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Sample records for geotechnical engineering

  1. Computer applications to geotechnical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy, D. K.

    1983-08-01

    This report presents four geotechnical engineering programs for use on personal computing systems. An Apple II-Plus operating with DOS 3.3 Applesoft language was used. The programs include the solution of the signpost problem, the cantilevered sheet pile problem, the slope stability problem, and the flexible pavement design program. Each chapter is independent and does not rely upon theories or data presented in other chapters. A chapter outlines the theory used and also presents a users guide, a program list, and verification of the program by hand calculation. This report assimilates the product a practicing engineer would expect to receive when procuring software services.

  2. Geotechnical engineering in US elementary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-06-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data acquisition, the soil profile and foundations activity employed natural and transparent soils as well as LEGO-based foundation models, and the erosion activity utilised a 3D printer to assist with construction of building models. The activities seek to enhance students' academic achievement, excite them about geotechnical engineering, and motivate them to study science and math. Pre- and post-activity evaluations were conducted to assess both the suitability of the activities and the students' learning. Initial results show that students gain a reasonable understanding of engineering principles. Moreover, the geotechnical engineering activities provided students an opportunity to apply their math skills and science knowledge.

  3. Geotechnical Engineering in US Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suescun-Florez, Eduardo; Iskander, Magued; Kapila, Vikram; Cain, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of several geotechnical engineering-related science activities conducted with elementary-school students. Activities presented include soil permeability, contact stress, soil stratigraphy, shallow and deep foundations, and erosion in rivers. The permeability activity employed the LEGO NXT platform for data…

  4. Geotechnical engineering for ocean waste disposal. An introduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Homa J.; Demars, Kenneth R.; Chaney, Ronald C.; ,

    1990-01-01

    As members of multidisciplinary teams, geotechnical engineers apply quantitative knowledge about the behavior of earth materials toward designing systems for disposing of wastes in the oceans and monitoring waste disposal sites. In dredge material disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in selecting disposal equipment, predict stable characteristics of dredge mounds, design mound caps, and predict erodibility of the material. In canister disposal, geotechnical engineers assist in specifying canister configurations, predict penetration depths into the seafloor, and predict and monitor canister performance following emplacement. With sewage outfalls, geotechnical engineers design foundation and anchor elements, estimate scour potential around the outfalls, and determine the stability of deposits made up of discharged material. With landfills, geotechnical engineers evaluate the stability and erodibility of margins and estimate settlement and cracking of the landfill mass. Geotechnical engineers also consider the influence that pollutants have on the engineering behavior of marine sediment and the extent to which changes in behavior affect the performance of structures founded on the sediment. In each of these roles, careful application of geotechnical engineering principles can contribute toward more efficient and environmentally safe waste disposal operations.

  5. Sustainable Development and Energy Geotechnology Potential Roles for Geotechnical Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    FragaszyProgram Dire, Dr. R. J.; Santamarina, Carlos; Espinoza, N.; Jang, J.W.; Jung, J.W.; Tsouris, Costas

    2011-01-01

    The world is facing unprecedented challenges related to energy resources, global climate change, material use, and waste generation. Failure to address these challenges will inhibit the growth of the developing world and will negatively impact the standard of living and security of future generations in all nations. The solutions to these challenges will require multidisciplinary research across the social and physical sciences and engineering. Although perhaps not always recognized, geotechnical engineering expertise is critical to the solution of many energy and sustainability-related problems. Hence, geotechnical engineers and academicians have opportunity and responsibility to contribute to the solution of these worldwide problems. Research will need to be extended to non-standard issues such as thermal properties of soils; sediment and rock response to extreme conditions and at very long time scales; coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-bio-mechanical processes; positive feedback systems; the development of discontinuities; biological modification of soil properties; spatial variability; and emergent phenomena. Clearly, the challenges facing geotechnical engineering in the future will require a much broader knowledge base than our traditional educational programs provide. The geotechnical engineering curricula, from undergraduate education through continuing professional education, must address the changing needs of a profession that will increasingly be engaged in alternative/renewable energy production; energy efficiency; sustainable design, enhanced and more efficient use of natural resources, waste management, and underground utilization.

  6. Incorporating Learning Outcomes into an Introductory Geotechnical Engineering Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding…

  7. Incorporating learning outcomes into an introductory geotechnical engineering course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiegel, Gregg L.

    2013-06-01

    The article describes the process of incorporating a set of learning outcomes into a geotechnical engineering course. The outcomes were developed using Bloom's taxonomy and define the knowledge, skills, and abilities the students are expected to achieve upon completion of the course. Each outcome begins with an action-oriented verb corresponding to one of six levels of achievement in the cognitive domain (remember, understand, apply, analyse, evaluate, and create). The article includes a listing of outcomes articulated for several course topics. The article also summarises how the outcomes were linked to lesson plans and assignments. Example formative and summative assessment methods and results are presented with the results of teaching evaluations, which indicate that students value this approach to course design. The article concludes with a discussion of how the above approach has been implemented in upper-division courses. Outcomes are presented for a course on earth retention systems.

  8. Fiber-optic sensor applications in civil and geotechnical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habel, Wolfgang R.; Krebber, Katerina

    2011-09-01

    Different types of fiber-optic sensors based on glass or polymeric fibers are used to evaluate material behavior or to monitor the integrity and long-term stability of load-bearing structure components. Fiber-optic sensors have been established as a new and innovative measurement technology in very different fields, such as material science, civil engineering, light-weight structures, geotechnical areas as well as chemical and high-voltage substations. Very often, mechanical quantities such as deformation, strain or vibration are requested. However, measurement of chemical quantities in materials and structure components, such as pH value in steel reinforced concrete members also provides information about the integrity of concrete structures. A special fiber-optic chemical sensor for monitoring the alkaline state (pH value) of the cementitious matrix in steel-reinforced concrete structures with the purpose of early detection of corrosion-initiating factors is described. The paper presents the use of several fiber-optic sensor technologies in engineering. One example concerns the use of highly resolving concrete-embeddable fiber Fabry-Perot acoustic emission (AE) sensors for the assessment of the bearing behaviour of large concrete piles in existing foundations or during and after its installation. Another example concerns fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors attached to anchor steels (micro piles) to measure the strain distribution in loaded soil anchors. Polymer optical fibers (POF) can be — because of their high elasticity and high ultimate strain — well integrated into textiles to monitor their deformation behaviour. Such "intelligent" textiles are capable of monitoring displacement of soil or slopes, critical mechanical deformation in geotechnical structures (dikes, dams, and embankments) as well as in masonry structures during and after earthquakes.

  9. GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE AND BECHTEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M; I. Arango, I; Michael Mchood, M

    2007-07-17

    The authors describe two aspects of geotechnical engineering; site characterization utilizing the CPT and recognition of aging as a factor affecting soil properties. These methods were pioneered by Professor Schmertmann and are practiced by the Bechtel Corporation in general and at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, in particular. This paper describes a general subsurface exploration approach that we have developed over the years. It consists of ''phasing'' the investigation, employing the principles of the observational method suggested by Peck (1969) and others. In doing so, we have found that the recommendations proposed by Sowers in terms of borehole spacing and exploration cost, are reasonable for developing an investigation program, recognizing that through continuous review the final investigation program will evolve. At the SRS shallow subsurface soils are of Eocene and Miocene age. It was recognized that the age of these deposits would have a marked effect on their cyclic resistance. A field investigation and laboratory testing program was devised to measure and account for aging as it relates to the cyclic resistance of the site soils. Recently, a panel of experts (Youd et al., 2001) has made recommendations regarding the liquefaction assessment of soils. This paper will address some of those recommendations in the context of re-assessing the liquefaction resistance of the soils at the SRS. It will be shown that, indeed, aging plays a major role in the cyclic resistance of the soils at the SRS, and that aging should be accounted for in liquefaction potential assessments for soils older than Holocene age.

  10. Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking in Geotechnical Engineering Education (Geo-EFFECTs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific…

  11. Environments for fostering effective critical thinking in geotechnical engineering education (Geo-EFFECTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Charles E.; Gassman, Sarah L.; Huffman, Jeffrey T.

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes the development, implementation, and assessment of instructional materials for geotechnical engineering concepts using the Environments for Fostering Effective Critical Thinking (EFFECTs) pedagogical framework. The central learning goals of engineering EFFECTs are to (i) improve the understanding and retention of a specific set of concepts that provide core knowledge and (ii) encourage students to recognise and develop critical thinking skills that lead to growth in engineering judgement. The practice of geotechnical engineering deals with complex and uncertain soil conditions, where critical thought and judgement are imperative. Three geo-EFFECTs were created in the context of levee reconstruction, levee permeability, and settlement of a tower structure. Students often provided inaccurate estimates to driving questions set in those contexts; when given opportunities for self-exploration and self-correction in the EFFECT structure, students often achieved more accurate final solutions. Overall, results suggest that EFFECTs have a measurable, positive impact on student learning.

  12. Compendium of Abstracts on Statistical Applications in Geotechnical Engineering.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    basaltic rocks of central and South - East Slovakia 1880 Lachapelle Empirical determination of the gravity anomaly covariance function in mountainous areas...literature search is part of CIIS Work Unit No. 31755 on Probabilistic Methods in Engineering Geology . This work unit is part of the Rock Research Program in...research in the application of probabilistic and statistical methods to soil mechanics, rock mechanics, and engineering geology problems have grown markedly

  13. Accessibility of geotechnical earthquake Engineering data and the need for data storage and dissemination standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, Arthur C.

    1993-01-01

    Ease of data access and data standards are two issues critical to the success of GIS technology when applied to earthquake hazards research problems that require geotechnical engineering and related data. Efforts to reduce data accession costs and to streamline the data exchange process will result in short-term cost and time saving and will add long-term value to the data sets themselves. Such efforts might include centralized data centers, standardized data base designs and formats, cooperative efforts to fill data gaps, and standardized distribution methods and media.

  14. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  15. Geotechnical and metric engineering applied to building a roman villa in thw Vega of Granada (Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navas, E.; Garrido, A.; Román, J.; Aguirre, J.; Esquive, J. A.

    The excavation of a Roman villa in the city of Granada (Andalusia, Spain) has provided major information about the use of geotechnical principles and methods of building a house in the 1st century A.D. The study of the building techniques shows that the inhabitants of the Granada basin had ample knowledge of architectural engineering and its relationship to the geologic characteristics in the area of Granada. This knowledge was applied by architects to the foundations of buildings to prevent natural risks, mainly rainfall damage to unstable geologic material, a shallow phreatic level, and periodic floods. The architectural design was adapted to these considerations although the building studied is a simple house, more similar to the pars rustica of a villa than a luxury villa.

  16. Engineering geologic and geotechnical analysis of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects: Field examples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, R.A.; Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The greatest impediments to the widespread acceptance of back-calculated ground motion characteristics from paleoliquefaction studies typically stem from three uncertainties: (1) the significance of changes in the geotechnical properties of post-liquefied sediments (e.g., "aging" and density changes), (2) the selection of appropriate geotechnical soil indices from individual paleoliquefaction sites, and (3) the methodology for integration of back-calculated results of strength of shaking from individual paleoliquefaction sites into a regional assessment of paleoseismic strength of shaking. Presented herein are two case studies that illustrate the methods outlined by Olson et al. [Engineering Geology, this issue] for addressing these uncertainties. The first case study is for a site near Memphis, Tennessee, wherein cone penetration test data from side-by-side locations, one of liquefaction and the other of no liquefaction, are used to readily discern that the influence of post-liquefaction "aging" and density changes on the measured in situ soil indices is minimal. In the second case study, 12 sites that are at scattered locations in the Wabash Valley and that exhibit paleoliquefaction features are analyzed. The features are first provisionally attributed to the Vincennes Earthquake, which occurred around 6100 years BP, and are used to illustrate our proposed approach for selecting representative soil indices of the liquefied sediments. These indices are used in back-calculating the strength of shaking at the individual sites, the results from which are then incorporated into a regional assessment of the moment magnitude, M, of the Vincennes Earthquake. The regional assessment validated the provisional assumption that the paleoliquefaction features at the scattered sites were induced by the Vincennes Earthquake, in the main, which was determined to have M ??? 7.5. The uncertainties and assumptions used in the assessment are discussed in detail. ?? 2004 Elsevier B

  17. Geotechnical, Hydrogeologic and Vegetation Data Package for 200-UW-1 Waste Site Engineered Surface Barrier Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Andy L.

    2007-11-26

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is designing and assessing the performance of engineered barriers for final closure of 200-UW-1 waste sites. Engineered barriers must minimize the intrusion and water, plants and animals into the underlying waste to provide protection for human health and the environment. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator is being used to optimize the performance of candidate barriers. Simulating barrier performance involves computation of mass and energy transfer within a soil-atmosphere-vegetation continuum and requires a variety of input parameters, some of which are more readily available than others. Required input includes parameter values for the geotechnical, physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of the materials comprising the barrier and the structural fill on which it will be constructed as well as parameters to allow simulation of plant effects. This report provides a data package of the required parameters as well as the technical basis, rationale and methodology used to obtain the parameter values.

