it upon each goal using MCGP for the location selection problem. According to the function of multi-aspiration provided by MCGP, decision makers can set multi-aspiration for each location goal to rank the candidate locations. Compared to the unaided selection processes, the integrated approach of AHP and MCGP is a better scientific and efficient method than traditional methods in finding a suitable location for buying or renting a house for business, especially under multiple qualitative and quantitative criteria within a shorter evaluation time. In addition, a real case is provided to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is able to provide better quality decision than normal manual methods.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chilvers, Amanda Leigh
2013-01-01
Researchers have noted that mathematics achievement for deaf and hard-of-hearing (d/hh) students has been a concern for many years, including the ability to problem solve. This quasi-experimental study investigates the use of the Exemplars mathematics program with students in grades 2-8 in a school for the deaf that utilizes American Sign Language…
Children's Learning of Geometrical Concepts Through Logo.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noss, Richard
1987-01-01
Exploratory study aimed to investigate elements of geometrical concepts that children learn through Logo programing. A test designed to assess three components of length and angle was administered to 84 children who had learned Logo for one year and 92 who had not. Data indicated a positive effect of Logo work on some items, but not all.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.
The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Said, Asnah; Syarif, Edy
2016-01-01
This research aimed to evaluate of online tutorial program design by applying problem-based learning Research Methods currently implemented in the system of Open Distance Learning (ODL). The students must take a Research Methods course to prepare themselves for academic writing projects. Problem-based learning basically emphasizes the process of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gutierrez-Perez, Jose; Pirrami, Franco
2011-01-01
In this paper, we explore some aspects regarding the introduction of an active learning approach to deal with environmental issues in secondary school during natural sciences lessons. Integrated curricular program and PBL (problem-based learning) are comprehensive approaches designed to engage students in investigation of authentic problems. We…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bloomquist, Michael L; August, Gerald J.; Lee, Susanne S.; Piehler, Timothy F.; Jensen, Marcia
2012-01-01
A variety of predictors of parent participation in prevention programming have been identified in past research, but few studies have investigated how those predictors may vary by implementation context. Patterns of parent participation were examined in the Early Risers Conduct Problems Prevention Program using two family-focused service delivery…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Ripple, Richard E.
The effectiveness of the Productive Thinking Program in developing creative thinking and problem solving abilities among 370 pupils in grades four through seven was examined. An exploratory investigation of the program's instructional content was also undertaken. At all four grade levels studied, instructed pupils' scores on Covington's Childhood…
Geometric continuum regularization of quantum field theory
Halpern, M.B. . Dept. of Physics)
1989-11-08
An overview of the continuum regularization program is given. The program is traced from its roots in stochastic quantization, with emphasis on the examples of regularized gauge theory, the regularized general nonlinear sigma model and regularized quantum gravity. In its coordinate-invariant form, the regularization is seen as entirely geometric: only the supermetric on field deformations is regularized, and the prescription provides universal nonperturbative invariant continuum regularization across all quantum field theory. 54 refs.
Perspective: Geometrically frustrated assemblies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grason, Gregory M.
2016-09-01
This perspective will overview an emerging paradigm for self-organized soft materials, geometrically frustrated assemblies, where interactions between self-assembling elements (e.g., particles, macromolecules, proteins) favor local packing motifs that are incompatible with uniform global order in the assembly. This classification applies to a broad range of material assemblies including self-twisting protein filament bundles, amyloid fibers, chiral smectics and membranes, particle-coated droplets, curved protein shells, and phase-separated lipid vesicles. In assemblies, geometric frustration leads to a host of anomalous structural and thermodynamic properties, including heterogeneous and internally stressed equilibrium structures, self-limiting assembly, and topological defects in the equilibrium assembly structures. The purpose of this perspective is to (1) highlight the unifying principles and consequences of geometric frustration in soft matter assemblies; (2) classify the known distinct modes of frustration and review corresponding experimental examples; and (3) describe outstanding questions not yet addressed about the unique properties and behaviors of this broad class of systems.
Geometrically representing spin correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, Ian G.; Mirasola, Anthony; Hollingsworth, Jacob; Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.
2016-05-01
We develop a general method to visualize spin correlations, and we demonstrate its usefulness in ultracold matter from fermions in lattices to trapped ions and ultracold molecules. Correlations are of fundamental interest in many-body physics: they characterize phases in condensed matter and AMO, and are required for quantum sensing and computing. However, it is often difficult to understand even the simplest correlations - for example between two spin-1/2's - directly from the components Cab =
Dynamic Programming and Error Estimates for Stochastic Control Problems with Maximum Cost
Bokanowski, Olivier; Picarelli, Athena; Zidani, Hasnaa
2015-02-15
This work is concerned with stochastic optimal control for a running maximum cost. A direct approach based on dynamic programming techniques is studied leading to the characterization of the value function as the unique viscosity solution of a second order Hamilton–Jacobi–Bellman (HJB) equation with an oblique derivative boundary condition. A general numerical scheme is proposed and a convergence result is provided. Error estimates are obtained for the semi-Lagrangian scheme. These results can apply to the case of lookback options in finance. Moreover, optimal control problems with maximum cost arise in the characterization of the reachable sets for a system of controlled stochastic differential equations. Some numerical simulations on examples of reachable analysis are included to illustrate our approach.
Inexact rough-interval two-stage stochastic programming for conjunctive water allocation problems.
Lu, Hongwei; Huang, Guohe; He, Li
2009-10-01
An inexact rough-interval two-stage stochastic programming (IRTSP) method is developed for conjunctive water allocation problems. Rough intervals (RIs), as a particular case of rough sets, are introduced into the modeling framework to tackle dual-layer information provided by decision makers. Through embeding upper and lower approximation intervals, rough intervals are capable of reflecting complex parameters with the most reliable and possible variation ranges being identified. An interactive solution method is also derived. A conjunctive water-allocation system is then structured for characterizing the proposed model. Solutions indicate a detailed optimal allocation scheme with a rough-interval form; a total of [[1048.83, 2078.29]:[1482.26, 2020.60
Gartling, D.K.
1996-05-01
The theoretical and numerical background for the finite element computer program, TORO II, is presented in detail. TORO II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear, electromagnetic field problems described by the quasi-static form of Maxwell`s equations. A general description of the boundary value problems treated by the program is presented. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in TORO II are also outlined. Instructions for the use of the code are documented in SAND96-0903; examples of problems analyzed with the code are also provided in the user`s manual. 24 refs., 8 figs.
Karjalainen, Piia; Santalahti, Pälvi; Sihvo, Sinikka
2016-01-01
In this systematic review it will be evaluated whether parent-targeted programs teaching positive methods of upbringing and interaction are effective in the reduction and prevention of conduct disorders and behavioral problems in children belonging to a risk group. Altogether 29 European studies on parent-targeted programs were selected for the review. Most of the examined methods were based on the social learning theory and the cognitive behavior theory. The majority of the studies proved that long-term programs of 8 to 20 weeks'duration are effective in the reduction of behavioral problems and conduct disorders of childhood. PMID:27382833
Geometric diffusion of quantum trajectories.
Yang, Fan; Liu, Ren-Bao
2015-07-16
A quantum object can acquire a geometric phase (such as Berry phases and Aharonov-Bohm phases) when evolving along a path in a parameter space with non-trivial gauge structures. Inherent to quantum evolutions of wavepackets, quantum diffusion occurs along quantum trajectories. Here we show that quantum diffusion can also be geometric as characterized by the imaginary part of a geometric phase. The geometric quantum diffusion results from interference between different instantaneous eigenstate pathways which have different geometric phases during the adiabatic evolution. As a specific example, we study the quantum trajectories of optically excited electron-hole pairs in time-reversal symmetric insulators, driven by an elliptically polarized terahertz field. The imaginary geometric phase manifests itself as elliptical polarization in the terahertz sideband generation. The geometric quantum diffusion adds a new dimension to geometric phases and may have applications in many fields of physics, e.g., transport in topological insulators and novel electro-optical effects.
Using stochastic dual dynamic programming in problems with multiple near-optimal solutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rougé, Charles; Tilmant, Amaury
2016-05-01
Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few algorithmic solutions available to optimize large-scale water resources systems while explicitly considering uncertainty. This paper explores the consequences of, and proposes a solution to, the existence of multiple near-optimal solutions (MNOS) when using SDDP for mid or long-term river basin management. These issues arise when the optimization problem cannot be properly parametrized due to poorly defined and/or unavailable data sets. This work shows that when MNOS exists, (1) SDDP explores more than one solution trajectory in the same run, suggesting different decisions in distinct simulation years even for the same point in the state-space, and (2) SDDP is shown to be very sensitive to even minimal variations of the problem setting, e.g., initial conditions—we call this "algorithmic chaos." Results that exhibit such sensitivity are difficult to interpret. This work proposes a reoptimization method, which simulates system decisions by periodically applying cuts from one given year from the SDDP run. Simulation results obtained through this reoptimization approach are steady state solutions, meaning that their probability distributions are stable from year to year.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niwa, Keiichi; Hayashida, Tomohiro; Sakawa, Masatoshi; Yang, Yishen
2010-10-01
We consider two-level programming problems in which there are one decision maker (the leader) at the upper level and two or more decision makers (the followers) at the lower level and decision variables of the leader and the followers are 0-1 variables. We assume that there is coordination among the followers while between the leader and the group of all the followers, there is no motivation to cooperate each other, and fuzzy goals for objective functions of the leader and the followers are introduced so as to take fuzziness of their judgments into consideration. The leader maximizes the degree of satisfaction (the value of the membership function) and the followers choose in concert in order to maximize a minimum among their degrees of satisfaction. We propose a modified computational method that solves problems related to the computational method based on the genetic algorithm (the existing method) for obtaining the Stackelberg solution. Specifically, the distributed genetic algorithm is introduced with respect to the upper level genetic algorithm, which handles decision variables for the leader in order to shorten the computational time of the existing method. Parallelization of the lower level genetic algorithm is also performed along with parallelization of the upper level genetic algorithm. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed computational method, numerical experiments are carried out.
Mumdzhiev, Hr; Slancheva, B
2013-01-01
In recent years, accumulating more and more evidence demonstrating the programming effects of intrauterine development on the subsequent health of the individual. Intrauterine fetal hypotrophy is a consequence of the wide range of pathological processes in different periods of pregnancy. It is the second leading cause of perinatal death after prematurity. Newborns from similar pathological pregnancies are often leaked premature baby and/or small for gestational age (SGA). Premature baby children have not only complicated and postnatal adaptation problems in the neonatal period, but many diseases occurring in later life: 1. Disorders in postnatal growth. 2. Neurological and intellectual consequences of IUH in term children (hyperactivity disorders attention, impaired fine motor skills, speech problems, risk of cerebral palsy). 3. Neurological and intellectual consequences of prematurity IUH (cognitive impairment in children with low birth weight, short stature at birth, and small head circumference for gestational age). 4. Metabolic syndrome (dyslipidemia, abdominal obesity, hypertension and high blood sugar). 5. Abnormal sexual development (hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary syndrome in girls, reduced testicular size and lower testosterone levels in boys. 6. Other complications associated with intrauterine hypotrophy cardiovascular renal, pulmonary complications (BPD) disorders in vision, sensory neural hearing loss. PMID:23807979
Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.
2011-01-01
The environmental sciences/studies movement, with more than 1000 programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, is unified by a common interest-ameliorating environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. Unfortunately, environmental programs have struggled in their efforts to integrate knowledge across disciplines and educate students to become sound problem solvers and leaders. We examine the environmental program movement as a policy problem, looking at overall goals, mapping trends in relation to those goals, identifying the underlying factors contributing to trends, and projecting the future. We argue that despite its shared common interest, the environmental program movement is disparate and fragmented by goal ambiguity, positivistic disciplinary approaches, and poorly rationalized curricula, pedagogies, and educational philosophies. We discuss these challenges and the nature of the changes that are needed in order to overcome them. In a subsequent article (Part 2) we propose specific strategies for improvement. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi
2011-05-01
The environmental sciences/studies movement, with more than 1000 programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, is unified by a common interest—ameliorating environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. Unfortunately, environmental programs have struggled in their efforts to integrate knowledge across disciplines and educate students to become sound problem solvers and leaders. We examine the environmental program movement as a policy problem, looking at overall goals, mapping trends in relation to those goals, identifying the underlying factors contributing to trends, and projecting the future. We argue that despite its shared common interest, the environmental program movement is disparate and fragmented by goal ambiguity, positivistic disciplinary approaches, and poorly rationalized curricula, pedagogies, and educational philosophies. We discuss these challenges and the nature of the changes that are needed in order to overcome them. In a subsequent article (Part 2) we propose specific strategies for improvement.
Generating Problems from Problems and Solutions from Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arcavi, Abraham; Resnick, Zippora
2008-01-01
This article describes a geometrical solution to a problem that is usually solved geometrically as an example of how alternative solutions may enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics. (Contains 11 figures.)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, C. L.; Mayernik, M. S.; Weber, N.; Baker, K. S.; Kelly, K.; Marlino, M. R.; Thompson, C. A.
2013-12-01
The need for data curation is being recognized in numerous institutional settings as national research funding agencies extend data archiving mandates to cover more types of research grants. Data curation, however, is not only a practical challenge. It presents many conceptual and theoretical challenges that must be investigated to design appropriate technical systems, social practices and institutions, policies, and services. This presentation reports on outcomes from an investigation of research problems in data curation conducted as part of the Data Curation Education in Research Centers (DCERC) program. DCERC is developing a new model for educating data professionals to contribute to scientific research. The program is organized around foundational courses and field experiences in research and data centers for both master's and doctoral students. The initiative is led by the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, in collaboration with the School of Information Sciences at the University of Tennessee, and library and data professionals at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). At the doctoral level DCERC is educating future faculty and researchers in data curation and establishing a research agenda to advance the field. The doctoral seminar, Research Problems in Data Curation, was developed and taught in 2012 by the DCERC principal investigator and two doctoral fellows at the University of Illinois. It was designed to define the problem space of data curation, examine relevant concepts and theories related to both technical and social perspectives, and articulate research questions that are either unexplored or under theorized in the current literature. There was a particular emphasis on the Earth and environmental sciences, with guest speakers brought in from NCAR, National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Through the assignments, students
Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim
2016-08-01
This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping
Sandler, Irwin; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Cham, Heining; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim
2016-08-01
This study reports on the findings from a 6-year follow-up of a randomized trial of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on the outcomes for spousally bereaved parents. Spousally bereaved parents (N = 131) participated in the trial in which they were randomly assigned to receive the FBP (N = 72) or literature control (N = 59). Parents were assessed at four time points: pretest, posttest, and 11-month and 6-year follow-up. They reported on mental health problems, grief, and parenting at all four time periods. At the 6-year follow-up, parents reported on additional measures of persistent complex bereavement disorder, alcohol abuse problems, and coping efficacy. Bereaved parents in the FBP as compared to those in the literature control had lower levels of symptoms of depression, general psychiatric distress, prolonged grief, and alcohol problems, and higher coping efficacy (for mothers) at the 6-year follow-up. Multiple characteristics of the parent (e.g., gender, age, and baseline mental health problems) and of the spousal death (e.g., cause of death) were tested as moderators of program effects on each outcome, but only 3 of 45 tests of moderation were significant. Latent growth modeling found that the effects of the FBP on depression, psychiatric distress, and grief occurred immediately following program participation and were maintained over 6 years. Mediation analysis found that improvement in positive parenting partially mediated program effects to reduce depression and psychiatric distress, but had an indirect effect to higher levels of grief at the 6-year follow-up. Mediation analysis also found that improved parenting at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated by program effects to reduce depression and that program effects to increase coping efficacy at the 6-year follow-up was partially mediated through reduced depression and grief and improved parenting. FBP reduced mental health problems, prolonged grief, and alcohol abuse, and increased coping
Drugli, May Britt; Fossum, Sturla; Larsson, Bo; Morch, Willy-Tore
2010-07-01
In the present study, predictors of persistent conduct problems among children aged 4-8 years were investigated in a randomized controlled trial 1 year after treatment with the Incredible Years parent training program (PT), or combined parent training and child treatment (PT + CT). Data were collected before and after treatment and at a 1-year follow-up. Pre-treatment child characteristics predicting persistent conduct problems in the child at the 1-year follow-up were high levels of internalizing and aggression problems as reported by mothers. The only family characteristic predicting persistence of child conduct problems was having contacts with child protection services. Clinicians and researchers need to closely monitor and identify children with conduct problems not responding to parent training programs. These individuals and their families are likely to need further support. PMID:20012877
Evans, Richard I
2003-01-01
For the past several years the author and his colleagues have explored the area of how social psychological constructs and theoretical models can be applied to the prevention of health threatening behaviors in adolescents. In examining the need for the development of gambling prevention programs for adolescents, it might be of value to consider the application of such constructs and theoretical models as a foundation to the development of prevention programs in this emerging problem behavior among adolescents. In order to provide perspective to the reader, the present paper reviews the history of various psychosocial models and constructs generic to programs directed at prevention of substance abuse in adolescents. A brief history of some of these models, possibly most applicable to gambling prevention programs, are presented. Social inoculation, reasoned action, planned behavior, and problem behavior theory, are among those discussed. Some deficits of these models, are also articulated. How such models may have relevance to developing programs for prevention of problem gambling in adolescents is also discussed. However, the inherent differences between gambling and more directly health threatening behaviors such as substance abuse must, of course, be seriously considered in utilizing such models. Most current gambling prevention programs have seldom been guided by theoretical models. Developers of gambling prevention programs should consider theoretical foundations, particularly since such foundations not only provide a guide for programs, but may become critical tools in evaluating their effectiveness.
