Science.gov

Sample records for geospatial information retrieval

  1. Global polar geospatial information service retrieval based on search engine and ontology reasoning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Nengcheng; E, Dongcheng; Di, Liping; Gong, Jianya; Chen, Zeqiang

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the access precision of polar geospatial information service on web, a new methodology for retrieving global spatial information services based on geospatial service search and ontology reasoning is proposed, the geospatial service search is implemented to find the coarse service from web, the ontology reasoning is designed to find the refined service from the coarse service. The proposed framework includes standardized distributed geospatial web services, a geospatial service search engine, an extended UDDI registry, and a multi-protocol geospatial information service client. Some key technologies addressed include service discovery based on search engine and service ontology modeling and reasoning in the Antarctic geospatial context. Finally, an Antarctica multi protocol OWS portal prototype based on the proposed methodology is introduced.

  2. GeoIRIS: Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System-Content Mining, Semantics Modeling, and Complex Queries.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Chi-Ren; Klaric, Matt; Scott, Grant J; Barb, Adrian S; Davis, Curt H; Palaniappan, Kannappan

    2007-04-01

    Searching for relevant knowledge across heterogeneous geospatial databases requires an extensive knowledge of the semantic meaning of images, a keen eye for visual patterns, and efficient strategies for collecting and analyzing data with minimal human intervention. In this paper, we present our recently developed content-based multimodal Geospatial Information Retrieval and Indexing System (GeoIRIS) which includes automatic feature extraction, visual content mining from large-scale image databases, and high-dimensional database indexing for fast retrieval. Using these underpinnings, we have developed techniques for complex queries that merge information from heterogeneous geospatial databases, retrievals of objects based on shape and visual characteristics, analysis of multiobject relationships for the retrieval of objects in specific spatial configurations, and semantic models to link low-level image features with high-level visual descriptors. GeoIRIS brings this diverse set of technologies together into a coherent system with an aim of allowing image analysts to more rapidly identify relevant imagery. GeoIRIS is able to answer analysts' questions in seconds, such as "given a query image, show me database satellite images that have similar objects and spatial relationship that are within a certain radius of a landmark."

  3. Geospatial Information Response Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2010-01-01

    Extreme emergency events of national significance that include manmade and natural disasters seem to have become more frequent during the past two decades. The Nation is becoming more resilient to these emergencies through better preparedness, reduced duplication, and establishing better communications so every response and recovery effort saves lives and mitigates the long-term social and economic impacts on the Nation. The National Response Framework (NRF) (http://www.fema.gov/NRF) was developed to provide the guiding principles that enable all response partners to prepare for and provide a unified national response to disasters and emergencies. The NRF provides five key principles for better preparation, coordination, and response: 1) engaged partnerships, 2) a tiered response, 3) scalable, flexible, and adaptable operations, 4) unity of effort, and 5) readiness to act. The NRF also describes how communities, tribes, States, Federal Government, privatesector, and non-governmental partners apply these principles for a coordinated, effective national response. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has adopted the NRF doctrine by establishing several earth-sciences, discipline-level teams to ensure that USGS science, data, and individual expertise are readily available during emergencies. The Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) is one of these teams. The USGS established the GIRT to facilitate the effective collection, storage, and dissemination of geospatial data information and products during an emergency. The GIRT ensures that timely geospatial data are available for use by emergency responders, land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. In an emergency and response capacity, the GIRT is responsible for establishing procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing coordinated products and services utilizing the USGS' exceptional pool of

  4. Geospatial Thinking of Information Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Bradley Wade; Johnston, Melissa P.

    2013-01-01

    Geospatial thinking skills inform a host of library decisions including planning and managing facilities, analyzing service area populations, facility site location, library outlet and service point closures, as well as assisting users with their own geospatial needs. Geospatial thinking includes spatial cognition, spatial reasoning, and knowledge…

  5. Geospatial Information Best Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    the GI&S team was the establishment of the portal-based Iraqi Geospatial Database. IGD provided a centrally located repository and clearing house...Markup Language. The IGD was originally located on a stand-alone server established and maintained by the J7 GI&S Section. It is currently archived...at the National Geospatial Agency (http://gil.nga.smil. mil/ igd ). The IGD is organized into a home page (Figure 2) with four sub-pages

  6. Integrating semantic web technologies and geospatial catalog services for geospatial information discovery and processing in cyberinfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Peng; Gong, Jianya; Di, Liping; He, Lianlian; Wei, Yaxing

    2011-04-01

    Abstract A geospatial catalogue service provides a network-based meta-information repository and interface for advertising and discovering shared geospatial data and services. Descriptive information (i.e., metadata) for geospatial data and services is structured and organized in catalogue services. The approaches currently available for searching and using that information are often inadequate. Semantic Web technologies show promise for better discovery methods by exploiting the underlying semantics. Such development needs special attention from the Cyberinfrastructure perspective, so that the traditional focus on discovery of and access to geospatial data can be expanded to support the increased demand for processing of geospatial information and discovery of knowledge. Semantic descriptions for geospatial data, services, and geoprocessing service chains are structured, organized, and registered through extending elements in the ebXML Registry Information Model (ebRIM) of a geospatial catalogue service, which follows the interface specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalogue Services for the Web (CSW). The process models for geoprocessing service chains, as a type of geospatial knowledge, are captured, registered, and discoverable. Semantics-enhanced discovery for geospatial data, services/service chains, and process models is described. Semantic search middleware that can support virtual data product materialization is developed for the geospatial catalogue service. The creation of such a semantics-enhanced geospatial catalogue service is important in meeting the demands for geospatial information discovery and analysis in Cyberinfrastructure.

  7. Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval focuses on an Interaction Information Retrieval model in which documents are interconnected; queries and documents are treated in the same way; and retrieval is the result of the interconnection between query and documents. A theoretical mathematical formulation of this type of retrieval is given. (Contains 31…

  8. Impacts of Geospatial Information for Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, F.; Coote, A.; Friedl, L.; Stewart, M.

    2012-12-01

    Geospatial information contributes to decisions by both societal and individual decision-makers. More effective use of this information is essential as issues are increasingly complex and consequences can be critical for future economic and social development. To address this, a workshop brought together analysts, communicators, officials, and researchers from academia, government, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector. A range of policy issues, management needs, and resource requirements were discussed and a wide array of analyses, geospatial data, methods of analysis, and metrics were presented for assessing and communicating the value of geospatial information. It is clear that there are many opportunities for integrating science and engineering disciplines with the social sciences for addressing societal issues that would benefit from using geospatial information and earth observations. However, these collaborations must have outcomes that can be easily communicated to decision makers. This generally requires either succinct quantitative statements of value based on rigorous models and/or user testimonials of actual applications that save real money. An outcome of the workshop is to pursue the development of a community of practice or society that encompasses a wide range of scientific, social, management, and communication disciplines and fosters collaboration across specialties, helping to build trust across social and science aspects. A resource base is also necessary. This presentation will address approaches for creating a shared knowledge database, containing a glossary of terms, reference materials and examples of case studies and the potential applications for benefit analyses.

  9. Connectionist Interaction Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of connectionist views for adaptive clustering in information retrieval focuses on a connectionist clustering technique and activation spreading-based information retrieval model using the interaction information retrieval method. Presents theoretical as well as simulation results as regards computational complexity and includes…

  10. Microfilm and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teplitz, Arthur

    This paper was prepared to provide a frame of reference to the role of microfilm within the information retrieval world and to provide an opportunity for evaluation of the use of microforms for active retrieval applications. The paper discusses the principles of information retrieval, considers subject and classification indexing, and describes…

  11. Stakeholder Alignment and Changing Geospatial Information Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, S.; Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J.; King, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Changing geospatial information capabilities can have major economic and social effects on activities such as drought monitoring, weather forecasts, agricultural productivity projections, water and air quality assessments, the effects of forestry practices and so on. Whose interests are served by such changes? Two common mistakes are assuming stability in the community of stakeholders and consistency in stakeholder behavior. Stakeholder communities can reconfigure dramatically as some leave the discussion, others enter, and circumstances shift — all resulting in dynamic points of alignment and misalignment . New stakeholders can bring new interests, and existing stakeholders can change their positions. Stakeholders and their interests need to be be considered as geospatial information capabilities change, but this is easier said than done. New ways of thinking about stakeholder alignment in light of changes in capability are presented.

  12. Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahle, Jack D., Jr.

    The Fort Detrick Information Retrieval System is a system of computer programs written in COBOL for a CDC 3150 to store and retrieve information about the scientific and technical reports and documents of the Fort Detrick Technical Library. The documents and reports have been abstracted and indexed. This abstract, the subject matter descriptors,…

  13. Natural Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strzalkowski, Tomek

    1995-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval system in which advanced natural language processing is used to enhance the effectiveness of term-based document retrieval by preprocessing the documents; discovering interterm dependencies and build a conceptual hierarchy specific to database domain; and processing the user's natural language requests into…

  14. Information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  15. Retrieving Patent Information Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses patent information retrieval from online files in terms of types of questions, file contents, coverage, timeliness, and other file variations. CLAIMS, Derwent, WPI, APIPAT and Chemical Abstracts Service are described. (KP)

  16. Topological Aspects of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo; Rousseau, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    Discusses topological aspects of theoretical information retrieval, including retrieval topology; similarity topology; pseudo-metric topology; document spaces as topological spaces; Boolean information retrieval as a subsystem of any topological system; and proofs of theorems. (LRW)

  17. Information Retrieval in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herschman, Arthur

    Discussed in this paper are the information problems in physics and the current program of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) being conducted in an attempt to develop an information retrieval system. The seriousness of the need is described by means of graphs indicating the exponential rise in the number of physics publications in the last…

  18. Collaborative Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Harry; Fidel, Raya

    1999-01-01

    Researchers from the University of Washington, Microsoft Research, Boeing, and Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark have embarked on a project to explore the manifestations of Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) in work settings and to propose technological innovations and organizational changes that can support, facilitate, and improve CIR.…

  19. Feedback in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spink, Amanda; Losee, Robert M.

    1996-01-01

    As Information Retrieval (IR) has evolved, it has become a highly interactive process, rooted in cognitive and situational contexts. Consequently the traditional cybernetic-based IR model does not suffice for interactive IR or the human approach to IR. Reviews different views of feedback in IR and their relationship to cybernetic and social…

  20. Music Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downie, J. Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Identifies MIR (Music Information Retrieval) computer system problems, historic influences, current state-of-the-art, and future MIR solutions through an examination of the multidisciplinary approach to MIR. Highlights include pitch; temporal factors; harmonics; tone; editorial, textual, and bibliographic facets; multicultural factors; locating…

  1. Assessing the socioeconomic impact and value of open geospatial information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlman, Francoise; Pearlman, Jay; Bernknopf, Richard; Coote, Andrew; Craglia, Massimo; Friedl, Lawrence; Gallo, Jason; Hertzfeld, Henry; Jolly, Claire; Macauley, Molly; Shapiro, Carl; Smart, Alan

    2016-03-10

    The workshop included 68 participants coming from international organizations, the U.S. public and private sectors, nongovernmental organizations, and academia. Participants included policy makers and analysts, financial analysts, economists, information scientists, geospatial practitioners, and other discipline experts.

  2. Active on-demand service method based on event-driven architecture for geospatial data retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Minghu; Fan, Hong; Chen, Nengcheng; Chen, Zeqiang; Du, Wu

    2013-07-01

    Timely on-demand access to geospatial data is necessary for environmental observation and disaster response. However, traditional service methods for acquiring geospatial data are inefficient and cumbersome, which is not beneficial for timely data acquisition. In these service methods, data are obtained and published by managers and are then left to users to discover and to retrieve them. To solve this problem, we propose an event-driven active on-demand data service method, for which a prototype based on sensor web technologies is demonstrated. First, we select a subset of observed properties as the attributes of an observation event of a data service system. Event-filtering technologies are then employed to find the data desired by users. Finally, the data that meet the subscription requirement are pushed to subscribers on time. The aims of the implementation of the method are to test the suitability of the observation and measurement (O&M) profile for Earth observation and OGC event pattern markup language (EML) specification. We determined the attributes of observation events according to the requirement of the data service and encoded observation event information using the OGC Observations and Measurements specification. We encoded the information under filtering conditions using the OGC Event Pattern Markup Language specification. We implemented a data service method that is based on event-driven architecture via a combination of some sensor web enablement services. Finally, we verified the feasibility of the method using MODIS data from the forest fires that occurred on February 7, 2009, in Victoria, Australia. The results show that the proposed method can achieve actively pushing the desired data to subscribers in the shortest possible time. O&M profiles for Earth observation and EML are suitable for the metadata encoding of observation events and the encoding of subscription information respectively. They match well for the data service in the system.

  3. Characterizing the semantic information loss between geospatial sensors and geospatial information systems (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik P.

    2011-06-01

    Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) collect, integrate, store, edit, analyze, share, and display geographic information. Naturally, GIS analysts rely on external data coming from disparate sensors to associate the sensor content (e.g. imagery) with relational databases. Inherently, these GIS sensors present differences in their data structures, labelling, ontologies, and resolution. Given different data structures, information may be lost in the transfer of information, alignment, and association of related context, which yields uncertainty in the meaning of the conveyed information. Ontology alignment typically consists of manual operations from users with different experiences and understandings and limited reporting is conducted in the quality of mappings. To assist the International Organization for Standards (ISO) in development of information quality assessment, we propose an approach using information theory for semantic uncertainty analysis. Information theory has widely been adopted in communications and provides uncertainty assessment for quality of service (QOS) analysis. Quality of information (QOI) or Information Quality (IQ) definitions for semantic assessment can be used to bridge the gap between ontology (semantic) uncertainty alignment and information theory (symbolic) analysis. Utilizing a measure of semantic information loss, analysts can improve the information fusion process, predict data needs, and appropriately understand the GIS product. This paper aims at developing a semantic information loss measure based on information theory relating GIS sensor processing uncertainties and GIS analyst syntactic associations. A maritime domain situational awareness example with waterway semantic labels is shown to demonstrate semantic information loss.

  4. The Value of Information - Accounting for a New Geospatial Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Coote, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    A new frontier in consideration of socio-economic benefit is valuing information as an asset, often referred to as Infonomics. Conventional financial practice does not easily provide a mechanism for valuing information and yet clearly for many of the largest corporations, such as Google and Facebook, it is their principal asset. This is exacerbated for public sector organizations, as those that information-centric rather than information-enabled are relatively few - statistics, archiving and mapping agencies are perhaps the only examples - so it's not at the top of the agenda for Government. However, it is a hugely important issue when valuing Geospatial data and information. Geospatial data allows public institutions to operate, and facilitates the provision of essential services for emergency response and national defense. In this respect, geospatial data is strongly analogous to other types of public infrastructure, such as utilities and roads. The use of Geospatial data is widespread from companies in the transportation or construction sectors to individual planning for daily events. The categorization of geospatial data as infrastructure is critical to decisions related to investment in its management, maintenance and upgrade over time. Geospatial data depreciates in the same way that physical infrastructure depreciates. It needs to be maintained otherwise its functionality and value in use declines. We have coined the term geo-infonomics to encapsulate the concept. This presentation will develop the arguments around its importance and current avenues of research.

  5. Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doszkocs, Tamase

    1986-01-01

    Examines role and contributions of natural-language processing in information retrieval and artificial intelligence research in context of large operational information retrieval systems and services. State-of-the-art information retrieval systems combining the functional capabilities of conventional inverted file term adjacency approach with…

  6. A Visual Information Retrieval Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of visualization for information retrieval, that transforms unseen internal semantic representation of a document collection into visible geometric displays, focuses on DARE (Distance Angle Retrieval Environment). Highlights include expression of information need; interpretation and manipulation of information retrieval models; ranking…

  7. Geospatial Information and Geographic Information Systems (GIS): Current Issues and Future Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Congressional Research Service 15 Other Activities and Components of FGDC and NSDI Geospatial One - Stop According...to the FGDC 2007 Annual Report,30 the Geospatial One - Stop portal is the official means of accessing metadata resources, which are published through...the National Spatial Data Clearinghouse and which are managed in NSDI. Geospatial One - Stop focuses on the discovery and access of geospatial

  8. Geospatial Information is the Cornerstone of Effective Hazards Response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newell, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Every day there are hundreds of natural disasters world-wide. Some are dramatic, whereas others are barely noticeable. A natural disaster is commonly defined as a natural event with catastrophic consequences for living things in the vicinity. Those events include earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, and wildfires. Man-made disasters are events that are caused by man either intentionally or by accident, and that directly or indirectly threaten public health and well-being. These occurrences span the spectrum from terrorist attacks to accidental oil spills. To assist in responding to natural and potential man-made disasters, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has established the Geospatial Information Response Team (GIRT) (http://www.usgs.gov/emergency/). The primary purpose of the GIRT is to ensure rapid coordination and availability of geospatial information for effective response by emergency responders, and land and resource managers, and for scientific analysis. The GIRT is responsible for establishing monitoring procedures for geospatial data acquisition, processing, and archiving; discovery, access, and delivery of data; anticipating geospatial needs; and providing relevant geospatial products and services. The GIRT is focused on supporting programs, offices, other agencies, and the public in mission response to hazards. The GIRT will leverage the USGS Geospatial Liaison Network and partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), and Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS geospatial data, products, services, and equipment. The USGS geospatial liaisons will coordinate geospatial information sharing with State, local, and tribal governments, and ensure geospatial liaison back-up support procedures are in place. The GIRT will coordinate disposition of USGS staff in support of DHS response center activities as requested by DHS. The GIRT

  9. Supporting the Temporal Dimension in Geospatial Information Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S.; Ressler, J.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005-06, a study on temporal geospatial standards and technology was undertaken by the National Technology Alliance. The project, called Temporal Evaluation and Assessment, examined challenges in accessing, processing, analyzing and visualizing temporal characteristics of geospatial data. Service oriented architecture principles were applied in developing prototype web services based on web standards, including specifications from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The prototypes were tested through a series of demonstrations. Questions addressed included detection , data modeling and depiction of change in features over time, both static and moving; collection and reporting sensor observations; use of web services with temporal interfaces; application of the Geography Markup Language (GML) to temporal features; comparison of imagery changes over time; search and retrieval of spatiotemporal data from multiple sources. Some of the key results from these demonstrations were in the areas of spatiotemporal data modeling, multi- source analysis of temporal images, features, moving features and sensor time-value data, exchange formats and workflow for feature updates, the use of catalogs to search and retrieve spatiotemporal data sources. The recommendations from the temporal evaluation were provided to standards organizations and technology developers. This paper describes the results of the research, the state of standards and technology, and future recommendations for using spatiotemporal data in a service oriented architecture.

  10. Data Democracy and Decision Making: Enhancing the Use and Value of Geospatial Data and Scientific Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Data democracy is a concept that has great relevance to the use and value of geospatial data and scientific information. Data democracy describes a world in which data and information are widely and broadly accessible, understandable, and useable. The concept operationalizes the public good nature of scientific information and provides a framework for increasing benefits from its use. Data democracy encompasses efforts to increase accessibility to geospatial data and to expand participation in its collection, analysis, and application. These two pillars are analogous to demand and supply relationships. Improved accessibility, or demand, includes increased knowledge about geospatial data and low barriers to retrieval and use. Expanded participation, or supply, encompasses a broader community involved in developing geospatial data and scientific information. This pillar of data democracy is characterized by methods such as citizen science or crowd sourcing.A framework is developed for advancing the use of data democracy. This includes efforts to assess the societal benefits (economic and social) of scientific information. This knowledge is critical to continued monitoring of the effectiveness of data democracy implementation and of potential impact on the use and value of scientific information. The framework also includes an assessment of opportunities for advancing data democracy both on the supply and demand sides. These opportunities include relatively inexpensive efforts to reduce barriers to use as well as the identification of situations in which participation can be expanded in scientific efforts to enhance the breadth of involvement as well as expanding participation to non-traditional communities. This framework provides an initial perspective on ways to expand the "scientific community" of data users and providers. It also describes a way forward for enhancing the societal benefits from geospatial data and scientific information. As a result, data

  11. Semantic processing in information retrieval.

    PubMed Central

    Rindflesch, T. C.; Aronson, A. R.

    1993-01-01

    Intuition suggests that one way to enhance the information retrieval process would be the use of phrases to characterize the contents of text. A number of researchers, however, have noted that phrases alone do not improve retrieval effectiveness. In this paper we briefly review the use of phrases in information retrieval and then suggest extensions to this paradigm using semantic information. We claim that semantic processing, which can be viewed as expressing relations between the concepts represented by phrases, will in fact enhance retrieval effectiveness. The availability of the UMLS domain model, which we exploit extensively, significantly contributes to the feasibility of this processing. PMID:8130547

  12. Intelligent Information Retrieval: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauch, Susan

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the application of artificial intelligence to online information retrieval systems and describes several systems: (1) CANSEARCH, from MEDLINE; (2) Intelligent Interface for Information Retrieval (I3R); (3) Gausch's Query Reformulation; (4) Environmental Pollution Expert (EP-X); (5) PLEXUS (gardening); and (6) SCISOR (corporate…

  13. Student Attitude Toward Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Charles H.; Allen, Rodney F.

    This is an individually administered rating scale designed to evaluate teacher trainee attitudes toward an information retrieval system. A major goal of the scale is to seek responses that measure students' reactions to the cognitive interest and motivational nature of the information retrieval system through the use of Likert-type items. The…

  14. Information Retrieval by Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billowes, C. A.

    1968-01-01

    Bell Canada, the Public School and Collegiate Institute Boards of Ottawa, and the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education are collaborating on an educational television project which will provide a retrieval system that can supply any given program at any time under the control of the classroom teacher. Four schools in Ottawa will participate…

  15. Mobile medical visual information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Duc, Samuel; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose mobile access to peer-reviewed medical information based on textual search and content-based visual image retrieval. Web-based interfaces designed for limited screen space were developed to query via web services a medical information retrieval engine optimizing the amount of data to be transferred in wireless form. Visual and textual retrieval engines with state-of-the-art performance were integrated. Results obtained show a good usability of the software. Future use in clinical environments has the potential of increasing quality of patient care through bedside access to the medical literature in context.

  16. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EXPERIMENT. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELYE, HANS

    THIS REPORT IS A BRIEF REVIEW OF RESULTS OF AN EXPERIMENT TO DETERMINE THE INFORMATION RETRIEVAL EFFICIENCY OF A MANUAL SPECIALIZED INFORMATION SYSTEM BASED ON 700,000 DOCUMENTS IN THE FIELDS OF ENDOCRINOLOGY, STRESS, MAST CELLS, AND ANAPHYLACTOID REACTIONS. THE SYSTEM RECEIVES 30,000 PUBLICATIONS ANNUALLY. DETAILED INFORMATION IS REPRESENTED BY…

  17. Seymour: Maryland's Information Retriever.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara G.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the development of an electronic information network in Maryland called Seymour that offers bibliographic records; full-text databases; community information databases; the ability to request information and materials; local, state, and federal information; and access to the Internet. Policy issues are addressed, including user fees and…

  18. Multimedia Information Retrieval Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Bohn, Shawn J.; Payne, Deborah A.

    2010-10-12

    This survey paper highlights some of the recent, influential work in multimedia information retrieval (MIR). MIR is a branch area of multimedia (MM). The young and fast-growing area has received strong industrial and academic support in the United States and around the world (see Section 7 for a list of major conferences and journals of the community). The term "information retrieval" may be misleading to those with different computer science or information technology backgrounds. As shown in our discussion later, it indeed includes topics from user interaction, data analytics, machine learning, feature extraction, information visualization, and more.

  19. A Web Information Retrieval System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Hyun; Park, Dong-Chul; Huh, Woong; Kim, Hyen-Ug; Yoon, Chung-Hwa; Park, Chong-Dae; Woo, Dong-Min; Jeong, Taikyeong; Cho, Il-Hwan; Lee, Yunsik

    An approach for the retrieval of price information from internet sites is applied to real-world application problems in this paper. The Web Information Retrieval System (WIRS) utilizes Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for its powerful capability to process temporal information. HMM is an extremely flexible tool and has been successfully applied to a wide variety of stochastic modeling tasks. In order to compare the prices and features of products from various web sites, the WIRS extracts prices and descriptions of various products within web pages. The WIRS is evaluated with real-world problems and compared with a conventional method and the result is reported in this paper.

  20. Electronic Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways in which online searching promotes the development of research, computer, and critical thinking skills, and reviews two databases that offer access to information on elementary school science. Lesson activities for grades four through six are suggested, and information on the vendor, system requirements, and cost of each database is…

  1. Global grid systems for geospatial information: status and thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben, Jin; Tong, Xiaochong; Ji, Song

    2007-06-01

    After brief explanation of the origin of the grid, the author firstly points out the multi-resolution partition of geo-space, which is the basic issue of the specialized spatial information grid, relates to the globe directly as the region of interest expands. And the global grid system is an efficient way to solve problems on spheres. Secondly, the author introduces achievements on geospatial information global grid systems which based on both traditional geographic coordinate system and regular, multi-resolution partitions of polyhedra. At last, this author point out the problems that remains to be studied in this field.

  2. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  3. The Ecosystem of Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Jose-Vicente; Martinez-Mendez, Francisco-Javier; Pastor-Sanchez, Juan-Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an initial proposal for a formal framework that, by studying the metric variables involved in information retrieval, can establish the sequence of events involved and how to perform it. Method: A systematic approach from the equations of Shannon and Weaver to establish the decidability of information retrieval…

  4. Information Retrieval in Virtual Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Pöyry, Päivi

    2006-01-01

    Information retrieval in the context of virtual universities deals with the representation, organization, and access to learning objects. The representation and organization of learning objects should provide the learner with an easy access to the learning objects. In this article, we give an overview of the ONES system, and analyze the relevance…

  5. Information Retrieval in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oley, Elizabeth

    1989-01-01

    Explores aspects of information retrieval skills such as end user training, indexing, controlled vocabulary systems, search protocol, boolean logic, problem analysis, and decision making. Suggests techniques for classroom instruction using simulations of online databases, CD-ROMs, and DIALOG's classroom instruction program. Describes several…

  6. Semantic Tools in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris; Stone, Don C.

    This report discusses the problem of the meansings of words used in information retrieval systems, and shows how semantic tools can aid in the communication which takes place between indexers and searchers via index terms. After treating the differing use of semantic tools in different types of systems, two tools (classification tables and…

  7. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  8. Automated information retrieval using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, Rodney Doyle, III; Beug, James Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Expert systems have considerable potential to assist computer users in managing the large volume of information available to them. One possible use of an expert system is to model the information retrieval interests of a human user and then make recommendations to the user as to articles of interest. At Cal Poly, a prototype expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) serves as an Automated Information Retrieval System (AIRS). AIRS monitors a user's reading preferences, develops a profile of the user, and then evaluates items returned from the information base. When prompted by the user, AIRS returns a list of items of interest to the user. In order to minimize the impact on system resources, AIRS is designed to run in the background during periods of light system use.

  9. Utilizing Use Cases for Valuation of Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The expanding investment and use of earth observations by government entities and private industry is a hallmark of the 21st century. Today in the U.S. alone, civil earth observations estimated funding in 2014 included 2.5 billion in satellite systems and more than 1 billion for airborne, terrestrial, and marine networks and surveys [OSTP, 2014]. There is universal agreement that legacy systems such as Landsat, NEXRAD, GOES, and others) have contributed to the protection and quality of life. However, standardized practices have yet to be established for measuring the contribution to society of these and other systems. Further, the value of proposed new geospatial information systems may be embedded in uses that have yet to be realized. We explore construction of use cases that have been used traditionally to characterize process elements as a method to establish the value of current and future geospatial information systems. We will focus on two important areas: Disasters and Ecosystems. These areas are from among the nine GEO Societal Benefits areas, the twelve Societal Benefit Areas in the US National Plan for Civil Earth Observations (2014), the four Program Areas of NASA Applied Sciences, and the six program areas of the USGS Science strategy.

  10. Geospatial Information from Satellite Imagery for Geovisualisation of Smart Cities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, M.

    2016-06-01

    In the recent past, there have been large emphasis on extraction of geospatial information from satellite imagery. The Geospatial information are being processed through geospatial technologies which are playing important roles in developing of smart cities, particularly in developing countries of the world like India. The study is based on the latest geospatial satellite imagery available for the multi-date, multi-stage, multi-sensor, and multi-resolution. In addition to this, the latest geospatial technologies have been used for digital image processing of remote sensing satellite imagery and the latest geographic information systems as 3-D GeoVisualisation, geospatial digital mapping and geospatial analysis for developing of smart cities in India. The Geospatial information obtained from RS and GPS systems have complex structure involving space, time and presentation. Such information helps in 3-Dimensional digital modelling for smart cities which involves of spatial and non-spatial information integration for geographic visualisation of smart cites in context to the real world. In other words, the geospatial database provides platform for the information visualisation which is also known as geovisualisation. So, as a result there have been an increasing research interest which are being directed to geospatial analysis, digital mapping, geovisualisation, monitoring and developing of smart cities using geospatial technologies. However, the present research has made an attempt for development of cities in real world scenario particulary to help local, regional and state level planners and policy makers to better understand and address issues attributed to cities using the geospatial information from satellite imagery for geovisualisation of Smart Cities in emerging and developing country, India.

  11. Topic Models in Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    the combination: Hidden Markov Model. Miller et al. (1999) presented a Hidden Markov Model ( HMM ) Information Retrieval system. They take the...combination with different methods to estimate the combination weights. The parameter estimation in the HMM framework is simplified with strict...applied a Hidden Markov Model ( HMM ) framework; Zhai and Lafferty (2002) and Cao et al. (2005) used Expectation Maximization (EM) on the mixture

  12. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  13. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  14. SWOT analysis on National Common Geospatial Information Service Platform of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xinyan; He, Biao

    2009-09-01

    Currently, the trend of International Surveying and Mapping is shifting from map production to integrated service of geospatial information, such as GOS of U.S. etc. Under this circumstance, the Surveying and Mapping of China is inevitably shifting from 4D product service to NCGISPC (National Common Geospatial Information Service Platform of China)-centered service. Although State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China has already provided a great quantity of geospatial information service to various lines of business, such as emergency and disaster management, transportation, water resource, agriculture etc. The shortcomings of the traditional service mode are more and more obvious, due to the highly emerging requirement of e-government construction, the remarkable development of IT technology and emerging online geospatial service demands of various lines of business. NCGISPC, which aimed to provide multiple authoritative online one-stop geospatial information service and API for further development to government, business and public, is now the strategic core of SBSM (State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China). This paper focuses on the paradigm shift that NCGISPC brings up by using SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) analysis, compared to the service mode that based on 4D product. Though NCGISPC is still at its early stage, it represents the future service mode of geospatial information of China, and surely will have great impact not only on the construction of digital China, but also on the way that everyone uses geospatial information service.

  15. SWOT analysis on National Common Geospatial Information Service Platform of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xinyan; He, Biao

    2010-11-01

    Currently, the trend of International Surveying and Mapping is shifting from map production to integrated service of geospatial information, such as GOS of U.S. etc. Under this circumstance, the Surveying and Mapping of China is inevitably shifting from 4D product service to NCGISPC (National Common Geospatial Information Service Platform of China)-centered service. Although State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China has already provided a great quantity of geospatial information service to various lines of business, such as emergency and disaster management, transportation, water resource, agriculture etc. The shortcomings of the traditional service mode are more and more obvious, due to the highly emerging requirement of e-government construction, the remarkable development of IT technology and emerging online geospatial service demands of various lines of business. NCGISPC, which aimed to provide multiple authoritative online one-stop geospatial information service and API for further development to government, business and public, is now the strategic core of SBSM (State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping of China). This paper focuses on the paradigm shift that NCGISPC brings up by using SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity and Threat) analysis, compared to the service mode that based on 4D product. Though NCGISPC is still at its early stage, it represents the future service mode of geospatial information of China, and surely will have great impact not only on the construction of digital China, but also on the way that everyone uses geospatial information service.

  16. Biomedical information retrieval across languages.

    PubMed

    Daumke, Philipp; Markü, Kornél; Poprat, Michael; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger

    2007-06-01

    This work presents a new dictionary-based approach to biomedical cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that addresses many of the general and domain-specific challenges in current CLIR research. Our method is based on a multilingual lexicon that was generated partly manually and partly automatically, and currently covers six European languages. It contains morphologically meaningful word fragments, termed subwords. Using subwords instead of entire words significantly reduces the number of lexical entries necessary to sufficiently cover a specific language and domain. Mediation between queries and documents is based on these subwords as well as on lists of word-n-grams that are generated from large monolingual corpora and constitute possible translation units. The translations are then sent to a standard Internet search engine. This process makes our approach an effective tool for searching the biomedical content of the World Wide Web in different languages. We evaluate this approach using the OHSUMED corpus, a large medical document collection, within a cross-language retrieval setting.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION RETRIEVAL METHODS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SWETS, JOHN A.

    RESULTS OF FIFTY DIFFERENT RETRIEVAL METHODS AS APPLIED IN THREE EXPERIMENTAL RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS WERE SUBJECTED TO AN ANALYSIS SUGGESTED BY STATISTICAL DECISION THEORY. THE ANALYSIS USES A PREVIOUSLY-PROPOSED MEASURE OF EFFECTIVENESS AND DEMONSTRATES ITS SEVERAL PROPERTIES. SOME OF THESE PROPERTIES ARE--(1) IT ENABLES THE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM TO…

  18. Mapping the Risks. Assessing the Homeland Security Implications of Publicly Available Geospatial Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    beneficial purposes , the risk also exists that some types of geospatial information could be exploited by terrorists. Federal agencies thus face a...as it becomes available. Study Purpose and Approach This study frames the analytical issues associated with assessing whether and how geospatial data...Information Act for homeland security or national security purposes • new and potentially sensitive information that might be created via the

  19. A Unified Mathematical Definition of Classical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominich, Sandor

    2000-01-01

    Presents a unified mathematical definition for the classical models of information retrieval and identifies a mathematical structure behind relevance feedback. Highlights include vector information retrieval; probabilistic information retrieval; and similarity information retrieval. (Contains 118 references.) (Author/LRW)

  20. A Logic Basis for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, C. R.; Shepherd, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the potential of recent work in artificial intelligence, especially expert systems, for the development of more effective information retrieval systems. Highlights include the role of an expert bibliographic retrieval system and a prototype expert retrieval system, PROBIB-2, that uses MicroProlog to provide deductive reasoning…

  1. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  2. Information Retrieval beyond the Text Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rui, Yong; Ortega, Michael; Huang, Thomas S.; Mehrotra, Sharad

    1999-01-01

    Reports some of the progress made over the years toward exploring information beyond the text domain. Describes the Multimedia Analysis and Retrieval Systems (MARS), developed to increase access to non-textual information. Addresses the following aspects of MARS: (1) visual feature extraction; (2) retrieval models; (3) query reformulation…

  3. Advanced Feedback Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    In this study, automatic feedback techniques are applied to Boolean query statements in online information retrieval to generate improved query statements based on information contained in previously retrieved documents. Feedback operations are carried out using conventional Boolean logic and extended logic. Experimental output is included to…

  4. Automatic Classification in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Addresses the application of automatic classification methods to the problems associated with computerized document retrieval. Different kinds of classifications are described, and both document and term clustering methods are discussed. References and notes are provided. (Author/JD)

  5. Societal Impact of Improved Environment and Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, J.; Andrzejewska, M.; Stonor, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geospatial projects are often dogged by the inability to establish a strong quantitative value proposition and are unable to sustain the attention of senior decision makers. In a tough economic climate, it is particularly important that any project that requires a significant investment can show a clear Return on Investment (ROI). In the case of commerce, benefit can be quantified through increase in sales/profit or reduction of risk. In the case of societal impact, quantification is more challenging. At the Geospatial World Forum (GWF) 2013 in Rotterdam, a number of case studies were presented on social impacts which used differing approaches to impact assessment. Some of the cases discussed projects with community issues and explained alternative means of conflict resolution. However, a comparison of the different case studies was not made at the GWF meeting. This presentation will take the next step and address the commonalities and differences in the approaches.

  6. Information Retrieval and the Philosophy of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of some of the main ideas in the philosophy of language that have relevance to the issues of information retrieval, focusing on the description of the intellectual content. Highlights include retrieval problems; recall and precision; words and meanings; context; externalism and the philosophy of language; and scaffolding and…

  7. Information Retrieval in Education - A Worthy Tradition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Ann

    1982-01-01

    Because information handling applies to all forms of learning, one Microelectronics Education Programme (MEP) INSET strategy is devoted to a discussion of the generation, storage, retrieval, communication, and use of information in all subject areas. Discusses the nature of information; MEP and the information domain; information gathering, use,…

  8. Geospatial Information Relevant to the Flood Protection Available on The Mainstream Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliment, Tomáš; Gálová, Linda; Ďuračiová, Renata; Fencík, Róbert; Kliment, Marcel

    2014-03-01

    Flood protection is one of several disciplines where geospatial data is very important and is a crucial component. Its management, processing and sharing form the foundation for their efficient use; therefore, special attention is required in the development of effective, precise, standardized, and interoperable models for the discovery and publishing of data on the Web. This paper describes the design of a methodology to discover Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services on the Web and collect descriptive information, i.e., metadata in a geocatalogue. A pilot implementation of the proposed methodology - Geocatalogue of geospatial information provided by OGC services discovered on Google (hereinafter "Geocatalogue") - was used to search for available resources relevant to the area of flood protection. The result is an analysis of the availability of resources discovered through their metadata collected from the OGC services (WMS, WFS, etc.) and the resources they provide (WMS layers, WFS objects, etc.) within the domain of flood protection.

  9. Web information retrieval based on ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Information Retrieval (IR) is to find a set of documents that are relevant for a specific information need of a user. Traditional Information Retrieval model commonly used in commercial search engine is based on keyword indexing system and Boolean logic queries. One big drawback of traditional information retrieval is that they typically retrieve information without an explicitly defined domain of interest to the users so that a lot of no relevance information returns to users, which burden the user to pick up useful answer from these no relevance results. In order to tackle this issue, many semantic web information retrieval models have been proposed recently. The main advantage of Semantic Web is to enhance search mechanisms with the use of Ontology's mechanisms. In this paper, we present our approach to personalize web search engine based on ontology. In addition, key techniques are also discussed in our paper. Compared to previous research, our works concentrate on the semantic similarity and the whole process including query submission and information annotation.