  18. SoilEngineering: A Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet © program for geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcep, Ferhat

    2010-10-01

    SoilEngineering is a user-friendly, interactive Microsoft Excel ® spreadsheet program for the geotechnical and geophysical analysis of soils. The influence of soil behavior on earthquake characteristics and/or structural design is one of the major elements in investigating earthquake forces, and thus the structural response with static and dynamic loads. With its interactive nature, the program provides the user with an opportunity to undertake soil static and dynamic load analysis. The program is formed by three main options: (1) Data Preparation, (2) Derived Parameters and (3) Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads). The Data Preparation option is divided into four modules: Seismic Refraction Data, Geoelectrical Data, Borehole and SPT ( N) Data and Laboratory Data. The Derived Parameters option is divided into two modules: Geotechnical Parameters Derived from Geophysical Data and Relationships between Vs and SPT ( N) Values. The Analysis of Soil Problems (with Static and Dynamic Loads) option is divided into nine modules: Bearing Capacity for Shallow and Deep Foundations, Settlement Analysis (Static and Dynamic Loads), Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient, Slope Stability Analysis, Seismic Hazard Analysis, Strong Motion Attenuation Relationships, Acceleration/Velocity/Displacement Spectra, Soil Amplification Analysis and Soil Liquefaction Analysis. Soil engineering also permits plotting geophysical and geotechnical data with analysis.

  19. Towards Quality Assurance and an Adequate Risk Management in Geotechnical Engineering - Application of Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 in Engineering Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetelig, Kurt; Heitfeld, Michael; von Soos, Paul; Stocker, Manfred; Mainz, Mark

    A key issue of engineering geology is the extreme variety of soil and rock, their heterogeneity and at places anisotropy, the fabric of rockmasses, the influence of water, the primary stresses and their change into a secondary stress field by loading or unloading. Changeable properties of some kinds of soil and rock, the effect of different scales of laboratory tests, field tests and the size of the structure create further questions. Considering the difficulties of investigation of the underground, size and complexity of the structure and its construction procedure Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 have introduced geotechnical categories. The design concept in geotechnical category 3 is mostly combined with the observational method. This requires the establishment of an adequate monitoring system and a permanent comparison of the design assumptions (pre-calculated displacements or stresses) with the recorded values. The goals and handling of Eurocode 7 and DIN 4020 are demonstrated by means of site examples.

  20. Use of surface waves for geotechnical engineering applications in Western Sydney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokeshi, K.; Harutoonian, P.; Leo, C. J.; Liyanapathirana, S.

    2013-06-01

    Current in situ methods used to geotechnically characterize the ground are predominantly based on invasive mechanical techniques (e.g. CPT, SPT, DMT). These techniques are localized to the tested area thus making it quite time consuming and costly to extensively cover large areas. Hence, a study has been initiated to investigate the use of the non-invasive Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and Multichannel Simulation with One Receiver (MSOR) techniques to provide both an evaluation of compacted ground and a general geotechnical site characterization. The MASW technique relies on the measurement of active ambient vibrations generated by sledgehammer hits to the ground. Generated vibrations are gathered by interconnected electromagnetic geophones set up in the vertical direction and in a linear array at the ground surface with a constant spacing. The MSOR technique relies on one sensor, one single geophone used as the trigger, and multiple impacts are delivered on a steel plate at several distances in a linear array. The main attributes of these non-invasive techniques are the cost effectiveness and time efficiency when compared to current in situ mechanical invasive methods. They were applied to infer the stiffness of the ground layers by inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves to derive the shear wave velocity (Vs) profile. The results produced by the MASW and the MSOR techniques were verified against independent mechanical Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and Standard Penetration Test (SPT) data. This paper identifies that the MASW and the MSOR techniques could be potentially useful and powerful tools in the evaluation of the ground compaction and general geotechnical site characterization.

  1. Proceedings, Seminar on Probabilistic Methods in Geotechnical Engineering Held at Vicksburg, Mississippi on 21 September 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    open pit mines. Similar trends can be expected in other rock engineering problems, including deformability. 6. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR RESEARCH The danger ...initial tests at various places about a site, and then to place a fixed number of additional tests in the vacinity of each. Cluster plans are very common

  2. Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report

    SciTech Connect

    D. Rigby; M. Mrugala; G. Shideler; T. Davidsavor; J. Leem; D. Buesch; Y. Sun; D. Potyondy; M. Christianson

    2003-12-17

    The Yucca Mountain Project is entering a the license application (LA) stage in its mission to develop the nation's first underground nuclear waste repository. After a number of years of gathering data related to site characterization, including activities ranging from laboratory and site investigations, to numerical modeling of processes associated with conditions to be encountered in the future repository, the Project is realigning its activities towards the License Application preparation. At the current stage, the major efforts are directed at translating the results of scientific investigations into sets of data needed to support the design, and to fulfill the licensing requirements and the repository design activities. This document addresses the program need to address specific technical questions so that an assessment can be made about the suitability and adequacy of data to license and construct a repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. In July 2002, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published an Integrated Issue Resolution Status Report (NRC 2002). Included in this report were the Repository Design and Thermal-Mechanical Effects (RDTME) Key Technical Issues (KTI). Geotechnical agreements were formulated to resolve a number of KTI subissues, in particular, RDTME KTIs 3.04, 3.05, 3.07, and 3.19 relate to the physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the host rock (NRC 2002, pp. 2.1.1-28, 2.1.7-10 to 2.1.7-21, A-17, A-18, and A-20). The purpose of the Subsurface Geotechnical Parameters Report is to present an accounting of current geotechnical information that will help resolve KTI subissues and some other project needs. The report analyzes and summarizes available qualified geotechnical data. It evaluates the sufficiency and quality of existing data to support engineering design and performance assessment. In addition, the corroborative data obtained from tests performed by a number of research organizations is presented to reinforce

  3. Geotechnical Engineering, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragaszy, R. J.; Argo, D.; Higgins, J. D.

    The 16 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Comparison of Formula Predictions with Pile Load Tests; Study of Dynamic Methods of Predicting Pile Axial Load Capacity by Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development; Analysis of Drilled Piers Used for Slope Stabilization; Analytical Study of Laterally Loaded Cast-in-Drilled-Hole Piles; Bolted Connections of Rib-Plate Structures; Validation of Correlations Between a Number of Penetration Tests and In Situ California Bearing Ratio Tests: Class C Fly Ash as a Full or Partial Replacement for Portland Cement or Lime; Accelerated Curing of Fly Ash-Lime Soil Mixtures; Frost Resistance of Lime-Stabilized Clay Soil; Stabilization of Expansive Clay Soils; Expansion of Cement-Stabilized Minestone due to the Oxidation of Pyrite; Field Measurement of Shrinkage Crack Depth in Expansive Soils; Evaluation of AGWA-II Thermal Conductivity Sensors for Soil Suction Measurement; Pore Fluid Effects on the Fabric and Hydraulic Conductivity of Laboratory-Compacted Clay; Organically Modified Clays; and Diffusion of Contaminants Through Waste Containment Barriers.

  4. Enabling Geotechnical Data for Broader Use by the Spatial Data Infrastructures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zand, Amir Ghasem

    2011-01-01

    Geotechnical data are one of the most prevalent data types in civil engineering projects. The majority of the civil engineering projects that are in use today are designed using site-specific geotechnical data. The usage of geotechnical data is not limited to construction projects. This data is used in a wide range of applications, including…

  5. IN SITU AND LABORATORY GEOTECHNICAL TESTS OF THE PIERRE SHALE NEAR HAYES, SOUTH DAKOTA - A CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERING BEHAVIOR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Thomas C.; Collins, Donley S.; Davidson, Richard R.

    1986-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation of the Pierre Shale near Hayes, South Dakota, was conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey as a basis for evaluating problems in deep excavations into that formation. The physical and mechanical properties of the shale were determined through use of core holes drilled to a maximum depth of 184 m. In situ borehole determinations included a gravimeter survey, pressuremeter testing, thermal profile measurements, and borehole velocity measurements. Onsite and offsite laboratory measurements included rebound measurements, sonic velocity measurements of shear and primary waves, X-ray mineralogy and major element determinations, size analyses, fracture analyses, fabric analyses, and determination of thermal properties. The properties of the clay shale indicate problems that may be encountered in excavation and use of deep underground facilities.

  6. Geotechnical centrifuge under construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Modifications are underway at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center in California to transform a centrifuge used in the Apollo space program to the largest geotechnical centrifuge in the free world. The centrifuge, to be finished in August and opened next January, following check out and tuning, will enable geoscientists to model stratigraphic features down to 275 m below the earth's surface. Scientists will be able to model processes that are coupled with body force loading, including earthquake response of earth structures and soil structure interaction; rubbled-bed behavior during in situ coal gasification or in oil shale in situ retorts; behavior of frozen soil; frost heave; behavior of offshore structures; wave-seabed interactions; explosive cratering; and blast-induced liquefaction.The centrifuge will have a load capacity of 900-g-tons (short); that is, it will be able to carry a net soil load of 3 short tons to a centripetal acceleration of 300 times the acceleration caused by gravity. Modified for a total cost of $2.4 million, the centrifuge will have an arm with a 7.6-m radius and a swinging platform or bucket at its end that will be able to carry a payload container measuring 2.1×2.1 m. An additional future input of $500,000 would enable the purchase of a larger bucket that could accommodate a load of up to 20 tons, according to Charles Babendreier, program director for geotechnical engineering at the National Science Foundation. Additional cooling for the motor would also be required. The centrifuge has the capability of accelerating the 20-ton load to 100 g.

  7. Supporting active learning in an undergraduate geotechnical engineering course using group-based audience response systems quizzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or 'clickers' in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS quizzes have been integrated into an undergraduate civil engineering course on foundation design. Overall, the ARS summary quizzes were very well received by the students. Feedback obtained from the students indicates that the majority believed the group-based quizzes were useful activities, which helped to improve their understanding of course materials, encouraged self-assessment, and assisted preparation for their summative examination. Providing students with clickers does not, however, necessarily guarantee the class will be engaged with the activity. If an ARS activity is to be successful, careful planning and design must be carried out and modifications adopted where necessary, which should be informed by the literature and relevant student feedback.

  8. Analysis of The Loess Geological Environment in Terms of Engineering-Geological and Geotechnical Purposes and Application in Geotourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschalko, Marian; Durďák, Jan; Niemiec, Dominik; Zástěrová, Petra; Duraj, Miloš; Yilmaz, Işik; Drusa, Marian

    2016-10-01

    Loess sediments, formed via wind action, are important geological environments both for the engineering geology as well as for the newly developing field in the geosciences, i.e. geotourism. The paper aims to give the basic characteristics of loess sediments and point at two localities in the Czech Republic, where significant archaeological localities are situated on loess. The first locality is Mikulcice in the Hodomn district in the South-Moravian Region. The second locality is Chtebuz in the Karvina district in the Moravian-Silesian Region. The two localities are important examples for tourists and scientists searching for the sights related to their geological environment. Loess sediments have specific characteristics that arise from their genesis.

  9. Handbook for Marine Geotechnical Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    3-20 Figure 3.5-3. Correlation between coefficient of... correlation between coefficient of consolidation (cv) and liquid limit for fine-grained soils. Although this was not developed with data from marine...

  10. Seafloor Environments North St. Croix Margin and Virgin Islands Trough. Part 1. Introduction. Part 2. Geology and Geophysics. Part 3. Geotechnical Investigations. Part 4. Engineering Significance,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    activities plan7 extending up to 35* (see map insert). ned in the area. Table 3.4. Calcium carbonate analyses. Percent (dry weight) Sample Number Below... Herrmann (4.2], in specifying guidelines for de- For purposes of presentation, the geo- sign of small (maximum dimension less logical and...the geotechnical data have been guided Herrmann and Valent 14.91 give some by the recommendations of the Naval * general guidelines for estimating

  11. Development of a geotechnical and pile driving database, Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Carpaneto, R.; Paoletti, L.; Guaita, P.; Pratico, A.

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a geotechnical and pile driving data base relevant to offshore installations in the Adriatic Sea. The paper discusses sources of information, structure, content, and engineering applications of the data base. Data available from Agip`s platform installations in the Adriatic was reviewed, and 20 representative platforms were chosen. Two relational data bases were created, for geotechnical and installation data respectively. The data bases provide a comprehensive and organized source of information about past experience in the area. Such experience is now quickly available for geotechnical engineering activities. As a main application of the data bases, information was processed to make data sets for training Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to predict pile driveability. It is envisioned that the data bases will also be used in ongoing installation program design.

  12. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M R

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  13. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbust, R.J.; Salomone, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241- 32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994. The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankments under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: (1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, (2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, (3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, (4) derive properties for seismic soil- structure interaction analysis, (5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and (6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  14. In-Tank Processing (ITP) Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cumbest, R.J.

