Science.gov

Sample records for geophysical logging technology

  1. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. )

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  2. Geophysical logs of selected wells in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This report consists of geophysical well logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The geophysical logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Results of the geohydrologic study are discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  3. Lithologic logs and geophysical logs from test drilling in Palm Beach County, Florida, since 1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swayze, Leo J.; McGovern, Michael C.; Fischer, John N.

    1980-01-01

    Test-hole data that may be used to determine the hydrogeology of the zone of high permeability in Palm Beach County, Fla., are presented. Lithologic logs from 46 test wells and geophysical logs from 40 test wells are contained in this report. (USGS)

  4. User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

    1983-02-01

    Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

  5. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  6. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  7. An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

  8. Well construction, lithology, and geophysical logs for boreholes in Bear Creek Valley near Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Z.C.; Hanchar, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four wells were constructed at nine sites at Bear Creek Valley to provide geologic and hydrologic information. Lithologic samples and suits of geophysical logs were obtained from the deepest boreholes at six of the sites. Two of these boreholes at the base of Chestnut Ridge were completed in the Maynardville Limestone and two were completed in the Nolichucky Shale. Two boreholes along Pine Ridge were completed in the Rome Formation. Zones of similar lithology within a borehole were delineated from rock cutting refined by examination of geophysical logs. The contact between the Maynardville Limestone and Nolichucky Shale was identified in two of the boreholes. Fractures and cavities were readily identifiable on the acoustic-televiewer and caliper logs. Distinct water-bearing intervals were also identified from the temperature, fluid resistance, and resistivity logs. Depths at which the drilling encounterd a thrust were identified in two boreholes in the Rome Formation from both rock cutting and geophysical logs. (USGS)

  9. A positioning and data logging system for surface geophysical surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Blair, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) developed at ORNL is being adapted to work with two commercially available geophysical instruments: a magnetometer and an EM31 terrain conductivity meter. Geophysical surveys have proven an important preliminary step in investigating hazardous waste sites. Magnetometers and terrain conductivity meters are used to locate buried drums, trenches, conductive contaminant plumes and map regional changes in geology. About half the field time of a typical geophysical investigation is spent surveying the position of the grid points at which the measurements will be made. Additional time is lost and errors may be made recording instrument values in field notebooks and transcribing the data to a computer. Developed for gamma radiation surveys, the USRAD system keeps track of the surveyor's position automatically by triangulating on an ultrasonic transmitter carried in a backpack. The backpack also contains a radio transmitter that sends the instrument's reading coincident with the ultrasonic pulse. The surveyor's position and the instrument's reading are recorded by a portable computer which can plot the data to check the survey's progress. Electronic files are stored in a form compatible with AutoCAD to speed report writing. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Geophysical Log Database for the Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hart, Rheannon M.; Clark, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    The Mississippi Embayment Regional Aquifer Study (MERAS) is an investigation of ground-water availability and sustainability within the Mississippi embayment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program. The MERAS area consists of approximately 70,000 square miles and encompasses parts of eight states including Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. More than 2,600 geophysical logs of test holes and wells within the MERAS area were compiled into a database and were used to develop a digital hydrogeologic framework from land surface to the top of the Midway Group of upper Paleocene age. The purpose of this report is to document, present, and summarize the geophysical log database, as well as to preserve the geophysical logs in a digital image format for online access.

  11. Use of natural gamma-ray geophysical logs for SWAT water table parameter estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary soil and sub-soil hydraulic parameter estimates needed for SWAT simulations to determine sub-surface water movement were collected using downhole geophysical measurements. Gamma-ray logs are useful for distingishing sandstone from shales by measuring natural-gamma radiation emitted from ...

  12. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  13. Geophysical well log analysis of fractured granitic rocks at Atikokan, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two boreholes, drilled to approximate depths of 750 and 1,260 m in a granitic intrusion located near Atikokan, Ontario, were studied by obtaining a full suite of conventional borehole geophysical logs. In addition, selected intervals in these boreholes were logged with a borehole acoustic televiewer that produces a high-resolution image of the borehole wall, an acoustic waveform-logging system using 34-kiloHertz magnetostrictive and 5-kiloHertz sparker sources, and a highly sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter. Emphasis was on identifying and characterizing fracture zones that represent groundwater conduits in deeper portions of the granite, and on characterizing the properties of the largest intervals of unfractured granite. Major fracture zones were indicated by correlating geophysical log anomalies detected on the suite of conventional logs (unpublished data from Atomic Energy of Canada). However, several other anomalies, were identified as mafic intrusions of approximately the same thickness as major fracture zones. Geophysical log anomalies were compared for all major fracture zones that could serve as significant groundwater conduits, and fracture zone permeability is estimated on the basis of acoustic tube-wave attenuation in these intervals. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at depths below 1,000 m in the deeper well indicate that most of the few fractures identified on core at these depths do not remain open enough under in situ conditions to produce detectable anomalies in acoustic refraction. Flowmeter data indicate that some groundwater circulation occurs in the upper portion of both boreholes. Water in the shallower of the two holes was observed to flow at 2.0 L/min; most of this flow entered the borehole at a depth < 25 m, and no flow occurred below a depth of 100 m. Downflow at rates < 0.5 L/min was determined to enter the deeper borehole within 20 m of the surface, and to exist at various fractures down to a depth of 250 m. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Geophysical logs for selected wells in the Picher Field, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.; Thomas, Tom B.; Overton, Myles D.; Goemaat, Robert L.; Havens, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. The Roubidoux aquifer may be subject to contamination from abandoned lead and zinc mines of the Picher field. Water in flooded underground mines contains large concentrations of iron, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The contaminated water may migrate from the mines to the Roubidoux aquifer through abandoned water wells in the Picher field. In late 1984, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board began to locate abandoned wells that might be serving as conduits for the migration of contaminants from the abandoned mines. These wells were cleared of debris and plugged. A total of 66 wells had been located, cleared, and plugged by July 1985. In cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey took advantage of the opportunity to obtain geophysical data in the study area and provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board with data that might be useful during the well-plugging operation. Geophysical logs obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented in this report. The geophysical logs include hole diameter, normal, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs. Depths logged range from 145 to 1,344 feet.

  15. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs at the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund site, Mercer County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    On April 14?15, 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in five open-borehole wells in and adjacent to the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund Site, Mercer County, Pa. Geophysical-logging tools used included caliper, natural gamma, single-point resistance, fluid temperature, and heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to determine casing depth, locate subsurface fractures, identify water-bearing fractures, and identify and measure direction and rate of vertical flow within the borehole. The results of the geophysical logging were used to determine the placement of borehole screens, which allows monitoring of water levels and sampling of water-bearing zones so that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can conduct an investigation of contaminant movement in the fractured bedrock. Water-bearing zones were identified in three of five boreholes at depths ranging from 46 to 119 feet below land surface. Borehole MR-3310 (MW03D) showed upward vertical flow from 71 to 74 feet below land surface to a receiving zone at 63-68 feet below land surface, permitting potential movement of ground water, and possibly contaminants, from deep to shallow zones. No vertical flow was measured in the other four boreholes.

  16. Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

  17. Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

  18. Automated recognition of stratigraphic marker shales from geophysical logs in iron ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silversides, Katherine; Melkumyan, Arman; Wyman, Derek; Hatherly, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The mining of stratiform ore deposits requires a means of determining the location of stratigraphic boundaries. A variety of geophysical logs may provide the required data but, in the case of banded iron formation hosted iron ore deposits in the Hamersley Ranges of Western Australia, only one geophysical log type (natural gamma) is collected for this purpose. The information from these logs is currently processed by slow manual interpretation. In this paper we present an alternative method of automatically identifying recurring stratigraphic markers in natural gamma logs from multiple drill holes. Our approach is demonstrated using natural gamma geophysical logs that contain features corresponding to the presence of stratigraphically important marker shales. The host stratigraphic sequence is highly consistent throughout the Hamersley and the marker shales can therefore be used to identify the stratigraphic location of the banded iron formation (BIF) or BIF hosted ore. The marker shales are identified using Gaussian Processes (GP) trained by either manual or active learning methods and the results are compared to the existing geological interpretation. The manual method involves the user selecting the signatures for improving the library, whereas the active learning method uses the measure of uncertainty provided by the GP to select specific examples for the user to consider for addition. The results demonstrate that both GP methods can identify a feature, but the active learning approach has several benefits over the manual method. These benefits include greater accuracy in the identified signatures, faster library building, and an objective approach for selecting signatures that includes the full range of signatures across a deposit in the library. When using the active learning method, it was found that the current manual interpretation could be replaced in 78.4% of the holes with an accuracy of 95.7%.

  19. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  20. Capability of self-organizing map neural network in geophysical log data classification: Case study from the CCSD-MH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Fang, Sinan; Asim, Shazia; Ziggah, Yao Yevenyo; Deng, Chengxiang; Khan, Nasir

    2015-07-01

    Well log interpretation is one of the prime sources of information for deep lithology in drilling research. Because of the complex geological features of the crystalline metamorphic rocks, more complex nonlinear functional behaviors exist for well log interpretation purposes. Hence, establishing a prediction technology that can accurately interpret/classify well log data in terms of lithology is of major significance. This study, for the first time, explores the application of self-organizing map neural network (SOM) in the classification of metamorphic rocks from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Main Hole (CCSD-MH) log data. For this purpose, a total of 33,326 data points derived from resistivity, P-wave velocity, bulk density, photoelectric absorption capture cross section, gamma ray, potassium content and neutron logs were used as an input pattern to a SOM to classify lithology in five categories: orthogneiss, paragneiss, eclogite, amphibolite and ultramafic rocks. Comparison of SOM results to those of feed-forward neural network (FFNN) was also carried out. The cross-validation method was used to investigate the robustness of the two neural networks in terms of classification accuracy in the context of lithology clustering tasks by sampling rotation. Statistical tests such as student paired samples t-test was carried out to guide in classification decision of the CCSD-MH data. The results of this study have proven that SOM appears to be comparable to FFNN in classifying lithology using geophysical log data from crystalline rocks. This proposed SOM approach can serve as practical alternative technology to be used in drilling research.

  1. Geophysical Technologies to Image Old Mine Works

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaan Hanna; Jim Pfeiffer

    2007-01-15

    ZapataEngineering, Blackhawk Division performed geophysical void detection demonstrations for the US Department of Labor Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). The objective was to advance current state-of-practices of geophysical technologies for detecting underground mine voids. The presence of old mine works above, adjacent, or below an active mine presents major health and safety hazards to miners who have inadvertently cut into locations with such features. In addition, the presence of abandoned mines or voids beneath roadways and highway structures may greatly impact the performance of the transportation infrastructure in terms of cost and public safety. Roads constructed over abandoned mines are subject to potential differential settlement, subsidence, sinkholes, and/or catastrophic collapse. Thus, there is a need to utilize geophysical imaging technologies to accurately locate old mine works. Several surface and borehole geophysical imaging methods and mapping techniques were employed at a known abandoned coal mine in eastern Illinois to investigate which method best map the location and extent of old works. These methods included: 1) high-resolution seismic (HRS) using compressional P-wave (HRPW) and S-wave (HRSW) reflection collected with 3-D techniques; 2) crosshole seismic tomography (XHT); 3) guided waves; 4) reverse vertical seismic profiling (RVSP); and 5) borehole sonar mapping. In addition, several exploration borings were drilled to confirm the presence of the imaged mine voids. The results indicated that the RVSP is the most viable method to accurately detect the subsurface voids with horizontal accuracy of two to five feet. This method was then applied at several other locations in Colorado with various topographic, geologic, and cultural settings for the same purpose. This paper presents the significant results obtained from the geophysical investigations in Illinois.

  2. Hydrologic properties of coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Montana I. Geophysical log analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation designed to assess the implications of coal-bed methane development on water resources for the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene-age coal beds along a 31-km east-west transect within the Tongue River drainage basin. Analysis of geophysical logs obtained in these wells provides insight into the hydrostratigraphic characteristics of the coal and interbedded siliciclastic rocks and their possible interaction with the local stress field. Natural gamma and electrical resistivity logs were effective in distinguishing individual coal beds. Full-waveform sonic logs were used to determine elastic properties of the coal and an attendant estimate of aquifer storage is in reasonable agreement with that computed from a pumping test. Inspection of magnetically oriented images of the borehole walls generated from both acoustic and optical televiewers and comparison with coal cores infer a face cleat orientation of approximately N33??E, in close agreement with regional lineament patterns and the northeast trend of the nearby Tongue River. The local tectonic stress field in this physiographic province as inferred from a nearby 1984 earthquake denotes an oblique strike-slip faulting regime with dominant east-west compression and north-south extension. These stress directions are coincident with those of the primary fracture sets identified from the televiewer logs and also with the principle axes of the drawdown ellipse produced from a complementary aquifer test, but oblique to apparent cleat orientation. Consequently, examination of these geophysical logs within the context of local hydrologic characteristics indicates that transverse transmissivity anisotropy in these coals is predominantly controlled by bedding configuration and perhaps a mechanical response to the contemporary stress field rather than solely by cleat structure.

  3. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  4. Geophysical borehole logging in massive carbonates Whitmoyer Laboratories Superfund Site, Meyerstown, PA

    SciTech Connect

    Bour, B.; Clemmens, C.B.

    1997-10-01

    Correlation within massive carbonate sequences like those present in central Pennsylvania`s Lebanon Valley is often difficult because the units contain few distinct marker beds and the contacts between units are frequently gradational. This project demonstrated that correlations among boreholes can successfully be made using a combination of geophysical logs, particularly natural gamma, high resolution density and sonic. The technique involves positioning logs from several of the deepest holes on cross sections at the best estimated structural elevation (correcting for regional clip), comparing the general shape of the natural gamma curve and adjusting the logs positions for a best fit. Once a datum has been hypothesized, (all) the logs are examined for anomalies that might be traced through. The high resolution density proved capable of identifying small fractures which appeared to correlate along strata lines with the gamma. These hypothetical {open_quotes}marker beds{close_quotes} are projected onto as many logs as possible to verify the anomaly. Once an anomaly (bed) is identified on several logs over a sufficiently wide area, three point strike and clip calculations are performed to verify that the correlations fit the regional pattern. This technique is not particularly new, it has been used in subsurface investigations for decades. The application to massive units with only the most subtle marker beds, however, has not been particularly successful. It proved successful at this site because of the use of sensitive gamma and density sondes, and by a large number (62), of boreholes, a third of which penetrate over 400 feet of section. (Although only two wells intersected the Ontelaunee-Annville contact.) Only very slight density (lower) and velocity (faster) differences were noted between the dolomitic limestone (bioherm) of the Ontelaunee Formation and the limestones of the Annville and Epler Formations.

  5. Evolution of neural networks for the prediction of hydraulic conductivity as a function of borehole geophysical logs: Shobasama site, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, Paul C.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the methodology and results of a project to develop a neural network for the prediction of the measured hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity in a series of boreholes at the Tono, Japan study site. Geophysical measurements were used as the input to EL feed-forward neural network. A simple genetic algorithm was used to evolve the architecture and parameters of the neural network in conjunction with an optimal subset of geophysical measurements for the prediction of hydraulic conductivity. The first attempt was focused on the estimation of the class of the hydraulic conductivity, high, medium or low, from the geophysical logs. This estimation was done while using the genetic algorithm to simultaneously determine which geophysical logs were the most important and optimizing the architecture of the neural network. Initial results showed that certain geophysical logs provided more information than others- most notably the 'short-normal', micro-resistivity, porosity and sonic logs provided the most information on hydraulic conductivity. The neural network produced excellent training results with accuracy of 90 percent or greater, but was unable to produce accurate predictions of the hydraulic conductivity class. The second attempt at prediction was done using a new methodology and a modified data set. The new methodology builds on the results of the first attempts at prediction by limiting the choices of geophysical logs to only those that provide significant information. Additionally, this second attempt uses a modified data set and predicts transmissivity instead of hydraulic conductivity. Results of these simulations indicate that the most informative geophysical measurements for the prediction of transmissivity are depth and sonic log. The long normal resistivity and self potential borehole logs are moderately informative. In addition, it was found that porosity and crack counts (clear, open, or hairline) do not inform predictions of

  6. Geophysical logging case history of the Raft River geothermal system, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Applegate, J.K.; Moens, T.A.

    1980-04-01

    Drilling to evaluate the geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley began in 1974 and resulted in the discovery of a geothermal reservoir at a depth of approximately 1523 m (500 ft). Several organizations and companies have been involved in the geophysical logging program. There is no comprehensive report on the geophysical logging, nor has there been a complete interpretation. The objectives of this study are to make an integrated interpretation of the available data and compile a case history. Emphasis has been on developing a simple interpretation scheme from a minimum of data sets. The Raft River geothermal system occurs in the Raft River Valley, which is a portion of the Basin and Range geomorphic province located in south central Idaho, south of the Snake River Plain. The valley is a late Cenozoic structural downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. The downwarp is filled with Tertiary and Paleozoic sediments, metasediments, and volcanics that overlie Precambrian rocks. The variety of rock types, the presence of alteration products, and the variability of fracturing make reliable interpretations difficult. However, the cross plotting of various parameters has allowed a determination of rock types and an analysis of the degree of alteration and the density of fractures. Thus, one can determine the relevant data necessary to assess a geothermal reservoir in similar rock types and use cross plots to potentially define the producing zones.

  7. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  8. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is

  9. Geophysical - new technology, lower cost gearing search

    SciTech Connect

    Heitman, L.B.

    1985-12-01

    Seismic companies will remain competitive only if they reduce costs and at the same time increase the technological capabilities of their products. Overcapacity and lower prices plague geophysical films. Several key improvements in offshore seismic data collection were made during 1985, e.g., wide-tow seismic source arrays that improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the data by reducing various unwanted noise compounds have become standard and seismic source levels have also been increased by a wider variety of air and water gun offering. These improvement in data collection are discussed.

  10. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The geophysical logs and their analyses are available for display and download from the U.S. Geological Survey, New York Water Science Center, online geophysical log archive (http://ny.water.usgs.gov/maps/geologs/) in LAS (Log ASCII Standard), PDF, and WellCad formats.

  11. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs: Brunswick group and Lockatong Formation, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Senior, L.A.; Decker, E.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Brunswick Group and the underlying Lockatong Formation are composed of lithified Mesozoic sediments that constitute part of the Newark Basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. These fractured rocks form an important regional aquifer that consists of gradational sequences of shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with fluid transport occurring primarily in fractures. An extensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained in seven wells located at the borough of Lansdale, Pennsylvania, in order to better characterize the areal hydrogeologic system and provide guidelines for the refinement of numerical ground water models. Six of the seven wells are approximately 120 m deep and the seventh extends to a depth of 335 m. Temperature, fluid conductivity, and flowmeter logs are used to locate zones of fluid exchange and to quantify transmissivities. Electrical resistivity and natural gamma logs together yield detailed stratigraphic information, and digital acoustic televiewer data provide magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall from which almost 900 fractures are identified. Analyses of the geophysical data indicate that the aquifer penetrated by the deep well can be separated into two distinct structural domains, which may, in turn, reflect different mechanical responses to basin extension by different sedimentary units: 1. In the shallow zone (above 125 m), the dominant fracture population consists of gently dipping bedding plane partings that strike N46??E and dip to the northwest at about 11 degrees. Fluid flow is concentrated in the upper 80 m along these subhorizontal fractures, with transmissivities rapidly diminishing in magnitude with depth. 2. The zone below 125 m marks the appearance of numerous high-angle fractures that are orthogonal to the bedding planes, striking parallel but dipping steeply southeast at 77 degrees. This secondary set of fractures is associated with a fairly thick (approximately 60 m) high-resistivity, low-transmissivity sandstone unit that

  12. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs; the passaic formation, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Carleton, G.B.; Poirier, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Passaic Formation consists of gradational sequences of mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone, and is a principal aquifer in central New Jersey. Ground-water flow is primarily controlled by fractures interspersed throughout these sedimentary rocks and characterizing these fractures in terms of type, orientation, spatial distribution, frequency, and transmissivity is fundamental towards understanding local fluid-transport processes. To obtain this information, a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs was collected in 10 wells roughly 46 m in depth and located within a .05 km2 area in Hopewell Township, New Jersey. A seemingly complex, heterogeneous network of fractures identified with an acoustic televiewer was statistically reduced to two principal subsets corresponding to two distinct fracture types: (1) bedding-plane partings and (2) high-angle fractures. Bedding-plane partings are the most numerous and have an average strike of N84??W and dip of 20??N. The high-angle fractures are oriented subparallel to these features, with an average strike of N79??E and dip of 71??S, making the two fracture types roughly orthogonal. Their intersections form linear features that also retain this approximately east-west strike. Inspection of fluid temperature and conductance logs in conjunction with flowmeter measurements obtained during pumping allows the transmissive fractures to be distinguished from the general fracture population. These results show that, within the resolution capabilities of the logging tools, approximately 51 (or 18 percent) of the 280 total fractures are water producing. The bedding-plane partings exhibit transmissivities that average roughly 5 m2/day and that generally diminish in magnitude and frequency with depth. The high-angle fractures have average transmissivities that are about half those of the bedding-plane partings and show no apparent dependence upon depth. The geophysical logging results allow us to infer a distinct hydrogeologic structure

  13. The Research on Borehole Stability in Depleted Reservoir and Caprock: Using the Geophysics Logging Data

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingen; Luo, Yong; Guo, Shisheng; Zhang, Haishan; Tan, Qiang; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Lianbo

    2013-01-01

    Long-term oil and gas exploitation in reservoir will lead to pore pressure depletion. The pore pressure depletion will result in changes of horizontal in-situ stresses both in reservoirs and caprock formations. Using the geophysics logging data, the magnitude and orientation changes of horizontal stresses in caprock and reservoir are studied. Furthermore, the borehole stability can be affected by in-situ stresses changes. To address this issue, the dehydration from caprock to reservoir and roof effect of caprock are performed. Based on that, the influence scope and magnitude of horizontal stresses reduction in caprock above the depleted reservoirs are estimated. The effects of development on borehole stability in both reservoir and caprock are studied step by step with the above geomechanical model. PMID:24228021

  14. Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R.

    1984-05-01

    Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

  15. Geophysical monitoring technology for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jin-Feng; Li, Lin; Wang, Hao-Fan; Tan, Ming-You; Cui, Shi-Ling; Zhang, Yun-Yin; Qu, Zhi-Peng; Jia, Ling-Yun; Zhang, Shu-Hai

    2016-06-01

    Geophysical techniques play key roles in the measuring, monitoring, and verifying the safety of CO2 sequestration and in identifying the efficiency of CO2-enhanced oil recovery. Although geophysical monitoring techniques for CO2 sequestration have grown out of conventional oil and gas geophysical exploration techniques, it takes a long time to conduct geophysical monitoring, and there are many barriers and challenges. In this paper, with the initial objective of performing CO2 sequestration, we studied the geophysical tasks associated with evaluating geological storage sites and monitoring CO2 sequestration. Based on our review of the scope of geophysical monitoring techniques and our experience in domestic and international carbon capture and sequestration projects, we analyzed the inherent difficulties and our experiences in geophysical monitoring techniques, especially, with respect to 4D seismic acquisition, processing, and interpretation.

  16. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    Collection and integrated analysis of drilling and geophysical logs provided an efficient and effective means for characterizing the geohydrologic framework and conditions penetrated by the tophole at the selected oil-and-gas well site. The logging methods and lessons learned at this well site could be applied at other oil-and-gas drilling sites to better characterize the shallow subsurface with the overall goal of protecting freshwater aquifers during hydrocarbon development.

  17. 1991 Yearly calibration of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's gross gamma-ray borehole geophysical logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes the 1991 yearly calibration of a gross gamma-ray geophysical pulse logging system owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The calibration was conducted to permit the continued use of this system for geologic and hydrologic studies associated with remedial investigations at the Hanford Site. Primary calibrations to equivalent uranium units were conducted in DOE borehole model standards that reside on the Hanford Site. The calibrations were performed in borehole models SBL/SBH and SBA/SBB, which contain low-equivalent uranium concentrations. Correlations were established based on two similar approaches for relating observed count rate in before- and after-logging field calibrations to equivalent uranium concentrations. A new field source (Ra-20S-82) was fabricated to replace the old source (Ra-20S-204), whose activity led to variable field calibration results previously caused by a nonfixed geometry. A cross-calibration study was performed to compare the operation of the new source relative to the old source. A digitally based collection/recording system was recently acquired, so that many of the procedures were performed with the old analog system and the new digital system to compare the performance of the digital system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. 1992 Yearly calibration of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's gross gamma-ray borehole geophysical logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 yearly calibration of a gross gamma-ray geophysical pulse logging system owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The calibration was conducted to permit the continued use of this system for geologic and hydrologic studies associated with remedial investigation at the Hanford Site. The calibration is limited to the probe identified as CG27A-97. Primary calibrations to equivalent-uranium units were conducted in DOE borehole model standards that reside on the Hanford Site. The calibrations were performed in borehole models SBL/SBH and SBA/SBB, which contain low equivalent-uranium concentrations. A previous correlation for relating observed count rate in before- and after-logging field calibrations to equivalent-uranium concentrations was confirmed for field source Ra-20S-82. A computer-based digital collection/recording system was used simultaneously on many of the procedures with the original analog system so that the performance of the two collection systems could be correlated and compared at some future date.

  19. Determining geophysical properties from well log data using artificial neural networks and fuzzy inference systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hsien-Cheng

    Two novel synergistic systems consisting of artificial neural networks and fuzzy inference systems are developed to determine geophysical properties by using well log data. These systems are employed to improve the determination accuracy in carbonate rocks, which are generally more complex than siliciclastic rocks. One system, consisting of a single adaptive resonance theory (ART) neural network and three fuzzy inference systems (FISs), is used to determine the permeability category. The other system, which is composed of three ART neural networks and a single FIS, is employed to determine the lithofacies. The geophysical properties studied in this research, permeability category and lithofacies, are treated as categorical data. The permeability values are transformed into a "permeability category" to account for the effects of scale differences between core analyses and well logs, and heterogeneity in the carbonate rocks. The ART neural networks dynamically cluster the input data sets into different groups. The FIS is used to incorporate geologic experts' knowledge, which is usually in linguistic forms, into systems. These synergistic systems thus provide viable alternative solutions to overcome the effects of heterogeneity, the uncertainties of carbonate rock depositional environments, and the scarcity of well log data. The results obtained in this research show promising improvements over backpropagation neural networks. For the permeability category, the prediction accuracies are 68.4% and 62.8% for the multiple-single ART neural network-FIS and a single backpropagation neural network, respectively. For lithofacies, the prediction accuracies are 87.6%, 79%, and 62.8% for the single-multiple ART neural network-FIS, a single ART neural network, and a single backpropagation neural network, respectively. The sensitivity analysis results show that the multiple-single ART neural networks-FIS and a single ART neural network possess the same matching trends in

  20. 1990 yearly calibration of Pacific Northwest Laboratory's gross-gamma borehole geophysical logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the 1990 yearly calibration of a gross-gamma geophysical pulse logging system owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The calibration was conducted to permit the continued use of this system for geological and hydrologic studies associated with remedial investigation at the Hanford Site. Primary calibrations to equivalent uranium units were conducted in borehole model standards that were recently moved to the Hanford Site from the DOE field calibration facility in Spokane, Washington. The calibrations were performed in borehole models SBL/SBH and SBA/SBB, which contain low equivalent-uranium concentrations. The integrity of the system throughout the previous year from gamma-ray monitoring was demonstrated using the before- and after-logging field calibration readings with the field source in calibration Positions 1 and 2. Most of the Position 1 readings are within an 8% limit that is set by the governing PNL technical reference procedure as a critical value above which the instrument is considered suspect. Many of the Position 2 readings exceed the 8% limit; however, the fluctuation was traced to field-source geometry variability that affected Position 1 count rates by up to 6% and Position 2 count rates by as much as 16%. Correlations were established based on two similar approaches for relating observed count rate in before- and after-logging field calibrations to equivalent uranium concentrations. The temperature drift of the gamma-ray probe was documented and amounts to less than 0.1%/{degree}C within the temperature range 0{degree}C to 42{degree}C. The low-energy cutoff for the gross gamma-ray probe was determined to be between 46.5 and 59.5 keV. 10 refs., 4 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not

  2. Geophysical well logging operations and log analysis in Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sethi, D.K.; Fertl, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    Geothermal Well Desert Peak No. B-23-1 was logged by Dresser Atlas during April/May 1979 to a total depth of 2939 m (9642 ft). A temperature of 209/sup 0/C (408/sup 0/F) was observed on the maximum thermometer run with one of the logging tools. Borehole tools rated to a maximum temperature of 204.4/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) were utilized for logging except for the Densilog tool, which was from the other set of borehole instruments, rated to a still higher temperature, i.e., 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F). The quality of the logs recorded and the environmental effects on the log response have been considered. The log response in the unusual lithologies of igneous and metamorphic formations encountered in this well could be correlated with the drill cutting data. An empirical, statistical log interpretation approach has made it possible to obtain meaningful information on the rocks penetrated. Various crossplots/histograms of the corrected log data have been generated on the computer. These are found to provide good resolution between the lithological units in the rock sequence. The crossplotting techniques and the statistical approach were combined with the drill cutting descriptions in order to arrive at the lithological characteristics. The results of log analysis and recommendations for logging of future wells have been included.

  3. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  4. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Sections Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crangle, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses geophysical wireline well logs for a variety of purposes, including stratigraphic correlation (Hettinger, 2001, Ryder, 2002), petroleum reservoir analyses (Nelson and Bird, 2005), aquifer studies (Balch, 1988), and synthetic seismic profiles (Kulander and Ryder, 2005). Commonly, well logs are easier to visualize, manipulate, and interpret when available in a digital format. In recent geologic cross sections E-E' and D-D', constructed through the central Appalachian basin (Ryder, Swezey, and others, in press; Ryder, Crangle, and others, in press), gamma ray well log traces and lithologic logs were used to correlate key stratigraphic intervals (Fig. 1). The stratigraphy and structure of the cross sections are illustrated through the use of graphical software applications (e.g., Adobe Illustrator). The gamma ray traces were digitized in Neuralog (proprietary software) from paper well logs and converted to a Log ASCII Standard (LAS) format. Once converted, the LAS files were transformed to images through an LAS-reader application (e.g., GeoGraphix Prizm) and then overlain in positions adjacent to well locations, used for stratigraphic control, on each cross section. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert paper logs to a digital LAS format using a third-party software application, Neuralog. Included in this report are LAS files for sixteen wells used in geologic cross section E-E' (Table 1) and thirteen wells used in geologic cross section D-D' (Table 2).

  5. Geophysical Log Analysis of Selected Test Holes and Wells in the High Plains Aquifer, Central Platte River Basin, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J. Alton; Morin, Roger H.; Cannia, James C.; Williams, John H.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Central Platte Natural Resources District is investigating the hydrostratigraphic framework of the High Plains aquifer in the Central Platte River basin. As part of this investigation, a comprehensive set of geophysical logs was collected from six test holes at three sites and analyzed to delineate the penetrated stratigraphic units and characterize their lithology and physical properties. Flow and fluid-property logs were collected from two wells at one of the sites and analyzed along with the other geophysical logs to determine the relative transmissivity of the High Plains aquifer units. The integrated log analysis indicated that the coarse-grained deposits of the alluvium and the upper part of the Ogallala Formation contributed more than 70 percent of the total transmissivity at this site. The lower part of the Ogallala with its moderately permeable sands and silts contributed some measureable transmissivity, as did the fine-grained sandstone of the underlying Arikaree Group, likely as a result of fractures and bedding-plane partings. Neither the lower nor the upper part of the siltstone- and claystone-dominated White River Group exhibited measurable transmissivity. The integrated analysis of the geophysical logs illustrated the utility of these methods in the detailed characterization of the hydrostratigraphy of the High Plains aquifer.

  6. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  7. Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

  8. Data from core analyses, aquifer testing, and geophysical logging of Denver Basin bedrock aquifers at Castle Pines, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.; Banta, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains data pertaining to the geologic and hydrologic characteristics of the bedrock aquifers of the Denver basin at a site near Castle Pines, Colorado. Data consist of a lithologic- description of about 2,400 ft of drill core and laboratory determinations of mineralogy, grain size, bulk and grain density, porosity, specific yield, and specific retention for selected core samples. Water-level data, atmospheric-pressure measurements, aquifer-compression measurements, and borehole geophysical logs also are included.

  9. Geophysical, stratigraphic, and flow-zone logs of selected test, monitor, and water-supply wells in Cayuga County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.; Eckhardt, David A.V.; Miller, Todd S.

    2003-01-01

    Volatile-organic compounds have been detected in water sampled from more than 50 supply wells between the City of Auburn and Village of Union Springs in Cayuga County, New York, and the area was declared a Superfund site in 2002. In 2001-04, geophysical logs were collected from 37 test, monitor, and water-supply wells as a preliminary part of the investigation of volatile-organic compound contamination in the carbonate-bedrock aquifer system. The geophysical logs included gamma, induction, caliper, wellbore image, deviation, fluid resistivity and temperature, and flowmeter. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with core samples and outcrops of the bedrock to define the stratigraphic units and flow zones penetrated by the wells. This report describes the logging methods used in the study and presents the geophysical, stratigraphic, and flow-zone logs.

  10. Application of advanced geophysical logging methods in the characterization of a fractured-sedimentary bedrock aquifer, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Lane, Jr., John W.; Singha, Kamini; Haeni, F. Peter

    2002-01-01

    An integrated suite of advanced geophysical logging methods was used to characterize the geology and hydrology of three boreholes completed in fractured-sedimentary bedrock in Ventura County, California. The geophysical methods included caliper, gamma, electromagnetic induction, borehole deviation, optical and acoustic televiewer, borehole radar, fluid resistivity, temperature, and electromagnetic flowmeter. The geophysical logging 1) provided insights useful for the overall geohydrologic characterization of the bedrock and 2) enhanced the value of information collected by other methods from the boreholes including core-sample analysis, multiple-level monitoring, and packer testing. The logged boreholes, which have open intervals of 100 to 200 feet, penetrate a sequence of interbedded sandstone and mudstone with bedding striking 220 to 250 degrees and dipping 15 to 40 degrees to the northwest. Fractures intersected by the boreholes include fractures parallel to bedding and fractures with variable strike that dip moderately to steeply. Two to three flow zones were detected in each borehole. The flow zones consist of bedding-parallel or steeply dipping fractures or a combination of bedding-parallel fractures and moderately to steeply dipping fractures. About 75 to more than 90 percent of the measured flow under pumped conditions was produced by only one of the flow zones in each borehole.

  11. Log polar image sensor in CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Danny; Dierickx, Bart; Pardo, Fernando; Vlummens, Jan; Meynants, Guy; Hermans, Lou

    1996-08-01

    We report on the design, design issues, fabrication and performance of a log-polar CMOS image sensor. The sensor is developed for the use in a videophone system for deaf and hearing impaired people, who are not capable of communicating through a 'normal' telephone. The system allows 15 detailed images per second to be transmitted over existing telephone lines. This framerate is sufficient for conversations by means of sign language or lip reading. The pixel array of the sensor consists of 76 concentric circles with (up to) 128 pixels per circle, in total 8013 pixels. The interior pixels have a pitch of 14 micrometers, up to 250 micrometers at the border. The 8013-pixels image is mapped (log-polar transformation) in a X-Y addressable 76 by 128 array.

  12. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data.

  13. Ubiquitous Learning Project Using Life-Logging Technology in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogata, Hiroaki; Hou, Bin; Li, Mengmeng; Uosaki, Noriko; Mouri, Kosuke; Liu, Songran

    2014-01-01

    A Ubiquitous Learning Log (ULL) is defined as a digital record of what a learner has learned in daily life using ubiquitous computing technologies. In this paper, a project which developed a system called SCROLL (System for Capturing and Reusing Of Learning Log) is presented. The aim of developing SCROLL is to help learners record, organize,…

  14. Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase II, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    Between March and April 1998, the U.S. Navy contracted Tetra Tech NUS Inc., to drill two monitor wells in the Stockton Formation at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were installed to monitor water levels and sample contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock. Chemical analyses of the samples will help determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5). Depths of all boreholes range from 69 to 149 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and video surveys to identify water-producing zones in newly drilled monitor wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 and in wells MG-1675 and MG-1676. The logging was conducted from March 5, 1998, to April 16, 1998. This work is a continuation of the Phase I work. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-producing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's notes, wells MG-1634 and MG-1635 were screened such that water-levels fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  15. Petrophysical analysis of geophysical logs of the National Drilling Company-U.S. Geological Survey ground-water research project for Abu Dhabi Emirate, United Arab Emirates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Petricola, Mario

    1994-01-01

    A program of borehole-geophysical logging was implemented to supply geologic and geohydrologic information for a regional ground-water investigation of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Analysis of geophysical logs was essential to provide information on geohydrologic properties because drill cuttings were not always adequate to define lithologic boundaries. The standard suite of logs obtained at most project test holes consisted of caliper, spontaneous potential, gamma ray, dual induction, microresistivity, compensated neutron, compensated density, and compensated sonic. Ophiolitic detritus from the nearby Oman Mountains has unusual petrophysical properties that complicated the interpretation of geophysical logs. The density of coarse ophiolitic detritus is typically greater than 3.0 grams per cubic centimeter, porosity values are large, often exceeding 45 percent, and the clay fraction included unusual clays, such as lizardite. Neither the spontaneous-potential log nor the natural gamma-ray log were useable clay indicators. Because intrinsic permeability is a function of clay content, additional research in determining clay content was critical. A research program of geophysical logging was conducted to determine the petrophysical properties of the shallow subsurface formations. The logging included spectral-gamma and thermal-decay-time logs. These logs, along with the standard geophysical logs, were correlated to mineralogy and whole-rock chemistry as determined from sidewall cores. Thus, interpretation of lithology and fluids was accomplished. Permeability and specific yield were calculated from geophysical-log data and correlated to results from an aquifer test. On the basis of results from the research logging, a method of lithologic and water-resistivity interpretation was developed for the test holes at which the standard suite of logs were obtained. In addition, a computer program was developed to assist in the analysis of log data. Geohydrologic properties were

  16. Tools and data acquisition of borehole geophysical logging for the Florida Power and Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant in support of a groundwater, surface-water, and ecological monitoring plan, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs were obtained from selected exploratory coreholes in the vicinity of the Florida Power and Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant. The geophysical logging tools used and logging sequences performed during this project are summarized herein to include borehole logging methods, descriptions of the properties measured, types of data obtained, and calibration information.

  17. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  18. Identification and Characterization of Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site Using Geophysical Logs: Examples from the Underground Test Area Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lance Prothro; Drellack, Sigmund; Townsend, Margaret

    2009-03-25

    The diverse and complex geology of the Nevada Test Site region makes for a challenging environment for identifying and characterizing hydrogeologic units penetrated by wells drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Underground Test Area (UGTA) Environmental Restoration Sub-Project. Fortunately, UGTA geoscientists have access to large and robust sets of subsurface geologic data, as well as a large historical knowledge base of subsurface geological analyses acquired mainly during the underground nuclear weapons testing program. Of particular importance to the accurate identification and characterization of hydrogeologic units in UGTA boreholes are the data and interpretation principles associated with geophysical well logs. Although most UGTA participants and stakeholders are probably familiar with drill hole data such as drill core and cuttings, they may be less familiar with the use of geophysical logs; this document is meant to serve as a primer on the use of geophysical logs in the UGTA project. Standard geophysical logging tools used in the UGTA project to identify and characterize hydrogeologic units are described, and basic interpretation principles and techniques are explained. Numerous examples of geophysical log data from a variety of hydrogeologic units encountered in UGTA wells are presented to highlight the use and value of geophysical logs in the accurate hydrogeologic characterization of UGTA wells.

  19. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason D.

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  20. Geophysical logs and hydrologic data for eight wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area, Clark and Lincoln counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, D.L.; Kilroy, K.C.; Schaefer, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical logs, drilling operations, pump-test data, and water quality determinations are presented for eight wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area of southeastern Nevada. The wells are in an area where thick units of Paleozoic carbonate rock are overlain by Tertiary semiconsolidated basin-fill deposits and Quaternary alluvial deposits. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were augmented with data from previous investigations; however, complete sets of logs and other data are not available for all eight wells. Geophysical data presented included natural-gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma density, caliper, temperature, acoustic, single-point resistance, long- and short-natural resistivity, and spontaneous-potential logs. Drilling penetration rates, lithologic columns, and well construction are also summarized and presented. Measurements of drawdown and recovery during and after constant-discharge pumping periods are also included. Also presented are results of chemical and physical analyses for major-ion chemistry, trace constituents, stable and radioactive isotopes, temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. (USGS)

  1. Stress orientations of Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project (TCDP) hole-A as observed from geophysical logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, H.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Zoback, M.; Boness, N.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.-H.; Hickman, S.

    2007-01-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled a 2-km-deep research borehole to investigate the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault that ruptured in the 1999 Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake. Geophysical logs of the TCDP were carried out over depths of 500-1900 in, including Dipole Sonic Imager (DSI) logs and Formation Micro Imager (FMI) logs in order to identify bedding planes, fractures and shear zones. From the continuous core obtained from the borehole, a shear zone at a depth of 1110 meters is interpreted to be the Chelungpu fault, located within the Chinshui Shale, which extends from 1013 to 1300 meters depth. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed over nearly the entire length of the wellbore. These data show an overall stress direction (???N115??E) that is essentially parallel to the regional stress field and parallel to the convergence direction of the Philippine Sea plate with respect to the Eurasian plate. Variability in the average stress direction is seen at various depths. In particular there is a major stress orientation anomaly in the vicinity of the Chelungpu fault. Abrupt stress rotations at depths of 1000 in and 1310 in are close to the Chinshui Shale's upper and lower boundaries, suggesting the possibility that bedding plane slip occurred during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A.; Barrash, W.