  10. Activities of information retrieval in Daicel Corporation : The roles and efforts of information retrieval team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Towako

    In order to stabilize and improve quality of information retrieval service, the information retrieval team of Daicel Corporation has given some efforts on standard operating procedures, interview sheet for information retrieval, structured format for search report, and search expressions for some technological fields of Daicel. These activities and efforts will also lead to skill sharing and skill tradition between searchers. In addition, skill improvements are needed not only for a searcher individually, but also for the information retrieval team totally when playing searcher's new roles.

  11. Information retrieval using a "digital book shelf".

    PubMed Central

    Frisse, M. E.; Cousins, S. B.; Hassan, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    WALT (Washington University's Approach to Lots of Text), is a prototype interface designed to support information retrieval research. The WALT interface serves as a "front end" to a wide array of retrieval engines including those based on Boolean retrieval, latent semantic indexing, term frequency--inverse document frequency, and Bayesian inference techniques. The WALT interface is composed of seven distinct components: a document examination component known as the Document Browsing Area; four navigation components called the Book Shelf, the Book Spine, the Table of Contents, and the Path Clipboard; a term-based information retrieval component called Control Panel; and a relevance feedback component known as the Reader Feedback Panel. WALT's most unique feature may be it's use of "book shelf" and "book spine" metaphors both to facilitate navigation and to provide a histogram-based display showing documents deemed appropriate for answering user queries. PMID:1807717

  12. Exploiting salient semantic analysis for information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Meng, Bo; Quan, Changqin; Tu, Xinhui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, many Wikipedia-based methods have been proposed to improve the performance of different natural language processing (NLP) tasks, such as semantic relatedness computation, text classification and information retrieval. Among these methods, salient semantic analysis (SSA) has been proven to be an effective way to generate conceptual representation for words or documents. However, its feasibility and effectiveness in information retrieval is mostly unknown. In this paper, we study how to efficiently use SSA to improve the information retrieval performance, and propose a SSA-based retrieval method under the language model framework. First, SSA model is adopted to build conceptual representations for documents and queries. Then, these conceptual representations and the bag-of-words (BOW) representations can be used in combination to estimate the language models of queries and documents. The proposed method is evaluated on several standard text retrieval conference (TREC) collections. Experiment results on standard TREC collections show the proposed models consistently outperform the existing Wikipedia-based retrieval methods.

  13. Geospatial Authentication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server.

  14. Teaching a Heuristic Approach to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ury, Connie Jo; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses lifelong learning and the need for information retrieval skills, and describes how Northwest Missouri State University incorporates a heuristic model of library instruction in which students continually evaluate and refine information-seeking practices while progressing through all levels of courses in diverse disciplines. (Author/LRW)

  15. AEROMETRIC INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM (AIRS) - GRAPHICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) is a computer-based repository of information about airborne pollution in the United States and various World Health Organization (WHO) member countries. AIRS is administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and runs on t...

  16. Information Retrieval as a Network Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the function of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Z39.50 protocol, which allows for construction of information "servers"--i.e., resources attached to a computer communications network that can be accessed by client machines to retrieve information. The relationship of Z39.5 to other OSI protocols is explained. (23…

  17. Guidelines for Teachers of Online Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, F. E.

    These guidelines are intended to provide realistic and practical guidance about the options available to teachers and planners of education and training programs wholly or partly concerned with online information retrieval, particularly those in academic departments of library and information studies. Seven sections address: (1) the aims and scope…

  18. U.S. Geological Survey and Microsoft Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Geospatial Data Browsing and Retrieval Site on the World Wide Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    In May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Microsoft Corporation of Redmond, Wash., entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to make vast amounts of geospatial data available to the general public through the Internet. The CRADA is a 36-month joint effort to develop a general, public-oriented browsing and retrieval site for geospatial data on the Internet. Specifically, Microsoft plans to (1) modify a large volume of USGS geospatial data so the images can be displayed quickly and easily over the Internet, (2) implement an easy-to-use interface for low-speed connections, and (3) develop an Internet Web site capable of servicing millions of users per day.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey and Microsoft Cooperative Research and Development Agreement: Geospatial Data Browsing and Retrieval Site on the World Wide Web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Microsoft Corporation of Redmond, Wash., entered into a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to make vast amounts of geospatial data available to the general public through the Internet. The CRADA is a 36-month joint effort to develop a general, public-oriented browsing and retrieval site for geospatial data on the Internet. Specifically, Microsoft plans to (1) modify a large volume of USGS geospatial data so the images can be displayed quickly and easily over the Internet, (2) implement an easy-to-use interface for low-speed connections, and (3) develop an Internet Web site capable of servicing millions of users per day.

  20. Information Discovery and Retrieval Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    pertinent information. This session will focus on the various Internet search engines , directories, and how to improve the user experience through the use of...such techniques as metadata, meta- search engines , subject specific search tools, and other developing technologies.

  1. Information Discovery and Retrieval Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    pertinent information. This session will focus on the various Internet search engines , directories, and how to improve the user experience through the use of...such techniques as metadata, meta- search engines , subject specific search tools, and other developing technologies.

  2. Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science research plan 2013-18

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Usery, E. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Center of Excellence for Geospatial Information Science (CEGIS) was created in 2006 and since that time has provided research primarily in support of The National Map. The presentations and publications of the CEGIS researchers document the research accomplishments that include advances in electronic topographic map design, generalization, data integration, map projections, sea level rise modeling, geospatial semantics, ontology, user-centered design, volunteer geographic information, and parallel and grid computing for geospatial data from The National Map. A research plan spanning 2013–18 has been developed extending the accomplishments of the CEGIS researchers and documenting new research areas that are anticipated to support The National Map of the future. In addition to extending the 2006–12 research areas, the CEGIS research plan for 2013–18 includes new research areas in data models, geospatial semantics, high-performance computing, volunteered geographic information, crowdsourcing, social media, data integration, and multiscale representations to support the Three-Dimensional Elevation Program (3DEP) and The National Map of the future of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. PLANNING QUALITY IN GEOSPATIAL PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will briefly review some legal drivers and present a structure for the writing of geospatial Quality Assurance Projects Plans. In addition, the Geospatial Quality Council geospatial information life-cycle and sources of error flowchart will be reviewed.

  4. Speech information retrieval: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Hafen, Ryan P.; Henry, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Audio is an information-rich component of multimedia. Information can be extracted from audio in a number of different ways, and thus there are several established audio signal analysis research fields. These fields include speech recognition, speaker recognition, audio segmentation and classification, and audio finger-printing. The information that can be extracted from tools and methods developed in these fields can greatly enhance multimedia systems. In this paper, we present the current state of research in each of the major audio analysis fields. The goal is to introduce enough back-ground for someone new in the field to quickly gain high-level understanding and to provide direction for further study.

  5. Automatic information retrieval of Chinese business card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, GuangShun; Pan, Wumo; Jin, Jianming

    2003-01-01

    Document image understanding techniques have been widely used in many application domains. Various kinds of documents have been researched and different methods are developed for information retrieval purpose. In this paper we present a practical method to extract information items from Chinese business card. Before retrieval information in business card, the image of business card had been segmented into little text regions and each text region had been recognized. Because the typeset of business card is variable, and both English and Chinese characters are used, so there are errors in segmentation and recognition result. We focus on building a robust model that can tolerate errors and extract syntax pattern of each text lines in business card, which using both layout information and logical information. By this model, many errors will be identified and adjusted. Finally, correct property will be assigned to each text region in business card, and recognition errors will be corrected.

  6. Millennial Students' Mental Models of Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examines first-year college students' online search habits in order to identify patterns in millennials' mental models of information retrieval. The study employed a combination of modified contextual inquiry and concept mapping methodologies to elicit students' mental models. The researcher confirmed previously observed…

  7. A Context Vector Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billhardt, Holger; Borrajo, Daniel; Maojo, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Presents an indexing and information retrieval method that, based on the vector space model, incorporates term dependencies and thus obtains semantically richer representations of documents. Highlights include term context vectors; techniques for estimating the dependencies among terms; term weights; experimental results on four text collections;…

  8. Teaching Fifth Graders Electronic Information Retrieval Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Annette

    Fifth graders were taught to use an electronic card catalog to retrieve information and materials for class assignments and leisure reading materials. Groups of 10 or 12 students were seen twice a week for periods lasting up to 30 minutes. At these sessions they were introduced to computer components, proper handling, how to log into a network…

  9. Microcomputers for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanters, Ben

    1983-01-01

    Report on use of the microcomputer for information storage and retrieval (ISR) notes hardware (floppy disks, keyboard, screen, printer); functions of ISR software; standardization of the operating system; database creation; data entry; indexing; search process; choice of ISR software package; software market and user; training and instruction; and…

  10. Introduction to Data Transmission for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallenbach, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    An introduction is presented to data transmission technology and networks for information retrieval purposes. Data signals are analyzed, modulation techniques are discussed, communication procedures between terminals and the central processing unit are surveyed, and possible network configurations are considered. (Author/PF)

  11. Strategies for Building Distributed Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macleod, Ian A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of the need for distributed information retrieval systems focuses on a model system, Fulcrum FUL/Text. Differences from distributed database management systems are described; system design is discussed; implementation requirements are explained including remote operation calls (ROC's); and a prototype simulation model based on FUL/Text…

  12. Teaching Information Retrieval Using Telediscussion Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiliger, Edward M.

    This paper concerns an experiment in teaching a graduate seminar on Information Retrieval using telediscussion techniques. Outstanding persons from Project INTREX, MEDLARS, Chemical Abstracts, the University of Georgia, the SUNY biomedical Network, AEC, NASA, and DDC gave hour-long telelectures. A Conference Telephone Set was used with success.…

  13. Integration of Remotely Sensed Data Into Geospatial Reference Information Databases. Un-Ggim National Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arozarena, A.; Villa, G.; Valcárcel, N.; Pérez, B.

    2016-06-01

    Remote sensing satellites, together with aerial and terrestrial platforms (mobile and fixed), produce nowadays huge amounts of data coming from a wide variety of sensors. These datasets serve as main data sources for the extraction of Geospatial Reference Information (GRI), constituting the "skeleton" of any Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Since very different situations can be found around the world in terms of geographic information production and management, the generation of global GRI datasets seems extremely challenging. Remotely sensed data, due to its wide availability nowadays, is able to provide fundamental sources for any production or management system present in different countries. After several automatic and semiautomatic processes including ancillary data, the extracted geospatial information is ready to become part of the GRI databases. In order to optimize these data flows for the production of high quality geospatial information and to promote its use to address global challenges several initiatives at national, continental and global levels have been put in place, such as European INSPIRE initiative and Copernicus Programme, and global initiatives such as the Group on Earth Observation/Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEO/GEOSS) and United Nations Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM). These workflows are established mainly by public organizations, with the adequate institutional arrangements at national, regional or global levels. Other initiatives, such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI), on the other hand may contribute to maintain the GRI databases updated. Remotely sensed data hence becomes one of the main pillars underpinning the establishment of a global SDI, as those datasets will be used by public agencies or institutions as well as by volunteers to extract the required spatial information that in turn will feed the GRI databases. This paper intends to provide an example of how institutional

  14. Multilevel resistive information storage and retrieval

    DOEpatents

    Lohn, Andrew; Mickel, Patrick R.

    2016-08-09

    The present invention relates to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) systems, as well as methods of employing multiple state variables to form degenerate states in such memory systems. The methods herein allow for precise write and read steps to form multiple state variables, and these steps can be performed electrically. Such an approach allows for multilevel, high density memory systems with enhanced information storage capacity and simplified information retrieval.

  15. Towards a Collaborative Knowledge Discovery System for Enriching Semantic Information about Risks of Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grira, J.; Bédard, Y.; Roche, S.; Devillers, R.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this research is to design and implement a knowledge discovery system that facilitates, using a web 2.0 collaborative approach, the identification of new risks of geospatial data misuse based on a contributed knowledge repository fed by application domain experts. [Context/Motivation] This research is motivated by the irregularity of risk analysis efforts and the poor semantic of the collected information about risks. In the context of risk analysis during geospatial database design, the knowledge about risks of geospatial data misuse is typically held by domain application experts. The collection and record of that knowledge are usually considered as optional activities. It is usually performed through face-to-face risk assessment meetings and reports. Such techniques end up by restricting the scope of risk analysis to a set of obvious risks usually already identified. Besides, little consideration is devoted to the storage of risk information in an appropriate format for automatic reasoning and new risk information discovery. As a consequence, many foreseeable risky aspects inherent to the data remain overlooked leading to ill-defined specification and faulty decisions. [Principal ideas/results] In this paper, we present a contributed knowledge discovery system that aims at enriching the semantic information about risks of geospatial data misuse in order to identify foreseeable risks. The proposed web-based system relies on a systematic and more active involvement of users in risk analysis. The approach consists of 1) providing an overview of the related work in the domains of risk analysis within the context of geospatial database design, 2) presenting an ontology-based knowledge discovery system that helps experts in risks identification based on an upper-level risk ontology and on a structured representation of the domain-specific knowledge and, 3) presenting the components of the proposed system architecture and how it may be implemented and used

  16. Electronic publishing and intelligent information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heck, A.

    1992-01-01

    Europeans are now taking steps to homogenize policies and standardize procedures in electronic publishing (EP) in astronomy and space sciences. This arose from an open meeting organized in Oct. 1991 at Strasbourg Observatory (France) and another business meeting held late Mar. 1992 with the major publishers and journal editors in astronomy and space sciences. The ultimate aim of EP might be considered as the so-called 'intelligent information retrieval' (IIR) or better named 'advanced information retrieval' (AIR), taking advantage of the fact that the material to be published appears at some stage in a machine-readable form. It is obvious that the combination of desktop and electronic publishing with networking and new structuring of knowledge bases will profoundly reshape not only our ways of publishing, but also our procedures of communicating and retrieving information. It should be noted that a world-wide survey among astronomers and space scientists carried out before the October 1991 colloquium on the various packages and machines used, indicated that TEX-related packages were already in majoritarian use in our community. It has also been stressed at each meeting that the European developments should be carried out in collaboration with what is done in the US (STELLAR project, for instance). American scientists and journal editors actually attended both meetings mentioned above. The paper will offer a review of the status of electronic publishing in astronomy and its possible contribution to advanced information retrieval in this field. It will also report on recent meetings such as the 'Astronomy from Large Databases-2 (ALD-2)' conference dealing with the latest developments in networking, in data, information, and knowledge bases, as well as in the related methodologies.

  17. Geospatial Authentication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyle, Stacey D.

    2009-01-01

    A software package that has been designed to allow authentication for determining if the rover(s) is/are within a set of boundaries or a specific area to access critical geospatial information by using GPS signal structures as a means to authenticate mobile devices into a network wirelessly and in real-time has been developed. The advantage lies in that the system only allows those with designated geospatial boundaries or areas into the server. The Geospatial Authentication software has two parts Server and Client. The server software is a virtual private network (VPN) developed in Linux operating system using Perl programming language. The server can be a stand-alone VPN server or can be combined with other applications and services. The client software is a GUI Windows CE software, or Mobile Graphical Software, that allows users to authenticate into a network. The purpose of the client software is to pass the needed satellite information to the server for authentication.

  18. The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oklahoma Geographic Information Retrieval System (OGIRS) is a highly interactive data entry, storage, manipulation, and display software system for use with geographically referenced data. Although originally developed for a project concerned with coal strip mine reclamation, OGIRS is capable of handling any geographically referenced data for a variety of natural resource management applications. A special effort has been made to integrate remotely sensed data into the information system. The timeliness and synoptic coverage of satellite data are particularly useful attributes for inclusion into the geographic information system.

  19. Users guide for information retrieval using APL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A.

    1974-01-01

    A Programming Language (APL) is a precise, concise, and powerful computer programming language. Several features make APL useful to managers and other potential computer users. APL is interactive; therefore, the user can communicate with his program or data base in near real-time. This, coupled with the fact that APL has excellent debugging features, reduces program checkout time to minutes or hours rather than days or months. Of particular importance is the fact that APL can be utilized as a management science tool using such techniques as operations research, statistical analysis, and forecasting. The gap between the scientist and the manager could be narrowed by showing how APL can be used to do what the scientists and the manager each need to do, retrieve information. Sometimes, the information needs to be retrieved rapidly. In this case APL is ideally suited for this challenge.

  20. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper.

  1. A Geospatial Information Grid Framework for Geological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Xue, Lei; Li, Chaoling; Lv, Xia; Chen, Zhanlong; Guo, Mingqiang; Xie, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The use of digital information in geological fields is becoming very important. Thus, informatization in geological surveys should not stagnate as a result of the level of data accumulation. The integration and sharing of distributed, multi-source, heterogeneous geological information is an open problem in geological domains. Applications and services use geological spatial data with many features, including being cross-region and cross-domain and requiring real-time updating. As a result of these features, desktop and web-based geographic information systems (GISs) experience difficulties in meeting the demand for geological spatial information. To facilitate the real-time sharing of data and services in distributed environments, a GIS platform that is open, integrative, reconfigurable, reusable and elastic would represent an indispensable tool. The purpose of this paper is to develop a geological cloud-computing platform for integrating and sharing geological information based on a cloud architecture. Thus, the geological cloud-computing platform defines geological ontology semantics; designs a standard geological information framework and a standard resource integration model; builds a peer-to-peer node management mechanism; achieves the description, organization, discovery, computing and integration of the distributed resources; and provides the distributed spatial meta service, the spatial information catalog service, the multi-mode geological data service and the spatial data interoperation service. The geological survey information cloud-computing platform has been implemented, and based on the platform, some geological data services and geological processing services were developed. Furthermore, an iron mine resource forecast and an evaluation service is introduced in this paper. PMID:26710255

  2. From data to information and knowledge for geospatial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, T.; Csatho, B.; Yoon, T.

    2006-12-01

    An ever-increasing number of airborne and spaceborne data-acquisition missions with various sensors produce a glut of data. Sensory data rarely contains information in a explicit form such that an application can directly use it. The processing and analyzing of data constitutes a real bottleneck; therefore, automating the processes of gaining useful information and knowledge from the raw data is of paramount interest. This presentation is concerned with the transition from data to information and knowledge. With data we refer to the sensor output and we notice that data provide very rarely direct answers for applications. For example, a pixel in a digital image or a laser point from a LIDAR system (data) have no direct relationship with elevation changes of topographic surfaces or the velocity of a glacier (information, knowledge). We propose to employ the computer vision paradigm to extract information and knowledge as it pertains to a wide range of geoscience applications. After introducing the paradigm we describe the major steps to be undertaken for extracting information and knowledge from sensory input data. Features play an important role in this process. Thus we focus on extracting features and their perceptual organization to higher order constructs. We demonstrate these concepts with imaging data and laser point clouds. The second part of the presentation addresses the problem of combining data obtained by different sensors. An absolute prerequisite for successful fusion is to establish a common reference frame. We elaborate on the concept of sensor invariant features that allow the registration of such disparate data sets as aerial/satellite imagery, 3D laser point clouds, and multi/hyperspectral imagery. Fusion takes place on the data level (sensor registration) and on the information level. We show how fusion increases the degree of automation for reconstructing topographic surfaces. Moreover, fused information gained from the three sensors results in

  3. NLP Meets the Jabberwocky: Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on natural language processing (NLP) in information retrieval. Defines the seven levels at which people extract meaning from text/spoken language. Discusses the stages of information processing; how an information retrieval system works; advantages to adding full NLP to information retrieval systems; and common problems with information…

  4. Data Visualization in Information Retrieval and Data Mining (SIG VIS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efthimiadis, Efthimis

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts that discuss using data visualization for information retrieval and data mining, including immersive information space and spatial metaphors; spatial data using multi-dimensional matrices with maps; TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) experiments; users' information needs in cartographic information retrieval; and users' relevance…

  5. Retrieving information from a hierarchical plan.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Darryl W; Logan, Gordon D

    2007-11-01

    Plans give structure to behavior by specifying whether and when different tasks must be performed. However, the structure of behavior need not mirror the structure of the plan. To investigate this idea, the authors studied how plan information is retrieved in the context of a novel sequence-position cuing procedure, wherein subjects memorize two task sequences, then perform trials on which they are randomly cued to perform a task at one of the serial positions in a sequence. Several empirical effects were consistent with retrieval from a hierarchically structured representation (but not a non-hierarchical representation), including large sequence-repetition benefits, position-repetition benefits only for sequence repetitions, and a lack of robust task-repetition benefits. The data were successfully modeled by assuming that retrieval was time-consuming, susceptible to priming, cue-dependent, structurally constrained, and token-specific. In tandem, the empirical data and modeling work provide deeper insight into the representation of and access to information in memory that comprises a plan for guiding behavior.

  6. GenGIS: A geospatial information system for genomic data

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Donovan H.; Porter, Michael; Churcher, Sylvia; Wang, Suwen; Blouin, Christian; Whalley, Jacqueline; Brooks, Stephen; Beiko, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing availability of genetic sequence data associated with explicit geographic and ecological information is offering new opportunities to study the processes that shape biodiversity. The generation and testing of hypotheses using these data sets requires effective tools for mathematical and visual analysis that can integrate digital maps, ecological data, and large genetic, genomic, or metagenomic data sets. GenGIS is a free and open-source software package that supports the integration of digital map data with genetic sequences and environmental information from multiple sample sites. Essential bioinformatic and statistical tools are integrated into the software, allowing the user a wide range of analysis options for their sequence data. Data visualizations are combined with the cartographic display to yield a clear view of the relationship between geography and genomic diversity, with a particular focus on the hierarchical clustering of sites based on their similarity or phylogenetic proximity. Here we outline the features of GenGIS and demonstrate its application to georeferenced microbial metagenomic, HIV-1, and human mitochondrial DNA data sets. PMID:19635847

  7. Trends in Research on Information Retrieval--The Potential for Improvements in Conventional Boolean Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the inability of the standard Boolean logic model of information retrieval to deal effectively with the inherent fallibility of retrieval decisions. Recent advances in information retrieval research are reviewed, and their practical potential for overcoming the deficiencies of the Boolean model is examined. (45 references) (Author/CLB)

  8. Developing geospatial thinking and the science practices of investigation and evalutation with geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kelli

    Geospatial thinking is a subset of spatial thinking, which has been identified by the National Geography Standards as an essential skill for students to gain through geography instruction (Heffron & Downs, 2013). One tool which has been shown to help students develop their geospatial thinking skills is Geographic Information Systems (GIS) (Kim & Bednraz, 2013; Lee & Bednarz, 2009; Patterson, 2007). Much of the research conducted with GIS has been in the context of social studies classrooms. This study examined the use of GIS with seventh grade students in a science classroom. Results of this study indicate that students who use GIS as part of their science instruction are able to practice geospatial thinking skills. In addition, this study examined how GIS could be used to enhance the instruction of the science practices of investigation and evaluation. The Next Generation Science Standards identify certain science practices which students should experience as part of science instruction (NGSS Lead States, 2013). Among those practices are investigation and evaluation. Students in this study used GIS to investigate and evaluate scientific data. Both the teacher and the students were able to identify ways that GIS enhanced both the investigation and evaluation of data.

  9. Feasibility study of geospatial mapping of chronic disease risk to inform public health commissioning

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dianna; Mathur, Rohini; Robson, John; Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of producing small-area geospatial maps of chronic disease risk for use by clinical commissioning groups and public health teams. Study design Cross-sectional geospatial analysis using routinely collected general practitioner electronic record data. Sample and setting Tower Hamlets, an inner-city district of London, UK, characterised by high socioeconomic and ethnic diversity and high prevalence of non-communicable diseases. Methods The authors used type 2 diabetes as an example. The data set was drawn from electronic general practice records on all non-diabetic individuals aged 25–79 years in the district (n=163 275). The authors used a validated instrument, QDScore, to calculate 10-year risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Using specialist mapping software (ArcGIS), the authors produced visualisations of how these data varied by lower and middle super output area across the district. The authors enhanced these maps with information on examples of locality-based social determinants of health (population density, fast food outlets and green spaces). Data were piloted as three types of geospatial map (basic, heat and ring). The authors noted practical, technical and information governance challenges involved in producing the maps. Results Usable data were obtained on 96.2% of all records. One in 11 adults in our cohort was at ‘high risk’ of developing type 2 diabetes with a 20% or more 10-year risk. Small-area geospatial mapping illustrated ‘hot spots’ where up to 17.3% of all adults were at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Ring maps allowed visualisation of high risk for type 2 diabetes by locality alongside putative social determinants in the same locality. The task of downloading, cleaning and mapping data from electronic general practice records posed some technical challenges, and judgement was required to group data at an appropriate geographical level. Information governance issues were time consuming

  10. Towards new measures of information retrieval evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, W. R.; Elliot, D. L.; Hickam, D. H.; Wolf, S. L.; Molnar, A.; Leichtenstien, C.

    1994-01-01

    All of the methods currently used to assess information retrieval (IR) systems have limitations in their ability to measure how well users are able to acquire information. We utilized a new approach to assessing information obtained, based on a short-answer test given to senior medical students. Students took the ten-question test and then searched one of two IR systems on the five questions for which they were least certain of their answer Our results showed that pre-searching scores on the test were low but that searching yielded a high proportion of answers with both systems. These methods are able to measure information obtained, and will be used in subsequent studies to assess differences among IR systems. PMID:7950053

  11. Grid computing enhances standards-compatible geospatial catalogue service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Aijun; Di, Liping; Bai, Yuqi; Wei, Yaxing; Liu, Yang

    2010-04-01

    A catalogue service facilitates sharing, discovery, retrieval, management of, and access to large volumes of distributed geospatial resources, for example data, services, applications, and their replicas on the Internet. Grid computing provides an infrastructure for effective use of computing, storage, and other resources available online. The Open Geospatial Consortium has proposed a catalogue service specification and a series of profiles for promoting the interoperability of geospatial resources. By referring to the profile of the catalogue service for Web, an innovative information model of a catalogue service is proposed to offer Grid-enabled registry, management, retrieval of and access to geospatial resources and their replicas. This information model extends the e-business registry information model by adopting several geospatial data and service metadata standards—the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)'s 19115/19119 standards and the US Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) metadata standards for describing and indexing geospatial resources. In order to select the optimal geospatial resources and their replicas managed by the Grid, the Grid data management service and information service from the Globus Toolkits are closely integrated with the extended catalogue information model. Based on this new model, a catalogue service is implemented first as a Web service. Then, the catalogue service is further developed as a Grid service conforming to Grid service specifications. The catalogue service can be deployed in both the Web and Grid environments and accessed by standard Web services or authorized Grid services, respectively. The catalogue service has been implemented at the George Mason University/Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems (GMU/CSISS), managing more than 17 TB of geospatial data and geospatial Grid services. This service makes it easy to share and

  12. The Use of a Context-Based Information Retrieval Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    information retrieval. For instance, information retrieval tools must contend with obstacles such as polysemy , which refers to words with multiple...meanings, and synonymy, which is used to describe multiple words with the same meaning. Many of these problems can be minimised when the query is...with the proportion of retrieved items that are relevant. Information retrieval systems aim to maximise both of these measures, and

  13. EarthServer: Information Retrieval and Query Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perperis, Thanassis; Koltsida, Panagiota; Kakaletris, George

    2013-04-01

    Establishing open, unified, seamless, access and ad-hoc analytics on cross-disciplinary, multi-source, multi-dimensional, spatiotemporal Earth Science data of extreme-size and their supporting metadata are the main challenges of the EarthServer project (www.earthserver.eu), funded by the European Commission under its Seventh Framework Program. One of EarthServer's main objectives is to provide users with higher level coverage and metadata search, retrieval and processing capabilities to multi-disciplinary Earth Science data. Six Lighthouse Applications are being established, each one providing access to Cryospheric, Airborne, Atmospheric, Geology, Oceanography and Planetary science raster data repositories through strictly WCS 2.0 standard based service endpoints. EarthServers' information retrieval subsystem aims towards exploiting the WCS endpoints through a physically and logically distributed service oriented architecture, foreseeing the collaboration of several standard compliant services, capable of exploiting modern large grid and cloud infrastructures and of dynamically responding to availability and capabilities of underlying resources. Towards furthering technology for integrated, coherent service provision based on WCS and WCPS the concept of a query language (QL), unifying coverage and metadata processing and retrieval is introduced. EarthServer's information retrieval subsystem receives QL requests involving high volumes of all Earth Science data categories, executes them on the services that reside on the infrastructure and sends the results back to the requester through a high performance pipeline. In this contribution we briefly discuss EarthServer's service oriented coverage data and metadata search and retrieval architecture and further elaborate on the potentials of EarthServer's Query Language, called xWCPS (XQuery compliant WCPS). xWCPS aims towards merging the path that the two widely adopted standards (W3C XQuery, OGC WCPS) have paved, into a

  14. Data Discretization for Novel Relationship Discovery in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an information retrieval, visualization, and manipulation model which offers the user multiple ways to exploit the retrieval set, based on weighted query terms, via an interactive interface. Outlines the mathematical model and describes an information retrieval application built on the model to search structured and full-text files.…

  15. A STUDY OF THE FUNDAMENTALS OF INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: The problem of information storage and retrieval - data banking ; The nature of information and communication between minds; The five steps...of data banking ; A classification system for data banking processes; A partial analysis of the problem of retrieval; A retrieval solution; and Implementation of the solution.

  16. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  17. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  18. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  19. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  20. 46 CFR 520.6 - Retrieval of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retrieval of information. 520.6 Section 520.6 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE CARRIER AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.6 Retrieval of information. (a) General. Tariffs systems shall present retrievers with...

  1. An on-demand provision model for geospatial multisource information with active self-adaption services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong; Li, Huan

    2015-12-01

    Location-related data are playing an increasingly irreplaceable role in business, government and scientific research. At the same time, the amount and types of data are rapidly increasing. It is a challenge how to quickly find required information from this rapidly growing volume of data, as well as how to efficiently provide different levels of geospatial data to users. This paper puts forward a data-oriented access model for geographic information science data. First, we analyze the features of GIS data including traditional types such as vector and raster data and new types such as Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Taking into account these analyses, a classification scheme for geographic data is proposed and TRAFIE is introduced to describe the establishment of a multi-level model for geographic data. Based on this model, a multi-level, scalable access system for geospatial information is put forward. Users can select different levels of data according to their concrete application needs. Pull-based and push-based data access mechanisms based on this model are presented. A Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) was chosen for the data processing. The model of this study has been described by providing decision-making process of government departments with a simulation of fire disaster data collection. The use case shows this data model and the data provision system is flexible and has good adaptability.

  2. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  3. Geospatial data infrastructure: The development of metadata for geo-information in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baiquan; Yan, Shiqiang; Wang, Qianju; Lian, Jian; Wu, Xiaoping; Ding, Keyong

    2014-03-01

    Stores of geoscience records are in constant flux. These stores are continually added to by new information, ideas and data, which are frequently revised. The geoscience record is in restrained by human thought and technology for handling information. Conventional methods strive, with limited success, to maintain geoscience records which are readily susceptible and renewable. The information system must adapt to the diversity of ideas and data in geoscience and their changes through time. In China, more than 400,000 types of important geological data are collected and produced in geological work during the last two decades, including oil, natural gas and marine data, mine exploration, geophysical, geochemical, remote sensing and important local geological survey and research reports. Numerous geospatial databases are formed and stored in National Geological Archives (NGA) with available formats of MapGIS, ArcGIS, ArcINFO, Metalfile, Raster, SQL Server, Access and JPEG. But there is no effective way to warrant that the quality of information is adequate in theory and practice for decision making. The need for fast, reliable, accurate and up-to-date information by providing the Geographic Information System (GIS) communities are becoming insistent for all geoinformation producers and users in China. Since 2010, a series of geoinformation projects have been carried out under the leadership of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR), including (1) Integration, update and maintenance of geoinformation databases; (2) Standards research on clusterization and industrialization of information services; (3) Platform construction of geological data sharing; (4) Construction of key borehole databases; (5) Product development of information services. "Nine-System" of the basic framework has been proposed for the development and improvement of the geospatial data infrastructure, which are focused on the construction of the cluster organization, cluster service, convergence

  4. Monitoring of In-Field Variability for Site Specific Crop Management Through Open Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Řezník, T.; Lukas, V.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, Š.; Křivánek, Z.; Herman, L.

    2016-06-01

    The agricultural sector is in a unique position due to its strategic importance around the world. It is crucial for both citizens (consumers) and the economy (both regional and global), which, ideally, should ensure that the whole sector is a network of interacting organisations. It is important to develop new tools, management methods, and applications to improve the management and logistic operations of agricultural producers (farms) and agricultural service providers. From a geospatial perspective, this involves identifying cost optimization pathways, reducing transport, reducing environmental loads, and improving the energy balance, while maintaining production levels, etc. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues arising from, the development of the Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of available remote sensing and other geospatial data, and their harmonization, processing, and presentation to users. At the same time, the FOODIE platform also offers a novel approach of yield potential estimations. Validation for one farm demonstrated 70% successful rate when comparing yield results at a farm counting 1'284 hectares on one hand and results of a theoretical model of yield potential on the other hand. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture and water pollution monitoring by means of remote sensing.

  5. New method adaptive to geospatial information acquisition and share based on grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yingchun; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2005-11-01

    As we all know, it is difficult and time-consuming to acquire and share multi-source geospatial information in grid computing environment, especially for the data of different geo-reference benchmark. Although middleware for data format transformation has been applied by many grid applications and GIS software systems, it remains difficult to on demand realize spatial data assembly jobs among various geo-reference benchmarks because of complex computation of rigorous coordinate transformation model. To address the problem, an efficient hierarchical quadtree structure referred as multi-level grids is designed and coded to express the multi-scale global geo-space. The geospatial objects located in a certain grid of multi-level grids may be expressed as an increment value which is relative to the grid central point and is constant in different geo-reference benchmark. A mediator responsible for geo-reference transformation function with multi-level grids has been developed and aligned with grid service. With help of the mediator, a map or query spatial data sets from individual source of different geo-references can be merged into an uniform composite result. Instead of complex data pre-processing prior to compatible spatial integration, the introduced method is adaptive to be integrated with grid-enable service.

  6. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  7. A Semantic Medical Multimedia Retrieval Approach Using Ontology Information Hiding

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches. PMID:24082915

  8. Multimodal medical information retrieval with unsupervised rank fusion.

    PubMed

    Mourão, André; Martins, Flávio; Magalhães, João

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical information retrieval systems are paramount to manage the insurmountable quantities of clinical data. These systems empower health care experts in the diagnosis of patients and play an important role in the clinical decision process. However, the ever-growing heterogeneous information generated in medical environments poses several challenges for retrieval systems. We propose a medical information retrieval system with support for multimodal medical case-based retrieval. The system supports medical information discovery by providing multimodal search, through a novel data fusion algorithm, and term suggestions from a medical thesaurus. Our search system compared favorably to other systems in 2013 ImageCLEFMedical.

  9. A semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach using ontology information hiding.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kehua; Zhang, Shigeng

    2013-01-01

    Searching useful information from unstructured medical multimedia data has been a difficult problem in information retrieval. This paper reports an effective semantic medical multimedia retrieval approach which can reflect the users' query intent. Firstly, semantic annotations will be given to the multimedia documents in the medical multimedia database. Secondly, the ontology that represented semantic information will be hidden in the head of the multimedia documents. The main innovations of this approach are cross-type retrieval support and semantic information preservation. Experimental results indicate a good precision and efficiency of our approach for medical multimedia retrieval in comparison with some traditional approaches.

  10. A Survey of Stemming Algorithms in Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angélica; Imbert, Ricardo; Ramírez, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last fifty years, improved information retrieval techniques have become necessary because of the huge amount of information people have available, which continues to increase rapidly due to the use of new technologies and the Internet. Stemming is one of the processes that can improve information retrieval in terms of…

  11. Improving information retrieval in functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Juan C; González, Germán A; Fresno, Cristóbal; Llera, Andrea S; Fernández, Elmer A

    2016-12-01

    Transcriptome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating key biological processes and functions. The first step usually consists of identifying candidate genes; to find out which pathways are affected by those genes, however, functional analysis (FA) is mandatory. The most frequently used strategies for this purpose are Gene Set and Singular Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and SEA) over Gene Ontology. Several statistical methods have been developed and compared in terms of computational efficiency and/or statistical appropriateness. However, whether their results are similar or complementary, the sensitivity to parameter settings, or possible bias in the analyzed terms has not been addressed so far. Here, two GSEA and four SEA methods and their parameter combinations were evaluated in six datasets by comparing two breast cancer subtypes with well-known differences in genetic background and patient outcomes. We show that GSEA and SEA lead to different results depending on the chosen statistic, model and/or parameters. Both approaches provide complementary results from a biological perspective. Hence, an Integrative Functional Analysis (IFA) tool is proposed to improve information retrieval in FA. It provides a common gene expression analytic framework that grants a comprehensive and coherent analysis. Only a minimal user parameter setting is required, since the best SEA/GSEA alternatives are integrated. IFA utility was demonstrated by evaluating four prostate cancer and the TCGA breast cancer microarray datasets, which showed its biological generalization capabilities.

  12. The Personalized Information Retrieval Model Based on User Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Songjie

    Personalized information retrieval systems can help customers to gain orientation in information overload by determining which items are relevant for their interests. One type of information retrieval is content-based filtering. In content-based filtering, items contain words in natural language. Meanings of words in natural language are often ambiguous. The problem of word meaning disambiguation is often decomposed to determining semantic similarity of words. In this paper, the architecture of personalized information retrieval based on user interest is presented. The architecture includes user interface model, user interest model, detecting interest model and update model. It established a user model for personalized information retrieval based on user interest keyword list on client server, which can supply personalized information retrieval service for user with the communications and collaboration of all modules of the architecture.