    1999-01-15

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed for the In Tank Processing Facility (ITP) which consists of buildings 241-96H and 241-32H; and Tanks 241-948H, 241-949H, 241-950H, and 241-951H. The investigation consisted of a literature search for relevant technical data, field explorations, field and laboratory testing, and analyses. This document presents a summary of the scope and results to date of the investigations and engineering analyses for these facilities. A final geotechnical report, which will include a more detailed discussion and all associated boring logs, laboratory test results, and analyses will be issued in October 1994.The purpose of the investigation is to obtain geotechnical information to evaluate the seismic performance of the foundation materials and embankme nts under and around the ITP. The geotechnical engineering objectives of the investigation are to: 1) define the subsurface stratigraphy, 2) obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface materials, 3) assess the competence of the subsurface materials under static and dynamic loads, 4) derive properties for seismic soil-structure interaction analysis, 5) evaluate the areal and vertical extent of horizons that might cause dynamic settlement or instability, and 6) determine settlement at the foundation level of the tanks.

  15. Recycled materials in geotechnical applications. Geotechnical special publication No. 79

    SciTech Connect

    Vipulanandan, C.; Elton, D.J.

    1998-07-01

    Recycled materials have the potential for use in a variety of geotechnical and geoenvironmental applications. This proceedings contains 15 papers on field applications and laboratory testing related to recycled materials. Papers cover: geotechnics of industrial by-products; paper mill sludge for landfill cover; mitigation of void development under bridge approach slabs using rubber tire chips; tire shreds as lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls; performance of a highway embankment and hydraulic barriers constructed using waste foundry sand, and recycled materials; lagoon-stored lime for embankment; construction and demolition debris for base and subbase applications; fly ash for fill, pavement, earth structures and aggregate; compaction of contaminated soils-reuse as a road base material; and database on beneficial reuse of foundry by-products; and more.

  16. Data dictionary and formatting standard for dissemination of geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benoit, J.; Bobbitt, J.I.; Ponti, D.J.; Shimel, S.A.; ,

    2004-01-01

    A pilot system for archiving and web dissemination of geotechnical data collected and stored by various agencies is currently under development. Part of the scope of this project, sponsored by the Consortium of Organizations for Strong-Motion Observation Systems (COSMOS) and by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) Lifelines Program, is the development of a data dictionary and formatting standard. This paper presents the data model along with the basic structure of the data dictionary tables for this pilot system.

  17. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  18. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 2, Geology and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  19. Reconsolidated Salt as a Geotechnical Barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Gadbury, Casey

    2015-11-01

    Salt as a geologic medium has several attributes favorable to long-term isolation of waste placed in mined openings. Salt formations are largely impermeable and induced fractures heal as stress returns to equilibrium. Permanent isolation also depends upon the ability to construct geotechnical barriers that achieve nearly the same high-performance characteristics attributed to the native salt formation. Salt repository seal concepts often include elements of reconstituted granular salt. As a specific case in point, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant recently received regulatory approval to change the disposal panel closure design from an engineered barrier constructed of a salt-based concrete to one that employs simple run-of-mine salt and temporary bulkheads for isolation from ventilation. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is a radioactive waste disposal repository for defense-related transuranic elements mined from the Permian evaporite salt beds in southeast New Mexico. Its approved shaft seal design incorporates barrier components comprising salt-based concrete, bentonite, and substantial depths of crushed salt compacted to enhance reconsolidation. This paper will focus on crushed salt behavior when applied as drift closures to isolate disposal rooms during operations. Scientific aspects of salt reconsolidation have been studied extensively. The technical basis for geotechnical barrier performance has been strengthened by recent experimental findings and analogue comparisons. The panel closure change was accompanied by recognition that granular salt will return to a physical state similar to the halite surrounding it. Use of run-of-mine salt ensures physical and chemical compatibility with the repository environment and simplifies ongoing disposal operations. Our current knowledge and expected outcome of research can be assimilated with lessons learned to put forward designs and operational concepts for the next generation of salt repositories. Mined salt

  20. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-08

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS). Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  1. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES... engineering features are within design limits....

  2. Preliminary geotechnical evaluation of deep borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, M.S. New Orleans Univ., LA . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with a preliminary engineering evaluation of borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales. Some of the geotechnical properties of Pierre, Rhinestreet, and typical illite shale have been collected. The influence of a few geotechnical properties on strength and deformation of host material is briefly examined. It appears that Pierre shale is very unstable and requires support to prevent collapse. Typical illite shale is more stable than Rhinestreet shale, although it undergoes relatively more deformation. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Geotechnical effects of the 2015 magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, Robb E. S.; Thompson, Eric; Kieffer, D Scott; Tiwari, Binod; Hashash, Youssef M A; Acharya, Indra; Adhikari, Basanta; Asimaki, Domniki; Clahan, Kevin B.; Collins, Brian D.; Dahal, Sachindra; Jibson, Randall W.; Khadka, Diwakar; Macdonald, Amy; Madugo, Chris L M; Mason, H Benjamin; Pehlivan, Menzer; Rayamajhi, Deepak; Uprety, Sital

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the geotechnical effects of the 25 April 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake and aftershocks, as documented by a reconnaissance team that undertook a broad engineering and scientific assessment of the damage and collected perishable data for future analysis. Brief descriptions are provided of ground shaking, surface fault rupture, landsliding, soil failure, and infrastructure performance. The goal of this reconnaissance effort, led by Geotechnical Extreme Events Reconnaissance, is to learn from earthquakes and mitigate hazards in future earthquakes.

  4. Geotechnical Properties of Oil Shale Retorted by the PARAHO and TOSCO Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    outlet size set by consideration of particle interlucking, flow rate, etc. 235 .," Material Oil shale B. With vibrating equipment ] Material not suited...AD-AB.a 317 ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG--ETC F/S 8/7 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND-ETC(U...lEEllllElhllIE MEJ I .LEVEL. TECHNICAL REPORT 66-79-22 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OILas SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND C TOSCO PROCESSES by ( Frank C

  5. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-09-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

  6. Executive Summary Geotechnical Siting Investigations FY 81.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-30

    obtained at the time of the field surveys. Biological resources surveys and geotechnical inspections were also made along the DTN route from each MOB toward...surveys and geotechnical inspections were made. Figure 5-9 shows a 64-mile (103-km) segment of the DTN in Utah where similar surveys and inspections ...AVAILAIUrY CXDES CIDPVI DW AAMA/O SEW NSPECTW DATE ACCESIONED 82 03 18018 DATE RECEIVE IN DTIC PHOTOGRAPH THES SHEET AND RETURN TO DTIC-DDA-2 OTIC FOR

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume III. Nevada - Utah Verification Studies, FY 79. Geotechnical Data Snake East CDP, Utah.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-24

    INVESTIGATION GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION VOLUME III, NEVADA-UTAH VERIFICATION STUDIES, FY 79 GEOTECHNICAL DATA SNAKE EAST CDP , UTAH Prepared for: U. S. Department...Beach Boulevard Long Beach, California 90807 24 August 1979 - NO= NATIONAL, INO. FN-TR-27-III I VOLUME III GEOTECHNICAL DATA, SNAKE EAST CDP - , TABLE...Railroad and Big Smoky CDP’s. Geotechnical Data Volumes Volume II - Whirlwind CDP * Volume III - Snake East CDP Volume IV - Hamlin CDP Volume V - White River

  8. A fiber optics textile composite sensor for geotechnical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artières, Olivier; Dortland, Gerrit

    2010-09-01

    The fiber optics in structural health monitoring systems for civil engineering applications have been widely used. By integrating fiber optic sensing into a geotextile fabric, the TenCate GeoDetect® system is the first designed specifically for geotechnical applications. This monitoring solution embodies fiber optics on a geotextile fabric, e.g. a textile used into the soil, and combines the benefits of geotextile materials, such as high interface friction in contact with the soil, with the latest fiber optics sensing technologies. It aims to monitor geotechnical structure and to generate early warnings if it detects and localizes the early signs of malfunctioning, such as leaks or instability. This is a customizable solution: Fiber Bragg gratings, Brillouin and Raman scattering can be built into this system. These technologies measure both strain and temperature changes in soil structures. It can provide a leak and deformation location within accuracies resp. 1 l/min/m and 0.02%. The TenCate GeoDetect® solution provides objective, highly precise, and timely in-situ performance information, allowing the design professional and owner to understand system performance in addition to providing alerts for negative "geo-events" (subsidence) and other potentially deleterious events.

  9. Random vectors and spatial analysis by geostatistics for geotechnical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.S.

    1987-08-01

    Geostatistics is extended to the spatial analysis of vector variables by defining the estimation variance and vector variogram in terms of the magnitude of difference vectors. Many random variables in geotechnology are in vectorial terms rather than scalars, and its structural analysis requires those sample variable interpolations to construct and characterize structural models. A better local estimator will result in greater quality of input models; geostatistics can provide such estimators; kriging estimators. The efficiency of geostatistics for vector variables is demonstrated in a case study of rock joint orientations in geological formations. The positive cross-validation encourages application of geostatistics to spatial analysis of random vectors in geoscience as well as various geotechnical fields including optimum site characterization, rock mechanics for mining and civil structures, cavability analysis of block cavings, petroleum engineering, and hydrologic and hydraulic modelings.

  10. Quarry geotechnical report for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report has been prepared for the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which is MK-Ferguson Company (MK-Ferguson) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as its designated subcontractor. The Weldon Spring site (WSS) comprises the Weldon Spring quarry area and the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pit areas. This report presents the results of geotechnical investigations conducted during 1989--1990 at the proposed Weldon Spring quarry staging and water treatment facilities in the quarry area. The facilities are intended for treatment of water removed from the quarry area. An access road and a decontamination pad will be necessary for handling and transportation of bulk waste. Results of previous geotechnical investigations performed by other geoscience and environmental engineering firms in the quarry area, were reviewed, summarized and incorporated into this report. Well logging, stratigraphy data, piezometer data, elevations, and soil characteristics are also included.

  11. Geotechnical Study of the OAN/SPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, B.; Castellanos, V.; Castilla, J. E.; Grijalva, J.; Díaz v., G.; Porres, R.; Garay, F.; Zamarripa, V.

    2003-09-01

    The geotechnical characterization of the San Pedro Mártir (SPM), Baja California site was carried out in 2000 by the Gerencia de Estudios de Ingeniería Civil of the Comisión Federal de Electricidad (GEIC/CFE). The principal aim of the series of geological and geotechnical studies was to characterize the subsoil performance at one of the possible construction sites of a new telescope, which may also provide an idea of the characteristics of other locations at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional in San Pedro Mártir (OAN/SPM) Sierra summit. The full report of the GEIC/CFE geotechnical study of the SPM site includes results from the topographic, geological and geophysical surveys carried out. In the present paper a review of the geotechnical study is presented and some of the important results are summarized. The study shows that the subsoil can be classified in three principal horizons or layers (A, B and C). The A-horizon consists of decompressed rock of depth 1.3 to 3.0 m, which has to be removed for the foundations. Layer B consists of fractured rock with an RQD (rock quality designation) between 65%-80%, a thickness of 10-12 m, and a high load bearing capacity. This implies that the required depth excavations for the foundation footings ranges from 2 to 3 m, where an adequate dynamic modulus of elasticity can be reached. Horizon C from 13 to 22 m, the maximum depth explored, consists of rock (gray schist) of massive nature with some granite intrusions that appears slightly fractured, with an RQD above 90%. For the electric grounding instalation the best place is layer B due to its lower resistivity.

  12. Semi-automatic discontinuity extraction from rock faces with LIDAR and Photogrammetry. A comparison validated by geotechnical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bews, C.; Hartmeyer, I.; Keuschnig, M.; Schrott, L.

    2012-04-01

    Detailed geotechnical analysis of discontinuities in rock walls is the basic foundation of many civil and mining engineering projects. It is important to measure and analyse the influence of fractures on rock constructions, such as tunnels, slopes, underground excavations, mines and nuclear waste repositories. The quality of this analysis depends on the detection of discontinuities at different scales and how well they are characterised. Traditional geotechnical surveys require direct access to the observed rock mass. Such surveys are therefore restricted to limited parts of rock masses, due to accessibility and safety reasons, impeding a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the rock mass. Additionally traditional surveys can be biased by subjective judgment of the surveyor, due to experience, motivation and other personal factors. Remote sensing techniques such as TLS (terrestrial laser scanning) and CRP (close range photogrammetry) not only can deliver detailed and comprehensive geotechnical information of discontinuities in rock walls, but also guarantee higher objectivity. Costs and time can be cut down and comparability of geotechnical surveys will become easier. The International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) defined 10 geotechnical parameters applicable for a quantitative rock wall analysis (Barton, 1978). The orientation (dip & dip direction) of discontinuities is one of them. In this study two rock walls - one located at the Kitzsteinhorn directly below the summit station and the second one at the Gutratberg belonging to the Leube quarry - were studied with the above mentioned non-contact methods to detect the orientation parameter (dip & dip direction). The geotechnical software Split-FX is used to extract this information from the high resolution point clouds. Validation of the gained orientation parameters with onsite geotechnical survey results showed good agreement. A comparison of both methods indicated, that TLS produces more accurate and

  13. Geotechnical Seismic Hazard Evaluation At Sellano (Umbria, Italy) Using The GIS Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capilleri, P.; Maugeri, M.