Representing geometrical knowledge.
Anderson, J A
1997-01-01
This paper introduces perspex algebra which is being developed as a common representation of geometrical knowledge. A perspex can currently be interpreted in one of four ways. First, the algebraic perspex is a generalization of matrices, it provides the most general representation for all of the interpretations of a perspex. The algebraic perspex can be used to describe arbitrary sets of coordinates. The remaining three interpretations of the perspex are all related to square matrices and operate in a Euclidean model of projective space-time, called perspex space. Perspex space differs from the usual Euclidean model of projective space in that it contains the point at nullity. It is argued that the point at nullity is necessary for a consistent account of perspective in top-down vision. Second, the geometric perspex is a simplex in perspex space. It can be used as a primitive building block for shapes, or as a way of recording landmarks on shapes. Third, the transformational perspex describes linear transformations in perspex space that provide the affine and perspective transformations in space-time. It can be used to match a prototype shape to an image, even in so called 'accidental' views where the depth of an object disappears from view, or an object stays in the same place across time. Fourth, the parametric perspex describes the geometric and transformational perspexes in terms of parameters that are related to everyday English descriptions. The parametric perspex can be used to obtain both continuous and categorical perception of objects. The paper ends with a discussion of issues related to using a perspex to describe logic. PMID:9304680
Howarth, P A
2011-02-23
Two aspects of the geometric horopter, which here is based on the criterion of equality of angle, are clarified. The first is that in the fixation plane (containing the nodal points and the fixation point) the locus of points lying on the horopter is the larger arc of a circle, and not a full circle as has been previously accepted. The second is that elsewhere, the locus of these points is a straight line perpendicular to this plane and midway between the eyes. These rules hold for both symmetric and asymmetric convergence, and for fixation elevated or depressed from the horizontal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Middleton, R. L.
1978-01-01
The origin and evolution of the Solar Heating and Cooling Commercial Demonstration Program by the Department of Energy and the Marshall Space Flight Center activities supporting this program from its conception are defined and discussed. Problems are summarized in the design and financial areas. It is concluded that the program has significantly assisted the creation of a viable solar testing and cooling industry. The cost effective procedures evolving from the program are expected to make a major contribution to reducing the effective life cycle cost of solar installation.
A geometric representation scheme suitable for shape optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tortorelli, Daniel A.
1990-01-01
A geometric representation scheme is outlined which utilizes the natural design variable concept. A base configuration with distinct topological features is created. This configuration is then deformed to define components with similar topology but different geometry. The values of the deforming loads are the geometric entities used in the shape representation. The representation can be used for all geometric design studies; it is demonstrated here for structural optimization. This technique can be used in parametric design studies, where the system response is defined as functions of geometric entities. It can also be used in shape optimization, where the geometric entities of an original design are modified to maximize performance and satisfy constraints. Two example problems are provided. A cantilever beam is elongated to meet new design specifications and then optimized to reduce volume and satisfy stress constraints. A similar optimization problem is presented for an automobile crankshaft section. The finite element method is used to perform the analyses.
Geometric phase in Bohmian mechanics
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E.
2010-10-15
Using the quantum kinematic approach of Mukunda and Simon, we propose a geometric phase in Bohmian mechanics. A reparametrization and gauge invariant geometric phase is derived along an arbitrary path in configuration space. The single valuedness of the wave function implies that the geometric phase along a path must be equal to an integer multiple of 2{pi}. The nonzero geometric phase indicates that we go through the branch cut of the action function from one Riemann sheet to another when we locally travel along the path. For stationary states, quantum vortices exhibiting the quantized circulation integral can be regarded as a manifestation of the geometric phase. The bound-state Aharonov-Bohm effect demonstrates that the geometric phase along a closed path contains not only the circulation integral term but also an additional term associated with the magnetic flux. In addition, it is shown that the geometric phase proposed previously from the ensemble theory is not gauge invariant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang
2008-12-01
Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.
Geometric time delay interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallisneri, Michele
2005-08-01
The space-based gravitational-wave observatory LISA, a NASA-ESA mission to be launched after 2012, will achieve its optimal sensitivity using time delay interferometry (TDI), a LISA-specific technique needed to cancel the otherwise overwhelming laser noise in the interspacecraft phase measurements. The TDI observables of the Michelson and Sagnac types have been interpreted physically as the virtual measurements of a synthesized interferometer. In this paper, I present Geometric TDI, a new and intuitive approach to extend this interpretation to all TDI observables. Unlike the standard algebraic formalism, Geometric TDI provides a combinatorial algorithm to explore exhaustively the space of second-generation TDI observables (i.e., those that cancel laser noise in LISA-like interferometers with time-dependent arm lengths). Using this algorithm, I survey the space of second-generation TDI observables of length (i.e., number of component phase measurements) up to 24, and I identify alternative, improved forms of the standard second-generation TDI observables. The alternative forms have improved high-frequency gravitational-wave sensitivity in realistic noise conditions (because they have fewer nulls in the gravitational-wave and noise response functions), and are less susceptible to instrumental gaps and glitches (because their component phase measurements span shorter time periods).
Evolutionary Optimization of a Geometrically Refined Truss
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hull, P. V.; Tinker, M. L.; Dozier, G. V.
2007-01-01
Structural optimization is a field of research that has experienced noteworthy growth for many years. Researchers in this area have developed optimization tools to successfully design and model structures, typically minimizing mass while maintaining certain deflection and stress constraints. Numerous optimization studies have been performed to minimize mass, deflection, and stress on a benchmark cantilever truss problem. Predominantly traditional optimization theory is applied to this problem. The cross-sectional area of each member is optimized to minimize the aforementioned objectives. This Technical Publication (TP) presents a structural optimization technique that has been previously applied to compliant mechanism design. This technique demonstrates a method that combines topology optimization, geometric refinement, finite element analysis, and two forms of evolutionary computation: genetic algorithms and differential evolution to successfully optimize a benchmark structural optimization problem. A nontraditional solution to the benchmark problem is presented in this TP, specifically a geometrically refined topological solution. The design process begins with an alternate control mesh formulation, multilevel geometric smoothing operation, and an elastostatic structural analysis. The design process is wrapped in an evolutionary computing optimization toolset.
Geometric optimization of thermal systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alebrahim, Asad Mansour
2000-10-01
The work in chapter 1 extends to three dimensions and to convective heat transfer the constructal method of minimizing the thermal resistance between a volume and one point. In the first part, the heat flow mechanism is conduction, and the heat generating volume is occupied by low conductivity material (k 0) and high conductivity inserts (kp) that are shaped as constant-thickness disks mounted on a common stem of kp material. In the second part the interstitial spaces once occupied by k0 material are bathed by forced convection. The internal and external geometric aspect ratios of the elemental volume and the first assembly are optimized numerically subject to volume constraints. Chapter 2 presents the constrained thermodynamic optimization of a cross-flow heat exchanger with ram air on the cold side, which is used in the environmental control systems of aircraft. Optimized geometric features such as the ratio of channel spacings and flow lengths are reported. It is found that the optimized features are relatively insensitive to changes in other physical parameters of the installation and relatively insensitive to the additional irreversibility due to discharging the ram-air stream into the atmosphere, emphasizing the robustness of the thermodynamic optimum. In chapter 3 the problem of maximizing exergy extraction from a hot stream by distributing streams over a heat transfer surface is studied. In the first part, the cold stream is compressed in an isothermal compressor, expanded in an adiabatic turbine, and discharged into the ambient. In the second part, the cold stream is compressed in an adiabatic compressor. Both designs are optimized with respect to the capacity-rate imbalance of the counter-flow and the pressure ratio maintained by the compressor. This study shows the tradeoff between simplicity and increased performance, and outlines the path for further conceptual work on the extraction of exergy from a hot stream that is being cooled gradually. The aim
Petrenko, Christie L M
2013-12-01
Children with developmental disabilities are at higher risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems than children in the general population. Effective prevention and treatment programs are necessary to reduce the burden of behavioral problems in this population. The current review identified 17 controlled trials of nine intervention programs for young children with developmental disabilities, with parent training the most common type of intervention in this population. Nearly all studies demonstrated medium to large intervention effects on child behavior post-intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests interventions developed for the general population can be effective for children with developmental disabilities and their families. A greater emphasis on the prevention of behavior problems in young children with developmental disabilities prior to the onset of significant symptoms or clinical disorders is needed. Multi-component interventions may be more efficacious for child behavior problems and yield greater benefits for parent and family adjustment. Recommendations for future research directions are provided.
An interactive media program for managing psychosocial problems on long-duration spaceflights.
Carter, James A; Buckey, Jay C; Greenhalgh, Leonard; Holland, Albert W; Hegel, Mark T
2005-06-01
Space crews must be self-reliant to complete long-duration missions successfully. This project involves the development and evaluation of a network of self-guided interactive multimedia programs to train and assist long-duration flyers in the prevention, assessment, and management of psychosocial problems that can arise on extended missions. The system is currently under development and is intended for use both during training and on orbit. A virtual space station 3-dimensional graphic was created to serve as a portal to multimedia-based training, assessment, and intervention resources. Additionally, original content on interpersonal conflict and depression is being developed for the system. Input on the best practices for managing conflict and depression on extended missions was obtained from 13 veteran long-duration flyers, as well as from clinical experts. Formative evaluation of a prototype of the system will be conducted with 10 members of the astronaut corps. Subsequently, the content on conflict and depression will be completed, and the depression self-treatment portion will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Although this study involves developing countermeasures to assist long-duration flyers, it also provides a model that could be applied in many Earthbound settings, both in operational environments and in everyday life.
Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem.
Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang
2016-01-01
A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR.
Using Genetic Programming with Prior Formula Knowledge to Solve Symbolic Regression Problem
Lu, Qiang; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhiguang
2016-01-01
A researcher can infer mathematical expressions of functions quickly by using his professional knowledge (called Prior Knowledge). But the results he finds may be biased and restricted to his research field due to limitation of his knowledge. In contrast, Genetic Programming method can discover fitted mathematical expressions from the huge search space through running evolutionary algorithms. And its results can be generalized to accommodate different fields of knowledge. However, since GP has to search a huge space, its speed of finding the results is rather slow. Therefore, in this paper, a framework of connection between Prior Formula Knowledge and GP (PFK-GP) is proposed to reduce the space of GP searching. The PFK is built based on the Deep Belief Network (DBN) which can identify candidate formulas that are consistent with the features of experimental data. By using these candidate formulas as the seed of a randomly generated population, PFK-GP finds the right formulas quickly by exploring the search space of data features. We have compared PFK-GP with Pareto GP on regression of eight benchmark problems. The experimental results confirm that the PFK-GP can reduce the search space and obtain the significant improvement in the quality of SR. PMID:26819577
A Mixed Integer Linear Program for Solving a Multiple Route Taxi Scheduling Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, Justin Vincent; Wood, Zachary Paul; Rathinam, Sivakumar; Malik, Waqar Ahmad
2010-01-01
Aircraft movements on taxiways at busy airports often create bottlenecks. This paper introduces a mixed integer linear program to solve a Multiple Route Aircraft Taxi Scheduling Problem. The outputs of the model are in the form of optimal taxi schedules, which include routing decisions for taxiing aircraft. The model extends an existing single route formulation to include routing decisions. An efficient comparison framework compares the multi-route formulation and the single route formulation. The multi-route model is exercised for east side airport surface traffic at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport to determine if any arrival taxi time savings can be achieved by allowing arrivals to have two taxi routes: a route that crosses an active departure runway and a perimeter route that avoids the crossing. Results indicate that the multi-route formulation yields reduced arrival taxi times over the single route formulation only when a perimeter taxiway is used. In conditions where the departure aircraft are given an optimal and fixed takeoff sequence, accumulative arrival taxi time savings in the multi-route formulation can be as high as 3.6 hours more than the single route formulation. If the departure sequence is not optimal, the multi-route formulation results in less taxi time savings made over the single route formulation, but the average arrival taxi time is significantly decreased.
Ailey, Sarah H; Friese, Tanya R; Nezu, Arthur M
2012-12-01
Social problem-solving programs have shown success in reducing aggressive/challenging behaviors among individuals with intellectual disabilities in clinical settings, but have not been adapted for health promotion in community settings. We modified a social problem-solving program for the community setting of the group home. Multiple sequential methods were used to seek advice from community members on making materials understandable and on intervention delivery. A committee of group home supervisory staff gave advice on content and delivery. Cognitive interviews with individuals with intellectual disabilities and residential staff provided input on content wording and examples. Piloting the program provided experience with content and delivery. The process provides lessons on partnering with vulnerable populations and community stakeholders to develop health programs.
Ailey, Sarah H.; Friese, Tanya R.; Nezu, Arthur M.
2016-01-01
Social problem-solving programs have shown success in reducing aggressive/challenging behaviors among individuals with intellectual disabilities in clinical settings, but have not been adapted for health promotion in community settings. We modified a social problem-solving program for the community setting of the group home. Multiple sequential methods were used to seek advice from community members on making materials understandable and on intervention delivery. A committee of group home supervisory staff gave advice on content and delivery. Cognitive interviews with individuals with intellectual disabilities and residential staff provided input on content wording and examples. Piloting the program provided experience with content and delivery. The process provides lessons on partnering with vulnerable populations and community stakeholders to develop health programs. PMID:22753149
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
2012-01-01
Grounded in Person-Environment Fit Theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8 to 10, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program, but only when mothers had strong preferences for education. PMID:22861169
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
2013-01-01
Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children's positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years after random assignment, when children were ages 8-10 years, indicated that mothers' education preferences did moderate program impacts on teacher-reported child behavior problems and positive behavior. Children whose mothers were assigned to the education program were rated by teachers to have less externalizing behavior and more positive behavior than children whose mothers were assigned to the employment program but only when mothers had strong preferences for education.