    1993-05-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ({sup 40}K). However, {sup 137}Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations.

  3. The Synthetic Convection Log - geophysical detection and identification of density-driven convection in monitoring wells and boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, S.

    2009-12-01

    Detection and quantification of flow and transport is an important part of groundwater geophysics. A distinctive flow and transport problem occurs in boreholes and groundwater monitoring wells. They locally distort the natural flow field and open up an additional possibility of vertical heat and mass transfer between rock formations (e.g. aquifers), surrounding, and atmosphere. A variety of processes can cause a mass input or exchange through the fluid column. Density-driven convection (also called free convection or natural convection) plays an important role among them. Density-driven convective flows have adulterating effects on groundwater samples and in-situ measurements in monitoring wells and boreholes. Gases and other (dissolved) substances are possibly transported into new depths where varying chemical processes may arise. Consequently, knowing about the existence of vertical density-driven flows in fluid columns is crucial for hydrological investigations and for borehole geophysics. Moreover, temperatures in fluid columns and in the proximate formation may depart significantly from the ones in the surrounding rock when affected by vertical convection. Thus, understanding convective flow within the borehole is also important for subsurface water movement investigations and geothermics. The existence of significant vertical free convection was proven using pilot scale experiments and numerical modeling. However, so far, no particular logging device or interpretation algorithm was available that could detect free convection. Here an interpretation algorithm will be presented that approaches the problem. The so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log) enables in-situ detection and even identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements like temperature and water conductivity/mud resistivity logs. In the sense of a "quick look" interpretation, the SYNCO-Log visually divides the fluid

  4. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  5. Determining the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured limestone aquifer by simultaneous injection and geophysical logging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Hess, A.E.; Paillet, Frederick L.

    1988-01-01

    A field technique for assessing the vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity in an aquifer was applied to a fractured carbonate formation in southeastern Nevada. The technique combines the simultaneous use of fluid injection and geophysical logging to measure in situ vertical distributions of fluid velocity and hydraulic head down the borehole; these data subsequently are analyzed to arrive at quantitative estimates of hydraulic conductivity across discrete intervals in the aquifer. The results of this analysis identified the contact margin between the Anchor and Dawn Members of the Monte Cristo Limestone as being the dominant transmissive unit. -from Authors

  6. Use of geophysical logs to estimate water-quality trends in carbonate aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCary, Lawrence Mead

    1980-01-01

    The water quality in carbonate aquifers can be determined by analysis of resistivity and porosity logs. When supporting data from water analyses are available, the value of the cementation exponent m can be determined more precisely. Data for this study were taken from logs of oil-test wells, Amstrat sample studies, drill-stem tests and water test wells in parts of Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming. The preferred resistivity curves for apparent water resistivity (Rwa) analyses are the deeply focused laterolog and the induction log. The standard electric log can be used if the drilling mud is not saturated with salt. The preferred porosity logs are the sonic, sidewall neutron, compensated neutron, and the density logs. Older, uncalibrated neutron curves can be empirically calibrated in some instances, however, resulting porosities are frequently anomalous when compared to those determined from core or modern logs. When apparent water resistivity is determined for many wells, the data can be plotted and contoured to outline areas of recharge, direction of probable ground-water movement, and location and salinity of brine areas. (USGS)

  7. Computation of porosity and water content from geophysical logs, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    Neutron and density logs acquired in boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada are used to determine porosity and water content as a function of depth. Computation of porosity requires an estimate of grain density, which is provided by core data, mineralogical data, or is inferred from rock type where neither core nor mineralogy are available. The porosity estimate is merged with mineralogical data acquired by X-ray diffraction to compute the volumetric fractions of major mineral groups. The resulting depth-based portrayal of bulk rock composition is equivalent to a whole rock analysis of mineralogy and porosity. Water content is computed from epithermal and thermal neutron logs. In the unsaturated zone, the density log is required along with a neutron log. Water content can also be computed from dielectric logs, which were acquired in only a fraction of the boreholes, whereas neutron logs were acquired in all boreholes. Mineralogical data are used to compute a structural (or bound) water estimate, which is subtracted from the total water estimate from the neutron-density combination. Structural water can be subtracted only from intervals where mineralogical analyses are available; otherwise only total water can be reported. The algorithms and procedures are applied to logs acquired during 1979 to 1984 at Yucca Mountain. Examples illustrate the results. Comparison between computed porosity and core measurements shows systematic differences ranging from 0.005 to 0.04. These values are consistent with a sensitivity analysis using uncertainty parameters for good logging conditions. Water content from core measurements is available in only one borehole, yielding a difference between computed and core-based water content of 0.006.

  8. Chemical analysis of water samples and geophysical logs from cored test holes drilled in the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances. Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium, and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope d values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample. Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance

  9. Descriptive, geologic, and borehole geophysical logs for 23 test holes in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiergesell, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents logs for 23 test holes drilled in eight counties in south-central Nebraska as part of a study of the hydrogeology of the area. Five logs are presented for each of the test holes. The first is a written description summarizing the sediments penetrated during drilling; the second is a geological log providing a diagrammatic representation of the stratigraphic units; the remaining three show spontaneous potential, single-point resistance, and natural-gamma radiation measured in the test holes. The test holes penetrate silts, sands, and gravels of Quaternary age, and siltstones, sandstones , and silts of the Ogallala Formation of Tertiary age. Each test hole was drilled deep enough to penetrate about 20 feet of the underlying Cretaceous-age bedrock. (USGS)

  10. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  11. Evaluation of geophysical logs and aquifer-isolation tests, Phase III, August 2002 to March 2004, Crossley Farm superfund site, Hereford township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.; Low, Dennis J.

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2002 and March 2004, geophysical logging was conducted in 23 boreholes at the Crossley Farm Superfund Site, Hereford Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical-borehole flow, and fracture orientation where applicable. The boreholes ranged in depth from 71 to 503 ft(feet) below land surface. The geophysical logging determined the placement of well screens and packers, which allow monitoring and sampling of water-bearing zones in the fractured bedrock so the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known sources could be determined. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper (22 boreholes), fluid-temperature (17 boreholes),single-point-resistance (17 boreholes), natural-gamma (17 boreholes), fluid-flow (18 boreholes), and acoustic-televiewer (13 boreholes) logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing zones, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy; the geologist log also provided information on the location of possible water-producing zones. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicated active flow in 10 boreholes. Seven of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas and three boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates lithologic contacts (changes in lithology from a gneiss dominated by quartz-plagioclase-feldspar mineralogy to a gneiss dominated by hornblende mineralogy) are typically fractured, permeable, and effective transmitters of water. Single-well, aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were performed on two boreholes. Packers were set at depths ranging from 210 to 465 ft

  12. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs at Area C, Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2008-01-01

    This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Navy at Area C of the former Naval Air Warfare Center in Warminster Township, Bucks County, Pa., in support of hydrogeological investigations conducted by the Navy to address ground-water contamination in the Stockton Formation. Borehole geophysical logs were collected, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were made, and borehole television surveys were run in seven boreholes ranging from 31 to 75 feet deep. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to identify fractures and the location of possible water-bearing zones. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to identify fractures that were water-bearing zones. Natural-gamma and single-point-resistance logs were used to correlate lithology across the area. Elevated concentrations of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were measured in water samples from wells with water-bearing zones in the interval of the aquifer where monitor well HN-23A is screened. Water samples from wells with water-bearing zones above or below this interval had substantially lower concentrations of PCE. Wells screened in this interval yielded less than 0.5 gallon per minute, indicating that the interval has low permeability; this may account for the small areal extent and slow migration of PCE.

  13. 1993 yearly calibration of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s gross gamma-ray borehole geophysical logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the 1993 yearly calibration of a gross gamma-ray geophysical pulse logging system owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The calibration was conducted to permit the continued use of this system for geologic and hydrologic studies associated with remedial investigation at the Hanford Site. The calibration is limited to the probe identified as CG27A-97 and applies to a new probe detector crystal that replaced the former detector in January 1993, after a crack was discovered. Primary calibrations to equivalent-uranium units were conducted in DOE borehole model standards that reside on the Hanford Site. The calibrations were performed in borehole models SBL/SBH and SBA/SBB, which both contain sections with relatively low equivalent-uranium concentrations. Model SBH/SBL has now been countersunk at the site so that data were taken by suspending the probe downhole. Model SBA/SBB is still lying horizontally above ground at the site, so data were logged as in previous calibrations at the Hanford site by pushing the probe into the hole and drawing it out with the logging equipment. A previous correlation for relating observed count rate in before- and after-logging field calibrations to equivalent-uranium concentrations was confirmed for field source Ra-20S-82. A computer-based digital collection/recording system was used simultaneously on many of the procedures with the original analog system so that the performance of the two collection systems could be correlated and compared. The digital system was calibrated this year to confirm its linearity and to establish correlation with the analog data (i.e., chart-recorder output).

  14. Evaluation of geophysical logs and video surveys in boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1998 and April 1998, geophysical logs were collected in nine boreholes adjacent to the Berkley Products Superfund Site, West Cocalico Township, Lancaster County, Pa. Video surveys were conducted on four of the nine boreholes. The boreholes range in depth from 320 to 508 feet below land surface, are completed open holes, have ambient vertical flow of water, and penetrate a series of interbedded siltstone, sandstone, and conglomerate units. The purpose of collecting geophysical-log data was to help determine horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected sources and to aid in the placement of permanent borehole packers. The primary contaminants were derived from paint waste that included pigment sludges and wash solvents. The chlorinated volatile organic compounds probably originated from the wash solvents. Caliper logs and video surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-resistivity and fluid-temperature logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to verify the locations of water-producing or water-receiving zones and to measure rates of flow between water-bearing fractures. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video surveys, and driller's logs, permanent multiple-packer systems were installed in each borehole to obtain depth specific water samples from one or more water-bearing fractures in each borehole.

  15. Geophysical logging and geologic mapping data in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Clark, Timothy W.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Geologic mapping, the collection of borehole geophysical logs and images, and passive diffusion bag sampling were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey North Carolina Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during March through October 2011. The study purpose was to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Data compilation efforts included geologic mapping of more than 250 features, including rock type and secondary joints, delineation of more than 1,300 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 15 open borehole wells, and the collection of passive diffusion-bag samples from 42 fracture zones at various depths in the 15 wells.

  16. Stress Magnitudes and Orientations from Geophysical Logs and Leak-Off Tests in the Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H.; Ma, K.; Ito, H.; Hung, J.

    2005-12-01

    In Dakeng, Taiwan., the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) recently drilled a 2-km-deep hole to study the structure and mechanics of the Chelungpu Fault along the segment of the fault that ruptured in the 1999 M 7.5 Chi-Chi earthquake. Electrical image logs and other borehole geophysical logs together with 4 hydraulic fracturing stress measurements were carried out in this hole over the depth range of 500 m to 1850 m. Stress-induced borehole breakouts were observed throughout the image logs and indicate considerable local variability in stress directions at a variety of scales. At the scale of several hundred meters, dramatic changes in maximum horizontal principal stress (SHMax) directions ranging from East-West to North-South are seen at depths of 950-1000 m, 1130 m, 1300 m, and 1700 m. Shorter-wavelength rotations in SHMax are also seen in proximity to faults seen in the image logs. We surmise that both these types of stress variations are related to slip on secondary active faults in the hanging wall and foot wall of the Chelungpu Fault. Also, fast polarization directions of shear waves from dipole sonic logs show good agreement with some - but not all - of these SHMax azimuths, suggesting that seismic anisotropy in these bedded shales is, in part, stress controlled. Furthermore, the zones over which SHMax changes most rapidly are characterized by anomalously low seismic velocity and resistivity, which may provide further evidence of a causal relationship between these stress rotations and the presence of nearby active faults. Leak-off tests conducted at depths of 1000-1250 m were used to calculate the magnitudes of the minimum horizontal stress (Shmin) as a function of depth. Near a depth of 1111 m, which corresponds to the location of a major shear zone seen in the core recovered from this well, the value of Shmin is anomalously high and approximately equal to the calculated overburden stress. Major changes in SHMax azimuth and fast polarization

  17. Geophysical logging of bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2014-01-01

    Maximum groundwater temperatures at the bottom of the logs ranged from 11.2 to 15.4 degrees Celsius. Geothermal gradients were generally higher than those typically reported for other water wells in the United States. Some of the high gradients were associated with high natural gamma emissions. Groundwater flow was discernible in 4 of the 10 wells studied but only obscured the part of the geothermal gradient signal where groundwater actually flowed into, out of, or through the well. Temperature gradients varied by mapped bedrock type but can also vary by localized differences in mineralogy or rock type within the wells.

  18. Use of geophysical logs to estimate the quality of ground water and the permeability of aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The relation of formation factor to resistivity of formation water and intergranular permeability has often been investigated, and the general consensus is that this relation is closest when established in a clean-sand aquifer in which water quality does not vary substantially. When these restrictions are applied, the following standard equation is a useful tool in estimating the resistance of the formation water: F = Ro/Rw, where F is the formation factor, which is a function of the effective porosity; Ro is the resistivity of a formation that is 100 percent saturated with interstitial water; and Rw is the resistivity of the water in the saturated zone. However, arenaceous aquifers can have electrical resistivities that are not directly related to resistivity of water or porosity. Surface conductivity and ion exchange are significant factors when the sediments are clay bearing. The solid constituents are a major component of the parameters needed to solve the equation for formation-water resistivity and estimates of aquifer permeability. A correction process needs to be applied to adjust the variables, Ro and F, to the equivalent of clean sand. This report presents an empirical method of using the neutron log and the electrical-resistivity values from long- and short-normal resistivity logs to correct for fine-grained material and the subsequent effects of low impedance to electrical flow that are not related to the resistance of formation water.

  19. 1992 Yearly calibration of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s gross gamma-ray borehole geophysical logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, R J

    1992-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 yearly calibration of a gross gamma-ray geophysical pulse logging system owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The calibration was conducted to permit the continued use of this system for geologic and hydrologic studies associated with remedial investigation at the Hanford Site. The calibration is limited to the probe identified as CG27A-97. Primary calibrations to equivalent-uranium units were conducted in DOE borehole model standards that reside on the Hanford Site. The calibrations were performed in borehole models SBL/SBH and SBA/SBB, which contain low equivalent-uranium concentrations. A previous correlation for relating observed count rate in before- and after-logging field calibrations to equivalent-uranium concentrations was confirmed for field source Ra-20S-82. A computer-based digital collection/recording system was used simultaneously on many of the procedures with the original analog system so that the performance of the two collection systems could be correlated and compared at some future date.

  20. Recognition of units in coarse, unconsolidated braided-stream deposits from geophysical log data with principal components analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    Returns from drilling in unconsolidated cobble and sand aquifers commonly do not identify lithologic changes that may be meaningful for Hydrogeologic investigations. Vertical resolution of saturated, Quaternary, coarse braided-slream deposits is significantly improved by interpreting natural gamma (G), epithermal neutron (N), and electromagnetically induced resistivity (IR) logs obtained from wells at the Capital Station site in Boise, Idaho. Interpretation of these geophysical logs is simplified because these sediments are derived largely from high-gamma-producing source rocks (granitics of the Boise River drainage), contain few clays, and have undergone little diagenesis. Analysis of G, N, and IR data from these deposits with principal components analysis provides an objective means to determine if units can be recognized within the braided-stream deposits. In particular, performing principal components analysis on G, N, and IR data from eight wells at Capital Station (1) allows the variable system dimensionality to be reduced from three to two by selecting the two eigenvectors with the greatest variance as axes for principal component scatterplots, (2) generates principal components with interpretable physical meanings, (3) distinguishes sand from cobble-dominated units, and (4) provides a means to distinguish between cobble-dominated units.

  1. Slimhole Drilling, Logging, and Completion Technology - An Update

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; JACOBSON,RONALD D.

    1999-10-07

    Using slim holes (diameter < 15 cm) for geothermal exploration and small-scale power production can produce significant cost savings compared to conventional rotary-drilling methods. In addition, data obtained from slim holes can be used to lower the risks and costs associated with the drilling and completion of large-diameter geothermal wells. As a prime contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories has worked with industry since 1992 to develop and promote drilling, testing, and logging technology for slim holes. This paper describes the current status of work done both in-house and contracted to industry. It focuses on drilling technology, case histories of slimhole drilling projects, data collection and rig instrumentation, and high-temperature logging tools.

  2. Geophysical-log and hydraulic-test analyses of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community, Menominee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Anderson, J. Alton; Lampe, David C.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hannahville Indian Community, evaluated the geohydrology of the bedrock formations and hydraulic properties of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community in Menominee County, Michigan. Geophysical logs were collected from five wells at two sites during September 2012. The logs were analyzed to characterize the lithostratigraphy, bedding and fractures, and hydraulic properties of the geologic formations and aquifers beneath the Hannahville Indian Community. The geophysical logs collected included natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, wellbore image, caliper, ambient and stressed flowmeter, fluid resistivity, temperature, and wellbore deviation. The geophysical logs were analyzed with results from short-term hydraulic tests to estimate the transmissivity and water-level altitudes of flow zones penetrated by the wells. The geophysical log analysis indicated the wells penetrated four distinct lithostratigraphic units—shale and carbonate rock, upper carbonate rock, carbonate rock and glauconitic sandstone, and lower carbonate rock. Most of the fractures penetrated by the wellbores appeared to be related bedding partings. The lower carbonate rock unit contained solution features. Analysis of the geophysical logs and hydraulic tests indicated that each of the five wells penetrated from one to four flow zones. The Casino 5 well penetrated a flow zone that was associated with solution features and had an estimated total transmissivity of 4,280 feet squared per day (ft2/d), the highest estimate for all the wells. The Casino 3 well penetrated four flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 3,570 ft2/d. The flow zones penetrated in the lower carbonate rock unit by the Casino 3 and 5 wells were hydraulically connected. The Golf Shack well penetrated two flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 40 ft2/d, the lowest estimate for all the wells. The Community 1

  3. Analysis of geophysical logs from six boreholes at Lariat Gulch, former U.S. Air Force site PJKS, Jefferson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hodges, Richard E.; Corland, Barbara S.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents and describes geophysical logs for six boreholes in Lariat Gulch, a topographic gulch at the former U.S. Air Force site PJKS in Jefferson County near Denver, Colorado. Geophysical logs include gamma, normal resistivity, fluid-column temperature and resistivity, caliper, televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. These logs were run in two boreholes penetrating only the Fountain Formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age (logged to depths of about 65 and 570 feet) and in four boreholes (logged to depths of about 342 to 742 feet) penetrating mostly the Fountain Formation and terminating in Precambrian crystalline rock, which underlies the Fountain Formation. Data from the logs were used to identify fractures and bedding planes and to locate the contact between the two formations. The logs indicated few fractures in the boreholes and gave no indication of higher transmissivity in the contact zone between the two formations. Transmissivities for all fractures in each borehole were estimated to be less than 2 feet squared per day.

  4. Use of geophysical logs in recognizing depositional environments in the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River area, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Toth, J.C.; Moore, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The environmental conditions under which rocks in the Paleocene Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation were deposited in the Powder River area, Wyoming and Montana, can be determined using geophysical logs with some limitations. It is widely recognized that gamma ray and density logs are useful in identifying thickness and stratigraphic position of coal beds. In addition, gamma ray and electrical resistivity logs can be used to infer conditions of transportation and deposition of sandstones, siltstones, and other rock types. In particular, intensity responses of the gamma ray and resistance logs provide a clue to variations of grain size such as fining-upward and coarsening-upward characteristics of fluvial channel and crevasse splay deposits, respectively. These signatures in the geophysical logs are readily observed for some beds; for other beds however, the depositional conditions are difficult to determine because the beds do not produce clear-cut log-response patterns. Thus,. analysis of the environments of deposition of detrital rocks in drill holes can be made more accurate by a study of stratigraphically equivalent intervals in outcrops near drill-hole sites.

  5. Evaluation of geophysical logs and slug tests, phase II, at AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, R.W.; Goode, D.J.; Sloto, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Between September 1997 and October 1998, nine monitor wells were drilled at the AIW Frank/Mid-County Mustang Superfund Site in Chester County, Pa., to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole geophysical logging and borehole television surveys in these boreholes to identify water-producing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each borehole. Caliper logs and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures; inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulseflowmeter measurements verified these locations. The borehole television surveys indicated that locally, the rocks of the Conestoga Limestone and Ledger Dolomite that underlie the site strike generally from northeast-southwest to east-west and dip steeply to the southeast and south approximately 63? to 76?. Slug tests were conducted at six boreholes to estimate transmissivity. Transmissivity from slug tests ranged from 21 feet squared per day in borehole CH-5669 to greater than 12,000 feet squared per day in boreholes CH-5665 and CH-5667. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller's logs, all boreholes were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more water-producing zones in each borehole.

  6. Construction Diagrams, Geophysical Logs, and Lithologic Descriptions for Boreholes USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from ten U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) boreholes completed between 1999 nd 2006 at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL): USGS 126a, 126b, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, and 134. Nine boreholes were continuously cored; USGS 126b had 5 ft of core. Completion depths range from 472 to 1,238 ft. Geophysical data were collected for each borehole, and those data are summarized in this report. Cores were photographed and digitally logged using commercially available software. Digital core logs are in appendixes A through J. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered. This report was prepared by the USGS in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  7. Magnetotelluric data collected near geophysically logged boreholes in the Espa?ola and Middle Rio Grande basins, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    The Santa Fe region is growing rapidly. The Santa Fe Group aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin is the main source of municipal water for the region, and water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Tertiary Santa Fe Group. The Santa Fe Group includes the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift and contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the Espa?ola Basin in northern New Mexico. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, electromagnetic surveys, and hydrologic, lithologic, and hydro-geochemical data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. Magnetotelluric (MT) surveys were completed as part of these studies. The primary purpose of the MT surveys was to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in various rock types that help control the properties of aquifers in the region. Resistivity modeling of the MT data can be used to investigate buried structures related to the basic geologic framework of the study area. The purpose of this report is to release MT sounding data collected near geophysically logged boreholes in the study area, including the nearby Middle Rio Grande Basin. This MT data can be used in subsequent resistivity modeling. No interpretation of the data is included in this report.

  8. Fossils, lithologies, and geophysical logs of the Mancos Shale from core hole USGS CL-1 in Montrose County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Bridget A.; Cobban, W.A.; Merewether, E.A.; Grauch, R.I.; McKinney, K.C.; Livo, K.E.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary investigation of Mancos Shale landscapes in the Gunnison Gorge National Conservation Area in Delta and Montrose Counties of western Colorado by the U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Land Management, and Bureau of Reclamation, a core of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale was obtained from a borehole, USGS CL-1, in NE1/4 sec. 8, T. 50 N., R. 9 W. (approximately lat 38.61717 degree(s) N., long 107.90174 degree(s) W.), near the town of Olathe. Geophysical records of the borehole include resistivity, gamma ray, and density logs. The core extends between depths of 20 and 557 ft and is about 2.5 in. in diameter. It is composed of calcareous silty shale, as well as scattered beds of limestone and bentonite which were deposited mainly in offshore marine environments during the Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian Stages of the Cretaceous Series. The strata were sampled and analyzed to obtain geochemical data and to identify constituent fossils. Stratigraphic units within the Mancos in the core include the following members, in ascending order: Bridge Creek Limestone (part), Fairport, Blue Hill, Juana Lopez, Montezuma Valley, and Niobrara (part). Strata herein assigned to the Bridge Creek Limestone are about 18 ft thick and consist of silty shale that contains ammonites, bivalves, and a coral of Late Cenomanian age. Strata assigned to the Fairport are about 22 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenite-bearing, calcareous shale. Fossils in this member include ammonites and bivalves of early middle Turonian age. Overlying the Fairport is the Blue Hill Member, which is about 139 ft thick, and consists of glauconitic, shaley siltstone, and less silty shale. The Juana Lopez Member, overlying the Blue Hill, is about 138 ft thick and composed mainly of calcarenitic, silty shale. Beds in this member contain ammonites and bivalves of late middle and early late Turonian ages. Overlying the Juana Lopez is the Montezuma Valley Member, which is about 55 ft

  9. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  10. Geophysical logging to determine construction, contributing zones, and appropriate use of water levels measured in confined-aquifer network wells, San Luis Valley, Colorado, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brendle, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Geophysical logs were recorded in 32 wells in the confined-aquifer monitoring well network maintained by the Rio Grande Water Conservation District. Logging results were used to determine well construction, zones contributing water to the wells, and the purposes for which the ground-water levels measured in the wells can be used. The confined-aquifer well network consists of 42 flowing and nonflowing wells. This network consists of wells used to supply water for irrigation, household use, wildlife refuge supply, and stock use, and wells for water-level monitoring. Geophysical logs recorded in the wells included video, caliper, water specific conductance, water temperature, and water flow. Most wells in the confined-aquifer well network yield a composite water level representing water levels in multiple permeable zones in the confined-aquifer system of the San Luis Valley. A potentiometric-surface map constructed using November 2000 water levels indicates that water levels from most wells in the network are correlated with water levels from nearby network wells. Potentiometric-surface maps that are constructed from water levels measured in most of the wells in the network can be used to understand long-term local and regional changes in water levels in the confined-aquifer system. Water levels measured in 8 of the 42 wells in the confined-aquifer network are not representative of water levels in the confined-aquifer system.

  11. A comparison of binary and multiclass support vector machine models for volcanic lithology estimation using geophysical log data from Liaohe Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Dan; Wang, Zhu-Wen

    2016-05-01

    Lithology estimation of rocks, especially volcanic lithology, is one of the major goals of geophysical exploration. In this paper, we propose the use of binary and multiclass support vector machine models with geophysical log data to estimate the volcanic lithology of the Liaohe Basin, China. Using neutron (CNL), density (DEN), acoustic (AC), deep lateral resistivity (RLLD), and gamma-ray (GR) log data from 40 wells (a total of 1200 log data points) in the Liaohe Basin, China, we first construct the binary support vector machine model to classify volcanic rock and non-volcanic rock. Then, we expand the binary model to a multiclass model using the approach of directed acyclic graphs, and construct multiclass models to classify six types of volcanic rocks: basalt, non-compacted basalt, trachyte, non-compacted trachyte, gabbro and diabase. To assess the accuracy of these two models, we compare their predictions with core data from four wells (at 800 different depth points in total). Results indicate that the accuracy of the binary and multiclass models are 98.4% and 87%, respectively, demonstrating that binary and multiclass support vector machine models are effective methods for classifying volcanic lithology.

  12. Geophysical log database for the Floridan aquifer system and southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Lester J.; Raines, Jessica E.; Lanning, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program began two regional studies in the southeastern United States in the fall of 2009 to investigate ground-water availability of fresh and brackish water resources: (1) groundwater availability of the Floridan aquifer system, (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/activities/regional.html), and (2) saline water aquifer mapping in the southeastern United States. A common goal for both studies was to gather available geophysical logs and related data from the State geological surveys and the USGS that would be used as a basis for developing a hydrogeologic framework for the study area. Similar efforts were undertaken by the USGS Floridan and Southeastern Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program from the 1970s to mid-1990s (Miller, 1986; Renken, 1996). The logs compiled for these older efforts were difficult to access from the paper files; however, and partly because of this, older and newer logs were compiled into a single digital database for the current study. The purpose of this report is to summarize the different types of logs and related data contained in the database and to provide these logs in a digital format that can be accessed online through the database and files accompanying this report (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/760/).

  13. Geophysical logs and water-quality data collected for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B, and a Kimama water supply well near Kimama, southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, a research consortium led by scientists from Utah State University began drilling the first of three continuously cored boreholes on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho. The goals of this effort, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, are to study the interaction between the Earth's crust and mantle, to identify potential geothermal energy sources, and to track the evolution of the Yellowstone hotspot on the Snake River Plain. The first borehole, located near Kimama, Idaho, is about 50 miles southwest of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory. Because geohydrologic data are scarce for that area of the central Snake River Plain, the Kimama borehole, completed in January 2011, provided a unique opportunity to collect geophysical and water-chemistry data from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, downgradient of the laboratory. Therefore, in conjunction with the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory Project Office conducted geophysical logging and collected water samples at the Kimama site. Wireline geophysical logs were collected for the diverging borehole, Kimama-1A and -1B, from land surface to 976 and 2,498 feet below land surface (BLS), respectively. Water samples were collected from Kimama-1A at depths near 460 and 830 feet BLS, and from the Kimama Water Supply (KWS) well located about 75 feet away. Geophysical log data included a composite of natural gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma dual density, and gyroscopic analysis for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B. Geophysical logs depicted eight sediment layers (excluding surficial sediment) ranging from 4 to 60 feet in thickness. About 155 individual basalt flows were identified, ranging from less than 3 feet to more than 175 feet in thickness (averaging 15 feet) for borehole Kimama-1B (0 to 2,498 feet BLS). Sediment and basalt contacts were selected based on geophysical traces and were confirmed

  14. Lithologic properties of carbonate-rock aquifers at five test wells in the Coyote Spring Valley Area, southern Nevada, as determined from geophysical logs. Water resources investigation report

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Regional ground-water flow systems in the carbonate-rock aquifers in southern Nevada were evaluated as potential sources for water supply as part of the Nevada Carbonate Aquifers Program. Geophysical log analyses indicated that the test wells penetrate carbonate rocks, which vary in composition from limestone to dolomite and include mixtures of both. Calcite was found to be the predominant matrix mineral and shales made up of only a small percentage of the overall rock. Bulk-density measurements averaged 2.65 grams per cubic centimeter and the matrix density estimates averaged 2.76 grams per cubic centimeter. Increased amounts of silica in the matrix mineralogy were associated with greater total porosity values. The log analyses indicated an average of 4.7 percent porosity for 43 zones in the test wells.

  15. Use of Borehole Geophysical Logs for Improved Site Characterization at Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant, Dallas, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anaya, Roberto; Braun, Christopher L.; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2000-01-01

    A shallow alluvial aquifer at the Naval Weapons Industrial Reserve Plant near Dallas, Texas, has been contaminated by organic solvents used in the fabrication and assembly of aircraft and aircraft parts. Natural gamma-ray and electromagnetic-induction log data collected during 1997 from 162 wells were integrated with existing lithologic and cone-penetrometer test log data to improve characterization of the subsurface alluvium at the site. The alluvium, consisting of mostly fine-grained, low-permeability sediments, was classified into low, intermediate, and high clay-content sediments on the basis of the gamma-ray logs. Low clay-content sediments were interpreted as being relatively permeable, whereas high clay-content sediments were interpreted as being relatively impermeable. Gamma-ray logs, cone-penetrometer test logs, and electromagnetic-induction logs were used to develop a series of intersecting sections to delineate the spatial distribution of low, intermediate, and high clay-content sediments and to delineate zones of potentially contaminated sediments. The sections indicate three major sedimentary units in the shallow alluvial aquifer at NWIRP. The lower unit consists of relatively permeable, low clay-content sediments and is absent over the southeastern and northwestern part of the site. Permeable zones in the complex, discontinuous middle unit are present mostly in the western part of the site. In the eastern and southeastern part of the site, the upper unit has been eroded away and replaced by fill material. Zones of potentially contaminated sediments are generally within the uppermost clay layer or fill material. In addition, the zones tend to be local occurrences.

  16. Geophysical Log Data from Basalt Aquifers Near Waipahu on the Island of Oahu and Pahoa on the Island of Hawaii, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Hess, Alfred E.

    1995-01-01

    Two relatively new geophysical logging techniques, the digitally enhanced borehole acoustic televiewer and the heat-pulse flowmeter, were tested from 1987 to 1991 at two sites in Hawaii: Waipahu on the island of Oahu, and Pahoa on the island of Hawaii. Although these data were obtained in an effort to test and improve these two logging techniques, the measurements are of interest to hydrologists studying the aquifers in Hawaii. This report presents a review of the measurements conducted during this effort and summarizes the data obtained in a form designed to make that data available to hydrologists studying the movement of ground water in Hawaiian aquifers. Caliper logs obtained at the Waipahu site indicate the distribution of openings in interbed clinker zones between relatively dense and impermeable basalt flows. The flowmeter data indicate the pattern of flow induced along seven observation boreholes that provide conduits between interbed zones in the vicinity of the Mahoe Pumping Station at the Waipahu site. The televiewer image logs obtained in some of the Waipahu Mahoe boreholes do not show any significant vertical or steeply dipping fractures that might allow communication across the dense interior of basalt flows. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at the Pahoa site show that a number of steeply dipping fractures and dikes cut across basalt flows. Although flow under ambient hydraulic-head conditions in the Waipahu Mahoe Observation boreholes is attributed to hydraulic gradients associated with pumping from a nearby pumping station, flow in the Waipio Deep Observation borehole on Oahu and flow in the Scientific Observation borehole on Hawaii are attributed to the effects of natural recharge and downward decreasing hydraulic heads associated with that recharge.

  17. Establishing the base of underground sources of drinking water (10,000ppm) using geophysical logs and chemical reports in the southern San Joaquin Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, David; Gillespie, Janice

    2016-04-01

    Recent concerns about well stimulation and oilfield disposal practices has resulted in the desire to learn more about the distribution of usable groundwater that might be impacted by these practices. Waters that require protection are classified by the US EPA as USDW's (Underground Sources of Drinking Water). These waters have a concentration of 10,000 parts per million total dissolved solids and are not within an exempt aquifer. Direct sampling and chemical analyses of the water from oil and gas producing formations provide the most accurate values for the formation water salinities, but the data is scarce. The method in this analysis uses open-hole geophysical logs and Archie's equation to calculate the salinity. The two methods used in the analysis are the spontaneous potential method that uses the spontaneous potential log and the mud and formation resistivity values to calculate a salinity, and the resistivity-porosity method that uses the resistivity and porosity logs. Sonic, density, and neutron logs are available in the southern San Joaquin as well as porosity values from cores. Results shows that the resistivity porosity method has a smaller error than the spontaneous potential method, therefore, the resistivity-porosity method is chosen for the analysis of the 10,000 parts per million boundary. Due to the lack of porosity logs in wells with chemical analyses, porosity values recorded in DOGGR reports are used in the Humble equation to link the formation water resistivity to salinity. In this way, we can back calculate the deep resistivity vales that should correspond to the 10,000 salinity boundary to determine the depth at which the base of the USDW is found.

  18. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large

  19. Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

  20. Construction diagrams, geophysical logs, and lithologic descriptions for boreholes USGS 103, 105, 108, 131, 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, Mary K.V.; Orr, Stephanie M.; Potter, Katherine E.; LeMaitre, Tynan

    2012-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, summarizes construction, geophysical, and lithologic data collected from about 4,509 feet of core from seven boreholes deepened or drilled by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, from 2006 to 2009 at the INL. USGS 103, 105, 108, and 131 were deepened and cored from 759 to 1,307 feet, 800 to 1,409 feet, 760 to 1,218 feet, and 808 to 1,239 feet, respectively. Boreholes USGS 135, NRF-15, and NRF-16 were drilled and continuously cored from land surface to 1,198, 759, and 425 feet, respectively. Cores were photographed and digitally logged by using commercially available software. Borehole descriptions summarize location, completion date, and amount and type of core recovered.

  1. Results of borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in the John Wagner and Sons, Inc former production well, Ivyland, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    A suite of borehole geophysical logs and heat-pulse-flowmeter measurements run in the former production well at the John Wagner and Sons, Inc. plant indicate two zones of borehole flow. In the upper part of the well, water enters the borehole through a fracture at 90 ft (feet) below floor level, moves upward, and exits the borehole through a fracture at 72 ft below floor level. Water also enters the borehole through fractures at 205-213, 235, and 357 ft below floor level; moves downward; and exits the borehole through fractures at 450-459, 468-470, and 483-490 ft below floor level. Five zones were selected for aquifer-isolation (packer) tests on the basis of borehole geophysical logs. The zones were isolated using a straddle-packer assembly. The lowermost three zones (below 248, 223 to 248, and 198 to 223 ft below floor level) were hydraulically isolated from zones above and below. Specific capacities were 0.12, 0.034, and 0.15 gallons per minute per foot, respectively. The hydrograph from zone 2 (223 to 248 ft below floor level) showed interference from a nearby pumping well. For the upper two zones (81 to 106 and 57 to 81 ft below floor level), similar drawdowns in the isolated zone and the zones above and below the isolated zone indicate that these fractures are hydraulically connected outside the borehole in the unconfined part of the Stockton Formation. The specific capacity of zones 4 and 5 are similar--0.82 and 0.61, respectively.

  2. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  3. Correlation of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation as interpreted from geophysical logs, east-central San Juan County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandberg, Dorothy T.

    1986-01-01

    Correlation of coal beds in the Fruitland Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in the subsurface, from interpretation of geophysical logs, is an outgrowth of unpublished studies of deep coal on the Navajo Reservation by the author in the Toadlena 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, New Mexico, and by W. J. Mapel in the Farmington 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, New Mexico.  The lines of sections of this report extend eastward from the reservation into east-central San Juan County, which is in the western part of the San Juan Basin.  In this area, the rocks dip gently northeast toward the central part of the basin.  The thick coal is less than 1,500 feet beneath the surface.  Of the 53 logs in the sections, 48 are from oil- and gas-test holes, and 5 are from coal-test holes (see table 1).  Stratigraphic relations of the Upper Cretaceous Lewis Shale, Pictured Cliffs Sandstone, and Fruitland Formation, shown on the cross sections and briefly reviewed below, have been previously described for this or other parts of the San Juan Basin by Hayes and Zapp (1955), Beaumont (1971), Fassett and hinds (1971), O;Sullivan and other (1972), and Molenaar (1983), among others.

  4. Identification of water-bearing zones by the use of geophysical logs and borehole television surveys, collected February to September 1997, at the Former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Between February 1997 and September 1997, 10 monitor wells were drilled near the site of the former Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Bucks County, Pa., to monitor water levels and sample ground-water contaminants in the shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. The sampling will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of contaminated ground water migrating from known or suspected contaminant sources. Four wells were drilled north of the property adjacent to Area A, three wells along strike located on Lewis Drive, and three wells directly down dip on Ivyland Road. Well depths range from 69 feet to 300 feet below land surface. Borehole-geophysical logging and television surveys were used to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were obtained at the 10 monitor wells. Borehole television surveys were obtained at the four monitor wells adjacent to Area A. Caliper and borehole television surveys were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluidtemperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and heatpulse- flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, borehole television surveys, and driller?s logs, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and water samples collected from discrete water-bearing zones in each borehole.

  5. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on

  6. Contact zone permeability at intrusion boundaries: New results from hydraulic testing and geophysical logging in the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matter, J.M.; Goldberg, D.S.; Morin, R.H.; Stute, M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic tests and geophysical logging performed in the Palisades sill and the underlying sedimentary rocks in the NE part of the Newark Rift Basin, New York, USA, confirm that the particular transmissive zones are localized within the dolerite-sedimentary rock contact zone and within a narrow interval below this contact zone that is characterized by the occurrence of small layers of chilled dolerite. Transmissivity values determined from fluid injection, aquifer testing, and flowmeter measurements generally fall in the range of 8.1E-08 to 9.95E-06 m2/s and correspond to various scales of investigation. The analysis of acoustic and optical BHTV images reveals two primary fracture sets within the dolerite and the sedimentary rocks - subhorizontal fractures, intersected by subvertical ones. Despite being highly fractured either with subhorizontal, subvertical or both fracture populations, the dolerite above and the sedimentary rocks below the contact zone and the zone with the layers of chilled dolerite are significantly less conductive. The distribution of the particular conductive intervals is not a function of the two dominant fracture populations or their density but rather of the intrusion path of the sill. The intrusion caused thermal fracturing and cracking of both formations, resulting in higher permeability along the contact zone. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  7. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  8. Stratigraphy and geophysical logs from a corehole drilled to bedrock at Robins Point, J-Field, Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powars, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous core was recovered from a 961-foot- deep stratigraphic corehole at Robins Point, located at the southeastern tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula, Harford County, Maryland. A 2-inch- diameter ground-water-quality observation well was installed with the screen set at a depth of 392 to 402 feet (ft). Geophysical logs obtained from thecorehole include: natural gamma, multipoint normal resistivity (16-inch and 64-inch), 4-ft-guard focused resistivity, acoustic (sonic) velocity, and caliper. Pollen analysis of 34 samples provided relativestratigraphic ages. Lithologies encountered in ascending order (surface elevation 4 ft above mean sea level), include: 72.4 ft of weatheredmetamorphic rock and saprolie, 711.4 ft of lower and upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic deposits, and 145.9 ft of Pleistocene and 31.3 ft of Holocene(?) fluvial and estuarine deposits. Aquifers and confining units identified include, in descending order: 41.8 ft of surficial aquifer, 90.9 ft of upper paleochannel confining unit, 28.8 ft of paleochannel confined aquifer, 15.7 ft of lower paleochannel confining unit, 123.7 ft of Upper Patapsco aquifer, 44.6 ft of Upper Patapsco confining unit, 92.8 ft of Middle Patapsco aquifer, 57.3 ft of Lower Patapsco confining unit, 151.7 ft of Lower Patapsco aquifer, 115.4 ft of Potomac confining unit, 126.4 ft of Patuxent aquifer, an aquifer of 23.4 ft of saprolite, and 48.7 ft of weathered-rock/saprolite confining unit.