    2008-07-01

    A tool that has been widely-used in civil engineering in recent years is the geographic information system (GIS) [1]. Geographic Information systems (GIS) are powerful tools for organizing, analyzing, and presenting spatial data. The GIS can be used by geotechnical engineers to aid preliminary assessment through to the final geotechnical design. The aim of this work is to provide some indications for the use of the GIS technique in the field of seismic geotechnical engineering, particularly as regards the problems of seismic hazard zonation maps. The study area is the village of Sellano located in the Umbrian Apennines in central Italy, about 45 km east of Perugia and 120 km north-east of Rome The increasing importance attributed to microzonation derives from the spatial variability of ground motion due to particular local conditions. The use of GIS tools can lead to an early identification of potential barriers to project completion during the design process that may help avoid later costly redesign.

  14. Rockfall risk evaluation using geotechnical survey, remote sensing data, and GIS: a case study from western Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos; Depountis, Nikolaos; Vagenas, Nikolaos; Kavoura, Katerina; Vlaxaki, Eleni; Kelasidis, George; Sabatakakis, Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    In this paper a specific example of the synergistic use of geotechnical survey, remote sensing data and GIS for rockfall risk evaluation is presented. The study area is located in Western Greece. Extensive rockfalls have been recorded along Patras - Ioannina highway just after the cable-stayed bridge of Rio-Antirrio, at Klokova site. The rockfalls include medium- sized limestone boulders with volume up to 1.5m3. A detailed engineering geological survey was conducted including rockmass characterization, laboratory testing and geological - geotechnical mapping. Many Rockfall trajectory simulations were done. Rockfall risk along the road was estimated using spatial analysis in a GIS environment.

  15. Cross validation of geotechnical and geophysical site characterization methods: near surface data from selected accelerometric stations in Crete (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, C.; Tsangaratos, P.; Rozos, D.; Rondoyianni, Th.; Vafidis, A.; Kritikakis, G.; Steiakakis, M.; Agioutantis, Z.; Savvaidis, A.; Soupios, P.; Papadopoulos, I.; Papadopoulos, N.; Sarris, A.; Mangriotis, M.-D.; Dikmen, U.

    2015-06-01

    The specification of the near surface ground conditions is highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding settlements, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined, through the Thalis ″Geo-Characterization″ project, for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of site characterization data is going to be presented by providing characteristic examples from a total number of thirteen sites. Selected examples present sufficiently the ability, the limitations and the right order of the investigation methods.

  16. Geotechnical characteristics of residual soils

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Residual soils are products of chemical weathering and thus their characteristics are dependent upon environmental factors of climate, parent material, topography and drainage, and age. These conditions are optimized in the tropics where well-drained regions produce reddish lateritic soils rich in iron and aluminum sesquioxides and kaolinitic clays. Conversely, poorly drained areas tend towards montmorillonitic expansive black clays. Andosols develop over volcanic ash and rock regions and are rich in allophane (amorphous silica) and metastable halloysite. The geological origins greatly affect the resulting engineering characteristics. Both lateritic soils and andosols are susceptible to property changes upon drying, and exhibit compaction and strength properties not indicative of their classification limits. Both soils have been used successfully in earth dam construction, but attention must be given to seepage control through the weathered rock. Conversely, black soils are unpopular for embankments. Lateritic soils respond to cement stabilization and, in some cases, lime stabilization. Andosols should also respond to lime treatment and cement treatments if proper mixing can be achieved. Black expansive residual soils respond to lime treatment by demonstrating strength gains and decreased expansiveness. Rainfall induced landslides are typical of residual soil deposits.

  17. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1999-June 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-10-01

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1999, to June 30, 2000. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation

  18. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2000-June 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2002-09-26

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2000, to June 30, 2001. It is divided into ten chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5, 6, and 7 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture and stratigraphic mapping, borehole and core logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9 provides an assessment of the hydrologic conditions near the Exhaust Shaft. Chapter 10 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the

  19. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 1998-June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse

    2002-08-29

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations during operations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports on a quarterly basis to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after excavation of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 1998, to June 30, 1999. It is divided into nine chapters. The remainder of Chapter 1.0 provides background information on the WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2.0 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3.0 and 4.0 describe the geomechanical instrumentation located in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the three main portions of the WIPP underground facility (the access drifts, the Northern Experimental Area, and the Waste Disposal Area). Chapter 8.0 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which includes fracture mapping, borehole logging, and borehole observations. Chapter 9.0 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements.

  20. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  1. Geotechnical properties of sediments from North Pacific and Northern Bermuda Rise

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, A J; Laine, E P; Lipkin, J; Heath, G R; Akers, S A

    1980-01-01

    Studies of geotechnical properties for the Sub-seabed Disposal Program have been oriented toward sediment characterization related to effectiveness as a containment media and determination of detailed engineering behavior. Consolidation tests of the deeper samples in the North Pacific clays indicate that the sediment column is normally consolidated. The in-situ coefficient of permeability (k) within the cored depth of 25 meters is relatively constant at 10/sup -7/ cm/sec. Consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests indicate stress-strain properties characteristic of saturated clays with effective angles of friction of 35/sup 0/ for smectite and 31/sup 0/ for illite. These results are being used in computer modeling efforts. Some general geotechnical property data from the Bermuda Rise are also discussed.

  2. Quality assurance aspects of geotechnical practices for underground radioactive waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    In August 1988, the National Research Council, through the Geotechnical Board and the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, held a colloquium to discuss the practice of quality assurance that is being implemented in the high-level radioactive waste storage program. The intent of the colloquium was to bring together program managers of the Department of Energy and Nuclear Regulatory Commission, to discuss with the technical community both the advantages and problems associated with applying current quality assurance practices to underground science and engineering. The colloquium program included talks from 14 individuals that provided a variety of perspectives on both programmatic and technical issues. The talks initiated extended discussions from the 71 participants representing 7 government agencies, 8 academic institutions, and 22 private companies. The competencies of the participants were many and varied including, among others, geochemistry, hydrology, geotechnical engineering, computer programming, engineering and structural geology, underground design and construction, rock mechanics, laboratory testing, systems engineering, nuclear engineering, law, and environmental science. Based on a transcript of the meeting, this report summarizes the talks and discussions which took place. 2 figs.

  3. Geotechnical properties of gullying in Tomsk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonova, A. V.; Lomakina, K. M.; Dmitrieva, S. A.; Baranova, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    The article deals with causes, conditions and factors of gullying in Tomsk Oblast, the case of site Grodnenskaya. A nuclear-power station was planned to be constructed in Closed Administrative Territorial Unit Seversk, which led to geotechnical investigation of the area to study the geological processes developing there. The investigation included reconnaissance traverse of the area, geological and geomorphic descriptions, and sampling. The area and percentage of the territory affected by the geological processes were estimated. As a result, it was proved that the geological processes of the area are conditioned by surface water activity leading to gullying and river erosion, and by both ground water and surface water activity resulting in bog formation. It appears that gullying is caused not only by natural factors but also by technogenic ones.

  4. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the 2002 Denali fault, Alaska, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Moss, R.E.S.; Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.; Dreger, D.; Carver, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake resulted in 340 km of ruptures along three separate faults, causing widespread liquefaction in the fluvial deposits of the alpine valleys of the Alaska Range and eastern lowlands of the Tanana River. Areas affected by liquefaction are largely confined to Holocene alluvial deposits, man-made embankments, and backfills. Liquefaction damage, sparse surrounding the fault rupture in the western region, was abundant and severe on the eastern rivers: the Robertson, Slana, Tok, Chisana, Nabesna and Tanana Rivers. Synthetic seismograms from a kinematic source model suggest that the eastern region of the rupture zone had elevated strong-motion levels due to rupture directivity, supporting observations of elevated geotechnical damage. We use augered soil samples and shear-wave velocity profiles made with a portable apparatus for the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) to characterize soil properties and stiffness at liquefaction sites and three trans-Alaska pipeline pump station accelerometer locations. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  5. Geotechnical properties of Kentucky`s AML landslides and slope failure evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Iannacchione, A.T.; Bhatt, S.K.; Sefton, J.

    1995-12-31

    A large body of geotechnical data, obtained from the U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM) and the Kentucky Division of Abandoned Lands, is analyzed in this paper. The analysis includes causes of subsurface failures, phreatic levels, soil profiles, and soil composition data. Soil properties calculated from laboratory procedures and stability analysis techniques were also reviewed. Employing prudent engineering practices and parameters, seven failed slopes were subjected to back analysis for estimating realistic factors of safety. Important factors affecting landslides in eastern Kentucky are presented with appropriate examples.

  6. WSSRAP chemical plant geotechnical investigations for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    This document has been prepared for the United states Department of Energy (DOE) Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) by the Project Management Contractor (PMC), which consists of MK-Ferguson Company (MKF) and Morrison Knudsen Corporation Environmental Services Group (MKES) with Jacobs Engineering Group (JEG) as MKF's predesignated subcontractor. This report presents the results of site geotechnical investigations conducted by the PMC in the vicinity of the Weldon Spring chemical plant and raffinate pits (WSCP/RP) and in potential on-site and off-site clayey material borrow sources. The WSCP/RP is the proposed disposal cell (DC) site. 39 refs., 24 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Geotechnical investigation report for proposed array of six 40-meter diameter antennas, Pioneer site, DSS 11, Goldstone, California tracking complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweitzer, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    The geotechnical investigation was conducted in three disciplines: (1) geological field reconnaissance of the general area of proposed construction; (2) geophysical seismic refraction survey of the localized area surrounding the six proposed antenna sites, including shear wave velocity determination; and (3) detailed foundation engineering investigation of each of the six sites. The investigations indicate that the six sites selected are relatively free from geologic hazards which would inhibit the proposed construction or future antenna operations.

  8. Geotechnical properties of PARAHO spent shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, T. E.

    1982-10-01

    A literature review of available geotechnical properties for PARAHO retorted shale was conducted. Also reported are laboratory measurements made at PNL on key hydraulic properties of the PARAHO retorted shale. The PARAHO material can be compacted in the laboratory to dry densities of 12.1 KN/cu m. (77.0 pcf) to 17.0 Kn/cu m (108.4 pcf) depending on compaction effort. Optimum water content for these densities range from 14.4 to 23.7 percent (dry weight), however, PARAHO can achieve high densities without requiring water for compaction. Water retention characteristics indicate that optimum moisture contents (field capacity) range from 13 to 14% (dry weight). Water contents in excess of these values are likely to drain with time. PARAHO shale can be considered as semipervious to pervious with permeability values of 1000 to 10,000 cm/s depending on compaction effort. PARAHO shale exhibits self-cementing characteristics. Under normal conditions cementing reactions are slow, with strength gains still indicated after 28 days. The shear strength of PARAHO is comparable to similarly graded gravel with effective angles of internal friction, phi', of 33 to 34 degrees. Depending on compactive effort and gradation of the material, effective cohesion values of 0.09 Mn/sq m to 0.19 MN/sq m (128.05 psi to 277.45 psi) can be expected.

  9. Geotechnical properties of PARAHO spent shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1982-10-01

    A literature review of available geotechnical properties for PARAHO retorted shale was conducted. Also reported are laboratory measurements made at PNL on key hydraulic properties of the PARAHO retorted shale. The PARAHO material can be compacted in the laboratory to dry densities of 12.1 KN/m/sup 3/ (77.0 pcf) to 17.0 Kn/m/sup 3/ (108.4 pcf) depending on compaction effort. Optimum water content for these densities range from 14.4 to 23.7 percent (dry weight), however, PARAHO can achieve high densities without requiring water for compaction. Water retention characteristics indicate that optimum moisture contents (field capacity) range from 13 to 14% (dry weight). Water contents in excess of these values are likely to drain with time. PARAHO shale can be considered as semipervious to pervious with permeability values of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/s depending on compaction effort. PARAHO shale exhibits self-cementing characteristics. Under normal conditions cementing reactions are slow, with strength gains still indicated after 28 days. The shear strength of PARAHO is comparable to similarly graded gravel with effective angles of internal friction, phi', of 33 to 34 degrees. Depending on compactive effort and gradation of the material, effective cohesion values of 0.09 Mn/m/sup 2/ to 0.19 MN/m/sup 2/ (128.05 psi to 277.45 psi) can be expected.

  10. Engineering and Design: Geotechnical Analysis by the Finite Element Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    used it to determine stresses and movements in embank- ments, and Reyes and Deer described its application to analysis of underground openings in rock...36 Hughes, T. J. R. (1987). The Finite Element Reyes , S. F., and Deene, D. K. (1966). “Elastic Method, Linear Static and Dynamic Finite Element...SM4), 1,435-1,457. Fernando Dams During the Earthquakes of February Davis, E. H., and Poulos, H. G. (1972). “Rate of Report EERC-73-2, Berkeley, CA

  11. Executive committee report: geotechnical instrumentation working group meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D.G.; Rogue, F.; Beloff, W.R.; Binnall, E.; Gregory, E.C.