Vallortigara, Giorgio; Pagni, Piero; Sovrano, Valeria Anna
2004-04-01
Research has proved that disoriented children and nonhuman animals can reorient themselves using geometric and nongeometric features of the environment, showing conjoined use of both types of information to different degree depending on species and developmental level. Little is known of the neurobiological bases of these spatial reorientation processes. Here we take advantage of the neuroanatomical peculiarities of the visual system of birds (showing segregation of information between the two sides of the brain to a considerable degree) to investigate the way in which geometric and nongeometric information is encoded and used by the left and right hemispheres. Domestic chicks were trained binocularly in an environment with a distinctive geometry (a rectangular cage) with panels at the corners providing nongeometric cues. Between trials, chicks were passively disoriented to disable dead reckoning. When tested after removal of the panels, left-eyed chicks, but not right-eyed chicks, reoriented using the residual information provided by the geometry of the cage. When tested after removal of geometric information (i.e., in a square-shaped cage), both right- and left-eyed chicks reoriented using the residual nongeometric information provided by the panels. When trained binocularly with only geometric information, at test, left-eyed chicks reoriented better than right-eyed chicks. Finally, when geometric and nongeometric cues provided contradictory information, left-eyed chicks showed more reliance on geometric cues, whereas right-eyed chicks showed more reliance on nongeometric cues. The results suggest separate mechanisms for dealing with spatial reorientation problems, with the right hemisphere taking charge of large-scale geometry of the environment and with both hemispheres taking charge of local, nongeometric cues when available in isolation, but with a predominance of the left hemisphere when competition between geometric and non-geometric information occurs
Duncombe, Melissa E; Havighurst, Sophie S; Kehoe, Christiane E; Holland, Kerry A; Frankling, Emma J; Stargatt, Robyn
2016-01-01
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a multisystemic early intervention that included a comparison of an emotion- and behavior-focused parenting program for children with emerging conduct problems. The processes that moderated positive child outcomes were also explored. A repeated measures cluster randomized group design methodology was employed with three conditions (Tuning in to Kids, Positive Parenting Program, and waitlist control) and two periods (preintervention and 6-month follow-up). The sample consisted of 320 predominantly Caucasian 4- to 9-year-old children who were screened for disruptive behavior problems. Three outcome measures of child conduct problems were evaluated using a parent (Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) and teacher (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) rating scale and a structured child interview (Home Interview With Child). Six moderators were assessed using family demographic information and a parent-rated measure of psychological well-being (Depression Anxiety and Stress Scales short form). The results indicated that the multisystemic intervention was effective compared to a control group and that, despite different theoretical orientations, the emotion- and behavior-focused parenting programs were equally effective in reducing child conduct problems. Child age and parent psychological well-being moderated intervention response. This effectiveness trial supports the use of either emotion- or behavior-focused parenting programs in a multisystemic early intervention and provides greater choice for practitioners in the selection of specific programs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Yong-Chang
2016-07-01
This paper presents an interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm to solve a class of integer bilevel programming problems, in which integer decision variables are controlled by an upper-level decision maker and real-value or continuous decision variables are controlled by a lower-level decision maker. Using the Karush--Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions in the lower-level programming, the original discrete bilevel formulation can be converted into a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem with the complementarity constraints, and then the smoothing technique is applied to deal with the complementarity constraints. Finally, a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem is obtained, and solved by an interactive approach. In each iteration, for each given upper-level discrete variable, a system of nonlinear equations including the lower-level variables and Lagrange multipliers is solved first, and then a discrete nonlinear programming problem only with inequality constraints is handled by using a discrete differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Gartling, D.K.; Hogan, R.E.
1994-10-01
User instructions are given for the finite element computer program, COYOTE II. COYOTE II is designed for the multi-dimensional analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems including the effects of enclosure radiation and chemical reaction. The theoretical background and numerical methods used in the program are documented in SAND94-1173. Examples of the use of the code are presented in SAND94-1180.
Quantum state discrimination: A geometric approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markham, Damian; Miszczak, Jarosław Adam; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol
2008-04-01
We analyze the problem of finding sets of quantum states that can be deterministically discriminated. From a geometric point of view, this problem is equivalent to that of embedding a simplex of points whose distances are maximal with respect to the Bures distance (or trace distance). We derive upper and lower bounds for the trace distance and for the fidelity between two quantum states, which imply bounds for the Bures distance between the unitary orbits of both states. We thus show that, when analyzing minimal and maximal distances between states of fixed spectra, it is sufficient to consider diagonal states only. Hence when optimal discrimination is considered, given freedom up to unitary orbits, it is sufficient to consider diagonal states. This is illustrated geometrically in terms of Weyl chambers.
Geometrical Destabilization of Inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Renaux-Petel, Sébastien; Turzyński, Krzysztof
2016-09-01
We show the existence of a general mechanism by which heavy scalar fields can be destabilized during inflation, relying on the fact that the curvature of the field space manifold can dominate the stabilizing force from the potential and destabilize inflationary trajectories. We describe a simple and rather universal setup in which higher-order operators suppressed by a large energy scale trigger this instability. This phenomenon can prematurely end inflation, thereby leading to important observational consequences and sometimes excluding models that would otherwise perfectly fit the data. More generally, it modifies the interpretation of cosmological constraints in terms of fundamental physics. We also explain how the geometrical destabilization can lead to powerful selection criteria on the field space curvature of inflationary models.
Geometrical aspects of entanglement
Leinaas, Jon Magne; Myrheim, Jan; Ovrum, Eirik
2006-07-15
We study geometrical aspects of entanglement, with the Hilbert-Schmidt norm defining the metric on the set of density matrices. We focus first on the simplest case of two two-level systems and show that a 'relativistic' formulation leads to a complete analysis of the question of separability. Our approach is based on Schmidt decomposition of density matrices for a composite system and nonunitary transformations to a standard form. The positivity of the density matrices is crucial for the method to work. A similar approach works to some extent in higher dimensions, but is a less powerful tool. We further present a numerical method for examining separability and illustrate the method by a numerical study of bound entanglement in a composite system of two three-level systems.
Geometric Frustration with Disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woo, Nayoon; Silevitch, Daniel M.; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.
2014-03-01
We study the effects of Nd doping on the geometrically-frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG), using linear and nonlinear ac magnetic susceptibility. Doping levels from 0.1 to 1 percent Nd alleviate the intrinsic frustration of pure GGG and elevate the ordering temperature compared to the pure material. We use nonlinear pump-probe magnetic susceptometry to examine cluster dynamics for both the pure and the doped series. At low frequency (~10 Hz), spectral hole burning is possible, indicating the presence of spin clusters with discrete energy levels largely decoupled from the overall spin bath. At kHz, we find a Fano resonance, revealing scattering pathways between spin cluster excitations and the bath. We trace the evolution of this resonance behavior as a function of dopant concentration.
Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo
2009-04-01
In this paper, a new recurrent neural network is proposed for solving convex quadratic programming (QP) problems. Compared with existing neural networks, the proposed one features global convergence property under weak conditions, low structural complexity, and no calculation of matrix inverse. It serves as a competitive alternative in the neural network family for solving linear or quadratic programming problems. In addition, it is found that by some variable substitution, the proposed network turns out to be an existing model for solving minimax problems. In this sense, it can be also viewed as a special case of the minimax neural network. Based on this scheme, a k-winners-take-all ( k-WTA) network with O(n) complexity is designed, which is characterized by simple structure, global convergence, and capability to deal with some ill cases. Numerical simulations are provided to validate the theoretical results obtained. More importantly, the network design method proposed in this paper has great potential to inspire other competitive inventions along the same line. PMID:19228555
Hu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Bo
2009-04-01
In this paper, a new recurrent neural network is proposed for solving convex quadratic programming (QP) problems. Compared with existing neural networks, the proposed one features global convergence property under weak conditions, low structural complexity, and no calculation of matrix inverse. It serves as a competitive alternative in the neural network family for solving linear or quadratic programming problems. In addition, it is found that by some variable substitution, the proposed network turns out to be an existing model for solving minimax problems. In this sense, it can be also viewed as a special case of the minimax neural network. Based on this scheme, a k-winners-take-all ( k-WTA) network with O(n) complexity is designed, which is characterized by simple structure, global convergence, and capability to deal with some ill cases. Numerical simulations are provided to validate the theoretical results obtained. More importantly, the network design method proposed in this paper has great potential to inspire other competitive inventions along the same line.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sumin, M. I.
2015-06-01
A parametric nonlinear programming problem in a metric space with an operator equality constraint in a Hilbert space is studied assuming that its lower semicontinuous value function at a chosen individual parameter value has certain subdifferentiability properties in the sense of nonlinear (nonsmooth) analysis. Such subdifferentiability can be understood as the existence of a proximal subgradient or a Fréchet subdifferential. In other words, an individual problem has a corresponding generalized Kuhn-Tucker vector. Under this assumption, a stable sequential Kuhn-Tucker theorem in nondifferential iterative form is proved and discussed in terms of minimizing sequences on the basis of the dual regularization method. This theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions for the stable construction of a minimizing approximate solution in the sense of Warga in the considered problem, whose initial data can be approximately specified. A substantial difference of the proved theorem from its classical same-named analogue is that the former takes into account the possible instability of the problem in the case of perturbed initial data and, as a consequence, allows for the inherited instability of classical optimality conditions. This theorem can be treated as a regularized generalization of the classical Uzawa algorithm to nonlinear programming problems. Finally, the theorem is applied to the "simplest" nonlinear optimal control problem, namely, to a time-optimal control problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garey, Robert W.
The Randolph, New Jersey Intermediate School updated its industrial arts program to reflect the challenges and work force of the Twentieth Century in which students apply a design/problem-solving process to solve real-world problems. In the laboratory portion of the program, students circulate between workstations to define problems, complete…
Corrosion control programs improve profits. Part 1--how to approach the problem
Byars, H.G.
1985-11-01
Internal corrosion control methods used at Prudhoe Bay are presented and the authors describe several steps toward recognizing and solveing problems. The first step is to define the problem, then to review the possible methods. Examples of simple problems are presented, in particular, a sucker-rod pumping lease where wells were beginning to experience rod breasks and tubing leaks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Atwood, Nancy K.
School districts have begun examining the feasibility of, and in some cases are developing and implementing automated systems for, managing and evaluating instructional programs. This paper describes and analyzes the issues and problems that emerged over the course of three projects--a large suburban school in the West, a consortium of five small…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenstein, Joseph; And Others
As the first step in curriculum development, 12 educational programs for young deaf children with learning disabilities and communication problems were studied in order to identify the atypical deaf child. Subjects were 193 children (age range 6 to 14 years) selected from 12 schools for the deaf in New York State. Data was obtained from school…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eratay, Emine
2013-01-01
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gassman-Pines, Anna; Godfrey, Erin B.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
2013-01-01
Grounded in person-environment fit theory, this study examined whether low-income mothers' preferences for education moderated the effects of employment- and education-focused welfare programs on children’s positive and problem behaviors. The sample included 1,365 families with children between ages 3 and 5 years at study entry. Results 5 years…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Koning, Bjorn B.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Smeets, Guus; van der Molen, Henk T.
2012-01-01
This study investigated the simultaneous impact of demographic, personality, intelligence, and (prior) study performance factors on students' academic achievement in a three-year academic problem-based psychology program. Information regarding students' gender, age, nationality, pre-university education, high school grades, Big Five personality…
A Note on Solving Large-Scale Zero-One Programming Problems. Research Report 88-4.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Adema, Jos J.
A heuristic for solving large-scale zero-one programming problems is provided. The heuristic is based on the modifications made by H. Crowder et al. (1983) to the standard branch-and-bound strategy. First, the initialization is modified. The modification is only useful if the objective function values for the continuous and the zero-one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smedler, Ann-Charlotte; Hjern, Anders; Wiklund, Stefan; Anttila, Sten; Pettersson, Agneta
2015-01-01
Background: Preventing externalizing problems in children is a major societal concern, and a great number of intervention programs have been developed to this aim. To evaluate their preventive effects, well-controlled trials including follow-up assessments are necessary. Methods: This is a systematic review of the effect of prevention programs…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boh, Larry E.; And Others
1987-01-01
A project to (1) develop and apply a microcomputer simulation program to enhance clinical medication problem solving in preclerkship and clerkship students and (2) perform an initial formative evaluation of the simulation is described. A systematic instructional design approach was used in applying the simulation to the disease state of rheumatoid…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fessakis, G.; Gouli, E.; Mavroudi, E.
2013-01-01
Computer programming is considered an important competence for the development of higher-order thinking in addition to algorithmic problem solving skills. Its horizontal integration throughout all educational levels is considered worthwhile and attracts the attention of researchers. Towards this direction, an exploratory case study is presented…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nara, Jun
2010-01-01
This research explores how chief cabin crew members of major airlines made their decisions on-the-spot when they had unexpected problems. This research also presents some insights that may improve personnel training programs for future stewardesses and stewards based on the investigation of their decision-making styles. The theoretical framework…
Better O and M Programs is Ultimate Answer to O and M Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davanzo, A. C.; Thompson, William B.
1978-01-01
Describes is an improvement program for the operation and maintenance of municipal wastewater treatment plants in Detroit, Michigan. Improvements included expansion and upgrading of the existing city plant and a training program for plant personnel. (MA)
The twopnt program for boundary value problems: Version 3. 10 of March 1992
Grcar, J.F.
1992-04-01
Twopnt is a computer program that finds steady state solutions for systems of differential equations, usually, in one space dimension. This is a guide to the program's use and a description of its operation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toledo, Raciel Yera; Mota, Yailé Caballero
2014-01-01
The paper proposes a recommender system approach to cover online judge's domains. Online judges are e-learning tools that support the automatic evaluation of programming tasks done by individual users, and for this reason they are usually used for training students in programming contest and for supporting basic programming teachings. The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Higgins, Eleanor L.; Raskind, Marshall H.
2004-01-01
This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of two programs developed by the Frostig Center Research Department to improve the reading and spelling of students with learning disabilities (LD): a computer Speech Recognition-based Program (SRBP) and a computer and text-based Automaticity Program (AP). Twenty-eight LD students with reading…
Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.
1990-01-01
A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.
Geometrical Wake of a Smooth Flat Collimator
Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC
2011-09-09
A transverse geometrical wake generated by a beam passing through a smooth flat collimator with a gradually varying gap between the upper and lower walls is considered. Based on generalization of the approach recently developed for a smooth circular taper we reduce the electromagnetic problem of the impedance calculation to the solution of two much simpler static problems - a magnetostatic and an electrostatic ones. The solution shows that in the limit of not very large frequencies, the impedance increases with the ratio h/d where h is the width and d is the distance between the collimating jaws. Numerical results are presented for the NLC Post Linac collimator.
State-Space Regularization: Geometric Theory
Chavent, G.; Kunisch, K.
1998-05-15
Regularization of nonlinear ill-posed inverse problems is analyzed for a class of problems that is characterized by mappings which are the composition of a well-posed nonlinear and an ill-posed linear mapping. Regularization is carried out in the range of the nonlinear mapping. In applications this corresponds to the state-space variable of a partial differential equation or to preconditioning of data. The geometric theory of projection onto quasi-convex sets is used to analyze the stabilizing properties of this regularization technique and to describe its asymptotic behavior as the regularization parameter tends to zero.
Geometric reasoning about assembly tools
Wilson, R.H.
1997-01-01
Planning for assembly requires reasoning about various tools used by humans, robots, or other automation to manipulate, attach, and test parts and subassemblies. This paper presents a general framework to represent and reason about geometric accessibility issues for a wide variety of such assembly tools. Central to the framework is a use volume encoding a minimum space that must be free in an assembly state to apply a given tool, and placement constraints on where that volume must be placed relative to the parts on which the tool acts. Determining whether a tool can be applied in a given assembly state is then reduced to an instance of the FINDPLACE problem. In addition, the author presents more efficient methods to integrate the framework into assembly planning. For tools that are applied either before or after their target parts are mated, one method pre-processes a single tool application for all possible states of assembly of a product in polynomial time, reducing all later state-tool queries to evaluations of a simple expression. For tools applied after their target parts are mated, a complementary method guarantees polynomial-time assembly planning. The author presents a wide variety of tools that can be described adequately using the approach, and surveys tool catalogs to determine coverage of standard tools. Finally, the author describes an implementation of the approach in an assembly planning system and experiments with a library of over one hundred manual and robotic tools and several complex assemblies.