  9. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong

  10. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    BP-3-USGS was sited to test hypotheses developed from geophysical studies and to answer questions about the history and evolution of Pliocene and Pleistocene Lake Alamosa, which is represented by lacustrine deposits sampled by the well. The findings reported here represent a basis from which future studies can answer these questions and address other important scientific questions in the San Luis Valley regarding geologic history and climate change, groundwater hydrology, and geophysical interpretation.

  11. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logging, aquifer-isolation tests, distribution of contaminants, and water-level measurements at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site, Bucks and Montgomery counties, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.

    2002-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquiferisolation (packer) tests were conducted at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund site in Bucks and Montgomery Counties, Pa. Caliper, naturalgamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and digital acoustic-televiewer logs and borehole television surveys were collected in 32 new and previously drilled wells that ranged in depth from 68 to 302 feet. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole- fluid movement, select depths to set packers, and locate appropriate screen intervals for reconstructing new wells as monitoring wells. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in four wells to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of discrete water-bearing zones. Specific capacities of isolated zones during packer testing ranged from 0.12 to 15.30 gallons per minute per foot. Most fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. The acoustic-televiewer logs define two basic fracture sets, bedding-plane partings with a mean strike of N. 62? E. and a mean dip of 27? NW., and high-angle fractures with a mean strike of N. 58? E. and a mean dip of 72? SE. Correlation of heatpulse-flowmeter data and acoustic-televiewer logs showed 83 percent of identified water-bearing fractures were high-angle fractures.

  12. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  13. Geophysical Exploration Technologies for the Deep Lithosphere Research: An Education Materials for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Xu, C.; Luo, S.; Chen, H.; Qin, R.

    2012-12-01

    The science of Geophysics applies the principles of physics to study of the earth. Geophysical exploration technologies include the earthquake seismology, the seismic reflection and refraction methods, the gravity method, the magnetic method and the magnetotelluric method, which are used to measure the interior material distribution, their structure and the tectonics in the lithosphere of the earth. Part of the research project in SinoProbe-02-06 is to develop suitable education materials for carton movies targeting the high school students and public. The carton movies include five parts. The first part includes the structures of the earth's interior and variation in their physical properties that include density, p-wave, s-wave and so on, which are the fundamentals of the geophysical exploration technologies. The second part includes the seismology that uses the propagation of elastic waves through the earth to study the structure and the material distribution of the earth interior. It can be divided into earthquake seismology and artifice seismics commonly using reflection and refraction. The third part includes the magnetic method. Earth's magnetic field (also known as the geomagnetic field)extends from the Earth's inner core to where it meets the solar wind, a stream of energetic particles emanating from the Sun. The aim of magnetic survey is to investigate subsurface geology on the basis of anomalies in the Earth's magnetic field resulting from the magnetic properties of the underlying rocks. The magnetic method in the lithosphere attempts to use magnetic disturbance to analyse the regional geological structure and the magnetic boundaries of the crust. The fourth part includes the gravity method. A gravity anomaly results from the inhomogeneous distribution of density of the Earth. Usually gravity anomalies contain superposed anomalies from several sources. The long wave length anomalies due to deep density contrasts are called regional anomalies. They are

  14. Applied geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Dohr, G.

    1981-01-01

    This book discusses techniques which play a predominant role in petroleum and natural gas exploration. Particular emphasis has been placed on modern seismics which today claims over 90% of man-power and financial resources in exploration. The processing of geophysical data is the most important factor in applied physics and emphasis is placed on it in the discussion of exploration problems. Chapter titles include: refraction seismics; reflection seismics; seismic field techniques; digital seismics-electronic data processing; digital seismics-practical application; recent developments, special seismic procedures; gravitational methods; magnetic methods; geoelectric methods; well-logging; and miscellaneous methods in applied geophysics (thermal methods, radioactive dating, natural radioactivity surveys, and surface detection of gas. (DMC)

  15. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT E) project by EG G Energy Measurement's (EG G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory's unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  16. Survey of subsurface geophysical exploration technologies adaptable to an airborne platform

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.A.

    1992-12-01

    This report has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of a Research Development Demonstration Testing and Evaluation (RDDT&E) project by EG&G Energy Measurement`s (EG&G/EM) Remote Sensing Laboratory. It examines geophysical detection techniques which may be used in Environmental Restoration/Waste Management (ER/WM) surveys to locate buried waste, waste containers, potential waste migratory paths, and aquifer depths. Because of the Remote Sensing Laboratory`s unique survey capabilities, only those technologies which have been adapted or are capable of being adapted to an airborne platform were studied. This survey describes several of the available subsurface survey technologies and discusses the basic capabilities of each: the target detectability, required geologic conditions, and associated survey methods. Because the airborne capabilities of these survey techniques have not been fully developed, the chapters deal mostly with the ground-based capabilities of each of the technologies, with reference made to the airborne capabilities where applicable. The information about each survey technique came from various contractors whose companies employ these specific technologies. EG&G/EM cannot guarantee or verify the accuracy of the contractor information; however, the data given is an indication of the technologies that are available.

  17. Borehole logging at the COSC-1 drill hole: a new dataset of in-situ geophysical properties through the lower Seve Nappe Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, Théo; Alm, Per-Gunnar; Wenning, Quinn; Almqvist, Bjarne; Kück, Jochem; Hedin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) drilling project supported by the International Continental Drilling Program was designed to study mountain building processes in a deeply eroded Paleozoic orogen. The first half of this project, COSC-1, targeted the lower part of the high grade Seve Nappe Complex and its basal thrust zone near Åre in the Jämtland county, Sweden. From May to August 2014, the COSC drilling crew drilled to a depth of 2496 m from the surface with an almost fully recovered core sample. During this drilling period, four borehole-logging runs have been conducted by Lund University with a low impact on drilling schedule and two supplementary ones once the drilling was completed. Three-Arm Caliper, Electrical Logging, Sidewall Density, Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity, High Resolution Acoustic Televiewer and Full Waveform Sonic sondes have been used to investigate in-situ physical properties of the borehole. In addition, the ICDP operational support group has conducted two continuous borehole-logging runs from the surface to the bottom of the COSC-1 borehole in September and October. Due to technical problems, some of the planned logging have not been completed, however natural gamma, rock resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature and fluid conductivity have been measured all along the borehole. We used the continuous natural gamma log from the ICDP logging group as the depth reference to depth-match and stack the composite borehole logging done during the drilling. These borehole logging operations result in reliable continuous data of resistivity, density, velocity, magnetic susceptibility, K/Th/U concentration, temperature, fluid conductivity, pressure, diameter as well as an image (amplitude and travel time of reflected ultrasounds) of the borehole till its bottom. Only the density, velocity and image datasets stop at 1600 m depth due to instrumentation limits. Preliminary conclusions from

  18. A Virtual Geophysical Network: Using Industry Standard Technology to Link Geographically Distributed Sensors and Data Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.; Crotwell, H. P.

    2003-12-01

    The IRIS Data Management System has long supported distributed data centers as a method of providing scientific researchers access to data from seismological networks around the world. For nearly a decade, the NetDC system used email as the method through which users could access data centers located around the globe in a seamless fashion. More recently the IRIS DMC has partnered with the University of South Carolina to develop a new method through which a virtual data center can be created. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) technology is an industry standard distributed computing architecture. Traditionally used by major corporations, IRIS has developed a Data Handling Interface (DHI) system that is capable of connecting services at participating data centers (servers) to applications running on end-users computing platforms (clients). For seismology we have identified three services. 1) A network service that provides information about geophysical observatories around the world such as where the sensors exist, what types of information are recorded on the sensors, and calibration information that allows proper use of the data, 2) an event service that allows applications to access information about earthquakes and seismological events and 3) waveform services that allow users to gain access to seismograms or time series data from other geophysical sensors. Seismological Data Centers operate the servers thereby allowing a variety of client applications to directly access the information at these data centers. Currently IRIS, the U. of South Carolina, UC Berkeley, and a European Data Center (ORFEUS) have been involved in the DHI project. This talk will highlight some of the DHI enabled clients that allow geophysical information to be directly transferred to the clients. Since the data center servers appear with the same interface specification (Interface Definition Language) a client that can talk to one DHI server can talk to any DHI enabled

  19. Determination of depth, permeability, and fluid pressure of hydraulically active fractures in the COSC-1 borehole and their correlation with chemical and geophysical logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Berthet, Theo; Juhlin, Christopher; Niemi, Auli

    2016-04-01

    The Flowing Fluid Electricity Conductivity (FFEC) logging method has been applied to the 2.5-km fully-cored COSC-1 borehole in Sweden, both during and after the drilling period. The method is based on the fact that the drilling fluid has a lower electric conductivity (EC) value (about 200 μS/cm) compared to the formation water. Thus, by scanning several times along the borehole while it is being pumped at a low rate, Q, the locations of inflow zones can be identified as EC peaks at these depths. An analysis of the shape of the EC peaks will yield the local inflow rates and the formation water EC at each of the inflow zones. Further, by conducting the logging more than once with two values of Q, the initial or inherent fluid pressure at each inflow zone can be calculated. In the case of the COSC-1 borehole, the method has identified nine discrete inflow zones between 250 m depth and the borehole bottom of 2500 m depth. The permeability values are small and spread over more than one order of magnitude. The fluid pressures in the inflow zones show two groups of similar values with the shallow inflow zones having a higher pressure than those in the deeper part of the borehole. Correlation of the FFEC logging results with other information and data from the COSC-1 borehole are underway. First, rock cores were carefully examined at the depths of the inflow zones identified by FFEC logging. We were able to identify the fractures which may be responsible for the flow. It appears that each inflow zone can be correlated with one single fracture. The cores with these hydraulically active fractures have been transferred to the laboratory for detailed study. Second, COSC-1 fracture logs were reviewed. The majority of the fractures in the borehole are not hydraulically active and the active ones represent only about 1-2 % of the total number of fractures, consistent with previous statistical studies of fractures in crystalline rocks. Breakout logs were also studied and it

  20. Geophysical log documentation of fluid migration from compacting shales: A mineralization model from the devonian strata of the Pine Point Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, N.G.; Kyle, J.R.; Magara, K.

    1983-11-01

    The compaction history of a shale sequence can be evaluated through the interpretation of sonic logs that measure porosity as a function of transit time. Downward dewatering of a shale sequence is indicated by the presence of an undercompacted zone which overlies a normally compacted shale zone and permeable strata. Evaluation of sonic logs for the Middle Devonian shale sequences of the Mackenzie Basin indicates that a substantial volume of water could have been generated by late-stage shale compaction. This derivation of metal-rich formation water is compatible with mineralization features of the reefal carbonate-hosted PbZn sulfide deposits of the Pine Point district. Furthermore, the pattern of shale compaction trends within the basin suggests that expelled fluids migrated within linear conduits, a feature that could have regional exploration significance.

  1. Distribution of salinity in ground water from the interpretation of borehole-geophysical logs and salinity data, Calf Pasture Point, Davisville, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, Peter E.; Brandon, William C.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of salinity in ground water at Calf Pasture Point, a small coastal peninsula bounded by Narragansett Bay on the east and Allen Harbor on the west, in Davisville, Rhode Island, was interpreted from borehole-geophysical data and previously collected salinity data to help identify potential flowpaths of contaminated ground water to surface-water bodies. The surficial material at this 40-acre site, which ranges in thickness from about 30 to 85 feet, is composed of an upper sand unit, a silt unit, and a till unit overlying bedrock. Borehole-geophysical data indicate that fresh ground water is present in all surficial units in the northern and northwestern part of the site. In the central and eastern parts of the site, where most of the current land surface is composed of dredged fill placed in a small saltwater embayment, brackish and saline ground water predominate. Fresh ground water moving into this area from upgradient and recharge to this extended land surface from precipitation is diluting the saline groundwater in the upper sand and till units, and to a lesser extent in the silt unit. In this area, the freshwater-flow system is slowly expanding towards Narragansett Bay and the entrance channel to Allen Harbor.

  2. Recent advances in bio-logging science: Technologies and methods for understanding animal behaviour and physiology and their environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, K.; Lea, M.-A.; Patterson, T. A.

    2013-04-01

    The deployment of an ever-evolving array of animal-borne telemetry and data logging devices is rapidly increasing our understanding of the movement, behaviour and physiology of a variety species and the complex, and often highly dynamic, environments they use and respond to. The rapid rate at which new technologies, improvements to current technologies and new analytical techniques are being developed has meant that movements, behaviour and physiological processes are being quantified at finer spatial and temporal scales than ever before. The Fourth International Symposium on Bio-logging Science, held on 14-18 March in Hobart, Australia, brought together scientists across multiple disciplines to discuss the latest innovations in technology, applications and analytical techniques in bio-logging science, building on research presented at three previous conferences. Here we present an update on the state of bio-logging research and provide some views on the future of this field of research. Papers were grouped into five theme areas: (i) Southern Ocean ecosystems; (ii) fishery and biodiversity management applications; (iii) from individuals to populations—inferences of population dynamics from individuals; (iv) conservation biology and (v) habitat modelling. Papers reflected wider uptake of newer technologies, with a greater proportion of studies utilising accelerometry and incorporating advances in statistical modelling of behaviour and habitats, especially via state space modelling methods. Environmental data collected by tags at increasing accuracies are now having wider application beyond the bio-logging community, providing important oceanographic data from regions difficult to sample using traditional methodologies. Partnerships between multiple organisations are also now enabling regional assessments of species movements, behaviour and physiology at population scales and will continue to be important for applying bio-logging technologies to species

  3. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  4. Lithologic and geophysical logs of drill holes Felderhoff Federal 5-1 and 25-1, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, W.J.; Grow, J.A.; Keller, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    Two wildcat oil and gas exploration holes drilled in 1991 on the northern edge of the Amargosa Desert penetrated Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary rocks, alluvium, and basalt, possible Tertiary volcanic or volcaniclastic rocks, and Tertiary (?) and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The easternmost of the two holes, Felderhoff-Federal 5-1, encountered about 200 feet of alluvium, underlain by 305 feet of basalt breccia and basalt, about 345 feet of probable Tertiary tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and 616 feet of dense limestone and dolomite of uncertain age. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated 240 feet of alluvium and marl (?), and 250 feet of basalt breccia (?) and basalt, 270 feet of tuff (?) and/or tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, 360 feet of slide blocks (?) and large boulders of Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and 2,800 feet of Paleozoic limestone and dolomite. The two drill holes are located within a northerly trending fault zone defined largely by geophysical data; this fault zone lies along the east side of a major rift containing many small basalt eruptive centers and, farther north, several caldera complexes. Drill hole 25-1 penetrated an inverted paleozoic rock sequence; drill hole 5-1 encountered two large cavities 24-inches wide or more in dense carbonate rock of uncertain, but probable Paleozoic age. These openings may be tectonic and controlled by a regional system of northeast-striking faults.

  5. Basalt features observed in outcrops, cores, borehole video imagery and geophysical logs, and basalt hydrogeologic study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Bennecke, W.M.

    1996-10-01

    A study was undertaken to examine permeable zones identified in boreholes open to the underlying basalt and to describe the vertical cross flows present in the boreholes. To understand the permeable zones in the boreholes detailed descriptions and measurements of three outcrops in the Snake River Plain, three cores at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the INEL, and over fifty borehole TV logs from the INEL were carried out. Based on the observations made on the three outcrops an idealized basalt lava flow model was generated that used a set of nomenclature that would be standard for the basalt lava flows studied. An upper vesicular zone, a sometimes absent columnar zone, central zone, and lower vesicular zone make up the basalt lava flow model. The overall distinction between the different zones are based on the vesicle shape size, vesicularity, and fractures present. The results of the studies also indicated that the basalt lava flows at the INEL are distal to medial facies pahoehoe lava flows with close fitting contacts. The most permeable zones identified in these basalts are fractured vesiculated portions of the top of the lava flow, the columnar areas, and basalt-flow contacts in order of importance. This was determined from impeller flowmeter logging at the INEL. Having this information a detailed stratigraphy of individual basalt lava flows and the corresponding permeable units were generated. From this it was concluded that groundwater flow at the ICPP prefers to travel along thin basalt lava flows or flow-units. Flow direction and velocity of intrawell flows detected by flowmeter is controlled by a nearby pumping well.

  6. Interpretation of geophysical logs, aquifer tests, and water levels in wells in and near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.; Pracht, Karl A.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of various industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 beginning autumn 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area, and this stream flows southwest to bisect North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 16 wells that ranged in depth from 50 to 623 feet. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 9 of the 16 wells, for a total of 30 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping a 600-ft deep production well in February and March 2002. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in three wells in the area and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2000 through September 2002. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with

  7. ICS logging solution for network-based attacks using Gumistix technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Jeremy R.; Berman, Dustin; Butts, Jonathan; Lopez, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) monitor and control operations associated with the national critical infrastructure (e.g., electric power grid, oil and gas pipelines and water treatment facilities). These systems rely on technologies and architectures that were designed for system reliability and availability. Security associated with ICS was never an inherent concern, primarily due to the protections afforded by network isolation. However, a trend in ICS operations is to migrate to commercial networks via TCP/IP in order to leverage commodity benefits and cost savings. As a result, system vulnerabilities are now exposed to the online community. Indeed, recent research has demonstrated that many exposed ICS devices are being discovered using readily available applications (e.g., ShodanHQ search engine and Google-esque queries). Due to the lack of security and logging capabilities for ICS, most knowledge about attacks are derived from real world incidents after an attack has already been carried out and the damage has been done. This research provides a method for introducing sensors into the ICS environment that collect information about network-based attacks. The sensors are developed using an inexpensive Gumstix platform that can be deployed and incorporated with production systems. Data obtained from the sensors provide insight into attack tactics (e.g., port scans, Nessus scans, Metasploit modules, and zero-day exploits) and characteristics (e.g., attack origin, frequency, and level of persistence). Findings enable security professionals to draw an accurate, real-time awareness of the threats against ICS devices and help shift the security posture from reactionary to preventative.

  8. Integrating High-Resolution Geophysical Technologies with a GIS-Based Decision Support System into Evaluation and Management of Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    Wetlands perform many ecological functions and provide numerous societal benefits such as providing unique wildlife habitats, natural mechanisms for water purification, flood storage, recreational opportunities and natural resources. Geophysical technologies are increasingly used on land for environmental assessment. However, geophysical evaluation of wetlands has received minimal attention. The problems associated with conventional direct sampling of subsurface properties are exasperated in shallow water wetlands due to the logistical constraints imposed by these environments. Growing interest in wetlands highlights a need for high-resolution, non-invasive methods for evaluating and managing wetland water resources. We have developed an integrated geophysical-GIS approach to investigating shallow water wetlands. Rapid geophysical data acquisition in shallow water (less than 2 ft) is achieved using a plastic paddleboat modified as a "research vessel" for conducting high-resolution geophysical surveys. The vessel is designed for reconnaissance electromagnetic terrain conductivity (TC), reconnaissance gradiometer and 2D/3D continuous electrical resistivity imaging. A buoyant 12-electrode array, using non-polarizing Pb-PbCl2 junctions, is pulled behind the boat with simultaneous measurement of 10 resistances at two-second intervals using a SYSCAL PRO acquisition system. All instrumentation was tested and modified to ensure removal of artifacts caused by the metal steering mechanism. A multi-purpose surface water quality probe simultaneously records water depth, surface water conductivity, salinity, temperature, pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen content. All instruments are set to take a multi parameter measurement every two seconds while paddling. Decimeter scale location of all measurements is obtained at the instant of acquisition using precision differential GPS unit. We are typically able to survey an average of 8 km in one day, producing over 6,000 measurements

  9. Examining the Role of Topological Factors in Controlling the Hydraulic Conductivity of Granular Deposits Through the Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Results From the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, R. H.; Leblanc, D. R.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term spatial and temporal monitoring of a treated-wastewater plume moving through a sand-and-gravel aquifer has been ongoing at the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for three decades. The site offers access to numerous wells that penetrate the glacial outwash-plain deposits, and a variety of field experiments has been designed and implemented to investigate aquifer heterogeneity and transport processes. As part of this effort, geophysical logging programs have delineated the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, K, by means of a comprehensive series of flowmeter/pumping tests, and correlations among K and other log-derived properties such as porosity, electrical conductivity, and natural gamma activity have been examined statistically to extract information regarding the nature of fluid flow through these materials. Results revealed only a weak or inconclusive dependence of K on porosity from which was inferred that hydraulic conductivity may be influenced more by the topology, or geometric configuration, of the granular mixtures than by the volume of the fluid phase. To investigate the role of pore geometry further, a field experiment was recently conducted in which a sequence of electromagnetic induction logs was recorded in a well to monitor changes in the electrical properties of the surrounding sediments during injection of a saline tracer. The changes resulted from marked contrasts in the specific conductance between the ambient and injected fluids. Analytical mixing models, as well as empirical relations such as Archie's law, have been developed to characterize the electrical properties of saturated rocks and sediments. By applying these relations to the electrical conductivity data combined with the porosity log, topological measures of phase connectivity and surface area along grain boundaries can be derived from downhole measurements. Petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, F, and

  10. Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a

  11. Water-level, borehole geophysical log, and water-quality data from wells transecting the freshwater/saline-water interface of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 1999-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    As a part of a 9-year (1999-2007) study done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System to improve understanding of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the aquifer, the U.S. Geological Survey collected water-level, borehole geophysical, and water-quality data during 1999-2007 from 37 wells arranged in nine transects (except for two wells) across the freshwater/saline-water interface of the aquifer. This report presents the data collected and also describes the data-collection, analytical, and quality-assurance methods used. The wells, constructed with casing from land surface into the upper part of the aquifer and completed as open hole in the aquifer, are in Uvalde County (East Uvalde transect), in Medina County (South Medina and Devine wells), in Bexar County (Pitluk, Mission, and San Antonio transects), in Comal and Guadalupe Counties (Tri-County transect), in Comal County (New Braunfels transect), and in Hays County (Fish Hatchery, San Marcos, and Kyle transects). Data collected included continuous water level at 18 wells; fluid electrical conductivity and temperature with depth (fluid profiles) obtained by borehole geophysical logging of 15 wells; discrete (periodic) samples for major ions and trace elements at 36 wells; stable isotopes or stable isotopes and tritium at 27 wells; dissolved gases obtained by pumping (or collecting flow) of 19 wells; and continuous specific conductance and temperature at three of the wells equipped with continuous water-level sensors.

  12. Interpretation of Borehole Geophysical Logs, Aquifer-Isolation Tests, and Water-Quality Data for Sites 1, 3, and 5 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania: 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, borehole television surveys, and aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in 2005 at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Navy in support of hydrogeological investigations to address ground-water contamination. Data collected for this study are valuable for understanding ground-water flow in the Stockton Formation at the local and regional scale. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB is underlain by the Stockton Formation, which consists of sedimentary rocks of Triassic age. The rocks of the Stockton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer with partially connected zones of high permeability. Borehole geophysical logs, heatpulse-flowmeter measurements, and borehole television surveys made in seven boreholes ranging from 70 to 350 ft deep were used to identify potential water-producing fractures and fracture zones and to select intervals for aquifer-isolation tests. An upward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in one borehole, a downward vertical hydraulic gradient was measured in four boreholes, both an upward and a downward vertical hydraulic gradient were measured in one borehole, and no flow was measurable in one borehole. The aquifer-isolation tests isolated 30 discrete fractures in the seven boreholes for collection of depth-discrete hydraulic and water-quality data. Of the 30 fractures identified as potentially water producing, 26 fractures (87 percent) produced more than 1 gallon per minute of water. The specific capacity of the isolated intervals producing more than 1 gallon per minute ranged from 0.02 to 5.2 gallons per minute per foot. There was no relation between specific capacity and depth of the fracture. Samples for analysis for volatile organic compounds were collected from each isolated zone. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was the most

  13. Study on the Horizontal-well Injection Profile Logging Interpretation Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Yao, Xugang; He, Xiaolu; Shen, Linshu; Xu, Qingying; Liu, Dongming; Liu, Hongsheng

    2007-06-01

    In order to get higher injection capacity and raise the coefficient of water driving waves and accelerate the speed of oil extraction. Changqing field carries on the development of horizontal-well infusion exploitation in the XXQ sandstone layer oil pool district. In compare with the traditional vertical-well affusion, the effect of comprehensive result of horizontal-well infusion exploitation will enhance as five times more as the current value. Because the flow of horizontal-well varies more in compare with the level-well, many horizontal-well logging data is hard to explain from the normal regulations, because the influence of the dynamic state of well hole and the size of it. Basing on the flow state of horizontal-well and the analysis of the layer of the low degree state and the annular flow and the turbulent flow, in order to get the parameters. To make attempt research to the quantitative interpretation of the horizontal-well.

  14. A Research of the Application Geophysical Methods to the Polluted Site and the river bottom mud in Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, S.; Liu, H. C.

    2013-12-01

    Many site investigations have found that DNAPL is able to penetrate the low permeable layer such as clay or silt-caly layer in subsurface environment. The cumulated DNAPL within the low permeable Layer will gradually diffuse to the high permeable layer to affect he accuracy of investigation and remedial design. As to the deeper zone affected by the penetration of DNAPL, the conventional sampling design investigating only the first unconfined aquifer is no longer suitable for DNAPL investigation. Precisely define the boundary and the distribution of high and low permeable layer is the key to conduct a successful DNAPL investigation. Point information derived from the conventional bore-hole sampling is difficult to be used for locating the DNAPL pollution due to the uncertainty of DNAPL migration and the soluble-phase distribution of the DNAPL partitioned into ground water between the low and high permeable layer. Recently, non-invaded technologies such as geophysical technology have been introduced to provide the plane and space information of pollution in subsurface by integrating few bore-hole dates. The most common used geophysical technologies are ground-penetrating radar method (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Both methods have their limitations on the pollution investigation when there are interferences exist such as building structure or heavy pavement. A new geophysical technology, geophysical well logging has been developed to overcome above limitations. The information of multi-wells logging could be used to interpret the permeability of subsurface, the dominate flow path and the hot-spot for evaluating the distribution of pollution and the efficiency of remediation in different time sequences. This study would first discuss how DNAPL and its soluble-phase components invade into the low permeable layer based on the field observation. Then, the importance of geophysical technology is introduced with comparing to the limitations of bore

  15. Realtime logging

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Kashuba, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) logging services have become an important new source of drilling and geological information on wildcats and some development wells. Sensors located within the bottomhole assembly, barely a few feet above the bit, make measurements on the formation, the borehole and the drill string itself. The MWD measurements are electronically processed and stored in the logging tool downhole. Simple MWD logging systems must wait until after tripping out of the hole for the MWD data to be downloaded from the logging tool to a surface computer in order for logs to be produced. This method is acceptable for some formation evaluation problems. But when well control, directional or completion decisions must be made, the benefit of MWD logging data is obtained only if the downhole measurements are available to the engineer in realtime.

  16. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  17. As the egg turns: monitoring egg attendance behavior in wild birds using novel data logging technology.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Scott A; Clatterbuck, Corey A; Kelsey, Emma C; Naiman, Alex D; Young, Lindsay C; VanderWerf, Eric A; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1-7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h(-1)) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1-10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h(-1)) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4 °C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding.

  18. As the Egg Turns: Monitoring Egg Attendance Behavior in Wild Birds Using Novel Data Logging Technology

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Scott A.; Clatterbuck, Corey A.; Kelsey, Emma C.; Naiman, Alex D.; Young, Lindsay C.; VanderWerf, Eric A.; Warzybok, Pete; Bradley, Russell; Jahncke, Jaime; Bower, Geoff C.

    2014-01-01

    Egg turning is unique to birds and critical for embryonic development in most avian species. Technology that can measure changes in egg orientation and temperature at fine temporal scales (1 Hz) was neither readily available nor small enough to fit into artificial eggs until recently. Here we show the utility of novel miniature data loggers equipped with 3-axis (i.e., triaxial) accelerometers, magnetometers, and a temperature thermistor to study egg turning behavior in free-ranging birds. Artificial eggs containing egg loggers were deployed in the nests of three seabird species for 1–7 days of continuous monitoring. These species (1) turned their eggs more frequently (up to 6.5 turns h−1) than previously reported for other species, but angular changes were often small (1–10° most common), (2) displayed similar mean turning rates (ca. 2 turns h−1) despite major differences in reproductive ecology, and (3) demonstrated distinct diurnal cycling in egg temperatures that varied between 1.4 and 2.4°C. These novel egg loggers revealed high-resolution, three-dimensional egg turning behavior heretofore never measured in wild birds. This new form of biotechnology has broad applicability for addressing fundamental questions in avian breeding ecology, life history, and development, and can be used as a tool to monitor birds that are sensitive to disturbance while breeding. PMID:24887441

  19. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  20. Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  1. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  2. Monitoring Vadose Zone Desiccation with Geophysical Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Truex, Michael J.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan S.

    2013-05-01

    Soil desiccation was recently field tested as a potential vadose zone remediation technology. Desiccation removes water from the vadose zone and significantly decreases the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone, thereby decreasing movement of moisture and contaminants. The 2-D and 3-D distribution of moisture content reduction over time provides valuable information for desiccation operations and for determining when treatment goals have been reached. This type of information can be obtained through use of geophysical methods. Neutron moisture logging, cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar approaches were evaluated with respect to their ability to provide effective spatial and temporal monitoring of desiccation during a treatability study conducted in the vadose zone of the DOE Hanford Site in WA.

  3. Interlake production established using quantitative hydrocarbon well-log analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, J.; Atkinson, A.

    1988-07-01

    Production was established in a new pay zone of the basal Interlake Formation adjacent to production in Midway field in Williams County, North Dakota. Hydrocarbon saturation, which was computed using hydrocarbon well-log (mud-log) data, and computed permeability encouraged the operator to run casing and test this zone. By use of drilling rig parameters, drilling mud properties, hydrocarbon-show data from the mud log, drilled rock and porosity descriptions, and wireline log porosity, this new technique computes oil saturation (percent of porosity) and permeability to the invading filtrate, using the Darcy equation. The Leonardo Fee well was drilled to test the Devonian Duperow, the Silurian upper Interlake, and the Ordovician Red River. The upper two objectives were penetrated downdip from Midway production and there were no hydrocarbon shows. It was determined that the Red River was tight, based on sample examination by well site personnel. The basal Interlake, however, liberated hydrocarbon shows that were analyzed by this new technology. The results of this evaluation accurately predicted this well would be a commercial success when placed in production. Where geophysical log analysis might be questionable, this new evaluation technique may provide answers to anticipated oil saturation and producibility. The encouraging results of hydrocarbon saturation and permeability, produced by this technique, may be largely responsible for the well being in production today.

  4. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production

  5. Lithologic and physicochemical properties and hydraulics of flow in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone, San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, based on water-level and borehole geophysical log data, 1999-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Nyman, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    The freshwater zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer in south-central Texas (hereinafter, the Edwards aquifer) is bounded to the south and southeast by a zone of transition from freshwater to saline water (hereinafter, the transition zone). The boundary between the two zones is the freshwater/saline-water interface (hereinafter, the interface), defined as the 1,000-milligrams per liter dissolved solids concentration threshold. This report presents the findings of a study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, to obtain lithologic properties (rock properties associated with known stratigraphic units) and physicochemical properties (fluid conductivity and temperature) and to analyze the hydraulics of flow in and near the transition zone of the Edwards aquifer on the basis of water-level and borehole geophysical log data collected from 15 monitoring wells in four transects during 1999-2007. No identifiable relation between conductivity values from geophysical logs in monitoring wells in all transects and equivalent freshwater heads in the wells at the times the logs were run is evident; and no identifiable relation between conductivity values and vertical flow in the boreholes concurrent with the times the logs were run is evident. The direction of the lateral equivalent freshwater head gradient and thus the potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the East Uvalde transect fluctuates between into and out of the freshwater zone, depending on recharge and withdrawals. Whether the prevailing direction on average is into or out of the freshwater zone is not clearly indicated. Equivalent freshwater head data do not indicate a prevailing direction of the lateral gradient at the interface in the vicinity of the Tri-County transect. The prevailing direction on average of the lateral gradient and thus potential lateral flow at the interface in the vicinity of the Kyle transect likely is from the

  6. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  7. A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations.

    PubMed

    Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W; Johnson, Carole D; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations. PMID:23425428

  8. Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

  9. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  10. Web Logs in the English Classroom: More Than Just Chat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2003-01-01

    Details the use and appeal of Web logs to enhance classroom discussion and allow for outside involvement in the classroom. Defines a Web log, addresses discussing literature in a Web log, and describes the author's first attempts at using Web-log technology. Presents considerations for using Web logs as part of classroom instruction. (SG)

  11. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  12. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    -hazards. The three papers by B Zhao et al and Z Zhao et al address the problem of earthquake strong ground motion in urban regions using case studies from Osaka, Japan and the city of Yinchuan, China. The other two papers study the geological hazard of surface subsidence using geophysical tools: G Leucci reported a comprehensive study in Nardo, Italy, while Kim et al reported a similar case study for a small city in South Korea. One striking feature of all the papers in this special issue is that multiple authors with at least 3 co-authors wrote the majority of the papers, which is an indication of strong team work and interdisciplinary collaboration. This is essential for the successful application of geophysical science and technology in tackling a variety of engineering and environmental problems for the urban setting. The only sole author, Dr Leucci, expressed deep gratitude in his acknowledgements to his team members who carried out substantial parts of the data acquisition. We are pleased to present this special issue to the engineering and environmental geophysics community and hope that it can serve as a snapshot of the current state-of-the-art studies in urban geophysics. References [1] United Nations 1990 World Demographic Estimates and Projections (1950-2025) (New York: Press of United Nations) [2] Chen Y, L-S Chan and S Yu 2003 J. Geodesy & Geodynamics 23 1-4 (in Chinese) [3] American Geophysics Union 2006 Eos Trans. AGU 87 (36)

  13. Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.; MacCary, L.M.

    1971-01-01

    This manual is intended to be a guide for hydrologists using borehole geophysics in ground-water studies. The emphasis is on the application and interpretation of geophysical well logs, and not on the operation of a logger. It describes in detail those logging techniques that have been utilized within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and those used in petroleum investigations that have potential application to hydrologic problems. Most of the logs described can be made by commercial logging service companies, and many can be made with small water-well loggers. The general principles of each technique and the rules of log interpretation are the same, regardless of differences in instrumentation. Geophysical well logs can be interpreted to determine the lithology, geometry, resistivity, formation factor, bulk density, porosity, permeability, moisture content, and specific yield of water-bearing rocks, and to define the source, movement, and chemical and physical characteristics of ground water. Numerous examples of logs are used to illustrate applications and interpretation in various ground-water environments. The interrelations between various types of logs are emphasized, and the following aspects are described for each of the important logging techniques: Principles and applications, instrumentation, calibration and standardization, radius of investigation, and extraneous effects.

  14. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  15. Preparation of specific-yield logs for clastic bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Specific yield is the principal aquifer characteristic needed to estimate the volume of recoverable ground water in storage in an aquifer. Determination of specific yield can be difficult and costly, particularly in deep, confined aquifers where core drilling and core analyses may be needed to define specific yield. A method has been developed for preparation of specific-yield geophysical logs that could greatly ease the determination of specific yields in such aquifers. Three geophysical logs that were investigated as potential indicators of specific yield were the free fluid index log, the effective-porosity log, and the apparent grain-density log. The free fluid index log did not accurately represent conditions at the test site in central Colorado and may not be suitable for application in other shallow and permeable aquifers. The effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs were each used in least-squares linear regressions to correlate log response to specific yield measured in core samples. The resulting regression equations have coefficients of correlation (R) of 0.84 and 0.90, and were used to successfully prepare specific-yield logs from the effective-porosity and apparent grain-density logs.

  16. Non-Seismic Geophysical Approaches to Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2004-09-01

    This chapter considers the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration of CO2. The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, electromagnetic (EM) and streaming potential (SP) geophysical techniques as monitoring tools are examined. An example of tilt measurements illustrates another potential monitoring technique, although it has not been studied to the extent of other techniques in this chapter. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO2 enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. The second scenario is of a pilot DOE CO2 sequestration experiment scheduled for summer 2004 in the Frio Brine Formation in South Texas, USA. Numerical flow simulations of the CO2 injection process for each case were converted to geophysical models using petrophysical models developed from well log data. These coupled flow simulation geophysical models allow comparrison of the performance of monitoring techniques over time on realistic 3D models by generating simulated responses at different times during the CO2 injection process. These time-lapse measurements are used to produce time-lapse changes in geophysical measurements that can be related to the movement of CO2 within the injection interval.

  17. Preliminary geologic and geophysical data of the UE25a-3 exploratory drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Muller, D.C.; Morrison, J.N.

    1979-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs were run by the Birdwell Division of Seismograph Service Corporation for geologic correlations and lithologic characterizations. The logs include: caliper, density, resistivity, spontaneous potential, Vibroseis, 3-D velocity, neutron, and gamma-ray logs. Lithologic boundaries and structures correlate to responses in the logs.

  18. Geophysics Characteristic on Gas Hydrates Zone in Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhibin

    2015-04-01

    Gas hydrates are very important because of their vast resources potential, their roles as submarine geohazard, and their effects on global climate in the word. In China, the research of gas hydrates was initiated further later ,but the South China Sea has found a number of geophysical anomalies of gas hydrate by researching of almost 10 years. In order to determine the nature and distribution of marine gas hydrate, a series of geophysical techniques are used. By using the traditional seismic data processing, purpose seismic data processing, wave impedance inversion techniques and geophysical well logging data processing based on Self-organizing feature map neural network, a great deal of useful information are abstracted to determine the gas hydrate zone beneath the seabed. The results show (1) Conventional multi-channel seismic reflection processing data from the SCS reveal various seismic indicators of gas hydrate and associated gas, such as the BSR, enhanced reflections below the BSR, Weak reflection or blanking zone above the BSRs.;(2) special processing techniques, such as attribute extraction and wave impedance inversion, is necessary so as to mine more effective data, they could compensate the shortage of conventional seismic data processing techniques used for distinguishing gas-bearing reservoirs;(3) as a kind of intelligent information processing technology, SOFM neural network is feasible for lithologic identification by logging data and has a high rate of identification of gas hydrate. In the end, the author hopes it may provide some useful clues to the exploration of gas hydrate.

  19. Satellite-Based Technologies in Use for Extreme Nocturnal Mountain Rescue Operations: a Synergetic Approach Applying Geophysical Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchroithner, Manfred F.; Ehlert, Guido; Hetze, Bernd; Kohlschmidt, Horst; Prechtel, Nikolas

    2014-06-01

    Mountain-rescue operations require rapid response whilst also ensuring the security of the rescue teams. Rescuing people in a big rock-face is even more difficult if night or fog prevent sight. The paper presents a technical solution to optimally support, under these aggravated conditions, the location of the casualties and the navigation of the rescue team(s) in a rock-face from a coordination station. In doing so, standard components like a smartphones with GPS functionality, a data communication on a client-server basis and VR visualisation software have been adapted to the specific requirements. Remote support of the navigation in steep rocky terrain requires a highly accurate wall model which permits the local experts of the coordination station to dependably estimate geometry and structure of the rock along the rescue route and to convey necessary directives to the retrieval team. Based on terrestrial laser-scans from different locations, such a model has been generated for the mighty Dachstein South Face (Austria) and texturised with digital photographs. Over a twelve-month period, a transdisciplinary team of the Dresden University of Technology (Informatics, Electrical Engineering, Cartography) developed and integrated the various technical modules of the mountain-rescue support-system (digital rock-face model, optimised GPS data transmission between mobile device, server and client, data filtering, and dynamic visualisation component). In summer 2011 the proper functioning of the prototype was demonstrated in a rescue exercise under foggy dusk conditions.

  20. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  1. Continued development of hybrid directional boring technology and New horizontal logging development for characterization, monitoring and instrument emplacement at environmental sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wemple, R.P.; Meyer, R.D.; Jacobson, R.D. ); Layne, R.R. )

    1991-01-01

    This work in partnership with industry is a continuation of cost- effective innovative, directional boring development begun in FY90 and planed to extend into FY94. Several demonstrations of the strategy of building hybrid hardware from utilities installation, geothermal, and soil mechanics technologies have been performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and at Charles Machine works (CMW) test sites as well as at a commercial refinery site. Additional tests at the SNL Directional Boring Test Range (DBTR) and a lagoon site are planned in calendar 1991. A new companion project to develop and demonstrate a hybrid capability for horizontal logging with penetrometers, specialty instruments and samplers has been taken from concept to early prototype hardware. The project goal of extending the tracking/locating capability of the shallow boring equipment to 80in. is being pursued with encouraging results at 40in. depths. Boring costs, not including tailored well completions dictated by individual site parameters, are estimated at $20 to $50 per foot. Applications continue to emerge for this work and interest continues to be expressed by DoD and EPA researchers and environmental site engineers. 12 figs.