    1982-04-26

    Responding to the widespread need for the geotechnical community to discuss instrumentation for nuclear waste repositories, a meeting was held December 2 and 3, 1981, in Denver, Colorado. This report gives the group's consensus recommendations to aid in making decisions for development of instrumentation for future repository work. The main conclusions of the working group meeting were as follows: (1) monitoring of geotechnical parameters in nuclear waste repositories will be necessary to meet licensing requirements; (2) currently available instruments are underdeveloped for this monitoring; (3) research and development to provide adequate instrumentation will need to be performed under federal sponsorship by national laboratories, universities, contractors, and consultants; and (4) a NASA-type reliability program is needed to meet the quality assurance, durability, calibration, and time schedule demands of geotechnical instrumentation development. This will require significant financial commitments from the federal sector.

  12. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-03-20

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2005. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 2, Supporting Data

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2007-03-25

    This report is a compilation of geotechnical data presented as plots for each active instrument installed in the underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) through June 30, 2006. A summary of the geotechnical analyses that were performed using the enclosed data is provided in Volume 1 of the Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR).

  14. A case study of GIS-based geotechnical database in urban environment (Oviedo, NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pando, Luis; María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Arias, Daniel; Flor-Blanco, Germán

    2014-05-01

    permeability values for all the rocky units and unconsolidated deposits were estimated, as well as the chemical aggressiveness of groundwater for the structural concrete. The pointed contributions allowed improving noticeably the knowledge about the city subsoil, illustrated by means of two new 1:15,000 scale maps: i) surface geological map; ii) geo-engineering map based on lithological, geotechnical and constructive criteria.

  15. Geotechnical Centrifuge Experiments to Evaluate Piping in Foundation Soils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Catalogue of scaling laws and similitude questions in geotechnical centrifuge modeling. IJPMG International Journal of Physical Modeling in...Technology. Sellmeijer, J. B., and M. A. Koenders. 1991. A mathematical model for piping. Applied Mathematical Modeling 15(11-12):646–651. van Beek, V

  16. Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2003 - June 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-03-20

    This report contains an assessment of the geotechnical status of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). During the excavation of the principal underground access and experimental areas, the status was reported quarterly. Since 1987, when the initial construction phase was completed, reports have been published annually. This report presents and analyzes data collected from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2004.

  17. Project-Based Learning in Geotechnics: Cooperative versus Collaborative Teamwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different…

  18. Overview of geotechnical methods to characterize rock masses

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    The methods that are used to characterize discontinuous rock masses from a geotechnical point of view are summarized. Emphasis is put on providing key references on each subject. The topics of exploration, in-situ stresses, mechanical properties, thermal properties, and hydraulic properties are addressed.

  19. Interrelationships of organic carbon and submarine sediment geotechnical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.H.; Lehman, L.; Hulbert, M.H.; Harvey, G.R.; Bush, S.A.; Forde, E.B.; Crews, P.; Sawyer, W.B.

    1985-01-01

    Total organic carbon content (TOC) and selected geotechnical properties we measured in submarine sediments of the US central east coast and the Mississippi Delta. TOC values in the near-surface Delta sediments were approximately 1% (dry weight). TOC in surficial sediments from the US east coast outer continental shelf, upper slope, and upper rise was generally less than 1%, but between the upper slope and the upper rise, values ranged from 1 to 3% and exceeded 3% in patches associated with Norfolk and Washington Canyons. TOC displayed positive linear correlations with water content, liquid limit, plastic limit, plasticity index, and the amount (percent) of fine-grained material. Nevertheless, there appeared to be no strong dependence of geotechnical properties on TOC in these sediments. This was in accord with previously reported studies on terrestrial soils with TOC values of less than 5%. Carbohydrate content was strongly correlated with water content and plasticity index, suggesting that measurement of individual components of the organic material may provide more sensitive indications of the effects of organics on geotechnical properties than measurement of bulk TOC. Selected geotechnical properties and TOC content of US continental margin surficial sediments displayed regional trends related to water depth and morphological setting. These trends are probably related to recent biological, sedimentological, and oceanographic processes active on the outer shelf, slope, and rise.

  20. Near-surface characterization of a geotechnical site in north-east Missouri using shear-wave velocity measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ismail, A.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    Shear-wave velocity (Vs) as a function of soil stiffness is an essential parameter in geotechnical characterization of the subsurface. In this study, multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and downhole methods were used to map the shear-wave velocity-structure and depth to the bed-rock surface at a 125m ?? 125m geotechnical site in Missouri. The main objective was to assess the suitability of the site for constructing a large, heavy building. The acquired multichannel surface wave data were inverted to provide 1D shear-wave velocity profile corresponding to each shot gather. These 1D velocity profiles were interpolated and contoured to generate a suite of 2D shear-wave velocity sections. Integrating the shear-wave velocity data from the MASW method with the downhole velocity data and the available borehole lithologic information enabled us to map shear-wave velocity-structure to a depth on the order of 20m. The bedrock surface, which is dissected by a significant cut-and-fill valley, was imaged. The results suggest that the study site will require special consideration prior to construction. The results also demonstrate the successful use of MASW methods, when integrated with downhole velocity measurements and borehole lithologic information, in the characterization of the near surface at the geotechnical sites. ?? 2007 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  1. [Geotechnical Board activities and funding]. [Annual] activites report, July 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-07-23

    The Geotechnical Board, a part of the US National Research Council, which is the operating arm of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, serves to advise the federal government and others on issues where geotechnology can have an impact, such as environmental remediation and infrastructure development. The board met three times during the reporting period to review current projects and to initiate activities that move the knowledge base of geotechnology forward. The board operates with two long-standing national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology. It also conducts special studies at the request of the government. A list of attachments is given.

  2. Geotechnical aspects of the January 2003 Tecoma'n, Mexico, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wartman, Joseph; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Macari, Emir J.; Deaton, Scott; Ramirez-Reynaga, Marti'n; Ochoa, Carlos N.; Callan, Sean; Keefer, David; Repetto, Pedro; Ovando-Shelley, Efrai'n

    2005-01-01

    Ground failure was the most prominent geotechnical engineering feature of the 21 January 2003 Mw 7.6 Tecoma´n earthquake. Ground failure impacted structures, industrial facilities, roads, water supply canals, and other critical infrastructure in the state of Colima and in parts of the neighboring states of Jalisco and Michoaca´n. Landslides and soil liquefaction were the most common type of ground failure, followed by seismic compression of unsaturated materials. Reinforced earth structures generally performed well during the earthquake, though some structures experienced permanent lateral deformations up to 10 cm. Different ground improvement techniques had been used to enhance the liquefaction resistance of several sites in the region, all of which performed well and exhibited no signs of damage or significant ground deformation. Earth dams in the region experienced some degree of permanent deformation but remained fully functional after the earthquake.

  3. In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, B.E.; Timian, D.A.

    1995-06-02

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies. This document contains the records of cone penetrometer and dilatometer soundings for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report, Volume 3.

  4. In-tank precipitation facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies. This document (Volume 5) contains the laboratory test results for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report.

  5. Summary of geotechnical information in the Rattlesnake Mountain area

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K.R.; Gephart, R.E.; Graham, D.L.; Reidel, S.P.; Rohay, A.C.

    1984-08-01

    This document summarizes the available geotechnical information from the Rattlesnake Mountain area, located along the southwestern boundary of the Hanford Site. The discussion emphasizes the geohydrologic environment of the anticlinal ridges in the vicinity of Rattlesnake Mountain. Included in the document is information concerning the stratigraphy, structure, geomorphology, seismology, climatology, and hydrology, as well as the resource potential of the Rattlesnake Mountain area. 77 refs., 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Geotechnical Diver Tools Operation and Maintenance Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    for fuel for the gasoline engine on the a section (Chapter 2) on planning a geotech- waterpump . The OCEI will be responsible for nical site survey...steel pipe 10 feet long that is connected to a sample can be used to see what type of soil is waterpump by a hose. Water flows through at that depth and...The suction Chapter 7--Homelite Waterpump in the suction hose is created by an eductor Chapter 8--Jet Probe connected to a waterpump by another hose

  7. Soil characterization using electrical resistivity tomography and geotechnical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudha, Kumari; Israil, M.; Mittal, S.; Rai, J.

    2009-01-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been used in association with Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCPT) for Geotechnical investigations at two sites, proposed for thermal power plants, in Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. SPT and DCPT tests were conducted at 28 points and two ERT profiles, each measuring 355 m long, were recorded using 72 electrodes deployed at 5 m spacing. Electrical characterization of subsurface soil was done using borehole data and grain size analysis of the soil samples collected from boreholes. The concept of electrical resistivity variation with soil strength related to the grain size distribution, cementation, porosity and saturation has been used to correlate the transverse resistance of soil with the number of blow counts ( N-values) obtained from SPT and DCPT data. It was thus observed that the transverse resistance of soil column is linearly related with the number of blow counts ( N-values) at these sites. The linear relationships are site-specific and the coefficients of linear relation are sensitive to the lithology of subsurface formation, which was verified by borehole data. The study demonstrates the usefulness of the ERT method in geotechnical investigations, which is economic, efficient and less time consuming in comparison to the other geotechnical methods, such as SPT and DCPT, used for the purpose.

  8. Geotechnical properties of weathered and hydrothermally decomposed granite and their influence on slope stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuro, K.; Scholz, M.

    2003-04-01

    Weathering and alternation in granite has a deep inpact on both geotechnical properties of the rock as well as of the rock mass. In a granite rock mass, the discontinuity pattern together with joint cohesion and friction plays a major role especially when prone to sliding. These pheneomena could be exclusively studied at the Königshainer Berge Tunnel Project (Lausitz, Germany) where 3.5 km of tunnel and several kilometers of road cuts have been built in connection with the extension of the German Federal Freeway A4 to the Polish border. The two tubes provided an unique cross section through zones of intensive weathering and hydrothermal alteration within two-mica granites. During running excavation works, these zones could be studied intensively by proceeding a detailed engineering geological documentation, rock mass classification and rock and soil sampling, testing and monitoring. The main topics of the extensive field studies and laboratory work were the characterization of each weathering stage with rock or soil properties such as mineral composition, compressive and tensile strength, young´s modulus, specific destruction work, cohesion, friction angle etc. One of the main observations was the increase of pore volume with the degree of weathering and therefore a distinct decrease of most of the rock properties. A second topic was to get an idea of the distribution of the weathering zones in the rock mass along the tunnel section and the road cuts that are prone to sliding, and to evaluate the common geological model of granite weathering in dependence of discontinnuity pattern and depth. Some parts of the granites underwent two stages of hydrothermal alteration before beeing under surface conditions. Therefore it was necessary to distinguish between the effect of weathering and hydrothermal alteration on mineralogy as well as on geotechnical rock properties. Only after the endogene alteration processes had finished, the rock has been exposed to the exogene

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2004 - June 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets the geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since the completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the Geomechanical Monitoring Program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of the geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists the references and bibliography.

  10. Waste Isolation PIlot Plant Geotechnical Analysis Report for July 2005 - June 2006, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-04-03

    This Geotechnical Analysis Report (GAR) presents and interprets geotechnical data from the underground excavations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The data, which are obtained as part of a regular monitoring program, are used to characterize conditions, to compare actual performance to the design assumptions, and to evaluate and forecast the performance of the underground excavations. GARs have been available to the public since 1983. During the Site and Preliminary Design Validation (SPDV) Program, the architect/engineer for the project produced these reports quarterly to document the geomechanical performance during and immediately after early excavations of the underground facility. Since completion of the construction phase of the project in 1987, the management and operating contractor for the facility has prepared these reports annually. This report describes the performance and condition of selected areas from July 1, 2005, to June 30, 2006. It is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information on WIPP, its mission, and the purpose and scope of the geomechanical monitoring program. Chapter 2 describes the local and regional geology of the WIPP site. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the geomechanical instrumentation in the shafts and shaft stations, present the data collected by that instrumentation, and provide interpretation of these data. Chapters 5 and 6 present the results of geomechanical monitoring in the two main portions of the WIPP underground (the access drifts and the waste disposal area). Chapter 7 discusses the results of the Geoscience Program, which include fracture mapping and borehole observations. Chapter 8 summarizes the results of geomechanical monitoring and compares the current excavation performance to the design requirements. Chapter 9 lists references.

  11. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation. Volume VI. Nevada-Utah Verification Studies, FY 79. Geotechnical Data, Garden-Coal CDP, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-24

    EVALUATION AD All 3328 VOLUME VI NEVADA-UTAH VERIFICATION STUDIES, FY 79 GEOTECHNICAL DATA GARDEN-COAL CDP , NEVADA PhEPARED FOR SPACE AND MISSILE...UTAH 79VERIPFICATION STUDIES, FY 79. GEOTECHNICAL DATA GARDEN-COAL CDP , NEVADA Prepared for: U. S4 Department of the Air Farce Space and. Missile...8217-.-’. ( *.. ’ - . A E &W R NTN M E S T S __ __ _.,__ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ _ =ju ,- 4H -- - FN-TR-27-VI VOLUME VI GEOTECHNICAL DATA, GARDEN-COAL CDP TABLE OF

  12. Development of in-situ measuring apparatus of geotechnical elements of sea floor (IMAGES)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurusaki, K.; Itoh, F.; Yamazaki, T.