Geometric Reasoning for Automated Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clement, Bradley J.; Knight, Russell L.; Broderick, Daniel
2012-01-01
An important aspect of mission planning for NASA s operation of the International Space Station is the allocation and management of space for supplies and equipment. The Stowage, Configuration Analysis, and Operations Planning teams collaborate to perform the bulk of that planning. A Geometric Reasoning Engine is developed in a way that can be shared by the teams to optimize item placement in the context of crew planning. The ISS crew spends (at the time of this writing) a third or more of their time moving supplies and equipment around. Better logistical support and optimized packing could make a significant impact on operational efficiency of the ISS. Currently, computational geometry and motion planning do not focus specifically on the optimized orientation and placement of 3D objects based on multiple distance and containment preferences and constraints. The software performs reasoning about the manipulation of 3D solid models in order to maximize an objective function based on distance. It optimizes for 3D orientation and placement. Spatial placement optimization is a general problem and can be applied to object packing or asset relocation.
CUERVO: A finite element computer program for nonlinear scalar transport problems
Sirman, M.B.; Gartling, D.K.
1995-11-01
CUERVO is a finite element code that is designed for the solution of multi-dimensional field problems described by a general nonlinear, advection-diffusion equation. The code is also applicable to field problems described by diffusion, Poisson or Laplace equations. The finite element formulation and the associated numerical methods used in CUERVO are outlined here; detailed instructions for use of the code are also presented. Example problems are provided to illustrate the use of the code.
Program package FLUX for the simulation of fundamental and applied problems of fluid dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babakov, A. V.
2016-06-01
Based on parallel algorithms of a conservative numerical method, a software package for simulating fundamental and applied fluid dynamics problems in a wide range of parameters is developed. The software is implemented on a cluster computer system. Examples of the numerical simulation of three-dimensional problems in various fields of fluid dynamics are discussed, including problems of external flow around bodies, investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of flying vehicles, flows around a set of objects, flows in nozzles, and flows around underwater constructs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noor-E-Alam, Md.; Doucette, John
2015-08-01
Grid-based location problems (GBLPs) can be used to solve location problems in business, engineering, resource exploitation, and even in the field of medical sciences. To solve these decision problems, an integer linear programming (ILP) model is designed and developed to provide the optimal solution for GBLPs considering fixed cost criteria. Preliminary results show that the ILP model is efficient in solving small to moderate-sized problems. However, this ILP model becomes intractable in solving large-scale instances. Therefore, a decomposition heuristic is proposed to solve these large-scale GBLPs, which demonstrates significant reduction of solution runtimes. To benchmark the proposed heuristic, results are compared with the exact solution via ILP. The experimental results show that the proposed method significantly outperforms the exact method in runtime with minimal (and in most cases, no) loss of optimality.
Junqueira, Marcelle Aparecida de Barros; Rassool, G Hussein; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Pillon, Sandra Cristina
2015-01-01
Nurses are the prime movers in the prevention and harm reduction in alcohol-related harm especially for those patients who are unwilling to access specialist care. The aim of the study is to evaluate the attitudes and knowledge of nursing students before and after Brief Intervention Training for alcohol problems. A quasi-experimental study was conducted with 120 undergraduate nursing students. Sixty recruited students were randomized into experimental and control groups (n = 60 each). Participants completed questionnaires on knowledge and attitudes before and after this training of brief intervention. The brief intervention program, 16 hours of duration, includes training for screening and early recognition, nursing, and the treatment of alcohol problems. Analysis of the data showed statistically significant positive change in the nursing students' knowledge (identifications and care) and personal and professional attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems after the educational intervention. The experimental group differed significantly in all the variables measured at posteducational program. The provision of educational program on brief intervention in undergraduate nursing education can be an effective way for acquisition of knowledge and changes in attitudes in working with patients with alcohol problems.
Geometric Quantization and Foliation Reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skerritt, Paul
A standard question in the study of geometric quantization is whether symplectic reduction interacts nicely with the quantized theory, and in particular whether "quantization commutes with reduction." Guillemin and Sternberg first proposed this question, and answered it in the affirmative for the case of a free action of a compact Lie group on a compact Kahler manifold. Subsequent work has focused mainly on extending their proof to non-free actions and non-Kahler manifolds. For realistic physical examples, however, it is desirable to have a proof which also applies to non-compact symplectic manifolds. In this thesis we give a proof of the quantization-reduction problem for general symplectic manifolds. This is accomplished by working in a particular wavefunction representation, associated with a polarization that is in some sense compatible with reduction. While the polarized sections described by Guillemin and Sternberg are nonzero on a dense subset of the Kahler manifold, the ones considered here are distributional, having support only on regions of the phase space associated with certain quantized, or "admissible", values of momentum. We first propose a reduction procedure for the prequantum geometric structures that "covers" symplectic reduction, and demonstrate how both symplectic and prequantum reduction can be viewed as examples of foliation reduction. Consistency of prequantum reduction imposes the above-mentioned admissibility conditions on the quantized momenta, which can be seen as analogues of the Bohr-Wilson-Sommerfeld conditions for completely integrable systems. We then describe our reduction-compatible polarization, and demonstrate a one-to-one correspondence between polarized sections on the unreduced and reduced spaces. Finally, we describe a factorization of the reduced prequantum bundle, suggested by the structure of the underlying reduced symplectic manifold. This in turn induces a factorization of the space of polarized sections that agrees
Teacher Education: Privileges and Problems Associated with Reading Programs in Developing Countries.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robertson, Jean E.
The problems of teacher education in developing nations are discussed. Blending new knowledge with cultural heritage so that the personal cultural synthesis demanded of new literates is effected without disrupting social structures is complicated by the language problem. The impact of the written word on a society dependent on oral communication…
Measurement Problems. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 92-20.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wainer, Howard
This paper reports 20 unsolved problems in educational measurement and points toward what seem to be promising avenues of solution. The first group of concerns involves validity, posing the problems of obtaining suitable validity criteria, determining and measuring the predictor variables that best characterize the traits and proficiencies of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hou, Su-I
2014-01-01
Purpose: Problem-based learning (PBL) challenges students to learn and work in groups to seek solutions to real world problems. Connecting academic study with community-engaged learning (CEL) experience can deeper learning and thinking. This paper highlights the integration of PBL with CEL in the Implementation Course to engage graduate students…
Fire Problems in High-Rise Buildings. California Fire Service Training Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Industrial Education.
Resulting from a conference concerned with high-rise fire problems, this manual has been prepared as a fire department training manual and as a reference for students enrolled in fire service training courses. Information is provided for topics dealing with: (1) Typical Fire Problems in High-Rise Buildings, (2) Heat, (3) Smoke and Fire Gases, (4)…
Investigating Problem-Based Learning Tutorship in Medical and Engineering Programs in Malaysia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Servant, Virginie F. C.; Dewar, Eleanor F. A.
2015-01-01
Although Malaysia was the first country in Asia to adopt problem-based learning (PBL), the impact that this has had on its tutors remains largely unexplored. This paper details a qualitative study of the changing perceptions of teaching roles in two groups of problem-based learning tutors in two institutional contexts--one in medicine located in…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antipin, A. S.; Vasil'Ev, F. P.; Stukalov, A. S.
2007-01-01
Unstable equilibrium problems are examined in which the objective function and the set where the equilibrium point is sought are specified inexactly. A regularized Newton method, combined with penalty functions, is proposed for solving such problems, and its convergence is analyzed. A regularizing operator is constructed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, Thomas Edward
The purpose of the study was to investigate problem-solving performance with regard to non-routine problem experiences in which the computer and flow charts were used as aids. Performance data were collected using an investigator-constructed posttest. Sixty-eight eighth grade students were partitioned into four treatment groups: G1 used neither…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Nicole P.; Boxmeyer, Caroline L.; Baden, Rachel; Stromeyer, Sara; Minney, Jessica A.; Mushtaq, Asia; Lochman, John E.
2011-01-01
Children with high levels of aggressive behavior and conduct problems create major management problems in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates and with their own academic achievement. A contextual social-cognitive model can provide a framework for understanding risk factors involved in the development and…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Utku, S.
1969-01-01
A general purpose digital computer program for the in-core solution of linear equilibrium problems of structural mechanics is documented. The program requires minimum input for the description of the problem. The solution is obtained by means of the displacement method and the finite element technique. Almost any geometry and structure may be handled because of the availability of linear, triangular, quadrilateral, tetrahedral, hexahedral, conical, triangular torus, and quadrilateral torus elements. The assumption of piecewise linear deflection distribution insures monotonic convergence of the deflections from the stiffer side with decreasing mesh size. The stresses are provided by the best-fit strain tensors in the least squares at the mesh points where the deflections are given. The selection of local coordinate systems whenever necessary is automatic. The core memory is used by means of dynamic memory allocation, an optional mesh-point relabelling scheme and imposition of the boundary conditions during the assembly time.
The bouncing ball through a geometrical series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flores, Sergio; Alfaro, Luis L.; Chavez, Juan E.; Bastarrachea, Aztlan; Hurtado, Jazmin
2008-10-01
The mathematical representation of the physical situation related to a bouncing ball on the floor is an important understanding difficulty for most of the students during the introductory mechanics and mathematics courses. The research group named Physics and mathematics in context from the University of Ciudad Juarez is concerned about the versatility in the change from a mathematical representation to the own physical context of any problem under a traditional instruction. In this case, the main idea is the association of the physical properties of the bouncing ball situation to the nearest mathematical model based on a geometrical series. The proposal of the cognitive development is based on a geometrical series that shows the time the ball takes to stop. In addition, we show the behavior of the ratio of the consecutive heights during the motion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reiser, Elana
2016-01-01
In this brief article Elana Reiser describes her favorite lesson that combines popular culture with mathematics in a way that motivates student thinking and participation. Exploring open-ended problems, students may feel uneasy at first, but working in small groups often leads them to experiment with a variety of solutions. Reiser explains that…
Reasoning with Geometric Shapes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Seah, Rebecca
2015-01-01
Geometry belongs to branches of mathematics that develop students' visualisation, intuition, critical thinking, problem solving, deductive reasoning, logical argument and proof (Jones, 2002). It provides the basis for the development of spatial sense and plays an important role in acquiring advanced knowledge in science, technology, engineering,…
Family Support in Prevention Programs for Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Kim, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Burns, Barbara J.
2011-01-01
We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine's typology, prevention…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pinton, Giorgio A.
The bilingual education of adults in correctional institutions is discussed. The program specifically described is a bilingual/ESL (English as a second language) program for Puerto Rican adults in a Connecticut correctional center. The study has two sections: (1) the Puerto Rican adult in a penal institution; an explanation of his needs and an…
Educational Loan Repayment/Forgiveness Programs: A Creative Solution to a Serious Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horowitz, Marc S.
1996-01-01
The National Institutes of Health has developed innovative programs to help students, mostly medical school graduates, to repay or to forgive student loans, including physician participation in AIDS research, general research, and contraception and fertility, and plans for graduates from disadvantaged backgrounds. The program also provides…
A Model Program of Comprehensive Educational Services for Students With Learning Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Union Township Board of Education, NJ.
Programs are described for learning-disabled or mantally-handicapped elementary and secondary students in regular and special classes in Union, New Jersey, and approximately 58 instructional episodes involving student made objects for understanding technology are presented. In part one, components of the model program such as the multi-learning…
An Introduction to Numerical Control. Problems for Numerical Control Part Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Clifton P.
This combination text and workbook is intended to introduce industrial arts students to numerical control part programming. Discussed in the first section are the impact of numerical control, training efforts, numerical control in established programs, related information for drafting, and the Cartesian Coordinate System and dimensioning…
Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Acquaintance Rape. A Guide for Program Coordinators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Finn, Peter
This is a guide for college and university program coordinators and planning committees on how to establish, expand, or improve a program on the prevention of acquaintance rape. Information is given for Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Deans on the relationship between acquaintance rape and alcohol, reasons for top administrators to become…
Computer Programs To Transcribe French Text into Speech: Problems and Suggested Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marty, Fernand; Hart, Robert S.
The process of developing a computer program that can turn French text into speech is described. The program is designed to change a conventionally-spelled text into a phonemic transcription with an accuracy level of over 99.9%, divide the text into breath-groups that are syntactically correct and not over 14 syllables long, treat the unstable…
The Problem of Interfacing the Academic and Business Worlds: Internship Programs in Communication.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Glenn
In response to the glut of communication degree holders in a time of rapidly diminishing demand for teachers and the subsequent need for alternative careers in communications, the department of speech and theatre at an Arkansas university developed a one-semester internship program for seniors in communications. The program began with students…
Related Problems and Strategies for the Development and Implementation of CBTE Programs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Masla, John A.; Arends, Robert L.
This paper discusses aspects of competency-based teacher education in order to provide useful information for developers. Some essential elements of a competency-based program are described, and three approaches for bringing about programmatic and organizational changes necessary for competency-based program development are defined. Advantages and…
[Transmigration--a disaster? Problems and prospects of the Indonesian resettlement program].
Scholz, U
1992-01-01
This article focuses on the Indonesian transmigration program, which has resettled about 900,000 families from the overpopulated islands of Java, Madura, and Bali to the less heavily populated outer islands. The goals and implementation of the program are reviewed, and the extensive criticisms that have been leveled against it are assessed.
Implementing Problem-Based Learning in Principal Training: The First Pilot Program in China
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feng, Daming
2005-01-01
In designing and implementing the pilot program of serving principal training, the author of this paper learned the experience from what E. Bridges and P. Hallinger did but didn't imitate fully, rather, created several new strategies because Chinese principals faced different situation from their American counterparts. The pilot program introduced…
Permitting nonpoint sources: Programs, provisions, problems and potential. Technical report (Final)
Rosenthal, A.
1989-01-01
In recent years, an increasing number of state and local agencies have instituted permitting programs to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution. Permits are issued to both urban and agricultural NPS generators. These and other comparable regulatory programs are sufficiently developed in the report to illustrate some of the essential components and strategies of NPS permitting systems. The report attempts to integrate the experiences of some of the few NPS regulatory programs operating within the 50 states. Because of the focus on permitting per se, much attention in the report is directed at the Management and Storage of Surface Water (MSSW) permitting system used to regulate agricultural and urban discharges in Florida's Water Management Districts. Other regulatory programs in Pennsylvania, Nebraska, and Maryland as well as the myriad of feedlot programs constitute valuable 'institutional laboratories' where NPS regulatory schemes are evolving.
Geometric constrained variational calculus. II: The second variation (Part I)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massa, Enrico; Bruno, Danilo; Luria, Gianvittorio; Pagani, Enrico
2016-10-01
Within the geometrical framework developed in [Geometric constrained variational calculus. I: Piecewise smooth extremals, Int. J. Geom. Methods Mod. Phys. 12 (2015) 1550061], the problem of minimality for constrained calculus of variations is analyzed among the class of differentiable curves. A fully covariant representation of the second variation of the action functional, based on a suitable gauge transformation of the Lagrangian, is explicitly worked out. Both necessary and sufficient conditions for minimality are proved, and reinterpreted in terms of Jacobi fields.
Estimation of Defect's Geometric Parameters with a Thermal Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protasov, A.; Sineglazov, V.
2003-03-01
The problem of estimation of flaws' parameters has been realized in two stages. At the first stage, it has been estimated relationship between temperature difference of a heated sample's surface and geometrical parameters of the flaw. For this purpose we have solved a direct heat conduction problem for various combination of the geometrical sizes of the flaw. At the second stage, we have solved an inverse heat conduction problem using the H - infinity method of identification. The results have shown good convergence to real parameters.