  2. Log-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, J.R.

    1982-11-23

    A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

  3. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    Journal of Geophysics and Engineering (JGE) aims to publicize and promote research and developments in geophysics and in related areas of engineering. As stated in the journal scope, JGE is positioned to bridge the gap between earth physics and geo-engineering, where it reflects a growing trend in both industry and academia. JGE covers those aspects of engineering that bear closely on geophysics or on the targets and problems that geophysics addresses. Typically this will be engineering focused on the subsurface, particularly petroleum engineering, rock mechanics, geophysical software engineering, drilling technology, remote sensing, instrumentation and sensor design. There is a trend, visible throughout academia, for rapid expansion in cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary working. Many of the most important and exciting problems and advances are being made at the boundaries between traditional subject areas and, increasingly, techniques from one discipline are finding applications in others. There is a corresponding increasing requirement for researchers to be aware of developments in adjacent areas and for papers published in one area to be readily accessible, both in terms of location and language, to those in others. One such area that is expanding rapidly is that at the interface between geophysics and engineering. There are three principal developments. Geophysics, and especially applied geophysics, is increasingly constrained by the limits of technology, particularly computing technology. Consequently, major advances in geophysics are often predicated upon major developments in engineering and many research geophysicists are working in multi-disciplinary teams with engineers. Engineering problems relevant to the sub-surface are increasingly looking to advances in geophysics to provide part of the solution. Engineering systems, for example, for tunnel boring or petroleum reservoir management, are using high-resolution geophysical

  4. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  5. Log N-log S is inconclusive

    SciTech Connect

    Klebesadel, R.W.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  6. Serious games for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Valerio; Rubbia, Giuliana

    2015-04-01

    Childhood stage is indispensable in the education of human beings and especially critical to arise scientific interest in children. We discuss the participatory design of a didactic videogame, i.e. a "serious" game to teach geophysics and Earth sciences to high and low-school students. Geophysics is the application of the laws and techniques of physics to uncover knowledge about the earth's dynamic processes and subsurface structure. It explores phenomena such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis to improve our understanding of the earth's physical processes and our ability to predict reoccurrences. Effective mitigation of risks from catastrophic geologic hazards requires knowledge and understanding of local geology and geologic processes. Scientific outreach can be defined as discourse activity, whose main objective is to communicate some knowledge previously produced in scientific contexts to a non-expert massive audience. One of the difficulties science educators need to overcome is to explain specific concepts from a given discipline in a language simple and understandable for their audience. Digital games today play a large role in young people's lives. Games are directly connected to the life of today's adolescents. Therefore, digital games should be included and broached as a subject in the classroom. The ardor and enthusiasm that digital games evoke in teenagers has indeed brought many researchers, school leaders and teachers to the question "how video games" can be used to engage young people and support their learning inside the classroom. Additionally, studies have shown that digital games can enhance various skills such as the ability to concentrate, stamina, tactical aptness, anticipatory thinking, orientation in virtual spaces, and deductive reasoning. Thus, videogames become an effective didactic mechanism and should have a place in the classroom. The project aims to explore the potentials of entertainment technologies in educational processes

  7. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  8. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  9. LogScope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Smith, Margaret H.; Barringer, Howard; Groce, Alex

    2012-01-01

    LogScope is a software package for analyzing log files. The intended use is for offline post-processing of such logs, after the execution of the system under test. LogScope can, however, in principle, also be used to monitor systems online during their execution. Logs are checked against requirements formulated as monitors expressed in a rule-based specification language. This language has similarities to a state machine language, but is more expressive, for example, in its handling of data parameters. The specification language is user friendly, simple, and yet expressive enough for many practical scenarios. The LogScope software was initially developed to specifically assist in testing JPL s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) flight software, but it is very generic in nature and can be applied to any application that produces some form of logging information (which almost any software does).

  10. An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration: Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatham, Robert H.

    Finding a modern textbook that covers all aspects of exploration geophysics is difficult, but An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration certainly fills the bill. Appropriate for an introductory course addressing a range of techniques the book's breadth is demonstrated by comprehensive inclusion of non-seismic exploration methods. In fact, half of the book is devoted to non-seismic methods, providing students with a permanent reference to these infrequently applied exploration methods.This book came to my attention while I was ordering textbooks for a course in exploration geophysics only to find that the text of my choice was out of print. I quickly substituted An Introduction to Geophysical Exploration, and it has served the class well, including senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students in both soft-rock geology and geophysics. The material is comprehensive and well organized. The non-seismic topics include not only chapters on potential fields— one each on gravity and magnetic methods— but also chapters on electrical and electromagnetic methods, including ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Short chapters on radiometric surveying and borehole logging are also provided.

  11. A ``model`` geophysics program

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.

    1994-03-01

    In 1993, I tested a radio-controlled airplane designed by Jim Walker of Brigham Young University for low-elevation aerial photography. Model-air photography retains most of the advantages of standard aerial photography --- the photographs can be used to detect lineaments, to map roads and buildings, and to construct stereo pairs to measure topography --- and it is far less expensive. Proven applications on the Oak Ridge Reservation include: updating older aerial records to document new construction; using repeated overflights of the same area to capture seasonal changes in vegetation and the effects of major storms; and detecting waste trench boundaries from the color and character of the overlying grass. Aerial photography is only one of many possible applications of radio-controlled aircraft. Currently, I am funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development to review the state of the art in microavionics, both military and civilian, to determine ways this emerging technology can be used for environmental site characterization. Being particularly interested in geophysical applications, I am also collaborating with electrical engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to design a model plane that will carry a 3-component flux-gate magnetometer and a global positioning system, which I hope to test in the spring of 1994.

  12. Fundamentals of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrie, William

    1997-10-01

    This unique textbook presents a comprehensive overview of the fundamental principles of geophysics. Unlike most geophysics textbooks, it combines both the applied and theoretical aspects to the subject. The author explains complex geophysical concepts using abundant diagrams, a simplified mathematical treatment, and easy-to-follow equations. After placing the Earth in the context of the solar system, he describes each major branch of geophysics: gravitation, seismology, dating, thermal and electrical properties, geomagnetism, paleomagnetism and geodynamics. Each chapter begins with a summary of the basic physical principles, and a brief account of each topic's historical evolution. The book will satisfy the needs of intermediate-level earth science students from a variety of backgrounds, while at the same time preparing geophysics majors for continued study at a higher level.

  13. More on South American geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, Cinna

    As an addendum to J. Urrutia Fucugauchi's (Eos, 63, June 8, 1982, p. 529) excellent analysis of why things go wrong in Latin American geophysics, I submit that funds in whatever form are not the only answer. In Mexico over the past decade there has been a reasonable availability of funds, yet no dramatic increase in the quality or quantity of geophysical research was detected. Graduate scholarships have even gone begging for applicants in the earth sciences!Leadership is the big problem. National plans and forecasts for science and technology continue to ignore this central fact. They want to generate hundreds, nay thousands, of middle-level scientists while providing no incentive for excellence. As others have found out long before us, this approach is doomed from the start.

  14. Bringing Undergraduates and Geoscientists Together for Field-Based Geophysical Education and Research at an On-Campus Well Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Gray, M. B.

    2004-12-01

    Development of our Hydrogeophysics Well Field has enabled new opportunities for field-based undergraduate research and active-learning at Bucknell University. Installed in 2001-2002, the on-campus well field has become a cornerstone of field labs for hydrogeology and applied geophysics courses, and for introductory labs in engineering and environmental geology. In addition to enabling new field experiences, the well field serves as a meeting place for students and practicing geoscientists. In the last three years, we have hosted field demonstrations by alumni working in the environmental, geophysical, and water-well drilling industries; researchers from government agencies; graduate students from other universities; and geophysical equipment vendors seeking to test and demonstrate new instruments. Coordinating undergraduate research and practical course labs with field experiments led by alumni and practicing geoscientists provides students hands-on experience with new technology while educating them about career and graduate-school opportunities. In addition to being effective pedagogical strategy, these experiences are well received by students -- enrollment in our geophysics course has tripled from three years ago. The Bucknell Hydrogeophysics Well Field consists of five bedrock wells, installed in a fractured-rock aquifer in the Wills Creek Shale. The wells are open in the bedrock, facilitating geophysical and hydraulic measurements. To date, student have helped acquire from one or more wells: (1) open-hole slug- and aquifer-test data; (2) packer test data from isolated borehole intervals; (3) flow-meter logs; (4) acoustic and optical televiewer logs; (5) standard borehole logs including single-point resistance, caliper, and natural-gamma; (6) borehole video camera; (7) electrical resistivity tomograms; (8) water levels while drilling; and (9) water chemistry and temperature logs. Preliminary student-led data analysis indicates that sparse discrete fractures

  15. Well Log ETL tool

    SciTech Connect

    Good, Jessica

    2013-08-01

    This is an executable python script which offers two different conversions for well log data: 1) Conversion from a BoreholeLASLogData.xls model to a LAS version 2.0 formatted XML file. 2) Conversion from a LAS 2.0 formatted XML file to an entry in the WellLog Content Model. Example templates for BoreholeLASLogData.xls and WellLogsTemplate.xls can be found in the package after download.

  16. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  17. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  18. Electromagnetic geophysical observation with controlled source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the new theoretical and methodical approaches are examined for detailed investigations of the structure and state of the geological medium, and its behavior as a dynamic system in reaction to external man-made influences. To solve this problem it is necessary to use geophysical methods that have sufficient resolution and that are built on more complicated models than layered or layered-block models. One of these methods is the electromagnetic induction frequency-geometrical method with controlled sources. Here we consider new approaches using this method for monitoring rock shock media by means of natural experiments and interpretation of the practical results. That method can be used by oil production in mines, where the same events of non stability can occur. The key ideas of twenty first century geophysics from the point of view of geologist academician A.N. Dmitrievskiy [Dmitrievskiy, 2009] are as follows. "The geophysics of the twenty first century is an understanding that the Earth is a self-developing, self-supporting geo-cybernetic system, in which the role of the driving mechanism is played by the field gradients; the evolution of geological processes is a continuous chain of transformations and the interaction of geophysical fields in the litho- hydro- and atmosphere. The use of geophysical principles of a hierarchical quantum of geophysical space, non-linear effects, and the effects of reradiating geophysical fields will allow the creation of a new geophysics. The research, in which earlier only pure geophysical processes and technologies were considered, nowadays tends to include into consideration geophysical-chemical processes and technologies. This transformation will allow us to solve the problems of forecasting geo-objects and geo-processes in previously unavailable geological-technological conditions." The results obtained allow us to make the following conclusions, according to the key ideas of academician A.N. Dmitrievskiy: the rock

  19. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  20. Spectral gamma-ray logging report for the six new characterization boreholes in the 100-FR-1 operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Meznarich, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-13

    Six characterization boreholes were drilled, sampled, logged, and abandoned in the 100-FR-1 Operable Unit. The geophysical logging was carried out with the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS) to determine the levels of radioactive contaminants in the subsurface. Five of the six boreholes penetrated contamination that was successfully assayed with the RLS data.

  1. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  2. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  3. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  4. Log-Tool

    2012-05-21

    Log files are typically semi- or un-structured. To be useable for visualization and machine learning, they need to be parsed into a standard, structured format. Log-tool is a tool for facilitating the parsing, structuring, and routing of log files (e.g. intrusion detection long, web server logs, system logs). It consists of three main components: (1) Input – it will input data from files, standard input, and syslog, (2) Parser – it will parse the logmore » file based on regular expressions into structured data (JSNO format), (3) Output – it will output structured data into commonly used formats, including Redis (a database), standard output, and syslog.« less

  5. Spectral gamma-ray logging for the 100-N Area, Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Szwartz, G.J.

    1996-10-02

    The objective of this effort was to delineate the vertical distribution and concentration of anthropogenic radionuclides in the subsurface surrounding nine boreholes in the 100-N Area available for geophysical logging with the Radionuclide Logging System (RLS). Cesium was defined in eight boreholes, and the ninth hole was found to not contain any such radionuclides.

  6. Geophysical data from boreholes DM1, DM2, DM3, and DM3a, New Hydraulic Fracturing Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, C S

    1987-03-01

    A comprehensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained from four deep monitoring boreholes at the New Hydrofracture Facility. The logging was an attempt to obtain stratigraphic, structural, and hydrologic information on the subsurface environment surrounding the hydrofracture facility. Logs obtained include caliper, gamma, neutron, density, single-point resistance, long- and short-normal resistivity, spontaneous potential, temperature, acoustic velocity, variable density, and borehole televiewer. Analysis and interpretation of the geophysical logs allowed the stratigraphic section at the facility to be determined and, by comparison with calibrated geophysical logs from borehole ORNL-Joy No. 2, allowed detailed inferences to be drawn about rock types and properties at the hydrofracture facility. Porosity values measured from the logs for Conasauga Group strata, as well as permeability values inferred from the logs, are low. Several intervals of apparently greater permeability, associated primarily with limestone-rich portions of the Maryville Limestone and sandstone-rich portions of the Rome Formation, were noted. Numerous fractures were identified by using several logs in combination. No one geophysical log was reliable for fracture identification although the acoustic-televiewer log appeared to have the greatest success. In addition to their characterization of subsurface conditions in the vicinity of the hydrofracture facility, the geophysical logs provided data on the extent of hydraulic fractures. Anomalies on single-point resistance logs that corresponded to prominent fractures identified on televiewer logs indicate intervals affected by hydraulic fractures associated with waste injection at the New Hydrofracture Facility. 14 refs.

  7. Geophysical Institute biennial report 1995--1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The mission of the Geophysical Institute is to understand the basic physical processes governing Earth, especially as they occur in, or are relevant to the Arctic; to train graduate and undergraduate students to play leading roles in tomorrow`s society; to solve applied geophysical problems and develop resource-oriented technology of importance to the state and the nation; and to satisfy the intellectual and technological needs of fellow Alaskans through public service. The variety of subjects studied by the faculty, research staff members, and graduate students at the Geophysical Institute include auroral physics and chemistry, arctic haze, ice fog, atmospheric dynamics, ozone, Alaska weather patterns, regional meteorology and climatology, global climate change, cloud physics and radiation, permafrost, glaciers, sea ice, remote sensing, geothermal energy, tectonics, volcanoes and earthquakes. Summaries are presented of the projects undertaken by the Institute in these fields.

  8. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  9. EE-3A Logging Report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, David W.

    1993-12-15

    Two logs of EE-3A were performed during the last couple of weeks. The first of which, was a Temperature/Casing-Collar Locator (CCL) log, which took place on Friday, December 10th., 1993. The second log was a Caliper log which was done in cooperation with the Dia-Log Company, of Odessa, TX. on Monday, December, 13th., 1993.

  10. Introduction to the JEEG Agricultural Geophysics special issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advancements such as the availability of personal computers, technologies to store/process large amounts of data, the GPS, and GIS have now made geophysical methods practical for agricultural use. Consequently, there has been a rapid expansion of agricultural geophysics research just over the...

  11. New Mexico Play Fairway Analysis: Gamma Ray Logs and Heat Generation Calculations for SW New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-23

    For the New Mexico Play fairway Analysis project, gamma ray geophysical well logs from oil wells penetrating the Proterozoic basement in southwestern New Mexico were digitized. Only the portion of the log in the basement was digitized. The gamma ray logs are converted to heat production using the equation (Bucker and Rybach, 1996) : A[µW/m3] = 0.0158 (Gamma Ray [API] – 0.8).

  12. A fractured rock geophysical toolbox method selection tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Slater, L.D.; Robinson, J.L.; Williams, J.H.; Boyden, C.L.; Werkema, D.D.; Lane, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical technologies have the potential to improve site characterization and monitoring in fractured rock, but the appropriate and effective application of geophysics at a particular site strongly depends on project goals (e.g., identifying discrete fractures) and site characteristics (e.g., lithology). No method works at every site or for every goal. New approaches are needed to identify a set of geophysical methods appropriate to specific project goals and site conditions while considering budget constraints. To this end, we present the Excel-based Fractured-Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST). We envision the FRGT-MST (1) equipping remediation professionals with a tool to understand what is likely to be realistic and cost-effective when contracting geophysical services, and (2) reducing applications of geophysics with unrealistic objectives or where methods are likely to fail.

  13. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, Wei

    1998-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction the necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content. For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication.

  14. Microcomputer log analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrander, C.

    1984-04-01

    A comprehensive friendly log analysis system for use on a microcomputer requires only average log analysis skills. Most systems require both log analysis and computer professional for operation. This one has many capabilities: (1) data entry is handled by office personnel after minimal training; (2) entered data is filed and cataloged for future retrieval and analysis; (3) the system can handle more than 9,000,000 ft (2700 km) of log data in over 60,000 files; (4) all data can be edited; (5) searches and listings can be made using factors such as formation names; (6) facsimile reproductions can be made of any log on file; (7) a screening program turns the system into a sophisticated hand calculator to quickly determine zones of interest; and (8) up to 1100 ft (335 m) of contiguous data from a well can be analyzed in one run. Innovative features include: (1) a discriminating factor to separate reservoirs for individual attention concerning rock type, fluid content and potential reserves; and (2) a written report of each reservoir using artificial intelligence. The report discusses, among other things, the rock type and its consistency, comparing the system finding with the geologist's opinion. Differences between the two will elicit alternative analyses.

  15. Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jernsletten, J. A.

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Fast-Turnoff Transient Electro-Magnetic (TEM) geophysical survey carried out in the Peña de Hierro ("Berg of Iron") field area of the Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE), during May and June of 2003. The MARTE Peña de Hierro field area is located between the towns of Rio Tinto and Nerva in the Andalucia region of Spain. It is about one hour drive West of the city of Sevilla, and also about one hour drive North of Huelva. The high concentration of dissolved iron (and smaller amounts of other metals) in the very acidic water in the Rio Tinto area gives the water its characteristic wine red color, and also means that the water is highly conductive, and such an acidic and conductive fluid is highly suited for exploration by electromagnetic methods. This naturally acidic environment is maintained by bacteria in the groundwater and it is these bacteria that are the main focus of the MARTE project overall, and of this supporting geophysical work. It is the goal of this study to be able to map the subsurface extent of the high conductivity (low resistivity) levels, and thus by proxy the subsurface extent of the acidic groundwater and the bacteria populations. In so doing, the viability of using electromagnetic methods for mapping these subsurface metal-rich water bodies is also examined and demonstrated, and the geophysical data will serve to support drilling efforts. The purpose of this field survey was an initial effort to map certain conductive features in the field area, in support of the drilling operations that are central to the MARTE project. These conductive features include the primary target of exploration for MARTE, the very conductive acidic groundwater in the area (which is extremely rich in metals). Other conductive features include the pyretic ore bodies in the area, as well as extensive mine tailings piles.

  16. 4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Log chicken house (far left foreground), log bunkhouse (far left background), one-room log cabin (left of center background), log root cellar (center), post-and-beam center in foreground, and blacksmith shop (far right foreground). View to southeast. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  17. A proven record in changing attitudes about MWD logs

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, L.; Paxson, K.B.; Keyser, W.L.; Ball, S.

    1993-07-01

    Measurement while drilling (MWD) logs for quantitative reservoir characterization were evaluated during drilling of Gulf of Mexico flexure trend projects, Kilauea (Green Canyon Blocks 6 and 50) and Tick (Garden Banks Block 189). Comparisons confirmed that MWD can be used as an accurate replacement for wireline logging when borehole size is not a limiting factor. Texaco MWD experience evolved from last resort' to primary formation evaluation logging, which resulted in rigtime and associated cost savings. Difficult wells are now drilled and evaluated with confidence, geopressure is safely monitored, conventional core interval tops are selected, and geologic interpretations and operational decisions are made before wells TD. This paper reviews the performance, accuracy, and limitations of the MWD systems and compares the results to standard geophysical well logging techniques. Four case histories are presented.

  18. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  19. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Systems for Deep Mines (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.; Duff, D.; Kaiser, P. K.; Schmitt, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    The borehole-based underground laboratory REMOTE (Rock mass Evaluation and Monitoring TEchnology) project in deep Canadian mines will focus on the study of the stress, strain and time-lapse geophysical responses of a large volume of rock. REMOTE is a cornerstone of the International Fault Slip Research Initiative (IFSCRI) initiated by CEMI, the Center for Excellence in Mining Innovation. Fault slip incidents are believed to occur at part due to stress variations induced by mining activities. For the REMOTE project, a test site (500x500x500m) near a seismically active mine at more than 2 km depth will be selected and the borehole laboratory will be built (I) to characterize the 3D rock volume through core, logging, and geophysical imaging in order to quantify the initial stress state and the distribution of physical rock properties and then (II) to monitor the temporal and spatial variations of these extrinsic conditions within the 3D rock mass over several years of mining activity. Currently, only high frequency microseismicity is used as a proxy for stress in deep mines. However, most of the physical properties of crystalline rocks are highly stress dependent. As such, the nonlinear and anisotropic variability of the in situ P- and S-wave velocities and electrical properties can be potentially linked directly to changes in the stress field. In the fall of 2010, the REMOTE project has entered the first phase of deployment of multisensor arrays in multiple boreholes for both controlled source and passive recordings. The sensor arrays will be evaluated with regards to repeatability, sensitivity and longevity.

  20. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  1. Logs Perl Module

    2007-04-04

    A perl module designed to read and parse the voluminous set of event or accounting log files produced by a Portable Batch System (PBS) server. This module can filter on date-time and/or record type. The data can be returned in a variety of formats.

  2. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  3. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  4. Geophysical characterization of subsurface barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier.

  5. Resources for Computational Geophysics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keers, Henk; Rondenay, Stéphane; Harlap, Yaël.; Nordmo, Ivar

    2014-09-01

    An important skill that students in solid Earth physics need to acquire is the ability to write computer programs that can be used for the processing, analysis, and modeling of geophysical data and phenomena. Therefore, this skill (which we call "computational geophysics") is a core part of any undergraduate geophysics curriculum. In this Forum, we share our personal experience in teaching such a course.

  6. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  7. Geophysical monitoring in a hydrocarbon reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffagni, Enrico; Bokelmann, Goetz

    2016-04-01

    Extraction of hydrocarbons from reservoirs demands ever-increasing technological effort, and there is need for geophysical monitoring to better understand phenomena occurring within the reservoir. Significant deformation processes happen when man-made stimulation is performed, in combination with effects deriving from the existing natural conditions such as stress regime in situ or pre-existing fracturing. Keeping track of such changes in the reservoir is important, on one hand for improving recovery of hydrocarbons, and on the other hand to assure a safe and proper mode of operation. Monitoring becomes particularly important when hydraulic-fracturing (HF) is used, especially in the form of the much-discussed "fracking". HF is a sophisticated technique that is widely applied in low-porosity geological formations to enhance the production of natural hydrocarbons. In principle, similar HF techniques have been applied in Europe for a long time in conventional reservoirs, and they will probably be intensified in the near future; this suggests an increasing demand in technological development, also for updating and adapting the existing monitoring techniques in applied geophysics. We review currently available geophysical techniques for reservoir monitoring, which appear in the different fields of analysis in reservoirs. First, the properties of the hydrocarbon reservoir are identified; here we consider geophysical monitoring exclusively. The second step is to define the quantities that can be monitored, associated to the properties. We then describe the geophysical monitoring techniques including the oldest ones, namely those in practical usage from 40-50 years ago, and the most recent developments in technology, within distinct groups, according to the application field of analysis in reservoir. This work is performed as part of the FracRisk consortium (www.fracrisk.eu); this project, funded by the Horizon2020 research programme, aims at helping minimize the

  8. Using Geophysical Data in the Texas High School Course, Geology, Meteorology, and Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellins, K.; Olson, H.; Pulliam, J.; Schott, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    Science educators working directly with scientists to develop inquiry-based instructional materials in Earth science yield some of the best results. The TEXTEAMS (Texas Teachers Empowered for Achievement in Mathematics and Science) Leadership Training for the Texas high school science course, Geology, Meteorology and Oceanography (GMO) is one example of a successful program that provides high-quality training to master teachers using geophysical data collected by scientists at The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG). TEXTEAMS is a certification program of professional development and leadership training sponsored by the National Science Foundation that is part of the Texas Statewide Systemic Initiative. UTIG scientists teamed with science educators at the Charles A. Dana Center for Mathematics and Science Education at UT and the Texas Education Agency to develop inquiry-based instructional materials for eight GMO modules. Our learning activities help students and teachers understand how Earth scientists interpret the natural world and test their hypotheses, and provide opportunities for the use of technology in classroom science learning; they are aligned with national and state teaching standards. Examples of TEXTEAMS GMO learning activities that use geophysical data. 1. Neotectonics: radiocarbon dates and elevation above current sea level of raised coral reefs in the New Georgia Islands are used to calculate rates of tectonic uplift and as a basis for the development of a conceptual model to explain the pattern of uplift that emerges from the data. 2. Large Igneous Provinces:geophysical logging data collected on ODP Leg 183 (Kerguelen Plateau) are analyzed to identify the transition from sediment to basement rock. 3. The Search for Black Gold: petroleum exploration requires the integration of geology, geophysics, petrophysics and geochemistry. Knowledge gained in previous GMO modules is combined with fundamental knowledge about economics to

  9. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Sánchez, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Miyamoto, H.

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique microgravity environment that these bodies possess, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesized through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging toward a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that are currently being used to investigate regolith processes occurring on small-body surfaces and that are contributing to the interpretation of observations and the design of future space missions.

  10. Energy saving and endurance log for a log building

    SciTech Connect

    Dolata, G.

    1987-03-17

    A log is described for construction of a log building which comprises: an elongated peeled log of substantially uniform diameter along its length with parallel end faces, a bottom surface of the log having a concave surface configuration centered on a diametrical line of the log, a rounded top surface directly opposite from the concave bottom surface which mates with a concave surface of another log when placed upon the rounded top surface, a vertically extending longitudinal slot in the top surface of the log that extends the length of the log, a vertically extending longitudinal slot along at least one side of the log with the slot extending vertically substantially parallel with the diametrical line with the slot being formed outwardly of the concave surface, the log including at least one butt end, the butt end including an end slot along the diametrical line which extends from a top of the log down through the butt end to the concave surface; and the butt includes at least one short, longitudinally extending arcuate groove near an outer surface of the log which extends from a line juxtaposed the end slot down to at least one longitudinal slot in the log.

  11. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.

    2015-12-01

    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  12. Evaluating petrophysical relationships in fractured rock using geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Slater, L. D.; Keating, K.; Parker, B. L.; Rose, C.; Meyer, J. R.; Johnson, C. D.; Robinson, T.; Pehme, P.; Chapman, S.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of the pore geometric properties controlling mass transfer rates in fractured rock aquifers is a challenging characterization problem, especially given the scales of heterogeneity. The efficiency of in-situ remediation efforts that target hydraulically connected and dead-end fracture zones is limited, in part, due to the diffusion of aqueous phase contaminants into and out of the less-mobile pore spaces in the matrix surrounding fractures. Two geophysical technologies, complex resistivity (CR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are sensitive to pore geometry and may provide key information on transport parameters where diffusion can be a limiting factor in and around boreholes. We present laboratory CR and NMR data from cores collected from field sites with variable lithologies and examine the sensitivity of these measurements to less-mobile versus mobile porosity. Supporting data include surface area measurements using the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, pore size distributions from mercury porosimetry, gravimetric measurements of matrix total porosity and gas permeability. We examine the predictive capability of CR and NMR to determine these pore scale properties as a function of geological setting. The petrophysical relationships illustrate the potential for use of new borehole logging tools to determine the spatial variability of physical properties controlling mass transfer close to fractures. The correlations of measurements to rock-type specific relations indicate that minimal core measurements might be needed to calibrate the results to a specific site.

  13. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project.

    PubMed

    Lane, John W; Day-Lewis, Frederick D; Casey, Clifton C

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), down-gradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, travel-time tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased down-gradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP.

  14. Geophysical monitoring of a field-scale biostimulation pilot project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Casey, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    The USGS conducted a geophysical investigation in support of a U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Southern Division field-scale biostimulation pilot project at Anoka County Riverfront Park (ACP), downgradient of the Naval Industrial Reserve Ordnance Plant, Fridley, Minnesota. The goal of the pilot project is to evaluate subsurface injection of vegetable oil emulsion (VOE) to stimulate microbial degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. To monitor the emplacement and movement of the VOE and changes in water chemistry resulting from VOE dissolution and/or enhanced biological activity, the USGS acquired cross-hole radar zero-offset profiles, traveltime tomograms, and borehole geophysical logs during five site visits over 1.5 years. Analysis of pre- and postinjection data sets using petrophysical models developed to estimate VOE saturation and changes in total dissolved solids provides insights into the spatial and temporal distribution of VOE and ground water with altered chemistry. Radar slowness-difference tomograms and zero-offset slowness profiles indicate that the VOE remained close to the injection wells, whereas radar attenuation profiles and electromagnetic induction logs indicate that bulk electrical conductivity increased downgradient of the injection zone, diagnostic of changing water chemistry. Geophysical logs indicate that some screened intervals were located above or below zones of elevated dissolved solids; hence, the geophysical data provide a broader context for interpretation of water samples and evaluation of the biostimulation effort. Our results include (1) demonstration of field and data analysis methods for geophysical monitoring of VOE biostimulation and (2) site-specific insights into the spatial and temporal distributions of VOE at the ACP. ?? 2006 National Ground Water Association.

  15. 2. Onroom log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), tworoom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. On-room log cabin (right), log root cellar (center), two-room log cabin (left), and post-and-beam garage (background). View to southwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  16. Keystroke Logging in Writing Research: Using Inputlog to Analyze and Visualize Writing Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leijten, Marielle; Van Waes, Luuk

    2013-01-01

    Keystroke logging has become instrumental in identifying writing strategies and understanding cognitive processes. Recent technological advances have refined logging efficiency and analytical outputs. While keystroke logging allows for ecological data collection, it is often difficult to connect the fine grain of logging data to the underlying…

  17. Hydrogeological-Geophysical Methods for Subsurface Site Characterization - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Yoram

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to increase water savings and show better ecological control of natural vegetation by developing hydrogeological-geophysical methods for characterizing the permeability and content of water in soil. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) tool was developed and used as the surface geophysical method for monitoring water content. Initial results using the tool suggest that surface GPR is a viable technique for obtaining precision volumetric water content profile estimates, and that laboratory-derived petrophysical relationships could be applied to field-scale GPR data. A field-scale bacterial transport study was conducted within an uncontaminated sandy Pleistocene aquifer to evaluate the importance of heterogeneity in controlling the transport of bacteria. Geochemical, hydrological, geological, and geophysical data were collected to characterize the site prior to and after chemical and bacterial injection experiments. Study results shows that, even within the fairly uniform shallow marine deposits of the narrow channel focus area, heterogeneity existed that influenced the chemical tracer transport over lateral distances of a few meters and vertical distances of less than a half meter. The interpretation of data suggest that the incorporation of geophysical data with limited hydrological data may provide valuable information about the stratigraphy, log conductivity values, and the spatial correlation structure of log conductivity, which have traditionally been obtainable only by performing extensive and intrusive hydrological sampling.

  18. Geophysical wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoguang

    2000-11-01

    This study is concerned with geophysical wave tomography techniques that include advanced diffraction tomography, traveltime calculation techniques and simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches. We propose the source independent approximation, the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation and develop a fast and accurate diffraction tomography algorithm that uses this approximation. Since the Modified Quasi-Linear approximation accounts for the scattering fields within scatterers, this tomography algorithm produces better image quality than conventional Born approximation tomography algorithm does with or without the presence of multiple scatterers and can be used to reconstruct images of high contrast objects. Since iteration is not required, this algorithm is efficient. We improve the finite difference traveltime calculation algorithm proposed by Vidale (1990). The bucket theory is utilized in order to enhance the sorting efficiency, which accounts for about ten percent computing time improvement for large velocity models. Snell's law is employed to solve the causality problem analytically, which enables the modified algorithm to compute traveltimes accurately and rapidly for high velocity contrast media. We also develop two simultaneous attenuation and velocity tomography approaches, which use traveltimes and amplitude spectra of the observed data, and discuss some of their applications. One approach is processing geophysical data that come from one single survey and the other deals with the repeated survey cases. These approaches are nonlinear and therefore more accurate than linear tomography. A linear system for wave propagation and constant-Q media are assumed in order to develop the tomography algorithms. These approaches not only produce attenuation and velocity images at the same time but also can be used to infer the physical rock properties, such as the dielectric permittivity, the electric conductivity, and the porosity. A crosshole radar

  19. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved.

  1. My Journey with Learning Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Beth

    2005-01-01

    Learning logs, or reading response logs, have long been established as an effective reading strategy that helps students learn from text (Atwell, 1987; Blough & Berman, 1991; Calkins, 1986; Commander & Smith, 1996; Kuhrt & Farris, 1990; Reed, 1988; Sanders, 1985). In this paper, the author describes her experiences using learning logs as a…

  2. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  3. International Symposium on Airborne Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogi, Toru; Ito, Hisatoshi; Kaieda, Hideshi; Kusunoki, Kenichiro; Saltus, Richard W.; Fitterman, David V.; Okuma, Shigeo; Nakatsuka, Tadashi

    2006-05-01

    Airborne geophysics can be defined as the measurement of Earth properties from sensors in the sky. The airborne measurement platform is usually a traditional fixed-wing airplane or helicopter, but could also include lighter-than-air craft, unmanned drones, or other specialty craft. The earliest history of airborne geophysics includes kite and hot-air balloon experiments. However, modern airborne geophysics dates from the mid-1940s when military submarine-hunting magnetometers were first used to map variations in the Earth's magnetic field. The current gamut of airborne geophysical techniques spans a broad range, including potential fields (both gravity and magnetics), electromagnetics (EM), radiometrics, spectral imaging, and thermal imaging.

  4. Geophysics in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. Urrutia

    The 1986 Annual Meeting of the Union Geofisica Mexicana (UGM) was held in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico, during November 9-15, 1986. This annual meeting provides an opportunity for the presentation and discussion of new observations, data, interpretations, etc., in the various research areas of geophysics. It is also intended to bring together geophysicists from government institutions, industry, universities, and research centers, along with researchers from other countries. Since a substantial amount of the geophysical data that is gathered in Mexico remains unpublished or is published in internal reports of restricted circulation, it is important to have such a forum for local and foreign researchers. Many U.S. research groups are presently carrying out studies in Mexico (in seismology, tectonics, economic geology, volcanology, etc.), but their participation in these annual meetings has been very limited. Thus, in addition to giving a brief account of the meeting, we would like to encourage future participation by AGU members and also to announce the availability of material published from the meetings (abstracts with program and a proceedings volume).

  5. A catalog of borehole geophysics for the 100 Areas and adjacent 600 Area, Hanford Site, 1962 to May 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R E; Pearson, A W

    1992-09-01

    This report catalogs geophysical borehole logs acquired between 1962, when logging began, and May 15, 1992 in the 100 Areas and the surrounding 600 Area of the Hanford Site. Separate tables were prepared for each respective set of wells. Each table lists all wells known to have been drilled, all borehole geophysical logs measured, and the location of these logs. No information is provided for logs acquired by the Westinghouse Hanford Company spectral gamma logging system. Maps are provided for identification of the specific wells in the 1200 Areas. A cross reference between the well numbering scheme employed by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project and that based on the Hanford grid name is provided for the appropriate wells in the 600 area.

  6. Memory logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P. )

    1993-01-01

    A suite of memory logging tools is being developed for slim-hole, high-temperature applications. The first tool will measure pressure and temperature, and it is especially designed to be a low-cost, but very precise, device. This tool will be smart in the sense that it can make [open quotes]decisions[close quotes] downhole. A second tool will measure the gamma-ray emissions from formation material, and it will be an indicator of lithology. A fluid sampling tool will complement the spectral gamma tool in that is will further constrain the lithology by identifying dissolved formation materials. Plans are being made to integrate the tool responses into formation parameters of interest through cooperative efforts between geothermal operators and scientific drilling programs.

  7. Borehole Geophysical Data From Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund Site, Corinna, Maine, March 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Bruce P.; Nichols, William J.; Dudley, Robert W.

    2001-01-01

    Borehole-geophysical data were collected in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in seven bedrock wells at the Eastland Woolen Mill Superfund site, Penobscot County, Corinna, Maine, in March, 1999. The data were collected as part of a reconnaissance investigation to provide information needed to address concerns about the distribution and fate of contaminants in ground-water at the site. The borehole geophysical data were also needed to guide subsequent data collection associated with the development of a remediation workplan. The borehole geophysical logs collected included: natural gamma, caliper, fluid temperature, fluid conductivity, electromagnetic conductivity, electromagnetic resistivity, spontaneous potential, and single-point resistivity.

  8. Geophysics of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A physical model of Mars is presented on the basis of light-scattering observations of the Martian atmosphere and surface and interior data obtained from observations of the geopotential field. A general description of the atmosphere is presented, with attention given to the circulation and the various cloud types, and data and questions on the blue haze-clearing effect and the seasonal darkening wave are summarized and the Mie scattering model developed to explain these observations is presented. The appearance of the planet from earth and spacecraft through Mariner 9 is considered, and attention is given to the preparation of topographical contour maps, the canal problem and large-scale lineaments observed from Mariner 9, the gravity field and shape of the planet and the application of Runcorn's geoid/convection theory to Mars. Finally, a summary of Viking results is presented and their application to the understanding of Martian geophysics is discussed.

  9. Sampling functions for geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.; Lunquist, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    A set of spherical sampling functions is defined such that they are related to spherical-harmonic functions in the same way that the sampling functions of information theory are related to sine and cosine functions. An orderly distribution of (N + 1) squared sampling points on a sphere is given, for which the (N + 1) squared spherical sampling functions span the same linear manifold as do the spherical-harmonic functions through degree N. The transformations between the spherical sampling functions and the spherical-harmonic functions are given by recurrence relations. The spherical sampling functions of two arguments are extended to three arguments and to nonspherical reference surfaces. Typical applications of this formalism to geophysical topics are sketched.

  10. Electrofacies analysis for coal lithotype profiling based on high-resolution wireline log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslin, A.; Esterle, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    The traditional approach to coal lithotype analysis is based on a visual characterisation of coal in core, mine or outcrop exposures. As not all wells are fully cored, the petroleum and coal mining industries increasingly use geophysical wireline logs for lithology interpretation.This study demonstrates a method for interpreting coal lithotypes from geophysical wireline logs, and in particular discriminating between bright or banded, and dull coal at similar densities to a decimetre level. The study explores the optimum combination of geophysical log suites for training the coal electrofacies interpretation, using neural network conception, and then propagating the results to wells with fewer wireline data. This approach is objective and has a recordable reproducibility and rule set.In addition to conventional gamma ray and density logs, laterolog resistivity, microresistivity and PEF data were used in the study. Array resistivity data from a compact micro imager (CMI tool) were processed into a single microresistivity curve and integrated with the conventional resistivity data in the cluster analysis. Microresistivity data were tested in the analysis to test the hypothesis that the improved vertical resolution of microresistivity curve can enhance the accuracy of the clustering analysis. The addition of PEF log allowed discrimination between low density bright to banded coal electrofacies and low density inertinite-rich dull electrofacies.The results of clustering analysis were validated statistically and the results of the electrofacies results were compared to manually derived coal lithotype logs.

  11. Demonstrations in Introductory Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Stein, S.; van der Lee, S.; Swafford, L.; Klosko, E.; Delaughter, J.; Wysession, M.

    2005-12-01

    Geophysical concepts are challenging to teach at introductory levels, because students need to understand both the underlying physics and its geological application. To address this, our introductory courses include class demonstrations and experiments to demonstrate underlying physical principles and their geological applications. Demonstrations and experiments have several advantages over computer simulations. First, computer simulations "work" even if the basic principle is wrong. In contrast, simple demonstrations show that a principle is physically correct, rather than a product of computer graphics. Second, many students are unfamiliar with once-standard experiments demonstrating ideas of classical physics used in geophysics. Demonstrations are chosen that we consider stimulating, relevant, inexpensive, and easy to conduct in a non-lab classroom. These come in several groups. Many deal with aspects of seismic waves, using springs, light beams, and other methods such as talking from outside the room to illustrate the frequency dependence of diffraction (hearing but not seeing around a corner). Others deal with heat and mass transfer, such as illustrating fractional crystallization with apple juice and the surface/volume effect in planetary evolution with ice. Plate motions are illustrated with paper cutouts showing effects like motion on transform faults and how the Euler vector geometry changes a plate boundary from spreading, to strike-slip, to convergence along the Pacific-North America boundary from the Gulf of California to Alaska. Radioactive decay is simulated by having the class rise and sit down as a result of coin flips (one tail versus two gives different decay rates and hence half lives). This sessions' goal of exchanging information about demonstrations is an excellent idea: some of ours are described on http://www.earth.nwu.edu/people/seth/202.

  12. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  13. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, W.

    1998-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction time necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content (Gunnink and Yang, 1997). For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication. The authors hypothesize that an alternative to drying coal exists. If the coal logs are to be made at mix moisture contents that are above the optimum value, then coal log quality can be maintained if the compaction time is increased. In fact, the authors believe that if compaction time is increased such that the bulk density and moisture content of the compacted coal logs are the same, then

  14. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  15. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  16. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  17. 3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Log bunkhouse (far left), log chicken house (left of center), equipment shed (center), and workshop (far right). View to northwest. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, County Road 44, 0.1 mile northeast of Big Hole River Bridge, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  18. Site characterization at the Rabbit Valley Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range

    SciTech Connect

    Koppenjan, S,; Martinez, M.

    1994-06-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) is developing a Geophysical Performance Evaluation Range (GPER) at Rabbit Valley located 30 miles west of Grand Junction, Colorado. The purpose of the range is to provide a test area for geophysical instruments and survey procedures. Assessment of equipment accuracy and resolution is accomplished through the use of static and dynamic physical models. These models include targets with fixed configurations and targets that can be re-configured to simulate specific specifications. Initial testing (1991) combined with the current tests at the Rabbit Valley GPER will establish baseline data and will provide performance criteria for the development of geophysical technologies and techniques. The US DOE`s Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) staff has conducted a Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey of the site with its stepped FM-CW GPR. Additionally, STL contracted several other geophysical tests. These include an airborne GPR survey incorporating a ``chirped`` FM-CW GPR system and a magnetic survey with a surfaced-towed magnetometer array unit Ground-based and aerial video and still frame pictures were also acquired. STL compiled and analyzed all of the geophysical maps and created a site characterization database. This paper discusses the results of the multi-sensor geophysical studies performed at Rabbit Valley and the future plans for the site.