  13. Fuzzy Information Retrieval Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Frederick E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach that combines concepts from information retrieval, fuzzy set theory, and genetic programing to improve weighted Boolean query formulation via relevance feedback. Highlights include background on information retrieval systems; genetic algorithms; subproblem formulation; and preliminary results based on a testbed. (Contains 12…

  14. Problems of Music Information Retrieval in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Donald; Crawford, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Considers some of the most fundamental problems in music information retrieval, challenging the common assumption that searching on pitch alone is likely to be satisfactory for all purposes. Discusses special issues related to polyphonic music, user-interface issues, and the notion of relevance for music information retrieval. (Contains 52…

  15. An Expressive and Efficient Language for XML Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinenyanga, Taurai Tapiwa; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses XML and information retrieval and describes a query language, ELIXIR (expressive and efficient language for XML information retrieval), with a textual similarity operator that can be used for similarity joins. Explains the algorithm for answering ELIXIR queries to generate intermediate relational data. (Author/LRW)

  16. Information Retrieval and Creativity: Towards Support for the Original Thinker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Nigel

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the requirements of information retrieval systems to support creative thinking as well as more convergent thinking. Highlights include the nature of creative thinking; similarity relationships; serendipity; machine processing of similarities; high order knowledge representation; and fuzzy and parallel information retrieval. (Contains 34…

  17. A Meta-Model for Evaluating Information Retrieval Serviceability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjerppe, Roland

    This document first outlines considerations relative to a systems approach to evaluation, and then argues for such an approach to the evaluation of information retrieval systems (ISR). The criterion of such evaluations should be the utility of the information retrieved to the user, and the ISR ought to be regarded as one of three interrelated…

  18. Interfering Effects of Retrieval in Learning New Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Bridgid; Roediger, Henry L., III

    2013-01-01

    In 7 experiments, we explored the role of retrieval in associative updating, that is, in incorporating new information into an associative memory. We tested the hypothesis that retrieval would facilitate incorporating a new contextual detail into a learned association. Participants learned 3 pieces of information--a person's face, name, and…

  19. User-Centric Multi-Criteria Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, Shawn R.; Zhang, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Information retrieval models usually represent content only, and not other considerations, such as authority, cost, and recency. How could multiple criteria be utilized in information retrieval, and how would it affect the results? In our experiments, using multiple user-centric criteria always produced better results than a single criteria.

  20. Prototyping a Distributed Information Retrieval System That Uses Statistical Ranking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Donna; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Built using a distributed architecture, this prototype distributed information retrieval system uses statistical ranking techniques to provide better service to the end user. Distributed architecture was shown to be a feasible alternative to centralized or CD-ROM information retrieval, and user testing of the ranking methodology showed both…

  1. Exploring Local Level Factors Shaping the Implementation of a Blended Learning Module for Information and Geospatial Literacy in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vine, Michelle M.; Chiappetta-Swanson, Catherine; Maclachlan, John; Brodeur, Jason J.; Bagg, Julianne

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research study were to examine local level factors shaping the implementation of a blended pedagogical approach for geospatial- and information-literacy, and to understand implementer satisfaction. As such, we addressed the following research questions: What local-level factors shape the implementation of the blended…

  2. Information content of ozone retrieval algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, C.; Bhartia, P. K.; Chu, W. P.; Curran, R.; Deluisi, J.; Gille, J. C.; Hudson, R.; Mateer, C.; Rusch, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    The algorithms are characterized that were used for production processing by the major suppliers of ozone data to show quantitatively: how the retrieved profile is related to the actual profile (This characterizes the altitude range and vertical resolution of the data); the nature of systematic errors in the retrieved profiles, including their vertical structure and relation to uncertain instrumental parameters; how trends in the real ozone are reflected in trends in the retrieved ozone profile; and how trends in other quantities (both instrumental and atmospheric) might appear as trends in the ozone profile. No serious deficiencies were found in the algorithms used in generating the major available ozone data sets. As the measurements are all indirect in someway, and the retrieved profiles have different characteristics, data from different instruments are not directly comparable.

  3. The JPL Library Information Retrieval System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Josephine

    1975-01-01

    The development, capabilities, and products of the computer-based retrieval system of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Library are described. The system handles books and documents, produces a book catalog, and provides a machine search capability. (Author)

  4. GEO Label - Quality Information Interrogation Tool for Geospatial Datasets: Towards Effective Visualization of Quality Metadata.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, Victoria; Lumsden, Jo; Bastin, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Although the importance of dataset fitness-for-use evaluation and intercomparison is widely recognised within the GIS community, no practical tools have yet been developed to support such interrogation. GeoViQua aims to develop a GEO label which will visually summarise and allow interrogation of key informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when selecting datasets for use. The proposed GEO label will be integrated in the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and will be used as a value and trust indicator for datasets accessible through the GEO Portal. As envisioned, the GEO label will act as a decision support mechanism for dataset selection and thereby hopefully improve user recognition of the quality of datasets. To date we have conducted 3 user studies to (1) identify the informational aspects of geospatial datasets upon which users rely when assessing dataset quality and trustworthiness, (2) elicit initial user views on a GEO label and its potential role and (3), evaluate prototype label visualisations. Our first study revealed that, when evaluating quality of data, users consider 8 facets: dataset producer information; producer comments on dataset quality; dataset compliance with international standards; community advice; dataset ratings; links to dataset citations; expert value judgements; and quantitative quality information. Our second study confirmed the relevance of these facets in terms of the community-perceived function that a GEO label should fulfil: users and producers of geospatial data supported the concept of a GEO label that provides a drill-down interrogation facility covering all 8 informational aspects. Consequently, we developed three prototype label visualisations and evaluated their comparative effectiveness and user preference via a third user study to arrive at a final graphical GEO label representation. When integrated in the GEOSS, an individual GEO label will be provided for each dataset in the

  5. Attitudes Toward Automated Information Retrieval Services Among RASD Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitecki, Danuta A.

    1976-01-01

    Summary of survey of the American Library Association Reference and Adult Services Division (RASD) members concerning attitudes toward, need for, and preferences in acquiring information on automated information retrieval services. (KP)

  6. Integrating geospatial data and cropping system simulation within a geographic information system to analyze spatial seed cotton yield, water use, and irrigation requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of sensors that provide geospatial information on crop and soil conditions has been a primary success for precision agriculture. However, further developments are needed to integrate geospatial data into computer algorithms that spatially optimize crop production while considering po...

  7. Science information systems: Archive, access, and retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop technology for the automated characterization and interactive retrieval and visualization of very large, complex scientific data sets. Technologies will be developed for the following specific areas: (1) rapidly archiving data sets; (2) automatically characterizing and labeling data in near real-time; (3) providing users with the ability to browse contents of databases efficiently and effectively; (4) providing users with the ability to access and retrieve system independent data sets electronically; and (5) automatically alerting scientists to anomalies detected in data.

  8. GEOSPATIAL QA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geospatial Science is increasingly becoming an important tool in making Agency decisions. Quality Control and Quality Assurance are required to be integrated during the planning, implementation and assessment of geospatial databases, processes and products. In order to ensure Age...

  9. Integration of Information Retrieval and Database Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Raghavan, Vijay V.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for integrating information retrieval and database management systems, and proposes a probabilistic retrieval model in which records in a file may be composed of attributes (formatted data items) and descriptors (content indicators). The details and resolutions of difficulties involved in integrating such systems are…

  10. The Creation of New Knowledge by Information Retrieval and Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Roy

    1989-01-01

    Reviews previous work on producing knowledge by the use of information retrieval or classification schemes, and describes techniques by which hidden knowledge may be retrieved, i.e., serendipity in browsing and use of appropriate search strategies. Possible future methods based on relational indexing or artificial intelligence are also explored.…

  11. Adapting a Diagnostic Problem-Solving Model to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syu, Inien; Lang, S. D.

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a competition-based connectionist model for diagnostic problem-solving is adapted to information retrieval. Topics include probabilistic causal networks; Bayesian networks; the neural network model; empirical studies of test collections that evaluated retrieval performance; precision results; and the use of a thesaurus to provide…

  12. Teaching Online Information Retrieval in United Kingdom Library Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances E.

    1984-01-01

    Presents review of recent and current work in the United Kingdom on developing computer assisted learning aids (tape-slide presentations, teaching packages, simulations and emulations of commercial retrieval services) for the teaching of online information retrieval at library schools. Seventeen references are cited. (EJS)

  13. Integration of User Profiles: Models and Experiments in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myaeng, Sung H.; Korfhage, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the interpretation of user queries in information retrieval highlights theoretical models that utilize user characteristics maintained in the form of a user profile. Various query/profile interaction models are identified, and an experiment is described that tested the relevance of retrieved documents based on various models. (29…

  14. An Experimental On-Line Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cautin, Harvey; And Others

    This paper reports an experiment in on-line retrieval using man-machine dialogue on a remote console. Message editing procedures and the use of two command languages are described. The system employs a PDP-8 computer for generating, proofreading, and editing messages, and an IBM 7040 computer for information retrieval processing. The symbolic…

  15. Prospects for Intelligent, Language-Based Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, Alan F.

    1991-01-01

    Unlike conventional information retrieval systems, natural language processing (NLP) systems translate queries automatically into the language of the system. This paper discusses the potential impact of NLP on both the indexing and retrieval of text and examines some current NLP projects and systems that have established knowledge bases in narrow…

  16. Improving Performance Support Systems through Information Retrieval Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Steven

    2006-01-01

    This study examines existent and new methods for evaluating the success of information retrieval systems. The theory underlying current methods is not robust enough to allow testing retrieval using different meta-tagging schema's. Traditional measures rely on judgments of whether a document is relevant to a particular question. A good system…

  17. Trusting Crowdsourced Geospatial Semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodhue, P.; McNair, H.; Reitsma, F.

    2015-08-01

    The degree of trust one can place in information is one of the foremost limitations of crowdsourced geospatial information. As with the development of web technologies, the increased prevalence of semantics associated with geospatial information has increased accessibility and functionality. Semantics also provides an opportunity to extend indicators of trust for crowdsourced geospatial information that have largely focused on spatio-temporal and social aspects of that information. Comparing a feature's intrinsic and extrinsic properties to associated ontologies provides a means of semantically assessing the trustworthiness of crowdsourced geospatial information. The application of this approach to unconstrained semantic submissions then allows for a detailed assessment of the trust of these features whilst maintaining the descriptive thoroughness this mode of information submission affords. The resulting trust rating then becomes an attribute of the feature, providing not only an indication as to the trustworthiness of a specific feature but is able to be aggregated across multiple features to illustrate the overall trustworthiness of a dataset.

  18. Bim-Gis Integrated Geospatial Information Model Using Semantic Web and Rdf Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hor, A.-H.; Jadidi, A.; Sohn, G.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, 3D virtual indoor/outdoor urban modelling becomes a key spatial information framework for many civil and engineering applications such as evacuation planning, emergency and facility management. For accomplishing such sophisticate decision tasks, there is a large demands for building multi-scale and multi-sourced 3D urban models. Currently, Building Information Model (BIM) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are broadly used as the modelling sources. However, data sharing and exchanging information between two modelling domains is still a huge challenge; while the syntactic or semantic approaches do not fully provide exchanging of rich semantic and geometric information of BIM into GIS or vice-versa. This paper proposes a novel approach for integrating BIM and GIS using semantic web technologies and Resources Description Framework (RDF) graphs. The novelty of the proposed solution comes from the benefits of integrating BIM and GIS technologies into one unified model, so-called Integrated Geospatial Information Model (IGIM). The proposed approach consists of three main modules: BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF graphs construction, integrating of two RDF graphs, and query of information through IGIM-RDF graph using SPARQL. The IGIM generates queries from both the BIM and GIS RDF graphs resulting a semantically integrated model with entities representing both BIM classes and GIS feature objects with respect to the target-client application. The linkage between BIM-RDF and GIS-RDF is achieved through SPARQL endpoints and defined by a query using set of datasets and entity classes with complementary properties, relationships and geometries. To validate the proposed approach and its performance, a case study was also tested using IGIM system design.

  19. Object-Centered Knowledge Representation and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panyr, Jiri

    1996-01-01

    Discusses object-centered knowledge representation and information retrieval. Highlights include semantic networks; frames; predicative (declarative) and associative knowledge; cluster analysis; creation of subconcepts and superconcepts; automatic classification; hierarchies and pseudohierarchies; graph theory; term classification; clustering of…

  20. The Past and Present of Information Retrieval in Medical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Torao

    This is a lecture at the 15th anniversary of JICST Kyushu Branch. In Medical Science there are many fields of study classified by the difference of approach. Each field is related closely, and to make a study of a field the knowledges of other fields are also needed. Such characteristic of medical study has been the problem on research of medical literature. Online information retrieval such as JOIS has changed the retrieval much easier, however some difficulties by the characteristic still remain. Importance of training specialist in information retrieval, construction of specialized databases, making databases easier to use and so on are suggested.

  1. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a - possibly unfinished - care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task. PMID:26099735

  2. Care episode retrieval: distributional semantic models for information retrieval in the clinical domain.

    PubMed

    Moen, Hans; Ginter, Filip; Marsi, Erwin; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Salakoski, Tapio; Salanterä, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Patients' health related information is stored in electronic health records (EHRs) by health service providers. These records include sequential documentation of care episodes in the form of clinical notes. EHRs are used throughout the health care sector by professionals, administrators and patients, primarily for clinical purposes, but also for secondary purposes such as decision support and research. The vast amounts of information in EHR systems complicate information management and increase the risk of information overload. Therefore, clinicians and researchers need new tools to manage the information stored in the EHRs. A common use case is, given a--possibly unfinished--care episode, to retrieve the most similar care episodes among the records. This paper presents several methods for information retrieval, focusing on care episode retrieval, based on textual similarity, where similarity is measured through domain-specific modelling of the distributional semantics of words. Models include variants of random indexing and the semantic neural network model word2vec. Two novel methods are introduced that utilize the ICD-10 codes attached to care episodes to better induce domain-specificity in the semantic model. We report on experimental evaluation of care episode retrieval that circumvents the lack of human judgements regarding episode relevance. Results suggest that several of the methods proposed outperform a state-of-the art search engine (Lucene) on the retrieval task.

  3. A comparison of Boolean-based retrieval to the WAIS system for retrieval of aeronautical information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionini, Gary; Barlow, Diane

    1994-01-01

    An evaluation of an information retrieval system using a Boolean-based retrieval engine and inverted file architecture and WAIS, which uses a vector-based engine, was conducted. Four research questions in aeronautical engineering were used to retrieve sets of citations from the NASA Aerospace Database which was mounted on a WAIS server and available through Dialog File 108 which served as the Boolean-based system (BBS). High recall and high precision searches were done in the BBS and terse and verbose queries were used in the WAIS condition. Precision values for the WAIS searches were consistently above the precision values for high recall BBS searches and consistently below the precision values for high precision BBS searches. Terse WAIS queries gave somewhat better precision performance than verbose WAIS queries. In every case, a small number of relevant documents retrieved by one system were not retrieved by the other, indicating the incomplete nature of the results from either retrieval system. Relevant documents in the WAIS searches were found to be randomly distributed in the retrieved sets rather than distributed by ranks. Advantages and limitations of both types of systems are discussed.

  4. Representing Geospatial Environment Observation Capability Information: A Case Study of Managing Flood Monitoring Sensors in the Jinsha River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chuli; Guan, Qingfeng; Li, Jie; Wang, Ke; Chen, Nengcheng

    2016-01-01

    Sensor inquirers cannot understand comprehensive or accurate observation capability information because current observation capability modeling does not consider the union of multiple sensors nor the effect of geospatial environmental features on the observation capability of sensors. These limitations result in a failure to discover credible sensors or plan for their collaboration for environmental monitoring. The Geospatial Environmental Observation Capability (GEOC) is proposed in this study and can be used as an information basis for the reliable discovery and collaborative planning of multiple environmental sensors. A field-based GEOC (GEOCF) information representation model is built. Quintuple GEOCF feature components and two GEOCF operations are formulated based on the geospatial field conceptual framework. The proposed GEOCF markup language is used to formalize the proposed GEOCF. A prototype system called GEOCapabilityManager is developed, and a case study is conducted for flood observation in the lower reaches of the Jinsha River Basin. The applicability of the GEOCF is verified through the reliable discovery of flood monitoring sensors and planning for the collaboration of these sensors. PMID:27999247

  5. A Comparison of Three Online Information Retrieval Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zais, Harriet W.

    Three firms which offer online information retrieval are compared. The firms are Lockheed Information Service, System Development Corporation and the Western Research Application Center. Comparison tables provide information such as hours accessible, coverage, file update, search elements and cost figures for 15 data bases. In addition, general…

  6. Weighted Markov Chains and Graphic State Nodes for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses users' search behavior and decision making in data mining and information retrieval. Describes iterative information seeking as a Markov process during which users advance through states of nodes; and explains how the information system records the decision as weights, allowing the incorporation of users' decisions into the Markov…

  7. Adaptive Visualization for Focused Personalized Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Jae-wook

    2010-01-01

    The new trend on the Web has totally changed today's information access environment. The traditional information overload problem has evolved into the qualitative level beyond the quantitative growth. The mode of producing and consuming information is changing and we need a new paradigm for accessing information. Personalized search is one of…

  8. Roogle: an information retrieval engine for clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Garcelon, Nicolas; Campillo-Gimenez, Boris; Bernicot, Thomas; Laurent, Jean-François; Garin, Etienne; Happe, André; Duvauferrier, Régis

    2011-01-01

    High amount of relevant information is contained in reports stored in the electronic patient records and associated metadata. R-oogle is a project aiming at developing information retrieval engines adapted to these reports and designed for clinicians. The system consists in a data warehouse (full-text reports and structured data) imported from two different hospital information systems. Information retrieval is performed using metadata-based semantic and full-text search methods (as Google). Applications may be biomarkers identification in a translational approach, search of specific cases, and constitution of cohorts, professional practice evaluation, and quality control assessment.

  9. Arabic Information Retrieval at UMass in TREC-10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    monolingual and cross-lan- guage Arabic retrieval, and did not submit any runs based on novel approaches. We submitted three monolingual runs and one...performance by a sub- stantial amount. 2. Information Retrieval Engines We used INQUERY [2] for two of our three monolingual runs and our cross-language...run, and language modeling (LM) for one monolingual run. The processing was carried out using in-house software which implemented both engines, to

  10. Eruptive history, current activity and risk estimation using geospatial information in the Colima volcano, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez-Plascencia, C.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Flores-Peña, S.

    2013-12-01

    avocado orchards and fruits like blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries within the radius of 15 km from the crater. The population dynamics in the Colima volcano area had a population of 552,954 inhabitants in 2010, and a growth at an annual rate of 1.6 percent of the total population. 60 percent of the populations live in 105 towns with a population less than 250 inhabitants. Also, the region showed an increase in vulnerability for the development of economic activities, supported by the highway, railway, natural gas pipelines and electrical infrastructure that connect to the Port of Manzanillo to Guadalajara city. With the use of geospatial information quantify the vulnerability, together with the hazard maps and exposure, enabled us to build the following volcanic risk maps: a) Exclusion areas and moderate hazard for explosive events (ballistic) and pyroclastic flows, b) Hazard map of lahars and debris flow, and c) Hazard map of ash-fall. The geospatial database, a GIS mapping and current volcano monitoring, are the basis of the Operational Plan Colima Volcano. Civil Protection by the state of Jalisco and the updating of urban development plans of municipalities converge on the volcano. These instruments of land planning will help reduce volcanic risk in the region.

  11. Music information retrieval in compressed audio files: a survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampoglou, Markos; Malamos, Athanasios G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we present an organized survey of the existing literature on music information retrieval systems in which descriptor features are extracted directly from the compressed audio files, without prior decompression to pulse-code modulation format. Avoiding the decompression step and utilizing the readily available compressed-domain information can significantly lighten the computational cost of a music information retrieval system, allowing application to large-scale music databases. We identify a number of systems relying on compressed-domain information and form a systematic classification of the features they extract, the retrieval tasks they tackle and the degree in which they achieve an actual increase in the overall speed-as well as any resulting loss in accuracy. Finally, we discuss recent developments in the field, and the potential research directions they open toward ultra-fast, scalable systems.

  12. Incorporating Temporal Information in Microblog Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Urbana-Champaign Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA willis8@illinois.edu Richard Medlin School of Information & Library Science University of North Carolina at...Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC, USA rich_medlin@med.unc.edu Jaime Arguello † School of Information & Library Science University of North Carolina at...published prior to time tQ. The School of Information and Library Science at the Uni- versity of Carolina at Chapel Hill submitted four runs to the Microblog

  13. Hypertext and hypermedia systems in information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, K. M.; Kuhn, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper opens with a brief history of hypertext and hypermedia in the context of information management during the 'information age.' Relevant terms are defined and the approach of the paper is explained. Linear and hypermedia information access methods are contrasted. A discussion of hyperprogramming in the handling of complex scientific and technical information follows. A selection of innovative hypermedia systems is discussed. An analysis of the Clinical Practice Library of Medicine NASA STI Program hypermedia application is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the NASA STI Program's future hypermedia project plans.

  14. Local Area Networks for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibirige, Harry M.

    This examination of the use of local area networks (LANs) by libraries summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of 600 libraries and information centers and 200 microcomputer networking system manufacturers and vendors, which was conducted to determine the relevance of currently available networking systems for library and information center…

  15. Cosmos: An Information Retrieval System that Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Katherine; Grossman, Alvin

    1980-01-01

    Briefly described is the County of San Mateo Online System (COSMOS) which was developed and is used by the San Mateo Educational Resources Center (SMERC) to access the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Fugitive Information Data Organizer (FIDO) databases as well as the curriculum guides housed at SMERC. (TG)

  16. Storage and Retrieval of Information on Psychological Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Ki-Tack; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Information overproduction and the lack of an adequate system for its storage and retrieval have frustrated integrative efforts and hindered orderly progress in the area of psychological testing. Describes a prototype repository system to handle and service the mass of information produced. (Authors)

  17. Teaching Skills in Medical Information Retrieval to Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolner, Stuart J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A project that attempts to overcome the principal obstacles and to provide an efficient and effective method of teaching information retrieval skills to second-year medical students is described. The method includes a pretest, a diagnosis of deficiencies in information skills, a self-paced learning module, and a posttest. (Author/MLW)

  18. LOGISTIC MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM - MANUAL DATA STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Logistics Management Information System . The procedures are applicable to manual storage and retrieval of all data used in the Logistics Management ... Information System (LMIS) and include the following: (1) Action Officer data source file. (2) Action Officer presentation format file. (3) LMI Coordination

  19. Research and Development of Information Retrieval Models and Their Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.

    1989-01-01

    This introduction to a special issue devoted to modeling data, information, and knowledge briefly describes the origins of the papers presented and the topics covered, which include: Boolean logic; probability theory; artificial intelligence; organizing and encoding information and data; and characteristics of users of retrieval systems. (12…

  20. Level Search Schemes for Information Filtering and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Berry, Michael W.; Raghavan, Padma

    2001-01-01

    Discusses latent semantic indexing (LSI); considers the high cost associated with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the large term-by-document matrix that becomes a barrier for its application to scalable information retrieval; and shows that information filtering using level search techniques can reduce the SVD computation cost for LSI.…

  1. Modeling the Retrieval Process for an Information Retrieval System Using an Ordinal Fuzzy Linguistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera-Viedma, E.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a linguistic model for an Information Retrieval System (IRS) defined using an ordinal fuzzy linguistic approach. The query subsystem accepts Boolean queries with terms weighted by ordinal linguistic values and the evaluation subsystem returns documents arranged in relevance classes labeled with ordinal linguistic values. The system gives…

  2. Information Storage and Retrieval. Reports on Analysis, Search, and Iterative Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    As the fourteenth report in a series describing research in automatic information storage and retrieval, this document covers work carried out on the SMART project for approximately one year (summer 1967 to summer 1968). The document is divided into four main parts: (1) SMART systems design, (2) analysis and search experiments, (3) user feedback…

  3. Geospatial Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Philip A.; Ritz, John

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial technology refers to a system that is used to acquire, store, analyze, and output data in two or three dimensions. This data is referenced to the earth by some type of coordinate system, such as a map projection. Geospatial systems include thematic mapping, the Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing (RS), telemetry, and…

  4. Decoherence and the retrieval of lost information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yin; Cao, Yunshan; Li, Xin-Qi; Gurvitz, Shmuel

    2011-12-01

    We show that, contrary to common prejudice, a measurement of an open quantum system can reduce its decoherence rate. We demonstrate this in an example of indirect measurement of a qubit, where information regarding its state is hidden in the environment. This information is extracted by a distant device, coupled with the environment only. We also show that the reduction of decoherence generated by this device is accompanied by diminution of the environmental noise in the vicinity of the qubit. An interpretation of these results in terms of quantum interference on large scales is presented.

  5. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  6. Web-based multimedia information retrieval for clinical application research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xinhua; Hoo, Kent S., Jr.; Zhang, Hong; Ching, Wan; Zhang, Ming; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2001-08-01

    We described a web-based data warehousing method for retrieving and analyzing neurological multimedia information. The web-based method supports convenient access, effective search and retrieval of clinical textual and image data, and on-line analysis. To improve the flexibility and efficiency of multimedia information query and analysis, a three-tier, multimedia data warehouse for epilepsy research has been built. The data warehouse integrates clinical multimedia data related to epilepsy from disparate sources and archives them into a well-defined data model.

  7. Retrieval Strategies for Linearly Ordered Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polich, John M.; Potts, George R.

    1977-01-01

    Subjects responded to pairs of test items from learned linear orderings (e.g., Tom is taller than Dick; Dick is taller than Sam, etc.). Results are compared with previous studies of ordered linguistic, perceptual, and numerical information. (Editor/RK)

  8. The Development of an Interoperable Open Source Geographic Information Technology Stack for Ingest, Management, and Delivery of Earth Observation and Geospatial Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedict, K. K.; Sanchez-Silva, R.; Cavner, J. A.; Hudspeth, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    The rapid growth of geospatial data volume and number of sources has highlighted the need for, and spurred the growth and adoption of interoperable geospatial data services. For nearly a decade the Earth Data Analysis Center at The University of New Mexico has been developing standards-based geospatial data management systems based upon a core collection of Open Source technologies, with the collection of employed technologies contributing to a unified information architecture that is enabled by interoperability standards. These technologies include geodatabases (PostGIS), geospatial data access libraries and associated utility programs (GDAL and OGR), scripting languages that enable automated data processing and management (Python), online mapping servers (MapServer), online mapping (OpenLayers, MapFish, GeoEXT), and desktop GIS applications (uDig, QGIS, and GRASS). The interoperability standards upon which EDAC's geospatial information architectures are built include those coming out of the Open Geospatial Consortium (WMS, WFS, WCS, KML, GML), the World Wide Web Consortium (HTML, CSS, SOAP, XML), and ECMA (ECMAscript AKA Javascript). This paper outlines the complementary roles that these various Open Source applications play in the multi-tiered Services Oriented Architectures developed by EDAC in support of a variety of projects, and provides an illustration of how the capabilities enabled by these technologies are interconnected using well-defined open standards. These capabilities include data ingest and query services that support searching for data content based upon keywords and defined spatial extent. They also include data administration services that support data product ingest and registration, data product modification, and deletion from the data registry. Finally, the system supports dynamic generation of Open Geospatial Consortium services for each geospatial data product in the system, enabling integration of data from the system into a wide variety

  9. Improving life sciences information retrieval using semantic web technology.

    PubMed

    Quan, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The ability to retrieve relevant information is at the heart of every aspect of research and development in the life sciences industry. Information is often distributed across multiple systems and recorded in a way that makes it difficult to piece together the complete picture. Differences in data formats, naming schemes and network protocols amongst information sources, both public and private, must be overcome, and user interfaces not only need to be able to tap into these diverse information sources but must also assist users in filtering out extraneous information and highlighting the key relationships hidden within an aggregated set of information. The Semantic Web community has made great strides in proposing solutions to these problems, and many efforts are underway to apply Semantic Web techniques to the problem of information retrieval in the life sciences space. This article gives an overview of the principles underlying a Semantic Web-enabled information retrieval system: creating a unified abstraction for knowledge using the RDF semantic network model; designing semantic lenses that extract contextually relevant subsets of information; and assembling semantic lenses into powerful information displays. Furthermore, concrete examples of how these principles can be applied to life science problems including a scenario involving a drug discovery dashboard prototype called BioDash are provided.

  10. Crowdsourcing geospatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heipke, Christian

    2010-11-01

    In this paper we review recent developments of crowdsourcing geospatial data. While traditional mapping is nearly exclusively coordinated and often also carried out by large organisations, crowdsourcing geospatial data refers to generating a map using informal social networks and web 2.0 technology. Key differences are the fact that users lacking formal training in map making create the geospatial data themselves rather than relying on professional services; that potentially very large user groups collaborate voluntarily and often without financial compensation with the result that at a very low monetary cost open datasets become available and that mapping and change detection occur in real time. This situation is similar to that found in the Open Source software environment. We shortly explain the basic technology needed for crowdsourcing geospatial data, discuss the underlying concepts including quality issues and give some examples for this novel way of generating geospatial data. We also point at applications where alternatives do not exist such as life traffic information systems. Finally we explore the future of crowdsourcing geospatial data and give some concluding remarks.

  11. Inductive Information Retrieval Using Parallel Distributed Computation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    June 1984 ICS Report No. 8406 COGNITIVE SCIENCE ~ TCUT _______JUL 0 5 84 NI I E W I OF CALPOAMA, MANGO LA JOLLA, CALIPOWIA 9. o 0 03, 00 1T o4 I , , i...1N4 Michael C. Mater ONR Report W5 :.:L-::: Thh, e -ia __ -M %. %o ..- ’ -:." Unclassified L 1’ ’-,, t,% ,f--’ s &-:, * ,a a~t,-.j 4 T T%. ( Suit, i...help overcome incompleteness and imprecision in requests for information, as well as in the database itself. . e Accessioft For ITIS G1RA& -, MDIC TAB

  12. The Information Edge: Imagery Intelligence and Geospatial Information in an Evolving National Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    commercial imagery, and proposed reductions in airborne investment, OPSTEMPO and PERSTEMPO—the FIA era still might not live up to its billing as...not static. We have the best intelligence and most fully informed statecraft. In the face of such strong capabilities, the appeal of asymmetric ...frustrate our US diplomatic, economic, and military capabilities. The potential of such asymmetric approaches is perhaps the most serious danger the

  13. Crossover Improvement for the Genetic Algorithm in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrajitoru, Dana

    1998-01-01

    In information retrieval (IR), the aim of genetic algorithms (GA) is to help a system to find, in a huge documents collection, a good reply to a query expressed by the user. Analysis of phenomena seen during the implementation of a GA for IR has led to a new crossover operation, which is introduced and compared to other learning methods.…

  14. On-Line Information Retrieval as a Scientists Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, A. Stephanie; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The use of an on-line information retrieval system by the scientists themselves is described. MEDUSA was designed to allow physicians to interrogate the MEDLARS data base. A Brief description is given of the system and details of an experiment to test its effectiveness. (8 references) (Author)

  15. Information Retrieval in Multimedia Sources in an Electronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Tze-chung

    The last three decades have shown a marked development in new technologies for storing and retrieving information: microform in the 1960s; online database in the 1970s, and CD-ROM in the 1980s. While microform lacks volatility and multiple access points, preservation programs find it to be ideal storage media: it has a longer life expectancy than…

  16. Development of Information Retrieval Skills for Freshman Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gerald F.

    1988-01-01

    A study, using a specific patient encounter as the focal point for each student's research, is described that documents the skills of entering freshmen medical students before and immediately after a short course emphasizing information retrieval and at follow-up one year later. (MLW)

  17. Information Storage and Retrieval Scientific Report No. ISR-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    The twenty-second in a series, this report describes research in information organization and retrieval conducted by the Department of Computer Science at Cornell University. The report covers work carried out during the period summer 1972 through summer 1974 and is divided into four parts: indexing theory, automatic content analysis, feedback…

  18. A Critical Analysis of Vector Space Model for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghavan, Vijay V.; Wong, S. K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Presents notations and definitions necessary to identify the concepts and relationships that are important in modelling information retrieval objects and processes in the context of vector spaces. Earlier work on the use of vector models is evaluated in terms of the concepts introduced and certain problems are identified. (Author/EM)

  19. The Politics of Information: Libraries and Online Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haar, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses political questions raised by the existence and growth potential of the online retrieval industry because it is privately owned and profit oriented. The user fee debate, information ownership, danger of manipulation, libraries as marketers, library action, and a library database consortium are highlighted. Seventeen references are cited.…

  20. Support Vector Machines: Relevance Feedback and Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Harris; Shahrary, Behzad; Gibbon, David C.

    2002-01-01

    Compares support vector machines (SVMs) to Rocchio, Ide regular and Ide dec-hi algorithms in information retrieval (IR) of text documents using relevancy feedback. If the preliminary search is so poor that one has to search through many documents to find at least one relevant document, then SVM is preferred. Includes nine tables. (Contains 24…

  1. Information Retrieval Today. Revised, Retitled, and Expanded Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, F. Wilfrid; Warner, Amy J.

    The emphasis of this text is that the problems of information retrieval are the intellectual ones of subject analysis and description. These problems are not easily solved by technology alone, although certain inroads are being made by knowledge-based expert systems and other computer aids to indexing. Linguistic approaches are also showing…

  2. Information Theoretic Similarity Measures for Content Based Image Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.

    2001-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval is based on the idea of extracting visual features from images and using them to index images in a database. Proposes similarity measures and an indexing algorithm based on information theory that permits an image to be represented as a single number. When used in conjunction with vectors, this method displays…

  3. Status report on SIRS: sorption information retrieval system

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, D.D.; Serne, R.J.; Baldwin, A.J.; Petrie, G.M.

    1980-11-01

    Two major uses were identified for the Sorption Information Retrieval System: (1) to aid geochemists in the elucidation of sorption mechanisms; and (2) to aid safety assessment modelers in selection of Kds for any given scenerio. Other benefits such as providing an auditable vehicle for the Kd selection were also discussed.

  4. Fault-tolerant symmetrically-private information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Zhang, Rui-Ling

    2016-08-01

    We propose two symmetrically-private information retrieval protocols based on quantum key distribution, which provide a good degree of database and user privacy while being flexible, loss-resistant and easily generalized to a large database similar to the precedent works. Furthermore, one protocol is robust to a collective-dephasing noise, and the other is robust to a collective-rotation noise.

  5. Towards an Intelligent Possibilistic Web Information Retrieval Using Multiagent System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayeb, Bilel; Evrard, Fabrice; Zaghdoud, Montaceur; Ahmed, Mohamed Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to make a scientific contribution to web information retrieval (IR). Design/methodology/approach: A multiagent system for web IR is proposed based on new technologies: Hierarchical Small-Worlds (HSW) and Possibilistic Networks (PN). This system is based on a possibilistic qualitative approach which extends the…

  6. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: An Analysis of Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel E.; Srinivasan, Padmini

    1998-01-01

    Investigates an automatic method for Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) that utilizes the multilingual Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to translate Spanish natural-language queries into English. Results indicate that for Spanish, the UMLS Metathesaurus-based CLIR method is at least equivalent to if not better than…

  7. Beyond Information Retrieval: Ways To Provide Content in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Deborah Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of information retrieval from mainframe systems to Web search engines; discusses collaborative filtering, data extraction, data visualization, agent technology, pattern recognition, classification and clustering, and virtual communities. Argues that rather than huge data-storage centers and proprietary software, we need…

  8. Classification Clustering, Probabilistic Information Retrieval, and the Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Ray R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses problems with subject searches in online library catalogs and examines theoretical principles for the design of effective information retrieval systems. Probabilistic ranking methods are discussed, and an experimental online catalog called CHESHIRE is described. It is noted that CHESHIRE uses classification clustering, provides natural…

  9. Introducing Chemistry Undergraduate Students to Online Chemical Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolman, Yecheskel

    1985-01-01

    The results of manual and online searching are compared during a unit on online chemical information retrieval taught at Hebrew University. Strategies and results obtained are provided for student searches on the synthesis of vitamin K(3) from 2-methylnaphthalene and polywater. (JN)

  10. Conventional and Knowledge-Based Information Retrieval with Prolog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, William; Paz, Noemi

    1988-01-01

    Describes the use of PROLOG to program knowledge-based information retrieval systems, in which the knowledge contained in a document is translated into machine processable logic. Several examples of the resulting search process, and the program rules supporting the process, are given. (10 references) (CLB)

  11. JOIS-III JICST's new online information retrieval system (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamanaka, Hisashi; Hosoyama, Miki; Shimizu, Hideaki; Okura, Katsumi; Motoyama, Noriyuki

    We give an outline of JOIS (JICST On-line Information System) - III, which has been developed as a succession to JOIS-II now being on service by the Japan Information Center of Science and Technology to start servicing in January 1990. In this report we explain mainly about new retrieval functions such as multiple file searches and proximity searching. (1st part Vol. 32. No. 3, 3rd part Vol. 32. No. 5)

  12. Software Helps Retrieve Information Relevant to the User

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Natalie; Chen, James

    2003-01-01

    The Adaptive Indexing and Retrieval Agent (ARNIE) is a code library, designed to be used by an application program, that assists human users in retrieving desired information in a hypertext setting. Using ARNIE, the program implements a computational model for interactively learning what information each human user considers relevant in context. The model, called a "relevance network," incrementally adapts retrieved information to users individual profiles on the basis of feedback from the users regarding specific queries. The model also generalizes such knowledge for subsequent derivation of relevant references for similar queries and profiles, thereby, assisting users in filtering information by relevance. ARNIE thus enables users to categorize and share information of interest in various contexts. ARNIE encodes the relevance and structure of information in a neural network dynamically configured with a genetic algorithm. ARNIE maintains an internal database, wherein it saves associations, and from which it returns associated items in response to a query. A C++ compiler for a platform on which ARNIE will be utilized is necessary for creating the ARNIE library but is not necessary for the execution of the software.

  13. Use of information-retrieval languages in automated retrieval of experimental data from long-term storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khovanskiy, Y. D.; Kremneva, N. I.

    1975-01-01

    Problems and methods are discussed of automating information retrieval operations in a data bank used for long term storage and retrieval of data from scientific experiments. Existing information retrieval languages are analyzed along with those being developed. The results of studies discussing the application of the descriptive 'Kristall' language used in the 'ASIOR' automated information retrieval system are presented. The development and use of a specialized language of the classification-descriptive type, using universal decimal classification indices as the main descriptors, is described.

  14. JOIS-III JICST's new online information retrieval system (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamanaka, Hisashi; Hosoyama, Miki; Shimizu, Hideaki; Okura, Katsumi; Motoyama, Noriyuki

    We give an outline of JOIS (JICST On-line Information System) - III, which has been developed as a succession to JOIS-II now being on service by The Japan Information Center of Science and Technology to start servicing in January 1990. JOIS-III is an on-line information retrieval system intended to be a totally up-graded JOIS-II with functional expansion, well-provided data base and high-speed processing of large quantity of data. We also refer to structures of files to be retrieved such as bit-map file, which has been introduced to cope with large-sized data base, and group structure. (2nd part Vol. 32. No.4, 3rd part Vol. 32. No.5)

  15. Developing a Cloud-Based Online Geospatial Information Sharing and Geoprocessing Platform to Facilitate Collaborative Education and Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. L.; Cao, J.; Hu, K.; Gui, Z. P.; Wu, H. Y.; You, L.