Not Available
1980-07-01
Program summaries, issue developments, governmental processes, and impacts are discussed for 10 case studies dealing with lifeline electric rates and alternative approaches to the problems of low-income ratepayers, namely; the Boston Edison rate freeze; the California lifeline; Florida Power and Light conservation rate; the Iowa-Illinois Gas and Electric small-use rate; the Maine demonstration lifeline program; the Massachusetts Electric Company A-65 rate; the Michigan optional senior citizen rate; the Narragansett Electric Company A-65 SSI rate; the Northern States Power Company conservation rate break; and the Potomac Electric Power Company rate freeze. (MCW)
Impacting the problem of inner-city youth violence: "Educating Kids About Gun Violence" program.
Hayward, Thomas Z; Simons, Clark J; St John, Wendy; Waymire, Michelle; Stucky, Thomas D
2011-04-01
The Educating Kids Against Gun Violence (EKG) program was developed in response to high levels of gun violence in an urban inner-city county through a partnership between the county prosecutor's office, local law enforcement, and a Level 1 trauma center. This program incorporates short video clips and interactive presentations, which address legal and medical consequences of gun violence. The program was presented to youths varying in age and degree of prior contact with the criminal justice system. Pre and post surveys were used to evaluate the short-term impact of the EKG program on the legal and medical knowledge and attitudes of youth participants. There were 130 pre and post surveys that could be exactly matched. Sixty-three per cent of participants had been arrested and 35 per cent had been convicted of a crime. On the post survey, 79 per cent stated that "the program will help keep me out of trouble" and 69 per cent stated that "in the future because of this program I will be less likely to carry a gun". The EKG program seemed to have positive short-term impacts on youth knowledge of legal and medical consequences and attitudes regarding gun violence.
Geometric Effects on Electron Cloud
Wang, L
2007-07-06
The development of an electron cloud in the vacuum chambers of high intensity positron and proton storage rings may limit the machine performances by inducing beam instabilities, beam emittance increase, beam loss, vacuum pressure increases and increased heat load on the vacuum chamber wall. The electron multipacting is a kind of geometric resonance phenomenon and thus is sensitive to the geometric parameters such as the aperture of the beam pipe, beam shape and beam bunch fill pattern, etc. This paper discusses the geometric effects on the electron cloud build-up in a beam chamber and examples are given for different beams and accelerators.
Sleep problems and early developmental delay: implications for early intervention programs.
Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy
2012-02-01
Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common types are difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep and sleep disordered breathing. To date, attention has been focused on sleep problems in children with specific conditions (e.g., autism, genetic syndromes, prematurity, and seizure disorder). The authors review evidence of sleep problems' broader impact across the range of children screened for early intervention. Eligibility evaluations for early intervention address the five developmental domains: adaptive, motor, cognitive, communication, and socioemotional. Disordered sleep may be symptomatic of socioemotional and adaptive problems. Assessing sleep problems within the evaluation may help establish eligibility for early intervention services and would maximize developmental potential by ensuring timely identification, referral, and treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hilliard-Clark, Joyce; Gilchrist, Pamela; Allgood, Sherri
2009-08-01
Using the Photonics Leaders program model, recruitment and retention, photonics content, parental engagement, internship, and PHOTON PBL challenges, the session's goal is to inform educators of strategies that can be used to motivate and develop cognitive skills in the discipline of Physics. The program caters to ethnically diverse students who traditionally lack experiences in the discipline. This paper discusses the initial findings of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program through which high school students and teachers were given the opportunity to participate in shared lessons, and coordinate projects through cooperative learning at The Science House at North Carolina State University.
The effect of different types of scaffolding in a multimedia program on students' problem finding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer
This study investigated which scaffolding type most effectively helped students define a complex problem. A secondary objective of this study was to determine whether the amount of time students spent watching videos of experts, who had differing views on the problem, related to how well they grappled with the problem's multiple perspectives. In order to support students with this task, a learning environment was developed based on an instructional model that builds on the cognitive flexibility theory and incorporates situated cases and scaffolding elements from a variety of constructivist theories and models. This study was conducted over a 6-day period with 79 tenth-grade students from four biology classes in an urban high school. The classes were randomly assigned to one of four comparison groups that each received different versions of the software. These versions included varying types of scaffolding to help students define the problem. The organization scaffold, a template with headings and focusing questions, was most effective in helping students understand the problem, develop hypotheses, and ask more specific questions related to the problem. The higher-order thinking scaffold, a prompt with reflective questions, was most effective at helping students generate more questions and helping them grasp the multiple perspectives of the problem. The combination of these two scaffolds tended to be able to assist students, more than the organization scaffold did by itself, in asking questions that were more specific and formulating hypotheses of higher quality. However, the combination of these scaffolds did not do as well as the individual scaffolds did across the other measures. Relevant individual learner differences were also assessed to determine the moderating effect of these differences on students' use of the scaffolding in defining the problem. Problem-solving ability, in addition to the amount of time students watched the expert videos, may be
A geometric multigrid Poisson solver for domains containing solid inclusions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botto, Lorenzo
2013-03-01
A Cartesian grid method for the fast solution of the Poisson equation in three-dimensional domains with embedded solid inclusions is presented and its performance analyzed. The efficiency of the method, which assume Neumann conditions at the immersed boundaries, is comparable to that of a multigrid method for regular domains. The method is light in terms of memory usage, and easily adaptable to parallel architectures. Tests with random and ordered arrays of solid inclusions, including spheres and ellipsoids, demonstrate smooth convergence of the residual for small separation between the inclusion surfaces. This feature is important, for instance, in simulations of nearly-touching finite-size particles. The implementation of the method, “MG-Inc”, is available online. Catalogue identifier: AEOE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19068 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 215118 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ (fully tested with GNU GCC compiler). Computer: Any machine supporting standard C++ compiler. Operating system: Any OS supporting standard C++ compiler. RAM: About 150MB for 1283 resolution Classification: 4.3. Nature of problem: Poisson equation in domains containing inclusions; Neumann boundary conditions at immersed boundaries. Solution method: Geometric multigrid with finite-volume discretization. Restrictions: Stair-case representation of the immersed boundaries. Running time: Typically a fraction of a minute for 1283 resolution.
Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.
2012-01-01
Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency, mental health and substance abuse issues, Group 2: youths with low levels of these problems. Comparison of these two groups on a variety of psychosocial measures and parent/guardian reports found differences between them that were consistent with their problem group classification. Follow-up analysis confirmed problem behavior that was consistent with the youths’ latent class placement. Implications of the findings for research and practice will be presented. PMID:22685378
Guitars, Violins, and Geometric Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barger, Rita; Haehl, Martha
2007-01-01
This article describes middle school mathematics activities that relate measurement, ratios, and geometric sequences to finger positions or the placement of frets on stringed musical instruments. (Contains 2 figures and 2 tables.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sharon, Jared Bear
The major purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a programed instructional unit for a first year college chemistry course. The topic of the unit was the categorization and solution of acid-base equilibria problems. The experimental programed instruction text was used by 41 students and the fifth edition of Schaum's Theory and Problems of…
Preventing Serious Conduct Problems in School-Age Youths: The Fast Track Program
Slough, Nancy M.; McMahon, Robert J.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Foster, E. Michael; Greenberg, Mark T.; Lochman, John E.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.
2009-01-01
Children with early-starting conduct Problems have a very poor prognosis and exact a high cost to society. The Fast Track project is a multisite, collaborative research project investigating the efficacy of a comprehensive, long-term, multicomponent intervention designed to prevent the development of serious conduct problems in high-risk children. In this article, we (a) provide an overview of the development model that serves as the conceptual foundation for the Fast Track intervention and describe its integration into the intervention model; (b) outline the research design and intervention model, with an emphasis on the elementary school phase of the intervention; and (c) summarize findings to dale concerning intervention outcomes. We then provide a case illustration, and conclude with a discussion of guidelines for practitioners who work with children with conduct problems. PMID:19890487
Family Support in Prevention Programs for Children at Risk for Emotional/Behavioral Problems
Olin, S. Serene; Kim, Annie; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Burns, Barbara J.
2014-01-01
We conducted a review of empirically based prevention programs to identify prevalence and types of family support services within these programs. A total of 238 articles published between 1990 and 2011 that included a family support component were identified; 37 met criteria for inclusion. Following the Institute of Medicine’s typology, prevention programs were categorized as universal, selective, or indicated; programs containing more than one prevention level were characterized as multilevel. Family support types included those led by a mental health professional, led by a peer, or team-led. Among the 37 prevention programs reviewed, 27% (n = 10) were universal, 41% (n = 15) were selective, 16% (n = 6) were indicated, and 16% (n = 6) were multi-level. The predominant model of family support was professionally led (95%, n = 35). Two (n = 5%) provided team-led services. None were purely peer-led. In terms of content of family support services, all (100%, n = 37) provided instruction/skill build. Information and education was provided by 70% (n = 26), followed by emotional support (n = 11, 30%) and instrumental or concrete assistance (n = 11, 30%). Only 14% (n = 5) provided assistance with advocacy. The distribution of models and content of services in prevention studies differ from family support within treatment studies. As family support is likely to be an enduring component of the child and family mental health service continuum, comparative effectiveness studies are needed to inform future development. PMID:22080305
Programming and Tuning a Quantum Annealing Device to Solve Real World Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdomo-Ortiz, Alejandro; O'Gorman, Bryan; Fluegemann, Joseph; Smelyanskiy, Vadim
2015-03-01
Solving real-world applications with quantum algorithms requires overcoming several challenges, ranging from translating the computational problem at hand to the quantum-machine language to tuning parameters of the quantum algorithm that have a significant impact on the performance of the device. In this talk, we discuss these challenges, strategies developed to enhance performance, and also a more efficient implementation of several applications. Although we will focus on applications of interest to NASA's Quantum Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, the methods and concepts presented here apply to a broader family of hard discrete optimization problems, including those that occur in many machine-learning algorithms.
Early sex differences in weighting geometric cues.
Lourenco, Stella F; Addy, Dede; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Fabian, Lydia
2011-11-01
When geometric and non-geometric information are both available for specifying location, men have been shown to rely more heavily on geometry compared to women. To shed insight on the nature and developmental origins of this sex difference, we examined how 18- to 24-month-olds represented the geometry of a surrounding (rectangular) space when direct non-geometric information (i.e. a beacon) was also available for localizing a hidden object. Children were tested on a disorientation task with multiple phases. Across experiments, boys relied more heavily than girls on geometry to guide localization, as indicated by their errors during the initial phase of the task, and by their search choices following transformations that left only geometry available, or that, under limited conditions, created a conflict between beacon and geometry. Analyses of search times suggested that girls, like boys, had encoded geometry, and testing in a square space ruled out explanations concerned with motivational and methodological variables. Taken together, the findings provide evidence for an early sex difference in the weighting of geometry. This sex difference, we suggest, reflects subtle variation in how boys and girls approach the problem of combining multiple sources of location information.
Landsat-5 bumper-mode geometric correction
Storey, J.C.; Choate, Michael J.
2004-01-01
The Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) scan mirror was switched from its primary operating mode to a backup mode in early 2002 in order to overcome internal synchronization problems arising from long-term wear of the scan mirror mechanism. The backup bumper mode of operation removes the constraints on scan start and stop angles enforced in the primary scan angle monitor operating mode, requiring additional geometric calibration effort to monitor the active scan angles. It also eliminates scan timing telemetry used to correct the TM scan geometry. These differences require changes to the geometric correction algorithms used to process TM data. A mathematical model of the scan mirror's behavior when operating in bumper mode was developed. This model includes a set of key timing parameters that characterize the time-varying behavior of the scan mirror bumpers. To simplify the implementation of the bumper-mode model, the bumper timing parameters were recast in terms of the calibration and telemetry data items used to process normal TM imagery. The resulting geometric performance, evaluated over 18 months of bumper-mode operations, though slightly reduced from that achievable in the primary operating mode, is still within the Landsat specifications when the data are processed with the most up-to-date calibration parameters.
Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.
Schunk, P.R.; Sackinger, P.A.; Rao, R.R.
1996-01-01
GOMA is a two- and three-dimensional finite element program which excels in analyses of manufacturing processes, particularly those involving free or moving interfaces. Specifically, the full-Newton-coupled heat, mass, momentum, and pseudo-solid mesh motion algorithm makes GOMA ideally suited for simulating processes in which the bulk fluid transport is closely coupled to the interfacial physics. Examples include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, soldering, crystal growth, and solid-network or solution film drying. The code is based on the premise that any boundary can be (1) moving or free, with an apriori unknown position dictated by the distinguishing physics, (2) fixed, according to a global analytical representation, or (3) moving in time and space under user-prescribed kinematics. The goal is to enable the user to predict boundary position or motion simultaneously with the physics of the problem being analyzed and to pursue geometrical design studies and fluid-structure interaction problems. The moving mesh algorithm treats the entire domain as a computational Lagrangian solid that deforms subject to the physical principles which dictate boundary position. As an added benefit, the same Lagrangian solid mechanics can be exploited to solve multi-field problems for which the solid motion and stresses interact with other transport phenomena, either within the same material phase (e.g. shrinking coating) or in neighboring material phases (e.g. flexible blade coating). Thus, analyses of many fluid-structure interaction problems and deformable porous media problems are accessible. This document serves as a user`s guide and reference for GOMA and provides a brief overview of GOMA`s capabilities, theoretical background, and classes of problems for which it is targeted.
Geometric Reasoning in an Active-Engagement Upper-Division E&M Classroom
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cerny, Leonard Thomas
2012-01-01
A combination of theoretical perspectives is used to create a rich description of student reasoning when facing a highly-geometric electricity and magnetism problem in an upper-division active-engagement physics classroom at Oregon State University. Geometric reasoning as students encounter problem situations ranging from familiar to novel is…
Random geometric prior forest for multiclass object segmentation.
Liu, Xiao; Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun
2015-10-01
Recent advances in object detection have led to the development of segmentation by detection approaches that integrate top-down geometric priors for multiclass object segmentation. A key yet under-addressed issue in utilizing top-down cues for the problem of multiclass object segmentation by detection is efficiently generating robust and accurate geometric priors. In this paper, we propose a random geometric prior forest scheme to obtain object-adaptive geometric priors efficiently and robustly. In the scheme, a testing object first searches for training neighbors with similar geometries using the random geometric prior forest, and then the geometry of the testing object is reconstructed by linearly combining the geometries of its neighbors. Our scheme enjoys several favorable properties when compared with conventional methods. First, it is robust and very fast because its inference does not suffer from bad initializations, poor local minimums or complex optimization. Second, the figure/ground geometries of training samples are utilized in a multitask manner. Third, our scheme is object-adaptive but does not require the labeling of parts or poselets, and thus, it is quite easy to implement. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, we integrate the obtained top-down geometric priors with conventional bottom-up color cues in the frame of graph cut. The proposed random geometric prior forest achieves the best segmentation results of all of the methods tested on VOC2010/2012 and is 90 times faster than the current state-of-the-art method. PMID:25974937
Results and Implications of a Problem-Solving Treatment Program for Obesity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mahoney, B. K.; And Others
Data are from a large scale experimental study which was designed to evaluate a multimethod problem solving approach to obesity. Obese adult volunteers (N=90) were randomly assigned to three groups: maximal treatment, minimal treatment, and no treatment control. In the two treatment groups, subjects were exposed to bibliographic material and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Larin, Helene M.; Buccieri, Kathleen M.; Wessel, Jean
2010-01-01
Doctor of physical therapy (DPT) graduates are expected to be competent in professional behaviors, communication, critical inquiry, clinical decision making, and evidence-based practice. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experience of students enrolled in a single, problem-based learning (PBL) course within a conventional…
Black Male Youth: Their Employment Problems and Training Programs. Background Paper No. 11.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hollister, Robinson G.