    1984-05-01

    The effort of the research and devolopment of manganese nodule mining system from deep ocean floor has been concentrated in several countries this decade. Among many subsystems of the mining system it is said that the development of the collector system which harvests manganese nodule on the sea floor involves most difficult problems. The engineering properties of deep sea floor is one of the most important factors to develop efficient and safe collector system. The authors designed and fabricated insitu measuring apparatus of geotechnical elements of sea-floor (IMAGES) which measured some engineering properties of deep sea floor automatically. It is lowered to sea floor from surface ship with wire rope. After reaching on sea floor it starts vane test, cone test, and bearing capacity test. The data measured are recorded on the magnetic tape contained in a pressure vessel. After laboratory and shallow water tests IMAGES was tested in south Central Pacific manganese nodule province. But some units driven by underwater motor did not work enough on the sea floor and very limited data were collected. Presently many experiments to clarify the cause of this unexpected results are being carried out. After getting the answers the authors rearrange the IMAGES and try to collect data of in-situ deep sea floor engineering properties in Pacific again.

  13. GPR applications for geotechnical stability of transportation infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, A.; Benedetto, F.; Tosti, F.

    2012-09-01

    Nowadays, severe meteorological events are always more frequent all over the world. This causes a strong impact on the environment such as numerous landslides, especially in rural areas. Rural roads are exposed to an increased risk for geotechnical instability. In the meantime, financial resources for maintenance are certainly decreased due to the international crisis and other different domestic factors. In this context, the best allocation of funds becomes a priority: efficiency and effectiveness of plans and actions are crucially requested. For this purpose, the correct localisation of geotechnically instable domains is strategic. In this paper, the use of Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) for geotechnical inspection of pavement and sub-pavement layers is proposed. A three-step protocol has been calibrated and validated to allocate efficiently and effectively the maintenance funds. In the first step, the instability is localised through an inspection at traffic speed using a 1-GHz GPR horn launched antenna. The productivity is generally about or over 300 Km/day. Data are processed offline by automatic procedures. In the second step, a GPR inspection restricted to the critical road sections is carried out using two coupled antennas. One antenna is used for top pavement inspection (1.6 GHz central frequency) and a second antenna (600 MHz central frequency) is used for sub-pavement structure diagnosis. Finally, GPR data are post-processed in the time and frequency domains to identify accurately the geometry of the instability. The case study shows the potentiality of this protocol applied to the rural roads exposed to a landslide.

  14. Geotechnical shear zone properties of rockslides in crystalline rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engl, D. A.; Fellin, W.; Zangerl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Crystalline rocks such as gneisses, schists and phyllites are widespread in orogens. Slopes built up of these metamorphic rocks are prone for large-scale deep-seated mass movements. Many of these mass movements are rockslides characterised by slope displacement along one or several distinct sliding zone(s). These sliding zone(s) are typically composed of disintegrated loose rock material produced by shearing and fragmentation processes. For rockslides the stability is strongly controlled by the strength of these soil-like shear products, also referred to as kakirites and fault gouges. Therefore, information about the mechanical behaviour and the strength properties is crucial when slope stability analyses and reliable landslide forecasts have to be performed. Being aware of this demand, numerous investigations dealt with this issue in the past and produced plenty of data by the geotechnical laboratory testing of these materials. Nevertheless, the data is widely dispersed among various literature sources, making it nearly impossible for the reader to gain a clear overview. The primary objective of this work was firstly to compile and re-analyse published laboratory data about frictional strength properties of shear zone materials sampled from brittle tectonical fault zones and sliding zones of rockslides and secondly to integrate them into a uniform database. Given that most of the geotechnical stability analyses are based on the Mohr-Coloumb law, the evaluation focuses on the parameters friction coefficient (friction angle) and cohesion. As a result, indicatory values for the shear strength parameters of kakirites and fault gouges for the most abundant crystalline rocks were obtained. The variable testing methods (i.e. triaxial tests and direct shear tests), different stress conditions during the tests and the inherent heterogeneity of the materials lead to a wide scatter of values. Therefore, a regression analysis was performed for each lithology and a statistical

  15. Executive Summary Report - FY80 Geotechnical Siting Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-30

    i Prepared for: U.S. Department of the Air Force Ballistic Missile Office (BMO) Norton Air Force Base, California 92409 I I Prepared by: Fugro...for the Department of the Air Force, Ballistic Missile Office (BMO), Norton Air Force Base, Califor- nia, in compliance with Contract No. F04704-80-C...contains summary discussions of the geotechnical programs that were conducted in Fiscal Year 1980 (FY 80) for the U. S. Air Force’s (USAF’s) Missile X

  16. Geostatistics for environmental and geotechnical applications: A technology transferred

    SciTech Connect

    Cromer, M.V.

    1996-12-31

    Although successfully applied during the past few decades for predicting the spatial occurrences of properties that are cloaked from direct observation, geostatistical methods remain somewhat of a mystery to practitioners in the environmental and geotechnical fields. The techniques are powerful analytical tools that integrate numerical and statistical methods with scientific intuition and professional judgment to resolve conflicts between conceptual interpretation and direct measurement. This paper examines the practicality of these techniques within the entitled field of study and concludes by introducing a practical case study in which the geostatistical approach is thoroughly executed.

  17. Geotechnical characterization and construction methods for SSC tunnel excavation

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.P.; Lundin, T.K. Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX )

    1990-06-01

    The site for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) facility was selected in 1988 after a nationwide proposal competition. The selected site is located in Ellis County, Texas, surrounding the town of Waxahachie which is about 30 miles (48 km) south of the City of Dallas central business district. This paper will describe the geotechnical conditions anticipated for excavation at the SSC site. A general geologic and geomechanical description of the rock present will be followed by a summary of the site-specific conceptual design for the tunneled components of the SSC machine. The Supercollider project will include about 70 miles (113) km of tunnel excavation.

  18. 10 CFR 60.141 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 60.141 Section 60.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Performance Confirmation Program § 60.141 Confirmation of geotechnical...

  19. Geotechnical and geologic design considerations for a shelf mounted OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. S.; Smith, R. E.

    1984-04-01

    Topics relating to the siting of an ocean thermal energy conversion facility off the coast of Oahu, Hawaii are discussed. Anticipated site conditions which would affect information requirements; potential foundation schemes used to identify key geotechnical parameters; techniques available for exploration and site characterization; and geologic and geotechnical factors and uncertainties that may be associated with site exploration and design information are discussed.

  20. Mini-review of the geotechnical parameters of municipal solid waste: Mechanical and biological pre-treated versus raw untreated waste.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Igor

    2016-09-01

    The most viable option for biostabilisation of old sanitary landfills, filled with raw municipal solid waste, is the so-called bioreactor landfill. Even today, bioreactor landfills are viable options in many economically developing countries. However, in order to reduce the biodegradable component of landfilled waste, mechanical and biological treatment has become a widely accepted waste treatment technology, especially in more prosperous countries. Given that mechanical and biological treatment alters the geotechnical properties of raw waste material, the design of sanitary landfills which accepts mechanically and biologically treated waste, should be carried out with a distinct set of geotechnical parameters. However, under the assumption that 'waste is waste', some design engineers might be tempted to use geotechnical parameters of untreated raw municipal solid waste and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste interchangeably. Therefore, to provide guidelines for use and to provide an aggregated source of this information, this mini-review provides comparisons of geotechnical parameters of mechanical and biological pre-treated waste and raw untreated waste at various decomposition stages. This comparison reveals reasonable correlations between the hydraulic conductivity values of untreated and mechanical and biological pre-treated municipal solid waste. It is recognised that particle size might have a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity of both municipal solid waste types. However, the compression ratios and shear strengths of untreated and pre-treated municipal solid waste do not show such strong correlations. Furthermore, another emerging topic that requires appropriate attention is the recovery of resources that are embedded in old landfills. Therefore, the presented results provide a valuable tool for engineers designing landfills for mechanical and biological pre-treated waste or bioreactor landfills for untreated raw

  1. 78 FR 70042 - Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... AGENCY Proposed Issuance of the NPDES General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical Surveying and Related... National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Oil and Gas Geotechnical... engaged in oil and gas geotechnical surveys to evaluate the subsurface characteristics of the seafloor...

  2. Digital geospatial presentation of geoelectrical and geotechnical data for the lower American River and flood plain, east Sacramento, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Burton, Bethany L.; Powers, Michael H.; Asch, Theodore H.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may have differing scour potential, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, has performed several geoelectrical surveys of the lower American River channel and flood plain between Cal Expo and the Rio Americano High School in east Sacramento, California. Additional geotechnical data have been collected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and its contractors. Data resulting from these surveys have been compiled into similar database formats and converted to uniform geospatial datums and projections. These data have been visualized in a digital three-dimensional framework project that can be viewed using freely available software. These data facilitate a comprehensive analysis of the resistivity structure underlying the lower American River corridor and assist in levee system management.

  3. Geotechnical properties of ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, G.F.; Jibson, R.W.; Wilson, R.C.; Buchanan-Banks, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Two holes were hand augered and sampled in ash deposits near Hilo, Hawaii. Color, water content and sensitivity of the ash were measured in the field. The ash alternated between reddish brown and dark reddish brown in color and had water contents as high as 392%. A downhole vane shear device measured sensitivities as high as 6.9. A series of laboratory tests including grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, X-ray diffraction analysis, total carbon determination, vane shear, direct shear and triaxial tests were performed to determine the composition and geotechnical properties of the ash. The ash is very fine grained, highly plastic and composed mostly of gibbsite and amorphous material presumably allophane. The ash has a high angle of internal friction ranging from 40-43? and is classified as medium to very sensitive. A series of different ash layers was distinguished on the basis of plasticity and other geotechnical properties. Sensitivity may be due to a metastable fabric, cementation, leaching, high organic content, and thixotropy. The sensitivity of the volcanic ash deposits near Hilo is consistent with documented slope instability during earthquakes in Hawaii. The high angles of internal friction and cementation permit very steep slopes under static conditions. However, because of high sensitivity of the ash, these slopes are particularly susceptible to seismically-induced landsliding.

  4. Geotechnical properties of cemented sands in steep slopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation into the geotechnical properties specific to assessing the stability of weakly and moderately cemented sand cliffs is presented. A case study from eroding coastal cliffs located in central California provides both the data and impetus for this study. Herein, weakly cemented sand is defined as having an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) of less than 100 kPa, and moderately cemented sand is defined as having UCS between 100 and 400 kPa. Testing shows that both materials fail in a brittle fashion and can be modeled effectively using linear Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters, although for weakly cemented sands, curvature of the failure envelope is more evident with decreasing friction and increasing cohesion at higher confinement. Triaxial tests performed to simulate the evolving stress state of an eroding cliff, using a reduction in confinement-type stress path, result in an order of magnitude decrease in strain at failure and a more brittle response. Tests aimed at examining the influence of wetting on steep slopes show that a 60% decrease in UCS, a 50% drop in cohesion, and 80% decrease in the tensile strength occurs in moderately cemented sand upon introduction to water. In weakly cemented sands, all compressive, cohesive, and tensile strength is lost upon wetting and saturation. The results indicate that particular attention must be given to the relative level of cementation, the effects of groundwater or surficial seepage, and the small-scale strain response when performing geotechnical slope stability analyses on these materials. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  5. Geotechnical characterization of mined clay from Appalachian Ohio: challenges and implications for the clay mining industry.

    PubMed

    Moran, Anthony R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan

    2011-07-01

    Clayey soil found in coal mines in Appalachian Ohio is often sold to landfills for constructing Recompacted Soil Liners (RSL) in landfills. Since clayey soils possess low hydraulic conductivity, the suitability of mined clay for RSL in Ohio is first assessed by determining its clay content. When soil samples are tested in a laboratory, the same engineering properties are typically expected for the soils originated from the same source, provided that the testing techniques applied are standard, but mined clay from Appalachian Ohio has shown drastic differences in particle size distribution depending on the sampling and/or laboratory processing methods. Sometimes more than a 10 percent decrease in the clay content is observed in the samples collected at the stockpiles, compared to those collected through reverse circulation drilling. This discrepancy poses a challenge to geotechnical engineers who work on the prequalification process of RSL material as it can result in misleading estimates of the hydraulic conductivity of the samples. This paper describes a laboratory investigation conducted on mined clay from Appalachian Ohio to determine how and why the standard sampling and/or processing methods can affect the grain-size distributions. The variation in the clay content was determined to be due to heavy concentrations of shale fragments in the clayey soils. It was also concluded that, in order to obtain reliable grain size distributions from the samples collected at a stockpile of mined clay, the material needs to be processed using a soil grinder. Otherwise, the samples should be collected through drilling.