    2016-06-01

    Efficient online discovering and applying geospatial information resources (GIRs) is critical in Earth Science domain as while for cross-disciplinary applications. However, to achieve it is challenging due to the heterogeneity, complexity and privacy of online GIRs. In this article, GeoSquare, a collaborative online geospatial information sharing and geoprocessing platform, was developed to tackle this problem. Specifically, (1) GIRs registration and multi-view query functions allow users to publish and discover GIRs more effectively. (2) Online geoprocessing and real-time execution status checking help users process data and conduct analysis without pre-installation of cumbersome professional tools on their own machines. (3) A service chain orchestration function enables domain experts to contribute and share their domain knowledge with community members through workflow modeling. (4) User inventory management allows registered users to collect and manage their own GIRs, monitor their execution status, and track their own geoprocessing histories. Besides, to enhance the flexibility and capacity of GeoSquare, distributed storage and cloud computing technologies are employed. To support interactive teaching and training, GeoSquare adopts the rich internet application (RIA) technology to create user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). Results show that GeoSquare can integrate and foster collaboration between dispersed GIRs, computing resources and people. Subsequently, educators and researchers can share and exchange resources in an efficient and harmonious way.

  16. Evaluation of Open Geospatial Consortium Standards fur Use In LLNL Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Chou, R; Chubb, K; Schek, J

    2005-09-28

    The objective of this project is to evaluate existing and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards for use in LLNL programs that rely heavily on geographic data. OGC standards are intended to facilitate interoperability between geospatial processing systems to avoid duplication of effort, lower development costs, and encourage competition based on improved capability and performance rather than vendor lock-in. Some of these standards appear to be gaining traction in the geospatial data community, the Federal government, DOE and DHS. A serious evaluation of this technology is appropriate at this time due to increasing interest and mandated compliance in the Federal government in some situations. A subset of OGC standards is identified and reviewed with a focus on applications to LLNL programs. Each standard or recommendation reviewed was evaluated in general terms. In addition, for specific programs such as Gen&SIS and NARAC, a specific evaluation was made of several of the standards and how they could be used most effectively. It is also important to evaluate the acceptance of these standards in the commercial arena. The implementation of OGC standards by the largest GIS vendor (ESRI) was reviewed. At present, OGC standards are primary useful in specific situations. More generally, many of the standards are immature and their impact on the government and commercial sectors is unclear. Consequently, OGC and related developments need to be observed. As specific standards or groups of standards mature and establish their relevance, these can also be incorporated in LLNL programs as requirements dictate, especially if open implementations and commercial products are available.

  17. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared. Part 1. General Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; Hofstede, Marten

    1991-01-01

    Five categories of microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval (ISR) are distinguished and characterized: classical retrieval systems; end-user software; indexing programs; full-text retrieval programs; and personal information managers. In addition, the special retrieval techniques of hypertext and best-matched searching are…

  18. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared. Part IV--Indexing and Full Text Retrieval Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of articles on the evaluation of microcomputer software for information storage and retrieval, conducted by the Netherlands Association of Users of Online Information Systems (VOGIN), presents test results for six indexing and full-text retrieval programs--Ask-It, KAware, Texplore, TextMaster, WordCruncher, and ZYindex. (13…

  19. A prompt information retrieval system on handheld devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Lin, Shi-Hung

    2007-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an intelligent bird information retrieval system which aims to construct a mobility-learning activity under the up-to-date wireless technology. The system consists of a Tablet PC and PDAs with wireless networking capabilities. The PDA is equipped with a friendly retrieval interface and a good learning environment. In our system, users only need to click the buttons or input the keywords to retrieve bird information. Besides, users can discuss or share their information and knowledge via the wireless network. Our system saves bird information in four categories including "Introduction," "Images," "Sound," "Streaming Media," and "Ecological Memo." The integral knowledge helps users understand more about birds. Data mining and fuzzy association rules are applied to recommend users those birds they may be interested in. A streaming server on the Tablet PC is built to provide the streaming media for PDA users. By this way, PDA users can enjoy the multimedia from Tablet PC in real time without downloading completely. Finally, the system is a perfect tool for outdoor teaching and can be easily extended to provide navigation and touring services for national parks or museums.

  20. Information retrieval for a document writing assistance program

    SciTech Connect

    Corral, M.L.; Simon, A.; Julien, C.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an Information Retrieval mechanism to facilitate the writing of technical documents in the space domain. To address the need for document exchange between partners in a given project, documents are standardized. The writing of a new document requires the re-use of existing documents or parts thereof. These parts can be identified by {open_quotes}tagging{close_quotes} the logical structure of documents and restored by means of a purpose-built Information Retrieval System (I.R.S.). The I.R.S. implemented in our writing assistance tool uses natural language queries and is based on a statistical linguistic approach which is enhanced by the use of document structure module.

  1. Data mining approaches for information retrieval from genomic databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Donglin; Singh, Gautam B.

    2000-04-01

    Sequence retrieval in genomic databases is used for finding sequences related to a query sequence specified by a user. Comparison is the main part of the retrieval system in genomic databases. An efficient sequence comparison algorithm is critical in bioinformatics. There are several different algorithms to perform sequence comparison, such as the suffix array based database search, divergence measurement, methods that rely upon the existence of a local similarity between the query sequence and sequences in the database, or common mutual information between query and sequences in DB. In this paper we have described a new method for DNA sequence retrieval based on data mining techniques. Data mining tools generally find patterns among data and have been successfully applied in industries to improve marketing, sales, and customer support operations. We have applied the descriptive data mining techniques to find relevant patterns that are significant for comparing genetic sequences. Relevance feedback score based on common patterns is developed and employed to compute distance between sequences. The contigs of human chromosomes are used to test the retrieval accuracy and the experimental results are presented.

  2. Informative Top-k Retrieval for Advanced Skill Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colucci, Simona; di Noia, Tommaso; Ragone, Azzurra; Ruta, Michele; Straccia, Umberto; Tinelli, Eufemia

    The paper presents a knowledge-based framework for skills and talent management based on an advanced matchmaking between profiles of candidates and available job positions. Interestingly, informative content of top-k retrieval is enriched through semantic capabilities. The proposed approach allows to: (1) express a requested profile in terms of both hard constraints and soft ones; (2) provide a ranking function based also on qualitative attributes of a profile; (3) explain the resulting outcomes (given a job request, a motivation for the obtained score of each selected profile is provided). Top-k retrieval allows to select most promising candidates according to an ontology formalizing the domain knowledge. Such a knowledge is further exploited to provide a semantic-based explanation of missing or conflicting features in retrieved profiles. They also indicate additional profile characteristics emerging by the retrieval procedure for a further request refinement. A concrete case study followed by an exhaustive experimental campaign is reported to prove the approach effectiveness.

  3. Models of a Distributed Information Retrieval System Based on Thesauri with Weights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Zygmunt

    1994-01-01

    Discusses distributed information retrieval systems that take into account the weights of descriptors from thesauri. Topics addressed include a mathematical model for information retrieval subsystems; organization of inverted files; models for the distributed homogeneous information systems; a distributed information retrieval system based on…

  4. [SIBIL: an information tool for the information retrieval on bioethics].

    PubMed

    Dracos, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The article describes the main features of the website SIBIL (Sistema Informativo per la Bioetica In Linea) implemented within the framework of a research project of the ISS for collecting, indexing and disseminating Italian literature on bioethics since 1995 through an integrated electronic system. The site, addressed to a wide range of people interested at different degrees and levels in bioethics, offers a comprehensive overview of the activities, such as courses and meetings, on the major ethical issues at stake in Italy, as well as a survey of the most important activities both at national and international level. The main feature of SIBIL is a database of a large collection of documents retrieved through sources or exploitation of the most important international electronic databases. A thesaurus of 1,600 terms, available in Italian and English, was created in order to organize documents with standardized criteria currently adopted in the Italian scientific environment. Future trends of the website are also discussed for sharing experiences with other countries and laying the basis for a European portal on bioethics.

  5. Borderless Geospatial Web (bolegweb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetl, V.; Kliment, T.; Kliment, M.

    2016-06-01

    The effective access and use of geospatial information (GI) resources acquires a critical value of importance in modern knowledge based society. Standard web services defined by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) are frequently used within the implementations of spatial data infrastructures (SDIs) to facilitate discovery and use of geospatial data. This data is stored in databases located in a layer, called the invisible web, thus are ignored by search engines. SDI uses a catalogue (discovery) service for the web as a gateway to the GI world through the metadata defined by ISO standards, which are structurally diverse to OGC metadata. Therefore, a crosswalk needs to be implemented to bridge the OGC resources discovered on mainstream web with those documented by metadata in an SDI to enrich its information extent. A public global wide and user friendly portal of OGC resources available on the web ensures and enhances the use of GI within a multidisciplinary context and bridges the geospatial web from the end-user perspective, thus opens its borders to everybody. Project "Crosswalking the layers of geospatial information resources to enable a borderless geospatial web" with the acronym BOLEGWEB is ongoing as a postdoctoral research project at the Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb in Croatia (http://bolegweb.geof.unizg.hr/). The research leading to the results of the project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7 2007-2013) under Marie Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-COFUND. The project started in the November 2014 and is planned to be finished by the end of 2016. This paper provides an overview of the project, research questions and methodology, so far achieved results and future steps.

  6. New directions in valuing geospatial information - how to value goespatial information for policy and business decisioins in the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Governments are increasingly asking for more evidence of the benefits of investing in geospatial data and infrastructure before investing. They are looking for a clearer articulation of the economic, environmental and social benefits than has been possble in the past. Development of techniques has accelerated in the past five years as governments and industry become more involved in the capture and use of geospatial data. However evaluation practitioners have struggled to answer these emerging questions. The paper explores the types of questions that decision makers are asking and discusses the different approaches and methods that have been used recently to answer them. It explores the need for better buisness case models. The emerging approaches are then discussed and their attributes reviewed. These include methods of analysing tengible economic benefits, intangible benefits and societal benefits. The paper explores the use of value chain analysis and real options analysis to better articulate the impacts on international competitiveness and how to value the potential benefits of innovations enabled by the geospatial data that is produced. The paper concludes by illustrating the potential for these techniques in current and future decision making.

  7. Estimating Missing Features to Improve Multimedia Information Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Love, N S; Kamath, C

    2006-09-28

    Retrieval in a multimedia database usually involves combining information from different modalities of data, such as text and images. However, all modalities of the data may not be available to form the query. The retrieval results from such a partial query are often less than satisfactory. In this paper, we present an approach to complete a partial query by estimating the missing features in the query. Our experiments with a database of images and their associated captions show that, with an initial text-only query, our completion method has similar performance to a full query with both image and text features. In addition, when we use relevance feedback, our approach outperforms the results obtained using a full query.

  8. An integrated information retrieval and document management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, L. Stephen; Alvarez, J. Fernando; Chen, James; Chen, William; Cheung, Lai-Mei; Clancy, Susan; Wong, Alexis

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements and prototype development for an intelligent document management and information retrieval system that will be capable of handling millions of pages of text or other data. Technologies for scanning, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), magneto-optical storage, and multiplatform retrieval using a Standard Query Language (SQL) will be discussed. The semantic ambiguity inherent in the English language is somewhat compensated-for through the use of coefficients or weighting factors for partial synonyms. Such coefficients are used both for defining structured query trees for routine queries and for establishing long-term interest profiles that can be used on a regular basis to alert individual users to the presence of relevant documents that may have just arrived from an external source, such as a news wire service. Although this attempt at evidential reasoning is limited in comparison with the latest developments in AI Expert Systems technology, it has the advantage of being commercially available.

  9. A lake-centric geospatial database to guide research and inform management decisions in an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska experiencing climate and land-use changes.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benjamin M; Arp, Christopher D; Whitman, Matthew S; Nigro, Debora; Nitze, Ingmar; Beaver, John; Gädeke, Anne; Zuck, Callie; Liljedahl, Anna; Daanen, Ronald; Torvinen, Eric; Fritz, Stacey; Grosse, Guido

    2017-03-25

    Lakes are dominant and diverse landscape features in the Arctic, but conventional land cover classification schemes typically map them as a single uniform class. Here, we present a detailed lake-centric geospatial database for an Arctic watershed in northern Alaska. We developed a GIS dataset consisting of 4362 lakes that provides information on lake morphometry, hydrologic connectivity, surface area dynamics, surrounding terrestrial ecotypes, and other important conditions describing Arctic lakes. Analyzing the geospatial database relative to fish and bird survey data shows relations to lake depth and hydrologic connectivity, which are being used to guide research and aid in the management of aquatic resources in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Further development of similar geospatial databases is needed to better understand and plan for the impacts of ongoing climate and land-use changes occurring across lake-rich landscapes in the Arctic.

  10. 42 CFR 433.116 - FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and information retrieval systems. 433.116 Section 433.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.116 FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems. (a) Subject to paragraph (j)...

  11. 42 CFR 433.116 - FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and information retrieval systems. 433.116 Section 433.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.116 FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems. (a) Subject to paragraph (j)...

  12. 15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section 950.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental Data Index (ENDEX... computerized, information retrieval service provides a parallel subject-author-abstract referral service....

  13. 15 CFR 950.9 - Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Information Retrieval Service. 950.9 Section 950.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce... Computerized Environmental Data and Information Retrieval Service. The Environmental Data Index (ENDEX... computerized, information retrieval service provides a parallel subject-author-abstract referral service....

  14. 42 CFR 433.116 - FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and information retrieval systems. 433.116 Section 433.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.116 FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems. (a) Subject to paragraph (j)...

  15. 42 CFR 433.116 - FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and information retrieval systems. 433.116 Section 433.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.116 FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems. (a) Subject to paragraph (j)...

  16. 42 CFR 433.116 - FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and information retrieval systems. 433.116 Section 433.116 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.116 FFP for operation of mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems. (a) Subject to 42 CFR...

  17. On Information Retrieval (IR) Systems: Revisiting Their Development, Evaluation Methodologies, and Assumptions (SIGs LAN, ED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Keith

    2000-01-01

    Describes a session on information retrieval systems that planned to discuss relevance measures with Web-based information retrieval; retrieval system performance and evaluation; probabilistic independence of index terms; vector-based models; metalanguages and digital objects; how users assess the reliability, timeliness and bias of information;…

  18. Mapping the physical location of Telecenter using the geospatial information systems: A requirement of spatial digital mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohari, Abdul Manaf; Hin, Cheng Wei; Fuad, Nurwahida

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a study of Telecenter lifetime value is vital to academician, government and non-profit organization where Telecenter has great contribute to the nation development of rural community. Telecenter as important location of enhance the relationship of socio-economic, where placed all non-profit activity into single location platform. Consistently, previous studies mentioned Telecenter have significance contribution toward the nation, however, research and knowledge still lacking regarding the location factors that affecting the Telecenter specifically on spatial aspects of physical location environment. This research aimed to understand the requirement of spatial digital mapping the physical location of Telecenter, according to location of user and it environment, by using the geospatial information systems references, as called grid coordinate systems. The suggestion and implications of this study are briefly explored where spatial location factor plays important role in determine the lifetime value of Telecenter.

  19. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  20. Information Content of Aerosol Retrievals in the Sunglint Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottaviani, M.; Knobelspiesse, K.; Cairns, B.; Mishchenko, M.

    2013-01-01

    We exploit quantitative metrics to investigate the information content in retrievals of atmospheric aerosol parameters (with a focus on single-scattering albedo), contained in multi-angle and multi-spectral measurements with sufficient dynamical range in the sunglint region. The simulations are performed for two classes of maritime aerosols with optical and microphysical properties compiled from measurements of the Aerosol Robotic Network. The information content is assessed using the inverse formalism and is compared to that deriving from observations not affected by sunglint. We find that there indeed is additional information in measurements containing sunglint, not just for single-scattering albedo, but also for aerosol optical thickness and the complex refractive index of the fine aerosol size mode, although the amount of additional information varies with aerosol type.

  1. ERISTAR: Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) have sponsored faculty fellowship programs in systems engineering design for the past several years. During the summer of 1972 four such programs were conducted by NASA, with Auburn University cooperating with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The subject for the Auburn-MSFC design group was ERISTAR, an acronym for Earth Resources Information Storage, Transformation, Analysis and Retrieval, which represents an earth resources information management network of state information centers administered by the respective states and linked to federally administered regional centers and a national center. The considerations for serving the users and the considerations that must be given to processing data from a variety of sources are described. The combination of these elements into a national network is discussed and an implementation plan is proposed for a prototype state information center. The compatibility of the proposed plan with the Department of Interior plan, RALI, is indicated.

  2. Web multimedia information retrieval using improved Bayesian algorithm.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi-Jun; Chen, Chun; Yu, Yi-Min; Lin, Huai-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The main thrust of this paper is application of a novel data mining approach on the log of user's feedback to improve web multimedia information retrieval performance. A user space model was constructed based on data mining, and then integrated into the original information space model to improve the accuracy of the new information space model. It can remove clutter and irrelevant text information and help to eliminate mismatch between the page author's expression and the user's understanding and expectation. User space model was also utilized to discover the relationship between high-level and low-level features for assigning weight. The authors proposed improved Bayesian algorithm for data mining. Experiment proved that the authors' proposed algorithm was efficient.

  3. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    2011-08-01

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.230502 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  4. Secure quantum private information retrieval using phase-encoded queries

    SciTech Connect

    Olejnik, Lukasz

    2011-08-15

    We propose a quantum solution to the classical private information retrieval (PIR) problem, which allows one to query a database in a private manner. The protocol offers privacy thresholds and allows the user to obtain information from a database in a way that offers the potential adversary, in this model the database owner, no possibility of deterministically establishing the query contents. This protocol may also be viewed as a solution to the symmetrically private information retrieval problem in that it can offer database security (inability for a querying user to steal its contents). Compared to classical solutions, the protocol offers substantial improvement in terms of communication complexity. In comparison with the recent quantum private queries [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 230502 (2008)] protocol, it is more efficient in terms of communication complexity and the number of rounds, while offering a clear privacy parameter. We discuss the security of the protocol and analyze its strengths and conclude that using this technique makes it challenging to obtain the unconditional (in the information-theoretic sense) privacy degree; nevertheless, in addition to being simple, the protocol still offers a privacy level. The oracle used in the protocol is inspired both by the classical computational PIR solutions as well as the Deutsch-Jozsa oracle.

  5. The Implementation of a Geospatial Information Technology (GIT)-Supported Land Use Change Curriculum with Urban Middle School Learners to Promote Spatial Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether a geospatial information technology (GIT)-supported science curriculum helped students in an urban middle school understand land use change (LUC) concepts and enhanced their spatial thinking. Five 8th grade earth and space science classes in an urban middle school consisting of three different ability level tracks…

  6. The Development and Implementation of a Management Information System for an Education Information Retrieval Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegi, John

    A management information system was developed for the Contra Costa County, California, Department of Education's Educational Information Retrieval Center. The system was designed to determine needed operational changes, to measure the effects of these changes, to monitor the center's operation, and to obtain information for dissemination. Data…

  7. Human Information Behaviour and Design, Development and Evaluation of Information Retrieval Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavarz, Hamid

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of human information behaviour and to explore the relationship between information behaviour of users and the existing approaches dominating design and evaluation of information retrieval (IR) systems and also to describe briefly new design and evaluation methods in which extensive…

  8. A controlled nursing vocabulary for indexing and information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Pekkala, Eila; Saranto, Kaija; Tallberg, Marianne; Ensio, Anneli; Junttila, Kristiina

    2006-01-01

    The lack of a nursing thesaurus in Finnish has emerged among nursing professionals searching nursing knowledge and librarians when indexing literature to databases. The Finnish Nursing Education Society launched a project focusing on the development of a nursing vocabulary and the compilation of a thesaurus. The content of a vocabulary was created by six experts using Delphi-technique. The validity of the vocabulary was twice tested for indexing nursing research and has afterwards been revised. The vocabulary can be used for indexing and information retrieval purposes. The main challenge is that nurses easily can find national as well as international nursing research from databases and enhance research utilization.

  9. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J [Richland, WA; Cowley,; E, Wendy [Richland, WA; Crow, Vernon L [Richland, WA; Cramer, Nicholas O [Richland, WA

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  10. Computer programs: Information retrieval and data analysis, a compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The items presented in this compilation are divided into two sections. Section one treats of computer usage devoted to the retrieval of information that affords the user rapid entry into voluminous collections of data on a selective basis. Section two is a more generalized collection of computer options for the user who needs to take such data and reduce it to an analytical study within a specific discipline. These programs, routines, and subroutines should prove useful to users who do not have access to more sophisticated and expensive computer software.

  11. Evaluation of a generalizable approach to clinical information retrieval using the automated retrieval console (ARC)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thien M; Farwell, Wildon R; Chen, Yongming; Fitzmeyer, Felicia; Harris, Owen M; Fiore, Louis D

    2010-01-01

    Reducing custom software development effort is an important goal in information retrieval (IR). This study evaluated a generalizable approach involving with no custom software or rules development. The study used documents “consistent with cancer” to evaluate system performance in the domains of colorectal (CRC), prostate (PC), and lung (LC) cancer. Using an end-user-supplied reference set, the automated retrieval console (ARC) iteratively calculated performance of combinations of natural language processing-derived features and supervised classification algorithms. Training and testing involved 10-fold cross-validation for three sets of 500 documents each. Performance metrics included recall, precision, and F-measure. Annotation time for five physicians was also measured. Top performing algorithms had recall, precision, and F-measure values as follows: for CRC, 0.90, 0.92, and 0.89, respectively; for PC, 0.97, 0.95, and 0.94; and for LC, 0.76, 0.80, and 0.75. In all but one case, conditional random fields outperformed maximum entropy-based classifiers. Algorithms had good performance without custom code or rules development, but performance varied by specific application. PMID:20595303

  12. Secure Retrieval of FFTF Testing, Design, and Operating Information

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, R. Scott; Wootan, David W.; Omberg, Ronald P.; Makenas, Bruce J.; Nielsen, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    One of the goals of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) is to preserve the knowledge that has been gained in the United States on Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR). In addition, preserving LMR information and knowledge is part of a larger international collaborative activity conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). A similar program is being conducted for EBR-II at the Idaho Nuclear Laboratory (INL) and international programs are also in progress. Knowledge preservation at the FFTF is focused on the areas of design, construction, startup, and operation of the reactor. As the primary function of the FFTF was testing, the focus is also on preserving information obtained from irradiation testing of fuels and materials. This information will be invaluable when, at a later date, international decisions are made to pursue new LMRs. In the interim, this information may be of potential use for international exchanges with other LMR programs around the world. At least as important in the United States, which is emphasizing large-scale computer simulation and modeling, this information provides the basis for creating benchmarks for validating and testing these large scale computer programs. Although the preservation activity with respect to FFTF information as discussed below is still underway, the team of authors above is currently retrieving and providing experimental and design information to the LMR modeling and simulation efforts for use in validating their computer models. On the Hanford Site, the FFTF reactor plant is one of the facilities intended for decontamination and decommissioning consistent with the cleanup mission on this site. The reactor facility has been deactivated and is being maintained in a cold and dark minimal surveillance and maintenance mode until final decommissioning is pursued. In order to ensure protection of information at risk, the program to date has focused on sequestering and secure retrieval

  13. A Dynamic Information Framework: A Multi-Sector, Geospatial Gateway for Environmental Conservation and Adaptation to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, E. C.; Norbu, C.; Juizo, D.; Wangdi, T.; Richey, J. E.

    2011-12-01

    Landscapes, watersheds, and their downstream coastal and lacustrine zones are facing a series of challenges critical to their future, centered on the availability and distribution of water. Management options cover a range of issues, from bringing safe water to local villages for the rural poor, developing adaptation strategies for both rural and urban populations and large infrastructure, and sustaining environmental flows and ecosystem services needed for natural and human-dominated ecosystems. These targets represent a very complex set of intersecting issues of scale, cross-sector science and technology, education, politics, and economics, and the desired sustainable development is closely linked to how the nominally responsible governmental Ministries respond to the information they have. In practice, such information and even perspectives are virtually absent, in much of the developing world. A Dynamic Information Framework (DIF) is being designed as a knowledge platform whereby decision-makers in information-sparse regions can consider rigorous scenarios of alternative futures and obtain decision support for complex environmental and economic decisions is essential. The DIF is geospatial gateway, with functional components of base data layers, directed data layers focused on synthetic objectives, geospatially-explicit, process-based, cross-sector simulation models (requiring data from the directed data layers), and facilitated input/output (including visualizations), and decision support system and scenario testing capabilities. A fundamental aspect to a DIF is not only the convergence of multi-sector information, but how that information can be (a) integrated (b) used for robust simulations and projections, and (c) conveyed to policymakers and stakeholders, in the most compelling, and visual, manner. Examples are given of emerging applications. The ZambeziDIF was used to establish baselines for agriculture, biodiversity, and water resources in the lower

  14. JANE, A new information retrieval system for the Radiation Shielding Information Center

    SciTech Connect

    Trubey, D.K.

    1991-05-01

    A new information storage and retrieval system has been developed for the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to replace mainframe systems that have become obsolete. The database contains citations and abstracts of literature which were selected by RSIC analysts and indexed with terms from a controlled vocabulary. The database, begun in 1963, has been maintained continuously since that time. The new system, called JANE, incorporates automatic indexing techniques and on-line retrieval using the RSIC Data General Eclipse MV/4000 minicomputer, Automatic indexing and retrieval techniques based on fuzzy-set theory allow the presentation of results in order of Retrieval Status Value. The fuzzy-set membership function depends on term frequency in the titles and abstracts and on Term Discrimination Values which indicate the resolving power of the individual terms. These values are determined by the Cover Coefficient method. The use of a commercial database base to store and retrieve the indexing information permits rapid retrieval of the stored documents. Comparisons of the new and presently-used systems for actual searches of the literature indicate that it is practical to replace the mainframe systems with a minicomputer system similar to the present version of JANE. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  15. 45 CFR 205.35 - Mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... retrieval systems; definitions. 205.35 Section 205.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions. Section 205.35 through 205.38 contain...: (a) A mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system, hereafter referred to as...

  16. 45 CFR 205.35 - Mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... retrieval systems; definitions. 205.35 Section 205.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions. Section 205.35 through 205.38 contain...: (a) A mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system, hereafter referred to as...

  17. 45 CFR 205.35 - Mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... retrieval systems; definitions. 205.35 Section 205.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions. Section 205.35 through 205.38 contain...: (a) A mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system, hereafter referred to as...

  18. 45 CFR 205.35 - Mechanized claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... retrieval systems; definitions. 205.35 Section 205.35 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... claims processing and information retrieval systems; definitions. Section 205.35 through 205.38 contain...: (a) A mechanized claims processing and information retrieval system, hereafter referred to as...

  19. Mathematical, Logical, and Formal Methods in Information Retrieval: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crestani, Fabio; Dominich, Sandor; Lalmas, Mounia; van Rijsbergen, Cornelis Joost

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the importance of research on the use of mathematical, logical, and formal methods in information retrieval to help enhance retrieval effectiveness and clarify underlying concepts of information retrieval. Highlights include logic; probability; spaces; and future research needs. (Author/LRW)

  20. Design Issues in a Hypertext-Based Information System for Bibliographic Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitroff, Alexandra; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1993-01-01

    Describes initial design considerations and implementation issues for a hypertext retrieval system for structured bibliographic data. Previous research on information retrieval and hypertext is reviewed; HyperLynx, a hypertext prototype information retrieval system that emphasized ease of use and browsing capabilities, is explained; and further…

  1. Current Research into Chemical and Textual Information Retrieval at the Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Michael F.; Willett, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Discusses research into chemical information and document retrieval systems at the University of Sheffield. Highlights include the use of cluster analysis methods for document retrieval and drug design, representation and searching of files of generic chemical structures, and the application of parallel computer hardware to information retrieval.…

  2. A Probabilistic Approach to Information Retrieval in Systems with Boolean Search Request Formulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radecki, Tadeusz

    1982-01-01

    Outlines an approach to information retrieval which integrates the existing theory of probabilistic retrieval into a practical methodology based on Boolean searches. Basic concepts, search methodology, and examples of Boolean searching are noted. Twenty-six sources are appended. (EJS)

  3. An introduction to the Marshall information retrieval and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An on-line terminal oriented data storage and retrieval system is presented which allows a user to extract and process information from stored data bases. The use of on-line terminals for extracting and displaying data from the data bases provides a fast and responsive method for obtaining needed information. The system consists of general purpose computer programs that provide the overall capabilities of the total system. The system can process any number of data files via a Dictionary (one for each file) which describes the data format to the system. New files may be added to the system at any time, and reprogramming is not required. Illustrations of the system are shown, and sample inquiries and responses are given.

  4. National Geospatial Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carswell, William J.

    2011-01-01

    increases the efficiency of the Nation's geospatial community by improving communications about geospatial data, products, services, projects, needs, standards, and best practices. The NGP comprises seven major components (described below), that are managed as a unified set. For example, The National Map establishes data standards and identifies geographic areas where specific types of geospatial data need to be incorporated into The National Map. Partnership Network Liaisons work with Federal, State, local, and tribal partners to help acquire the data. Geospatial technical operations ensure the quality control, integration, and availability to the public of the data acquired. The Emergency Operations Office provides the requirements to The National Map and, during emergencies and natural disasters, provides rapid dissemination of information and data targeted to the needs of emergency responders. The National Atlas uses data from The National Map and other sources to make small-scale maps and multimedia articles about the maps.

  5. An Integrated Korean Biodiversity and Genetic Information Retrieval System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeongheui; Bhak, Jong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Chang-Bae; Park, Yong-Ha; Paek, Woon Kee

    2008-01-01

    Background On-line biodiversity information databases are growing quickly and being integrated into general bioinformatics systems due to the advances of fast gene sequencing technologies and the Internet. These can reduce the cost and effort of performing biodiversity surveys and genetic searches, which allows scientists to spend more time researching and less time collecting and maintaining data. This will cause an increased rate of knowledge build-up and improve conservations. The biodiversity databases in Korea have been scattered among several institutes and local natural history museums with incompatible data types. Therefore, a comprehensive database and a nation wide web portal for biodiversity information is necessary in order to integrate diverse information resources, including molecular and genomic databases. Results The Korean Natural History Research Information System (NARIS) was built and serviced as the central biodiversity information system to collect and integrate the biodiversity data of various institutes and natural history museums in Korea. This database aims to be an integrated resource that contains additional biological information, such as genome sequences and molecular level diversity. Currently, twelve institutes and museums in Korea are integrated by the DiGIR (Distributed Generic Information Retrieval) protocol, with Darwin Core2.0 format as its metadata standard for data exchange. Data quality control and statistical analysis functions have been implemented. In particular, integrating molecular and genetic information from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases with NARIS was recently accomplished. NARIS can also be extended to accommodate other institutes abroad, and the whole system can be exported to establish local biodiversity management servers. Conclusion A Korean data portal, NARIS, has been developed to efficiently manage and utilize biodiversity data, which includes genetic resources. NARIS aims

  6. Online information retrieval in pharmacy and related fields.

    PubMed

    Perry, C A

    1986-06-01

    Online information retrieval in pharmacy and related fields is described. Factors involved in determining whether to conduct an online search are discussed, including characteristics of appropriate and less suitable topics, advantages and limitations of online searching versus manual searching, and possible types of searches. The process of preparing for an online search, involving the determination of search vocabulary, relevant citations, important authors, time frame, special categories (such as language, publication type, and reviews), and the number of citations needed, as well as choosing a database, is explained. Sample search strategies on MEDLINE and IPA are illustrated to demonstrate the basic search commands and to compare file retrievals on the sample subject. Pharmacy-related bibliographic databases, general-interest databases, end-user search services, and full-text and numeric databases are profiled. Online database searching can be a cost-efficient and flexible alternative to manual literature searching for pharmacists. Although most online searching is currently conducted by librarian-search specialists, end-user searching is a growing trend, as is the availability of full-text databases.

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Information Retrieval Systems Using Simulated Queries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a simulation method for estimating recall and fallout in a document retrieval system. Earlier research on simulating document retrieval systems is reviewed, examples are presented of the current method, a probabilistic justification of the method is given, theoretical concerns dealing with retrieval precision are discussed, and further…

  8. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  9. Symmetrically private information retrieval based on blind quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiwei; Yu, Jianping; Wang, Ping; Xu, Lingling

    2015-05-01

    Universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) is a new secure quantum computing protocol which allows a user Alice who does not have any sophisticated quantum technology to delegate her computing to a server Bob without leaking any privacy. Using the features of UBQC, we propose a protocol to achieve symmetrically private information retrieval, which allows a quantum limited Alice to query an item from Bob with a fully fledged quantum computer; meanwhile, the privacy of both parties is preserved. The security of our protocol is based on the assumption that malicious Alice has no quantum computer, which avoids the impossibility proof of Lo. For the honest Alice, she is almost classical and only requires minimal quantum resources to carry out the proposed protocol. Therefore, she does not need any expensive laboratory which can maintain the coherence of complicated quantum experimental setups.

  10. Challenging Conventional Assumptions of Automated Information Retrieval with Real Users: Boolean Searching and Batch Retrieval Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, William; Turpin, Andrew; Price, Susan; Kraemer, Dale; Olson, Daniel; Chan, Benjamin; Sacherek, Lynetta

    2001-01-01

    Describes research conducted at the TREC (Text Retrieval Conference) interactive track that compared Boolean and natural language searching, showing they achieved comparable results; and assessed the validity of batch-oriented retrieval evaluations, showing that the results from batch evaluations were not comparable to those obtained in…

  11. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  12. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases

    PubMed Central

    Ashhab, Yaqoub; Tamimi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM) is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases. PMID:27875548

  13. Accelerating Information Retrieval from Profile Hidden Markov Model Databases.

    PubMed

    Tamimi, Ahmad; Ashhab, Yaqoub; Tamimi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Profile Hidden Markov Model (Profile-HMM) is an efficient statistical approach to represent protein families. Currently, several databases maintain valuable protein sequence information as profile-HMMs. There is an increasing interest to improve the efficiency of searching Profile-HMM databases to detect sequence-profile or profile-profile homology. However, most efforts to enhance searching efficiency have been focusing on improving the alignment algorithms. Although the performance of these algorithms is fairly acceptable, the growing size of these databases, as well as the increasing demand for using batch query searching approach, are strong motivations that call for further enhancement of information retrieval from profile-HMM databases. This work presents a heuristic method to accelerate the current profile-HMM homology searching approaches. The method works by cluster-based remodeling of the database to reduce the search space, rather than focusing on the alignment algorithms. Using different clustering techniques, 4284 TIGRFAMs profiles were clustered based on their similarities. A representative for each cluster was assigned. To enhance sensitivity, we proposed an extended step that allows overlapping among clusters. A validation benchmark of 6000 randomly selected protein sequences was used to query the clustered profiles. To evaluate the efficiency of our approach, speed and recall values were measured and compared with the sequential search approach. Using hierarchical, k-means, and connected component clustering techniques followed by the extended overlapping step, we obtained an average reduction in time of 41%, and an average recall of 96%. Our results demonstrate that representation of profile-HMMs using a clustering-based approach can significantly accelerate data retrieval from profile-HMM databases.

  14. The Role of Grammatical Category Information in Spoken Word Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Duràn, Carolina Palma; Pillon, Agnesa

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the role of lexical syntactic information such as grammatical gender and category in spoken word retrieval processes by using a blocking paradigm in picture and written word naming experiments. In Experiments 1, 3, and 4, we found that the naming of target words (nouns) from pictures or written words was faster when these target words were named within a list where only words from the same grammatical category had to be produced (homogeneous category list: all nouns) than when they had to be produced within a list comprising also words from another grammatical category (heterogeneous category list: nouns and verbs). On the other hand, we detected no significant facilitation effect when the target words had to be named within a homogeneous gender list (all masculine nouns) compared to a heterogeneous gender list (both masculine and feminine nouns). In Experiment 2, using the same blocking paradigm by manipulating the semantic category of the items, we found that naming latencies were significantly slower in the semantic category homogeneous in comparison with the semantic category heterogeneous condition. Thus semantic category homogeneity caused an interference, not a facilitation effect like grammatical category homogeneity. Finally, in Experiment 5, nouns in the heterogeneous category condition had to be named just after a verb (category-switching position) or a noun (same-category position). We found a facilitation effect of category homogeneity but no significant effect of position, which showed that the effect of category homogeneity found in Experiments 1, 3, and 4 was not due to a cost of switching between grammatical categories in the heterogeneous grammatical category list. These findings supported the hypothesis that grammatical category information impacts word retrieval processes in speech production, even when words are to be produced in isolation. They are discussed within the context of extant theories of lexical production. PMID

  15. The Development of Online Information Retrieval Services in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiaocun, Lu

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the promotion and development of online information retrieval in China. Highlights include opening of the first online retrieval center at China Overseas Building Development Company Limited; establishment and activities of a cooperative network; online retrieval seminars; telecommunication lines and terminal installations; and problems…

  16. Automatic Content Analysis; Part I of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Four papers are included in Part One of the eighteenth report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project. The first paper: "Content Analysis in Information Retrieval" by S. F. Weiss presents the results of experiments aimed at determining the conditions under which content analysis improves retrieval results as well…

  17. Query-Time Optimization Techniques for Structured Queries in Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartright, Marc-Allen

    2013-01-01

    The use of information retrieval (IR) systems is evolving towards larger, more complicated queries. Both the IR industrial and research communities have generated significant evidence indicating that in order to continue improving retrieval effectiveness, increases in retrieval model complexity may be unavoidable. From an operational perspective,…

  18. A Fuzzy Genetic Algorithm Approach to an Adaptive Information Retrieval Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Bautista, Maria J.; Vila, Maria-Amparo; Larsen, Henrik Legind

    1999-01-01

    Presents an approach to a Genetic Information Retrieval Agent Filter (GIRAF) that filters and ranks documents retrieved from the Internet according to users' preferences by using a Genetic Algorithm and fuzzy set theory to handle the imprecision of users' preferences and users' evaluation of the retrieved documents. (Author/LRW)

  19. Organization of the Inverted Files in a Distributed Information Retrieval System Based on Thesauri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Zygmunt

    1986-01-01

    Describes how operations on local inverted files are to be modified in order to use them in distributed information retrieval systems based on thesauri. The presented rules may be viewed as the logical approach in implementing a distributed retrieval system consisting of n local retrieval systems. (Author/MBR)

  20. Retrieving and routing quantum information in a quantum network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazim, S.; Chiranjeevi, V.; Chakrabarty, I.; Srinathan, K.