  19. Applied Geophysics in the world of tomorrow - Microfabrication arrives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    sensors must be deployed in more venues, on new platforms, for more and different applications to pay for the engineering costs of developing nanotechnology. What might those applications be? They may be in medical or defense or security. But one application that is sure to be employed is installing multiple magnetic sensors on robotic platforms, whether they are deployed on airborne, marine or land. UAV, AUV, UUV and even ROV's will be the platforms of the future, enabling robots to gather data and be able to make mid-survey decisions about increased coverage over areas of interest. What should you be studying or teaching to take advantage of these paradigm shifts? The disciplines of this new era of geophysical exploration will be real-time automated potential field data analysis, embedded platform computers for data logging, steering and magnetic compensation. There will be context driven navigation planning required (including altitude) based on target size and distribution. There will be high speed communications over local and distributed networks. In short many of the technologies used today in Wi-Fi, GPS, Wii controllers and Smartphones will be part of the mix.

  20. Continuous monitoring of the lunar or Martian subsurface using on-board pattern recognition and neural processing of Rover geophysical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Charles E.; Boyd, Richard V.; Sternberg, Ben K.

    1991-01-01

    The overall aim is to provide base technology for an automated vision system for on-board interpretation of geophysical data. During the first year's work, it was demonstrated that geophysical data can be treated as patterns and interpreted using single neural networks. Current research is developing an integrated vision system comprising neural networks, algorithmic preprocessing, and expert knowledge. This system is to be tested incrementally using synthetic geophysical patterns, laboratory generated geophysical patterns, and field geophysical patterns.

  1. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  2. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  3. Applications of geophysical methods to volcano monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wynn, Jeff; Dzurisin, Daniel; Finn, Carol A.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Lahusen, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The array of geophysical technologies used in volcano hazards studies - some developed originally only for volcano monitoring - ranges from satellite remote sensing including InSAR to leveling and EDM surveys, campaign and telemetered GPS networks, electronic tiltmeters and strainmeters, airborne magnetic and electromagnetic surveys, short-period and broadband seismic monitoring, even microphones tuned for infrasound. They include virtually every method used in resource exploration except large-scale seismic reflection. By “geophysical ” we include both active and passive methods as well as geodetic technologies. Volcano monitoring incorporates telemetry to handle high-bandwith cameras and broadband seismometers. Critical geophysical targets include the flux of magma in shallow reservoir and lava-tube systems, changes in active hydrothermal systems, volcanic edifice stability, and lahars. Since the eruption of Mount St. Helens in Washington State in 1980, and the eruption at Pu’u O’o in Hawai’i beginning in 1983 and still continuing, dramatic advances have occurred in monitoring technology such as “crisis GIS” and lahar modeling, InSAR interferograms, as well as gas emission geochemistry sampling, and hazards mapping and eruption predictions. The on-going eruption of Mount St. Helens has led to new monitoring technologies, including advances in broadband Wi-Fi and satellite telemetry as well as new instrumentation. Assessment of the gap between adequate monitoring and threat at the 169 potentially dangerous Holocene volcanoes shows where populations are dangerously exposed to volcanic catastrophes in the United States and its territories . This paper focuses primarily on Hawai’ian volcanoes and the northern Pacific and Cascades volcanoes. The US Geological Survey, the US National Park System, and the University of Utah cooperate in a program to monitor the huge Yellowstone volcanic system, and a separate observatory monitors the restive Long Valley

  4. Analysis of well logging methods in volcanic and volcano sedimentary rocks from Pina petroleum field

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriquez, N.

    1996-09-01

    Petrophysical, petrological and geophysical methods have been applied to prospecting and well logging for several petroleum fields in Cuba. The most common reservoir in these fields are carbonate rocks. However, the Pina field, in the Central region of the island, distinguishes itself by the good quality of the oil and the volcano sedimentary and volcanic character of the reservoirs. These rocks have peculiar geophysical responses, which is why the study of these methods and the development of the interpretation methods is very important. Integrated geological and geophysical information was necessary during the drilling of wells in the Pina field in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential. GEONUC code permits us to use different ways to solve questions about interpretation of well logging in the volcanic sedimentary rocks. This code gives us the opportunity to analyze complex methods.

  5. Jesuit Geophysical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udias, Agustin; Stauder, William

    Jesuits have had ah interest in observing and explaining geophysical phenomena since this religious order, the Society of Jesus, was founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Three principal factors contributed to this interest: their educational work in colleges and universities, their missionary endeavors to remote lands where they observed interesting and often as yet undocumented natural phenomena, and a network of communication that brought research of other Jesuits readily to their awareness.One of the first and most important Jesuit colleges was the Roman College (today the Gregorian University) founded in 1551 in Rome, which served as a model for many other universities throughout the world. By 1572, Christopher Clavius (1537-1612), professor of mathematics at the Roman College, had already initiated an important tradition of Jesuit research by emphasizing applied mathematics and insisting on the need of serious study of mathematics in the program of studies in the humanities. In 1547 he directed a publication of Euclid's work with commentaries, and published several treatises on mathematics, including Arithmetica Practica [1585], Gnomonicae [1581], and Geometrica Practica [1606]. Clavius was also a Copernican and supported his friend Galileo when he announced the discovery of the satellites of Jupiter.

  6. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  7. Lithostratigraphy from downhole logs in Hole AND-1B, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Trevor; Morin, Roger H.; Jarrard, Richard D.; Jackolski, Chris L.; Henrys, Stuart A.; Niessen, Frank; Magens, Diana; Kuhn, Gerhard; Monien, Donata; Powell, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    The ANDRILL (Antarctic Drilling Project) McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) project drilled 1285 m of sediment in Hole AND–1B, representing the past 12 m.y. of glacial history. Downhole geophysical logs were acquired to a depth of 1018 mbsf (meters below seafloor), and are complementary to data acquired from the core. The natural gamma radiation (NGR) and magnetic susceptibility logs are particularly useful for understanding lithological and paleoenvironmental change at ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Hole AND–1B. NGR logs cover the entire interval from the seafloor to 1018 mbsf, and magnetic susceptibility and other logs covered the open hole intervals between 692 and 1018 and 237–342 mbsf. In the upper part of AND–1B, clear alternations between low and high NGR values distinguish between diatomite (lacking minerals containing naturally radioactive K, U, and Th) and diamictite (containing K-bearing clays, K-feldspar, mica, and heavy minerals). In the lower open hole logged section, NGR and magnetic susceptibility can also distinguish claystones (rich in K-bearing clay minerals, relatively low in magnetite) and diamictites (relatively high in magnetite). Sandstones can be distinguished by their high resistivity values in AND–1B. On the basis of these three downhole logs, diamictite, claystones, and sandstones can be predicted correctly for 74% of the 692–1018 mbsf interval. The logs were then used to predict facies for the 6% of this interval that was unrecovered by coring. Given the understanding of the physical property characteristics of different facies, it is also possible to identify subtle changes in lithology from the physical properties and help refine parts of the lithostratigraphy, for example, the varying terrigenous content of diatomites and the transitions from subice diamictite to open-water diatomite.

  8. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source.

  9. Teaching an Old Log New Tricks with Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Krista; Puri, Colin; Mahler, Paul; Dukatz, Carl

    2014-03-01

    To most people, the log file would not be considered an exciting area in technology today. However, these relatively benign, slowly growing data sources can drive large business transformations when combined with modern-day analytics. Accenture Technology Labs has built a new framework that helps to expand existing vendor solutions to create new methods of gaining insights from these benevolent information springs. This framework provides a systematic and effective machine-learning mechanism to understand, analyze, and visualize heterogeneous log files. These techniques enable an automated approach to analyzing log content in real time, learning relevant behaviors, and creating actionable insights applicable in traditionally reactive situations. Using this approach, companies can now tap into a wealth of knowledge residing in log file data that is currently being collected but underutilized because of its overwhelming variety and volume. By using log files as an important data input into the larger enterprise data supply chain, businesses have the opportunity to enhance their current operational log management solution and generate entirely new business insights-no longer limited to the realm of reactive IT management, but extending from proactive product improvement to defense from attacks. As we will discuss, this solution has immediate relevance in the telecommunications and security industries. However, the most forward-looking companies can take it even further. How? By thinking beyond the log file and applying the same machine-learning framework to other log file use cases (including logistics, social media, and consumer behavior) and any other transactional data source. PMID:27447306

  10. Twenty-three Years of Evolving "State-of-the-Art" CORK Borehole Geophysical Monitoring: A Review of Technologies and Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H. W.; Kinoshita, M.; Paros, J. M.; Inderbitzen, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    The first successful attempt to instrument an Ocean Drilling Program borehole for formation pressure and temperature monitoring and fluid sampling was accomplished in 1991 in Hole 857D, and the system there has been in nearly continuous operation since that time. This hole and others that followed have provided many new insights into ocean crustal and subduction zone hydrogeology and geodynamics, while at the same time being the "proving ground" for a number of technological advances in ocean borehole monitoring, including 1) the CORK scheme itself for sealing holes for hydrologic recovery to natural-state conditions after drilling; 2) the use of absolute pressure sensors for monitoring both relative formation pressures and changes in seafloor depth; 3) multi-level completions for pressure monitoring that leave cased borehole interiors open for other instrumentation; 4) the development of ultra-high-precision, low-power digital recording systems for examining the effects on the formation of seismic and microseismic loading; and 5) the proof-of-concept of an optical communications system that eliminates dependence on submersibles or ROVs for data download operations (see Tivey et al., this session). Relatively low-sample-rate data spanning the first part of the more than two decades of operations have shown how large anomalous pressures generated thermally and by deformation can be; how seafloor tidal loading influences formation pressure and can drive an "a.c." component of flow; and how seismogenic and slow strain can be observed by way of formation-fluid pressure transients. More recent instrumentation has allowed much higher fidelity observations (1 Hz sampling at a resolution of 10-8 of full-scale), and thus is permitting complementary studies of hydrologic, oceanographic, seismic, and microseismic phenomena. Plans for the future include connections to shore via observatory cable systems, such as those of NEPTUNE Canada and DONET, for unlimited power supply and

  11. USING 3D COMPUTER MODELING, BOREHOLE GEOPHYSICS, AND HIGH CAPACITY PUMPS TO RESTORE PRODUCTION TO MARGINAL WELLS IN THE EAST TEXAS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Bassett

    2003-06-09

    Methods for extending the productive life of marginal wells in the East Texas Field were investigated using advanced computer imaging technology, geophysical tools, and selective perforation of existing wells. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy, TENECO Energy and Schlumberger Wireline and Testing. Drillers' logs for more than 100 wells in proximity to the project lease were acquired, converted to digital format using a numerical scheme, and the data were used to create a 3 Dimensional geological image of the project site. Using the descriptive drillers' logs in numerical format yielded useful cross sections identifying the Woodbine Austin Chalk contact and continuity of sand zones between wells. The geological data provided information about reservoir continuity, but not the amount of remaining oil, this was obtained using selective modern logs. Schlumberger logged the wells through 2 3/8 inch tubing with a new slimhole Reservoir Saturation Tool (RST) which can measure the oil and water content of the existing porosity, using neutron scattering and a gamma ray spectrometer (GST). The tool provided direct measurements of elemental content yielding interpretations of porosity, lithology, and oil and water content, confirming that significant oil saturation still exists, up to 50% in the upper Woodbine sand. Well testing was then begun and at the end of the project new oil was being produced from zones abandoned or bypassed more than 25 years ago.

  12. Magnetic airborne survey - geophysical flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Barros Camara, Erick; Nei Pereira Guimarães, Suze

    2016-06-01

    This paper provides a technical review process in the area of airborne acquisition of geophysical data, with emphasis for magnetometry. In summary, it addresses the calibration processes of geophysical equipment as well as the aircraft to minimize possible errors in measurements. The corrections used in data processing and filtering are demonstrated with the same results as well as the evolution of these techniques in Brazil and worldwide.

  13. Planetary Geophysics and Tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuber, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The broad objective of this work is to improve understanding of the internal structures and thermal and stress histories of the solid planets by combining results from analytical and computational modeling, and geophysical data analysis of gravity, topography and tectonic surface structures. During the past year we performed two quite independent studies in the attempt to explain the Mariner 10 magnetic observations of Mercury. In the first we revisited the possibility of crustal remanence by studying the conditions under which one could break symmetry inherent in Runcorn's model of a uniformly magnetized shell to produce a remanent signal with a dipolar form. In the second we applied a thin shell dynamo model to evaluate the range of intensity/structure for which such a planetary configuration can produce a dipole field consistent with Mariner 10 results. In the next full proposal cycle we will: (1) develop numerical and analytical and models of thin shell dynamos to address the possible nature of Mercury s present-day magnetic field and the demise of Mars magnetic field; (2) study the effect of degree-1 mantle convection on a core dynamo as relevant to the early magnetic field of Mars; (3) develop models of how the deep mantles of terrestrial planets are perturbed by large impacts and address the consequences for mantle evolution; (4) study the structure, compensation, state of stress, and viscous relaxation of lunar basins, and address implications for the Moon s state of stress and thermal history by modeling and gravity/topography analysis; and (5) use a three-dimensional viscous relaxation model for a planet with generalized vertical viscosity distribution to study the degree-two components of the Moon's topography and gravity fields to constrain the primordial stress state and spatial heterogeneity of the crust and mantle.

  14. Geophysical characterization of smelting wastes: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Bochicchio, R.M.

    1995-07-01

    The wastes at some smelting sites release toxic chemicals into ground water and streams, thereby contaminating aquifers and destroying aquatic habitat. The thicknesses of slag piles at a smelting site in Midvale, Utah, were determined using geophysical methods; this information was needed to estimate the cost of removing or isolating slag that has the potential to contaminate ground water. From a small-scale preliminary investigation that included terrain-conductivity profiling, low-frequency resistivity measurements, and induction logging, the electrical resistivities of the slag and the underlying sediment were determined to be approximately 100 {Omega}-m and 15 {Omega}-m, respectively. Because electromagnetic measurements are affected by such significant contrasts, terrain-conductivity profiling and time-domain electromagnetic soundings were used to determine the thicknesses of the slag piles. In this case study, the authors emphasize three principles that might help investigators at other smelter sites. First, a small-scale preliminary investigation saves time and money because those geophysical methods that have the greatest likelihood of success can be determined. Second, when the results from several geophysical methods are consistent, the confidence in the interpretation increases. Third, geophysical characterization is not always successful.

  15. Comprehensive study of LASL Well C/T-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, and applications to geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Beaver County, Utah, has been donated by Phillips Petroleum Company for calibration and testing of well-logging equipment in the hot, corrosive, geothermal environment. It is the second Calibration/Test Well (C/T-2) in the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. A study of cuttings and well logs from Well C/T-2 was completed. This synthesis and data presentation contains most of the subsurface geologic information needed to effect the total evaluation of geophysical logs acquired in this geothermal calibration/test well, C/T-2.

  16. Surface exploration geophysics applied to the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Ander, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of a permanent lunar base, the desire to explore the lunar near-surface for both scientific and economic purposes will arise. Applications of exploration geophysical methods to the earth's subsurface are highly developed. This paper briefly addresses some aspects of applying this technology to near surface lunar exploration. It is noted that both the manner of application of some techniques, as well as their traditional hierarchy as assigned on earth, should be altered for lunar exploration. In particular, electromagnetic techniques may replace seismic techniques as the primary tool for evaluating near-surface structure.

  17. Large natural geophysical events: planetary planning

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.B.; Smith, J.V.

    1984-09-01

    Geological and geophysical data suggest that during the evolution of the earth and its species, that there have been many mass extinctions due to large impacts from comets and large asteroids, and major volcanic events. Today, technology has developed to the stage where we can begin to consider protective measures for the planet. Evidence of the ecological disruption and frequency of these major events is presented. Surveillance and warning systems are most critical to develop wherein sufficient lead times for warnings exist so that appropriate interventions could be designed. The long term research undergirding these warning systems, implementation, and proof testing is rich in opportunities for collaboration for peace.

  18. Enhanced carbon-oxygen log interpretations using supplemental log curves

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.F. Jr.; Jacobson, L.A.; Fox, P.

    1994-12-31

    Supplemental measurements from induced nuclear spectrometry tools are examined to demonstrate what additional information they provide about the well and reservoir conditions. Logs in shut-in wells from Indonesia provide examples of oxygen activation measurements showing cross-flow from one reservoir to another via open perforations. Leaking squeezed perforations were also observed. An example from Alaska shows radioactive scale build-up in the casing which spectral analysis identifies as a mixture of uranium and thorium salts. Another log, where the casing fluid was replaced with crude oil, demonstrates a technique for identifying cement channels. Logs from Nigeria comparing oil saturation estimates before and after a squeeze operation illustrate the effect of casing fluid flushing of the formation through open perforations. Understanding the diagnostic character of these curves leads to higher confidence in the overall log interpretation process.

  19. Interpretation of well logs in a carbonate aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCary, L.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the log analysis of the Randolph and Sabial core holes in the Edwards aquifer in Texas, with particular attention to the principles that can be applied generally to any carbonate system. The geologic and hydrologic data were obtained during the drilling of the two holes, from extensive laboratory analysis of the cores, and from numerous geophysical logs run in the two holes. Some logging methods are inherently superiors to others for the analysis of limestone and dolomite aquifers. Three such systems are the dentistry, neutron, and acoustic-velocity (sonic) logs. Most of the log analysis described here is based on the interpretation of suites of logs from these three systems. In certain instances, deeply focused resistivity logs can be used to good advantage in carbonate rock studies; this technique is used to computer the water resistivity in the Randolph core hole. The rocks penetrated by the Randolph core hole are typical of those carbonates that have undergone very little solution by recent ground-water circulation. There are few large solutional openings; the water is saline; and the rocks are dark, dolomitic, have pore space that is interparticle or intercrystalline, and contain unoxidized organic material. The total porosity of rocks in the saline zone is higher than that of rocks in the fresh-water aquifer; however, the intrinsic permeability is much less in the saline zone because there are fewer large solutional openings. The Sabinal core hole penetrates a carbonate environment that has experienced much solution by ground water during recent geologic time. The rocks have high secondary porosities controlled by sedimentary structures within the rock; the water is fresh; and the dominant rock composition is limestone. The relative percentages of limestone and dolomite, the average matrix (grain) densities of the rock mixtures , and the porosity of the rock mass can be calculated from density, neutron, and acoustic logs. With supporting

  20. Geophysical Characterization and Monitoring for the Frio Pilot Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myer, L. R.; Hovorka, S.; Hoversten, G.; Fouad, K.; Holtz, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Frio Pilot test involves injection of approximately 3000 tons of CO2 into the brine-saturated Frio formation at a depth of approximately 1500 m at a test site located northeast of Houston. The CO2 is injected from a new well drilled for the test while an existing well provides subsurface access for monitoring. Geophysical data for characterization included 3-D surface seismic and well logs, which were available because of the extensive oil and gas exploration and production in the area. Seismic interpretation coupled with petrophysical analyses and other geologic data showed that the test site is located in a small fault block off the flank of a salt dome. The injection interval consists of alternating layers of sand and shale, with sand layer thickness on the order of 10 m, overlain by the 75 m thick Anahuac shale. Well logs in the new well provide data to confirm test site stratigraphy as well as data needed for interpretation of geophysical monitoring measurements. Geophysical monitoring involves time-lapse measurements, incorporating both surface and borehole techniques. Selection of techniques was aided by modeling in which reservoir simulation predicted fluid distributions, which were then input to geophysical models to predict performance of candidate techniques. Interpretation of crosswell seismic with appropriate rock physics models can potentially provide quantitative information on CO2 saturation between boreholes. Vertical seismic profiling will be used to map the areal distribution of the plume. Low resolution but inexpensive streaming potential measurements will also be carried out to sense the advancing CO2 front.

  1. Indoor vs Outdoor Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebermann, R. C.

    2009-05-01

    Research in mineral physics is essential for interpreting observational data from many other disciplines in the Earth Sciences, from geodynamics to seismology to geochemistry to petrology to geomagnetism to planetary science, and extending also to materials science and climate studies. The field of high-pressure mineral physics is highly interdisciplinary. Mineral physicists do not always study minerals nor use only physics; they study the science of materials which comprise the Earth and other planets and employ the concepts and techniques from chemistry, physics, materials science, and even biology. Observations from geochemistry and geophysics studies lead to the development of petrologic, seismic and geodynamical models of the Earth's deep interior. The goal of mineral physics is to interpret such models in terms of variations of pressure, temperature, mineralogy/crystallography, and/or chemical composition with depth. The discovery in 2004 of the post-perovskite phase of MgSiO3 at pressures in excess of 120 GPa and high temperatures has led to an explosion of both complimentary experimental and theoretical work in mineral physics and remarkable synergy between mineral physics and the disciplines of seismology, geodynamics and geochemistry. Similarly, the observation of high-spin to low-spin transitions in Fe-bearing minerals at high pressures has important implications for the lower mantle of the Earth. We focus in this talk on the use of experimental physical acoustics to conduct "indoor seismology" experiments to measure sound wave velocities of minerals under the pressure and temperature conditions of the Earth's mantle. This field of research has a long history dating back at least to the studies of Francis Birch in the 1950s. The techniques include ultrasonic interferometry, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, and Brillouin spectroscopy. Many of these physical acoustic experiments are now performed in conjunction with synchrotron X-radiation sources at

  2. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  3. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 80.409 Section 80.409... MARITIME SERVICES Station Documents § 80.409 Station logs. (a) General requirements. Logs must be established and properly maintained as follows: (1) The log must be kept in an orderly manner. The log may...

  4. SAGE celebrates 25 years of learning geophysics by doing geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiracek, G.R.; Baldridge, W.S.; Sussman, A.J.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L.W.; Ferguson, J.F.; Gilpin, B.E.; McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing world demand and record-high costs for energy and mineral resources, along with the attendant environmental and climate concerns, have escalated the need for trained geophysicists to unprecedented levels. This is not only a national need; it's a critical global need. As Earth scientists and educators we must seriously ask if our geophysics pipeline can adequately address this crisis. One program that has helped to answer this question in the affirmative for 25 years is SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience). SAGE continues to develop with new faculty, new collaborations, and additional ways to support student participation during and after SAGE. ?? 2008 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  5. Expedited Site Characterization geophysics: Geophysical methods and tools for site characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1994-03-01

    This report covers five classes of geophysical technologies: Magnetics; Electrical/electromagnetic; Seismic reflection; Gamma-ray spectrometry; and Metal-specific spectrometry. Except for radiometry, no other classes of geophysical tedmologies are specific for direct detection of the types of contaminants present at the selected sites. For each of the five classes covered, the report gives a general description of the methodology, its field use, and its general applicability to the ESC Project. In addition, the report gives a sample of the most promising instruments available for each class, including the following information: Hardware/software attributes; Purchase and rental costs; Survey rate and operating costs; and Other applicable information based on case history and field evaluations.

  6. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  7. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  8. Object Storage for Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.; Readey, J.

    2015-12-01

    Object storage systems (such as Amazon S3 or Ceph) have been shown to be cost-effective and highly scalable for data repositories in the Petabyte range and larger. However traditionally data storage used for geophysical software systems has centered on file-based systems and libraries such as NetCDF and HDF5. In this session we'll discuss the advantages and challenges of moving to an object store-based model for geophysical data. We'll review a proposed model for a geophysical data service that provides an API-compatible library for traditional NetCDF and HDF5 applications while providing high scalability and performance. One further advantage of this approach is that any dataset or dataset selection can be referenced as a URI. By using versioning, the data the URI references can be guaranteed to be unmodified, thus enabling reproducibility of referenced data.

  9. Geophysical investigation: New Production Reactor Complex, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Filipkowski, F.; Blackey, M.; Davies, D.; Levine, E.N.; Murphy, V.

    1991-12-01

    Seismic crosshole and downhole velocity measurements were performed for two borehole arrays approximately 300 feet deep in conjunction with verticality measurements and geophysical logging of borehole WO-2 (to a depth of 4,960 feet) at the NPR site of the INEL. Past studies show that the site area is covered by a thin layer of soil which overlies numerous basalt flows interrupted by sandy and clayey interbeds. Compressional and shear wave velocities computed for these arrays revealed low velocity zones at the following elevation ranges for crosshole array No. 1: 4,893 feet to 4,873 feet (basalt rubble zone) and 4,705 feet to 4,686 feet (sediment interbed). Corresponding elevation ranges for crosshole array No. 2 include: 4,830 feet to 4,815 feet (sediment interbed), 4,785 feet to 4,765 feet (highly vesicular and fractured basalt), 4,715 feet to 4,705 feet (basalt rubble zone), and 4,672 feet to 4,667 feet (sediment interbed). In general, crosshole velocity data correlated between arrays with velocity differences possibly explained by localized lithologic changes. Due to scatter in the downhole velocity data, only velocity averages were computed. However, these downhole velocities correlated to the approximate mean crosshole velocity values and therefore independent confirmed the crosshole data. Geophysical logging of well WO-2 included natural gamma, neutron, and compensated density logs to a depth of 4,960 feet at which a viscous borehole fluid inhibited further investigation. Second runs of small sections of these logs were repeated satisfactorily for confirmation of certain anomalous areas.

  10. Fiber Optic Geophysics Sensor Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grochowski, Lucjan

    1989-01-01

    The distributed optical sensor arrays are analysed in view of specific needs of 3-D seismic explorations methods. There are compared advantages and disadventages of arrays supported by the sensors which are modulated in intensity and phase. In these systems all-fiber optic structures and their compabilities with digital geophysic formats are discussed. It was shown that the arrays based on TDM systems with the intensity modulated sensors are economically and technically the best matched for geophysic systems supported by a large number of the sensors.

  11. Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

  12. Synthetic Convection Log — Characterization of vertical transport processes in fluid-filled boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, Susann

    2010-09-01

    Two main types of vertical convective flows play an important role in transport along the fluid column: forced convective and free convective flows. Forced vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes (short-circuit flow) can be detected by means of borehole measurements, e.g. different types of flowmeters, temperature logs, and fluid-logging. For detecting free vertical convection (natural convection), so far, no special logging device or interpretation algorithm was available. This paper presents a new synthetic borehole log, the so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log). It enables in-situ detection and identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements. Vertical convection in fluid-filled boreholes is known to lead to transport of heat and mass. Thus, understanding free convective flow is crucial for geothermics, borehole geophysics, hydrological investigations, and meaningful fluid sampling. The SYNCO-Log is divided into two closely linked parts: (1) the cause-oriented approach compares the situation along the fluid column with critical thresholds for the onset of free convection and (2) the effect-oriented approach separates the anomalies and patterns in fluid quality that are induced by free convection. Inputs for the interpretation algorithm are simultaneously acquired temperature and mudresistivity (or fluid conductivity) logs, hydraulic pressure, and borehole diameter. Output of the algorithm is a computer generated, descriptive illustration of the results including a classified plot for delineating the type of flow. The reliability of the SYNCO-Log is high, as causes and effects, i.e. driving forces and resulting heat and mass transport, are simultaneously identified. Its applicability and the relevance of the results are shown on the example of borehole measurements from the KTB-MH deep crustal borehole, located in the Bavarian region of Germany.

  13. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  14. APS logDaemon and client library

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

    1995-12-13

    This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

  15. Characterization of a complex near-surface structure using well logging and passive seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjumea, Beatriz; Macau, Albert; Gabàs, Anna; Figueras, Sara

    2016-04-01

    We combine geophysical well logging and passive seismic measurements to characterize the near-surface geology of an area located in Hontomin, Burgos (Spain). This area has some near-surface challenges for a geophysical study. The irregular topography is characterized by limestone outcrops and unconsolidated sediments areas. Additionally, the near-surface geology includes an upper layer of pure limestones overlying marly limestones and marls (Upper Cretaceous). These materials lie on top of Low Cretaceous siliciclastic sediments (sandstones, clays, gravels). In any case, a layer with reduced velocity is expected. The geophysical data sets used in this study include sonic and gamma-ray logs at two boreholes and passive seismic measurements: three arrays and 224 seismic stations for applying the horizontal-to-vertical amplitude spectra ratio method (H/V). Well-logging data define two significant changes in the P-wave-velocity log within the Upper Cretaceous layer and one more at the Upper to Lower Cretaceous contact. This technique has also been used for refining the geological interpretation. The passive seismic measurements provide a map of sediment thickness with a maximum of around 40 m and shear-wave velocity profiles from the array technique. A comparison between seismic velocity coming from well logging and array measurements defines the resolution limits of the passive seismic techniques and helps it to be interpreted. This study shows how these low-cost techniques can provide useful information about near-surface complexity that could be used for designing a geophysical field survey or for seismic processing steps such as statics or imaging.

  16. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lee, M.W.; Rose, K.K.; Boswell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole-logging program to determine the occurrence of gas hydrates and the in-situ physical properties of the sediments. In support of this effort, well-log and core data montages have been compiled which include downhole log and core-data obtained from the gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in the Mount Elbert well. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces calculated from available downhole well log and core data. ?? 2010.

  17. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  18. BROADBAND DIGITAL GEOPHYSICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seeley, Robert L.; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    1984-01-01

    A system has been developed to simultaneously sample and transmit digital data from five remote geophysical data receiver stations to a control station that processes, displays, and stores the data. A microprocessor in each remote station receives commands from the control station over a single telemetry channel.

  19. Geophysical applications of satellite altimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Sandwell, D.T. )

    1991-01-01

    Publications related to geophysical applications of Seasat and Geosat altimetry are reviewed for the period 1987-1990. Problems discussed include geoid and gravity errors, regional geoid heights and gravity anomalies, local gravity field/flexure, plate tectonics, and gridded geoid heights/gravity anomalies. 99 refs.

  20. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious.

  1. Integrating borehole logs and aquifer tests in aquifer characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Reese, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the surficial aquifer system in and around Big Cypress National Preserve in eastern Collier County, Florida. Borehole flowmeter tests provide qualitative permeability profiles in most of 26 boreholes drilled in the Study area. Flow logs indicate the depth of transmissive units, which are correlated across the study area. Comparison to published studies in adjacent areas indicates that the main limestone aquifer of the 000000Tamiami Formation in the study area corresponds with the gray limestone aquifer in western Dade County and the water table and lower Tamiami Aquifer in western Collier County. Four strategically located, multiwell aquifer tests are used to quantify the qualitative permeability profiles provided by the flowmeter log analysis. The hydrostratigraphic model based on these results defines the main aquifer in the central part of the study area as unconfined to semiconfined with a transmissivity as high as 30,000 m2/day. The aquifer decreases in transmissivity to less than 10,000 m2/day in some parts of western Collier County, and becomes confined to the east and northeast of the study area, where transmissivity decreases to below 5000 m2/day.Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the

  2. Method for induced polarization logging

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H.J.; Waxman, M.H.

    1987-04-14

    A method is described for generating a log of the formation phase shift, resistivity and spontaneous potential of an earth formation from data obtained from the earth formation with a multi-electrode induced polarization logging tool. The method comprises obtaining data samples from the formation at measurement points equally spaced in time of the magnitude and phase of the induced voltage and the magnitude and phase of the current supplied by a circuit through a reference resistance R/sub 0/ to a survey current electrode associated with the tool.

  3. Scientists of tomorrow - Geophysics School Lab for Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschämmer, Ellen; Bohlen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Starting in 2012, the Geophysical Institute (GPI) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) developed several geophysical experiments for secondary school students which are now part of the Geophysics School Lab at the GPI. Usually, the students visit the School Lab as a class together with their teacher (Physics, Geography, Science), but the School Lab can also be used for extracurricular learning of individual students. The experiments carried out deal with the topics Seismology, Geoelectrics, and Fluid Dynamics: A horizontal seismometer is decoupled from its registration unit for the time of the visit of the students. With this setup, the students can measure the natural period of the pendulum, and adjust the seismometer accordingly. At different experimental stations, students can analyse seismic data registered with this unit, locate earthquakes, or get to know and understand an accelerometer. The accelerometer is attached to a registration unit and data can be visualized in real time. In another experimental setup, the students can measure the viscosity of a fluid as a function of temperature in order to get a better understanding of different magma types and their viscosity. Furthermore, a geoelectric experiment is carried out in a sandbox: The students experience with non-destructive testing, and try to reveal the subsurface structure. For our experiments, secondary school teachers can receive free supportive materials for the preparation of the visit. The aim of the Geophysics School Lab is to encourage and acquaint secondary school students to the concepts of Geophysics, and to enthuse them with the applied issues of Geosciences.

  4. In-situ coal seam and overburden permeability characterization combining downhole flow meter and temperature logs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Julia; Scheuermann, Alexander; Bringemeier, Detlef; Hossack, Alex; Li, Ling

    2016-06-01

    The planning and design of any coal mine development requires among others a thorough investigation of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological subsurface conditions. As part of a coal mine exploration program we conducted heat pulse vertical flow meter testing. The flow data were combined with absolute and differential temperature logging data to gain information about the hydraulic characteristics of two different coal seams and their over- and interburden. For the strata that were localised based on geophysical logging data including density, gamma ray and resistivity hydraulic properties were quantified. We demonstrate that the temperature log response complements the flow meter log response. A coupling of both methods is therefore recommended to get an insight into the hydraulic conditions in a coal seam and its overburden.

  5. 2.5-D modeling in electromagnetic methods of geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabarovsky, L. A.; Goldman, M. M.; Rabinovich, M. B.; Strack, K.-M.

    1996-10-01

    Understanding, using, or eliminating three-dimensional (3-D) effects in electromagnetic methods of geophysics are critical requirements. Numerous achievements in 3-D modeling sometimes give the impression that they are widely available today in geophysical practice. This is not necessarily true. Existing 3-D modeling packages prove that we know how to perform 3-D modeling. However, the computer resources and costs involved make the practical application of 3-D EM modeling in geophysical applications very limited. A practical compromise, or even alternative, is represented by 2.5-D modeling characterized by the use of a 3-D source in a 2-D medium. This combination allows one to mathematically describe the related boundary value problem as a sequence of independent two-dimensional problems. The typical technique leading to such a split formulation is Fourier analysis. That is why the individual terms of a split solution are often referred to as harmonics. Although each independent problem is two-dimensional, the algorithmic implementation of finite differences or integral equations for the higher harmonics has some specific features not present in the classical 2-D cases. In this paper, a hybrid scheme consisting of a combination of the finite difference technique with the integral equation approach for transient fields is described. Evaluation of algorithm accuracy is presented and a transient logging technique application is considered. The algorithm is fast and easily implemented on a personal computer

  6. Karst characterization in a semi-arid region using gravity, seismic, and resistivity geophysical techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhart, Kevin Scott

    2013-10-01

    We proposed to customize emerging in situ geophysical monitoring technology to generate time-series data during sporadic rain events in a semi-arid region. Electrodes were to be connected to wireless \

  7. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: Scientific Predictions, Space Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, Snow, Ice and Permafrost, Tectonics and Sedimentation, Seismology, Volcanology, Remote Sensing, and other projects.

  8. Geophysical Institute. Biennial report, 1993-1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The 1993-1994 Geophysical Institute Biennial Report was published in November 1995 by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. It contains an overview of the Geophysical Institute, the Director`s Note, and research presentations concerning the following subjects: scientific predictions, space physics, atmospheric sciences, snow, ice and permafrost, tectonics and sedimentation, seismology, volcanology, remote sensing, and other projects.

  9. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  10. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  11. Statistical log analysis made practical

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. )

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

  12. Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

    1996-12-01

    During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

  13. 47 CFR 73.781 - Logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Logs. 73.781 Section 73.781 Telecommunication... International Broadcast Stations § 73.781 Logs. The licensee or permittee of each international broadcast station must maintain the station log in the following manner: (a) In the program log: (1) An entry of...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log operations. 1918.88 Section 1918.88 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.88 Log operations. (a) Working in holds. When loading logs into the holds of vessels and using dumper devices to roll logs into the...

  15. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  16. Smith heads Reviews of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On January 1, Jim Smith began his term as editor-in-chief of Reviews of Geophysics. As editor-in-chief, he leads the board of editors in enhancing the journal's role as an integrating force in the geophysical sciences by providing timely overviews of current research and its trends. Smith is already beginning to fulfill the journal's role of providing review papers on topics of broad interest to Union members as well as the occasional definitive review paper on selected topics of narrower focus. Smith will lead the editorial board until December 31, 2000. Michael Coffey, Tommy Dickey, James Horwitz, Roelof Snieder, and Thomas Torgersen have been appointed as editors to serve with Smith. At least one more editor will be named to round out the disciplinary expertise on the board.

  17. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  18. Geophysical investigations at Momotombo, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Cordon, U.J.; Zurflueh, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    The Momotombo geothermal field in Nicaragua was investigated in three exploration stages, using a number of geophysical techniques. Stage 1 of the investigations by Texas Instruments, Inc., (1970) located and delineated a potential geothermal field, with the dipole mapping surveys and electromagnetic soundings being most effective. Stage 2 of the investigations, performed in 1973 by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), outlined the resistivity anomalies in the area west of the previously selected field; Schlumberger VES soundings and constant depth profiling (SCDP) proved most useful. During Stage 3 of the investigations, Electroconsult (ELC) performed 20 additional Schlumberger VES soundings as part of the 1975 plant feasibility studies. Results of these geophysical techniques are summarized and their effectiveness briefly discussed.

  19. A mineralized breccia pipe in Mohawk Canyon, Arizona; lithologic and geophysical logs

    SciTech Connect

    Wenrich, K.J.; Van Gosen, B.S.; Balcer, R.A.; Scott, J.H.; Mascarenas, J.F.; Bedinger, G.M.; Burmaster, B.

    1988-01-01

    Hundreds of solution-collapse breccia pipes crop out in northern Arizona. High-grade U ore, and potentially economic concentrations of Ag, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in some pipes, has stimulated mining activity there. More than 900 confirmed and suspected breccia pipes have been mapped by this study. One pipe was chosen for exploration drilling 1984 because it exhibited all preestablished exploration criteria. Five rotary and core holes were drilled into this pipe; they contained mineralized breccia and zones of U-, Cu-, and Ni-mineralized rock.

  20. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  1. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  2. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  3. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine he direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  4. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  5. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  6. A New Social Contract for Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, T. F.

    2002-12-01

    The Golden Age for geophysical research that followed the IGY set the stage for a new era of interaction among science, technology, and society. World population and the average economic productivity of individuals have both continued to grow exponentially during the past 50 years with the result that by the 1980s the demands of the human economy on the finite renewable resources of planet Earth were approximately equal to the natural regenerative capacities of planetary ecosystems. These demands are now "overshooting" those regenerative powers by about 20 per cent (1). The result could be a collapse in the life-supporting capacity of global ecosystems during coming decades, with tragic implications for civilized society. Novel modes of collaboration among all disciplines and all sectors of society are urgently needed to transform a potential catastrophe into the attractive vision that is now within reach as a result of rapidly expanding human knowledge, emerging technologies for sharing that knowledge (2), and the set of ethical principles for sustainable development contained in the Earth Charter (3). This prospect challenges geophysicists and scholars in all disciplines to forge a new and broadly based contract with society (4). 1. Wackernagel M. et al. 2002. "Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 99, Issue 14, 9266-9271, July 9. 2. Malone T. and Yohe G. 2002. "Knowledge partnerships for a sustainable, equitable, and stable society." J. of Knowledge Management, Vol. 6, No. 4, October (in press). 3. www.earthcharter.org 4. Malone T. 1997. "Building on the legacies of the Intenational Geophysical Year." Transactions, AGU, Vol.78, No. 15, pp. 185-191.

  7. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  8. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  9. Geophysical Model Research and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Flanagan, M

    2004-07-07

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics: (1) a priori geophysical models, (2) surface wave models, (3) receiver function derived profiles, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. The first, a priori models, can be used to predict a host of geophysical measurements, such as body wave travel times, and can be derived from direct regional studies or even by geophysical analogy. Use of these models is particularly important in aseismic regions or regions without seismic stations, where data of direct measurements might not exist. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed the Western Eurasia and North Africa (WENA) model which has been evaluated using a number of data sets, including travel times, surface waves, receiver functions, and waveform analysis (Pasyanos et al., 2004). We have joined this model with our Yellow Sea - Korean Peninsula (YSKP) model and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) East Asia model to construct a model for all of Eurasia and North Africa. Secondly, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. We are also using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In a collaborative project with Ammon, et al., they have been focusing on stations throughout western Eurasia and North Africa, while we have been focusing on LLNL deployments in the Middle East, including Kuwait, Jordan, and the United Arab Emirates. Finally, we have been

  10. The Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX); A proposal to explore Didymos system using Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatekin, Özgür; Mimoun, David; Murdoch, Naomi; Eubanks, Marshall; Carrasco, José; Vasseur, Hugues; Cadu, Alexandre; Ritter, Birgit; van Ruymbeke, Michel; Garcia, Raphael; Garcia de Quiros, Javier; Radley, Charles; Dehant, Veronique

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel concept for ESA's CubeSat Opportunity Payload Intersatellite Network Sensors (COPINS) planned to be deployed from the ESA AIM spacecraft at the Didymos System: the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX). AGEX includes two 3-U CubeSats with geophysical packages that will land on the surface of Didymoon. These geophysical packages will work in synergy on the secondary's surface to fulfil a rich set of scientific and technological mission goals. This includes the measurement of mass during the ballistic descent, and determination of dynamical state, local gravity, geophysical surface properties and sub-surface structure following the landing. As a secondary objective, the assessment of the DART impact on the asteroid dynamical properties will be performed. AGEX will help AIM to meet its science and technology objectives, and will demonstrate the benefits of the deployment of a network of sensors while simultaneously developing technology of relevance to future ESA missions.