  6. Utilizing geological and geotechnical parameters to constrain optimal siting of Mid-Atlantic Bight offshore wind projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponte, Alia

    As the offshore wind energy sector expands due to government mandates, a thorough understanding of the geologic setting of potential project sites becomes an essential component in the design process. Geophysical and geotechnical parameters yield vital information on the sediments and/or rocks that are present. The variable distribution of sediments, with concomitant variations in geotechnical properties, has significant implications for the selection (e.g., monopile, suction caisson, gravity base, jacket), design, location, installation, and subsequent scouring in the vicinity of wind turbine foundations. Identifying suitable sites based on sediment types allow for optimized engineering design solutions. Because foundations represent approximately 25% of total offshore wind project expenditures, reducing foundation costs with geologic suitability in mind could significantly decrease required initial investments, thereby expediting project and industry advancement. To illustrate how geological and geotechnical data can be used to inform site selection for foundations, geophysical data were analyzed and interpreted (chirp sub-bottom profiling, side-scan sonar, and multibeam bathymetry) from the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA). Side-scan sonar data from the WEA show three distinct acoustic intensities; each is correlated to a general bottom sediment grain size classification (muds, muddy and/or shelly sand, and sand with some gravel). Chirp sub-bottom profiles reveal the continuity and thicknesses of various depositional layers including paleochannel systems. Paleochannels consist of heterogeneous infill; creating undesirable conditions for foundation placement. This "desktop" study provides a suitability model for how the interpretation of geophysical and geotechnical data can be used to provide constraints on, and reduce uncertainties associated with, foundation location and type selection. Results from this study revealed 5 distinct subsurface units. The oldest

  7. Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

  8. Problem analysis of geotechnical well drilling in complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenov, A. K.; Biletskiy, M. T.; Ratov, B. T.; Korotchenko, T. V.

    2015-02-01

    The article examines primary causes of problems occurring during the drilling of geotechnical wells (injection, production and monitoring wells) for in-situ leaching to extract uranium in South Kazakhstan. Such a drilling problem as hole caving which is basically caused by various chemical and physical factors (hydraulic, mechanical, etc.) has been thoroughly investigated. The analysis of packing causes has revealed that this problem usually occurs because of insufficient amount of drilling mud being associated with small cross section downward flow and relatively large cross section upward flow. This is explained by the fact that when spear bores are used to drill clay rocks, cutting size is usually rather big and there is a risk for clay particles to coagulate.

  9. Project-based learning in Geotechnics: cooperative versus collaborative teamwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho-Lopes, Margarida; Macedo, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Since 2007/2008 project-based learning models have been used to deliver two fundamental courses on Geotechnics in University of Aveiro, Portugal. These models have evolved and have encompassed either cooperative or collaborative teamwork. Using data collected in five editions of each course (Soil Mechanics I and Soil Mechanics II), the different characteristics of the models using cooperative or collaborative teamwork are pointed out and analysed, namely in terms of the students' perceptions. The data collected include informal feedback from students, monitoring of their marks and academic performance, and answers to two sets of questionnaires: developed for these courses, and institutional. The data indicate students have good opinion of the project-based learning model, though collaborative teamwork is the best rated. The overall efficacy of the models was analysed (sum of their effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness). The collaborative model was found more adequate.

  10. Geotechnical properties of oil-contaminated Kuwaiti sand

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Sanad, H.A.; Eid, W.K.; Ismael, N.F.

    1995-05-01

    Large quantities of oil-contaminated sands resulted from exploded oil wells, burning oil fires, the destruction of oil storage tanks, and the formation of oil lakes in Kuwait at the end of the Gulf War. An extensive laboratory testing program was carried out to determine the geotechnical characteristics of this material. Testing included basic properties, compaction and permeability tests, and triaxial and consolidation tests on clean and contaminated sand at the same relative density. Contaminated specimens were prepared by mixing the sand with oil in the amount of 6% by weight or less to match field conditions. The influence of the type of oil, and relative density was also investigated by direct shear tests. The results indicated a small reduction in strength and permeability and an increase in compressibility due to contamination. The preferred method of disposal of this material is to use it as a stabilizing material for other projects such as road construction.

  11. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability in the Gulf of Cadiz

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, H.; Baraza, J.

    1999-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of thirty-seven core samples from the Gulf of Cadiz continental margin were used to define the regional variability of sediment properties and to assess slope stability. Considering the sediment property data set as a whole, there is an association between grain size, plasticity and water content. Any one of these properties can be mapped regionally to provide an indication of the dominant surface sediment lithology. Based on static sediment strength, a simplified slope stability analysis showed that only steep slopes (> 16??for even the most vulnerable sediment) can fail under static loading conditions. Accordingly, transient loads, such as earthquakes or storms, are needed to cause failure on more moderate slopes. A regional seismic slope stability analysis of the Cadiz margin was performed based on detailed geotechnical testing of four gravity core samples. The results showed that the stability of these slopes under seismic loading conditions depends upon sediment density, the cyclic loading shear strength, the slope steepness, and the regional seismicity. Sediment density and cyclic loading shear strength are dependent upon water content, which can act as a proxy for plasticity and texture effects. Specifically, Sediment in the water content range of 50-56% is most vulnerable to failure under cyclic loading within the Cadiz margin. As a result, for a uniform seismicity over the region, susceptibility to failure during seismic loading conditions increases with increasing slope steepness and is higher if the sediment water content is in the 50-56% range than if it is not. The only sampled zone of failure on the continental slope contains sediment with water content in this critical range. Storm-wave-induced instability was evaluated for the continental shelf. The evaluation showed that a storm having hundreds of waves with a height in the range of 16 m might be capable of causing failure on the shelf. However, no

  12. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at Laogang Landfill, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Ke-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xin; Li, Yao; Zhang, L M; Chen, H X

    2016-09-19

    Landfills have been widely constructed all around the world in order to properly dispose municipal solid waste (MSW). Understanding geotechnical properties of MSW is essential for the design and operation of landfills. A comprehensive investigation of geotechnical properties of MSW at the largest landfill in China was conducted, including waste composition, unit weight, void ratio, water content, hydraulic conductivity, and shear behavior. A large-scale rigid-wall permeameter and a direct-shear apparatus were adopted to test the hydraulic conductivity and shear behavior of the MSW, respectively. The composition of the MSW varied with age. With the depth increasing from 0 to 16m, the unit weight increased from 7.2 to 12.5kN/m(3), while the void ratio decreased from 2.5 to 1.76. The water content ranged between 30.0% and 68.9% but did not show a trend with depth. The hydraulic conductivity of the MSW ranged between 4.6×10(-4) and 6.7×10(-3)cm/s. It decreased as the dry unit weight increased and was sensitive to changes in dry unit weight in deeper layers. Displacement-hardening was observed during the whole shearing process and the shear strength increased with the normal stress, the displacement rate, and the unit weight. The friction angle and cohesion varied from (15.7°, 29.1kPa) to (21.9°, 18.3kPa) with depth increasing from 4 to 16m. The shear strength of the MSW obtained in this study was lower than the reported values in other countries, which was caused by the less fibrous materials in the specimens in this study. The results in this study will provide guidance in the design and operation of the landfills in China.

  13. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jedrzej

    2012-10-01

    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  14. Geotechnical Parameters of Alluvial Soils from in-situ Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Młynarek, Zbigniew; Stefaniak, Katarzyna; Wierzbicki, Jędrzej

    2012-10-01

    The article concentrates on the identification of geotechnical parameters of alluvial soil represented by silts found near Poznan and Elblag. Strength and deformation parameters of the subsoil tested were identified by the CPTU (static penetration) and SDMT (dilatometric) methods, as well as by the vane test (VT). Geotechnical parameters of the subsoil were analysed with a view to using the soil as an earth construction material and as a foundation for buildings constructed on the grounds tested. The article includes an analysis of the overconsolidation process of the soil tested and a formula for the identification of the overconsolidation ratio OCR. Equation 9 reflects the relation between the undrained shear strength and plasticity of the silts analyzed and the OCR value. The analysis resulted in the determination of the Nkt coefficient, which might be used to identify the undrained shear strength of both sediments tested. On the basis of a detailed analysis of changes in terms of the constrained oedometric modulus M0, the relations between the said modulus, the liquidity index and the OCR value were identified. Mayne's formula (1995) was used to determine the M0 modulus from the CPTU test. The usefullness of the sediments found near Poznan as an earth construction material was analysed after their structure had been destroyed and compacted with a Proctor apparatus. In cases of samples characterised by different water content and soil particle density, the analysis of changes in terms of cohesion and the internal friction angle proved that these parameters are influenced by the soil phase composition (Fig. 18 and 19). On the basis of the tests, it was concluded that the most desirable shear strength parameters are achieved when the silt is compacted below the optimum water content.

  15. Geotechnical support and topical studies for nuclear waste geologic repositories: Annual report, Fiscal Year 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    The multidisciplinary project was initiated in fiscal year 1986. It comprises two major interrelated parts: (1) Technical Assistance. This part of the project includes: (a) review of the progress of major projects in the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program and advise the Engineering and Geotechnology Division on significant technical issues facing each project; (b) analyze geotechnical data, reports, tests, surveys and plans for the different projects; (c) review and comment on major technical reports and other program documents such as site characterization plans and area characterization plans and (d) provide scientific and technical input at technical meetings. (2) Topical Studies. This activity comprises studies on scientific and technical topics, and issues of significance to in-situ testing, test analysis methods, and performance assessment of nuclear waste geologic repositories. The subjects of study were selected based on discussions with DOE staff. For fiscal year 1986, one minor and one major area of investigation were undertaken. The minor topic is a preliminary consideration and planning exercise for post-closure monitoring studies. The major topic, with subtasks involving various geoscience disciplines, is on the mechanical, hydraulic, geophysical and geochemical properties of fractures in geologic rock masses. The present report lists the technical reviews and comments made during the fiscal year and summarizes the technical progress of the topical studies.

  16. Geotechnical characterization for the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kicker, D.C.; Martin, E.R.; Brechtel, C.E.; Stone, C.A.; Kessel, D.S.

    1997-07-01

    Geotechnical characterization of the Main Drift of the Exploratory Studies Facility was based on borehole data collected in site characterization drilling and on scanline rock mass quality data collected during the excavation of the North Ramp. The Main Drift is the planned 3,131-m near-horizontal tunnel to be excavated at the potential repository horizon for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Main Drift borehole data consisted of three holes--USW SD-7, SD-9, and SD-12--drilled along the tunnel alignment. In addition, boreholes USW UZ-14, NRG-6, and NRG-7/7A were used to supplement the database on subsurface rock conditions. Specific data summarized and presented included lithologic and rock structure core logs, rock mechanics laboratory testing, and rock mass quality indices. Cross sections with stratigraphic and thermal-mechanical units were also presented. Topics discussed in the report include geologic setting, geologic features of engineering and construction significance, anticipated ground conditions, and the range of required ground support. Rock structural and rock mass quality data have been developed for each 3-m interval of core in the middle nonlithophysal stratigraphic zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff Formation. The distribution of the rock mass quality data in all boreholes used to characterize the Main Drift was assumed to be representative of the variability of the rock mass conditions to be encountered in the Main Drift. Observations in the North Ramp tunnel have been used to project conditions in the lower lithophysal zone and in fault zones.

  17. Development of AN Open-Source Automatic Deformation Monitoring System for Geodetical and Geotechnical Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, P.; Schweimler, B.

    2016-04-01

    The deformation monitoring of structures and buildings is an important task field of modern engineering surveying, ensuring the standing and reliability of supervised objects over a long period. Several commercial hardware and software solutions for the realization of such monitoring measurements are available on the market. In addition to them, a research team at the Neubrandenburg University of Applied Sciences (NUAS) is actively developing a software package for monitoring purposes in geodesy and geotechnics, which is distributed under an open source licence and free of charge. The task of managing an open source project is well-known in computer science, but it is fairly new in a geodetic context. This paper contributes to that issue by detailing applications, frameworks, and interfaces for the design and implementation of open hardware and software solutions for sensor control, sensor networks, and data management in automatic deformation monitoring. It will be discussed how the development effort of networked applications can be reduced by using free programming tools, cloud computing technologies, and rapid prototyping methods.

  18. Shallow subsurface structures and geotechnical characteristics of Tal El-Amarna area, middle Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toni, Mostafa; Hosny, Ahmed; Attia, Mohsen M.; Hassoup, Awad; El-Sharkawy, Amr

    2013-12-01

    The shallow seismic refraction profiling was carried out at 18 sites in Tal El-Amarna, which is a flat area on the eastern bank of the Nile River, 50 km south of El Minia Governorate, middle Egypt. The collected data are used to estimate the P-wave velocity and to delineate the near-surface ground model beneath the study area. This study is supported by the National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics due to the historical interest of the Tal El-Amarna area as a famous tourist place where there exist many Pharaoh temples and tombs. This area is low seismically active, but it is probably of high vulnerability due to the influence of the local geological conditions on earthquake ground motion, as well as the presence of poor constructions in the absence of various issues such as building designs, quality of building materials, etc. Another dataset at the study area is obtained by multi-channel passive source (microtremor) measurements, which have been recorded at four arrays. The frequency-wavenumber (f-k) method was used to derive the dispersion curves from the raw signals at each array. The resulted dispersion curves were inverted using the neighborhood algorithm to obtain the shear and P-wave velocity models. The concluded Vs and Vp values provide a preliminary estimation of the geotechnical parameters and site classification for the shallow soil as they are of great interest in civil engineering applications.