    2015-12-01

    In extant quantum secret sharing protocols, once the secret is shared in a quantum network ( qnet) it cannot be retrieved, even if the dealer wishes that his/her secret no longer be available in the network. For instance, if the dealer is part of the two qnets, say {{Q}}_1 and {{Q}}_2 and he/she subsequently finds that {{Q}}_2 is more reliable than {{Q}}_1, he/she may wish to transfer all her secrets from {{Q}}_1 to {{Q}}_2. Known protocols are inadequate to address such a revocation. In this work we address this problem by designing a protocol that enables the source/dealer to bring back the information shared in the network, if desired. Unlike classical revocation, the no-cloning theorem automatically ensures that the secret is no longer shared in the network. The implications of our results are multi-fold. One interesting implication of our technique is the possibility of routing qubits in asynchronous qnets. By asynchrony we mean that the requisite data/resources are intermittently available (but not necessarily simultaneously) in the qnet. For example, we show that a source S can send quantum information to a destination R even though (a) S and R share no quantum resource, (b) R's identity is unknown to S at the time of sending the message, but is subsequently decided, (c) S herself can be R at a later date and/or in a different location to bequeath her information (`backed-up' in the qnet) and (d) importantly, the path chosen for routing the secret may hit a dead end due to resource constraints, congestion, etc., (therefore the information needs to be back-tracked and sent along an alternate path). Another implication of our technique is the possibility of using insecure resources. For instance, if the quantum memory within an organization is insufficient, it may safely store (using our protocol) its private information with a neighboring organization without (a) revealing critical data to the host and (b) losing control over retrieving the data. Putting the

  1. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  2. Recent Developments in the Theory of Information Retrieval. Stockholm Papers in Library and Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, Abraham

    Recently considerable attention has been given in the online information retrieval literature to techniques for producing a weighted output of documents in response to a request. One approach tries to maintain the form of and relationships among requests as they appear in current Boolean logic-based systems, while extending it to permit a weighted…

  3. Next-Generation Search Engines for Information Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Hook, Leslie A; Palanisamy, Giri; Green, James M

    2011-01-01

    centralized index. The harvested files are indexed against SOLR search API consistently, so that it can render search capabilities such as simple, fielded, spatial and temporal searches across a span of projects ranging from land, atmosphere, and ocean ecology. Mercury also provides data sharing capabilities using Open Archive Initiatives Protocol for Metadata Handling (OAI-PMH). In this paper we will discuss about the best practices for archiving data and metadata, new searching techniques, efficient ways of data retrieval and information display.

  4. Geospatial decision support framework for critical infrastructure interdependency assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chung Yan

    Critical infrastructures, such as telecommunications, energy, banking and finance, transportation, water systems and emergency services are the foundations of modern society. There is a heavy dependence on critical infrastructures at multiple levels within the supply chain of any good or service. Any disruptions in the supply chain may cause profound cascading effect to other critical infrastructures. A 1997 report by the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection states that a serious interruption in freight rail service would bring the coal mining industry to a halt within approximately two weeks and the availability of electric power could be reduced in a matter of one to two months. Therefore, this research aimed at representing and assessing the interdependencies between coal supply, transportation and energy production. A proposed geospatial decision support framework was established and applied to analyze interdependency related disruption impact. By utilizing the data warehousing approach, geospatial and non-geospatial data were retrieved, integrated and analyzed based on the transportation model and geospatial disruption analysis developed in the research. The results showed that by utilizing this framework, disruption impacts can be estimated at various levels (e.g., power plant, county, state, etc.) for preventative or emergency response efforts. The information derived from the framework can be used for data mining analysis (e.g., assessing transportation mode usages; finding alternative coal suppliers, etc.).

  5. Disposal of Information Seeking and Retrieval Research: Replacement with a Radical Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, John M.; Anstaett, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Research and theory on the topics of information seeking and retrieval have been plagued by some fundamental problems for several decades. Many of the difficulties spring from mechanistic and instrumental thinking and modelling. Method: Existing models of information retrieval and information seeking are examined for efficacy in a…

  6. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  7. Comparing the quality of accessing medical literature using content-based visual and textual information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Henning; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Kahn, Charles E., Jr.; Hersh, William

    2009-02-01

    Content-based visual information (or image) retrieval (CBIR) has been an extremely active research domain within medical imaging over the past ten years, with the goal of improving the management of visual medical information. Many technical solutions have been proposed, and application scenarios for image retrieval as well as image classification have been set up. However, in contrast to medical information retrieval using textual methods, visual retrieval has only rarely been applied in clinical practice. This is despite the large amount and variety of visual information produced in hospitals every day. This information overload imposes a significant burden upon clinicians, and CBIR technologies have the potential to help the situation. However, in order for CBIR to become an accepted clinical tool, it must demonstrate a higher level of technical maturity than it has to date. Since 2004, the ImageCLEF benchmark has included a task for the comparison of visual information retrieval algorithms for medical applications. In 2005, a task for medical image classification was introduced and both tasks have been run successfully for the past four years. These benchmarks allow an annual comparison of visual retrieval techniques based on the same data sets and the same query tasks, enabling the meaningful comparison of various retrieval techniques. The datasets used from 2004-2007 contained images and annotations from medical teaching files. In 2008, however, the dataset used was made up of 67,000 images (along with their associated figure captions and the full text of their corresponding articles) from two Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) scientific journals. This article describes the results of the medical image retrieval task of the ImageCLEF 2008 evaluation campaign. We compare the retrieval results of both visual and textual information retrieval systems from 15 research groups on the aforementioned data set. The results show clearly that, currently

  8. Multilingual Information Retrieval in Thoracic Radiology: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Castilla, André Coutinho; Furuie, Sérgio Shiguemi; Mendonça, Eneida A.

    2014-01-01

    Most of essential information contained on Electronic Medical Record is stored as text, imposing several difficulties on automated data extraction and retrieval. Natural language processing is an approach that can unlock clinical information from free texts. The proposed methodology uses the specialized natural language processor MEDLEE developed for English language. To use this processor on Portuguese medical texts, chest x-ray reports were Machine Translated into English. The result of serial coupling of MT an NLP is tagged text which needs further investigation for extracting clinical findings. The objective of this experiment was to investigate normal reports and reports with device description on a set of 165 chest x-ray reports. We obtained sensitivity and specificity of 1 and 0.71 for the first condition and 0.97 and 0.97 for the second respectively. The reference was formed by the opinion of two radiologists. The results of this experiment indicate the viability of extracting clinical findings from chest x-ray reports through coupling MT and NLP. PMID:17911745

  9. Common Problems of Documentary Information Transfer, Storage and Retrieval in Industrial Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, P. H.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of management information systems of three manufacturing firms highlights principal characteristics, document types and functions, main information flows, storage and retrieval systems, and common problems (corporate memory failure, records management, management information systems, general management). A literature review and…

  10. Contextual Information Drives the Reconsolidation-Dependent Updating of Retrieved Fear Memories

    PubMed Central

    Jarome, Timothy J; Ferrara, Nicole C; Kwapis, Janine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2015-01-01

    Stored memories enter a temporary state of vulnerability following retrieval known as ‘reconsolidation', a process that can allow memories to be modified to incorporate new information. Although reconsolidation has become an attractive target for treatment of memories related to traumatic past experiences, we still do not know what new information triggers the updating of retrieved memories. Here, we used biochemical markers of synaptic plasticity in combination with a novel behavioral procedure to determine what was learned during memory reconsolidation under normal retrieval conditions. We eliminated new information during retrieval by manipulating animals' training experience and measured changes in proteasome activity and GluR2 expression in the amygdala, two established markers of fear memory lability and reconsolidation. We found that eliminating new contextual information during the retrieval of memories for predictable and unpredictable fear associations prevented changes in proteasome activity and glutamate receptor expression in the amygdala, indicating that this new information drives the reconsolidation of both predictable and unpredictable fear associations on retrieval. Consistent with this, eliminating new contextual information prior to retrieval prevented the memory-impairing effects of protein synthesis inhibitors following retrieval. These results indicate that under normal conditions, reconsolidation updates memories by incorporating new contextual information into the memory trace. Collectively, these results suggest that controlling contextual information present during retrieval may be a useful strategy for improving reconsolidation-based treatments of traumatic memories associated with anxiety disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:26062788

  11. Geospatial intelligence workforce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-02-01

    A report on the future U.S. workforce for geospatial intelligence, requested by the U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), found that the agency—which hires about 300 scientists and analysts annually—is probably finding sufficient experts to fill the needs in all of its core areas, with the possible exception of geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The report by the U.S. National Research Council, released on 25 January, noted that competition for GIS applications analysts is strong. While there appear to be enough cartographers, photogrammetrists, and geodesists to meet NGA's current needs in those core areas, the report cautioned that future shortages in these areas seem likely because of a relatively small number of graduates.

  12. Some legal concerns with the use of crowd-sourced Geospatial Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, George

    2014-06-01

    Volunteered geographic Information (VGI), citizens as sensors, crowd-sourcing and 'Wikipedia' of maps have been used to describe activity facilitated by the Internet and the dynamic Web 2.0 environment to collect geographic information (GI). Legal concerns raised in the creation, assembly and dissemination of GI by produsers include: quality, ownership and liability. In detail, accuracy and authoritativeness of the crowd-sourced GI; the ownership and moral rights to the information, and contractual and tort liability are key concerns. A legal framework and governance structure may be necessary whereby technology, networked governance and provision of legal protections may be combined to mitigate geo-liability as a 'chilling' factor in VGI development.

  13. A Problem in Information Retrieval with Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, Duncan A.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of problems with fuzzy subsets in document retrieval highlights attempts to invent a system of weighted fuzzy queries in which weights correspond to relative importance of each term in query as whole, and use of Kantor's Logic for Retrieval as an alternative to Boolean queries. Six references are cited. (EJS)

  14. AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to Inform Rangeland Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Do you want a relatively easy to use tool to assess rangeland soil and water conservation practices on rangeland erosion that is specifically designed to use ecological information? New Decision Support Tools (DSTs) that are easy-to-use, incorporate ecological concepts and rangel...

  15. Exploiting semantic linkages among multiple sources for semantic information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, JianQiang; Yang, Ji-Jiang; Liu, Chunchen; Zhao, Yu; Liu, Bo; Shi, Yuliang

    2014-07-01

    The vision of the Semantic Web is to build a global Web of machine-readable data to be consumed by intelligent applications. As the first step to make this vision come true, the initiative of linked open data has fostered many novel applications aimed at improving data accessibility in the public Web. Comparably, the enterprise environment is so different from the public Web that most potentially usable business information originates in an unstructured form (typically in free text), which poses a challenge for the adoption of semantic technologies in the enterprise environment. Considering that the business information in a company is highly specific and centred around a set of commonly used concepts, this paper describes a pilot study to migrate the concept of linked data into the development of a domain-specific application, i.e. the vehicle repair support system. The set of commonly used concepts, including the part name of a car and the phenomenon term on the car repairing, are employed to build the linkage between data and documents distributed among different sources, leading to the fusion of documents and data across source boundaries. Then, we describe the approaches of semantic information retrieval to consume these linkages for value creation for companies. The experiments on two real-world data sets show that the proposed approaches outperform the best baseline 6.3-10.8% and 6.4-11.1% in terms of top five and top 10 precisions, respectively. We believe that our pilot study can serve as an important reference for the development of similar semantic applications in an enterprise environment.

  16. Adaptive information retrieval: machine learning in associate networks

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    One interesting issue in artificial intelligence (Al) currently is the relative merits of, and relationship between, the symbolic and connectionist approaches to intelligent systems building. The performance of more-traditional symbolic systems has been striking, but getting these systems to learn truly new symbols has proven difficult. Recently, some researchers have begun to explore a distinctly different type of representation, similar in some respects to the nerve nets of several decades past. In these massively parallel, connectionist models, symbols arise implicitly, through the interactions of many simple and subsymbolic elements. The work described here was done in two phases. The first phase concentrated on mapping the information retrieval (IR) task into a connectionist network; it is shown that IR is very amendable to this representation. The second, more central phase of the research has shown that this network can also adapt. AIR translates the browsing behaviors of its users into a feedback signal used by a Hebbian-like local learning rule to change the weights on some links. Experience with a series of alternative learning rules are reported, and the results of experiments using human subjects to evaluate the results of AIR's learning are presented.

  17. WebMIRS: web-based medical information retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Pillemer, Stanley R.; Lawrence, Reva C.; Goh, Gin-Hua; Neve, Leif; Thoma, George R.

    1997-12-01

    At the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, a research and development division of the National Library of Medicine (NLM), we are developing a prototype multimedia database system to provide World Wide Web access to biomedical databases. WebMIRS (Web-based Medical Information Retrieval System) will allow access to databases containing text and images and will allow database query by standard SQL, by image content, or by a combination of the two. The system is being developed in the form of Java applets, which will communicate with the Informix DBMS on an NLM Sun workstation running the Solaris operating system. The system architecture will allow access from any hardware platform, which supports a Java-enabled Web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. Initial databases will include data from two national health surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), and will include x-ray images from those surveys. In addition to describing in- house research in database access systems, this paper describes ongoing work toward querying by image content. Image content search capability will include capability to search for x-ray images similar to an input image with respect to vertebral morphometry used to characterize features such as fractures and disc space narrowing.

  18. How to retrieve additional information from the multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilk, Grzegorz; Włodarczyk, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Multiplicity distributions (MDs) P(N) measured in multiparticle production processes are most frequently described by the negative binomial distribution (NBD). However, with increasing collision energy some systematic discrepancies have become more and more apparent. They are usually attributed to the possible multi-source structure of the production process and described using a multi-NBD form of the MD. We investigate the possibility of keeping a single NBD but with its parameters depending on the multiplicity N. This is done by modifying the widely known clan model of particle production leading to the NBD form of P(N). This is then confronted with the approach based on the so-called cascade-stochastic formalism which is based on different types of recurrence relations defining P(N). We demonstrate that a combination of both approaches allows the retrieval of additional valuable information from the MDs, namely the oscillatory behavior of the counting statistics apparently visible in the high energy data.

  19. Generic Information Can Retrieve Known Biological Associations: Implications for Biomedical Knowledge Discovery

    PubMed Central

    van Haagen, Herman H. H. B. M.; 't Hoen, Peter A. C.; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation Weighted semantic networks built from text-mined literature can be used to retrieve known protein-protein or gene-disease associations, and have been shown to anticipate associations years before they are explicitly stated in the literature. Our text-mining system recognizes over 640,000 biomedical concepts: some are specific (i.e., names of genes or proteins) others generic (e.g., ‘Homo sapiens’). Generic concepts may play important roles in automated information retrieval, extraction, and inference but may also result in concept overload and confound retrieval and reasoning with low-relevance or even spurious links. Here, we attempted to optimize the retrieval performance for protein-protein interactions (PPI) by filtering generic concepts (node filtering) or links to generic concepts (edge filtering) from a weighted semantic network. First, we defined metrics based on network properties that quantify the specificity of concepts. Then using these metrics, we systematically filtered generic information from the network while monitoring retrieval performance of known protein-protein interactions. We also systematically filtered specific information from the network (inverse filtering), and assessed the retrieval performance of networks composed of generic information alone. Results Filtering generic or specific information induced a two-phase response in retrieval performance: initially the effects of filtering were minimal but beyond a critical threshold network performance suddenly drops. Contrary to expectations, networks composed exclusively of generic information demonstrated retrieval performance comparable to unfiltered networks that also contain specific concepts. Furthermore, an analysis using individual generic concepts demonstrated that they can effectively support the retrieval of known protein-protein interactions. For instance the concept “binding” is indicative for PPI retrieval and the concept “mutation abnormality” is

  20. Precision agriculture in the 21st Century: Geospatial and information technologies in crop management

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Agricultural managers have for decades taken advantage of new technologies, including information technologies, that enabled better management decision making and improved economic efficiency of operations. The extent and rate of change now occurring in the development of information technologies have opened the way for significant change in crop production management and agricultural decision making. This vision is reflected in the concept of precision agriculture. Precision agriculture is a phrase that captures the imagination of many concerned with the production of food, feed, and fiber. The concepts embodied in precision agriculture offer the promise of increasing productivity while decreasing production costs and minimizing environmental impacts. Precision agriculture conjures up images of farmers overcoming the elements with computerized machinery that is precisely controlled via satellites and local sensors and using planning software that accurately predicts crop development. This image has been called the future of agriculture. Such high-tech images are engaging. Precision agriculture, however, is in early and rapidly changing phases of innovation. Techniques and practices not anticipated by the committee will likely become common in the future, and some techniques and practices thought to hold high promise today may turn out to be less desirable than anticipated. This report defines precision agriculture as a management strategy that uses information technologies to bring data from multiple sources to bear on decisions associated with crop production. Precision agriculture has three components: capture of data at an appropriate scale and frequency, interpretation and analysis of that data, and implementation of a management response at an appropriate scale and time. The most significant impact of precision agriculture is likely to be on how management decisions address spatial and temporal variability in crop production systems.

  1. Estimating soil erosion changes in the Wenchuan earthquake disaster area using geo-spatial information technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Yanhong; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2009-05-01

    The secondary disasters induced by the Wenchuan earthquake of May 12, 2008, such as landslides, collapsing rocks, debris flows, floods, etc., have changed the local natural landscape tremendously and caused heavy soil erosion in the earthquake-hit areas. Using thematic mapper images taken before the earthquake and airborne images taken after the earthquake, we extracted information about the destroyed landscape by utilizing remote sensing and geographical information system techniques. Then, taking into account multi-year precipitation, vegetation cover, soil type, land use, and elevation data, we evaluated the soil erosion area and intensity using the revised universal soil loss equation. Results indicate that the soil erosion in earthquake-hit areas was exacerbated, with the severe erosion area increasing by 279.2 km2, or 1.9% of the total statistical area. Large amounts of soil and debris blocked streams and formed many barrier lakes over an area of more than 3.9 km2. It was evident from the spatial distribution of soil erosion areas that the intensity of soil erosion accelerated in the stream valley areas, especially in the valleys of the Min River and the Jian River.

  2. Multisource classification and pattern recognition methods for polar geospatial information mining using WorldView-2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khopkar, Parag S.; Jawak, Shridhar D.; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2016-04-01

    Current research study emphasizes the importance of advanced digital image processing methods in order to delineate between various LULC features. In the case of the Antarctica, the present LC (snow/ice, landmass, water, vegetation etc.) and the present LU (research stations of various nations) needs to be mapped accurately for the hassle free routine activities. Geo-location has become the most important part of geosciences studies. In this paper we have tried to locate three most important features (snow/ice, landmass, and water) and also have extracted the extent of the same using the multisource classification (image fusion/pansharpening) and pattern recognition (supervised/unsupervised methods, index ratio methods). Innovation in developing spectral index ratios has led us to come up with an unique ratio named Normalized Difference Landmass Index (NDLI) which performed better (Avg. Bias: 51.99m) than other ratios such as Normalized Difference Snow/Ice Index (NDSII) (Avg. Bias: -1572.11m) and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) (Avg. Bias: 1886.60m). The practiced trial and error methodology quantifies the productivity of not only the classification methods over one other but also that of the fusion methods. In present study, classifiers used (Mahalanobis and Winner Takes All) performed better (Avg. Bias: 122.16 m) than spectral index ratios (Avg. Bias: 620.16 m). The study also revealed that newly introduced bands in WorldView-2, band 1 (Coastal Blue), 4 (Yellow), 6 (Red-edge) and 8 (Near Infrared-2) along with traditional bands have the capacity to mine the polar geospatial information with utmost accuracy and efficiency.

  3. Personalizing Information Retrieval Using Interaction Behaviors in Search Sessions in Different Types of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    When using information retrieval (IR) systems, users often pose short and ambiguous query terms. It is critical for IR systems to obtain more accurate representation of users' information need, their document preferences, and the context they are working in, and then incorporate them into the design of the systems to tailor retrieval to…

  4. Using Cause-Effect Relations in Text To Improve Information Retrieval Precision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Myaeng, Sung Hyon; Oddy, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    This study used semantic relations expressed in text, particularly cause-effect relations, to improve information retrieval effectiveness. Investigated whether information obtained by matching cause-effect relations expressed in documents with the cause-effect relations expressed in users' queries can be used to improve retrieval results, in…

  5. On a Model of Distributed Information Retrieval Systems Based on Thesauri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazur, Zygmunt

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the properties of a global model consisting of "n" local information retrieval systems based on thesaurus. Definitions of a distributed information retrieval system (thesaurus, documents set, set of queries) and proofs of theorems denoting further properties of the systems are highlighted. Five references are included. (EJS)

  6. Experiments in Discourse Analysis Impact on Information Classification and Retrieval Algorithms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morato, Jorge; Llorens, J.; Genova, G.; Moreiro, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of contextual information in indexing and retrieval systems to improve results and the ability to carry out text analysis by means of linguistic knowledge. Presents research that investigated whether discourse variables have an impact on information and retrieval and classification algorithms. (Author/LRW)

  7. Geospatial Information Systems Analysis of Regional Environmental Change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Twumasi, Yaw A.; Merem, Edmund C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS); and descriptive statistics in the assessment of environmental change along the Savannah River Basin of Georgia. Results of the study show that Savannah River basin side of Georgia has been experiencing environmental change due to several decades of relentless pressure induced by anthropocentric activities and host of other socio-economic factors. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis of the area also shows a decline in vegetation cover. The pace of ecological change showed some variations across time and space. Generally, the results point to a decline in water bodies, vegetation, and increase in population, loss of harvested cropland, farms and increasing threats to the environmental systems of the region. PMID:18441406

  8. Information storage medium and method of recording and retrieving information thereon

    DOEpatents

    Marchant, D. D.; Begej, Stefan

    1986-01-01

    Information storage medium comprising a semiconductor doped with first and second impurities or dopants. Preferably, one of the impurities is introduced by ion implantation. Conductive electrodes are photolithographically formed on the surface of the medium. Information is recorded on the medium by selectively applying a focused laser beam to discrete regions of the medium surface so as to anneal discrete regions of the medium containing lattice defects introduced by the ion-implanted impurity. Information is retrieved from the storage medium by applying a focused laser beam to annealed and non-annealed regions so as to produce a photovoltaic signal at each region.

  9. Latent morpho-semantic analysis : multilingual information retrieval with character n-grams and mutual information.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter A.; Abdelali, Ahmed

    2008-08-01

    We describe an entirely statistics-based, unsupervised, and language-independent approach to multilingual information retrieval, which we call Latent Morpho-Semantic Analysis (LMSA). LMSA overcomes some of the shortcomings of related previous approaches such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LMSA has an important theoretical advantage over LSA: it combines well-known techniques in a novel way to break the terms of LSA down into units which correspond more closely to morphemes. Thus, it has a particular appeal for use with morphologically complex languages such as Arabic. We show through empirical results that the theoretical advantages of LMSA can translate into significant gains in precision in multilingual information retrieval tests. These gains are not matched either when a standard stemmer is used with LSA, or when terms are indiscriminately broken down into n-grams.

  10. Transition to On-Line Information and Reference Retrieval. Experimental Retrieval Systems Studies, Report Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A., Jr.; And Others

    An existing experimental document and reference retrieval system operating in batch processing, tape oriented mode was converted to an on-line mode with user interaction. Objectives were faster response time, integration of functions, and system accessibility at user location. Effects on file organization, addressing techniques, file maintenance,…

  11. Efficient Methods to Assimilate Satellite Retrievals Based on Information Content. Part 2; Suboptimal Retrieval Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joiner, J.; Dee, D. P.

    1998-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in data assimilation has been and continues to be how best to utilize satellite data while balancing the tradeoff between accuracy and computational cost. A number of weather prediction centers have recently achieved remarkable success in improving their forecast skill by changing the method by which satellite data are assimilated into the forecast model from the traditional approach of assimilating retrievals to the direct assimilation of radiances in a variational framework. The operational implementation of such a substantial change in methodology involves a great number of technical details, e.g., pertaining to quality control procedures, systematic error correction techniques, and tuning of the statistical parameters in the analysis algorithm. Although there are clear theoretical advantages to the direct radiance assimilation approach, it is not obvious at all to what extent the improvements that have been obtained so far can be attributed to the change in methodology, or to various technical aspects of the implementation. The issue is of interest because retrieval assimilation retains many practical and logistical advantages which may become even more significant in the near future when increasingly high-volume data sources become available. The central question we address here is: how much improvement can we expect from assimilating radiances rather than retrievals, all other things being equal? We compare the two approaches in a simplified one-dimensional theoretical framework, in which problems related to quality control and systematic error correction are conveniently absent. By assuming a perfect radiative transfer model and perfect knowledge of radiance and background error covariances, we are able to formulate a nonlinear local error analysis for each assimilation method. Direct radiance assimilation is optimal in this idealized context, while the traditional method of assimilating retrievals is suboptimal because it

  12. Functions of a Man-Machine Interactive Information Retrieval System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An effective man-machine interactive retrieval system is not achieved by simply placing a terminal on each end of an existing machine retrieval...many of these needs was developed and tested. The objective of the development of this system, BROWSER, was to investigate the effectiveness of a free...form query with a combinatorial search algorithm and the effectiveness of various techniques and components to facilitate online browsing.

  13. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

    PubMed

    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing.

  14. Server Side Applications And Plugins Architecture For The Analysis Of Geospatial Information And The Management Of Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierleoni, Arnaldo; Casagrande, Luca; Bellezza, Michele; Casadei, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    The need for increasingly complex geospatial algorithms dedicated to the management of water resources, the fact that many of them require specific knowledge and the need for dedicated computing machines has led to the necessity of centralizing and sharing all the server applications and the plugins developed. For this purpose, a Web Processing Service (WPS) that can make available to users a range of geospatial analysis algorithms, geostatistics, remote sensing procedures and that can be used simply by providing data and input parameters and download the results has been developed. The core of the system infrastructure is a GRASS GIS, which acts as a computational engine, providing more than 350 forms of analysis and the opportunity to create new and ad hoc procedures. The implementation of the WPS was performed using the software PyWPS written in Python that is easily manageable and configurable. All these instruments are managed by a daemon named "Arcibald" specifically created for the purpose of listing the order of the requests that come from the users. In fact, it may happen that there are already ongoing processes so the system will queue the new ones registering the request and running it only when the previous calculations have been completed. However, individual Geoprocessing have an indicator to assess the resources necessary to implement it, enabling you to run geoprocesses that do not require excessive computing time in parallel. This assessment is also made in relation to the size of the input file provided. The WPS standard defines methods for accessing and running Geoprocessing regardless of the client used, however, the project has been developed specifically for a graphical client to access the resources. The client was built as a plugin for the GIS QGis Software which provides the most common tools for the view and the consultation of geographically referenced data. The tool was tested using the data taken during the bathymetric campaign at the

  15. Information retrieval patterns and needs among practicing general surgeons: a statewide experience.

    PubMed

    Shelstad, K R; Clevenger, F W

    1996-10-01

    Information retrieval has progressed from a reliance on traditional print sources to the modern era of computer databases and online networks. Surgeons, many from remote areas not served by professional medical libraries, must develop and maintain skills in information retrieval and management in both electronic and standard formats. One hundred thirty-three New Mexico general surgeons were surveyed to identify their information-seeking patterns in five areas: retrieval purposes, retrieval sources, barriers to access, techniques used, and continuing education needs. Ninety-nine (74.4%) surgeons responded to the survey. Ninety-five percent utilize professional meetings, the medical literature, and physician colleagues as information sources. Only 17% utilize the outreach services of the state's only medical school library. Common retrieval barriers were practice demands (71%), isolation from medical schools (30%), computer illiteracy (28%), and rural environment (25%). Continuing education topics related to information management would be valuable to 61% of the surgeons. Sixty-nine percent believe their current ability to access biomedical information is adequate, despite most frequently accessing their personal libraries for information related to decision-making or patient management. These data suggest that, despite significant information needs, surgeons have not embraced newer forms of information retrieval. It is imperative that surgeons acquire and maintain modern information retrieval skills as a means of remaining up-to-date in their profession. Professional surgical organizations and medical librarians should collaborate on these continuing education ventures.

  16. The Effect of Human Behavior on the Design of an Information Retrieval System Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Zhang; Fine, Sara

    1996-01-01

    Focuses on human behavior in the information-seeking process, and identifies behaviors influencing the design of information retrieval system interfaces. Discusses the principles of saturation, concreteness, least resistance, familiarity, stimulation, certainty, simplicity, and following-form. (PEN)

  17. Subjective Probability and Information Retrieval: A Review of the Psychological Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the subjective probability estimation literature of six schools of human judgement and decision making: decision theory, behavioral decision theory, psychological decision theory, social judgement theory, information integration theory, and attribution theory. Implications for probabilistic information retrieval are discussed, including…

  18. Intrasubtest scatter on the WAIS-III information subtest and psychometrically defined retrieval deficits.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J J; Paul, C A; Arb, J D

    1999-12-01

    Milberg, et al. (1996) postulated that significant intrasubtest scatter on the Wechsler Information subtest reflects impaired retrieval. From a pool of 205 male referrals at a VA medical center with complete WAIS-III and WMS-III protocols, 28 participants with impaired retrieval (Group I) defined by a high Retrieval Composite score were identified. A sample (Group II) without similar evidence of impaired retrieval was matched to Group I on age, education, Full Scale IQ, race, and diagnosis. Intrasubtest scatter on the Information subtest was the same across groups (Group I M = 6.3, SD = 2.7; Group II M = 6.9, SD = 3.4). A second study identified impaired retrieval using the WMS-III Word Lists subtest. 21 participants (Group III) had impaired retrieval indicated by a Recognition scaled score being > or = 4 points higher than the Delayed Recall scaled score. A matched sample (Group IV) of VA patients without similar evidence of impaired retrieval was constituted. Intrasubtest scatter on the Information subtest did not differ across groups (Group III M = 6.6, SD = 2.4; Group IV M = 6.0, SD = 2.5). Evaluations of the retrieval deficit hypothesis should be based on responses of participants whose Information performance is characterized by abnormal amounts of intrasubtest scatter. It is possible that a specific amount of response variability must be present within the subtest before retrieval problems can be detected.

  19. [Design and implementation of medical instrument standard information retrieval system based on APS.NET].

    PubMed

    Yu, Kaijun

    2010-07-01

    This paper Analys the design goals of Medical Instrumentation standard information retrieval system. Based on the B /S structure,we established a medical instrumentation standard retrieval system with ASP.NET C # programming language, IIS f Web server, SQL Server 2000 database, in the. NET environment. The paper also Introduces the system structure, retrieval system modules, system development environment and detailed design of the system.

  20. Solving the scale-conflict between crop models and the climate information by a catchment-specific geospatial climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, J. I.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Kim, D.

    2012-12-01

    The spatial resolution of local agrometeorological service for farming activities often exceeds the current scales of weather and climate information. When crop models are applied to regional scales, the same problem occurs especially in complex terrain where the coarse meteorological inputs can never represent the underlying land attributes. To supplement the insufficient spatial resolution of official weather and climate information, we suggest a catchment-specific climate mapping scheme based on recently developed techniques in geospatial climatology. Given a single value for a catchment from the nearest weather office, a daily minimum temperature surface at a 30m resolution across the catchment can be produced by the cold air drainage and thermal belt effect embedded in this scheme. Daily maximum temperature can be estimated at the same resolution by applying the solar irradiance effect on sloping surfaces. The PRISM model was modified to accommodate the micro topography effect within a catchment to predict local rainfall at a 270m grid spacing. We applied this scheme to each of the 840 official watersheds of South Korea and 855 watersheds temporarily prepared for North Korea to produce monthly average maps for daily maximum and minimum temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation, each representing a decadal average year for the 9 future periods (2011-2100) as well as the 4 past periods (1971-2010). These primary products were further processed into the secondary products including extremes, sums, and probabilities of climatic events relevant to farming activities at a given grid cell. In addition, the monthly data were used in a stochastic weather generator to produce multiple sets of daily weather data for each decade. Any agronomic models could be run by the generated daily data to project the site-specific growth and development of crops with inter-annual variation. The fine resolution of the grid cell enables pin pointing real-world farms or orchards

  1. Modeling the Time Course of Feature Perception and Feature Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Christopher; Lamberts, Koen

    2006-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether retrieval of information about different dimensions of a visual object varies as a function of the perceptual properties of those dimensions. The experiments involved two perception-based matching tasks and two retrieval-based matching tasks. A signal-to-respond methodology was used in all tasks. A stochastic…

  2. A Bayesian Approach to User Stopping Rules for Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Donald H.; Waller, W. G.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a dynamic model of user behavior when scanning an information storage and retrieval system output list, compares rules for determining the user's optimum stopping point, presents an algorithm for implementing the Bayesian model, and discusses implications for retrieval system design. Provided are 13 figures and 15 references. (Author/RBF)

  3. A Bibliometric Analysis of Collaboration in the Field of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Ying; Foo, Schubert; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the collaborative patterns of the information retrieval research field using co-authored articles retrieved from "Social Science Citation Index" for a period of 11 years, from 1987 to 1997. Results reveal an upward trend of collaborative research with interdisciplinary and intra-disciplinary scholarly communication. (Author/LRW)

  4. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Experiments Based on CLEF 2000 Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Discusses cross-language, multilingual, and bilingual information retrieval on the Web; evaluates retrieval effectiveness of indexing and search strategies based on test collections from CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) in English, French, German, and Italian; and suggests and evaluates database merging strategies. Appendices include…

  5. Information Retrieval in an Office Filing Facility and Future Work in Project Minstrel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeaton, A. F.; van Rijsbergen, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    Review of office filing facility filing and retrieval mechanisms for unstructured and mixed media information focuses on free text methods. Also discussed are the state of the art in handling voice and image data, problems with searching text surrogates to implement free text content retrieval, and work of Project Minstrel. (Author/MBR)

  6. A Theory for the Storage and Retrieval of Item and Associative Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdock, Bennet B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A theory for storage and retrieval of associative information is presented. Items or events are represented as random vectors. Convolution is used as the storage operation, correlation as the retrieval operation. A distributed memory system is assumed. The theory applies to recognition and recall and covers both accuracy and latency. (Author/RD)

  7. A Study of the Impact of Representations in Information Retrieval Systems. Annual Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzer, Jeffrey; And Others

    This study conducted to determine representation impact on information items retrieval in terms of precision and recall performance and overlap used the INSPEC "Computers and Control Abstracts" loaded on DIATOM, an online retrieval system based on DIALOG, as the database to be searched. Sixty-nine users provided 84 queries which were…

  8. EPA Geospatial Applications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has developed many applications that allow users to explore and interact with geospatial data. This page highlights some of the flagship geospatial web applications but these represent only a fraction of the total.

  9. Information Storage and Retrieval, Scientific Report No. ISR-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    Several algorithms were investigated which would allow a user to interact with an automatic document retrieval system by requesting relevance judgments on selected sets of documents. Two viewpoints were taken in evaluation. One measured the movement of queries toward the optimum query as defined by Rocchio; the other measured the retrieval…

  10. A Microfilm Information Retrieval System for Newspaper Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janda, Kenneth; Gordon, David

    1970-01-01

    Paper presented before the newspaper Division at Special Libraries Association Conference (Montreal, June 1969). A pilot program at Medill School of Journalism, Northwestern University, uses Microfilm Retrieval Access Code (Miracode) for rapid automatic searching of newspaper clipping files. (Editor/JS)

  11. Retrieval practice is an efficient method of enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology information.

    PubMed

    Dobson, John L

    2013-06-01

    Although a great deal of empirical evidence has indicated that retrieval practice is an effective means of promoting learning and memory, very few studies have investigated the strategy in the context of an actual class. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a series of very brief retrieval quizzes could significantly improve the retention of previously tested information throughout an anatomy and physiology course. A second purpose was to determine if there were any significant differences between expanding and uniform patterns of retrieval that followed a standardized initial retrieval delay. Anatomy and physiology students were assigned to either a control group or groups that were repeatedly prompted to retrieve a subset of previously tested course information via a series of quizzes that were administered on either an expanding or a uniform schedule. Each retrieval group completed a total of 10 retrieval quizzes, and the series of quizzes required (only) a total of 2 h to complete. Final retention of the exam subset material was assessed during the last week of the semester. There were no significant differences between the expanding and uniform retrieval groups, but both retained an average of 41% more of the subset material than did the control group (ANOVA, F = 129.8, P = 0.00, ηp(2) = 0.36). In conclusion, retrieval practice is a highly efficient and effective strategy for enhancing the retention of anatomy and physiology material.

  12. An overview of selected information storage and retrieval issues in computerized document processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Ihebuzor, Valentine U.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid development of computerized information storage and retrieval techniques has introduced the possibility of extending the word processing concept to document processing. A major advantage of computerized document processing is the relief of the tedious task of manual editing and composition usually encountered by traditional publishers through the immense speed and storage capacity of computers. Furthermore, computerized document processing provides an author with centralized control, the lack of which is a handicap of the traditional publishing operation. A survey of some computerized document processing techniques is presented with emphasis on related information storage and retrieval issues. String matching algorithms are considered central to document information storage and retrieval and are also discussed.

  13. Retrieval monitoring is influenced by information value: the interplay between importance and confidence on false memory.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Ian M; Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    The perceived value of information can influence one's motivation to successfully remember that information. This study investigated how information value can affect memory search and evaluation processes (i.e., retrieval monitoring). In Experiment 1, participants studied unrelated words associated with low, medium, or high values. Subsequent memory tests required participants to selectively monitor retrieval for different values. False memory effects were smaller when searching memory for high-value than low-value words, suggesting that people more effectively monitored more important information. In Experiment 2, participants studied semantically-related words, and the need for retrieval monitoring was reduced at test by using inclusion instructions (i.e., endorsement of any word related to the studied words) compared with standard instructions. Inclusion instructions led to increases in false recognition for low-value, but not for high-value words, suggesting that under standard-instruction conditions retrieval monitoring was less likely to occur for important information. Experiment 3 showed that words retrieved with lower confidence were associated with more effective retrieval monitoring, suggesting that the quality of the retrieved memory influenced the degree and effectiveness of monitoring processes. Ironically, unless encouraged to do so, people were less likely to carefully monitor important information, even though people want to remember important memories most accurately.