  11. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  12. An evaluation of the use of drillers' logs in lithologic studies of the Ogallala Formation of the southern high plains of Texas, progress report, 1970-71

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.A.; Smith, Joe T.; Thompson, G.L.; Sandeen, W.M.

    1972-01-01

    Logs made by water-well drillers were analyzed in conjunction with test-hole drilling and geophysical logging to evaluate usefulness of the driller's log in delineating areas that would be suitable for artificial recharge of the Ogallala Formation. This preliminary study indicates that lack of detailed and accurate information in many drillers' logs prevents their use as a reliable source of lithologic information. For many applications, such as evaluation of potential areas for artificial recharge, the value of more complete and more accurate information will be readily apparent as these applications become more widespread. More effort will be required in collecting lithologic information as part of the drilling operations.

  13. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  14. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  15. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging. PMID:25994673

  16. Avian responses to selective logging shaped by species traits and logging practices.

    PubMed

    Burivalova, Zuzana; Lee, Tien Ming; Giam, Xingli; Şekercioğlu, Çağan Hakkı; Wilcove, David S; Koh, Lian Pin

    2015-06-01

    Selective logging is one of the most common forms of forest use in the tropics. Although the effects of selective logging on biodiversity have been widely studied, there is little agreement on the relationship between life-history traits and tolerance to logging. In this study, we assessed how species traits and logging practices combine to determine species responses to selective logging, based on over 4000 observations of the responses of nearly 1000 bird species to selective logging across the tropics. Our analysis shows that species traits, such as feeding group and body mass, and logging practices, such as time since logging and logging intensity, interact to influence a species' response to logging. Frugivores and insectivores were most adversely affected by logging and declined further with increasing logging intensity. Nectarivores and granivores responded positively to selective logging for the first two decades, after which their abundances decrease below pre-logging levels. Larger species of omnivores and granivores responded more positively to selective logging than smaller species from either feeding group, whereas this effect of body size was reversed for carnivores, herbivores, frugivores and insectivores. Most importantly, species most negatively impacted by selective logging had not recovered approximately 40 years after logging cessation. We conclude that selective timber harvest has the potential to cause large and long-lasting changes in avian biodiversity. However, our results suggest that the impacts can be mitigated to a certain extent through specific forest management strategies such as lengthening the rotation cycle and implementing reduced impact logging.

  17. Studies in geophysics: Active tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Active tectonics is defined within the study as tectonic movements that are expected to occur within a future time span of concern to society. Such movements and their associated hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and land subsidence and emergence. The entire range of geology, geophysics, and geodesy is, to some extent, pertinent to this topic. The needs for useful forecasts of tectonic activity, so that actions may be taken to mitigate hazards, call for special attention to ongoing tectonic activity. Further progress in understanding active tectonics depends on continued research. Particularly important is improvement in the accuracy of dating techniques for recent geologic materials.

  18. Geophysical Model Applications for Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pasyanos, M; Walter, W; Tkalcic, H; Franz, G; Gok, R; Rodgers, A

    2005-07-11

    Geophysical models constitute an important component of calibration for nuclear explosion monitoring. We will focus on four major topics and their applications: (1) surface wave models, (2) receiver function profiles, (3) regional tomography models, and (4) stochastic geophysical models. First, we continue to improve upon our surface wave model by adding more paths. This has allowed us to expand the region to all of Eurasia and into Africa, increase the resolution of our model, and extend results to even shorter periods (7 sec). High-resolution models exist for the Middle East and the YSKP region. The surface wave results can be inverted either alone, or in conjunction with other data, to derive models of the crust and upper mantle structure. One application of the group velocities is to construct phase-matched filters in combination with regional surface-wave magnitude formulas to improve the mb:Ms discriminant and extend it to smaller magnitude events. Next, we are using receiver functions, in joint inversions with the surface waves, to produce profiles directly under seismic stations throughout the region. In the past year, we have been focusing on deployments throughout the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Turkey. By assembling the results from many stations, we can see how regional seismic phases are affected by complicated upper mantle structure, including lithospheric thickness and anisotropy. The next geophysical model item, regional tomography models, can be used to predict regional travel times such as Pn and Sn. The times derived by the models can be used as a background model for empirical measurements or, where these don't exist, simply used as is. Finally, we have been exploring methodologies such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to generate data-driven stochastic models. We have applied this technique to the YSKP region using surface wave dispersion data, body wave travel time data, receiver functions, and gravity data. The models

  19. Geophysical data fusion for subsurface imaging. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, P.; Vandergraft, J.; Blohm, M.; Porter, D.

    1993-08-01

    A geophysical data fusion methodology is under development to combine data from complementary geophysical sensors and incorporate geophysical understanding to obtain three dimensional images of the subsurface. The research reported here is the first phase of a three phase project. The project focuses on the characterization of thin clay lenses (aquitards) in a highly stratified sand and clay coastal geology to depths of up to 300 feet. The sensor suite used in this work includes time-domain electromagnetic induction (TDEM) and near surface seismic techniques. During this first phase of the project, enhancements to the acquisition and processing of TDEM data were studied, by use of simulated data, to assess improvements for the detection of thin clay layers. Secondly, studies were made of the use of compressional wave and shear wave seismic reflection data by using state-of-the-art high frequency vibrator technology. Finally, a newly developed processing technique, called ``data fusion,`` was implemented to process the geophysical data, and to incorporate a mathematical model of the subsurface strata. Examples are given of the results when applied to real seismic data collected at Hanford, WA, and for simulated data based on the geology of the Savannah River Site.

  20. Hydro-biogeochemical Controls on Geophysical Signatures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atekwana, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical techniques such as seismic, magnetic and electrical techniques have historically played a major role in oil exploration. Their main use has been for delineation basin geometry, structures and hydrocarbon traps and for understanding the subsurface stratigraphy. Their use for investigating microbial processes has only recently been recognized over the last decade resulting in the development of biogeophysics as a frontier research area which bridges the fields of environmental microbiology, biogeochemistry, geomicrobiology. Recent biogeophysical studies have demonstrated the potential of geophysical technologies to (1) probe the presence of microbial cells and biofilms in subsurface geologic media, (2) investigate the interactions between microorganisms and subsurface geologic media, (3) assess biogeochemical transformations, biomineralization, and biogeochemical reaction rates, and (4) investigate the alteration of physical properties of subsurface geologic media induced by microorganisms. The unique properties of geophysical datasets (e.g. non-invasive data acquisition, spatially continuous properties retrieved) make them attractive for probing microbial processes affecting fate and transport of contaminants. This presentation will provide an updated understanding of major controls on geophysical signatures by highlighting some of the important advancements in biogeophysical studies at hydrocarbon contaminated environments. Important challenges that provide an opportunity for further research in this new field will also be examined.

  1. Detecting Underground Mine Voids Using Complex Geophysical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, V. F.; Harbert, W. P.; Hammack, R. W.; Ackman, T. E

    2006-12-01

    In July 2006, the National Energy Technology Laboratory in collaboration with Department of Geology and Planetary Science, University of Pittsburgh conducted complex ground geophysical surveys of an area known to be underlain by shallow coal mines. Geophysical methods including electromagnetic induction, DC resistivity and seismic reflection were conducted. The purpose of these surveys was to: 1) verify underground mine voids based on a century-old mine map that showed subsurface mine workings georeferenced to match with present location of geophysical test-site located on the territory of Bruceton research center in Pittsburgh, PA, 2) deliniate mine workings that may be potentially filled with electrically conductive water filtrate emerging from adjacent groundwater collectors and 3) establish an equipment calibration site for geophysical instruments. Data from electromagnetic and resistivity surveys were further processed and inverted using EM1DFM, EMIGMA or Earthimager 2D capablilities in order to generate conductivity/depth images. Anomaly maps were generated, that revealed the locations of potential mine openings.

  2. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  3. 29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Log handling. 1917.18 Section 1917.18 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.18 Log handling. (a) The employer shall ensure that structures (bunks) used to contain logs have rounded corners and rounded structural parts to avoid...

  4. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  5. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station log. 73.1820 Section 73.1820... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1820 Station log. (a) Entries must be made in the station log either manually by a person designated by the licensee who is in actual charge of...

  6. 47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station logs. 87.109 Section 87.109... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex...

  7. Balloon logging with the inverted skyline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

  8. Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to calibrate geophysical estimates, and to evaluate source and transport mechanisms for gas within the gas hydrates. Downhole acoustic logs were used sparingly in this study because of degraded log quality due to adverse wellbore conditions. However, reliable logging while drilling (LWD) electrical resistivity and porosity logs were obtained. To tie the well-log information to the available 3-D seismic data in this area, a velocity log was calculated from the available resistivity log at the Keathley Canyon 151-2 well, because the acoustic log or vertical seismic data acquired at the nearby Keathley Canyon 151-3 well were either of poor quality or had limited depth coverage. Based on the gas hydrate saturations estimated from the LWD resistivity log, the modified Biot-Gassmann theory was used to generate synthetic acoustic log and a synthetic seismogram was generated with a fairly good agreement with a seismic profile crossing the well site. Based on the well-log information, a faintly defined bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) in this area is interpreted as a reflection representing gas hydrate-bearing sediments with about 15% saturation overlying partially gas-saturated sediments with 3% saturation. Gas hydrate saturations over 30-40% are estimated from the resistivity log in two distinct intervals at 220-230 and 264-300 m below the sea floor, but gas hydrate was not physically recovered in cores. It is speculated that the poor recovery of cores and gas hydrate morphology are responsible for the lack of physical gas hydrate recovery.

  9. Indian Geophysical Union celebrates 25th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Indian Geophysical Union under its president A.P. Mitra, director-general of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, is holding the seminar “Advances in Geophysical Research in India” at its 25th annual convention February 1-3 at the National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) in Hyderabad. Broad disciplines covered in the seminar are solid Earth geophysics, physics of the oceans, atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial relations, space sciences and planetology, and instrumentation. An international symposium on structure and dynamics of the Indian lithosphere is also part of the convention program.

  10. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  11. Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University at SAGEEP 2008: Geophysical Instruction for Non-Geophysicists

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey G. Paine

    2009-03-13

    The Environmental and Engineering Geophysical Society (EEGS), a nonprofit professional organization, conducted an educational series of seminars at the Symposium on the Application of Geophysics to Engineering and Environmental Problems (SAGEEP) in Philadelphia in April 2008. The purpose of these seminars, conducted under the name Environmental and Engineering Geophysical University (EEGU) over three days in parallel with the regular SAGEEP technical sessions, was to introduce nontraditional geophysical conference attendees to the appropriate use of geophysics in environmental and engineering projects. Five half-day, classroom-style sessions were led by recognized experts in the application of seismic, electrical, gravity, magnetics, and ground-penetrating radar methods. Classroom sessions were intended to educate regulators, environmental program managers, consultants, and students who are new to near-surface geophysics or are interested in learning how to incorporate appropriate geophysical approaches into characterization or remediation programs or evaluate the suitability of geophysical methods for general classes of environmental or engineering problems.

  12. Electric logging and electrical properties of rocks in Rainier Mesa area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Electric logs obtained in 33 drill holes in the Rainier Mesa region were evaluated. Aside from the usual character correlations associated with densely welded tuffs, correlations over considerable distances in the ash-fall tuffs may be noted at the horizons of tunnel bed subunits 4J and 3D, and at the contact of tunnel bed subunit 3A and the Tub Spring Member of the Belted Range Tuff. The latter correlation is the most widespread in the bedded tuffs in the area. Although diagnostic in several holes drilled Aqueduct Mesa, the electric log does not universally reflect the top of zeolitization within holes drilled Rainier Mesa. This report, the final in a trilogy of reports dealing with rock properties interpreted chiefly from geophysical logs, examines the electrical measurement obtained in 33 vertical drill holes in the Rainier Mesa area, Nevada. 85 refs., 36 figs., 8 tab.

  13. Advances in Inorganic Scintillation Detectors for Geophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Julie L. Champlin; Carlos M. Grodsinsky; William D. Sekela

    1998-12-31

    The ability to distinguish between geological formations and the change from one formation to another is crucial to the oil exploration and well logging industry. These changes are distinguished by the use of gamma-ray measurements, which detect the radioactive isotope combinations of potassium, thorium, and uranium present in the rock and fluid of these geological formations. A gamma radiation detector consisting of a sodium iodide crystal optically coupled to a photomultiplier tube is used for making these measurements. Because of the harsh environment seen while down hole, these detectors must be rugged in order to survive and perform under the conditions of extreme temperature, shock, and vibration. The two main geophysical applications designed for are wireline and measurement-while-drilling (MWD) environments. Three major product designs that fall under these environmental survival and performance criteria are discussed.

  14. Review of Geophysical Techniques to Define the Spatial Distribution of Subsurface Properties or Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Christopher J.; Last, George V.; Truex, Michael J.

    2005-08-22

    This is a letter report to Fluor Hanford, Inc. The purpose of this report is to summarize state-of-the-art, minimally intrusive geophysical techniques that can be used to clarify subsurface geology, structure, moisture, and chemical composition. The technology review focused on geophysical characterization techniques that provide two- or three-dimensional information about the spatial distribution of subsurface properties and/or contaminants.

  15. Software complex for geophysical data visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryukov, Ilya A.; Tyugin, Dmitry Y.; Kurkin, Andrey A.; Kurkina, Oxana E.

    2013-04-01

    The effectiveness of current research in geophysics is largely determined by the degree of implementation of the procedure of data processing and visualization with the use of modern information technology. Realistic and informative visualization of the results of three-dimensional modeling of geophysical processes contributes significantly into the naturalness of physical modeling and detailed view of the phenomena. The main difficulty in this case is to interpret the results of the calculations: it is necessary to be able to observe the various parameters of the three-dimensional models, build sections on different planes to evaluate certain characteristics and make a rapid assessment. Programs for interpretation and visualization of simulations are spread all over the world, for example, software systems such as ParaView, Golden Software Surfer, Voxler, Flow Vision and others. However, it is not always possible to solve the problem of visualization with the help of a single software package. Preprocessing, data transfer between the packages and setting up a uniform visualization style can turn into a long and routine work. In addition to this, sometimes special display modes for specific data are required and existing products tend to have more common features and are not always fully applicable to certain special cases. Rendering of dynamic data may require scripting languages that does not relieve the user from writing code. Therefore, the task was to develop a new and original software complex for the visualization of simulation results. Let us briefly list of the primary features that are developed. Software complex is a graphical application with a convenient and simple user interface that displays the results of the simulation. Complex is also able to interactively manage the image, resize the image without loss of quality, apply a two-dimensional and three-dimensional regular grid, set the coordinate axes with data labels and perform slice of data. The

  16. AfricaArray International Geophysics Field School: Applications of Near Surface Geophysics to challenges encountered in mine planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, S. J.; Jones, M. Q.; Durrheim, R. J.; Nyblade, A.; Snyman, Q.

    2012-12-01

    students are the geophysics Honours students (~4th year undergraduates). In addition, up to 8 students from all over Africa are included in the program to help address practical training in Africa. The final cohort are minority students from the USA. Participants spend a week planning and costing out surveys, a week in the field collecting data using different methods including: gravity, DGPS, magnetics, resistivity, refraction seismic, EM methods, core logging and physical property measurements. The final week is spent interpreting and integrating their results. Graduate students are given the opportunity to instruct on the field school and manage the logistics for a particular method. The field school is unique in Africa and satisfies a need for practical training with limited resources, with a rare blend of cultural interactions!

  17. Porosity Log Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwi Saputro, Oki; Lazuardi Maulana, Zulfikar; Dzar Eljabbar Latief, Fourier

    2016-08-01

    Well logging is important in oil and gas exploration. Many physical parameters of reservoir is derived from well logging measurement. Geophysicists often use well logging to obtain reservoir properties such as porosity, water saturation and permeability. Most of the time, the measurement of the reservoir properties are considered expensive. One of method to substitute the measurement is by conducting a prediction using artificial neural network. In this paper, artificial neural network is performed to predict porosity log data from other log data. Three well from ‘yy’ field are used to conduct the prediction experiment. The log data are sonic, gamma ray, and porosity log. One of three well is used as training data for the artificial neural network which employ the Levenberg-Marquardt Backpropagation algorithm. Through several trials, we devise that the most optimal input training is sonic log data and gamma ray log data with 10 hidden layer. The prediction result in well 1 has correlation of 0.92 and mean squared error of 5.67 x10-4. Trained network apply to other well data. The result show that correlation in well 2 and well 3 is 0.872 and 0.9077 respectively. Mean squared error in well 2 and well 3 is 11 x 10-4 and 9.539 x 10-4. From the result we can conclude that sonic log and gamma ray log could be good combination for predicting porosity with neural network.

  18. Logs Wanted - Dead or Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, A.; Morche, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers cover only a small part of the Earth`s surface, yet they transfer sediment in globally significant quantities. In mountainous regions, the majority of the total channel length occurs in headwater streams. Those mountain channels are influenced in terms of sediment connectivity by processes on the slopes. For example in such a sediment routing system, sediment originating from debris flows on the slopes is delivered along sediment pathways to the channel system and can be transported further downstream as solid load. Interruption of instream coarse sediment connectivity is closely related to the existence of channel blocking barriers which also can be formed by biota. By storing sediment large wood (LW) log jams disrupt in-channel sediment connectivity. We present a study design in order to decipher the short to long term effects (c. 10-2-102 years) of sediment (dis)connectivity effects of large wood. The study areas are two basins in mountain ranges in Germany and Austria. In Austria the drainage area of the river Fugnitz was chosen which is located in the National Park Thayatal. The other drainage area of the river Sieber in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, is located in the Harz National Park. Since studies on LW and its geomorphological effects in Central European rivers are still rare the main goals of the project are: •to identify important triggers for LW transport from slopes into the channels •to examine the spatial distribution and characterization of LW in main and slope channels by mapping and dGPS measurements •to determine the effects of LW on channel hydraulic parameters (e.g. slope, width, grains size composition, roughness) by field measurements of channel long profiles and cross section with dGPS and Wolman particle counts •to quantify the direct effects of LW on discharge and bed load transport by measuring flow velocity with an Ott-Nautilus current meter and to measure bed load up- and downstream of log jams using a portable Helley

  19. Geophysical characterization of fractured bedrock at Site 8, former Pease Air Force Base, Newington, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Degnan, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Borehole-geophysical logs collected from eight wells and direct-current resistivity data from three survey lines were analyzed to characterize the fractured bedrock and identify transmissive fractures beneath the former Pease Air Force Base, Newington, N.H. The following logs were used: caliper, fluid temperature and conductivity, natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, optical and acoustic televiewer, and heat-pulse flowmeter. The logs indicate several foliation and fracture trends in the bedrock. Two fracture-correlated lineaments trending 28? and 29?, identified with low-altitude aerial photography, are coincident with the dominant structural trend. The eight boreholes logged at Site 8 generally have few fractures and have yields ranging from 0 to 40 gallons per minute. The fractures that probably resulted in high well yields (20?40 gallons per minute) strike northeast-southwest or by the right hand rule, have an orientation of 215?, 47?, and 51?. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity methods were used to collect detailed subsurface information about the overburden, bedrock-fracture zone depths, and apparent-dip directions. Analysis of data inversions from data collected with dipole-dipole and Schlumberger arrays indicated electrically conductive zones in the bedrock that are probably caused by fractured rock. These zones are coincident with extensions of fracture-correlated lineaments. The fracture-correlated lineaments and geophysical-survey results indicate a possible northeast-southwest anisotropy to the fractured rock.

  20. Geophysical characterization of crude-oil contamination: the example of the Trecate site (Italy). (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Binley, A. M.; Kemna, A.; Wehrer, M.; Flores-Orozco, A.; Deiana, R.; Boaga, J.; Rossi, M.; Dietrich, P.; Werban, U.; Zschornack, L.; Godio, A.; Jafargandomi, A.; Deidda, G.

    2013-12-01

    The characterization of contaminated sites can benefit from the use of low-invasive, and extensive, measurements. A combination of geophysical methods and direct push techniques for contaminated land characterization has been proposed within the EU FP7 projects ModelPROBE and SoilCAM. Here we present results of the investigations conducted at the Trecate field site (NW Italy), which was affected in 1994 by crude oil contamination. The geophysical investigations include ground-penetrating radar (GPR), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, together with direct push sampling and soil electrical conductivity (EC) logs. Many of the geophysical measurements were conducted in time-lapse mode in order to separate static and dynamic signals, the latter being linked to strong seasonal changes in water table elevations. The main challenge was to extract significant geophysical signals linked to contamination from the mix of geological and hydrological signals present at the site. The most significant aspects of this characterization are: (a) the geometrical link between the distribution of contamination and the site's heterogeneity, with particular regard to the presence of less permeable layers, as evidenced by the extensive surface geophysical measurements; and (b) the link between contamination and specific geophysical signals, particularly evident from cross-hole measurements. The extensive work conducted at the Trecate site points out how only a combination of direct (e.g. chemical) and indirect (e.g. geophysical) investigations can lead to a comprehensive and solid understanding of a contaminated site's functioning, taking advantage of the extensive nature of non-invasive technique and of the interpretation of their results on the basis of solid, direct measurements.

  1. Identification of potential water-bearing zones by the use of borehole geophysics in the vicinity of Keystone Sanitation Superfund Site, Adams County, Pennsylvania and Carroll County, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1997-01-01

    Between April 23, 1996, and June 21, 1996, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency contracted Haliburton-NUS, Inc., to drill four clusters of three monitoring wells near the Keystone Sanitation Superfund Site. The purpose of the wells is to allow monitoring and sampling of shallow, intermediate, and deep waterbearing zones for the purpose of determining the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from the Keystone Site. Twelve monitoring wells, ranging in depth from 50 to 397.9 feet below land surface, were drilled in the vicinity of the Keystone Site. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical logging and determined, with geophysical logs and other available data, the ideal intervals to be screened in each well. Geophysical logs were run on four intermediate and four deep wells, and a caliper log only was run on shallow well CL-AD-173 (HN-1S). Interpretation of geophysical logs and existing data determined the placement of screens within each borehole.

  2. Leak checker data logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  3. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

    1996-09-03

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

  4. Leak checker data logging system

    DOEpatents

    Gannon, Jeffrey C.; Payne, John J.

    1996-01-01

    A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

  5. Satellite Relaying of Geophysical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    Data Collection Platforms (DCPs) for transmitting surface data to an orbiting satellite for relaying to a central data distribution center are being used in a number of geophysical applications. "Off-the-shelf" DCP's, transmitting through Landsat or GOES satellites, are fully capable of relaying data from low-data-rate instruments, such as tiltmeters or tide gauges. In cooperation with the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Goddard has successfully installed DCP systems on a tide gauge and tiltmeter array on Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Because of the high-data-rate requirements, a practical relay system capable of handling seismic information is not yet available. Such a system could become the basis of an operational hazard prediction system for reducing losses due to major natural catastrophies such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides or tsunamis.

  6. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  7. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  8. Strainmeters and tiltmeters in geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goulty, N. R.

    1976-01-01

    Several types of sensitive strainmeters and tiltmeters have been developed, and it is now becoming clear which geophysical applications are most suitable for these instruments. In general, strainmeters and tiltmeters are used for observing ground deformation at periods of minutes to days. Small-scale lateral inhomogeneities at the instrument sites distort signals by a few percent, although the effects of large structures can be calculated. In earth tide work these lateral inhomogeneities and unknown ocean loading signals prevent accurate values of the regional tide from being obtained. This limits tidal investigations to looking for temporal variations, possibly associated with pre-earthquake dilatancy, and spatial variations caused by gross elasticity contrasts in the local geological structure. Strainmeters and tiltmeters are well suited for observing long-period seismic waves, seismic slip events on faults and volcano tumescence, where small site-induced distortions in the measured signals are seldom important.

  9. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  10. Remote sensing-a geophysical perspective.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1985-01-01

    In this review of developments in the field of remote sensing from a geophysical perspective, the subject is limited to the electromagnetic spectrum from 0.4 mu m to 25cm. Three broad energy categories are covered: solar reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave.-from Authorremote sensing electromagnetic spectrum solar reflected thermal infrared microwave geophysics

  11. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul; Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Hill, Jason J; Park, Byung H; Geist, Al

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  12. Agricultural geophysics: Past/present accomplishments and future advancements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods have become an increasingly valuable tool for application within a variety of agroecosystems. Agricultural geophysics measurements are obtained at a wide range of scales and often exhibit significant variability both temporally and spatially. The three geophysical methods predomi...

  13. Geophysical Characterization and Reactive Transport Modeling to Quantify Plume Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Wainwright, H.; Bea, S. A.; Spycher, N.; Li, L.; Sassen, D.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of subsurface contaminant plume mobility and remediation often fail due to the inability to tractably characterize heterogeneous flow-and-transport properties and monitor critical geochemical transitions over plume-relevant scales. This study presents two recently developed strategies to quantify and predict states and processes across scales that govern plume behavior. Development of both strategies takes advantage of multi-scale and disparate datasets and has involved the use of reactive transport models, geophysical methods, and stochastic integration approaches. The first approach, called reactive facies, exploits coupled physiochemical heterogeneity to characterize subsurface flow and transport properties that impact plume sorption and thus mobility. We develop and test the reactive facies concept within uranium contaminated Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments that underlie the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, F-Area, South Carolina. Through analysis of field data (core samples, geophysical well logs, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar and seismic datasets) coupled with laboratory sorption studies, we have identified two reactive facies that have unique distributions of mineralogy, texture, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and geophysical attributes. We develop and use facies-based relationships with geophysical data in a Bayesian framework to spatially distribute reactive facies and their associated transport properties and uncertainties along local and plume-scale geophysical transects. To illustrate the value of reactive facies, we used the geophysically-obtained reactive facies properties to parameterize reactive transport models and simulate the migration of an acidic-U(VI) plume through the 2D domains. Modeling results suggest that each identified reactive facies exerts control on plume evolution, highlighting the usefulness of the reactive facies concept and approach for spatially distributing properties that control flow and

  14. Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 4th Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1994-05-01

    This paper is a progress report on a research project aimed at the development of coal log technology. Efforts have been directed at the development of technology for the fabrication of stable coal logs, as well as the energy efficient transport of these logs, in particular by pipelines. Work has been directed at new types of binders, new fabrication presses, the application of polymers to reduce transport losses, and modeling efforts.

  15. Introduction To Ere5 Special Session "challenges And Outreach In Geophysics For Young Geoscientists"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.

    The ERE5 special session "Challenges and Outreach in Geophysics" will start with re- view lectures, complemented by short poster presentations, on the different topics: 0- Introduction on "Challenges and Outreach in Geophysics" 1- Challenges in Prospec- tion of subsurface Mineral and Energy resources 2- Challenges in Hydrology studies and water management 3- Challenges in Climate studies and Global change 4- Chal- lenges in prediction of and prevention from geophysical hazards 5- Challenges in Geo- physical technologies and instrumentation 6- Challenges in Solar system exploration It will continue with an open discussion forum including: 7- a brainstorming session led by young participants on these topical challenges, with special emphasis on "So- cial benefits, Outreach and Education in Geophysics" 8- the formulation of a series of recommendations by young geo scientists (YGS) 9- presentation and selection by session participants of the recommendations to be carried to other EGS sessions 10- the discussion and preparation of an EGS2002 Young Geo-Scientists declaration

  16. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  17. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  18. Virtual Geophysics Laboratory: Exploiting the Cloud and Empowering Geophysicsts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Ryan; Vote, Josh; Goh, Richard; Cox, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Over the last five decades geoscientists from Australian state and federal agencies have collected and assembled around 3 Petabytes of geoscience data sets under public funding. As a consequence of technological progress, data is now being acquired at exponential rates and in higher resolution than ever before. Effective use of these big data sets challenges the storage and computational infrastructure of most organizations. The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) is a scientific workflow portal addresses some of the resulting issues by providing Australian geophysicists with access to a Web 2.0 or Rich Internet Application (RIA) based integrated environment that exploits eResearch tools and Cloud computing technology, and promotes collaboration between the user community. VGL simplifies and automates large portions of what were previously manually intensive scientific workflow processes, allowing scientists to focus on the natural science problems, rather than computer science and IT. A number of geophysical processing codes are incorporated to support multiple workflows. For example a gravity inversion can be performed by combining the Escript/Finley codes (from the University of Queensland) with the gravity data registered in VGL. Likewise, tectonic processes can also be modeled by combining the Underworld code (from Monash University) with one of the various 3D models available to VGL. Cloud services provide scalable and cost effective compute resources. VGL is built on top of mature standards-compliant information services, many deployed using the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS), which provides direct access to geophysical data. A large number of data sets from Geoscience Australia assist users in data discovery. GeoNetwork provides a metadata catalog to store workflow results for future use, discovery and provenance tracking. VGL has been developed in collaboration with the research community using incremental software development practices and open

  19. Structure, porosity and stress regime of the upper oceanic crust: Sonic and ultrasonic logging of DSDP Hole 504B

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newmark, R.L.; Anderson, R.N.; Moos, D.; Zoback, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The layered structure of the oceanic crust is characterized by changes in geophysical gradients rather than by abrupt layer boundaries. Correlation of geophysical logs and cores recovered from DSDP Hole 504B provides some insight into the physical properties which control these gradient changes. Borehole televiewer logging in Hole 504B provides a continuous image of wellbore reflectivity into the oceanic crust, revealing detailed structures not apparent otherwise, due to the low percentage of core recovery. Physical characteristics of the crustal layers 2A, 2B and 2C such as the detailed sonic velocity and lithostratigraphic structure are obtained through analysis of the sonic, borehole televiewer and electrical resistivity logs. A prediction of bulk hydrated mineral content, consistent with comparison to the recovered material, suggests a change in the nature of the alteration with depth. Data from the sonic, borehole televiewer, electrical resistivity and other porosity-sensitive logs are used to calculate the variation of porosity in the crustal layers 2A, 2B and 2C. Several of the well logs which are sensitive to the presence of fractures and open porosity in the formation indicate many zones of intense fracturing. Interpretation of these observations suggests that there may be a fundamental pattern of cooling-induced structure in the oceanic crust. ?? 1985.

  20. Geophysical investigations in deep horizontal holes drilled ahead of tunnelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carroll, R.D.; Cunningham, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Deep horizontal drill holes have been used since 1967 by the Defense Nuclear Agency as a primary exploration tool for siting nuclear events in tunnels at the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Geological Survey had developed geophysical logging techniques for obtaining resistivity and velocity in these holes, and to date 33 horizontal drill holes in excess of 300 m in depth have been successfully logged. The deepest hole was drilled to a horizontal depth of 1125 m. The purposes of the logging measurements are to define clay zones, because of the unstable ground conditions such zones can present to tunnelling, and to define zones of partially saturated rock, because of the attenuating effects such zones have on the shock wave generated by the nuclear detonation. Excessive attenuation is undesirable because the shock wave is used as a tunnel closure mechanism to contain debris and other undesirable explosion products. Measurements are made by pumping resistivity, sonic and geophone probes down the drill string and out of the bit into the open hole. Clay zones are defined by the electrical resistivity technique based on empirical data relating the magnitude of the resistivity measurement to qualitative clay content. Rock exhibiting resistivity of less than 20 ??-m is considered potentially unstable, and resistivities less than 10 ??-m indicate appreciable amounts of clay are present in the rock. Partially saturated rock zones are defined by the measurement of the rock sound speed. Zones in the rock which exhibit velocities less than 2450 m/sec are considered of potential concern. ?? 1980.

  1. Europa Geophysical Explorer Mission Concept Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. R.; Abelson, R. D.; Smythe, W.; Spilker, T. R.; Shirley, J. H.

    2005-12-01

    The Strategic Road Map for Solar System Exploration recommended in May 2005 that NASA implement the Europa Geophysical Explorer (EGE) as a Flagship mission early in the next decade. This supported the recommendations of the National Research Council's Solar System Decadal Survey and the priorities of the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG). The Europa Geophysical Explorer would: (1) Characterize tidal deformations of the surface of Europa and surface geology, to confirm the presence of a subsurface ocean; (2) Measure the three-dimensional structure and distribution of subsurface water; and (3) Determine surface composition from orbit, and potentially, prebiotic chemistry, in situ. As the next step in Europa exploration, EGE would build on previous Europa Orbiter concepts, for example, the original Europa Orbiter and the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). As well, a new set of draft Level One Requirements, provided by NASA sponsors, guided the concept development. These requirements included: (1) Earliest Launch: 2012; (2) Launch Vehicle: Delta IV Heavy or Atlas V; (3) Primary Propulsion: Chemical; (4) Power: Radioisotope Power System (RPS); (4) Orbital Mission: 30 days minimum to meet orbital science objectives; and (5) Earth Gravity Assists: Allowed. The previous studies and the new requirements contributed to the development of several scientifically capable and relatively mass-rich mission options. In particular, Earth-gravity assists (EGA) were allowed, resulting in an increased delivered mass. As well, there have been advances in radiation-hardened components and subsystems, due to the investments from the X-2000 technology program and JIMO. Finally, developments in radioisotope power systems (RPS) have added to the capability and reliability of the mission. Several potential mission options were explored using a variety of trade study methods, ranging from the work of the JPL EGE Team of scientists and engineers in partnership with the OPAG Europa Sub

  2. Use of NMR logging to obtain estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the High Plains aquifer, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dlubac, Katherine; Knight, Rosemary; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bachman, Nate; Grau, Ben; Cannia, Jim; Williams, John

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the most important parameters of interest in groundwater applications because it quantifies the ease with which water can flow through an aquifer material. Hydraulic conductivity is typically measured by conducting aquifer tests or wellbore flow (WBF) logging. Of interest in our research is the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging to obtain information about water-filled porosity and pore space geometry, the combination of which can be used to estimate K. In this study, we acquired a suite of advanced geophysical logs, aquifer tests, WBF logs, and sidewall cores at the field site in Lexington, Nebraska, which is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. We first used two empirical equations developed for petroleum applications to predict K from NMR logging data: the Schlumberger Doll Research equation (KSDR) and the Timur-Coates equation (KT-C), with the standard empirical constants determined for consolidated materials. We upscaled our NMR-derived K estimates to the scale of the WBF-logging K(KWBF-logging) estimates for comparison. All the upscaled KT-C estimates were within an order of magnitude of KWBF-logging and all of the upscaled KSDR estimates were within 2 orders of magnitude of KWBF-logging. We optimized the fit between the upscaled NMR-derived K and KWBF-logging estimates to determine a set of site-specific empirical constants for the unconsolidated materials at our field site. We conclude that reliable estimates of K can be obtained from NMR logging data, thus providing an alternate method for obtaining estimates of K at high levels of vertical resolution.

  3. Use of NMR logging to obtain estimates of hydraulic conductivity in the High Plains aquifer, Nebraska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlubac, Katherine; Knight, Rosemary; Song, Yi-Qiao; Bachman, Nate; Grau, Ben; Cannia, Jim; Williams, John

    2013-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity (K) is one of the most important parameters of interest in groundwater applications because it quantifies the ease with which water can flow through an aquifer material. Hydraulic conductivity is typically measured by conducting aquifer tests or wellbore flow (WBF) logging. Of interest in our research is the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging to obtain information about water-filled porosity and pore space geometry, the combination of which can be used to estimate K. In this study, we acquired a suite of advanced geophysical logs, aquifer tests, WBF logs, and sidewall cores at the field site in Lexington, Nebraska, which is underlain by the High Plains aquifer. We first used two empirical equations developed for petroleum applications to predict K from NMR logging data: the Schlumberger Doll Research equation (KSDR) and the Timur-Coates equation (KT-C), with the standard empirical constants determined for consolidated materials. We upscaled our NMR-derived K estimates to the scale of the WBF-logging K(KWBF-logging) estimates for comparison. All the upscaled KT-C estimates were within an order of magnitude of KWBF-logging and all of the upscaled KSDR estimates were within 2 orders of magnitude of KWBF-logging. We optimized the fit between the upscaled NMR-derived K and KWBF-logging estimates to determine a set of site-specific empirical constants for the unconsolidated materials at our field site. We conclude that reliable estimates of K can be obtained from NMR logging data, thus providing an alternate method for obtaining estimates of K at high levels of vertical resolution.

  4. Calibration and Confirmation in Geophysical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werndl, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    For policy decisions the best geophysical models are needed. To evaluate geophysical models, it is essential that the best available methods for confirmation are used. A hotly debated issue on confirmation in climate science (as well as in philosophy) is the requirement of use-novelty (i.e. that data can only confirm models if they have not already been used before. This talk investigates the issue of use-novelty and double-counting for geophysical models. We will see that the conclusions depend on the framework of confirmation and that it is not clear that use-novelty is a valid requirement and that double-counting is illegitimate.

  5. Geophysical constraints on contaminant transport modeling in a heterogeneous fluvial aquifer.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Jerry C; Zheng, Chunmiao; Rodriguez, Antonio B; Harry, Dennis L

    2006-05-01

    Approximately 3000 measurements of hydraulic conductivity in over 50 flowmeter boreholes were available at the Macro-Dispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi, USA to quantify the heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity at the site scale. This high-density measurement approach is perhaps infeasible for time and expense in typical groundwater remediation sites. A natural-gradient tracer experiment from the MADE site was simulated by a groundwater flow and solute transport model incorporating direct-current (DC) resistivity data collected over the observed plume location. Hydraulic conductivity from one borehole collected during the original site characterization was used to calibrate the electrical resistivity data to hydraulic conductivity using a previously derived log-log relationship. Application of this relationship, using site-specific empirical constants determined from the data, transforms the 3D electrical resistivity data into a 3D description of hydraulic conductivity that can be used in groundwater models. The validity of this approach was tested by using the geophysically derived hydraulic conductivity representation in numerical simulations of the natural-gradient tracer experiment. The agreement between the simulated and observed tracer plumes was quantified to gauge the effectiveness of geophysically derived and flowmeter based representations of the hydraulic conductivity field. This study demonstrates that a highly heterogeneous aquifer can be modeled with minimal hydrological data supplemented with geophysical data at least as well as previous models of the site using purely hydrologic data.

  6. Bringing 3D Printing to Geophysical Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boghosian, A.; Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.

    2014-12-01

    3D printing technology has been embraced by many technical fields, and is rapidly making its way into peoples' homes and schools. While there is a growing educational and hobbyist community engaged in the STEM focused technical and intellectual challenges associated with 3D printing, there is unrealized potential for the earth science community to use 3D printing to communicate scientific research to the public. Moreover, 3D printing offers scientists the opportunity to connect students and the public with novel visualizations of real data. As opposed to introducing terrestrial measurements through the use of colormaps and gradients, scientists can represent 3D concepts with 3D models, offering a more intuitive education tool. Furthermore, the tactile aspect of models make geophysical concepts accessible to a wide range of learning styles like kinesthetic or tactile, and learners including both visually impaired and color-blind students.We present a workflow whereby scientists, students, and the general public will be able to 3D print their own versions of geophysical datasets, even adding time through layering to include a 4th dimension, for a "4D" print. This will enable scientists with unique and expert insights into the data to easily create the tools they need to communicate their research. It will allow educators to quickly produce teaching aids for their students. Most importantly, it will enable the students themselves to translate the 2D representation of geophysical data into a 3D representation of that same data, reinforcing spatial reasoning.

  7. Geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1991-07-01

    integration of data from surveys using three geophysical technologies has provided information used to define the locations of buried utilities, tanks, vaults, and debris near building E5032 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles indicate the presence of buried pipes, tanks, reinforcement rods (rebar), and remnants of railroad tracks. A magnetic map constructed from a detailed magnetic survey on the north side of the building outlines buried iron-rich objects that are interpreted to be iron pipes, tank, and other debris of uncertain origin at relatively shallow depths. Horizontal electrical resistivity surveys and vertical electrical resistivity soundings essentially corroborated the findings obtained with the magnetometer and GPR. In addition, a highly resistance layer was observed on the east side of the building where a former railroad bed with a thick grave fill is believed to immediately underlie the lawn. The resistivity data show no evidence of a conductive leachate plume. Geophysical measurements from three techniques over a buried concrete slab approximately 130 ft north of Building E5032 give geophysical signatures interpreted to be due to the presence of a large iron tank or vault. An attempt was made to gather meaningful magnetic data on the east, west, and south sides of the building; however, the quality of subsurface interpretations in those areas was poor because of the influence of surficial iron lids, pipes, grates, and the effects of the corrugated iron building itself. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Matthew James

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

  9. Chernoff's density is log-concave.

    PubMed

    Balabdaoui, Fadoua; Wellner, Jon A

    2014-02-01

    We show that the density of Z = argmax{W (t) - t(2)}, sometimes known as Chernoff's density, is log-concave. We conjecture that Chernoff's density is strongly log-concave or "super-Gaussian", and provide evidence in support of the conjecture.

  10. Measuring Reading Instruction with Teacher Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, Brian; Correnti, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The authors argue that the criticisms of their earlier article on teacher logs ("Educational Researcher," March 2009) by Smagorinsky and Willis do not address, much less undermine, the evidence they presented as part of their validation argument about the teacher logs. Moreover, they argue that their method for studying classrooms is not nearly as…

  11. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall...

  12. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  13. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  14. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  15. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  16. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  17. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  18. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  19. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  20. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  1. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  2. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  3. 40 CFR 90.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Data logging. 90.412 Section 90.412....412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data...

  4. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  5. 40 CFR 89.409 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 89.409 Section 89.409... Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data processing device(s) may be used as long as the system meets the requirements of this subpart. (b) Determine from the data collection records...