Employment problems of black males remain substantial. The unemployment rate for black males is 2.3 times that of white males. Less than one-third of 16- 19-year-old black males were employed in 1988. The most important policies affecting the employment of black males are monetary and fiscal policies. No employment and training policies can come…
The Problems of Validation in a Competency-Based Preservice Reading Education Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bergquist, Sidney R.
A problem of teacher education is to successfully integrate the knowledge students learn in the college classroom with the practical experiences of student teaching. A principal objective of an ideal teacher training situation would be to establish a vertical integration of the various types of exposure to reading both prior to and during contact…
Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems on Campus: Impaired Driving. A Guide for Program Coordinators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeJong, William
This guide presents detailed descriptions of potentially effective approaches to preventing impaired driving by college students due to alcohol abuse. Chapter 1 provides an overview of alcohol-impaired driving and discusses changes in public attitudes, the scope of the problem, involvement of teens and young adults, and the challenge of reaching…
A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Teacher Training: Findings after Program Redesign
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caukin, Nancy; Dillard, Heather; Goodin, Terry
2016-01-01
This study reports on Residency I, the first semester of a yearlong residency that utilizes problem-based learning scenarios, combined with field work, that covers both content and context and is meant to positively impact teacher candidates' self-efficacy as well as their actual efficacy as measured by scores on the edTPA. This quantitative…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zydney, Janet Mannheimer
2005-01-01
This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of a multimedia learning environment called "Pollution Solution" on eighth-grade students' ability to define a complex problem. Sixty students from four earth science classes taught by the same teacher in a New York City public school were included in the sample for this study. The classes were…
Preventing School Problems--Promoting School Success: Strategies and Programs That Work.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Minke, Kathleen M., Ed.; Bear, George C., Ed.
This book discusses the prevention of problems and the promotion of success for school children today. Chapters include: (1) "Preventing Aggression and Violence" (George G. Bear, Carolyn Webster-Stratton, Michael J. Furlong, and Sabrina Rhee); (2) "Promoting Social and Emotional Competence in Children" (Joseph E. Zins, Maurice J. Elias, Mark T.…
Generalized Compliance Training: A Direct Instruction Program for Managing Severe Behavior Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colvin, Geoffrey; And Others
Five case studies illustrate the use of generalized compliance training with students who have severe behavior problems. Based on extinction and generalization processes, the approach consists of five phases: (1) assessment to determine the nature and severity of noncompliance; (2)initial instruction demonstrating the consequences of compliance…
Crystallization kinetics: A solution for geometrical impingement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clemente, R. A.; Saleh, A. M.
2002-04-01
Starting from the wrong derivation by Erukhimovitch and Baram of an equation alternative to the classical Kolmogoroff-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami one for the transformed fraction in an infinite specimen, undergoing an isothermal first-order phase transformation, it is shown that a different exact solution of the geometrical problem of impingement can be obtained. Such solution is equivalent to the empirical one already presented by Austin and Rickett more than sixty years ago and allows to better fit experimental results for isothermal transformations. This also suggests that perhaps different statistical derivations could allow to reach the same result.
A geometric criterion for adiabatic chaos
Kaper, T.J. ); Kovacic, G. )
1994-03-01
Chaos in adiabatic Hamiltonian systems is a recent discovery and a pervasive phenomenon in physics. In this work, a geometric criterion is discussed based on the theory of action from classical mechanics to detect the existence of Smale horseshoe chaos in adiabatic systems. It is used to show that generic adiabatic planar Hamiltonian systems exhibit stochastic dynamics in large regions of phase space. To illustrate the method, results are obtained for three problems concerning relativistic particle dynamics, fluid mechanics, and passage through resonance, results which either could not be obtained with existing methods, or which were difficult and analytically impractical to obtain with them.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, John M., Ed.
This book focuses on the creative work and struggles of democratic teacher educators. After "Introduction: The Talk and the Walk of Democratic Teacher Education" (John M. Novak), the book is organized in three sections. Section I, "Programs," includes: (1) "The Institute for Democracy in Education: Supporting Democratic Teachers" (George Wood);…
Problems Resulting from the Implementation of a Pilot Program in Accountability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Field, David A.
The concept of accountability has become very important recently to both teachers and administrators. Despite this, very few experimental projects dealing with accountability have been attempted--especially in the field of physical education. A program of accountability was conducted at Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana, in the Department of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Safian-Rush, Donna
This manual is a programed learning tool for mental health professionals which teaches child and adolescent patient management skills to be used in a residential psychiatric care setting. The introduction to the paper describes the basic differences between adult and child psychiatry; behaviors that are abnormal for adults, such as having…
THE USE OF MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMING TO SOLVE CERTAIN PROBLEMS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL TRANSPORTATION.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BOYER, ROSCOE A.
A PROGRAM THAT WOULD DEVISE OPTIMAL ROUTES FOR SCHOOL BUSES WAS DEVELOPED. ONE OF THE TWO MODELS DEVELOPED FOR THIS STUDY, CALLED THE HEURISTIC MODEL, WAS A HAND PROCEDURE BASED ON THE ASSUMPTION THAT, IN AN EFFICIENT SCHOOL BUS SYSTEM, STUDENT MILES SHOULD BE MINIMIZED RATHER THAN BUS MILES. THE OTHER MODEL WAS DESIGNED TO BE USED WITH HIGH SPEED…
Managing Personal Income: Student Problem Book. Family Financial Education Program 1.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.
The student workbook was designed for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. The student guide follows the same format as the teacher's guide and is based on three experiences--understanding checks, using a checking account, and…
If Programs of Study Are the Solution, What Is the Problem?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stone, James R., III
2013-01-01
Programs of study are the most recent in a series of federal efforts to create a more transparent and rational system for school-to-work transition for all youth. The current article places this construct in the context of today's labor market and the new focus on college and career readiness for all students. It then provides evidence…
Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program. Second Edition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crone, Deanne A.; Hawken, Leanne S.; Horner, Robert H.
2010-01-01
This bestselling book has been used in schools across the country to establish efficient and cost-effective systems of Tier II positive behavior support. The Behavior Education Program (BEP) was developed for the approximately 10-15% of students who fail to meet schoolwide disciplinary expectations but do not yet require intensive, individualized…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roque, Lorena; Lurigio, Arthur J.
2009-01-01
From 2003 to 2008, Treatment Alternatives for Safe Communities of Illinois (TASC) implemented the Reducing Risk: Outreach and Pretreatment for Probationers program (RROPP) in Cook County (Chicago), Illinois. The goal of RROPP was to reduce probationers' further penetration into the criminal justice system by increasing participation in substance…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maxwell, Graham S.
1985-01-01
A responsive illuminative approach was used to evaluate a program for training motorcycle riders. This approach provided interaction between evaluators and participants, and attempted to provide a detailed report reflecting stakeholders' views. The design, implementation, and reporting of the evaluation are described, as are implications for…
The Elephants Evaluate: Some Notes on the Problem of Grades in Graduate Creative Writing Programs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peckham, Rachel
2011-01-01
This article takes up the "special strangeness" of grading practices in the graduate creative writing workshop, based on the author's research, personal experience, and interviews with the faculty of her doctoral creative writing program. Using a structure of notes, the author attempts to make sense of the way grades are understood by both teacher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
CANNON, DALE CARTER
A SURVEY WAS CONDUCTED BY MAIL QUESTIONNAIRE TO GATHER DATA ON THE FARM POPULATION OF SAN LUIS OBISPO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, TO GET NAMES OF COMMUNITY LEADERS, AND PROVIDE MOTIVATION FOR EXTENSION PROGRAM PLANNING. THE MEAN AGE OF RESPONDENTS WAS 50, THE LARGE MAJORITY WITH CHILDREN AT HOME, THREE-FOURTHS NATIVE TO CALIFORNIA, ONE-HALF BEING BORN IN…
Using a Problem Solving Model To Revise the Teacher Education Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN. Peabody Coll.
The Department of Teaching and Learning of Peabody College of Vanderbilt University developed a project to strengthen field experiences for elementary/early childhood teacher education students. The project was designed to use current research to revise the laboratory and practica programs, incorporating technology and simulated classroom…
Senier, Laura; Hudson, Benjamin; Fort, Sarah; Hoover, Elizabeth; Tillson, Rebecca; Brown, Phil
2008-07-01
The NIEHS funds several basic and applied research programs, many of which also require research translation or outreach. This paper reports on a project by the Brown University Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP), in which outreach and research translation teams collaborated with state regulatory agency personnel and community activists on a legislative initiative to mitigate the financial impacts of living in a contaminated community. The Environmentally Compromised Home Ownership (ECHO) program makes home equity loans of up to $25,000 available to qualified applicants. This collaboration provides a case study in community engagement and demonstrates how research translation and outreach activities that are clearly differentiated yet well-integrated can improve a suite of basic and applied research. Although engaging diverse constituencies can be difficult community-engaged translation and outreach have the potential to make research findings more useful to communities, address some of the social impacts of contamination, and empower stakeholders to pursue their individual and collectively held goals for remediation. The NIEHS has recently renewed its commitment to community-engaged research and advocacy, making this an optimal time to reflect on how basic research programs that engage stakeholders through research translation and outreach can add value to the overall research enterprise. PMID:18677987
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perry, Justin C.; Dauwalder, Jean Pierre; Bonnett, Heather R.
2009-01-01
This article summarizes 12 presentations in Group 7 of the 2007 joint symposium of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance, Society for Vocational Psychology, and National Career Development Association held in Padua, Italy, that focused on procedures for verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Three…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wignall, Ann
2006-01-01
Depression and externalising behaviour disorders frequently occur together in adolescence and are associated with a marked increase in symptom severity and poorer outcome. Clinical treatment research and early intervention programs for depression have not addressed the specific cognitive and interpersonal deficits associated with comorbidity. This…
Berman, Margit I; Buckey, Jay C; Hull, Jay G; Linardatos, Eftihia; Song, Sueyoung L; McLellan, Robert K; Hegel, Mark T
2014-05-01
Computer-based depression interventions lacking live therapist support have difficulty engaging users. This study evaluated the usability, acceptability, credibility, therapeutic alliance and efficacy of a stand-alone multimedia, interactive, computer-based Problem Solving Treatment program (ePST™) for depression. The program simulated live treatment from an expert PST therapist, and delivered 6 ePST™ sessions over 9weeks. Twenty-nine participants with moderate-severe symptoms received the intervention; 23 completed a minimally adequate dose of ePST™ (at least 4 sessions). Program usability, acceptability, credibility, and therapeutic alliance were assessed at treatment midpoint and endpoint. Depressive symptoms and health-related functioning were assessed at baseline, treatment midpoint (4weeks), and study endpoint (10weeks). Depression outcomes and therapeutic alliance ratings were also compared to previously published research on live PST and computer-based depression therapy. Participants rated the program as highly usable, acceptable, and credible, and reported a therapeutic alliance with the program comparable to that observed in live therapy. Depressive symptoms improved significantly over time. These findings also provide preliminary evidence that ePST™ may be effective as a depression treatment. Larger clinical trials with diverse samples are indicated.
Berman, Margit I.; Jr., Jay C. Buckey; Hull, Jay G.; Linardatos, Eftihia; Song, Sueyoung L.; McLellan, Robert K.; Hegel, Mark T.
2014-01-01
Computer-based depression interventions lacking live therapist support have difficulty engaging users. This study evaluated the usability, acceptability, credibility, therapeutic alliance and efficacy of a stand-alone multimedia, interactive, computer-based Problem Solving Treatment program (ePST™) for depression. The program simulated live treatment from an expert PST therapist, and delivered 6 ePST™ sessions over 9 weeks. Twenty-nine participants with moderate-severe symptoms received the intervention; 23 completed a mini mally adequate dose of ePST™ (at least 4 sessions). Program usability, acceptability, credibility, and therapeutic alliance were assessed at treatment midpoint and endpoint. Depressive symptoms and health-related functioning were assessed at baseline, treatment midpoint (4 weeks), and study endpoint (10 weeks). Depression outcomes and therapeutic alliance ratings were also compared to previously published research on live PST and computer-based depression therapy. Participants rated the program as highly usable, acceptable, and credible, and reported a therapeutic alliance with the program comparable to that observed in live therapy. Depressive symptoms improved significantly over time. These findings also provide preliminary evidence that ePST™ may be effective as a depression treatment. Larger clinical trials with diverse samples are indicated. PMID:24680231
Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.
Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan
2015-01-01
Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing. PMID:26154384
Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach
Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan
2015-01-01
Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number— in an inertialess environment—is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the “belly phase,” peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing. PMID:26154384
Geometric Mixing, Peristalsis, and the Geometric Phase of the Stomach.
Arrieta, Jorge; Cartwright, Julyan H E; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Piro, Nicolas; Piro, Oreste; Tuval, Idan
2015-01-01
Mixing fluid in a container at low Reynolds number--in an inertialess environment--is not a trivial task. Reciprocating motions merely lead to cycles of mixing and unmixing, so continuous rotation, as used in many technological applications, would appear to be necessary. However, there is another solution: movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion to introduce a geometric phase. We show using journal-bearing flow as a model that such geometric mixing is a general tool for using deformable boundaries that return to the same position to mix fluid at low Reynolds number. We then simulate a biological example: we show that mixing in the stomach functions because of the "belly phase," peristaltic movement of the walls in a cyclical fashion introduces a geometric phase that avoids unmixing.
The application of MINIQUASI to thermal program boundary and initial value problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1974-01-01
The feasibility of applying the solution techniques of Miniquasi to the set of equations which govern a thermoregulatory model is investigated. For solving nonlinear equations and/or boundary conditions, a Taylor Series expansion is required for linearization of both equations and boundary conditions. The solutions are iterative and in each iteration, a problem like the linear case is solved. It is shown that Miniquasi cannot be applied to the thermoregulatory model as originally planned.
Problems and programming for analysis of IUE high resolution data for variability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grady, C. A.
1981-01-01
Observations of variability in stellar winds provide an important probe of their dynamics. It is crucial however to know that any variability seen in a data set can be clearly attributed to the star and not to instrumental or data processing effects. In the course of analysis of IUE high resolution data of alpha Cam and other O, B and Wolf-Rayet stars several effects were found which cause spurious variability or spurious spectral features in our data. Programming was developed to partially compensate for these effects using the Interactive Data language (IDL) on the LASP PDP 11/34. Use of an interactive language such as IDL is particularly suited to analysis of variability data as it permits use of efficient programs coupled with the judgement of the scientist at each stage of processing.
Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.
1996-05-01
The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.
Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; Hamed, Hosam; Salah, Tarek; Elsarraf, Waleed; Elshobary, Mohamed; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Shehta, Ahmed; Fathy, Omar; Ezzat, Helmy; Yassen, Amr; Elmorshedi, Mohamed; Elsaadany, Mohamed; Shiha, Usama
2014-10-01
We report our experience with potential donors for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which is the first report from an area where there is no legalized deceased donation program. This is a single center retrospective analysis of potential living donors (n = 1004) between May 2004 and December 2012. This report focuses on the analysis of causes, duration, cost, and various implications of donor exclusion (n = 792). Most of the transplant candidates (82.3%) had an experience with more than one excluded donor (median = 3). Some recipients travelled abroad for a deceased donor transplant (n = 12) and some died before finding a suitable donor (n = 14). The evaluation of an excluded donor is a time-consuming process (median = 3 d, range 1 d to 47 d). It is also a costly process with a median cost of approximately 70 USD (range 35 USD to 885 USD). From these results, living donor exclusion has negative implications on the patients and transplant program with ethical dilemmas and an economic impact. Many strategies are adopted by other centers to expand the donor pool; however, they are not all applicable in our locality. We conclude that an active legalized deceased donor transplantation program is necessary to overcome the shortage of available liver grafts in Egypt. PMID:25309092
Al-Sahaf, Harith; Zhang, Mengjie; Johnston, Mark
2016-01-01
In the computer vision and pattern recognition fields, image classification represents an important yet difficult task. It is a challenge to build effective computer models to replicate the remarkable ability of the human visual system, which relies on only one or a few instances to learn a completely new class or an object of a class. Recently we proposed two genetic programming (GP) methods, one-shot GP and compound-GP, that aim to evolve a program for the task of binary classification in images. The two methods are designed to use only one or a few instances per class to evolve the model. In this study, we investigate these two methods in terms of performance, robustness, and complexity of the evolved programs. We use ten data sets that vary in difficulty to evaluate these two methods. We also compare them with two other GP and six non-GP methods. The results show that one-shot GP and compound-GP outperform or achieve results comparable to competitor methods. Moreover, the features extracted by these two methods improve the performance of other classifiers with handcrafted features and those extracted by a recently developed GP-based method in most cases.