  14. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  15. Examining the Effect of Enactment of a Geospatial Curriculum on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Kulo, Violet; Peffer, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    A potential method for teaching geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) is through geospatially enabled learning technologies. We developed an energy resources geospatial curriculum that included learning activities with geographic information systems and virtual globes. This study investigated how 13 urban middle school teachers implemented and…

  16. EPA GEOSPATIAL QUALITY COUNCIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Geospatial Quality Council (previously known as the EPA GIS-QA Team - EPA/600/R-00/009 was created to fill the gap between the EPA Quality Assurance (QA) and Geospatial communities. All EPA Offices and Regions were invited to participate. Currently, the EPA Geospatial Q...

  17. Confabulation in Alzheimer's disease: poor encoding and retrieval of over-learned information.

    PubMed

    Attali, Eve; De Anna, Francesca; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2009-01-01

    Patients who confabulate retrieve personal habits, repeated events or over-learned information and mistake them for actually experienced, specific unique events. Although some hypotheses favour a disruption of frontal/executive functions operating at retrieval, the respective involvement of encoding and retrieval processes in confabulation is still controversial. The present study sought to investigate experimentally the involvement of encoding and retrieval processes and the interference of over-learned information in the confabulation of Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 normal controls encoded and retrieved unknown stories, well-known fairy tales (e.g. Snow White) and modified well-known fairy tales (e.g. Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf) under three experimental conditions: (i) full attention at encoding and at retrieval; (ii) divided attention at encoding (i.e. performing an attention demanding secondary task) and full attention at retrieval; (iii) full attention at encoding and divided attention at retrieval. We found that confabulations in Alzheimer's disease patients were more frequent for the modified well-known fairy tales and when encoding was weakened by a concurrent secondary task (61%), compared with the other types of stories and experimental conditions. Confabulations in the modified fairy tales always consisted of elements of the original version of the fairy tale (e.g. Little Red Riding Hood is eaten by the wolf). This is the first experimental evidence showing that poor encoding and over-learned information are involved in confabulation in Alzheimer's disease.

  18. Evaluating the Quality of Query Refinement Suggestions in Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    However, evaluating the effec- tiveness of these suggestions has remained quite subjective, with a vast majority of the past work relying on expensive...addressing the polysemy problem while QR suggestions can ef- fectively address both the problems. For example, query expansion may be able to retrieve...However, these evaluation measures can be quite expensive since it involves user interaction. Another work on evaluation that has similar objectives to the

  19. A resource-oriented architecture for a Geospatial Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    In this presentation we discuss some architectural issues on the design of an architecture for a Geospatial Web, that is an information system for sharing geospatial resources according to the Web paradigm. The success of the Web in building a multi-purpose information space, has raised questions about the possibility of adopting the same approach for systems dedicated to the sharing of more specific resources, such as the geospatial information, that is information characterized by spatial/temporal reference. To this aim an investigation on the nature of the Web and on the validity of its paradigm for geospatial resources is required. The Web was born in the early 90's to provide "a shared information space through which people and machines could communicate" [Berners-Lee 1996]. It was originally built around a small set of specifications (e.g. URI, HTTP, HTML, etc.); however, in the last two decades several other technologies and specifications have been introduced in order to extend its capabilities. Most of them (e.g. the SOAP family) actually aimed to transform the Web in a generic Distributed Computing Infrastructure. While these efforts were definitely successful enabling the adoption of service-oriented approaches for machine-to-machine interactions supporting complex business processes (e.g. for e-Government and e-Business applications), they do not fit in the original concept of the Web. In the year 2000, R. T. Fielding, one of the designers of the original Web specifications, proposes a new architectural style for distributed systems, called REST (Representational State Transfer), aiming to capture the fundamental characteristics of the Web as it was originally conceived [Fielding 2000]. In this view, the nature of the Web lies not so much in the technologies, as in the way they are used. Maintaining the Web architecture conform to the REST style would then assure the scalability, extensibility and low entry barrier of the original Web. On the contrary

  20. Scalability of Findability: Decentralized Search and Retrieval in Large Information Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Weimao

    2010-01-01

    Amid the rapid growth of information today is the increasing challenge for people to survive and navigate its magnitude. Dynamics and heterogeneity of large information spaces such as the Web challenge information retrieval in these environments. Collection of information in advance and centralization of IR operations are hardly possible because…

  1. Best Practices for Preparing Interoperable Geospatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Santhana Vannan, S.; Cook, R. B.; Wilson, B. E.; Beaty, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    Geospatial data is critically important for a wide scope of research and applications: carbon cycle and ecosystem, climate change, land use and urban planning, environmental protecting, etc. Geospatial data is created by different organizations using different methods, from remote sensing observations, field surveys, model simulations, etc., and stored in various formats. So geospatial data is diverse and heterogeneous, which brings a huge barrier for the sharing and using of geospatial data, especially when targeting a broad user community. Many efforts have been taken to address different aspects of using geospatial data by improving its interoperability. For example, the specification for Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) catalog services defines a standard way for geospatial information discovery; OGC Web Coverage Services (WCS) and OPeNDAP define interoperable protocols for geospatial data access, respectively. But the reality is that only having the standard mechanisms for data discovery and access is not enough. The geospatial data content itself has to be organized in standard, easily understandable, and readily usable formats. The Oak Ridge National Lab Distributed Archived Data Center (ORNL DAAC) archives data and information relevant to biogeochemical dynamics, ecological data, and environmental processes. The Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) prepares and distributes both input data and output data of carbon cycle models and provides data support for synthesis and terrestrial model inter-comparison in multi-scales. Both of these NASA-funded data centers compile and distribute a large amount of diverse geospatial data and have broad user communities, including GIS users, Earth science researchers, and ecosystem modeling teams. The ORNL DAAC and MAST-DC address this geospatial data interoperability issue by standardizing the data content and feeding them into a well-designed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) which provides interoperable

  2. Investigating metrics of geospatial web services: The case of a CEOS federated catalog service for earth observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiguo; Di, Liping; Yu, Genong; Shao, Yuanzheng; Kang, Lingjun

    2016-07-01

    Geospatial Web Services (GWS) make geospatial information and computing resources discoverable and accessible over the Web. Among them, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards-compliant data, catalog and processing services are most popular, and have been widely adopted and leveraged in geospatial research and applications. The GWS metrics, such as visit count, average processing time, and user distribution, are important to evaluate their overall performance and impacts. However, these metrics, especially of federated catalog service, have not been systematically evaluated and reported to relevant stakeholders from the point of view of service providers. Taking an integrated catalog service for earth observation data as an example, this paper describes metrics information retrieval, organization, and representation of a catalog service federation. An extensible and efficient log file analyzer is implemented to retrieve a variety of service metrics from the log file and store analysis results in an easily programmable format. An Ajax powered Web portal is built to provide stakeholders, sponsors, developers, partners, and other types of users with specific and relevant insights into metrics information in an interactive and informative form. The deployed system has provided useful information for periodical reports, service delivery, and decision support. The proposed measurement strategy and analytics framework can be a guidance to help GWS providers evaluate their services.

  3. Incorporating Geospatial Technology into Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sproles, E. A.; Songer, L.

    2009-12-01

    The need for students to think spatially and use geospatial technologies is becoming more critical as these tools and concepts are increasingly incorporated into a broad range of occupations and academic disciplines. Geospatial Teaching Across the Curriculum (Geo-STAC) is a collaborative program that provides high school teachers with mentored professional development workshops in geospatial thought and technology. The seminars, led by community college faculty, give high school teachers the ability to incorporate geospatial technology into coursework across the curriculum — in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and non-STEM disciplines. Students participating in the hands-on lessons gain experience in web-based and desktop Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The goals of the workshop are for teachers to: (1) understand the importance of geospatial thinking; (2) learn how to employ geospatial thinking in each discipline; (3) learn about geospatial technologies; (4) develop a Web-based GIS lesson; and, (5) implement a Web-based GIS lesson. Additionally, Geo-STAC works with high school students so that they: (1) understand the importance of geospatial technologies and careers in future job markets; (2) learn how to use Web-based GIS to solve problems; and, (3) visit the community college GIS lab and experience using desktop GIS. Geo-STAC actively disseminates this collaborative model to colleges to community colleges and high schools across the country.

  4. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System: Providing information for carbon cycle studies with open source geospatial tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, N. H.; Erickson, T.; McKenzie, D.

    2008-12-01

    A major goal of the North American Carbon Program is to resolve uncertainties in understanding and managing the carbon cycle of North America. As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive and spatially oriented, accurate datasets to spatially quantify carbon emissions from fire are needed, and these data resources need to be accessible to users for decision-making. Under a new NASA Carbon Cycle Science project, Drs. Nancy French and Tyler Erickson, of the Michigan Technological University, Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI), are teaming with specialists with the USDA Forest Service Fire and Environmental Research Applications (FERA) team to provide information for mapping fire-derived carbon emissions to users. The project focus includes development of a web-based system to provide spatially resolved fire emissions estimates for North America in a user-friendly environment. The web-based Decision Support System will be based on a variety of open source technologies. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) raster map of fuels and MODIS-derived burned area vector maps will be processed using the Geographic Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) and OGR Simple Features Library. Tabular and spatial project data will be stored in a PostgreSQL/PostGIS, a spatially enabled relational database server. The browser-based user interface will be created using the Django web page framework to allow user input for the decision support system. The OpenLayers mapping framework will be used to provide users with interactive maps within the browser. In addition, the data products will be made available in standard open data formats such as KML, to allow for easy integration into other spatial models and data systems.

  5. GeoSearch: A lightweight broking middleware for geospatial resources discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Z.; Yang, C.; Liu, K.; Xia, J.

    2012-12-01

    With petabytes of geodata, thousands of geospatial web services available over the Internet, it is critical to support geoscience research and applications by finding the best-fit geospatial resources from the massive and heterogeneous resources. Past decades' developments witnessed the operation of many service components to facilitate geospatial resource management and discovery. However, efficient and accurate geospatial resource discovery is still a big challenge due to the following reasons: 1)The entry barriers (also called "learning curves") hinder the usability of discovery services to end users. Different portals and catalogues always adopt various access protocols, metadata formats and GUI styles to organize, present and publish metadata. It is hard for end users to learn all these technical details and differences. 2)The cost for federating heterogeneous services is high. To provide sufficient resources and facilitate data discovery, many registries adopt periodic harvesting mechanism to retrieve metadata from other federated catalogues. These time-consuming processes lead to network and storage burdens, data redundancy, and also the overhead of maintaining data consistency. 3)The heterogeneous semantics issues in data discovery. Since the keyword matching is still the primary search method in many operational discovery services, the search accuracy (precision and recall) is hard to guarantee. Semantic technologies (such as semantic reasoning and similarity evaluation) offer a solution to solve these issues. However, integrating semantic technologies with existing service is challenging due to the expandability limitations on the service frameworks and metadata templates. 4)The capabilities to help users make final selection are inadequate. Most of the existing search portals lack intuitive and diverse information visualization methods and functions (sort, filter) to present, explore and analyze search results. Furthermore, the presentation of the value

  6. Enhanced information retrieval from narrative German-language clinical text documents using automated document classification.

    PubMed

    Spat, Stephan; Cadonna, Bruno; Rakovac, Ivo; Gütl, Christian; Leitner, Hubert; Stark, Günther; Beck, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The amount of narrative clinical text documents stored in Electronic Patient Records (EPR) of Hospital Information Systems is increasing. Physicians spend a lot of time finding relevant patient-related information for medical decision making in these clinical text documents. Thus, efficient and topical retrieval of relevant patient-related information is an important task in an EPR system. This paper describes the prototype of a medical information retrieval system (MIRS) for clinical text documents. The open-source information retrieval framework Apache Lucene has been used to implement the prototype of the MIRS. Additionally, a multi-label classification system based on the open-source data mining framework WEKA generates metadata from the clinical text document set. The metadata is used for influencing the rank order of documents retrieved by physicians. Combining information retrieval and automated document classification offers an enhanced approach to let physicians and in the near future patients define their information needs for information stored in an EPR. The system has been designed as a J2EE Web-application. First findings are based on a sample of 18,000 unstructured, clinical text documents written in German.

  7. Space shuttle program information control and retrieval system feasibility study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingle, C. P.

    1973-01-01

    The feasibility of having a common information management network for space shuttle data, is studied. Identified are the information types required, sources and users of the information, and existing techniques for acquiring, storing and retrieving the data. The study concluded that a decentralized system is feasible, and described a recommended development plan for it.

  8. A Computer-Based System Integrating Instruction and Information Retrieval: A Description of Some Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Judith A.; And Others

    This report, summarizing the activities of the Vision Information Center (VIC) in the field of computer-assisted instruction from December, 1966 to August, 1967, describes the methodology used to load a large body of information--a programed text on basic opthalmology--onto a computer for subsequent information retrieval and computer-assisted…

  9. On-Line Retrieval System Design; Part V of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    On-line retrieval system design is discussed in the two papers which make up Part Five of this report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project report. The first paper: "A Prototype On-Line Document Retrieval System" by D. Williamson and R. Williamson outlines a design for a SMART on-line document retrieval system…

  10. Retrieval of the atmospheric compounds using a spectral optical thickness information

    SciTech Connect

    Ioltukhovski, A.A.

    1995-03-01

    A spectral inversion technique for retrieval of the atmospheric gases and aerosols contents is proposed. This technique based upon the preliminary measurement or retrieval of the spectral optical thickness. The existence of a priori information about the spectral cross sections for some of the atmospheric components allows to retrieve the relative contents of these components in the atmosphere. Method of smooth filtration makes possible to estimate contents of atmospheric aerosols with known cross sections and to filter out other aerosols; this is done independently from their relative contribution to the optical thickness.

  11. Fluency heuristic: a model of how the mind exploits a by-product of information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hertwig, Ralph; Herzog, Stefan M; Schooler, Lael J; Reimer, Torsten

    2008-09-01

    Boundedly rational heuristics for inference can be surprisingly accurate and frugal for several reasons. They can exploit environmental structures, co-opt complex capacities, and elude effortful search by exploiting information that automatically arrives on the mental stage. The fluency heuristic is a prime example of a heuristic that makes the most of an automatic by-product of retrieval from memory, namely, retrieval fluency. In 4 experiments, the authors show that retrieval fluency can be a proxy for real-world quantities, that people can discriminate between two objects' retrieval fluencies, and that people's inferences are in line with the fluency heuristic (in particular fast inferences) and with experimentally manipulated fluency. The authors conclude that the fluency heuristic may be one tool in the mind's repertoire of strategies that artfully probes memory for encapsulated frequency information that can veridically reflect statistical regularities in the world.

  12. Distinct Regions of Prefrontal Cortex Are Associated with the Controlled Retrieval and Selection of Social Information

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Badre, David; Ochsner, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Research in social neuroscience has uncovered a social knowledge network that is particularly attuned to making social judgments. However, the processes that are being performed by both regions within this network and those outside of this network that are nevertheless engaged in the service of making a social judgment remain unclear. To help address this, we drew upon research in semantic memory, which suggests that making a semantic judgment engages 2 distinct control processes: A controlled retrieval process, which aids in bringing goal-relevant information to mind from long-term stores, and a selection process, which aids in selecting the information that is goal-relevant from the information retrieved. In a neuroimaging study, we investigated whether controlled retrieval and selection for social information engage distinct portions of both the social knowledge network and regions outside this network. Controlled retrieval for social information engaged an anterior ventrolateral portion of the prefrontal cortex, whereas selection engaged both the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction within the social knowledge network. These results suggest that the social knowledge network may be more involved with the selection of social information than the controlled retrieval of it and incorporates lateral prefrontal regions in accessing memory for making social judgments. PMID:23300111

  13. Visualization and Ontology of Geospatial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yupo

    Recent events have deepened our conviction that many human endeavors are best described in a geospatial context. This is evidenced in the prevalence of location-based services, as afforded by the ubiquitous cell phone usage. It is also manifested by the popularity of such internet engines as Google Earth. As we commute to work, travel on business or pleasure, we make decisions based on the geospatial information provided by such location-based services. When corporations devise their business plans, they also rely heavily on such geospatial data. By definition, local, state and federal governments provide services according to geographic boundaries. One estimate suggests that 85 percent of data contain spatial attributes.

  14. User assumptions about information retrieval systems: Ethical concerns

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    Information professionals, whether designers, intermediaries, database producers or vendors, bear some responsibility for the information that they make available to users of information systems. The users of such systems may tend to make many assumptions about the information that a system provides, such as believing: that the data are comprehensive, current and accurate, that the information resources or databases have same degree of quality and consistency of indexing; that the abstracts, if they exist, correctly and adequate reflect the content of the article; that there is consistency informs of author names or journal titles or indexing within and across databases; that there is standardization in and across databases; that once errors are detected, they are corrected; that appropriate choices of databases or information resources are a relatively easy matter, etc. The truth is that few of these assumptions are valid in commercia or corporate or organizational databases. However, given these beliefs and assumptions by many users, often promoted by information providers, information professionals, impossible, should intervene to warn users about the limitations and constraints of the databases they are using. With the growth of the Internet and end-user products (e.g., CD-ROMs), such interventions have significantly declined. In such cases, information should be provided on start-up or through interface screens, indicating to users, the constraints and orientation of the system they are using. The principle of {open_quotes}caveat emptor{close_quotes} is naive and socially irresponsible: information professionals or systems have an obligation to provide some framework or context for the information that users are accessing.

  15. Coordinating Council. Tenth Meeting: Information retrieval: The role of controlled vocabularies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The theme of this NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program Coordinating Council meeting was the role of controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in information retrieval. Included are summaries of the presentations and the accompanying visuals. Dr. Raya Fidel addressed 'Retrieval: Free Text, Full Text, and Controlled Vocabularies.' Dr. Bella Hass Weinberg spoke on 'Controlled Vocabularies and Thesaurus Standards.' The presentations were followed by a panel discussion with participation from NASA, the National Library of Medicine, the Defense Technical Information Center, and the Department of Energy; this discussion, however, is not summarized in any detail in this document.

  16. Natural Language Query System Design for Interactive Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Liu, I-Hsiung

    1985-01-01

    The currently developed multi-level language interfaces of information systems are generally designed for experienced users. These interfaces commonly ignore the nature and needs of the largest user group, i.e., casual users. This research identifies the importance of natural language query system research within information storage and retrieval system development; addresses the topics of developing such a query system; and finally, proposes a framework for the development of natural language query systems in order to facilitate the communication between casual users and information storage and retrieval systems.

  17. Information retrieval from holographic interferograms: Fundamentals and problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, Charles M.

    1987-01-01

    Holographic interferograms can contain large amounts of information about flow and temperature fields. Their information content can be very high because they can be viewed from many different directions. This multidirectionality, and fringe localization add to the information contained in the fringe pattern if diffuse illumination is used. Additional information, and increased accuracy can be obtained through the use of dual reference wave holography to add reference fringes or to effect discrete phase shift or hetrodyne interferometry. Automated analysis of fringes is possible if interferograms are of simple structure and good quality. However, in practice a large number of practical problems can arise, so that a difficult image processing task results.

  18. Retrieving Online Information on Drugs: An Analysis of Four Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavengood, Kathryn A.

    This study examines the indexing of drugs in the literature and compares actual drug indexing to stated indexing policies in selected databases. The goal is to aid health science information specialists, end-users, and/or non-subject experts to improve recall and comprehensiveness when searching for drug information by identifying the most useful…

  19. A Compositional Relevance Model for Adaptive Information Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathe, Nathalie; Chen, James; Lu, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing need for rapid and effective access to information in large electronic documentation systems. Access can be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context can be automatically supplied to the user. This includes information relevant to particular user profiles, tasks being performed, and problems being solved. However most of this knowledge on contextual relevance is not found within the contents of documents, and current hypermedia tools do not provide any easy mechanism to let users add this knowledge to their documents. We propose a compositional relevance network to automatically acquire the context in which previous information was found relevant. The model records information on the relevance of references based on user feedback for specific queries and contexts. It also generalizes such information to derive relevant references for similar queries and contexts. This model lets users filter information by context of relevance, build personalized views of documents over time, and share their views with other users. It also applies to any type of multimedia information. Compared to other approaches, it is less costly and doesn't require any a priori statistical computation, nor an extended training period. It is currently being implemented into the Computer Integrated Documentation system which enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework.

  20. SPIRAL (Sandia's Program for Information Retrieval and Listing)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leslie E.

    The general scope of SPIRAL is storage of free-flowing text information into a machine-readable library and recall of any portions of this stored information that are relevant to an inquiry. The major objectives in the design of the system were (1) to make it easy to use by persons unfamiliar with computer systems; and (2) to make it efficient, in…

  1. NASA Access Mechanism - Graphical user interface information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy F.; Generous, Curtis; Duncan, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Access to online information sources of aerospace, scientific, and engineering data, a mission focus for NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Program, has always been limited by factors such as telecommunications, query language syntax, lack of standardization in the information, and the lack of adequate tools to assist in searching. Today, the NASA STI Program's NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype offers a solution to these problems by providing the user with a set of tools that provide a graphical interface to remote, heterogeneous, and distributed information in a manner adaptable to both casual and expert users. Additionally, the NAM provides access to many Internet-based services such as Electronic Mail, the Wide Area Information Servers system, Peer Locating tools, and electronic bulletin boards.

  2. NASA access mechanism: Graphical user interface information retrieval system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Judy; Generous, Curtis; Duncan, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Access to online information sources of aerospace, scientific, and engineering data, a mission focus for NASA's Scientific and Technical Information Program, has always been limited to factors such as telecommunications, query language syntax, lack of standardization in the information, and the lack of adequate tools to assist in searching. Today, the NASA STI Program's NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) prototype offers a solution to these problems by providing the user with a set of tools that provide a graphical interface to remote, heterogeneous, and distributed information in a manner adaptable to both casual and expert users. Additionally, the NAM provides access to many Internet-based services such as Electronic Mail, the Wide Area Information Servers system, Peer Locating tools, and electronic bulletin boards.

  3. Semantic analysis based forms information retrieval and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Tanzila; Alqahtani, Fatimah Ayidh

    2013-09-01

    Data entry forms are employed in all types of enterprises to collect hundreds of customer's information on daily basis. The information is filled manually by the customers. Hence, it is laborious and time consuming to use human operator to transfer these customers information into computers manually. Additionally, it is expensive and human errors might cause serious flaws. The automatic interpretation of scanned forms has facilitated many real applications from speed and accuracy point of view such as keywords spotting, sorting of postal addresses, script matching and writer identification. This research deals with different strategies to extract customer's information from these scanned forms, interpretation and classification. Accordingly, extracted information is segmented into characters for their classification and finally stored in the forms of records in databases for their further processing. This paper presents a detailed discussion of these semantic based analysis strategies for forms processing. Finally, new directions are also recommended for future research. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Using Metadata To Improve Organization and Information Retrieval on the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Bich-Lien; Beigbeder, Michel; Girardot, Jean-Jacques; Jaillon, Philippe

    The growing volume of heterogeneous and distributed information on the World Wide Web has made it increasingly difficult for existing tools to retrieve relevant information. To improve the performance of these tools, this paper suggests how to handle two aspects of the problem. The first aspect concerns a better representation and description of…

  5. Information Visualization and Proposing New Interface for Movie Retrieval System (IMDB)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etemadpour, Ronak; Masood, Mona; Belaton, Bahari

    2010-01-01

    This research studies the development of a new prototype of visualization in support of movie retrieval. The goal of information visualization is unveiling of large amounts of data or abstract data set using visual presentation. With this knowledge the main goal is to develop a 2D presentation of information on movies from the IMDB (Internet Movie…

  6. The Impact of Computers on the Retrieval and Utilization of Chemical Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Barbara

    The use of computers in retrieving bibliographic chemical information is traced through the SDI, batch, and online modes, and related changes are noted in such areas as data base availability, cost, software, and amount of user control. The impact of these changes on both the quality and quantity of chemical information use is discussed, as well…

  7. A Retrospective and Prospective View of Information Retrieval and Artificial Intelligence in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Traces the development of information retrieval/services and suggests that the creation of large digital libraries seems inevitable. Examines possibilities for increasing electronic access and the role of artificial intelligence. Highlights include: searching full text; sending full texts; selective dissemination of information (SDI) profiling and…

  8. Information Retrieval Strategies of Millennial Undergraduate Students in Web and Library Database Searches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Brandi

    2009-01-01

    Millennial students make up a large portion of undergraduate students attending colleges and universities, and they have a variety of online resources available to them to complete academically related information searches, primarily Web based and library-based online information retrieval systems. The content, ease of use, and required search…

  9. Not on the Same Page: Undergraduates' Information Retrieval in Electronic and Print Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Selinda Adelle; Hoffmann, Kristin; Dawson, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Academic libraries are increasingly collecting e-books, but little research has investigated how students use e-books compared to print texts. This study used a prompted think-aloud method to gain an understanding of the information retrieval behavior of students in both formats. Qualitative analysis identified themes that will inform instruction…

  10. Networked Information Retrieval Tools in the Academic Environment: Towards a Cybernetic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, George H., II

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the literature of networked information retrieval tools to explore the concept of an interactive text-based virtual reality environment that would encompass resources currently available on the Internet. Highlights include academic libraries, electronic mail, hypertext navigation systems, wide area information servers, knowbots and…

  11. Determinants to trigger memory reconsolidation: The role of retrieval and updating information.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Bermúdez-Rattoni, Federico

    2016-12-21

    Long-term memories can undergo destabilization/restabilization processes, collectively called reconsolidation. However, the parameters that trigger memory reconsolidation are poorly understood and are a matter of intense investigation. Particularly, memory retrieval is widely held as requisite to initiate reconsolidation. This assumption makes sense since only relevant cues will induce reconsolidation of a specific memory. However, recent studies show that pharmacological inhibition of retrieval does not avoid memory from undergoing reconsolidation, indicating that memory reconsolidation occurs through a process that can be dissociated from retrieval. We propose that retrieval is not a unitary process but has two dissociable components; one leading to the expression of memory and the other to reconsolidation, referred herein as executer and integrator respectively. The executer would lead to the behavioral expression of the memory. This component would be the one disrupted on the studies that show reconsolidation independence from retrieval. The integrator would deal with reconsolidation. This component of retrieval would lead to long-term memory destabilization when specific conditions are met. We think that an important number of reports are consistent with the hypothesis that reconsolidation is only initiated when updating information is acquired. We suggest that the integrator would initiate reconsolidation to integrate updating information into long-term memory.

  12. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices.

  13. Optically secured information retrieval using two authenticated phase-only masks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Wen; Mei, Shengtao; Chen, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for jointly designing two phase-only masks (POMs) that allow for the encryption and noise-free retrieval of triple images. The images required for optical retrieval are first stored in quick-response (QR) codes for noise-free retrieval and flexible readout. Two sparse POMs are respectively calculated from two different images used as references for authentication based on modified Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm (GSA) and pixel extraction, and are then used as support constraints in a modified double-phase retrieval algorithm (MPRA), together with the above-mentioned QR codes. No visible information about the target images or the reference images can be obtained from each of these authenticated POMs. This approach allows users to authenticate the two POMs used for image reconstruction without visual observation of the reference images. It also allows user to friendly access and readout with mobile devices. PMID:26494213

  14. A Study of Organizational Information Search, Acquisition, Storage and Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    literatures associated with the perspectives are described. The perspectives themselves are first contrasted and then, using a communicatins framework... corporation division. This 19 31 (selective distribution greatly reduces the information processing load of the many potential receiving units having...of Management, 11: 75-86. Shields, M.D. 1983. Effects of Information Supply and Demand on Judgment Accuracy: Evidence from Corporate Managers. The

  15. Utilization of ontology look-up services in information retrieval for biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Vishnyakova, Dina; Pasche, Emilie; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    With the vast amount of biomedical data we face the necessity to improve information retrieval processes in biomedical domain. The use of biomedical ontologies facilitated the combination of various data sources (e.g. scientific literature, clinical data repository) by increasing the quality of information retrieval and reducing the maintenance efforts. In this context, we developed Ontology Look-up services (OLS), based on NEWT and MeSH vocabularies. Our services were involved in some information retrieval tasks such as gene/disease normalization. The implementation of OLS services significantly accelerated the extraction of particular biomedical facts by structuring and enriching the data context. The results of precision in normalization tasks were boosted on about 20%.

  16. Electronic retrieval of health information by healthcare providers to improve practice and patient care

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Jessie; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Hannes, Karin; Deane, Katherine; Labrecque, Michel; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background The movement towards evidence-based practice makes explicit the need for access to current best evidence to improve health. Advances in electronic technologies have made health information more available, but does availability affect the rate of use of evidence in practice? Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions intended to provide electronic retrieval (access to information) to health information by healthcare providers to improve practice and patient care. Search methods We obtained studies from computerized searches of multiple electronic bibliographic databases, supplemented by checking reference lists, and consultation with experts. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster randomized trials (CRCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCT), and interrupted time series analyses (ITS) of any language publication status examining interventions of effectiveness of electronic retrieval of health information by healthcare providers. Data collection and analysis Duplicate relevancy screening of searches, data abstraction and risk of bias assessment was undertaken. Main results We found two studies that examined this question. Neither study found any changes in professional behavior following an intervention that facilitated electronic retrieval of health information. There was some evidence of improvements in knowledge about the electronic sources of information reported in one study. Neither study assessed changes in patient outcomes or the costs of provision of the electronic resource and the implementation of the recommended evidence-based practices. Authors’ conclusions Overall there was insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of electronic retrieval of healthcare information by healthcare providers to improve practice and patient care. PMID:19588361

  17. 'Meatball searching' - The adversarial approach to online information retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the different styles of online searching can be described as either formal (highly precise) or informal with the needs of the client dictating which is most applicable at a particular moment. The background and personality of the searcher also come into play. Particular attention is focused on meatball searching which is a form of online searching characterized by deliberate vagueness. It requires generally comprehensive searches, often on unusual topics and with tight deadlines. It is most likely to occur in search centers serving many different disciplines and levels of client information sophistication. Various information needs are outlined as well as the laws of meatball searching and the adversarial approach. Traits and characteristics important to sucessful searching include: (1) concept analysis, (2) flexibility of thinking, (3) ability to think in synonyms and (4) anticipation of variant word forms and spellings.

  18. JOIS-III JICST'S new online information retrieval system (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamanaka, Hisashi; Takano, Katsuhiro; Motoyama, Noriyuki

    We give an outline of JOIS (JICST On-line Information System)-III, Which has been developed as a succession to JOIS-II now being on service by The Japan Information Center of Science and Technology to start service in January 1990. In this report we show input format from new and function-expanded commands substituting to those of JOIS-II and examples of using. (for 1st part, see vol.32, No. 3 ; 2nd part vol. 32, No.4)

  19. GEOSPATIAL QUALITY COUNCIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geospatial Science is increasingly becoming an important tool in making Agency decisions. QualIty Control and Quality Assurance are required to be integrated during the planning, implementation and assessment of geospatial databases, processes and products. In order to ensure Age...

  20. UASs for geospatial data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly, consumer organizations, businesses, and academic researchers are using UAS to gather geospatial, environmental data on natural and man-made phenomena. These data may be either remotely sensed or measured directly (e. g., sampling of atmospheric constituents). The term geospatial data r...

  1. Integrating the humanities in the education of health professionals: implications for search and retrieval of information.

    PubMed

    Polson, Robert G; Farmer, Elizabeth S

    2002-03-01

    This article examines the increasing use of the humanities in the education of health professionals and posits that the approach may be of use in teaching health professionals information search and retrieval skills. However little evidence exists to support the educational effectiveness of using the humanities. This lack of evidence raises concerns about the costs of financing this approach to learning. These costs include the issue of copyright which cannot be ignored. While the humanities might provide a more attractive approach to teaching information search and retrieval skills, further research is needed to justify the costs of this approach to learning in more general terms and urgent attention to.

  2. Practical Side of the Bibliographic Information Retrieval System in the National Museum of Ethnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Katsuichi

    The information retrieval system of the National Museum of Ethnology made its debut in 1979 and now enables us to search the books not only in the Museum but in the country and abroad by means of JAPAN MARC & LC MARC. The author presents the outline and the development of the information managing system including the above briefly and secondly the practical case of using our retrieval system in particular. The problems to be solved in the course of the future plan are also mentioned.

  3. Online Information Retrieval for Economists: The Economic Literature Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekwurzel, Drucilla; Saffran, Bernard

    1985-01-01

    The basics of online searching for bibliographic citations are presented through use of the "Economic Literature Index" (ELI), which is available as File 139 on Dialog Information Services. This article focuses on the choice of media for bibliographic searches, search strategies, and the selection of alternative databases, such as…

  4. Online Information Retrieval. Teaching Electronic Access in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elaine; And Others

    The electronic information access skills outlined in this guide for teachers and library media specialists expand the online searching skills discussed in the previous Wisconsin Educational Media Association handbook, and further delineate skill development in this crucial area. This publication is designed to serve as a broad planning and…

  5. Future Prospects for Network-Based Multimedia Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulick, Stephen

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the current status of 4 developments that will determine the emergence of generally available multimedia information services: high-bandwidth networks; inexpensive user appliances capable of handling multimedia; adoption of standards for representation, compression, packaging, and transmission; and development of a corpus of multimedia…

  6. Content Based Image Retrieval and Information Theory: A General Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachary, John; Iyengar, S. S.; Barhen, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an alternative real valued representation of color based on the information theoretic concept of entropy. A theoretical presentation of image entropy is accompanied by a practical description of the merits and limitations of image entropy compared to color histograms. Results suggest that image entropy is a promising approach to image…

  7. Nonmonotonic Logic for Use in Information Retrieval: An Exploratory Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Monotonic logic requires reexamination of the entire logic string when there is a contradiction. Nonmonotonic logic allows the user to withdraw conclusions in the face of contradiction without harm to the logic string, which has considerable application to the field of information searching. Artificial intelligence models and neural networks based…

  8. Characterization of random scattering media and related information retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenyu

    There has been substantial interest in optical imaging in and through random media in applications as diverse as environmental sensing and tumor detection. The rich scatter environment also leads to multiple paths or channels, which may provide higher capacity for communication. Coherent light passing through random media produces an intensity speckle pattern when imaged, as a result of multiple scatter and the imaging optics. When polarized coherent light is used, the speckle pattern is sensitive to the polarization state, depending on the amount of scatter, and such measurements provide information about the random medium. This may form the basis for enhanced imaging of random media and provide information on the scatterers themselves. Second and third order correlations over laser scan frequency are shown to lead to the ensemble averaged temporal impulse response, with sensitivity to the polarization state in the more weakly scattering regime. A new intensity interferometer is introduced that provides information about two signals incident on a scattering medium. The two coherent beams, which are not necessarily overlapping, interfere in a scattering medium. A sinusoidal modulation in the second order intensity correlation with laser scan frequency is shown to be related to the relative delay of the two incident beams. An intensity spatial correlation over input position reveals that decorrelation occurs over a length comparable to the incident beam size. Such decorrelation is also related to the amount of scatter. Remarkably, with two beams incident at different angles, the intensity correlation over the scan position has a sinusoidal modulation that is related to the incidence angle difference between the two input beams. This spatial correlation over input position thus provides information about input wavevectors.

  9. The man/machine interface in information retrieval: Providing access to the casual user

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with the difficulties encountered by casual users wishing to employ Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. A casual user is defined as a professional who has neither time nor desire to pursue in depth the study of the numerous and varied retrieval systems. His needs for on-line search are only occasional, and not limited to any particular system. The paper takes a close look at the state of the art of research concerned with aiding casual users of Information Storage and Retrieval Systems. Current experiments such as LEXIS, CONIT, IIDA, CITE, and CCL are presented and discussed. Comments and proposals are offered, specifically in the areas of training, learning and cost as experienced by the casual user. An extensive bibliography of recent works on the subject follows the text.

  10. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information...

  11. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information...

  12. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information...

  13. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information...

  14. 42 CFR 433.127 - Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information retrieval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... claims processing and information retrieval systems. 433.127 Section 433.127 Public Health CENTERS FOR... PROGRAMS STATE FISCAL ADMINISTRATION Mechanized Claims Processing and Information Retrieval Systems § 433.127 Termination of FFP for failure to provide access to claims processing and information...

  15. Learning and Relevance in Information Retrieval: A Study in the Application of Exploration and User Knowledge to Enhance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of exploration and learning upon eDiscovery information retrieval; it is written in three parts. Part I contains foundational concepts and background on the topics of information retrieval and eDiscovery. This part informs the reader about the research frameworks, methodologies, data collection, and…

  16. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-08

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.

  17. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to poor encoding and retrieval of over-learned information.

    PubMed

    Attali, Eve; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging is characterized by deficits that cross multiple cognitive domains including episodic memory and attention. Compared to young adults (YA), older adults (OA) not only show reduction in true memories, but also an increase in false memories. In this study we aim to elucidate how the production of confabulation is influenced by encoding and retrieval processes. We hypothesized that in OA, compared to YA, over-learned information interferes with the recall of specific, unique past episodes and this interference should be more prominent when a concurrent task perturbs the encoding of the episodes to be recalled. We tested this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm in which a group of OA and a group of YA had to recall three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Snow White), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf), in three different experimental conditions: (1) free encoding and free retrieval; (2) Divided attention (DA) at encoding and free retrieval; and (3) free encoding and DA at retrieval. Results showed that OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA, particularly, in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Moreover, DA at encoding markedly increased the number of confabulations, whereas DA at retrieval had no effect on confabulation. Our findings reveal the implications of two phenomena in the production of confabulation in normal aging: the effect of poor encoding and the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  18. The Value of Information and Geospatial Technologies for the analysis of tidal current patterns in the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Demarchi, Alessandro; Facello, Anna; Cámaro, Walther; Hermosilla, Fernando; López, Jaime

    2016-04-01

    The study and validation of tidal current patterns relies on the combination of several data sources such as numerical weather prediction models, hydrodynamic models, weather stations, current drifters and remote sensing observations. The assessment of the accuracy and the reliability of produced patterns and the communication of results, including an easy to understand visualization of data, is crucial for a variety of stakeholders including decision-makers. The large diffusion of geospatial equipment such as GPS, current drifters, aerial photogrammetry, allows to collect data in the field using mobile and portable devices with a relative limited effort in terms of time and economic resources. Theses real-time measurements are essential in order to validate the models and specifically to assess the skill of the model during critical environmental conditions. Moreover, the considerable development in remote sensing technologies, cartographic services and GPS applications have enabled the creation of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) capable to store, analyze, manage and integrate spatial or geographical information with hydro-meteorological data. This valuable contribution of Information and geospatial technologies can benefit manifold decision-makers including high level sport athletes. While the numerical approach, commonly used to validate models with in-situ data, is more familiar for scientific users, high level sport users are not familiar with a numerical representations of data. Therefore the integration of data collected in the field into a GIS allows an immediate visualization of performed analysis into geographic maps. This visualization represents a particularly effective way to communicate current patterns assessment results and uncertainty in information, leading to an increase of confidence level about the forecast. The aim of this paper is to present the methodology set-up in collaboration with the Austrian Sailing Federation, for the study of

  19. An overview of the National Space Science data Center Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, A.; Blecher, S.; Verson, E. E.; King, M. L. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A general overview is given of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Standard Information Retrieval System. A description, in general terms, the information system that contains the data files and the software system that processes and manipulates the files maintained at the Data Center. Emphasis is placed on providing users with an overview of the capabilities and uses of the NSSDC Standard Information Retrieval System (SIRS). Examples given are taken from the files at the Data Center. Detailed information about NSSDC data files is documented in a set of File Users Guides, with one user's guide prepared for each file processed by SIRS. Detailed information about SIRS is presented in the SIRS Users Guide.