  6. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  7. 40 CFR 91.412 - Data logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Data logging. 91.412 Section 91.412... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 91.412 Data logging. (a) A computer or any other automatic data collection (ADC) device(s) may be used as long as the system meets...

  8. Tabletop Models for Electrical and Electromagnetic Geophysics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charles T.

    2002-01-01

    Details the use of tabletop models that demonstrate concepts in direct current electrical resistivity, self-potential, and electromagnetic geophysical models. Explains how data profiles of the models are obtained. (DDR)

  9. Physicist + Geologist points to Geophysics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.; Stueber, Alan M.

    1974-01-01

    A two-quarter introductory course in geophysics at the advanced undergraduate/beginning graduate level is described. An outline of course content is provided, and mechanics of instruction are discussed. (DT)

  10. Coal-log pipeline system development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1991-12-01

    Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

  11. The remote sensing needs of Arctic geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    The application of remote sensors for obtaining geophysical information of the Arctic regions is discussed. Two significant requirements are to acquire sequential, synoptic imagery of the Arctic Ocean during all weather and seasons and to measure the strains in the sea ice canopy and the heterogeneous character of the air and water stresses acting on the canopy. The acquisition of geophysical data by side looking radar and microwave sensors in military aircraft is described.

  12. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  13. Logging while fishing: An alternate method to cut and thread fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Crary, S.; Flores, B.

    1996-12-31

    New technology has been introduced to allow completion of the wireline logging program after the tool string has become lodged in the wellbore. Charges associated with extracting a stuck tool are substantial. These charges result from the nonproductive time during the fishing trip, an associated wiper trip, and re-logging the well. The ability to continue the logging program while retrieving the logging string from the wellbore is needed. Logging While Fishing (LWF) is a hybrid of existing technologies combined with a new sub capable of severing a cable remotely. This new method is comprised of cut and thread fishing, drillpipe conveyed logging, and bridled tool techniques. Utilizing these techniques it is possible to complete wireline logging operations while removing a stuck tool from the wellbore. Completing logging operations using this hybrid method will save operating companies time and money. Other benefits, depending on the situation, include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety. This application has been demonstrated on jobs in the Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Venezuela, and Southeast Asia.

  14. Identification of potential groundwater flow paths using geological and geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1994-09-01

    This project represents the first phase in the development of a methodology for generating three-dimensional equiprobable maps of hydraulic conductivity for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In this study, potential groundwater flow paths were investigated for subsurface tuffs at Yucca Flat by studying how these units are connected. The virtual absence of site-specific hydraulic conductivity data dictates that as a first step a surrogate attribute (geophysical logs) be utilized. In this first phase, the connectivity patterns of densely welded ash-flow tuffs were studied because these tuffs are the most likely to form zones of high hydraulic conductivity. Densely welded tuffs were identified based on the response shown on resistivity logs and this information was transformed into binary indicator values. The spatial correlation of the indicator data was estimated through geostatistical methods. Equiprobable three-dimensional maps of the distribution of the densely-welded and nonwelded tuffs (i.e., subsurface heterogeneity) were then produced using a multiple indicator simulation formalism. The simulations demonstrate that resistivity logs are effective as soft data for indicating densely welded tuffs. The simulated welded tuffs reproduce the stratigraphic relationships of the welded tuffs observed in hydrogeologic cross sections, while incorporating the heterogeneity and anisotropy that is expected in this subsurface setting. Three-dimensional connectivity of the densely welded tuffs suggests potential groundwater flow paths with lengths easily over 1 km. The next phase of this investigation should incorporate other geophysical logs (e.g., gamma-gamma logs) and then calibrate the resulting soft data maps with available hard hydraulic conductivity data. The soft data maps can then augment the hard data to produce the final maps of the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity that can be used as input for numerical solution of groundwater flow and transport.

  15. Designing and Piloting a Leadership Daily Practice Log: Using Logs to Study the Practice of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Zuberi, Anita

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to validate the Leadership Daily Practice (LDP) log, an instrument for conducting research on leadership in schools. Research Design: Using a combination of data sources--namely, a daily practice log, observations, and open-ended cognitive interviews--the authors evaluate the validity of the LDP log. Participants: Formal…

  16. Geophysical applications for levee assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlaib, Hussein Khalefa

    Levees are important engineering structures that build along the rivers to protect the human lives and shield the communities as well as agriculture lands from the high water level events. Animal burrows, subsurface cavities, and low density (high permeability) zones are weakness features within the levee body that increase its risk of failure. To prevent such failure, continuous monitoring of the structure integrity and early detection of the weakness features must be conducted. Application of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Capacitively Coupled Resistivity (CCR) methods were found to be very effective in assessing the levees and detect zones of weakness within the levee body. GPR was implemented using multi-frequency antennas (200, 400, and 900 MHz) with survey cart/wheel and survey vehicle. The (CCR) method was applied by using a single transmitter and three receivers. Studying the capability and the effectiveness of these methods in levee monitoring, subsurface weakness feature detection, and studying the structure integrity of levees were the main tasks of this dissertation. A set of laboratory experiments was conducted at the Geophysics Laboratory of the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) to analyze the polarity change in GPR signals in the presence of subsurface voids and water-filled cavities. Also three full scale field expeditions at the Big Dam Bridge (BDB) Levee, Lollie Levee, and Helena Levee in Arkansas were conducted using the GPR technique. This technique was effective in detecting empty, water, and clay filled cavities as well as small scale animal burrows (small rodents). The geophysical work at BDB and Lollie Levees expressed intensive subsurface anomalies which might decrease their integrity while the Helena Levee shows less subsurface anomalies. The compaction of levee material is a key factor affecting piping phenomenon. The structural integrity of the levee partially depends on the density/compaction of the soil layers. A

  17. Geophysical characterisation of a rockslide in an alpine region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godio, A.; de Bacco, G.; Strobbia, C.

    2003-04-01

    The rock slope stability analysis requires the geomechanical characterisation of the different geological units that may be affected by the instability, and hence the required investigation depth depends on the mechanism of the movement and on its scale. A joint application of laboratory test and in situ extensive geophysical investigation has been used for the geological and geotechnical characterisation of a site with heavy slope and interested by recent events of landslide in the overburden and rockslide. An existing road is going to be substituted by a tunnel, and so both the shallow detritical overburden and the rock mass has to be investigated. The geophysical survey has been planned taking into account the difficult logistical condition of the area; the accessibility also conditioned the positioning of the boreholes. Two horizontal boreholes, each 50 m long, were drilled along the designed tunnel line, and two vertical boreholes, 30m of depth, were realised in order to take samples to test for the estimate of the mechanical properties of the rock mass. They also provided direct punctual information on the thickness of the overburden and allowed to calibrate the geophysical results. The horizontal ones have been used for borehole seismic and for ultrasonic logging; in the vertical ones inclinometers have been installed to monitor the movements. The stratigraphic evidence showed the presence of shallow layer of low-consolidated materials and a hard gneissic bedrock around 20 m deep. Laboratory measurements on samples allowed the determination of the high-strain mechanical behaviour and the dynamic low-strain elastic moduli (P and S wave ultrasonic pulse test). These data are compared with the results of the in situ characterisation: the geophysical investigation had to answer a series of questions about the geometry and the properties of the detritical overburden, the inhomogeneities and the fracture distribution of the rock mass, the eventual presence of

  18. Geophysical observations at cavity collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bazargan-Sabet, Behrooz; Lebert, François; Bernardie, Séverine; Gourry, Jean-Christophe

    2010-05-01

    In Lorraine region (France) salt layers at about 200 meters depth are exploited by Solvay using solution mining methodology which consists in extracting the salt by dissolution, collapsing the cavern overburden during the exploitation phase and finally reclaiming the landscape by creating a water area. In this process, one of the main challenges for the exploiting company is to control the initial 120-m diameter collapse so as to minimize possible damages. In order to detect potential precursors and understand processes associated with such collapses, a wide series of monitoring techniques including micro seismics, broad-band seismology, hydro-acoustic, electromagnetism, gas probing, automatic leveling, continuous GPS, continuous gravity and borehole extensometry was set-up in the frame of an in-situ study carried out by the "Research Group for the Impact and Safety of Underground Works" (GISOS, France). Equipments were set-up well before the final collapse, giving a unique opportunity to analyze a great deal of information prior to and during the collapse process which has been successfully achieved on February the 13th, 2009 by controlling the cavity internal pressure. In this work, we present the results of data recorded by a network of 3 broadband seismometers, 2 accelerometers, 2 tilt-meters and a continuously gravity meter. We relate the variations of the brine pumping rate with the evolutions of the induced geophysical signals and finally we propose a first mechanical model for describing the controlled collapse. Beyond the studied case, extrapolation of the results obtained might contribute to the understanding of uncontrolled cavity collapses, such as pit-craters or calderas at volcanoes.

  19. Prediction of Geophysical Flow Mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnoli, B.; Piersanti, A.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of the mobility of geophysical flows to assess their hazards is one of the main research goals in the earth sciences. Our laboratory experiments and numerical simulations are carried out to understand the effects of grain size and flow volume on the mobility of the centre of mass of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments that have pyroclastic flows and rock avalanches as counterpart in nature. We focus on the centre of mass because it provides information about the intrinsic ability of a flow to dissipate more or less energy as a function of its own features. We show that the grain size and flow volume effects can be expressed by a linear relationship between scaling parameters where the finer the grain size or the smaller the flow volume, the more mobile the centre of mass of the granular flow. The grain size effect is the result of the decrease of particle agitation per unit of flow mass, and thus, the decrease of energy dissipation per unit of travel distance, as grain size decreases. In this sense, flows with different grain sizes are like cars with engines with different fuel efficiencies. The volume effect is the result of the fact that the deposit accretes backward during its formation on a slope change (either gradual or abrupt). We adopt for the numerical simulations a 3D discrete element modeling which confirms the grain size and flow volume effects shown by the laboratory experiments. This confirmation is obtained without prior fine tuning of the parameter values to get the desired output. The numerical simulations reveal also that the larger the initial compaction of the granular mass before release, the more mobile the flow. This behaviour must be taken into account to prevent misinterpretation of laboratory and field data. Discrete element modeling predicts the correct effects of grain size and flow volume because it takes into consideration particle interactions that are responsible for the energy dissipated by the flows.

  20. Geophysics of Small Planetary Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, Erik I.

    1998-01-01

    As a SETI Institute PI from 1996-1998, Erik Asphaug studied impact and tidal physics and other geophysical processes associated with small (low-gravity) planetary bodies. This work included: a numerical impact simulation linking basaltic achondrite meteorites to asteroid 4 Vesta (Asphaug 1997), which laid the groundwork for an ongoing study of Martian meteorite ejection; cratering and catastrophic evolution of small bodies (with implications for their internal structure; Asphaug et al. 1996); genesis of grooved and degraded terrains in response to impact; maturation of regolith (Asphaug et al. 1997a); and the variation of crater outcome with impact angle, speed, and target structure. Research of impacts into porous, layered and prefractured targets (Asphaug et al. 1997b, 1998a) showed how shape, rheology and structure dramatically affects sizes and velocities of ejecta, and the survivability and impact-modification of comets and asteroids (Asphaug et al. 1998a). As an affiliate of the Galileo SSI Team, the PI studied problems related to cratering, tectonics, and regolith evolution, including an estimate of the impactor flux around Jupiter and the effect of impact on local and regional tectonics (Asphaug et al. 1998b). Other research included tidal breakup modeling (Asphaug and Benz 1996; Schenk et al. 1996), which is leading to a general understanding of the role of tides in planetesimal evolution. As a Guest Computational Investigator for NASA's BPCC/ESS supercomputer testbed, helped graft SPH3D onto an existing tree code tuned for the massively parallel Cray T3E (Olson and Asphaug, in preparation), obtaining a factor xIO00 speedup in code execution time (on 512 cpus). Runs which once took months are now completed in hours.

  1. Evaluation of geophysical techniques for identifying fractures in program wells in Deaf Smith County, Texas: Revision 1, Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, R.P.; Siminitz, P.C.

    1987-08-01

    Quantitative information about the presence and orientation of fractures is essential for the understanding of the geomechanical and geohydrological behavior of rocks. This report evaluates various borehole geophysical techniques for characterizing fractures in three Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program test wells in the Palo Duro Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Emphasis has been placed on the Schlumberger Fracture Identification Log (FIL) which detects vertical fractures and provides data for calculation of orientation. Depths of FIL anomalies were compared to available core. It was found that the application of FIL results to characterize fracture frequency or orientation is inappropriate at this time. The uncertainties associated with the FIL information render the information unreliable. No geophysical logging tool appears to unequivocally determine the location and orientation of fractures in a borehole. Geologic mapping of the exploratory shafts will ultimately provide the best data on fracture frequency and orientation at the proposed repository site. 22 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Geothermal field's interaction with geophysical fields of another nature

    SciTech Connect

    Novik, Oleg B.; Mikhailovskaya, Irina B.; Repin, Dmitry G.; Yershov, Sergey V.

    1996-01-24

    The energy balance of active lithosphere zones is to a large extent determined by nonstationary interaction of mechanical (elastic and hydrodynamic), thermal, electromagnetic, and gravitational geophysical fields. Seismic disturbances of electromagnetic and temperature fields, repeatedly observed before earthquakes are a striking manifestation of this interaction (Sec. 1). Technological processes of exploitation of hydrothermal deposits are determined by the interaction of hydrodynamical and temperature field (Sec. 2). These “fast” interactions (with the characteristic time scale from seconds to years) take place against the background of “slow” thermomechanical interactions (time scale of Myears), the latter determining the formation of regional geothermal fields (Sec. 3).

  3. A Hydrologic-geophysical Method for Characterizing Flow and Transport Processes Within The Vadose Zone

    SciTech Connect

    David Alumbaugh; Douglas LaBrecque; James Brainard; T.C. Yeh

    2004-01-22

    The primary purpose of this project was to employ two geophysical imaging techniques, electrical resistivity tomography and cross-borehole ground penetrating radar, to image a controlled infiltration of a saline tracer under unsaturated flow conditions. The geophysical techniques have been correlated to other more traditional hydrologic measurements including neutron moisture measurements and induction conductivity logs. Images that resulted during two successive infiltrations indicate the development of what appear to be preferential pathways through the finer grained materials, although the results could also be produced by cationic capture of free ions in clays. In addition the site as well as the developing solute plume exhibits electrical anisotropy which is likely related to flow properties. However the geologic significance of this phenomenon is still under investigation.

  4. Second biannaul recalibration of two spectral gamma-ray logging systems used for baseline characterization measurements in the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, C.J.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) is establishing an initial, or baseline, characterization of gamma-ray-emitting contaminants in the subsurface of the Tank Farms at the DOE Hanford Site in the State of Washington. These baseline data are gathered by logging existing monitoring boreholes with two high-resolution passive spectral gamma-ray logging systems (SGLSs) informally known as Gamma 1 and Gamma 2. Calibration of the logging systems is crucial to the assurance of data quality. The project document Vadose Zone Monitoring Project at the Hanford Tank Farms, Spectral Gamma-Ray Borehole Geophysical Logging Characterization and Baseline Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks specifies that both systems must be recalibrated, using the calibration standards at the Hanford borehole logging calibration center, every 6 months. DOE presents a description of the first recalibrations.

  5. Sensitivity analysis and application in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, R.

    2013-12-01

    In exploration geophysics, the usual way of dealing with geophysical data is to form an Earth model describing underground structure in the area of investigation. The resolved model, however, is based on the inversion of survey data which is unavoidable contaminated by various noises and is sampled in a limited number of observation sites. Furthermore, due to the inherent non-unique weakness of inverse geophysical problem, the result is ambiguous. And it is not clear that which part of model features is well-resolved by the data. Therefore the interpretation of the result is intractable. We applied a sensitivity analysis to address this problem in magnetotelluric(MT). The sensitivity, also named Jacobian matrix or the sensitivity matrix, is comprised of the partial derivatives of the data with respect to the model parameters. In practical inversion, the matrix can be calculated by direct modeling of the theoretical response for the given model perturbation, or by the application of perturbation approach and reciprocity theory. We now acquired visualized sensitivity plot by calculating the sensitivity matrix and the solution is therefore under investigation that the less-resolved part is indicated and should not be considered in interpretation, while the well-resolved parameters can relatively be convincing. The sensitivity analysis is hereby a necessary and helpful tool for increasing the reliability of inverse models. Another main problem of exploration geophysics is about the design strategies of joint geophysical survey, i.e. gravity, magnetic & electromagnetic method. Since geophysical methods are based on the linear or nonlinear relationship between observed data and subsurface parameters, an appropriate design scheme which provides maximum information content within a restricted budget is quite difficult. Here we firstly studied sensitivity of different geophysical methods by mapping the spatial distribution of different survey sensitivity with respect to the

  6. Applications of the POCS inversion method to interpolating topography and other geophysical fields. [Projection Onto Convex Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Menke, W. )

    1991-03-01

    The author applies the method of Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) to the problem of solving geophysical inverse problems. The advantage of this iterative method is its flexibility in handling non-linear equality and inequality constraints, including constraints on the spectrum of unknown functions. He gives examples of using POCS to interpolate topographic profiles, topographic maps, and the physical properties of the earth between well logs.

  7. Addendum 2: Logs of monitor wells drilled May 1988 through December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, J.; Qualheim, B.; McPherrin, R.; Barber, K.; Hedegaard, R.; McConihe, W.; Miller, T.

    1993-11-01

    The logs in this addendum were plotted in a new format by the same software package (LOGGER by Rockware, Denver, CO) that was used in the original publication. The scale remains the same, 1 inch = 15 foot. The header is totally automated with a subheading indexing the well-construction symbols. Geophysical curves are labeled in their respective channels, and percentage core recovery is plotted in a histogram. Lithologic symbols are plotted to scale in a channel similar to previous logs. The lithologic description also has been automated to assure consistency in terminology. Descriptions are more extensive and are referenced by leader lines to the lithologic symbol. Additional figures included for this Addendum are: a plot of all the monitoring well locations at the LLNL Main site and a plot detailing the gasoline spill area well locations in the vicinity of Building 403.

  8. Computer-aided lithostratigraphic correlation using E-logs

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, J.H.; Chen, H.C.; Shultz, A.W.; Mahmoud, W. )

    1991-03-01

    Various attempts have been made in recent years toward computer-assisted well-log correlation in hopes of removing subjectivity which is inherent in manual correlation. However, this application of computer technology has achieved only limited success and popularity among geologists, due partly to the use of nongeologic jargon describing machine correlation and partly due to the publication of these papers in journals seldom read by geologists. The authors have coded a computer program which performs machine correlation, allowing human intervention at several stages. First, the interval to be correlated is segmented (by machine or manually) into zones, then the four attributes (depth, thickness, log amplitude, and log shape) of each zone are used to perform matching. In essence, this is a pattern recognition approach, but not by comparing just one feature at a time, but by considering all attributes jointly and simultaneously in a 'gestalt' manner. The program starts by digitizing logs, smoothing log signatures, and carrying out zonation between marker beds. Preliminary marker beds are either predetermined by the geologist, or are the result of iterative matching. For each pair of zones in two different wells, a difference is computed by comparing strings of attributes. In this manner, each pair of wells produces a difference matrix with one cell for each combination of zones. Dynamic programming is then used to trace the path of minimum total difference, designated by a P-matrix. These P-matrices may reveal certain geologic structures which are helpful not just in correlation but also in structural interpretation.

  9. Geophysical Investigation of Oldoinyo Lengai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiber, S. E.; Webb, S. J.; Dirks, P. H.

    2006-12-01

    Oldoinyo Lengai, which means "Mountain of God" in Maasai, is a 2886 m high stratovolcano situated in Northern Tanzania, next to one of the large fault scarps that defines the western edge of the East African Rift Valley. Lengai is the only volcano in the world that erupts natrocarbonatite lava and has been in a state of near-eruption since 1983. A large amount of work has been done in terms of the geology and petrology of this unique volcano, but very little has been done in terms of geophysics. A research team from the University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa will be conducting a gravity and differential GPS survey on Lengai during December 2006 and January 2007. Seismic monitoring of the volcano will also take place for the duration of the survey using vertical 1 Hz geophones. A gravity profile collected over the volcano by the British Schools Exploring Society in 2004 shows a negative anomaly of approximately 185 mGals. This is after a terrain correction is applied to the data using 1:50000 digitized maps and a vertical prism formula. A single seismometer, with a frequency of 1Hz and then 0.033 Hz, was set up on the volcano in 2001 and 2002 by a graduate student from the University of Washington. A few local volcanotectonic (VT) events were recorded; however the research team was unable to conclude whether the events were from Lengai or the nearby rift. A sustained non-harmonic tremor signal with a fairly broad spectral peak was also observed, but no very long-period (VLP) signals. The gravity and DGPS data collected during the 2006/2007 survey will be processed and used as a baseline for future measurements on the volcano. The data will also be modeled in an attempt to determine the size and position of the magma chamber. These gravity data will be compared with the profile collected in 2004 in an attempt to see whether there have been any large subsurface mass changes over the past two years, or the extent of weathering. Recorded seismicity will be used

  10. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  11. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  12. Application of Nuclear Well Logging Techniques to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albats, P.; Groves, J.; Schweitzer, J.; Tombrello, T.

    1992-01-01

    The use of neutron and gamma ray measurements for the analysis of material composition has become well established in the last 40 years. Schlumberger has pioneered the use of this technology for logging wells drilled to produce oil and gas, and for this purpose has developed neutron generators that allow measurements to be made in deep (5000 m) boreholes under adverse conditions. We also make ruggedized neutron and gamma ray detector packages that can be used to make reliable measurements on the drill collar of a rotating drill string while the well is being drilled, where the conditions are severe. Modern nuclear methods used in logging measure rock formation parameters like bulk density and porosity, fluid composition, and element abundances by weight including hydrogen concentration. The measurements are made with high precision and accuracy. These devices (well logging sondes) share many of the design criteria required for remote sensing in space; they must be small, light, rugged, and able to perform reliably under adverse conditions. We see a role for the adaptation of this technology to lunar or planetary resource assessment missions.

  13. Clean enough for industry? An airborne geophysical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Beard, L.P.

    1996-11-01

    Data from two airborne geophysical surveys of the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were extremely valuable in deciding whether a 1000-acre (400 hectare) parcel of the ORR should be leased to the City of Oak Ridge for industrial development. Our findings, based on electromagnetic and magnetic data, were incorporated in the federally mandated Environmental Assessment Statement (EAS), and in general supported claims that this land was never used as a hazardous waste disposal site. We estimated the amount of iron required to produce each anomaly using a simple dipole model. All anomalies with equivalent sources greater than approximately 1000 kg of iron were checked in the field, and the source of all but one identified as either a bridge, reinforced concrete debris, or a similarly benign object. Additionally, some smaller anomalies (equivalent sources of roughly 500 kg) have been checked; thus far, these also have innocuous sources. Airborne video proved invaluable in identifying logging equipment as the source of some of these anomalies. Geologic noise may account for some of the remaining anomalies. Naturally occurring accumulations of magnetic minerals in the soil on the ORR have been shown to produce anomalies which, at a sensor height of 30 in, are comparable to the anomaly produced by about 500 kg of iron. By comparison, the electronic noise of the magnetic gradiometer, 0.01- 0.02 nT/m, is equivalent to only about 50-100 kg of iron at a 30 m sensor height. The electromagnetic data, combined with field mapping of karst structures, provided evidence of a northeast-southwest striking conduit spanning the parcel. The possible existence of a karst conduit led the EAS authors to conclude that this is a {open_quotes}sensitive hydrologic setting.{close_quotes} We conclude that aerial geophysics is an extremely cost-effective, and efficient technique for screening large tracts of land for environmental characterization.

  14. Clean enough for industry? An airborne geophysical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Nyquist, J.E.; Beard, L.P.

    1996-02-01

    Data from two airborne geophysical surveys of the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were extremely valuable in deciding whether a 1000-acre (400 hectare) parcel of the ORR should be released to the City of Oak Ridge for industrial development. Our findings, based on electromagnetic and magnetic data, were incorporated in the federally mandated Environmental Assessment Statement (EAS), and in general supported claims that this land was never used as a hazardous waste disposal site. We estimated the amount of iron required to produce each anomaly using a simple dipole model. All anomalies with equivalent sources greater than approximately 1000 kg of iron were checked in the field, and the source of all but one identified as either a bridge, reinforced concrete debris, or a similarly benign object. Additionally, some smaller anomalies (equivalent sources of roughly 500 kg) have been checked; thus far, these also have innocuous sources. Airborne video proved invaluable in identifying logging equipment as the source of some of these anomalies. Geologic noise may account for some of the remaining anomalies. Naturally occurring accumulations of magnetic minerals in the soil on the ORR have been shown to produce anomalies which, at a sensor height of 30 m, are comparable to the anomaly produced by about 500 kg of iron. By comparison, the electronic noise of the magnetic gradiometer, 0.01--0.02 nT/m, is equivalent to only about 50--100 kg of iron at a 30 m sensor height. The electromagnetic data, combined with field mapping of karst structures, provided evidence of a northeast-southwest striking conduit spanning the parcel. The possible existence of a karst conduit led the EAS authors to conclude that this is a ``sensitive hydrologic setting.`` We conclude that aerial geophysics is an extremely cost-effective, and efficient technique for screening large tracts of land for environmental characterization.

  15. High Resolution Geophysical Characterization of Fractures within a Granitic Pluton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Estaún, A.; Carbonell, R.

    2007-12-01

    The FEBEX underground gallery was excavated in the Aar Granite (Switzerland), a heterogeneous granite containing from very leucocratic facies to granodiorites. The geology of the gallery shows the existence of various sets of fractures with different attributes: geometry, kinematics, fracture infilling, etc. The study of the structural data, new observations on the FEBEX gallery itself and borehole televiewer data acquired in the newly drilled boreholes, have allowed to identify four sets of fractures. The first group of fractures has a typical distribution and characteristics of en echelon tension fractures and were formed in late magmatic stages, according with the paragenesis of the minerals that filled the craks. The main strike is around 300 (280-300). These fractures are deformed and displaced by the other group of faults. The second group corresponds to the lamprophyre dikes, of mantelic origin, with an orientation oblique to the tunnel, and slightly oblique to the first group of fractures (strike, 310-330). They were formed during an extension event well evidenced by their irregular margins and flame structures into the granite. The margins of these dikes show several reactivations as strike slip faults. Geophysical data has been acquired to characterized the fracture network of the surrounding volume within the FEBEX gallery. The geophysic data include new borehole logging such as Natural Gamma and Borehole Ground Penetrating radar. The processing and integration of these different data sets indicates that the GPR record can provide images of a third set of fractures, which are probably fluid filled. This set of fractures a subparallel to the tunnel axis and appear to intersect older boreholes which are nearly perpendicular to the axis of the FEBEX gallery.

  16. REVIEW OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS USED FOR CHARACTERIZING BRINE POCKETS AT THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Pant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository built and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for disposal of radioactive transuranic waste. The repository is located in the southeastern part of New Mexico at 658.5 m from the surface in the bedded salt deposit (Salado Formation) of the Delaware Basin. Pressurized brine reservoirs were encountered while drilling (1mile north) into the Castile Formation which underlies the WIPP repository. Typically these pockets are located below 1000m which precludes use of high resolution surface geophysical methods. The operator decided to use direct borehole logging and time domain electromagnetic induction method (TDEM) to characterize the possible existence of brine pockets under the WIPP underground workings. The scope of the present review is limited to TDEM analysis only. The geophysical loggings of boreholes are an integral part of subsurface drilling and provide isolated point-samples of the drilled interior. The geophysical logs are typically records of the electrical properties (resistivity logs) of the subsurface strata and logging process is relatively more direct and intrusive. The TDEM is a surface geophysical technique which is non-intrusive with low spatial frequency resolution and provides averaged information about the subsurface units. In the TDEM method, electrical impulses are provided into the subsurface via large electrical coils on the surface. The recording of subsequent transient decay functions from receiver coils provides the data used in the analysis. Due to the depth involved at the WIPP site large transmitter loops (500m by 500m) were required. The primary geophysical characteristic being exploited to investigate the brines at the WIPP site is related to the fact that the brine saturated rocks are electrically more conductive than the bedded salt deposit overlying the Castile Formation. Typically the TDEM data are processed and analyzed to generate geoelectric profiles

  17. The Environmental Geophysics Web Site and Geophysical Decision Support System (GDSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product provides assistance to project managers, remedial project managers, stakeholders, and anyone interested in on-site investigations or environmental geophysics. The APM is the beta version of the new U.S. EPA Environmental Geophysics Web Site which includes the Geophys...

  18. The DIGISOIL multi-sensor system: from geophysical measurements to soil properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles

    2010-05-01

    The purposes of the multidisciplinary DIGISOIL project are the integration and improvement of in situ and proximal measurement technologies for the assessment of soil properties and soil degradation indicators, going from the sensing technologies to their integration and their application in (digital) soil mapping (DSM). In order to assess and prevent soil degradation and to benefit from the different ecological, economical and historical functions of the soil in a sustainable way, high resolution and quantitative maps of soil properties are needed. The core objective of the project is to explore and exploit new capabilities of advanced geophysical technologies for answering this societal demand. To this aim, DIGISOIL addresses four issues covering technological, soil science and economic aspects: (i) the validation of geophysical (in situ, proximal and airborne) technologies and integrated pedo-geophysical inversion techniques (mechanistic data fusion) (ii) the relation between the geophysical parameters and the soil properties, (iii) the integration of the derived soil properties for mapping soil functions and soil threats, (iv) the pre-evaluation, standardisation and sub-industrialization of the proposed methodologies, including technical and economical studies related to the societal demand. With respect to these issues, the preliminary tasks of the DIGISOIL project were to develop, test and validate the most relevant geophysical technologies for mapping soil properties. The different field tests, realized at this time, allow focusing on technological suitable solutions for each of the identified methods: geoelectric, GPR, EMI, seismics, magnetic and hyperspectral. After data acquisition systems, sensor geometry, and advanced data processing techniques have been developed and validated, we present now the solutions for going from such data to soil properties maps.

  19. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  20. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  1. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  2. Sisyphus - An Event Log Analysis Toolset

    2004-09-01

    Event logs are a ubiquitous source of system feedback from computer systems, but have widely ranging format and can be extremely numerous, particularly from systems with many logging components. Inspection of these logs is fundamental to system debugging; increased capability to quickly extract meaningful information will impact MTTR (mean time to repair) and may impact MTBF (mean time between failure). Sisyphus is a machine-leanring analysis system whose goal is to enable content-novice analysts to efficieniiymore » understand evolving trends, identify anomalies, and investigate cause-effect hypotheses in large multiple-souce log sets. The toolkit is comprised a framework for utilizing third-party frequentitemset data mining tools Teiresias and SLCT. and software to cluster messages according to time statistics, and an interactive results viewer.« less

  3. RIAPROG: logit-log radioimmunoassay data processing

    SciTech Connect

    Faden, V.B.; Huston, J.C. Jr.; Munson, P.J.; Rodbard, D.

    1980-03-01

    This document provides the users guide and program listings for the 1980 version of RIAPROG. RIAPROG is a program for weighted least squares linear regression using the logit-log model for analysis of RIA results.

  4. Expansion of industrial logging in Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Nadine T; Stabach, Jared A; Grosch, Robert; Lin, Tiffany S; Goetz, Scott J

    2007-06-01

    Industrial logging has become the most extensive land use in Central Africa, with more than 600,000 square kilometers (30%) of forest currently under concession. With use of a time series of satellite imagery for the period from 1976 to 2003, we measured 51,916 kilometers of new logging roads. The density of roads across the forested region was 0.03 kilometer per square kilometer, but areas of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea had values over 0.09 kilometer per square kilometer. A new frontier of logging expansion was identified within the Democratic Republic of Congo, which contains 63% of the remaining forest of the region. Tree felling and skid trails increased disturbance in selectively logged areas. PMID:17556578

  5. Looking Forward to the electronic Geophysical Year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamide, Y.; Baker, D. N.; Thompson, B.; Barton, C.; Kihn, E.

    2004-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new capabilities pursuing the major IGY objectives of collecting geophysical data as widely as possible and providing free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. A key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories. The worldwide scientific community has now endorsed and is promoting an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the 50th anniversary of the IGY in 2007-2008 and would provide a forward impetus to geophysics in the 21st century, similar to that provide by the IGY fifty years ago. The eGY concept advocates the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being deployed in cyberspace. We discuss plans to aggregate measurements into a readily accessible database along with analysis, visualization, and display tools that will make information available and useful to the scientific community, to the user community, and to the general public. We are examining the possibilities for near-realtime acquisition of data and utilization of forecast tools in order to provide users with advanced space weather capabilities. This program will provide powerful tools for education and public outreach concerning the connected Sun-Earth System.

  6. Joint Inversion Modelling of Geophysical Data From Lough Neagh Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozar, J.; Moorkamp, M.; Jones, A. G.; Rath, V.; Muller, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-dimensional modelling of geophysical data collected in the Lough Neagh Basin is presented in the frame of the IRETHERM project. The Permo-Triassic Lough Neagh Basin, situated in the southeastern part of Northern Ireland, exhibits elevated geothermal gradient (~30 °C/km) in the exploratory drilled boreholes. This is taken to indicate good geothermal exploitation potential in the Sherwood Sandstone aquifer for heating, and possibly even electricity production, purposes. We have used a 3-D joint inversion framework for modelling the magnetotelluric (MT) and gravity data collected to the north of the Lough Neagh to derive robust subsurface geological models. Comprehensive supporting geophysical and geological data (e.g. borehole logs and reflection seismic images) have been used in order to analyze and model the MT and gravity data. The geophysical data sets were provided by the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI). Considering correct objective function weighting in favor of noise-free MT response functions is particularly important in joint inversion. There is no simple way how to correct distortion effects the 3-D responses as can be done in 1-D or 2-D case. We have used the Tellus Project airborne EM data to constrain magnetotelluric data and correct them for near surface effects. The shallow models from airborne data are used to constrain the uppermost part of 3-D inversion model. Preliminary 3-D joint inversion modeling reveals that the Sherwood Sandstone Group and the Permian Sandstone Formation are imaged as a conductive zone at the depth range of 500 m to 2000 m with laterally varying thickness, depth, and conductance. The conductive target sediments become shallower and thinner to the north and they are laterally continuous. To obtain better characterization of thermal transport properties of investigated area we used porosity and resistivity data from the Annaghmore and Ballymacilroy boreholes to estimate the relations between porosity

  7. Applying time series analysis to performance logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Marcin; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary computer systems provide mechanisms for monitoring various performance parameters (e.g. processor or memory usage, disc or network transfers), which are collected and stored in performance logs. An important issue is to derive characteristic features describing normal and abnormal behavior of the systems. For this purpose we use various schemes of analyzing time series. They have been adapted to the specificity of performance logs and verified using data collected from real systems. The presented approach is useful in evaluating system dependability.

  8. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

  9. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  10. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

    2006-08-01

    We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case.

  11. Hydraulic parameters estimation from well logging resistivity and geoelectrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, S.; Ainchil, J. E.; Kruse, E.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology is suggested for deriving hydraulic parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity combining classical hydrogeological data with geophysical measurements. Estimates values of transmissivity and conductivity, with this approach, can reduce uncertainties in numerical model calibration and improve data coverage, reducing time and cost of a hydrogeological investigation at a regional scale. The conventional estimation of hydrogeological parameters needs to be done by analyzing wells data or laboratory measurements. Furthermore, to make a regional survey many wells should be considered, and the location of each one plays an important role in the interpretation stage. For this reason, the use of geoelectrical methods arises as an effective complementary technique, especially in developing countries where it is necessary to optimize resources. By combining hydraulic parameters from pumping tests and electrical resistivity from well logging profiles, it was possible to adjust three empirical laws in a semi-confined alluvial aquifer in the northeast of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). These relations were also tested to be used with surficial geoelectrical data. The hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity estimated in porous material were according to expected values for the region (20 m/day; 457 m2/day), and are very consistent with previous results from other authors (25 m/day and 500 m2/day). The methodology described could be used with similar data sets and applied to other areas with similar hydrogeological conditions.

  12. Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Descamps, G.E.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

  13. Modeling and Evaluation of Geophysical Methods for Monitoring and Tracking CO2 Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, Jeff

    2012-11-30

    Geological sequestration has been proposed as a viable option for mitigating the vast amount of CO{sub 2} being released into the atmosphere daily. Test sites for CO{sub 2} injection have been appearing across the world to ascertain the feasibility of capturing and sequestering carbon dioxide. A major concern with full scale implementation is monitoring and verifying the permanence of injected CO{sub 2}. Geophysical methods, an exploration industry standard, are non-invasive imaging techniques that can be implemented to address that concern. Geophysical methods, seismic and electromagnetic, play a crucial role in monitoring the subsurface pre- and post-injection. Seismic techniques have been the most popular but electromagnetic methods are gaining interest. The primary goal of this project was to develop a new geophysical tool, a software program called GphyzCO2, to investigate the implementation of geophysical monitoring for detecting injected CO{sub 2} at test sites. The GphyzCO2 software consists of interconnected programs that encompass well logging, seismic, and electromagnetic methods. The software enables users to design and execute 3D surface-to-surface (conventional surface seismic) and borehole-to-borehole (cross-hole seismic and electromagnetic methods) numerical modeling surveys. The generalized flow of the program begins with building a complex 3D subsurface geological model, assigning properties to the models that mimic a potential CO{sub 2} injection site, numerically forward model a geophysical survey, and analyze the results. A test site located in Warren County, Ohio was selected as the test site for the full implementation of GphyzCO2. Specific interest was placed on a potential reservoir target, the Mount Simon Sandstone, and cap rock, the Eau Claire Formation. Analysis of the test site included well log data, physical property measurements (porosity), core sample resistivity measurements, calculating electrical permittivity values, seismic data

  14. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of logs. 700.845 Section 700.845... Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.845 Maintenance of logs. (a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be... Naval Operations. (b) A compass record shall be maintained as an adjunct to the deck log. An...

  15. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  16. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  17. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  18. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  19. 29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.7 Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To... operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs). The logs shall be maintained...

  20. Computer analysis of digital well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive system of computer programs has been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for analyzing digital well logs. The programs are operational on a minicomputer in a research well-logging truck, making it possible to analyze and replot the logs while at the field site. The minicomputer also serves as a controller of digitizers, counters, and recorders during acquisition of well logs. The analytical programs are coordinated with the data acquisition programs in a flexible system that allows the operator to make changes quickly and easily in program variables such as calibration coefficients, measurement units, and plotting scales. The programs are designed to analyze the following well-logging measurements: natural gamma-ray, neutron-neutron, dual-detector density with caliper, magnetic susceptibility, single-point resistance, self potential, resistivity (normal and Wenner configurations), induced polarization, temperature, sonic delta-t, and sonic amplitude. The computer programs are designed to make basic corrections for depth displacements, tool response characteristics, hole diameter, and borehole fluid effects (when applicable). Corrected well-log measurements are output to magnetic tape or plotter with measurement units transformed to petrophysical and chemical units of interest, such as grade of uranium mineralization in percent eU3O8, neutron porosity index in percent, and sonic velocity in kilometers per second.

  1. CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Frobose, R.H.

    1984-11-12

    CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

  2. Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of technology focuses on instructional technology. Topics include inquiry and technology; curriculum development; reflection and curriculum evaluation; criteria for technological innovations that will increase student motivation; standards; impact of new technologies on library media centers; software; and future trends. (LRW)

  3. Geophysical surveys around the Izmir Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykut, Tunçel; Tolga, Gönenç; Mustafa, Akgün; Oya, Pamukcu; Özkan, Özdağ; Mehmet, Çetiner

    2015-04-01

    amplification, can be expected that will cause negative effect on behavior of constructions during earthquake. In this context, in order to investigate the actual size of the danger which can be caused by soil deformations according to ground motion, TUBITAK projects were generated at Izmir and its vicinity. Goals of the projects were defined as investigating the bedrock, highlighting of dynamic parameters of soil structures and determination of basin geometry. In accordance with these objectives, geophysical surveys funded by TUBITAK were implemented. In this study, seven areas of Izmir where geophysical surveys were conducted will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study has been achieved under the scope of The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) projects (106G159 and 108Y285). Key words: Izmir soil, microgravity, microtremor, MASW, SPAC

  4. Introduction to Rheology and Application to Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancey, C.

    This chapter gives an overview of the major current issues in rheology through a series of different problems of particular relevance to geophysics. For each topic considered here, we will outline the key elements and point the reader to ward the most helpful references and authoritative works. The reader is also referred to available books introducing rheology [1, 2] for a more complete presentation and to the tutorial written by Middleton and Wilcock on mechanical and rheological app lications in geophysics [3]. This chapter will focus on materials encountered by geophysicists (mud, snow, magma, etc.), although in most cases we will consider only suspensions of particles within an interstitial fluid without loss of generality. Other complex fluids such as polymeric liquids are rarely encountered in geophysics.