Geometric modeling and analysis of large latticed surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nayfeh, A. H.; Hefzy, M. S.
1980-01-01
The application of geometrical schemes, similar to geodesic domes, to large spherical antenna reflectors was investigated. The shape and size of flat segmented latticed surfaces which approximate general shells of revolution, and in particular spherical and paraboloidal reflective surfaces, were determined. The extensive mathematical and computational geometric analyses of the reflector resulted in the development of a general purpose computer program capable of generating the complete design parameters of the dish. The program also includes a graphical self contained subroutine for graphic display of the required design.
Williams, Bev; Day, Rene A
2009-01-01
Employer evaluation of graduates is a critical component of professional program evaluation and contributes a viewpoint rarely reported in the literature. It has been proposed that Problem-Based Learning (PBL) enhances knowledge acquisition, clinical competency and professional behavior. Students assume the role of a registered nurse as they work through real practice scenarios on a daily basis in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to explore employer perceptions of graduates' knowledge, competency and professionalism, following completion of a PBL program. Nurse employers (N=53) participated in 10 focus group discussions. Four main themes were derived from employer descriptions of their experience with PBL graduates: still rough around the edges, we want them to succeed, a new generation of practitioner, and potential to lead the profession into the future. Please add what the implications of these findings are to nursing education.
Geometrical modelling of textile reinforcements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pastore, Christopher M.; Birger, Alexander B.; Clyburn, Eugene
1995-01-01
The mechanical properties of textile composites are dictated by the arrangement of yarns contained with the material. Thus to develop a comprehensive understanding of the performance of these materials, it is necessary to develop a geometrical model of the fabric structure. This task is quite complex, as the fabric is made form highly flexible yarn systems which experience a certain degree of compressability. Furthermore there are tremendous forces acting on the fabric during densification typically resulting in yarn displacement and misorientation. The objective of this work is to develop a methodology for characterizing the geometry of yarns within a fabric structure including experimental techniques for evaluating these models. Furthermore, some applications of these geometric results to mechanical prediction models are demonstrated. Although more costly than its predecessors, the present analysis is based on the detailed architecture developed by one of the authors and his colleagues and accounts for many of the geometric complexities that other analyses ignore.
Guiding light via geometric phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slussarenko, Sergei; Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Piccirillo, Bruno; Santamato, Enrico; Assanto, Gaetano; Marrucci, Lorenzo
2016-09-01
All known methods for transverse confinement and guidance of light rely on modification of the refractive index, that is, on the scalar properties of electromagnetic radiation. Here, we disclose the concept of a dielectric waveguide that exploits vectorial spin-orbit interactions of light and the resulting geometric phases. The approach relies on the use of anisotropic media with an optic axis that lies orthogonal to the propagation direction but is spatially modulated, so that the refractive index remains constant everywhere. A spin-controlled cumulative phase distortion is imposed on the beam, balancing diffraction for a specific polarization. As well as theoretical analysis, we present an experimental demonstration of the guidance using a series of discrete geometric-phase lenses made from liquid crystal. Our findings show that geometric phases may determine the optical guiding behaviour well beyond a Rayleigh length, paving the way to a new class of photonic devices. The concept is applicable to the whole electromagnetic spectrum.
Geometric scalar theory of gravity
Novello, M.; Bittencourt, E.; Goulart, E.; Salim, J.M.; Toniato, J.D.; Moschella, U. E-mail: eduhsb@cbpf.br E-mail: egoulart@cbpf.br E-mail: toniato@cbpf.br
2013-06-01
We present a geometric scalar theory of gravity. Our proposal will be described using the ''background field method'' introduced by Gupta, Feynman, Deser and others as a field theory formulation of general relativity. We analyze previous criticisms against scalar gravity and show how the present proposal avoids these difficulties. This concerns not only the theoretical complaints but also those related to observations. In particular, we show that the widespread belief of the conjecture that the source of scalar gravity must be the trace of the energy-momentum tensor — which is one of the main difficulties to couple gravity with electromagnetic phenomenon in previous models — does not apply to our geometric scalar theory. From the very beginning this is not a special relativistic scalar gravity. The adjective ''geometric'' pinpoints its similarity with general relativity: this is a metric theory of gravity. Some consequences of this new scalar theory are explored.
Guiding light via geometric phases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slussarenko, Sergei; Alberucci, Alessandro; Jisha, Chandroth P.; Piccirillo, Bruno; Santamato, Enrico; Assanto, Gaetano; Marrucci, Lorenzo
2016-09-01
All known methods for transverse confinement and guidance of light rely on modification of the refractive index, that is, on the scalar properties of electromagnetic radiation. Here, we disclose the concept of a dielectric waveguide that exploits vectorial spin–orbit interactions of light and the resulting geometric phases. The approach relies on the use of anisotropic media with an optic axis that lies orthogonal to the propagation direction but is spatially modulated, so that the refractive index remains constant everywhere. A spin-controlled cumulative phase distortion is imposed on the beam, balancing diffraction for a specific polarization. As well as theoretical analysis, we present an experimental demonstration of the guidance using a series of discrete geometric-phase lenses made from liquid crystal. Our findings show that geometric phases may determine the optical guiding behaviour well beyond a Rayleigh length, paving the way to a new class of photonic devices. The concept is applicable to the whole electromagnetic spectrum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Richardson, Susanna, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.
This collection of papers focuses on practical approaches to resolving behavior problems in the Australian school system. The papers are divided into four general categories: perspectives on behavior problems, focusing on families, schools and system initiatives, and programs in special settings. The papers include: (1) "Beyond Punishment," by…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Katherine C.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw
1988-01-01
This project has two objectives. The first is to determine whether linear programming techniques can improve performance when handling design optimization problems with a large number of design variables and constraints relative to the feasible directions algorithm. The second purpose is to determine whether using the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (KS) function to replace the constraints with one constraint will reduce the cost of total optimization. Comparisons are made using solutions obtained with linear and non-linear methods. The results indicate that there is no cost saving using the linear method or in using the KS function to replace constraints.
An informal introduction to programming data processing problems in a functional language
Senichkin, V.I.
1994-07-01
The basic idea behind the proposed language CORAL (Conceptual Recursive Applicative Language) is that of functional programming and the functional model of data. The type system of the language includes abstraction, classification, generalization, and aggregation. The set of built-in type constructors makes it possible to describe set-theoretic operations over extensional types. The basis functions are defined as functions over lists, which are the only form of data organization in the language. The computational model of the language, which is based on notions of polymorphism and inheritance and treats data types as objects, is adequate to the needs of data processing in applications with complex relations between objects.
OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER: IS IT A PROBLEM OF COMPLEX MOTOR PROGRAMMING?*
Khanna, Sumant; Mukundan, C.R.; Channabasavanna, S.M.
1987-01-01
SUMMARY 44 subjects with Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and 40 normals were compared using an experimental paradigm involving recording of the bereitschaftspotential. A decreased onset latency and increased amplitude was found in the OCD sample as compared to normals. A neurophysiological substrate for the bereitschaftspotential has been proposed. The implications of these findings in OCD as compared to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, and for a focal neuro-physiological dysfunction have also been discussed. The findings of this study implicate a dysfunction in complex motor programming in OCD, with the possibility of this dysfunction being in the prefrontal area. PMID:21927207
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reese, O. W.
1972-01-01
The numerical calculation is described of the steady-state flow of electrons in an axisymmetric, spherical, electrostatic collector for a range of boundary conditions. The trajectory equations of motion are solved alternately with Poisson's equation for the potential field until convergence is achieved. A direct (noniterative) numerical technique is used to obtain the solution to Poisson's equation. Space charge effects are included for initial current densities as large as 100 A/sq cm. Ways of dealing successfully with the difficulties associated with these high densities are discussed. A description of the mathematical model, a discussion of numerical techniques, results from two typical runs, and the FORTRAN computer program are included.
A space instrument for fundamental materials science problems - The Mephisto program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rouzaud, A.; Favier, J. J.; Thevenard, D.
The Mephisto program and the Mephisto instrument, a device offering the possibility of continuous characterization of crystal growth undercooling, are reviewed. The Mephisto instrument allows on-line in situ measurements of the real undercooling of a solidification front using a nonperturbing thermoelectric method; it also allows the on-line supervision of the effect of convective motions on crystal growth. First results obtained during the ground testing of a space mockup are presented, and the accuracy of the results is assessed with respect to the onset of morphological stability and interface response to unsteady perturbations.
The Geometric Solution of Laplace's Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakhoum, Ezzat Gamal
In 1891, J.J. Thomson--the discoverer of the electron--stated a formula that relates the first derivative of the electric field intensity to the mean curvature of an equipotential surface. That formula was later proved by others, but remained unexploited in any practical purpose to this date. This dissertation presents a numerical method based on Thomson's formula for the rapid solution of Laplace's equation, the governing equation of field theory. The presented method is based on geometric construction principles. Specifically, the method uses the concept of representing equipotential surfaces by polynomials for the rapid tracing of these surfaces; and is therefore fundamentally different from previously-known techniques which are based on discretizing the domain or the boundary of the problem. The new method is especially suited for problems which have complicated or irregular boundaries as well as problems in exterior domains. Previously, such types of problems have required a number of computations of O(N.M), where N is the number of points taken on the boundary of the problem and M is the number of points inside the domain at which the solution is to be computed. The new method requires an O(M) computations only; and is therefore significantly faster than the previous techniques. Applications include problems of electrostatics, cosmology, biomedical engineering, nuclear and particle physics, etc.
Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation. PMID:24757433
Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation. PMID:24757433
Duan, Qianqian; Yang, Genke; Xu, Guanglin; Pan, Changchun
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to develop an approximation method for scheduling refinery crude oil operations by taking into consideration the demand uncertainty. In the stochastic model the demand uncertainty is modeled as random variables which follow a joint multivariate distribution with a specific correlation structure. Compared to deterministic models in existing works, the stochastic model can be more practical for optimizing crude oil operations. Using joint chance constraints, the demand uncertainty is treated by specifying proximity level on the satisfaction of product demands. However, the joint chance constraints usually hold strong nonlinearity and consequently, it is still hard to handle it directly. In this paper, an approximation method combines a relax-and-tight technique to approximately transform the joint chance constraints to a serial of parameterized linear constraints so that the complicated problem can be attacked iteratively. The basic idea behind this approach is to approximate, as much as possible, nonlinear constraints by a lot of easily handled linear constraints which will lead to a well balance between the problem complexity and tractability. Case studies are conducted to demonstrate the proposed methods. Results show that the operation cost can be reduced effectively compared with the case without considering the demand correlation.
Ad Hoc modeling, expert problem solving, and R&T program evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silverman, B. G.; Liebowitz, J.; Moustakis, V. S.
1983-01-01
A simplified cost and time (SCAT) analysis program utilizing personal-computer technology is presented and demonstrated in the case of the NASA-Goddard end-to-end data system. The difficulties encountered in implementing complex program-selection and evaluation models in the research and technology field are outlined. The prototype SCAT system described here is designed to allow user-friendly ad hoc modeling in real time and at low cost. A worksheet constructed on the computer screen displays the critical parameters and shows how each is affected when one is altered experimentally. In the NASA case, satellite data-output and control requirements, ground-facility data-handling capabilities, and project priorities are intricately interrelated. Scenario studies of the effects of spacecraft phaseout or new spacecraft on throughput and delay parameters are shown. The use of a network of personal computers for higher-level coordination of decision-making processes is suggested, as a complement or alternative to complex large-scale modeling.
Fan, Yurui; Huang, Guohe; Veawab, Amornvadee
2012-01-01
In this study, a generalized fuzzy linear programming (GFLP) method was developed to deal with uncertainties expressed as fuzzy sets that exist in the constraints and objective function. A stepwise interactive algorithm (SIA) was advanced to solve GFLP model and generate solutions expressed as fuzzy sets. To demonstrate its application, the developed GFLP method was applied to a regional sulfur dioxide (SO2) control planning model to identify effective SO2 mitigation polices with a minimized system performance cost under uncertainty. The results were obtained to represent the amount of SO2 allocated to different control measures from different sources. Compared with the conventional interval-parameter linear programming (ILP) approach, the solutions obtained through GFLP were expressed as fuzzy sets, which can provide intervals for the decision variables and objective function, as well as related possibilities. Therefore, the decision makers can make a tradeoff between model stability and the plausibility based on solutions obtained through GFLP and then identify desired policies for SO2-emission control under uncertainty.
Geometrical Optics of Dense Aerosols
Hay, Michael J.; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2013-04-24
Assembling a free-standing, sharp-edged slab of homogeneous material that is much denser than gas, but much more rare ed than a solid, is an outstanding technological challenge. The solution may lie in focusing a dense aerosol to assume this geometry. However, whereas the geometrical optics of dilute aerosols is a well-developed fi eld, the dense aerosol limit is mostly unexplored. Yet controlling the geometrical optics of dense aerosols is necessary in preparing such a material slab. Focusing dense aerosols is shown here to be possible, but the nite particle density reduces the eff ective Stokes number of the flow, a critical result for controlled focusing. __________________________________________________
Geometrical spin symmetry and spin
Pestov, I. B.
2011-07-15
Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.
Geometric validation plan for ASTER
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Ken; Fujisada, Hiroyuki
1998-12-01
The ASTER system is a multispectral imager which covers a spectral range from visible to thermal infrared light by combining three subsystems composed of four telescopes. To ensure the high-quality data products concerning to the geolocation and band-to-band matching performance, the geometric registration is needed. This paper describes the geometric validation procedure for a multi-telescope imager with a cross-track pointing function. The strategy for the maintenance of database files and the preparation a GCP library is also shown.
Teleportation of geometric structures in 3D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; Orłowski, Łukasz
2009-04-01
The simplest quantum teleportation algorithms can be represented in geometric terms in spaces of dimensions 3 (for real state vectors) and 4 (for complex state vectors). The geometric representation is based on geometric-algebra coding, a geometric alternative to the tensor-product coding typical of quantum mechanics. We discuss all the elementary ingredients of the geometric version of the algorithm: geometric analogs of states and controlled Pauli gates. A fully geometric presentation is possible if one employs a nonstandard representation of directed magnitudes, formulated in terms of colors defined via stereographic projection of a color wheel, and not by means of directed volumes.
A geometric approach to quantum state separation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagan, E.; Yerokhin, V.; Shehu, A.; Feldman, E.; Bergou, J. A.
2015-12-01
Probabilistic quantum state transformations can be characterized by the degree of state separation they provide. This, in turn, sets limits on the success rate of these transformations. We consider optimum state separation of two known pure states in the general case where the known states have arbitrary a priori probabilities. The problem is formulated from a geometric perspective and shown to be equivalent to the problem of finding tangent curves within two families of conics that represent the unitarity constraints and the objective functions to be optimized, respectively. We present the corresponding analytical solutions in various forms. In the limit of perfect state separation, which is equivalent to unambiguous state discrimination, the solution exhibits a phenomenon analogous to a second order symmetry breaking phase transition. We also propose a linear optics implementation of separation which is based on the dual rail representation of qubits and single-photon multiport interferometry.