  20. Flexible patient information search and retrieval framework: pilot implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdal, Selnur; Catalyurek, Umit V.; Saltz, Joel; Kamal, Jyoti; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2007-03-01

    Medical centers collect and store significant amount of valuable data pertaining to patients' visit in the form of medical free-text. In addition, standardized diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification: ICD9-CM) related to those dictated reports are usually available. In this work, we have created a framework where image searches could be initiated through a combination of free-text reports as well as ICD9 codes. This framework enables more comprehensive search on existing large sets of patient data in a systematic way. The free text search is enriched by computer-aided inclusion of additional search terms enhanced by a thesaurus. This combination of enriched search allows users to access to a larger set of relevant results from a patient-centric PACS in a simpler way. Therefore, such framework is of particular use in tasks such as gathering images for desired patient populations, building disease models, and so on. As the motivating application of our framework, we implemented a search engine. This search engine processed two years of patient data from the OSU Medical Center's Information Warehouse and identified lung nodule location information using a combination of UMLS Meta-Thesaurus enhanced text report searches along with ICD9 code searches on patients that have been discharged. Five different queries with various ICD9 codes involving lung cancer were carried out on 172552 cases. Each search was completed under a minute on average per ICD9 code and the inclusion of UMLS thesaurus increased the number of relevant cases by 45% on average.

  1. Hybrid ontology for semantic information retrieval model using keyword matching indexing system.

    PubMed

    Uthayan, K R; Mala, G S Anandha

    2015-01-01

    Ontology is the process of growth and elucidation of concepts of an information domain being common for a group of users. Establishing ontology into information retrieval is a normal method to develop searching effects of relevant information users require. Keywords matching process with historical or information domain is significant in recent calculations for assisting the best match for specific input queries. This research presents a better querying mechanism for information retrieval which integrates the ontology queries with keyword search. The ontology-based query is changed into a primary order to predicate logic uncertainty which is used for routing the query to the appropriate servers. Matching algorithms characterize warm area of researches in computer science and artificial intelligence. In text matching, it is more dependable to study semantics model and query for conditions of semantic matching. This research develops the semantic matching results between input queries and information in ontology field. The contributed algorithm is a hybrid method that is based on matching extracted instances from the queries and information field. The queries and information domain is focused on semantic matching, to discover the best match and to progress the executive process. In conclusion, the hybrid ontology in semantic web is sufficient to retrieve the documents when compared to standard ontology.

  2. Digital Computer Simulation Models of Library-Based Information Retrieval Systems. Reports on File Organization Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Kevin D.

    A simulation study of library-based information retrieval systems is described. Basic models for each of several important aspects are presented: (1) user behavior, emphasizing response to quality and delays in services; (2) the scheduling of services and the organization of the machine-readable files; and (3) the distribution of conventional…

  3. On Using Genetic Algorithms for Multimodal Relevance Optimization in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boughanem, M.; Christment, C.; Tamine, L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a genetic relevance optimization process performed in an information retrieval system that uses genetic techniques for solving multimodal problems (niching) and query reformulation techniques. Explains that the niching technique allows the process to reach different relevance regions of the document space, and that query reformulations…

  4. An Introduction to Genetic Algorithms and to Their Use in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gareth; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Genetic algorithms, a class of nondeterministic algorithms in which the role of chance makes the precise nature of a solution impossible to guarantee, seem to be well suited to combinatorial-optimization problems in information retrieval. Provides an introduction to techniques and characteristics of genetic algorithms and illustrates their…

  5. Embedding Term Similarity and Inverse Document Frequency into a Logical Model of Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losada, David E.; Barreiro, Alvaro

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an approach to incorporate term similarity and inverse document frequency into a logical model of information retrieval. Highlights include document representation and matching; incorporating term similarity into the measure of distance; new algorithms for implementation; inverse document frequency; and logical versus classical models of…

  6. The Applicability of Universal Pragmatics in Information Retrieval Interaction: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Kwong Bor

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the possibility and usefulness of applying Habermas' universal pragmatics to analyze information retrieval interaction. Examines current studies of human computer interaction (HCI) and presents a case study that investigated the initiation and development of verification of validity claims in HCI from the universal pragmatics…

  7. Applying Information-Retrieval Methods to Software Reuse: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stierna, Eric J.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses reuse of existing software for new purposes as a key aspect of efficient software engineering by matching formal written requirements used to define the new and the old software. Explores two matching methodologies that use information retrieval techniques and describes test results from a comparison of two military systems. (Author/LRW)

  8. Testing Visual Information Retrieval Methodologies Case Study: Comparative Analysis of Textual, Icon, Graphical, and "Spring" Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Emile; Lewis, Michael; Olsen, Kai A.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of visual information retrieval systems focuses on an approach for testing novel interfaces that uses bottom-up, stepwise testing to allow evaluation of a visualization itself, rather than restricting evaluation to the system instantiating it. Presents a case study of undergraduates that compares a new visualization technique to more…

  9. Millennial Undergraduate Research Strategies in Web and Library Information Retrieval Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the author's dissertation regarding search strategies of millennial undergraduate students in Web and library online information retrieval systems. Millennials bring a unique set of search characteristics and strategies to their research since they have never known a world without the Web. Through the use of search engines,…

  10. Writer's Guide to Publication Development. How to Get Your Publication into an Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jezierski, Kathleen

    This handbook is a set of guidelines to assist authors in preparing publications to meet two sets of criteria: requirements of federal and state government sponsors and requirements of information retrieval systems. The guidelines include both a set of written instructions and a physical model, and are sufficiently flexible to apply to research…

  11. User-Centered Perspective of Information Retrieval Research and Analysis Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William

    1995-01-01

    Reviews information retrieval (IR) studies since 1986 from the user's perspective. Identifies two main approaches that advocate user-centered design theory: (1) the cognitive approach; and (2) the holistic approach. Also explores other approaches--systems thinking/action research and usability techniques that may have potential for IR research and…

  12. A Theory of Indexing: Indexing Theory as a Model for Information Storage and Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Bertrand Clovis

    Present day shortcomings in information retrieval are the results of a failure to properly contend with the problem of data representation. The index provides the necessary linkage between a multiplicity of sources and a single receiver. Whether considering the source/document-space interface or the query/index interface, the elements of the…

  13. An Evaluation of Help Mechanisms in Natural Language Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreymer, Oleg

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the current state of natural language processing information retrieval systems from the user's point of view, focusing on the structure and components of the systems' help mechanisms. Topics include user/system interaction; semantic parsing; syntactic parsing; semantic mapping; and concept matching. (Author/LRW)

  14. A CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ANY DATA BANKING (INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL) PROCESS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Study was started to discover and state explicitly the fundamentals of data banking (more commonly called information storage and retrieval). A clear...framework or hierarchical tree is displayed that includes all possible data banking processes and shows their similarities and differences. The basis of

  15. Graduate Student Cognition during Information Retrieval Using the World Wide Web: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Brian

    The purpose of this study was to describe and interpret the cognition of a graduate student during information retrieval using the World Wide Web. The participant was a doctoral student in psychology with little experience using the Internet, and even less experience with the World Wide Web. The student performed an open search of her dissertation…

  16. Adaptive Man-Machine Interaction in Information Retrieval; A Dissertation in Electrical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, John S.

    Three specific contributions to the field of information retrieval are presented. The first two describe the establishment of an adaptive, interactive man-machine dialogue that produces a form of unsolicited librarian-like assistance for the user in his selection of index terms to characterize an indexing function. The data set upon which the…

  17. Improving the "Darkness to Light" Ratio in User-Related Information Retrieval Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Nigel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to improve research and design more effective information retrieval systems. Topics include human-system interaction; knowledge integration; pluralistic research approaches; enhanced access to research data; more multidisciplinary integrative devices and conceptual mappings; establishing a greater mass of published research findings…

  18. Structure of Hierarchic Clusterings: Implications for Information Retrieval and for Multivariate Data Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtagh, F.

    1984-01-01

    Using examples of data from the areas of information retrieval and of multivariate data analysis, six hierarchic clustering algorithms (single link, median, centroid, group average, complete link, Wards's) are examined and evaluated by using three proposed coefficients of hierarchic structure. Nine references are cited. (EJS)

  19. An Information Storage and Retrieval System for Biological and Geological Data. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Donald F.

    A project is being conducted to test the feasibility of an information storage and retrieval system for museum specimen data, particularly for natural history museums. A pilot data processing system has been developed, with the specimen records from the national collections of birds, marine crustaceans, and rocks used as sample data. The research…

  20. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  1. NLPIR: A Theoretical Framework for Applying Natural Language Processing to Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Dongsong

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a theoretical framework called NLPIR that integrates natural language processing (NLP) into information retrieval (IR) based on the assumption that there exists representation distance between queries and documents. Discusses problems in traditional keyword-based IR, including relevance, and describes some existing NLP techniques.…

  2. A Spoken Access Approach for Chinese Text and Speech Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chien, Lee-Feng; Wang, Hsin-Min; Bai, Bo-Ren; Lin, Sun-Chein

    2000-01-01

    Presents an efficient spoken-access approach for both Chinese text and Mandarin speech information retrieval. Highlights include human-computer interaction via voice input, speech query recognition at the syllable level, automatic term suggestion, relevance feedback techniques, and experiments that show an improvement in the effectiveness of…

  3. A Methodology To Allow Avalanche Forecasting on an Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, R. S.; Sanderson, M.

    1998-01-01

    Presents adaptations and tests undertaken to allow an information retrieval system to forecast the likelihood of avalanches on a particular day; the forecasting process uses historical data of the weather and avalanche conditions for a large number of days. Describes a method for adapting these data into a form usable by a text-based IR system and…

  4. Searcher Response in a Hypertext-Based Bibliographic Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitroff, Alexandra; Wolfram, Dietmar

    1995-01-01

    Describes a study of graduate students that examined search behavior and affective response to a hypertext-based bibliographic information retrieval system called HyperLynx for searchers with different search skills and backgrounds. Previous experience with hypertext or Boolean searching is examined, and search times are discussed. (21 references)…

  5. Interface Design Concepts in the Development of a Web-Based Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Rebecca; Shuttleworth, Marie; Smith, Phil

    1998-01-01

    Presents six principles for building and evaluating Web-based information retrieval interfaces: help the user develop an understanding of the interface and search process, judge the value of continuing search paths, and refine search queries or search topics; avoid complex navigation; make system actions explicit; and provide verbal labels…

  6. Computer-Based Storage and Retrieval of Geoscience Information: Bibliography 1970-72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, C. F., Jr.

    The publication of papers describing activity in computer-based storage and retrieval and geoscience information has continued at a vigorous pace since release of the last bibliography, which covered the period 1946-69 (ED 076 203). A total of 211 references are identified, nearly all of which were published during the three-year period 1970-72…

  7. A Preliminary Thesaurus of Environmental Engineering Terms for an Individual Information Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Joni K.

    Wastewater treatment, microbiology, biochemistry, and engineering are the major subject areas covered in this preliminary thesaurus designed for use in a private information retrieval system. The thesaurus was developed through meetings where each descriptor was discussed, necessary scope notes were written, definition and cross references were…

  8. SPIRES (Stanford Physics Information REtrieval System) 1969-70 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Inst. for Communication Research.

    For those unfamiliar with the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) an introduction and background section is provided in this 1969-70 annual report. This is followed by: (1) the SPIRES I prototype, (2) developing a production system--SPIRES II and (3) system scope and requirements analysis. The appendices present: (1) Stanford…

  9. A Relevance-based Quantitative Measure for Internet Information Retrieval Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCall, Steven L.; Cleveland, Ana D.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a metric for comparing the performance of common classes of Internet information retrieval tools, including human indexed catalogs of Web resources and automatically indexed databases of Web pages. The benefit of the proposed metric is that it is relevance-based, and it facilitates the comparison of the performance of different classes of…

  10. A Proposed Method of Measuring the Utility of Individual Information Retrieval Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadow, Charles T.

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a method of evaluating information retrieval systems by concentrating on individual tools (commands, their menus or graphic interface equivalents, or a move/stratagem). A user would assess the relative success of a small part of a search, and every tool used in that part would be credited with a contribution to the result. Cumulative…

  11. Development of the CODER System: A Testbed for Artificial Intelligence Methods in Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the CODER system, which was developed to investigate the application of artificial intelligence methods to increase the effectiveness of information retrieval systems, particularly those involving heterogeneous documents. Highlights include the use of PROLOG programing, blackboard-based designs, knowledge engineering, lexicological…

  12. Informing radar retrieval algorithm development using an alternative soil moisture validation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, W. T.; Wagner, W.

    2009-12-01

    Applying basic data assimilation techniques to the evaluation of remote-sensing products can clarify the impact of sensor design issues on the value of retrievals for hydrologic applications. For instance, the impact of incidence angle on the accuracy of radar surface soil moisture retrievals is largely unknown due to discrepancies in theoretical backscatter models as well as limitations in the availability of sufficiently-extensive ground-based soil moisture observations for validation purposes. In this presentation we will describe and apply a data assimilation evaluation technique for scatterometer-based surface soil moisture retrievals that does not require ground-based soil moisture observations to examine the sensitivity of retrieval skill to variations in incidence angle. Past results with the approach have shown that it is capable of detecting relative variations in the correlation between anomalies in remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals and ground-truth soil moisture measurements. Application of the evaluation approach to the TU-Wien WARP5.0 European Space Radar (ERS) soil moisture data set over two regional-scale (~1000 km) domains in the Southern United States indicates a relative reduction in anomaly correlation-based skill of between 20% and 30% when moving between the lowest (< 26 degrees) and highest ERS (> 50 degrees) incidence angle ranges. These changes in anomaly-based correlation provide a useful proxy for relative variations in the value of estimates for data assimilation applications and can therefore be used to inform the design of appropriate retrieval algorithms. For example, the observed sensitivity of correlation-based skill with incidence angle is in approximate agreement with soil moisture retrieval uncertainty predictions made using the WARP5.0 backscatter model. However, the coupling of a bare soil backscatter model with the so-called "vegetation water cloud" model is shown to generally over-estimate the impact of

  13. Geospatial Services in Special Libraries: A Needs Assessment Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Once limited to geographers and mapmakers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has taken a growing central role in information management and visualization. Geospatial services run a gamut of different products and services from Google maps to ArcGIS servers to Mobile development. Geospatial services are not new. Libraries have been writing about…

  14. A computerized on-line key word indexing system for drug information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Sasich, L; Morris, H A

    1981-03-01

    The Idaho Drug Information Service has been in operation since 1972. During this time, five different files and manual methods of filing have evolved. As a result of confusion over indexing terms, information became lost within the filing systems, and the files fell into disuse. A reorganization of the files was undertaken in an attempt to develop a filing system that would be functional and efficient. Methods of manual filing are briefly reviewed. A computerized on-line key word indexing system for information storage and retrieval was initiated. The development and operation of the Drug Information Retrieval Terminal System (DIRTS) is described completely. At this time, DIRTS is fully operational. The system has eliminated the previous problems encountered with the manual filing systems, and user response has been good.

  15. A concept-based interactive biomedical image retrieval approach using visualness and spatial information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Md M.; Antani, Sameer K.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to biomedical image retrieval by mapping image regions to local concepts and represent images in a weighted entropy-based concept feature space. The term concept refers to perceptually distinguishable visual patches that are identified locally in image regions and can be mapped to a glossary of imaging terms. Further, the visual significance (e.g., visualness) of concepts is measured as Shannon entropy of pixel values in image patches and is used to refine the feature vector. Moreover, the system can assist user in interactively select a Region-Of-Interest (ROI) and search for similar image ROIs. Further, a spatial verification step is used as a post-processing step to improve retrieval results based on location information. The hypothesis that such approaches would improve biomedical image retrieval, is validated through experiments on a data set of 450 lung CT images extracted from journal articles from four different collections.

  16. Retrieving transient conformational molecular structure information from inner-shell photoionization of laser-aligned molecules

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Yu, Chao; ...

    2016-03-30

    We discuss a scheme to retrieve transient conformational molecular structure information using photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) that have averaged over partial alignments of isolated molecules. The photoelectron is pulled out from a localized inner-shell molecular orbital by an X-ray photon. We show that a transient change in the atomic positions from their equilibrium will lead to a sensitive change in the alignment-averaged PADs, which can be measured and used to retrieve the former. Exploiting the experimental convenience of changing the photon polarization direction, we show that it is advantageous to use PADs obtained from multiple photon polarization directions. Lastly, amore » simple single-scattering model is proposed and benchmarked to describe the photoionization process and to do the retrieval using a multiple-parameter fitting method.« less

  17. Retrieving transient conformational molecular structure information from inner-shell photoionization of laser-aligned molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Yu, Chao; Lucchese, R. R.; Lin, C. D.

    2016-03-30

    We discuss a scheme to retrieve transient conformational molecular structure information using photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) that have averaged over partial alignments of isolated molecules. The photoelectron is pulled out from a localized inner-shell molecular orbital by an X-ray photon. We show that a transient change in the atomic positions from their equilibrium will lead to a sensitive change in the alignment-averaged PADs, which can be measured and used to retrieve the former. Exploiting the experimental convenience of changing the photon polarization direction, we show that it is advantageous to use PADs obtained from multiple photon polarization directions. Lastly, a simple single-scattering model is proposed and benchmarked to describe the photoionization process and to do the retrieval using a multiple-parameter fitting method.

  18. Retrieving transient conformational molecular structure information from inner-shell photoionization of laser-aligned molecules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Le, Anh-Thu; Yu, Chao; Lucchese, R. R.; Lin, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a scheme to retrieve transient conformational molecular structure information using photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) that have averaged over partial alignments of isolated molecules. The photoelectron is pulled out from a localized inner-shell molecular orbital by an X-ray photon. We show that a transient change in the atomic positions from their equilibrium will lead to a sensitive change in the alignment-averaged PADs, which can be measured and used to retrieve the former. Exploiting the experimental convenience of changing the photon polarization direction, we show that it is advantageous to use PADs obtained from multiple photon polarization directions. A simple single-scattering model is proposed and benchmarked to describe the photoionization process and to do the retrieval using a multiple-parameter fitting method. PMID:27025410

  19. Perirhinal cortex lesions produce retrograde amnesia for spatial information in rats: consolidation or retrieval?

    PubMed

    Ramos, Juan M J

    2008-08-01

    Several lines of evidence in humans and experimental animals suggest that the hippocampus is critical for the formation and retrieval of spatial memory. However, although the hippocampus is reciprocally connected to adjacent cortices within the medial temporal lobe and they, in turn, are connected to the neocortex, little is known regarding the function of these cortices in memory. Here, using a reference spatial memory task in the radial maze, we show that neurotoxic perirhinal cortex lesions produce a profound retrograde amnesia when learning-surgery intervals of 1 or 50 d are used (Experiment 1). With the aim of dissociating between consolidation and retrieval processes, we injected lidocaine either daily after training (Experiment 2) or before a retention test once the learning had been completed (Experiment 3). Results show that reversible perirhinal inactivation impairs retrieval but not consolidation. However, the same procedure followed in Experiment 2 disrupted consolidation when the lidocaine was injected into the dorsal hippocampus. The results of Experiment 4 rule out the possibility that the deficit in retrieval is due to a state-dependent effect. These findings demonstrate the differential contribution of various regions of the medial temporal lobe to memory, suggesting that the perirhinal cortex plays a key role in the retrieval of spatial information for a long period of time.

  20. Information retrieval in respiratory care: tips to locate what you need to know.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R

    2004-04-01

    We need current information to support effective practice. This information can be accessed relatively quickly and inexpensively, using nothing more than a computer and an Internet connection. This demands skills in searching and accessing that information. In many hospitals, computers with an Internet connection are readily available in the clinical wards, allowing those with skills in retrieving medical information to find that information near the bedside where it is needed. This report describes techniques to access information on the Internet from various sources. This information exists at high levels, such as PubMed, the National Guideline Clearinghouse, and the Cochrane Library. However, there is also much information available on the Internet that has not been validated or subjected to peer review. Thus, it is important not only to find information but also to separate useful from useless information.

  1. Geospatial Technology Strategic Plan 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Erchia, Frank; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Getter, James; McNiff, Marcia; Root, Ralph; Stitt, Susan; White, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Executive Summary -- Geospatial technology applications have been identified in many U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (BRD) proposals for grants awarded through internal and partnership programs. Because geospatial data and tools have become more sophisticated, accessible, and easy to use, BRD scientists frequently are using these tools and capabilities to enhance a broad spectrum of research activities. Bruce Babbitt, Secretary of the Interior, has acknowledged--and lauded--the important role of geospatial technology in natural resources management. In his keynote address to more than 5,500 people representing 87 countries at the Environmental Systems Research Institute Annual Conference (May 21, 1996), Secretary Babbitt stated, '. . .GIS [geographic information systems], if properly used, can provide a lot more than sets of data. Used effectively, it can help stakeholders to bring consensus out of conflict. And it can, by providing information, empower the participants to find new solutions to their problems.' This Geospatial Technology Strategic Plan addresses the use and application of geographic information systems, remote sensing, satellite positioning systems, image processing, and telemetry; describes methods of meeting national plans relating to geospatial data development, management, and serving; and provides guidance for sharing expertise and information. Goals are identified along with guidelines that focus on data sharing, training, and technology transfer. To measure success, critical performance indicators are included. The ability of the BRD to use and apply geospatial technology across all disciplines will greatly depend upon its success in transferring the technology to field biologists and researchers. The Geospatial Technology Strategic Planning Development Team coordinated and produced this document in the spirit of this premise. Individual Center and Program managers have the responsibility to implement the Strategic Plan

  2. All-Union Conference on Information Retrieval Systems and Automatic Processing of Scientific and Technical Information, 3rd, Moscow, 1967, Transactions. (Selected Articles).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. Foreign Technology Div.

    The role and place of the machine in scientific and technical information is explored including: basic trends in the development of information retrieval systems; preparation of engineering and scientific cadres with respect to mechanization and automation of information works; the logic of descriptor retrieval systems; the 'SETKA-3' automated…

  3. GEOSPATIAL DATA ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of robust accuracy assessment methods for the validation of spatial data represent's a difficult scientific challenge for the geospatial science community. The importance and timeliness of this issue is related directly to the dramatic escalation in the developmen...

  4. A Concept Space Approach to Addressing the Vocabulary Problem in Scientific Information Retrieval: An Experiment on the Worm Community System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Ng, Tobun D.; Martinez, Joanne; Schatz, Bruce R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an algorithmic approach to addressing the vocabulary problem in scientific information retrieval and information sharing, using the molecular biology domain as an example. A cognitive study and a follow-up document retrieval study were conducted using first a conjoined fly-worm thesaurus and then an actual worm database and the conjoined…

  5. Encoding and Retrieval Processes Involved in the Access of Source Information in the Absence of Item Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, B. Hunter; DeWitt, Michael R.; Knight, Justin B.; Hicks, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the relative contributions of encoding and retrieval processes in accessing contextual information in the absence of item memory using an extralist cuing procedure in which the retrieval cues used to query memory for contextual information were "related" to the target item but never actually studied.…

  6. SYSTEMS MANUAL FOR THE EXPERIMENTAL LITERATURE COLLECTION AND REFERENCE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM OF THE CENTER FOR THE INFORMATION SCIENCES. EXPERIMENTAL RETRIEVAL SYSTEMS STUDIES, REPORT NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ANDERSON, RONALD R.; TAYLOR, ROBERT S.

    THE MANUAL DESCRIBES AND DOCUMENTS THE RETRIEVAL SYSTEM IN TERMS OF ITS TAPE AND DISK FILE PROGRAMS AND ITS SEARCH PROGRAMS AS USED BY THE LEHIGH CENTER FOR THE INFORMATION SCIENCES FOR SELECTED CURRENT LITERATURE OF THE INFORMATION SCIENCES, ABOUT 2500 DOCUMENT REFERENCES. THE SYSTEM IS PRESENTLY ON-LINE VIA TELETYPE AND CONVERSION IS IN PROCESS…

  7. Machine translation-supported cross-language information retrieval for a consumer health resource.

    PubMed

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Gemoets, Darren; Browne, Allen C; Tse, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health, through its National Library of Medicine, developed ClinicalTrials.gov to provide the public with easy access to information on clinical trials on a wide range of conditions or diseases. Only English language information retrieval is currently supported. Given the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and their increasing use of the Web, we anticipate a significant increase in Spanish-speaking users. This study compares the effectiveness of two common cross-language information retrieval methods using machine translation, query translation versus document translation, using a subset of genuine user queries from ClinicalTrials.gov. Preliminary results conducted with the ClinicalTrials.gov search engine show that in our environment, query translation is statistically significantly better than document translation. We discuss possible reasons for this result and we conclude with suggestions for future work.

  8. Identifying logical clinical context clusters in nursing orders for the purpose of information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sarah; Bakken, Suzanne; Cimino, James J; Currie, Leanne M

    2008-11-06

    Nurses information needs relate to nursing orders and nursing orders have many contexts including body systems, safety practices and other clinical categories. When searching for information related to orders one search term might retrieve documents related to multiple orders. We clustered nursing orders into sets that are related by the same logical clinical context. We then generated clusters and their search terms from a data set of 636 orders obtained from a CIS/CPOE system at an academic medical center. We refined those cluster search terms by searching an electronic nursing procedure manual to retrieve resources that could answer one of six generic nursing questions. Sixty-three cluster search terms were identified. The search terms for 100 (16%) of the orders were validated in a second hospitals electronic nursing procedure manual; precision was 32.5%.. Our process of identifying cluster search terms may be a useful method to obtain clinically relevant information resources.

  9. Information Retrieval from SAGE II and MFRSR Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Direct beam spectral extinction measurements of solar radiation contain important information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from multiple scattering contributions that otherwise tend to complicate the data analysis and information retrieval. Such direct beam extinction measurements are available from the solar occultation satellite-based measurements made by the Stratospheric and Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) instrument and by ground-based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The SAGE II data provide cross-sectional slices of the atmosphere twice per orbit at seven wavelengths between 385 and 1020 nm with approximately 1 km vertical resolution, while the MFRSR data provide atmospheric column measurements at six wavelengths between 415 and 940 nm but at one minute time intervals. We apply the same retrieval technique of simultaneous least-squares fit to the observed spectral extinctions to retrieve aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance, and ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor amounts from the SAGE II and MFRSR measurements. The retrieval technique utilizes a physical model approach based on laboratory measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide extinction, line-by-line and numerical k-distribution calculations for water vapor absorption, and Mie scattering constraints on aerosol spectral extinction properties. The SAGE II measurements have the advantage of being self-calibrating in that deep space provides an effective zero point for the relative spectral extinctions. The MFRSR measurements require periodic clear-day Langley regression calibration events to maintain accurate knowledge of instrument calibration.

  10. A novel architecture for information retrieval system based on semantic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, the web has enabled an explosive growth of information sharing (there are currently over 4 billion pages covering most areas of human endeavor) so that the web has faced a new challenge of information overhead. The challenge that is now before us is not only to help people locating relevant information precisely but also to access and aggregate a variety of information from different resources automatically. Current web document are in human-oriented formats and they are suitable for the presentation, but machines cannot understand the meaning of document. To address this issue, Berners-Lee proposed a concept of semantic web. With semantic web technology, web information can be understood and processed by machine. It provides new possibilities for automatic web information processing. A main problem of semantic web information retrieval is that when these is not enough knowledge to such information retrieval system, the system will return to a large of no sense result to uses due to a huge amount of information results. In this paper, we present the architecture of information based on semantic web. In addiction, our systems employ the inference Engine to check whether the query should pose to Keyword-based Search Engine or should pose to the Semantic Search Engine.

  11. Information storage and retrieval for probe storage using optical diffraction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Honschoten, Joost W.; de Jong, Henri W.; Koelmans, Wabe W.; Parnell, Thomas P.; Zaboronski, Oleg

    2011-11-01

    A method for fast information retrieval from a probe storage device is considered. It is shown that information can be stored and retrieved using the optical diffraction patterns obtained by the illumination of a large array of cantilevers by a monochromatic light source. In thermo-mechanical probe storage, the information is stored as a sequence of indentations on the polymer medium. To retrieve the information, the array of probes is actuated by applying a bending force to the cantilevers. Probes positioned over indentations experience deflection by the depth of the indentation, probes over the flat media remain un-deflected. Thus the array of actuated probes can be viewed as an irregular optical grating, which creates a data-dependent diffraction pattern when illuminated by laser light. We develop a low complexity modulation scheme, which allows the extraction of information stored in the pattern of indentations on the media from Fourier coefficients of the intensity of the diffraction pattern. We then derive a low-complexity maximum-likelihood sequence detection algorithm for retrieving the user information from the Fourier coefficients. The derivation of both the modulation and the detection schemes is based on the Fraunhofer formula for data-dependent diffraction patterns. The applicability of Fraunhofer diffraction theory to the optical set-up relevant for probe storage is established both theoretically and experimentally. We confirm the potential of the optical readout technique by demonstrating that the impairment characteristics of probe storage channels (channel noise, global positioning errors, small indentation depth) do not lead to an unacceptable increase in data recovery error rates. We also show that for as long as the Fresnel number F ≤ 0.1, the optimal channel detector derived from Fraunhofer diffraction theory does not suffer any significant performance degradation.

  12. Foundations for context-aware information retrieval for proactive decision support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Lin, Jessica; Li, Qingzhe; Gao, Yifeng; Rangwala, Huzefa; Shargo, Peter; Robinson, Joshua; Rose, Carolyn; Tunison, Paul; Turek, Matt; Thomas, Stephen; Hanselman, Phil

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence analysts and military decision makers are faced with an onslaught of information. From the now ubiquitous presence of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) platforms providing large volumes of sensor data, to vast amounts of open source data in the form of news reports, blog postings, or social media postings, the amount of information available to a modern decision maker is staggering. Whether tasked with leading a military campaign or providing support for a humanitarian mission, being able to make sense of all the information available is a challenge. Due to the volume and velocity of this data, automated tools are required to help support reasoned, human decisions. In this paper we describe several automated techniques that are targeted at supporting decision making. Our approaches include modeling the kinematics of moving targets as motifs; developing normalcy models and detecting anomalies in kinematic data; automatically classifying the roles of users in social media; and modeling geo-spatial regions based on the behavior that takes place in them. These techniques cover a wide-range of potential decision maker needs.

  13. Retrieval of Aerosol information from UV measurement by using optimal estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, M.; Kim, J.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, S. D.; Moon, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    An algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and aerosol loading height is developed for GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) measurement. The GEMS is planned to be launched in geostationary orbit in 2018, and employs hyper-spectral imaging with 0.6 nm resolution to observe solar backscatter radiation in the UV and Visible range. In the UV range, the low surface contribution to the backscattered radiation and strong interaction between aerosol absorption and molecular scattering can be advantageous in retrieving aerosol information such as AOD and SSA [Torres et al., 2007; Torres et al., 2013; Ahn et al., 2014]. However, the large contribution of atmospheric scattering results in the increase of the sensitivity of the backward radiance to aerosol loading height. Thus, the assumption of aerosol loading height becomes important issue to obtain accurate result. Accordingly, this study focused on the simultaneous retrieval of aerosol loading height with AOD and SSA by utilizing the optimal estimation method. For the RTM simulation, the aerosol optical properties were analyzed from AERONET inversion data (level 2.0) at 46 AERONET sites over ASIA. Also, 2-channel inversion method is applied to estimate a priori value of the aerosol information to solve the Lavenberg Marquardt equation. The GEMS aerosol algorithm is tested with OMI level-1B dataset, a provisional data for GEMS measurement, and the result is compared with OMI standard aerosol product and AERONET values. The retrieved AOD and SSA show reasonable distribution compared with OMI products, and are well correlated with the value measured from AERONET. However, retrieval uncertainty in aerosol loading height is relatively larger than other results.

  14. Parsed and fixed block representations of visual information for image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Soo Hyun; Juang, Biing-Hwang

    2009-02-01

    The theory of linguistics teaches us the existence of a hierarchical structure in linguistic expressions, from letter to word root, and on to word and sentences. By applying syntax and semantics beyond words, one can further recognize the grammatical relationship between among words and the meaning of a sequence of words. This layered view of a spoken language is useful for effective analysis and automated processing. Thus, it is interesting to ask if a similar hierarchy of representation of visual information does exist. A class of techniques that have a similar nature to the linguistic parsing is found in the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing scheme. Based on a new class of multidimensional incremental parsing algorithms extended from the Lempel-Ziv incremental parsing, a new framework for image retrieval, which takes advantage of the source characterization property of the incremental parsing algorithm, was proposed recently. With the incremental parsing technique, a given image is decomposed into a number of patches, called a parsed representation. This representation can be thought of as a morphological interface between elementary pixel and a higher level representation. In this work, we examine the properties of two-dimensional parsed representation in the context of imagery information retrieval and in contrast to vector quantization; i.e. fixed square-block representations and minimum average distortion criteria. We implemented four image retrieval systems for the comparative study; three, called IPSILON image retrieval systems, use parsed representation with different perceptual distortion thresholds and one uses the convectional vector quantization for visual pattern analysis. We observe that different perceptual distortion in visual pattern matching does not have serious effects on the retrieval precision although allowing looser perceptual thresholds in image compression result poor reconstruction fidelity. We compare the effectiveness of the use of the

  15. Hull Surface Information Retrieval and Optimization of High Speed Planing Craft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayob, A. F.; Nik, W. B. Wan; Ray, T.; Smith, W. F.

    2012-09-01

    Traditional approach on ship design involve the use of a method which takes a form that was earlier called the 'general design diagram' and is now known as the 'design spiral' - an iterative ship design process that allows for an increase in complexity and precision across the design cycle. Several advancements have been made towards the design spiral, however inefficient for handling complex simultaneous design changes, especially when later variable changes affect the ship's performance characteristics evaluated in earlier stages. Reviewed in this paper are several advancements in high speed planing craft design in preliminary design stage. An optimization framework for high speed planing craft is discussed which consist of surface information retrieval module, a suite of state-of-the-art optimization algorithms and standard naval architectural performance estimation tools. A summary of the implementation of the proposed hull surface information retrieval and several case studies are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the framework.

  16. A vector-product information retrieval system adapted to heterogeneous, distributed computing environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rorvig, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Vector-product information retrieval (IR) systems produce retrieval results superior to all other searching methods but presently have no commercial implementations beyond the personal computer environment. The NASA Electronic Library Systems (NELS) provides a ranked list of the most likely relevant objects in collections in response to a natural language query. Additionally, the system is constructed using standards and tools (Unix, X-Windows, Notif, and TCP/IP) that permit its operation in organizations that possess many different hosts, workstations, and platforms. There are no known commercial equivalents to this product at this time. The product has applications in all corporate management environments, particularly those that are information intensive, such as finance, manufacturing, biotechnology, and research and development.

  17. Design and usability study of an iconic user interface to ease information retrieval of medical guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Griffon, Nicolas; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Hamek, Saliha; Hassler, Sylvain; Boog, César; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Duclos, Catherine; Venot, Alain; Darmoni, Stéfan J

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Doc'CISMeF (DC) is a semantic search engine used to find resources in CISMeF-BP, a quality controlled health gateway, which gathers guidelines available on the internet in French. Visualization of Concepts in Medicine (VCM) is an iconic language that may ease information retrieval tasks. This study aimed to describe the creation and evaluation of an interface integrating VCM in DC in order to make this search engine much easier to use. Methods Focus groups were organized to suggest ways to enhance information retrieval tasks using VCM in DC. A VCM interface was created and improved using the ergonomic evaluation approach. 20 physicians were recruited to compare the VCM interface with the non-VCM one. Each evaluator answered two different clinical scenarios in each interface. The ability and time taken to select a relevant resource were recorded and compared. A usability analysis was performed using the System Usability Scale (SUS). Results The VCM interface contains a filter based on icons, and icons describing each resource according to focus group recommendations. Some ergonomic issues were resolved before evaluation. Use of VCM significantly increased the success of information retrieval tasks (OR=11; 95% CI 1.4 to 507). Nonetheless, it took significantly more time to find a relevant resource with VCM interface (101 vs 65 s; p=0.02). SUS revealed ‘good’ usability with an average score of 74/100. Conclusions VCM was successfully implemented in DC as an option. It increased the success rate of information retrieval tasks, despite requiring slightly more time, and was well accepted by end-users. PMID:24650636

  18. The Effect of Bilingual Term List Size on Dictionary-Based Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    goal of Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) is to support the task of searching multilingual col- lections by allowing users to enter queries in...37,600 entry) ELRA Basic Multilingual Lexicon covered common terms quite well, with 97% of the 1,000 most common English words being found (af- ter...text), 33 English topic descriptions,1 and binary (yes-no) relevance judgments for topic-document pairs. We used this monolingual test collection

  19. Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS): System description and user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boland, D. E., Jr.; Lee, T.

    1982-01-01

    This document presents the user's guide, system description, and mathematical specifications for the Langley Atmospheric Information Retrieval System (LAIRS). It also includes a description of an optimal procedure for operational use of LAIRS. The primary objective of the LAIRS Program is to make it possible to obtain accurate estimates of atmospheric pressure, density, temperature, and winds along Shuttle reentry trajectories for use in postflight data reduction.