  5. Negligible Risk for Epidemics after Geophysical Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Floret, Nathalie; Viel, Jean-François; Mauny, Frédéric; Hoen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    After geophysical disasters (i.e., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis), media reports almost always stress the risk for epidemics; whether this risk is genuine has been debated. We analyzed the medical literature and data from humanitarian agencies and the World Health Organization from 1985 to 2004. Of >600 geophysical disasters recorded, we found only 3 reported outbreaks related to these disasters: 1 of measles after the eruption of Pinatubo in Philippines, 1 of coccidioidomycosis after an earthquake in California, and 1 of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Costa Rica related to an earthquake and heavy rainfall. Even though the humanitarian response may play a role in preventing epidemics, our results lend support to the epidemiologic evidence that short-term risk for epidemics after a geophysical disaster is very low. PMID:16704799

  6. The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting was held in Kanazawa, Japan from 15-21 Aug. 1990. This was the first meeting of a new series of meetings for the American Geophysical Union, and it proved to be very successful in terms of the scientific program and attendance, which included over 1,000 participants. The intent of this meeting was an effort on the part of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and several Japanese geophysical societies to gather individual Earth and space scientists at a major scientific meeting to focus on geophysical problems being studied in the western Pacific rim. The meeting was organized along the lines of a typical AGU annual meeting with some invited talks, many contributed talks, poster sessions, and with emphasis on presentations and informal discussions. The program committee consisted of scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. This meeting provided ample opportunities for U.S. and Japanese scientists to get to know each other and their works on a one-to-one basis. It was also a valuable opportunity for students studying geophysics to get together and interact with each other and with scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. There were 939 abstracts submitted to the conference and a total of 102 sessions designed as a result of the abstracts received. The topics of interest are as follows: space geodetic and observatory measurements for earthquake and tectonic studies; gravity, sea level, and vertical motion; variations in earth rotation and earth dynamics; sedimentary magnetism; global processes and precipitation; subsurface contaminant transport; U.S. Western Pacific Rim initiatives in hydrology; shelf and coastal circulation; tectonics, magmatism, and hydrothermal processes; earthquake prediction and hazard assessment; seismic wave propagation in realistic media; and dynamics and structure of plate boundaries and of the Earth's deep interior.

  7. The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The 1990 Western Pacific Geophysics Meeting was held in Kanazawa, Japan from 15-21 Aug. 1990. This was the first meeting of a new series of meetings for the American Geophysical Union, and it proved to be very successful in terms of the scientific program and attendance, which included over 1,000 participants. The intent of this meeting was an effort on the part of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and several Japanese geophysical societies to gather individual Earth and space scientists at a major scientific meeting to focus on geophysical problems being studied in the western Pacific rim. The meeting was organized along the lines of a typical AGU annual meeting with some invited talks, many contributed talks, poster sessions, and with emphasis on presentations and informal discussions. The program committee consisted of scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. This meeting provided ample opportunities for U.S. and Japanese scientists to get to know each other and their works on a one-to-one basis. It was also a valuable opportunity for students studying geophysics to get together and interact with each other and with scientists from both the U.S. and Japan. There were 939 abstracts submitted to the conference and a total of 102 sessions designed as a result of the abstracts received. The topics of interest are as follows: space geodetic and observatory measurements for earthquake and tectonic studies; gravity, sea level, and vertical motion; variations in earth rotation and earth dynamics; sedimentary magnetism; global processes and precipitation; subsurface contaminant transport; U.S. Western Pacific Rim initiatives in hydrology; shelf and coastal circulation; tectonics, magmatism, and hydrothermal processes; earthquake prediction and hazard assessment; seismic wave propagation in realistic media; and dynamics and structure of plate boundaries and of the Earth's deep interior.

  8. Introduction of Special Physics Topics (Geophysics) Through the Use of Physics Laboratory Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, R. H.; Whittles, A. B. L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the objectives and content of a physics laboratory program for freshman students at the British Columbia Institute of Technology. The first part of the program consists of basic physics experiments, while the second part emphasizes student work on projects in geophysics that have direct technical applications. (LC)

  9. Problems of Geophysics that Inspired Fractal Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbrot, B. B.

    2001-12-01

    Fractal geometry arose when the speaker used then esoteric mathematics and the concept of invariance as a tool to understand diverse ``down-to-earth'' practical needs. The first step consisted in using discontinuous functions to represent the variation of speculative prices. The next several steps consisted in introducing infinite-range (global) dependence to handle data from geophysics, beginning with hydrology (and also again in finance). This talk will detail the speaker's debt and gratitude toward several specialists from diverse areas of geophysics who had the greatest impact on fractal geometry in its formative period.

  10. Geophysical variables and human health and behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoilova, I.; Dimitrova, S.

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number of papers during the last years reveals an existence of effect of geophysical factors on human health. The subject of this paper is to present some results obtained confirming this effect and short review of some scientific opinions about mechanisms, according to which geomagnetic field (GMF) variations could influence on human. We have investigated the influence of geomagnetic disturbances on physiological parameters of healthy people as well as the relationship with dynamic of myocardial infarction. Although there are objective difficulties, investigations in that field will be extremely useful for protecting man from harmful effects of geophysical factors.

  11. Russian Meteorological and Geophysical Rockets of New Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, V.; Gvozdev, Yu.; Lykov, A.; Shershakov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Pozin, A.; Afanasenkov, A.; Savenkov, Yu.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-09-01

    To study the process in the middle and upper atmosphere, ionosphere and near-Earth space, as well as to monitor the geophysical environment in Russian Federal Service for Hydrology and Environmental Monitoring (ROSHYDROMET) the development of new generation of meteorological and geophysical rockets has been completed. The modern geophysical research rocket system MR-30 was created in Research and Production Association RPA "Typhoon". The basis of the complex MR-30 is a new geophysical sounding rocket MN-300 with solid propellant, Rocket launch takes place at an angle of 70º to 90º from the launcher, which is a farm with a guide rail type required for imparting initial rotation rocket. The Rocket is spin stabilized with a spin rate between 5 and 7 Hz. Launch weight is 1564 kg, and the mass of the payload of 50 to 150 kg. MR-300 is capable of lifting up to 300 km, while the area of dispersion points for booster falling is an ellipse with parameters 37x 60 km. The payload of the rocket MN-300 consists of two sections: a sealed, located below the instrument compartment, and not sealed, under the fairing. Block of scientific equipment is formed on the platform in a modular layout. This makes it possible to solve a wide range of tasks and conduct research and testing technologies using a unique environment of space, as well as to conduct technological experiments testing and research systems and spacecraft equipment. New Russian rocket system MERA (MEteorological Rocket for Atmospheric Research) belongs to so called "dart" technique that provide lifting of small scientific payload up to altitude 100 km and descending with parachute. It was developed at Central Aerological Observatory jointly with State Unitary Enterprise Instrument Design Bureau. The booster provides a very rapid acceleration to about Mach 5. After the burning phase of the buster the dart is separated and continues ballistic flight for about 2 minutes. The dart carries the instrument payload+ parachute

  12. Geophysical monitoring using 3D joint inversion of multi-modal geophysical data with Gramian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, M. S.; Gribenko, A.; Wilson, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical monitoring of reservoir fluids and rock properties is relevant to oil and gas production, carbon sequestration, and enhanced geothermal systems. Different geophysical fields provide information about different physical properties of the earth. Multiple geophysical surveys spanning gravity, magnetic, electromagnetic, seismic, and thermal methods are often interpreted to infer geology from models of different physical properties. In many cases, the various geophysical data are complimentary, making it natural to consider a formal mathematical framework for their joint inversion to a shared earth model. We introduce a new approach to the 3D joint inversion of multiple geophysical datasets using Gramian spaces of model parameters and Gramian constraints, computed as determinants of the corresponding Gram matrices of the multimodal model parameters and/or their attributes. The basic underlying idea of this approach is that the Gramian provides a measure of correlation between the model parameters. By imposing an additional requirement of the minimum of the Gramian, we arrive at the solution of the joint multimodal inverse problem with the enhanced correlation between the different model parameters and/or their attributes. We demonstrate that this new approach is a generalized technique that can be applied to the simultaneous joint inversion of any number and combination of geophysical datasets. Our approach includes as special cases those extant methods based on correlations and/or structural constraints of different physical properties. We illustrate this approach by a model study of reservoir monitoring using different geophysical data.

  13. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  14. Moving Beyond IGY: An Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Barton, C. E.; Rodger, A. S.; Thompson, B. J.; Fraser, B.; Papitashvili, V.

    2003-12-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established many new geophysical observatories pursuing the major IGY objectives - to collect geophysical data as widely as possible and to provide free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. Today, geophysics has attained a rather good understanding within traditional regions, i.e., the atmosphere, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and other such geospheres. At the same time, it has become clear that much of the new and important science is coming from the studies of interfaces and coupling between geospheres. Thus, if geophysical data are made `'transparently'' available to a much wider range of scientists and students than to those who do the observations, then new and exciting discoveries can be expected. An International Association of Geomagnetic and Aeronomy (IAGA) task force, recognizing that a key achievement of the IGY was the establishment of a worldwide system of data centers and physical observatories, proposes that for the 50th anniversary of IGY, the worldwide scientific community should endorse and promote an electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) initiative. The proposed eGY concept would both commemorate the IGY in 2007-2008 and provide a forward impetus to geophysics in 21st century, similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The IAGA task force strongly advocates: (1) Securing permission and release of existing data; (2) Creating access to information; and (3) Conversion of relevant analog data to digital form. The eGY concept embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., atmospheric, ionospheric, geomagnetic, gravity, etc.) through the establishment of a series of virtual geophysical observatories now being `'deployed'' in cyberspace. The eGY concept is modern, global, and timely; it is attractive, pragmatic, and affordable. The eGY is based on the existing and continually developing computing/networking technologies (e.g., XML, Semantic Web

  15. A geological and geophysical assessment of the Royal Center Gas Storage Field in north-central Indiana, a joint NIPSCO, DOE and GRI case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, T.H.; Crismon, J.; Fasnacht, T.; Schaffer, S.; Majer, E.

    1997-11-01

    An effort to evaluate the Royal Center Storage Field was initiated to determine the feasibility of using horizontal well technology to improve the ratio of working gas to base gas and improve deliverability. The geophysical survey and interpretation was initiated by GRI and the geological modeling and reservoir analysis is being accomplished through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement between Northern Indiana Power Supply Company and US DOE Federal Energy Technology Center. An integrated analysis of well logs, core data, and seismic survey data was applied to the Royal Center Storage Field in the Trenton Limestone aquifer. Core permeability data was compared to Epilog calculated porosity and gas saturations. The data show very complex relationships exist when compared in three dimensions. A correlation of seismic amplitude anomalies with the porosity and gas saturation on cross section was also used to evaluate potential well sites. A downhole seismic survey was then run to determine if the amplitude anomalies from the surface seismic survey could be detected and their orientations calculated to assist in designing the horizontal well. The integrated results from all of the studies were used to site a horizontal well in the northern portion of the field.

  16. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  17. "Geo-statistics methods and neural networks in geophysical applications: A case study"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sandoval, R.; Urrutia Fucugauchi, J.; Ramirez Cruz, L. C.

    2008-12-01

    The study is focus in the Ebano-Panuco basin of northeastern Mexico, which is being explored for hydrocarbon reservoirs. These reservoirs are in limestones and there is interest in determining porosity and permeability in the carbonate sequences. The porosity maps presented in this study are estimated from application of multiattribute and neural networks techniques, which combine geophysics logs and 3-D seismic data by means of statistical relationships. The multiattribute analysis is a process to predict a volume of any underground petrophysical measurement from well-log and seismic data. The data consist of a series of target logs from wells which tie a 3-D seismic volume. The target logs are neutron porosity logs. From the 3-D seismic volume a series of sample attributes is calculated. The objective of this study is to derive a set of attributes and the target log values. The selected set is determined by a process of forward stepwise regression. The analysis can be linear or nonlinear. In the linear mode the method consists of a series of weights derived by least-square minimization. In the nonlinear mode, a neural network is trained using the select attributes as inputs. In this case we used a probabilistic neural network PNN. The method is applied to a real data set from PEMEX. For better reservoir characterization the porosity distribution was estimated using both techniques. The case shown a continues improvement in the prediction of the porosity from the multiattribute to the neural network analysis. The improvement is in the training and the validation, which are important indicators of the reliability of the results. The neural network showed an improvement in resolution over the multiattribute analysis. The final maps provide more realistic results of the porosity distribution.

  18. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  19. Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, Timothy S.

    1998-01-01

    The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

  20. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    SciTech Connect

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. For computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.

  1. Logjam: A scalable unified log file archiver

    2001-08-01

    Log files are a necessary record of events on any system. However, as systems scale, so does the volume of data captured. To complicate matters, this data can be distributed across all nodes within the system. This creates challenges in ways to obtain these files as well as archiving them in a consistent manner. It has become commonplace to develop a custom written utility for each system that is tailored specifically to that system. Formore » computer centers that contain multiple systems, each system would have their own respective utility for gathering and archiving log files. Each time a new log file is produced, a modification to the utility is necessary. With each modification, risks of errors could be introduced as well as spending time to introduce that change. This is precisely the purpose of logjam. Once installed, the code only requires modification when new features are required. A configuration file is used to identify each log file as well as where to harvest it and how to archive it. Adding a new log file is as simple as defining it in a configuration file and testing can be performed in the production environment.« less

  2. A suction lysimeter and a geophysical access port

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    A sampling apparatus is described for monitoring vadose zones, geologic media or buried waste in sediment and more particularly to such an apparatus which is operable as an access port for geophysical logging and collecting fluid samples to permit analysis of such fluid samples for the presence of toxic substances, having a pipe-like, stainless steel, longitudinally extending, access tube with two ends, where the first end extends above the surface of the sediment and has a removable air tight seal. The subject invention further has a backing in fluid communication with the access tube and a fluid permeable plate contiguous with the backing, wherein the fluid permeable plate is made up of porous stainless steel. A reservoir is integrated into the second closed end of the access tube for containing the collected fluid. A vacuum pump, having a vacuum gauge/transducer attached thereto, is connected to the removable air tight seal for applying a vacuum to the access tube, such that gas and fluid samples may be drawn through the fluid permeable plate. A fluid sample connector coupled to the removable air tight seal, in addition to the vacuum pump with vacuum gauge/transducer, for withdrawing a fluid sample from the access tube.

  3. Investigation of novel geophysical techniques for monitoring CO2 movement during sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Hoversten, G. Michael; Gasperikova, Erika

    2003-10-31

    , more expensive, seismic technique. The Schrader Bluff model was chosen as a numerical test bed for quantitative comparison of the spatial resolution of various geophysical techniques being considered for CO{sub 2} sequestration monitoring. We began with a three dimensional flow simulation model provided by BP Alaska of the reservoir and developed a detailed rock-properties model from log data that provides the link between the reservoir parameters (porosity, pressure, saturations, etc.) and the geophysical parameters (velocity, density, electrical resistivity). The rock properties model was used to produce geophysical models from the flow simulations.

  4. Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F.P.; Lane, Jr., John W.; White, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the

  5. Fiber-Optic Sensors For Geophysical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C.; Zarobila, C.; Rand, J.; Lampman, R.

    1989-02-01

    A review of the performance of various geophysical sensors is given. Included in the discussion are acoustic towed arrays, several types of phase-modulated and intensity-modulated seismometers, and a fiber-optic magnetometer. The presentation is in the form of a brief overview stressing concepts and recent progress. Theoretical derivations and engineering design are left to the references.

  6. Digital geologic and geophysical data of Bangladesh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persits, Feliks M.; Wandrey, C.J.; Milici, R.C.; Manwar, Abdullah

    1997-01-01

    The data set for these maps includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and geophysical fields of Bangladesh. Political boundaries are provided to show the general location of administrative regions and state boundaries. Major base topographic data like cities, rivers, etc. were derived from the same paper map source as the geology.

  7. Estimating Geophysical Parameters From Gravity Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, William L.; Wimberly, Ravenel N.

    1988-01-01

    ORBSIM program developed for accurate extraction of parameters of geophysical models from Doppler-radio-tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. Model of proposed planetary structure used in numerical integration along simulated trajectories of spacecraft around primary body. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Development of geothermal logging systems in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1994-04-01

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of (potassium, uranium and thorium) is in the calibration phase, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A fluid sampling tool is in the design phase. All tools are designed for operation at conditions exceeding 400 C, and for deployment in the slim holes produced by mining-coring operations. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry and scientific drilling programs to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. These cooperative efforts depend upon quality guidelines such as those under development within the international Ocean Drilling Program.

  9. Ceres' Geophysical Evolution Inferred from Dawn Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bowling, Timothy; Ermakov, Anton I.; Fu, Roger; Park, Ryan; Raymond, Carol; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Prettyman, Thomas H.; Y McSween, Harry; Toplis, Michael J.; Russell, Christopher T.; Dawn Team

    2016-10-01

    If Ceres formed as an ice-rich body, as suggested by its low density and the detection of ammoniated phyllosilicates [1], then it should have differentiated an ice-dominated shell, analogous to large icy satellites [2]. Instead, Dawn observations revealed an enrichment of Ceres' shell in strong materials, either a rocky component and/or salts and gas hydrates [3, 4, 5, 6]. We have explored several scenarios for the emplacement of Ceres' surface. Endogenic processes cannot account for its overall homogeneity. Instead we suggest that Ceres differentiated an icy shell upon freezing of its early ocean that was removed as a consequence of frequent exposure by impacting after the dwarf planet migrated from a cold accretional environment to the warmer outer main belt (or when the solar nebula dissipated, if Ceres formed in situ). This scenario implies that Ceres' current surface represents the interface between the original ice shell and the top of the frozen ocean, a region that is extremely rich chemistry-wise, as illustrated by the mineralogical observations returned by Dawn [7]. Thermal modeling shows that the shell could remain warm over the long term and offer a setting for the generation of brines that may be responsible for the emplacement of Ahuna Mons [8] and Occator's bright spots [7] on an otherwise homogeneous surface [9]. An important implication is that Ceres' surface offers an analog for better understanding the deep interior and chemical evolution of large ice-rich bodies.References: [1] De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2015; [2] McCord and Sotin, Journal of Geophysical Research, 2005; [3] Park et al., Nature, 2016 (in press); [4] Hiesinger et al., Science (submitted); [5] Bland et al., Nature Geoscience, 2016 (in press); [6] Fu et al., AGU Fall Meeting, 2015 [7] De Sanctis et al., Nature, 2016 (in press); [8] Ruesch et al., Science, in revision; [9] Ammannito et al., Science, 2016 (accepted).Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet

  10. Geophysical technique for mineral exploration and discrimination based on electromagnetic methods and associated systems

    DOEpatents

    Zhdanov; Michael S.

    2008-01-29

    Mineral exploration needs a reliable method to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and economic mineralization. A method and system includes a geophysical technique for subsurface material characterization, mineral exploration and mineral discrimination. The technique introduced in this invention detects induced polarization effects in electromagnetic data and uses remote geophysical observations to determine the parameters of an effective conductivity relaxation model using a composite analytical multi-phase model of the rock formations. The conductivity relaxation model and analytical model can be used to determine parameters related by analytical expressions to the physical characteristics of the microstructure of the rocks and minerals. These parameters are ultimately used for the discrimination of different components in underground formations, and in this way provide an ability to distinguish between uneconomic mineral deposits and zones of economic mineralization using geophysical remote sensing technology.

  11. Use of noninvasive geophysical techniques for the In Situ Vitrification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Marts, S.T.; Carpenter, G.S.

    1991-11-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a waste pit remediation technology that can potentially eliminate the need for pit excavation. The ISV program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) funded this study to evaluate geophysical techniques that might be useful for performing detailed screening of the materials, soil conditions, and local geology of waste pits targeted for remediation. The evaluation focuses on a specific set of characterization objectives developed by ISV engineers. The objectives are based on their assessment of safety, environmental, and cost efficiency issues associated with the ISV process. A literature review of geophysical case histories was conducted and a geophysical survey was performed at the INEL simulated waste pit so that the evaluation could be based on demonstrable results.

  12. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  13. Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doveton, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

  14. Log-rolling block copolymers cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So Youn; Kim, Ye Chan; Kim, Dong Hyup; Kwon, Na Kyung; Register, Richard A.

    Shear has been the most effective method to create long range order of micro- or nano- structures in soft materials. When shear is applied, soft particles or polymers tend to align along the shear direction to minimize the viscous dissipation, thus transverse (so-called ``log-rolling'') alignment is unfavored. In this study, for the first time we report the transverse alignment of cylinder-forming block copolymers. Poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate), PS-PMMA, can form a metastable hemicylinder structure when confined in a thin film, and this hemicylinder structure can align either along the shear direction, or transverse to the shear direction (``log-rolling''), depending on the shearing temperature. This unusual ``log-rolling'' behavior is explained by the different chain mobility of the two blocks in PS-PMMA; the rigidity of core cylinder is the critical parameter determining the direction of shear alignment.

  15. The Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX); A proposal to explore Didymos system using Cubesats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatekin, Özgür

    2016-07-01

    We present a novel concept for ESA's CubeSat Opportunity Payload Intersatellite Network Sensors (COPINS) planned to be deployed from the ESA AIM spacecraft at the Didymos binary asteroid system: the Asteroid Geophysical Explorer (AGEX). AGEX includes two 3-U CubeSats with geophysical packages that will land on the surface of the small moon of the Didymos system. These geophysical packages will work in synergy on the secondary's surface to fulfill a rich set of scientific and technological mission goals. This includes the measurement of mass during the ballistic descent and landing, and determination of dynamical state, local gravity, geophysical surface properties and sub-surface structure following the landing. As a secondary objective, the assessment of the DART impact on the asteroid dynamical properties will be performed. AGEX will help AIM to meet its science and technology objectives, and will demonstrate the benefits of the deployment of a network of sensors while simultaneously developing technology of relevance to future ESA missions.

  16. Geophysical Signitures From Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, M.; Jardani, A.

    2015-12-01

    The task of delineating the contamination plumes as well as studying their impact on the soil and groundwater biogeochemical properties is needed to support the remediation efforts and plans. Geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and self-potential (SP) have been previously used to characterize contaminant plumes and investigate their impact on soil and groundwater properties (Atekwana et al., 2002, 2004; Benson et al., 1997; Campbell et al., 1996; Cassidy et al., 2001; Revil et al., 2003; Werkema et al., 2000). Our objective was to: estimate the hydrocarbon contamination extent in a contaminated site in northern France, and to adverse the effects of the oil spill on the groundwater properties. We aim to find a good combination of non-intrusive and low cost methods which we can use to follow the bio-remediation process, which is planned to proceed next year. We used four geophysical methods including electrical resistivity tomography, IP, GPR, and SP. The geophysical data was compared to geochemical ones obtained from 30 boreholes installed in the site during the geophysical surveys. Our results have shown: low electrical resistivity values; high chargeability values; negative SP anomalies; and attenuated GPR reflections coincident with groundwater contamination. Laboratory and field geochemical measurements have demonstrated increased groundwater electrical conductivity and increased microbial activity associated with hydrocarbon contamination of groundwater. Our study results support the conductive model suggested by studies such as Sauck (2000) and Atekwana et al., (2004), who suggest that biological alterations of hydrocarbon contamination can substantially modify the chemical and physical properties of the subsurface, producing a dramatic shift in the geo-electrical signature from resistive to conductive. The next stage of the research will include time lapse borehole

  17. Geophysics applications in critical zone science: emerging topics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical studies have resulted in remarkable advances in characterization of critical zone. The geophysics applications uncover the relationships between structure and function in subsurface as they seek to define subsurface structural units with individual properties of retention and trans...

  18. Relationships between log N-log S and celestial distribution of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.

    1985-01-01

    The apparent conflict between log N-log S curve and isotropic celestial distribution of the gamma ray bursts is discussed. A possible selection effect due to the time profile of each burst is examined. It is shown that the contradiction is due to this selection effect of the gamma ray bursts.

  19. LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honerman, James

    1999-01-01

    Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

  20. Arabidopsis lonely guy (LOG) multiple mutants reveal a central role of the LOG-dependent pathway in cytokinin activation.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroki; Kojima, Mikiko; Kuroha, Takeshi; Ishida, Takashi; Sugimoto, Keiko; Kiba, Takatoshi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are phytohormones that play key roles in the maintenance of stem cell activity in plants. Although alternative single-step and two-step activation pathways for cytokinin have been proposed, the significance of the single-step pathway which is catalyzed by LONELY GUY (LOG), is not fully understood. We analyzed the metabolic flow of cytokinin activation in Arabidopsis log multiple mutants using stable isotope-labeled tracers and characterized the mutants' morphological and developmental phenotypes. In tracer experiments, cytokinin activation was inhibited most pronouncedly by log7, while the other log mutations had cumulative effects. Although sextuple or lower-order mutants did not show drastic phenotypes in vegetative growth, the log1log2log3log4log5log7log8 septuple T-DNA insertion mutant in which the LOG-dependent pathway is impaired, displayed severe retardation of shoot and root growth with defects in the maintenance of the apical meristems. Detailed observation of the mutants showed that LOG7 was required for the maintenance of shoot apical meristem size. LOG7 was also suggested to play a role for normal primary root growth together with LOG3 and LOG4. These results suggest a dominant role of the single-step activation pathway mediated by LOGs for cytokinin production, and overlapping but differentiated functions of the members of the LOG gene family in growth and development.

  1. MAIL LOG, program summary and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The summary and specifications to obtain the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS are provided. The MAIL LOG program has four modes of operation: (1) input - putting new records into the data base; (2) revise - changing or modifying existing records in the data base; (3) search - finding special records existing in the data base; and (4) archive - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the input and search modes.

  2. Permeability extraction: A sonic log inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Akbar, N.; Kim, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the authors provide the missing important link between permeability and acoustic velocities by generating a permeability-dependent synthetic sonic log in a carbonate reservoir. The computations are based on Akbar`s theory that relates wave velocity to frequency, rock properties (e.g., lithology, permeability, and porosity), and fluid saturation and properties (viscosity, density, and compressibility). An inverted analytical expression of the theory is used to extract permeability from sonic velocity. The synthetic sonic and the computed permeability are compared with the observed sonic log and with plug permeability, respectively. The results demonstrate, as predicted by theory, that permeability can be related directly to acoustic velocities.

  3. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-15

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of {sup 235}U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  4. Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

    1999-07-01

    A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

  5. A German Geophysics School Project First steps to bring geophysical topics to schoolclasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2002-12-01

    In Germany Geophysics is a science with almost none or a bad reputation. People do not know to distinguish between Geophysics, Geography and Geology. In order to change the public view on Geosciences, a,School Project Geophysics' is going to be created at the Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt, which will offer geophysical ideas, methodes and scientific results to schoolclasses. After researches like PISA or TIMSS (third international Math and Nature-Science test) new concepts in education will be required. Interdisciplinary tasks are demanded by national and international commissions.\\The,School Project Geophysics' will be created to bring geophysical themes and results of scientific research into schools. One Day- or one Week-Workshops will help to publish geophysical contents in close cooperation with Physics - and Geography - teachers.\\Hands-on experiments (for advanced pupils) like refraction-Seismics or Magnetic measurements will lead students closer to scientific work and will help to establish personal interests in Earthsciences. Working with personally produced datasets will show the basics of inversion theory and point out the difficulties in creating models. Boundaries of data interpretation (the plurality of variables needed) will teach the school children to see scientific and statistic predictions and declarations more criticaly. Animations and Videos will present global examples (for example of volcanoes or Earthquakes) and lead over to regional sites. Excursions to these sites will help to show fieldwork methods and its problems and will convince to take a different look on topography and landscapes.\\All necessary utilities (Animations, Videos, Pictures and foils) will be offered to teachers in an online-data base which will be installed and managed by the project. Teachers and pupils might get easily into contact with Scientists to discuss geoscientific items. Further on extensions to geographic

  6. An integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation to characterize a fractured-rock aquifer, Norwalk, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.; Savino, D.M.; Haeni, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation at the Norden Systems, Inc. site in Norwalk, Connecticut, where chlorinated solvents have contaminated a fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole, borehole-to-borehole, surface-geophysical, and hydraulic methods were used to characterize the site bedrock lithology and structure, fractures, and transmissive zone hydraulic properties. The geophysical and hydraulic methods included conventional logs, borehole imagery, borehole radar, flowmeter under ambient and stressed hydraulic conditions, and azimuthal square-array direct-current resistivity soundings. Integrated interpretation of geophysical logs at borehole and borehole-to-borehole scales indicates that the bedrock foliation strikes northwest and dips northeast, and strikes north-northeast to northeast and dips both southeast and northwest. Although steeply dipping fractures that cross-cut foliation are observed, most fractures are parallel or sub-parallel to foliation. Steeply dipping reflectors observed in the radar reflection data from three boreholes near the main building delineate a north-northeast trending feature interpreted as a fracture zone. Results of radar tomography conducted close to a suspected contaminant source area indicate that a zone of low electromagnetic (EM) velocity and high EM attenuation is present above 50 ft in depth - the region containing the highest density of fractures. Flowmeter logging was used to estimate hydraulic properties in the boreholes. Thirty-three transmissive fracture zones were identified in 11 of the boreholes. The vertical separation between transmissive zones typically is 10 to 20 ft. Open-hole and discrete-zone transmissivity was estimated from heat-pulse flowmeter data acquired under ambient and stressed conditions. The open-hole transmissivity ranges from 2 to 86 ft2/d. The estimated transmissivity of individual transmissive zones ranges from 0.4 to 68 ft2/d. Drawdown monitoring

  7. Coal log pipeline research at University of Missouri. 3rd quarterly report for 1995, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.

    1995-12-31

    During this quarter (1/1/95-9/30/95), major progress has been made in the following areas of coal log pipeline research, development and technology transfer: (1) Conceptual design of a test machine based on hydraulic presses to mass-produce 5.4-inch-diameter coal logs for testing in a 6-inch-diameter pipeline has been completed. (2) Conceptual design of a rotary-press machine to produce 1.9-inch-diameter coal logs for testing in a 2-inch-diameter pipeline has also been completed. (3) It has been confirmed through experiments that molds with round-edge exit can make logs as good as those made with tapered exit. (4) Conducted a study to determine the effect of surface condition of mold and lubricants on the quality of coal logs. (5) Completed an evaluation of the effect of fiber (wood pulp) on coal log quality. (6) Prepared an apparatus for testing fast compaction of coal logs -- 2 second per log. (7) Compacted coal logs in a 5.3-inch-diameter mold. (8) Completed a preliminary study to assess vacuum and steam heating systems to enhance coal log production and quality. (9) Changed the small-scale-CLP-demo loop from a once-through system to a recirculating system. (10) Completed revision of CLP economic model and revised the 1993 report.

  8. Bibliography of borehole geophysics as applied to ground-water hydrology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ticie A.; Dey, Joyce A.

    1985-01-01

    Most of the references on borehole geophysics that are relevant to ground-water hydrology are contained in this bibliography, but it does not include every reference that is available under each subject heading; the literature is much too extensive to compile a complete listing. Some of the references may appear under more than one subject heading because the references commonly relate to more than one main topic. Many articles have been cross-referenced in order to assist the reader in locating an article. For example, the article entitled, 'Application of the acoustic televiewer to the characterization of hydraulic fractures in geothermal wells' is listed under both 'Acoustic televiewer,' and 'Geothermal'. The bibliography is intended to lead the reader to other articles on borehole-geophysical logging and related subjects, because each article cited also will have a list of references, which may be more specialized, covering many subjects with related applications, such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, electronics, acoustics, hydrology, and surface geophysics. However, not all of these related subject headings could be included in this bibliography.

  9. NGDC Marine Geophysical Data Systems: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, G. F.; Divins, D. L.; Metzger, D. R.; Campagnoli, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    For the past quarter century, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has disseminated marine geophysical data previously submitted to the national archive which NGDC maintains for the scientific community. Beginning in 1977, with a conference of users to establish an exchange format, GEODAS(GEOphysical DAta System) has been a tool for describing, distributing, and exchanging marine geophysical data. In the last decade CD-ROM technology permitted distribution of entire databases along with GEODAS software. Described in Sharman, et al., Surveying and Land Information Systems, 58,3(1998)pp.141-146, GEODAS is an integrated, home-grown system developed to address a particular class of data in the absence of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions. GEODAS has evolved to index the location and quality of multibeam data as well as providing a 1-minute, vertical beam derivative for those who did not wish to deal with the full array of data. NGDC's Coastal Relief Model (CRM) and Global Relief (ETOPO2) are also delivered with the GEODAS software as the primary management tool. The CRM represents a new evolution of NGDC data practice, delivering a gridded data product derived from, rather than, the primary data. Customer-demand for data easily imported into increasingly popular Geographic Information Systems(GIS) drove this change. Our delivery of the CRM includes "canned" graphic images with a web-structured CD-ROM delivery accessed by Web browsers, thus allowing COTS solutions for multi-platform access. GEODAS software permits resampling, joining, and otherwise reformatting the data for export. Future developments include two proposals to deliver high volume data sets (e.g. multibeam, and acoustic imagery/side scan) and data in a spatially enabled format via the Web. Both will begin using COTS solutions that accommodate the needs of a specialized MGG community and their data. Future directions include increasing use of COTS packages, when applicable, to manage and

  10. Computers and geophysics: Requirements outlined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The use of computers to process enormous volumes of data is likely to improve our abilities to predict earthquakes and issue tsunami warnings, geophysicist J. Freeman Gilbert recently told a House of Representatives task force on science policy. Gilbert, of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, testified before the task force on September 11, in one of a series of hearings intended to explore the “impact of the information age on science.” Scientists and administrators from universities and private industry served as witnesses during the 3 days of hearings.Rep. George E. Brown, J r . , (D-Calif.) asked Gilbert to compare the amount of damage done by tsunamis in the United States to the cost of improved detection and warning systems. “I think it's worth the effort,” Gilbert responded, adding that as in the case of hurricane warnings, tsunami warnings would affect only a small proportion of the nation's population but could be crucial to protect their lives and property. Such a system, Gilbert said, “represents technology that is easy to implement.”

  11. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Kristina; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  12. Geophysics: Building E5190 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-07-01

    Building E5190 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. A noninvasive geophysical survey, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, was conducted around the perimeter as a guide to developing a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling the building. The magnetics surveys indicated that multistation, positive magnetic sources are randomly distributed north and west of the building. Two linear trends were noted: one that may outline buried utility lines and another that is produced by a steel-covered trench. The resistivity profiling indicated three conductive zones: one due to increased moisture in a ditch, one associated with buried utility lines, and a third zone associated with the steel-covered trench. Ground-penetrating radar imaging detected two significant anomalies, which were correlated with small-amplitude magnetic anomalies. The objectives of the study -- to detect and locate objects and to characterize a located object were achieved.

  13. Theoretical prediction of Debye temperature & elastic constants of geophysical mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Chandra K.; Pandey, Anjani K.; Pandey, Brijesh K.

    2016-05-01

    Technological applications of the materials can be explored upto the desired limit of accuracy with the better knowledge of its mechanical and thermal properties such as ductility brittleness and Debye temperature. For the resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G) the ratio K/G is treated as an indication of ductile or brittle character of solids. In the present work we have tested the condition of ductility and brittleness with the calculated values of K/G for the geophysical minerals MgO and CaO, which are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. We have also computed the Debye temperature (θD) for the selected samples using average sound velocity obtained by using the values of resistance to fracture (K) and plastic deformation (G). It is observed that both the minerals are Brittle in nature and the calculated values of Debye temperature is in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. Thus it is concluded that the nature and Debye temperature of geophysical minerals can be predicted upto high temperature simply with the knowledge of its elastic stiffness constant only.

  14. Geochemical and geophysical analysis of shallow aquifer materials in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in east-central Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Haefner, R.J.; Rowe, G.L. Jr. . Water Resources Div.)

    1992-01-01

    Three cores holes were drilled through sandstone, shale, and coal deposits of the Pennsylvanian-age Allegheny Group to provide samples for geochemical and geophysical evaluation of shallow aquifer materials in east-central Ohio. The samples were analyzed for forms of sulfur and carbon, and for more than 40 major and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma scans. Temperature, electrical, caliper, and gamma-ray logs were run in the boreholes to improve definition of the stratigraphy and geohydrologic properties of the shallow aquifers. The stratigraphy in this region is dominated by thick sandstone and shale sequences with minor amounts of limestone and the Middle and Lower Kittanning coal/underclay sequences. Depth profiles of major and trace-element chemistry reveal many trace elements are enriched in the underclay with respect to the overlying sandstone/shale sequences. Pyritic-sulfur contents in the underclay is highly variable and in the shale sequences are less than 1 weight percent. Evaluation of the volume-weighted net-neutralization potential of the entire sampling interval indicates an average deficit of approximately 30 tons of CaCO[sub 3] per 1,000 tons of rock in the resultant spoils after mining of the coal. Aquifer properties were inferred from the interpretation of the geophysical logs. Temperature logs reveal that the coals are the major water-bearing units. Minor fractures were seen in the core; these fractures may control vertical ground-water flow within the sampled interval. Gamma logs proved to be the most effective geophysical tool for correlating stratigraphy between the three holes.

  15. Ninety Years of International Cooperation in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2009-05-01

    Because applicable physical, chemical, and mathematical studies of the Earth system must be both interdisciplinary and international, the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was formed in 1919 as an non-governmental, non-profit organization dedicated to advancing, promoting, and communicating knowledge of the Earth system, its space environment, and the dynamical processes causing change. The Union brings together eight International Associations that address different disciplines of Earth sciences. Through these Associations, IUGG promotes and enables studies in the geosciences by providing a framework for collaborative research and information exchange, by organizing international scientific assemblies worldwide, and via research publications. Resolutions passed by assemblies of IUGG and its International Associations set geophysical standards and promote issues of science policy on which national members agree. IUGG has initiated and/or vigorously supported collaborative international efforts that have led to highly productive worldwide interdisciplinary research programs, such as the International Geophysical Year and subsequent International Years (IPY, IYPE, eGY, and IHY), International Lithosphere Programme, World Climate Research Programme, Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, and Integrated Research on Risk Disaster. IUGG is inherently involved in the projects and programs related to climate change, global warming, and related environmental impacts. One major contribution has been the creation, through the International Council for Science (ICSU), of the World Data Centers and the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical Data Analysis Services. These are being transformed to the ICSU World Data System, from which the data gathered during the major programs and data products will be available to researchers everywhere. IUGG cooperates with UNESCO, WMO, and some other U.N. and non-governmental organizations in the study of natural catastrophes

  16. Using Oil and Gas Well Log Records to Understand Possible Connections Between Wastewater Injection Zones and Usable Groundwater Aquifers in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimabukuro, D.; Haugen, E. A.; Battistella, C.; Treguboff, E. W.; Kale, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although the disposal of produced water in wastewater injection wells has been occurring in California for decades, it is not clear whether injected fluids may be migrating into usable groundwater aquifers. One problem is the poor characterization of federally-protected (<10,000 ppm TDS) water in the state. Another is the lack of publically-accessible information about the hydrological properties of confining strata adjacent to injection zones. In effort to better understand these two problems, we have begun studying the archived oil and gas well records collected by the California Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). These scanned records contain two useful sources of information. First, geophysical well logs, such those measuring resistivity and porosity, can be used to determine aquifer salinity. This allows a three-dimensional understanding of the distribution of protected groundwater. Second, driller's logs contain lithological descriptions at depth. These lithologies can be used to construct a three-dimensional texture model, which can then be used in a groundwater flow model. A large number of undergraduate researchers at CSU Sacramento and CSU Long Beach have been collecting information on well records in the Ventura Basin and the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Each well record is examined with basic metadata entered into an online database in an effort to identify appropriate geophysical well logs and driller's logs. High-quality driller's logs are coded and used to create three-dimensional framework models for each well field. The geophysical logs are digitized and will be used to determine aquifer salinity. In addition, we are using information from the DOGGR well records to investigate wellbore integrity, waste disposal and waterflood injection volumes, and the possibility of induced seismicity. This project is part of the broader effort of the California State Water Resources Control Board to implement Senate Bill 4.

  17. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  18. Immersive, hands-on, team-based geophysical education at the University of Texas Marine Geology and Geophysics Field Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saustrup, S.; Gulick, S. P.; Goff, J. A.; Davis, M. B.; Duncan, D.; Reece, R.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG), part of the Jackson School of Geosciences, annually offers a unique and intensive three-week marine geology and geophysics field course during the spring/summer semester intersession. Now entering its seventh year, the course transitions students from a classroom environment through real-world, hands-on field acquisition, on to team-oriented data interpretation, culminating in a professional presentation before academic and industry employer representatives. The course is available to graduate students and select upper-division undergraduates, preparing them for direct entry into the geoscience workforce or for further academic study. Geophysical techniques used include high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling, multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, sediment coring, grab sampling, data processing, and laboratory analysis of sediments. Industry-standard equipment, methods, software packages, and visualization techniques are used throughout the course, putting students ahead of many of their peers in this respect. The course begins with a 3-day classroom introduction to the field area geology, geophysical methods, and computing resources used. The class then travels to the Gulf Coast for a week of hands-on field and lab work aboard two research vessels: UTIG's 22-foot, aluminum hulled Lake Itasca; and NOAA's 82-foot high-speed catamaran R/V Manta. The smaller vessel handles primarily shallow, inshore targets using multibeam bathymetry, sidescan sonar, and grab sampling. The larger vessel is used both inshore and offshore for multichannel seismic, CHIRP profiling, multibeam bathymetry, gravity coring, and vibracoring. Field areas to date have included Galveston and Port Aransas, Texas, and Grand Isle, Louisiana, with further work in Grand Isle scheduled for 2014. In the field, students work in teams of three, participating in survey design, instrument set-up, field deployment

  19. MAIL LOG, program theory, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    Information relevant to the MAIL LOG program theory is documented. The L-files for mail correspondence, design information release/report, and the drawing/engineering order are given. In addition, sources for miscellaneous external routines and special support routines are documented along with a glossary of terms.

  20. Discovering the Local Landscape: Pioneer Log Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Bob; And Others

    Building structures made from logs appeared in the eastern United States during the late 17th century, and immigrants from Sweden, Finland, and Germany are credited with their construction. There were two types of structures: the horizontal design introduced by the Scandinavians and the German or Pennsylvania Dutch model that was used by the…