Gas dynamics/furnace implosion problems validation and application of the EPRI program DUCSYS
Forrest, T.J.; Green, C.H.; Rea, J.
1995-06-01
Considerable Utility concern about power plant boiler implosion risks has recently resurfaced. This results largely from the current trend towards retrofitting environmental equipment to fossil fuel fired boilers, an action which is often accompanied by an increase in the risk faced, under fault conditions, from large negative pressure excursions in the furnace and its associated ductwork. Accompanying this trend has been a tightening of industry regulations with the publishing of new stricter guidelines on the prevention of furnace implosions and explosions by the National Fire Protection Association. The combined effect has been the need to assess boiler implosion risks as an integral part of fossil fuel fired boiler retro-fit design studies. The DUCSYS gas systems dynamics modelling system, which is currently being developed under contract by PowerGen, is EPRI`s response to this Utility demand. This paper describes briefly the physical processes involved in the implosion phenomenon, and discusses the main characteristics of the DUCSYS modeling system. Following this, the application of DUCSYS to study three power plant problems is discussed. The main study discusses the conversion of an existing Oil fired boiler to burn Orimulsion, a technology in which PowerGen leads the World. This application involves the retro-fitting of an electrostatic precipitator to the plant. DUCSYS is not however, purely a system for investigation of furnace implosion risks, but is currently being developed by PowerGen, on behalf of EPRI, as a general power plant has systems dynamics modeling system. The final two application studies consider the application of DUCSYS to two more general gas dynamics problems.
Heinrichs, Nina; Bertram, Heike; Kuschel, Annett; Hahlweg, Kurt
2005-12-01
Despite the potential of parent training as a prevention and behavioral family intervention strategy, there are a number of important issues related to implementation (e.g., recruitment and retention of families). This paper presents recruitment and retention data from families enrolling in a randomized controlled universal prevention trial for child behavior problems conducted in Germany. The recruitment rate averaged 31% (general project participation), with families of lower socioeconomic status (SES) participating at a lower rate. Project-declining families most often reported intrusion of privacy as their primary concern. In contrast, once parents were enrolled in the project, participation among those randomized to the parent training group averaged 77% (program/intervention participation); non-participation was mostly due to logistical issues. Parents accepting the offer of parent training were more likely to report child behavior problems than did declining parents. Although parents from more disadvantaged areas had a lower overall level of participation in the project once recruited, parents with children having higher levels of behavior problems indeed were more likely to participate in the intervention. Different recruitment methods may be required to engage high-risk families from socioeconomically disadvantaged areas to further improve community-level impact on child mental health.
A discrete geometric approach to solving time independent Schroedinger equation
Specogna, Ruben; Trevisan, Francesco
2011-02-20
The time independent Schroedinger equation stems from quantum theory axioms as a partial differential equation. This work aims at providing a novel discrete geometric formulation of this equation in terms of integral variables associated with precise geometric elements of a pair of three-dimensional interlocked grids, one of them based on tetrahedra. We will deduce, in a purely geometric way, a computationally efficient discrete counterpart of the time independent Schroedinger equation in terms of a standard symmetric eigenvalue problem. Moreover boundary and interface conditions together with non homogeneity and anisotropy of the media involved are accounted for in a straightforward manner. This approach yields to a sensible computational advantage with respect to the finite element method, where a generalized eigenvalue problem has to be solved instead. Such a modeling tool can be used for analyzing a number of quantum phenomena in modern nano-structured devices, where the accounting of the real 3D geometry is a crucial issue.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hague, D. S.; Rozendaal, H. L.
1977-01-01
Program NSEG is a rapid mission analysis code based on the use of approximate flight path equations of motion. Equation form varies with the segment type, for example, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, and decelerations. Realistic and detailed vehicle characteristics are specified in tabular form. In addition to its mission performance calculation capabilities, the code also contains extensive flight envelope performance mapping capabilities. For example, rate-of-climb, turn rates, and energy maneuverability parameter values may be mapped in the Mach-altitude plane. Approximate take off and landing analyses are also performed. At high speeds, centrifugal lift effects are accounted for. Extensive turbojet and ramjet engine scaling procedures are incorporated in the code.
Vergence, Vision, and Geometric Optics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keating, Michael P.
1975-01-01
Provides a definition of vergence in terms of the curvature of the wave fronts, and gives examples to illustrate the advantages of this approach. The vergence treatment of geometrical optics provides both conceptual and algebraic advantages, particularly for the life science student, over the traditional object distance-image distance-focal length…
Geometric quantum noise of spin.
Shnirman, Alexander; Gefen, Yuval; Saha, Arijit; Burmistrov, Igor S; Kiselev, Mikhail N; Altland, Alexander
2015-05-01
The presence of geometric phases is known to affect the dynamics of the systems involved. Here, we consider a quantum degree of freedom, moving in a dissipative environment, whose dynamics is described by a Langevin equation with quantum noise. We show that geometric phases enter the stochastic noise terms. Specifically, we consider small ferromagnetic particles (nanomagnets) or quantum dots close to Stoner instability, and investigate the dynamics of the total magnetization in the presence of tunneling coupling to the metallic leads. We generalize the Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action and the corresponding semiclassical equations of motion from the U(1) case of the charge degree of freedom to the SU(2) case of the magnetization. The Langevin forces (torques) in these equations are strongly influenced by the geometric phase. As a first but nontrivial application, we predict low temperature quantum diffusion of the magnetization on the Bloch sphere, which is governed by the geometric phase. We propose a protocol for experimental observation of this phenomenon.
Celestial mechanics with geometric algebra
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hestenes, D.
1983-01-01
Geometric algebra is introduced as a general tool for Celestial Mechanics. A general method for handling finite rotations and rotational kinematics is presented. The constants of Kepler motion are derived and manipulated in a new way. A new spinor formulation of perturbation theory is developed.
The geometric oblateness of Uranus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Franklin, F. A.; Avis, C. C.; Colombo, G.; Shapiro, I. I.
1980-01-01
The paper considers photographs of Uranus obtained by the Stratoscope II balloon-borne telescope in 1970. These data have been redigitized and reanalyzed, and the geometric oblateness of Uranus was determined from the isophotes near the limb using an expression in terms of the equatorial and polar radii.
Platonic Symmetry and Geometric Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zsombor-Murray, Paul
2007-01-01
Cubic symmetry is used to build the other four Platonic solids and some formalism from classical geometry is introduced. Initially, the approach is via geometric construction, e.g., the "golden ratio" is necessary to construct an icosahedron with pentagonal faces. Then conventional elementary vector algebra is used to extract quantitative…
Modal Substructuring of Geometrically Nonlinear Finite-Element Models
Kuether, Robert J.; Allen, Matthew S.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.
2016-02-01
The efficiency of a modal substructuring method depends on the component modes used to reduce each subcomponent model. Methods such as Craig–Bampton have been used extensively to reduce linear finite-element models with thousands or even millions of degrees of freedom down orders of magnitude while maintaining acceptable accuracy. A novel reduction method is proposed here for geometrically nonlinear finite-element models using the fixed-interface and constraint modes of the linearized system to reduce each subcomponent model. The geometric nonlinearity requires an additional cubic and quadratic polynomial function in the modal equations, and the nonlinear stiffness coefficients are determined by applying amore » series of static loads and using the finite-element code to compute the response. The geometrically nonlinear, reduced modal equations for each subcomponent are then coupled by satisfying compatibility and force equilibrium. This modal substructuring approach is an extension of the Craig–Bampton method and is readily applied to geometrically nonlinear models built directly within commercial finite-element packages. The efficiency of this new approach is demonstrated on two example problems: one that couples two geometrically nonlinear beams at a shared rotational degree of freedom, and another that couples an axial spring element to the axial degree of freedom of a geometrically nonlinear beam. The nonlinear normal modes of the assembled models are compared with those of a truth model to assess the accuracy of the novel modal substructuring approach.« less
Capeding, L J; Jimena, M E
1995-01-01
The study focuses on the pre-dentistry program of the University of the Philippines Manila. It presents a demographic profile of its students and also the issues and problems they are confronted with. The results reveal that a typical pre-dentistry student is female who hails from Metro Manila and graduated with certain honors from a private high school. While in UP Manila, the pre-dentistry student is confronted with problems on career decisions and coping with the college's academic standard. Apparently, these problems stem from the fact that his/her preferred choice of course in the University of the Philippines College Admission Test (UPCAT) is Physical Therapy, and BS Biology. In UP Manila, the pre-dentistry student finds Mathematics, Chemistry, and Physics difficult to pass or obtain high grades. Admission into the dental proper program is perceived to be too competitive due to the limited slots available in the first year proper program. Moreover, the applicant has to meet the general weighted average (GWA), pass the dexterity test and interview by the Admission Committee of the college. The study further reveals the student's desire to move out from the college when the opportunity to shift comes along. The following are their reasons for shifting. Firstly, they do not want to be dentists. Secondly, even if they wanted to become dentists, they are not assured of slots in the Dentistry proper. Thirdly, they want to shift to their preferred courses as soon as possible. To deal with these issues, the study suggests that the administration should consider the following recommendations: (1) the DDM program should be turned to a quota course in the UPCAT in order to discourage applicants who are not interested in the course and to avoid the so-called "back-door-entry" to UP.; (2) the college should implement the selective admission process as early as first year pre-dentistry. (3) the college should consider lateral entry of qualified Bachelor of Science degree
MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide
Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H.
1996-09-01
This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maddrey, Elizabeth
Research in academia and industry continues to identify a decline in enrollment in computer science. One major component of this decline in enrollment is a shortage of female students. The primary reasons for the gender gap presented in the research include lack of computer experience prior to their first year in college, misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, lack of female mentors and role models, subtle discriminations in the classroom, and lack of self-confidence (Pollock, McCoy, Carberry, Hundigopal, & You, 2004). Male students are also leaving the field due to misconceptions about the field, negative cultural stereotypes, and a lack of self-confidence. Analysis of first year attrition revealed that one of the major challenges faced by students of both genders is a lack of problem-solving skills (Beaubouef, Lucas & Howatt, 2001; Olsen, 2005; Paxton & Mumey, 2001). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether specific, non-mathematical problem-solving instruction as part of introductory programming courses significantly increased computer programming self-efficacy and achievement of students. The results of this study showed that students in the experimental group had significantly higher achievement than students in the control group. While this shows statistical significance, due to the effect size and disordinal nature of the data between groups, care has to be taken in its interpretation. The study did not show significantly higher programming self-efficacy among the experimental students. There was not enough data collected to statistically analyze the effect of the treatment on self-efficacy and achievement by gender. However, differences in means were observed between the gender groups, with females in the experimental group demonstrating a higher than average degree of self-efficacy when compared with males in the experimental group and both genders in the control group. These results suggest that the treatment from this
Geometric hashing and object recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stiller, Peter F.; Huber, Birkett
1999-09-01
We discuss a new geometric hashing method for searching large databases of 2D images (or 3D objects) to match a query built from geometric information presented by a single 3D object (or single 2D image). The goal is to rapidly determine a small subset of the images that potentially contain a view of the given object (or a small set of objects that potentially match the item in the image). Since this must be accomplished independent of the pose of the object, the objects and images, which are characterized by configurations of geometric features such as points, lines and/or conics, must be treated using a viewpoint invariant formulation. We are therefore forced to characterize these configurations in terms of their 3D and 2D geometric invariants. The crucial relationship between the 3D geometry and its 'residual' in 2D is expressible as a correspondence (in the sense of algebraic geometry). Computing a set of generating equations for the ideal of this correspondence gives a complete characterization of the view of independent relationships between an object and all of its possible images. Once a set of generators is in hand, it can be used to devise efficient recognition algorithms and to give an efficient geometric hashing scheme. This requires exploiting the form and symmetry of the equations. The result is a multidimensional access scheme whose efficiency we examine. Several potential directions for improving this scheme are also discussed. Finally, in a brief appendix, we discuss an alternative approach to invariants for generalized perspective that replaces the standard invariants by a subvariety of a Grassmannian. The advantage of this is that one can circumvent many annoying general position assumptions and arrive at invariant equations (in the Plucker coordinates) that are more numerically robust in applications.
Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Nitta, Yoshio
2011-07-04
It is not certain whether graduate-entry program (GEP) or non-graduate-entry program (non-GEP) in medical education is desirable to foster excellent medical physicians in Japan. In order to clarify the present state and problems of GEP, we visited 27 national medical schools which have introduced limited term college graduate-entry program and discussed with the deans, the education committee and administration affairs.GEP students are elder and usually study harder than regular non-GEP course students. Therefore, they got the higher grades at 1-2 classes of GEP course than the regular non-GEP course students. However, some GEP students lost motivation to study medicine and got poor grades at higher class. There was no definite difference of the final grades at the graduation between GEP and non-GEP students. Most of GEP students became medical practitioners and few students chose physician scientist majoring in basic medicine.We did not find any advantage of GEP compared with regular non-GEP. The results show that the introduction of GEP throughout Japan should be discussed carefully.
Li, Shuai; Li, Yangming; Wang, Zheng
2013-03-01
This paper presents a class of recurrent neural networks to solve quadratic programming problems. Different from most existing recurrent neural networks for solving quadratic programming problems, the proposed neural network model converges in finite time and the activation function is not required to be a hard-limiting function for finite convergence time. The stability, finite-time convergence property and the optimality of the proposed neural network for solving the original quadratic programming problem are proven in theory. Extensive simulations are performed to evaluate the performance of the neural network with different parameters. In addition, the proposed neural network is applied to solving the k-winner-take-all (k-WTA) problem. Both theoretical analysis and numerical simulations validate the effectiveness of our method for solving the k-WTA problem.
Geometric Aspects of Force Controllability for a Swimming Model
Khapalov, A. Y.
2008-02-15
We study controllability properties (swimming capabilities) of a mathematical model of an abstract object which 'swims' in the 2-D Stokes fluid. Our goal is to investigate how the geometric shape of this object affects the forces acting upon it. Such problems are of interest in biology and engineering applications dealing with propulsion systems in fluids.
Some Interesting and Thought-Provoking Geometric Fallacies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sultan, Alan
2007-01-01
In this article, the author presents some interesting geometric fallacies that were used in a problem-solving course for preservice high school mathematics teachers. He states that presenting these fallacies in ordinary math classes can enrich the class by making the students think hard about both the theorems themselves and the steps in the proof…
Geometric and Algebraic Approaches in the Concept of Complex Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Panaoura, A.; Elia, I.; Gagatsis, A.; Giatilis, G.-P.
2006-01-01
This study explores pupils' performance and processes in tasks involving equations and inequalities of complex numbers requiring conversions from a geometric representation to an algebraic representation and conversions in the reverse direction, and also in complex numbers problem solving. Data were collected from 95 pupils of the final grade from…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lyon, Harold C.; And Others
1992-01-01
The computer-based PlanAlyzer program was designed to teach clinical diagnosis to medical students, taking into account several characteristics common to the clinical problem solver: limited capacity for short-term memory; use of heuristic strategies; sequential information seeking; and problem conceptualization. Six years of development and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hanisch, Charlotte; Hautmann, Christopher; Plück, Julia; Eichelberger, Ilka; Döpfner, Manfred
2014-01-01
Background: Our indicated Prevention program for preschool children with Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP) demonstrated improved parenting and child problem behavior in a randomized controlled efficacy trial and in a study with an effectiveness design. The aim of the present analysis of data from the randomized controlled trial was to identify…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Springer, Benjamin James
2012-01-01
The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the Superhero Social Skills program in increasing the social engagement skills and decreasing the aggressive behavior of students with externalizing behavior problems as implemented by a resource teacher. There have been no empirical evaluations of the Superhero Social Skills program as implemented…