  20. Application of information-retrieval methods to the classification of physical data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mamotko, Z. N.; Khorolskaya, S. K.; Shatrovskiy, L. I.

    1975-01-01

    Scientific data received from satellites are characterized as a multi-dimensional time series, whose terms are vector functions of a vector of measurement conditions. Information retrieval methods are used to construct lower dimensional samples on the basis of the condition vector, in order to obtain these data and to construct partial relations. The methods are applied to the joint Soviet-French Arkad project.

  1. Information content of MOPITT CO profile retrievals: Temporal and geographical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Worden, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) enable a wide array of applications including studies of air quality and pollution transport. The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) instrument on the Earth Observing System Terra platform has been measuring CO concentrations globally since March 2000. As indicated by the Degrees of Freedom for Signal (DFS), the standard metric for trace-gas retrieval information content, MOPITT retrieval performance varies over a wide range. We show that both instrumental and geophysical effects yield significant geographical and temporal variability in MOPITT DFS values. Instrumental radiance uncertainties, which describe random errors (or "noise") in the calibrated radiances, vary over long time scales (e.g., months to years) and vary between the four detector elements of MOPITT's linear detector array. MOPITT retrieval performance depends on several factors including thermal contrast, fine-scale variability of surface properties, and CO loading. The relative importance of these various effects is highly variable, as demonstrated by analyses of monthly mean DFS values for the United States and the Amazon Basin. An understanding of the geographical and temporal variability of MOPITT retrieval performance is potentially valuable to data users seeking to limit the influence of the a priori through data filtering. To illustrate, it is demonstrated that calculated regional-average CO mixing ratios may be improved by excluding observations from a subset of pixels in MOPITT's linear detector array.

  2. Integrated Sustainable Planning for Industrial Region Using Geospatial Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Manish K.; Saxena, Aruna; Katare, Vivek

    2012-07-01

    The Geospatial techniques and its scope of applications have undergone an order of magnitude change since its advent and now it has been universally accepted as a most important and modern tool for mapping and monitoring of various natural resources as well as amenities and infrastructure. The huge and voluminous spatial database generated from various Remote Sensing platforms needs proper management like storage, retrieval, manipulation and analysis to extract desired information, which is beyond the capability of human brain. This is where the computer aided GIS technology came into existence. A GIS with major input from Remote Sensing satellites for the natural resource management applications must be able to handle the spatiotemporal data, supporting spatiotemporal quarries and other spatial operations. Software and the computer-based tools are designed to make things easier to the user and to improve the efficiency and quality of information processing tasks. The natural resources are a common heritage, which we have shared with the past generations, and our future generation will be inheriting these resources from us. Our greed for resource and our tremendous technological capacity to exploit them at a much larger scale has created a situation where we have started withdrawing from the future stocks. Bhopal capital region had attracted the attention of the planners from the beginning of the five-year plan strategy for Industrial development. However, a number of projects were carried out in the individual Districts (Bhopal, Rajgarh, Shajapur, Raisen, Sehore) which also gave fruitful results, but no serious efforts have been made to involve the entire region. No use of latest Geospatial technique (Remote Sensing, GIS, GPS) to prepare a well structured computerized data base without which it is very different to retrieve, analyze and compare the data for monitoring as well as for planning the developmental activities in future.

  3. Nurses' information retrieval skills in psychiatric hospitals - are the requirements for evidence-based practice fulfilled?

    PubMed

    Koivunen, Marita; Välimäki, Maritta; Hätönen, Heli

    2010-01-01

    Nursing professionals have long recognized the importance to practice of research and the value of research evidence. Nurses still do not use research findings in practice. The purpose of this paper was to describe nurses' skills in using literature databases and the Internet in psychiatric hospitals and associations of nurses' gender, age, and job position with their information retrieval skills. The study was carried out in 2004 among nursing staff (N=183) on nine acute psychiatric wards in two psychiatric hospitals in Finland (n=180, response rate 98%). The Finnish version of the European Computer Driving Licence test (ECDL) was used as a data collection instrument. The study showed that there were clear deficits in information retrieval skills among nurses working in psychiatric hospitals. Thus, nurses' competence does not support the realization of evidence-based practice in the hospitals. Therefore, it is important to increase nurses' information retrieval skills by tailoring continuing education modules. It would be also advisable to develop centralized systems for the internal dissemination of research findings for the use of nursing staff.

  4. Geospatial and Remote Sensing-based Indicators of Settlement Type---Differentiating Informal and Formal Settlements in Guatemala City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Karen K.

    This research addresses the need for reliable, repeatable, quantitative measures to differentiate informal (slum) from formal (planned) settlements using commercial very high resolution imagery and elevation data. Measuring the physical, spatial and spectral qualities of informal settlements is an important precursor for evaluating success toward improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers worldwide, as pledged by the United Nations Millennium Development Goal Target 7D. A variety of measures were tested based on surface material spectral properties, texture, built-up structure, road network accessibility, and geomorphology from twelve communities in Guatemala City to reveal statistically significant differences between informal and formal settlements that could be applied to other parts of the world without the need for costly or dangerous field surveys. When information from satellite imagery is constrained to roads and residential boundaries, a more precise understanding of human habitation is produced. A classification and regression tree (CART) approach and linear discriminant function analysis enabled a variable dimensionality reduction from the original 23 to 6 variables that are sufficient to differentiate a settlement as informal or formal. The results demonstrate that the entropy texture of roads, the degree of asphalt road surface, the vegetation patch compactness and patch size, the percent of bare soil land cover, the geomorphic profile convexity of the terrain, and the road density distinguish informal from formal settlements with 87--92% accuracy when results are cross-validated. The variables with highest contribution to model outcome that are common to both approaches are entropy texture of roads, vegetation patch size, and vegetation compactness suggesting that road texture, surface materials and vegetation provide the necessary characteristics to distinguish the level of informality of a settlement. The results will assist urban planners and

  5. Benefits of testing for nontested information: retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-12-01

    Testing is a powerful means to boost the retention of information. The extent to which the benefits of testing generalize to nontested information, however, is not clear. In three experiments, we found that completing cued-recall tests for a subset of studied materials enhanced retention for the specific information tested, as well as for associated, nontested information during later free-recall testing. In Experiment 1, this generalized benefit was revealed for lists of category-exemplar pairs. Experiment 2 extended the effect to unrelated words, suggesting that retrieval can enhance later free recall of nontested information that is bound solely through episodic context. In Experiment 3, we manipulated the format of the final test and found facilitation in free-recall, but not in cued-recall, testing. The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context. More generally, these findings suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has previously been suggested, and they further motivate the adoption of testing as a practical and effective learning tool.

  6. The Role of Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Incidental and Intentional Retrieval of Item and Relational Information in Aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Chun; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2016-06-01

    Considerable neuropsychological and neuroimaging work indicates that the medial temporal lobes are critical for both item and relational memory retrieval. However, there remain outstanding issues in the literature, namely the extent to which medial temporal lobe regions are differentially recruited during incidental and intentional retrieval of item and relational information, and the extent to which aging may affect these neural substrates. The current fMRI study sought to address these questions; participants incidentally encoded word pairs embedded in sentences and incidental item and relational retrieval were assessed through speeded reading of intact, rearranged, and new word-pair sentences, while intentional item and relational retrieval were assessed through old/new associative recognition of a separate set of intact, rearranged, and new word pairs. Results indicated that, in both younger and older adults, anterior hippocampus and perirhinal cortex indexed incidental and intentional item retrieval in the same manner. In contrast, posterior hippocampus supported incidental and intentional relational retrieval in both age groups and an adjacent cluster in posterior hippocampus was recruited during both forms of relational retrieval for older, but not younger, adults. Our findings suggest that while medial temporal lobe regions do not differentiate between incidental and intentional forms of retrieval, there are distinct roles for anterior and posterior medial temporal lobe regions during retrieval of item and relational information, respectively, and further indicate that posterior regions may, under certain conditions, be over-recruited in healthy aging. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. EPA National Geospatial Data Policy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Geospatial Data Policy (NGDP) establishes principles, responsibilities, and requirements for collecting and managing geospatial data used by Federal environmental programs and projects within the jurisdiction of the U.S. EPA

  8. A big data geospatial analytics platform - Physical Analytics Integrated Repository and Services (PAIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, H.; Jimenez Marianno, F.; Klein, L.; Albrecht, C.; Freitag, M.; Hinds, N.; Lu, S.

    2015-12-01

    A big data geospatial analytics platform:Physical Analytics Information Repository and Services (PAIRS)Fernando Marianno, Levente Klein, Siyuan Lu, Conrad Albrecht, Marcus Freitag, Nigel Hinds, Hendrik HamannIBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598A major challenge in leveraging big geospatial data sets is the ability to quickly integrate multiple data sources into physical and statistical models and be run these models in real time. A geospatial data platform called Physical Analytics Information and Services (PAIRS) is developed on top of open source hardware and software stack to manage Terabyte of data. A new data interpolation and re gridding is implemented where any geospatial data layers can be associated with a set of global grid where the grid resolutions is doubling for consecutive layers. Each pixel on the PAIRS grid have an index that is a combination of locations and time stamp. The indexing allow quick access to data sets that are part of a global data layers and allowing to retrieve only the data of interest. PAIRS takes advantages of parallel processing framework (Hadoop) in a cloud environment to digest, curate, and analyze the data sets while being very robust and stable. The data is stored on a distributed no-SQL database (Hbase) across multiple server, data upload and retrieval is parallelized where the original analytics task is broken up is smaller areas/volume, analyzed independently, and then reassembled for the original geographical area. The differentiating aspect of PAIRS is the ability to accelerate model development across large geographical regions and spatial resolution ranging from 0.1 m up to hundreds of kilometer. System performance is benchmarked on real time automated data ingestion and retrieval of Modis and Landsat data layers. The data layers are curated for sensor error, verified for correctness, and analyzed statistically to detect local anomalies. Multi-layer query enable PAIRS to filter different data

  9. Concept similarity and related categories in information retrieval using formal concept analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eklund, P.; Ducrou, J.; Dau, F.

    2012-11-01

    The application of formal concept analysis to the problem of information retrieval has been shown useful but has lacked any real analysis of the idea of relevance ranking of search results. SearchSleuth is a program developed to experiment with the automated local analysis of Web search using formal concept analysis. SearchSleuth extends a standard search interface to include a conceptual neighbourhood centred on a formal concept derived from the initial query. This neighbourhood of the concept derived from the search terms is decorated with its upper and lower neighbours representing more general and special concepts, respectively. SearchSleuth is in many ways an archetype of search engines based on formal concept analysis with some novel features. In SearchSleuth, the notion of related categories - which are themselves formal concepts - is also introduced. This allows the retrieval focus to shift to a new formal concept called a sibling. This movement across the concept lattice needs to relate one formal concept to another in a principled way. This paper presents the issues concerning exploring, searching, and ordering the space of related categories. The focus is on understanding the use and meaning of proximity and semantic distance in the context of information retrieval using formal concept analysis.

  10. Goal-directed mechanisms that constrain retrieval predict subsequent memory for new "foil" information.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, David A; Bonnici, Heidi M; Bergström, Zara M; Ranganath, Charan; Simons, Jon S

    2016-08-01

    To remember a previous event, it is often helpful to use goal-directed control processes to constrain what comes to mind during retrieval. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that incidental learning of new "foil" words in a recognition test is superior if the participant is trying to remember studied items that were semantically encoded compared to items that were non-semantically encoded. Here, we applied subsequent memory analysis to fMRI data to understand the neural mechanisms underlying the "foil effect". Participants encoded information during deep semantic and shallow non-semantic tasks and were tested in a subsequent blocked memory task to examine how orienting retrieval towards different types of information influences the incidental encoding of new words presented as foils during the memory test phase. To assess memory for foils, participants performed a further surprise old/new recognition test involving foil words that were encountered during the previous memory test blocks as well as completely new words. Subsequent memory effects, distinguishing successful versus unsuccessful incidental encoding of foils, were observed in regions that included the left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior parietal cortex. The left inferior frontal gyrus exhibited disproportionately larger subsequent memory effects for semantic than non-semantic foils, and significant overlap in activity during semantic, but not non-semantic, initial encoding and foil encoding. The results suggest that orienting retrieval towards different types of foils involves re-implementing the neurocognitive processes that were involved during initial encoding.

  11. Towards brain-activity-controlled information retrieval: Decoding image relevance from MEG signals.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Jukka-Pekka; Kandemir, Melih; Saarinen, Veli-Matti; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Parkkonen, Lauri; Klami, Arto; Hari, Riitta; Kaski, Samuel

    2015-05-15

    We hypothesize that brain activity can be used to control future information retrieval systems. To this end, we conducted a feasibility study on predicting the relevance of visual objects from brain activity. We analyze both magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and gaze signals from nine subjects who were viewing image collages, a subset of which was relevant to a predetermined task. We report three findings: i) the relevance of an image a subject looks at can be decoded from MEG signals with performance significantly better than chance, ii) fusion of gaze-based and MEG-based classifiers significantly improves the prediction performance compared to using either signal alone, and iii) non-linear classification of the MEG signals using Gaussian process classifiers outperforms linear classification. These findings break new ground for building brain-activity-based interactive image retrieval systems, as well as for systems utilizing feedback both from brain activity and eye movements.

  12. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT.

  13. Cluster-based query expansion using external collections in medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Oh, Heung-Seon; Jung, Yuchul

    2015-12-01

    Utilizing external collections to improve retrieval performance is challenging research because various test collections are created for different purposes. Improving medical information retrieval has also gained much attention as various types of medical documents have become available to researchers ever since they started storing them in machine processable formats. In this paper, we propose an effective method of utilizing external collections based on the pseudo relevance feedback approach. Our method incorporates the structure of external collections in estimating individual components in the final feedback model. Extensive experiments on three medical collections (TREC CDS, CLEF eHealth, and OHSUMED) were performed, and the results were compared with a representative expansion approach utilizing the external collections to show the superiority of our method.

  14. Bridging the Gap between NASA Hydrological Data and the Geospatial Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rui, Hualan; Teng, Bill; Vollmer, Bruce; Mocko, David M.; Beaudoing, Hiroko K.; Nigro, Joseph; Gary, Mark; Maidment, David; Hooper, Richard

    2011-01-01

    There is a vast and ever increasing amount of data on the Earth interconnected energy and hydrological systems, available from NASA remote sensing and modeling systems, and yet, one challenge persists: increasing the usefulness of these data for, and thus their use by, the geospatial communities. The Hydrology Data and Information Services Center (HDISC), part of the Goddard Earth Sciences DISC, has continually worked to better understand the hydrological data needs of the geospatial end users, to thus better able to bridge the gap between NASA data and the geospatial communities. This paper will cover some of the hydrological data sets available from HDISC, and the various tools and services developed for data searching, data subletting ; format conversion. online visualization and analysis; interoperable access; etc.; to facilitate the integration of NASA hydrological data by end users. The NASA Goddard data analysis and visualization system, Giovanni, is described. Two case examples of user-customized data services are given, involving the EPA BASINS (Better Assessment Science Integrating point & Non-point Sources) project and the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System, with the common requirement of on-the-fly retrieval of long duration time series for a geographical point

  15. The semantic representation of event information depends on the cue modality: an instance of meaning-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Kristina; Sikström, Sverker; Willander, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The semantic content, or the meaning, is the essence of autobiographical memories. In comparison to previous research, which has mainly focused on the phenomenological experience and the age distribution of retrieved events, the present study provides a novel view on the retrieval of event information by quantifying the information as semantic representations. We investigated the semantic representation of sensory cued autobiographical events and studied the modality hierarchy within the multimodal retrieval cues. The experiment comprised a cued recall task, where the participants were presented with visual, auditory, olfactory or multimodal retrieval cues and asked to recall autobiographical events. The results indicated that the three different unimodal retrieval cues generate significantly different semantic representations. Further, the auditory and the visual modalities contributed the most to the semantic representation of the multimodally retrieved events. Finally, the semantic representation of the multimodal condition could be described as a combination of the three unimodal conditions. In conclusion, these results suggest that the meaning of the retrieved event information depends on the modality of the retrieval cues.

  16. Development of digital dashboard system for medical practice: maximizing efficiency of medical information retrieval and communication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee Hyuck; Yoo, Sooyoung; Shin, HoGyun; Baek, Rong-Min; Chung, Chin Youb; Hwang, Hee

    2013-01-01

    It is reported that digital dashboard systems in hospitals provide a user interface (UI) that can centrally manage and retrieve various information related to patients in a single screen, support the decision-making of medical professionals on a real time basis by integrating the scattered medical information systems and core work flows, enhance the competence and decision-making ability of medical professionals, and reduce the probability of misdiagnosis. However, the digital dashboard systems of hospitals reported to date have some limitations when medical professionals use them to generally treat inpatients, because those were limitedly used for the work process of certain departments or developed to improve specific disease-related indicators. Seoul National University Bundang Hospital developed a new concept of EMR system to overcome such limitations. The system allows medical professionals to easily access all information on inpatients and effectively retrieve important information from any part of the hospital by displaying inpatient information in the form of digital dashboard. In this study, we would like to introduce the structure, development methodology and the usage of our new concept.

  17. Bat-Inspired Algorithm Based Query Expansion for Medical Web Information Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Khennak, Ilyes; Drias, Habiba

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing amount of medical data available on the Web, looking for health information has become one of the most widely searched topics on the Internet. Patients and people of several backgrounds are now using Web search engines to acquire medical information, including information about a specific disease, medical treatment or professional advice. Nonetheless, due to a lack of medical knowledge, many laypeople have difficulties in forming appropriate queries to articulate their inquiries, which deem their search queries to be imprecise due the use of unclear keywords. The use of these ambiguous and vague queries to describe the patients' needs has resulted in a failure of Web search engines to retrieve accurate and relevant information. One of the most natural and promising method to overcome this drawback is Query Expansion. In this paper, an original approach based on Bat Algorithm is proposed to improve the retrieval effectiveness of query expansion in medical field. In contrast to the existing literature, the proposed approach uses Bat Algorithm to find the best expanded query among a set of expanded query candidates, while maintaining low computational complexity. Moreover, this new approach allows the determination of the length of the expanded query empirically. Numerical results on MEDLINE, the on-line medical information database, show that the proposed approach is more effective and efficient compared to the baseline.

  18. Examining the Effect of Enactment of a Geospatial Curriculum on Students' Geospatial Thinking and Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodzin, Alec M.; Fu, Qiong; Kulo, Violet; Peffer, Tamara

    2014-08-01

    A potential method for teaching geospatial thinking and reasoning (GTR) is through geospatially enabled learning technologies. We developed an energy resources geospatial curriculum that included learning activities with geographic information systems and virtual globes. This study investigated how 13 urban middle school teachers implemented and varied the enactment of the curriculum with their students and investigated which teacher- and student-level factors accounted for students' GTR posttest achievement. Data included biweekly implementation surveys from teachers and energy resources content and GTR pre- and posttest achievement measures from 1,049 students. Students significantly increased both their energy resources content knowledge and their GTR skills related to energy resources at the end of the curriculum enactment. Both multiple regression and hierarchical linear modeling found that students' initial GTR abilities and gain in energy content knowledge were significantly explanatory variables for their geospatial achievement at the end of curriculum enactment, p < .001. Teacher enactment factors, including adherence to implementing the critical components of the curriculum or the number of years the teachers had taught the curriculum, did not have significant effects on students' geospatial posttest achievement. The findings from this study provide support that learning with geospatially enabled learning technologies can support GTR with urban middle-level learners.

  19. Towards a geospatial wikipedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; McCallum, I.; Schill, C.; Perger, C.; Kraxner, F.; Obersteiner, M.

    2009-04-01

    Based on the Google Earth (http://earth.google.com) platform we have developed a geospatial Wikipedia (geo-wiki.org). The tool allows everybody in the world to contribute to spatial validation and is made available to the internet community interested in that task. We illustrate how this tool can be used for different applications. In our first application we combine uncertainty hotspot information from three global land cover datasets (GLC, MODIS, GlobCover). With an ever increasing amount of high resolution images available on Google Earth, it is becoming increasingly possible to distinguish land cover features with a high degree of accuracy. We first direct the land cover validation community to certain hotspots of land cover uncertainty and then ask them to fill in a small popup menu on type of land cover, possibly a picture at that location with the different cardinal points as well as date and what type of validation was chosen (google earth imagery/panoramio or if the person has ground truth data). We have implemented the tool via a land cover validation community at FACEBOOK which is based on a snowball system which allows the tracking of individuals and the possibility to ignore users which misuse the system. In a second application we illustrate how the tool could possibly be used for mapping malaria occurrence and small water bodies as well as overall malaria risk. For this application we have implemented a polygon as well as attribute function using Google maps as along with virtual earth using openlayers. The third application deals with illegal logging and how an alert system for illegal logging detection within a certain land tenure system could be implemented. Here we show how the tool can be used to document illegal logging via a YouTube video.

  20. Discrepancy between mRNA and protein abundance: insight from information retrieval process in computers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Degeng

    2008-12-01

    Discrepancy between the abundance of cognate protein and RNA molecules is frequently observed. A theoretical understanding of this discrepancy remains elusive, and it is frequently described as surprises and/or technical difficulties in the literature. Protein and RNA represent different steps of the multi-stepped cellular genetic information flow process, in which they are dynamically produced and degraded. This paper explores a comparison with a similar process in computers-multi-step information flow from storage level to the execution level. Functional similarities can be found in almost every facet of the retrieval process. Firstly, common architecture is shared, as the ribonome (RNA space) and the proteome (protein space) are functionally similar to the computer primary memory and the computer cache memory, respectively. Secondly, the retrieval process functions, in both systems, to support the operation of dynamic networks-biochemical regulatory networks in cells and, in computers, the virtual networks (of CPU instructions) that the CPU travels through while executing computer programs. Moreover, many regulatory techniques are implemented in computers at each step of the information retrieval process, with a goal of optimizing system performance. Cellular counterparts can be easily identified for these regulatory techniques. In other words, this comparative study attempted to utilize theoretical insight from computer system design principles as catalysis to sketch an integrative view of the gene expression process, that is, how it functions to ensure efficient operation of the overall cellular regulatory network. In context of this bird's-eye view, discrepancy between protein and RNA abundance became a logical observation one would expect. It was suggested that this discrepancy, when interpreted in the context of system operation, serves as a potential source of information to decipher regulatory logics underneath biochemical network operation.

  1. Harnessing the Power of Education Research Databases with the Pearl-Harvesting Methodological Framework for Information Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandieson, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Lori C.; Sandieson, Rachel M.; Zimmerman, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital technologies enable the storage of vast amounts of information, accessible with remarkable ease. However, along with this facility comes the challenge to find pertinent information from the volumes of nonrelevant information. The present article describes the pearl-harvesting methodological framework for information retrieval. Pearl…

  2. Retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties from AERONET photopolarimetric measurements: 1. Information content analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoguang; Wang, Jun

    2015-07-01

    This paper is the first part of a two-part study that aims to retrieve aerosol particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index from the multispectral and multiangular polarimetric measurements taken by the new-generation Sun photometer as part of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). It provides theoretical analysis and guidance to the companion study in which we have developed an inversion algorithm for retrieving 22 aerosol microphysical parameters associated with a bimodal PSD function from real AERONET measurements. Our theoretical analysis starts with generating the synthetic measurements at four spectral bands (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm) with a Unified Linearized Vector Radiative Transfer Model for various types of spherical aerosol particles. Subsequently, the quantitative information content for retrieving aerosol parameters is investigated in four observation scenarios, i.e., I1, I2, P1, and P2. Measurements in the scenario (I1) comprise the solar direct radiances and almucantar radiances that are used in the current AERONET operational inversion algorithm. The other three scenarios include different additional measurements: (I2) the solar principal plane radiances, (P1) the solar principal plane radiances and polarization, and (P2) the solar almucantar polarization. Results indicate that adding polarization measurements can increase the degree of freedom for signal by 2-5 in the scenario P1, while not as much of an increase is found in the scenarios I2 and P2. Correspondingly, smallest retrieval errors are found in the scenario P1: 2.3% (2.9%) for the fine-mode (coarse-mode) aerosol volume concentration, 1.3% (3.5%) for the effective radius, 7.2% (12%) for the effective variance, 0.005 (0.035) for the real-part refractive index, and 0.019 (0.068) for the single-scattering albedo. These errors represent a reduction from their counterparts in scenario I1 of 79% (57%), 76% (49%), 69% (52%), 66% (46%), and 49% (20%), respectively. We further

  3. Feature weighted naïve Bayes algorithm for information retrieval of enterprise systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Ji, Ping; Qi, Jing; Shan, Siqing; Bi, Zhuming; Deng, Weiguo; Zhang, Naijing

    2014-01-01

    Automated information retrieval is critical for enterprise information systems to acquire knowledge from the vast amount of data sets. One challenge in information retrieval is text classification. Current practices rely heavily on the classical naïve Bayes algorithm due to its simplicity and robustness. However, results from this algorithm are not always satisfactory. In this article, the limitations of the naïve Bayes algorithm are discussed, and it is found that the assumption on the independence of terms is the main reason for an unsatisfactory classification in many real-world applications. To overcome the limitations, the dependent factors are considered by integrating a term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) weighting algorithm in the naïve Bayes classification. Moreover, the TF-IDF algorithm itself is improved so that both frequencies and distribution information are taken into consideration. To illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, two simulation experiments were conducted, and the comparisons with other classification methods have shown that the proposed method has outperformed other existing algorithms in terms of precision and index recall rate.

  4. Reversible Information Flow across the Medial Temporal Lobe: The Hippocampus Links Cortical Modules during Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Elisa; Henson, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    A simple cue can be sufficient to elicit vivid recollection of a past episode. Theoretical models suggest that upon perceiving such a cue, disparate episodic elements held in neocortex are retrieved through hippocampal pattern completion. We tested this fundamental assumption by applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while objects or scenes were used to cue participants' recall of previously paired scenes or objects, respectively. We first demonstrate functional segregation within the medial temporal lobe (MTL), showing domain specificity in perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices (for object-processing vs scene-processing, respectively), but domain generality in the hippocampus (retrieval of both stimulus types). Critically, using fMRI latency analysis and dynamic causal modeling, we go on to demonstrate functional integration between these MTL regions during successful memory retrieval, with reversible signal flow from the cue region to the target region via the hippocampus. This supports the claim that the human hippocampus provides the vital associative link that integrates information held in different parts of cortex. PMID:23986252

  5. Assimilation of SMOS Retrieved Soil Moisture into the Land Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Clay; Case, Jonathan; Zavodsky, Bradley; Jedlovec, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) instrument are assimilated into the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS). Before assimilation, SMOS retrievals are bias-corrected to match the model climatological distribution using a Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching approach. Data assimilation is done via the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The goal is to improve the representation of soil moisture within the LSM, and ultimately to improve numerical weather forecasts through better land surface initialization. We present a case study showing a large area of irrigation in the lower Mississippi River Valley, in an area with extensive rice agriculture. High soil moisture value in this region are observed by SMOS, but not captured in the forcing data. After assimilation, the model fields reflect the observed geographic patterns of soil moisture. Plans for a modeling experiment and operational use of the data are given. This work helps prepare for the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) retrievals in the near future.

  6. The representation of lexical-syntactic information: evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Biran, Michal; Friedmann, Naama

    2012-10-01

    This study explored lexical-syntactic information - syntactic information that is stored in the lexicon - and its relation to syntactic and lexical impairments in aphasia. We focused on two types of lexical-syntactic information: predicate argument structure (PAS) of verbs (the number and types of arguments the verb selects) and grammatical gender of nouns. The participants were 17 Hebrew-speaking individuals with aphasia who had a syntactic deficit (agrammatism) or a lexical retrieval deficit (anomia) located at the semantic lexicon, the phonological output lexicon, or the phonological output buffer. After testing the participants' syntactic and lexical retrieval abilities and establishing the functional loci of their deficits, we assessed their PAS and grammatical gender knowledge. This assessment included sentence completion, sentence production, sentence repetition, and grammaticality judgment tasks. The participants' performance on these tests yielded several important dissociations. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired PAS knowledge. Three agrammatic participants had impaired syntax but unimpaired grammatical gender knowledge. This indicates that lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from syntax, and can be spared even when syntax at the sentence level, such as embedding and movement are impaired. All 5 individuals with phonological output buffer impairment and all 3 individuals with phonological output lexicon impairment had preserved lexical-syntactic knowledge. These selective impairments indicate that lexical-syntactic information is represented at a lexical stage prior to the phonological lexicon and the phonological buffer. Three participants with impaired PAS (aPASia) and impaired grammatical gender who showed intact lexical-semantic knowledge indicate that the lexical-syntactic information is represented separately from the semantic lexicon. This led us to conclude that lexical-syntactic information is

  7. Geospatial Technologies: Real Projects in Real Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolvoord, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Geospatial technologies of geographic information systems, global positioning systems, and remote sensing are just a few of the projects that evoke an unexpected drive and devotion from high school students in Virginia. Their integration into different curricular areas lets students focus on understanding their community and the many issues that…

  8. Geospatial Technologies and Higher Education in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leguizamon, Saturnino

    2010-01-01

    The term "geospatial technologies" encompasses a large area of fields involving cartography, spatial analysis, geographic information system, remote sensing, global positioning systems and many others. These technologies should be expected to be available (as "natural tools") for a country with a large surface and a variety of…

  9. SPIRES (Stanford Physics Information REtrieval System) 1969-70 Annual Report to the National Science Foundation (Office of Science Information Service).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Edwin B.

    The third annual report (covering the 18-month period from January 1969 to June 1970) of the Stanford Physics Information REtrieval System (SPIRES) project, which is developing an augmented bibliographic retrieval capability, is presented in this document. A first section describes the background of the project and its association with Project…

  10. EnviroAtlas: Providing Nationwide Geospatial Ecosystem Goods and Services Indicators and Indices to Inform Decision-Making, Research, and Education

    EPA Science Inventory

    EnviroAtlas is a multi-organization effort led by the US Environmental Protection Agency to develop, host and display a large suite of nation-wide geospatial indicators and indices of ecosystem services. This open access tool allows users to view, analyze, and download a wealth o...

  11. Evaluating A Priori Ozone Profile Information Used in TEMPO Tropospheric Ozone Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Matthew S.; Sullivan, John T.; Liu, Xiong; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; McGee, Thomas J.; Langford, Andrew O'Neil; Senff, Christoph J.; Leblanc, Thierry; Berkoff, Timothy; Gronoff, Guillaume; Chen, Gao; Strawbridge, Kevin B.

    2016-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a greenhouse gas and toxic pollutant which plays a major role in air quality. Typically, monitoring of surface air quality and O3 mixing ratios is primarily conducted using in situ measurement networks. This is partially due to high-quality information related to air quality being limited from space-borne platforms due to coarse spatial resolution, limited temporal frequency, and minimal sensitivity to lower tropospheric and surface-level O3. The Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite is designed to address these limitations of current space-based platforms and to improve our ability to monitor North American air quality. TEMPO will provide hourly data of total column and vertical profiles of O3 with high spatial resolution to be used as a near-real-time air quality product. TEMPO O3 retrievals will apply the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory profile algorithm developed based on work from GOME, GOME-2, and OMI. This algorithm uses a priori O3 profile information from a climatological data-base developed from long-term ozone-sonde measurements (tropopause-based (TB) O3 climatology). It has been shown that satellite O3 retrievals are sensitive to a priori O3 profiles and covariance matrices. During this work we investigate the climatological data to be used in TEMPO algorithms (TB O3) and simulated data from the NASA GMAO Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-5) Forward Processing (FP) near-real-time (NRT) model products. These two data products will be evaluated with ground-based lidar data from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) at various locations of the US. This study evaluates the TB climatology, GEOS-5 climatology, and 3-hourly GEOS-5 data compared to lower tropospheric observations to demonstrate the accuracy of a priori information to potentially be used in TEMPO O3 algorithms. Here we present our initial analysis and the theoretical impact on TEMPO retrievals in the lower troposphere.

  12. A Vision-Based System for Object Identification and Information Retrieval in a Smart Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grech, Raphael; Monekosso, Dorothy; de Jager, Deon; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a hand held device developed to assist people to locate and retrieve information about objects in a home. The system developed is a standalone device to assist persons with memory impairments such as people suffering from Alzheimer's disease. A second application is object detection and localization for a mobile robot operating in an ambient assisted living environment. The device relies on computer vision techniques to locate a tagged object situated in the environment. The tag is a 2D color printed pattern with a detection range and a field of view such that the user may point from a distance of over 1 meter.

  13. [Systematic teaching of differential diagnostics and information retrieval in medical education--a controlled study].

    PubMed

    Renko, Marjo; Soini, Hannu; Rantala, Heikki; Tapiainen, Terhi; Pokka, Tytti; Uhari, Matti

    2010-01-01

    Teaching of differential diagnostic skills in medical education is often nonsystematic and touched only in a disease-based manner in the context of patient cases. We conducted a controlled study, in which a portion of fifth year students received systematic teaching of differential diagnostics and information retrieval for a period of ten weeks, whereas another portion continued in conventional basic training. We tested the students' problem-solving skills in both groups with a computer-assisted test. Students in the intervention group were more successful in the test and settled on the correct diagnosis more often than students in the control group.

  14. Automatic generation of stop word lists for information retrieval and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Stuart J

    2013-01-08

    Methods and systems for automatically generating lists of stop words for information retrieval and analysis. Generation of the stop words can include providing a corpus of documents and a plurality of keywords. From the corpus of documents, a term list of all terms is constructed and both a keyword adjacency frequency and a keyword frequency are determined. If a ratio of the keyword adjacency frequency to the keyword frequency for a particular term on the term list is less than a predetermined value, then that term is excluded from the term list. The resulting term list is truncated based on predetermined criteria to form a stop word list.

  15. A Two-Level Cache for Distributed Information Retrieval in Search Engines

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weizhe; He, Hui; Ye, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of distributed information retrieval in search engines, we propose a two-level cache structure based on the queries of the users' logs. We extract the highest rank queries of users from the static cache, in which the queries are the most popular. We adopt the dynamic cache as an auxiliary to optimize the distribution of the cache data. We propose a distribution strategy of the cache data. The experiments prove that the hit rate, the efficiency, and the time consumption of the two-level cache have advantages compared with other structures of cache. PMID:24363621

  16. A two-level cache for distributed information retrieval in search engines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhe; He, Hui; Ye, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of distributed information retrieval in search engines, we propose a two-level cache structure based on the queries of the users' logs. We extract the highest rank queries of users from the static cache, in which the queries are the most popular. We adopt the dynamic cache as an auxiliary to optimize the distribution of the cache data. We propose a distribution strategy of the cache data. The experiments prove that the hit rate, the efficiency, and the time consumption of the two-level cache have advantages compared with other structures of cache.

  17. New Term Weighting Formulas for the Vector Space Method in Information Retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Chisholm, E.; Kolda, T.G.

    1999-03-01

    The goal in information retrieval is to enable users to automatically and accurately find data relevant to their queries. One possible approach to this problem i use the vector space model, which models documents and queries as vectors in the term space. The components of the vectors are determined by the term weighting scheme, a function of the frequencies of the terms in the document or query as well as throughout the collection. We discuss popular term weighting schemes and present several new schemes that offer improved performance.

  18. Transportable, university-level educational programs in interactive information storage and retrieval systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D.; Roquemore, Leroy

    1984-01-01

    Pursuant to the specifications of a research contract entered into in December, 1983 with NASA, the Computer Science Departments of the University of Southwestern Louisiana and Southern University will be working jointly to address a variety of research and educational issues relating to the use, by non-computer professionals, of some of the largest and most sophiticated interactive information storage and retrieval systems available. Over the projected 6 to 8 year life of the project, in addition to NASA/RECON, the following systems will be examined: Lockheed DIALOG, DOE/RECON, DOD/DTIC, EPA/CSIN, and LLNL/TIS.

  19. Do Online Information Retrieval Systems Help Experienced Clinicians Answer Clinical Questions?

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Coiera, Enrico W.; Gosling, A. Sophie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of clinicians' use of an online information retrieval system on their performance in answering clinical questions. Design: Pre-/post-intervention experimental design. Measurements: In a computer laboratory, 75 clinicians (26 hospital-based doctors, 18 family practitioners, and 31 clinical nurse consultants) provided 600 answers to eight clinical scenarios before and after the use of an online information retrieval system. We examined the proportion of correct answers pre- and post-intervention, direction of change in answers, and differences between professional groups. Results: System use resulted in a 21% improvement in clinicians' answers, from 29% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.4–32.6) correct pre- to 50% (95% CI 46.0–54.0) post-system use. In 33% (95% CI 29.1–36.9) answers were changed from incorrect to correct. In 21% (95% CI 17.1–23.9) correct pre-test answers were supported by evidence found using the system, and in 7% (95% CI 4.9–9.1) correct pre-test answers were changed incorrectly. For 40% (35.4–43.6) of scenarios, incorrect pre-test answers were not rectified following system use. Despite significant differences in professional groups' pre-test scores [family practitioners: 41% (95% CI 33.0–49.0), hospital doctors: 35% (95% CI 28.5–41.2), and clinical nurse consultants: 17% (95% CI 12.3–21.7; χ2 = 29.0, df = 2, p < 0.01)], there was no difference in post-test scores. (χ2 = 2.6, df = 2, p = 0.73). Conclusions: The use of an online information retrieval system was associated with a significant improvement in the quality of answers provided by clinicians to typical clinical problems. In a small proportion of cases, use of the system produced errors. While there was variation in the performance of clinical groups when answering questions unaided, performance did not differ significantly following system use. Online information retrieval systems can be an effective tool in improving the accuracy of

  20. Virtualization, virtual environments, and content-based retrieval of three-dimensional information for cultural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquet, Eric; Peters, Shawn; Beraldin, J. A.; Valzano, Virginia; Bandiera, Adriana

    2003-01-01

    The present paper proposes a virtual environment for visualizing virtualized cultural and historical sites. The proposed environment is based on a distributed asynchronous architecture and supports stereo vision and tiled wall display. The system is mobile and can run from two laptops. This virtual environment addresses the problems of intellectual property protection and multimedia information retrieval through encryptation and content-based management respectively. Experimental results with a fully textured 3D model of the Crypt of Santa Cristina in Italy are presented, evaluating the performances of the proposed virtual environment.