  19. Site hydrogeologic/geotechnical characterization report for Site B new municipal solid waste landfill

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.; Nowacki, P.

    1991-04-01

    This Site Hydrogeologic/Geotechnical Characterization Report (SHCR) presents the results of a comprehensive study conducted on a proposed solid waste landfill site, identified herein as Site B, at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is intended to satisfy all requirements of the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) with regard to landfill siting requirements and ground water and environmental protection. In addition, this report provides substantial geotechnical data pertinent to the landfill design process.

  20. Technology development plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valent, Philip J.; Riggins, Michael

    1989-04-01

    An overview is given of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35 deg and in water depths to 1300 m.

  1. Geotechnical field measurements: G-tunnel, Nevada test site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, R. M.; Vollendorf, W. C.

    1982-05-01

    The FY81 geotechnical measurements focused on borehole measurements in the Grouse Canyon welded tuff in G-tunnel on the Nevada Test Site. These ambient temperature measures were taken to: (1) establish baseline reference field data, and (2) gain field testing experience in welded tuff. The in situ state of stress was obtained using the three-hole overcoring method with the US Bureau of Mines three-component borehole deformation gage. The orthogonal horizontal stresses were 5.5 and 0.3 MPa and the nominal vertical was 8.5. Biaxial tests were performed on recovered cores and the average modulus of deformation was 31 GPa. The modulus of deformation using the borehole jack (Goodman) had an average value of 12 GPa. This value is not corrected for effective bearing contact area. Two orthogonal boreholes were used to determine the range of hydraulic conductivities. The range was from 0.022 cm/s (22 Darcy's) to 1.923 cm/s (1988 Dracy's).

  2. Geotechnical field measurements: G-tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.M.; Vollendorf, W.C.

    1982-05-01

    The FY81 geotechnical measurements focused on borehole measurements in the Grouse Canyon welded tuff in G-tunnel on the Nevada Test Site. These ambient temperature measurements were taken to: (1) establish baseline reference field data, and (2) gain field testing experience in welded tuff. The in situ state of stress was obtained using the three-hole overcoring method with the US Bureau of Mines three-component borehole deformation gage. The orthogonal horizontal stresses were 5.5 and 0.3 MPa and the nominal vertical was 8.5. Biaxial tests were performed on recovered cores and the average modulus of deformation was 31 GPa. The modulus of deformation using the borehole jack (Goodman) had an average value of 12 GPa. This value is not corrected for effective bearing contact area. Two orthogonal boreholes were used to determine the range of hydraulic conductivities. The range was from 0.022 cm/s (22 Darcy`s) to 1.923 cm/s (1988 Darcy`s).

  3. Effects of leachate on geotechnical characteristics of sandy clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harun, N. S.; Ali, Z. Rahman; Rahim, A. S.; Lihan, T.; Idris, R. M. W.

    2013-11-01

    Leachate is a hazardous liquid that poses negative impacts if leaks out into environments such as soil and ground water systems. The impact of leachate on the downgraded quality in terms of chemical characteristic is more concern rather than the physical or mechanical aspect. The effect of leachate on mechanical behaviour of contaminated soil is not well established and should be investigated. This paper presents the preliminary results of the effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit, compaction and shear strength of leachate-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples were prepared by mixing the leachate at ratiosbetween 0% and 20% leachate contents with soil samples. Base soil used was residual soil originated from granitic rock and classified as sandy clay soil (CS). Its specific gravity ranged between 2.5 and 2.64 with clay minerals of kaolinite, muscovite and quartz. The field strength of the studied soil ranged between 156 and 207 kN/m2. The effects of leachate on the Atterberg limit clearly indicated by the decrease in liquid and plastic limit values with the increase in the leachate content. Compaction tests on leachate-contaminated soil caused the dropped in maximum dry density, ρdry and increased in optimum moisture content, wopt when the amount of leachate was increased between 0% and 20%. The results suggested that leachate contamination capable to modify some geotechnical properties of the studied residual soils.

  4. Impact of Geotechnical Factors on the Safety of Low Embankment Dams From the Perspective of Technical and Safety Supervision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasana, Andrej; Minárik, Marian; Nikolaj, Maroš

    2015-03-01

    Our research deals with a broad spectrum of problems concerning the variability of geotechnical factors and their influence on the safety of the biggest group of dam constructions in Slovakia, i.e., low earthfill dams. Its specific aim is the observation of their risk factors by using our experience and knowledge gained while working in the sector of technical and safety supervision. To achieve the aims of a research thesis, we analyzed 39 low earthfill dams. We performed observations and documented their conditions with the aim of clarifying the risk factors. After an analysis of the information materials that characterize dams and after a statistical analysis of the measurement results in situ, including measurements from technical and safety supervision databases, we performed an analysis by using mathematical modeling to evaluate the safety of the dam constructions. Out of the total number of 39 dam constructions, an analysis of the stability of the dam slopes was performed on 37 dams, and deformation problems were analyzed on 28 of the dams. Filtration problems were analyzed at 26 dams, and a complete evaluation of the intensity of filtration movements was performed on 19 of the constructions. On the basis of a detailed analysis of the 39 dam constructions, we specified their problems and the concomitant consequences of the problems. Geotechnical risk factors and specific risks that determine the safety of water constructions were characterized. The analysis confirmed the importance of an engineer-geological and geotechnical checkup in the process of preparation and building (alternatively, during reconstructions and sanitation work) of such water constructions and also the importance of monitoring in the process of dam usage. Technical and safety checkups were also shown to be important when analyzing risk factors. The conclusions of the knowledge gained and the recommendations for the practice deal with recommendations to change the flow policy, develop a

  5. Near surface geotechnical and geophysical data cross validated for site characterization applications. The cases of selected accelerometric stations in Crete island (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupasakis, Constantinos; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Rozos, Dimitrios; Rondoyianni, Theodora; Vafidis, Antonis; Steiakakis, Emanouil; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Soupios, Pantelis; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos; Mangriotis, Maria-Dafni; Dikmen, Unal

    2015-04-01

    The near surface ground conditions are highly important for the design of civil constructions. These conditions determine primarily the ability of the foundation formations to bear loads, the stress - strain relations and the corresponding deformations, as well as the soil amplification and corresponding peak ground motion in case of dynamic loading. The static and dynamic geotechnical parameters as well as the ground-type/soil-category can be determined by combining geotechnical and geophysical methods, such as engineering geological surface mapping, geotechnical drilling, in situ and laboratory testing and geophysical investigations. The above mentioned methods were combined for the site characterization in selected sites of the Hellenic Accelerometric Network (HAN) in the area of Crete Island. The combination of the geotechnical and geophysical methods in thirteen (13) sites provided sufficient information about their limitations, setting up the minimum tests requirements in relation to the type of the geological formations. The reduced accuracy of the surface mapping in urban sites, the uncertainties introduced by the geophysical survey in sites with complex geology and the 1-D data provided by the geotechnical drills are some of the causes affecting the right order and the quantity of the necessary investigation methods. Through this study the gradual improvement on the accuracy of the site characterization data in regards to the applied investigation techniques is presented by providing characteristic examples from the total number of thirteen sites. As an example of the gradual improvement of the knowledge about the ground conditions the case of AGN1 strong motion station, located at Agios Nikolaos city (Eastern Crete), is briefly presented. According to the medium scale geological map of IGME the station was supposed to be founded over limestone. The detailed geological mapping reveled that a few meters of loose alluvial deposits occupy the area, expected

  6. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  7. The STRATAFORM Project: U.S. Geological Survey geotechnical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minasian, Diane L.; Lee, Homa J.; Locat, Jaques; Orzech, Kevin M.; Martz, Gregory R.; Israel, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    This report presents physical property logs of core samples from an offshore area near Eureka, CA. The cores were obtained as part of the STRATAFORM Program (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995, 1996), a study investigating how present sedimentation and sediment transport processes influence long-term stratigraphic sequences preserved in the geologic record. The core samples were collected during four separate research cruises to the northern California study area, and data shown in the logs of the cores were collected using a multi-sensor whole core logger. The physical properties collected are useful in identifying stratigraphic units, ground-truthing acoustic imagery and sub-bottom profiles, and in understanding mass movement processes. STRATA FORmation on Margins was initiated in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research, Marine Geology and Geophysics Department as a coordinated multi-investigator study of continental-margin sediment transport processes and stratigraphy (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1996). The program is investigating the stratigraphic signature of the shelf and slope parts of the continental margins, and is designed to provide a better understanding of the sedimentary record and a better prediction of strata. Specifically, the goals of the STRATAFORM Program are to (Nittrouer and Kravitz, 1995): - determine the geological relevance of short-term physical processes that erode, transport, and deposit particles and those processes that subsequently rework the seabed over time scales - improve capabilities for identifying the processes that form the strata observed within the upper ~100 m of the seabed commonly representing 104-106 years of sedimentation. - synthesize this knowledge and bridge the gap between time scales of sedimentary processes and those of sequence stratigraphy. The STRATAFORM Program is divided into studies of the continental shelf and the continental slope; the geotechnical group within the U.S. Geological Survey provides support to both parts

  8. Determining the geotechnical properties of planetary regolith using Low Velocity Penetrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seweryn, K.; Skocki, K.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Kolano, M.; Kuciński, T.; Mazurek, J.; Morawski, M.; Białek, A.; Rickman, H.; Wawrzaszek, R.

    2014-09-01

    Measurements of mechanical and thermophysical properties of planetary surface allow determining many important parameters useful for planetologists. For example, effective heat conductivity or thermal inertia of the regolith can help to better understand the processes occurring in the bodies interior. Chemical and mineralogical composition gives us a chance to determine the origin and evolution of moons and satellites. Mechanical properties of the surface are one of the key factors needed by civil engineers for developing future bases on space bodies. Space missions to planetary bodies highly restrict the payload concerning its mass and power consumption. Therefore, it is quite impossible to use a standard terrestrial technique like the Load Plate Test or Direct Shear Tests to determine the geotechnical parameters of the planetary regolith. Even the Dynamic Cone Penetration (DCP) method, which is frequently used for field testing, does not fit well with the constraints imposed by a space mission. Nevertheless, its operation principle is very similar to that of at the Low Velocity Penetrators (LVP), several of them being currently on their way to planetary bodies (e.g. the MUPUS instrument) or which were developed in the last couple of years (e.g. the CHOMIK instrument or the KRET device). In this paper we present a comparison between DCP method and LVP operation which was observed during several tests campaigns during mole KRET and CHOMIK instrument development. The tests were performed in different planetary analogues: JSC-1A, Chenobi and AGK-2010, Phobos analogue, cometary analogues F1, F2 and F3 (SRC) and dry quartz sand. In the last part of the paper the concept of results' interpretation is presented.

  9. WIPP supplementary roof support system Room 1, Panel 1: Geotechnical field data analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The design of the Room 1, Panel 1, supplementary roof support system was finalized in September 1991, and the system successfully installed in the test bin area between the bulkheads by December 1991. Simultaneously with the support system installation, existing monitoring system was upgraded to meet the needs of the installed roof support. This included extensometers, closure stations, rockbolt load cells as well as survey measurements of roof sag and floor lift. A Project Control Group (PCG) was established in order to monitor room and support system performance. Weekly meetings of the PCG were held to review all monitored data against criteria set in the initial design, and to modify these where necessary. Records of these meetings have been kept, with copies of all data summaries and action notes. These data records are maintained in the Engineering data files. After more than ten months of monitoring and reviewing experience, several modifications have been made both to the way data has been reported as well as to the load adjustment criteria. The support system has performed as expected in the design, with no signs of instability developing considering the rates of roof deformation, the rock bolt loads and the observed fracture behavior in the roof. This is particularly true of the horizon in which the rockbolt anchors are located, the most critical part of the design. The distribution of load build-up, throughout the 286 rockbolt load cells installed, in the Room 1 has been found satisfactory, and the load increases as evaluated by the PCG on a weekly basis have been within the acceptable range. The minimum life of the installed support system is estimated at 15 years based on the highest roof expansion rate experienced to date. This report provides analysis of geotechnical field data collected up to December 1992.

  10. Engineering and design: Soil vapor extraction and bioventing. Engineer manual

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-30

    This manual provides practical guidance for the design and operation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) systems. It is intended for use by environmental, civil, geotechnical, chemical, mechanical, and electrical engineers; geologists, hydrogeologists, and soil scientists; chemists; project managers; and other involved in any phase of SVE and BV projects. The manual describes current best practice for SVE and BV site characterization, system design, and system start-up and operations.

  11. The influence of delta formation mechanism on geotechnical property sequence of the late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments in the Mekong River Delta.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Truong Minh; van Lap, Nguyen; Oanh, Ta Thi Kim; Jiro, Takemura

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize a variety of microstructure development-levels and geotechnical property sequences of the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits in the Mekong River delta (MRD), and the paper furthermore discusses the influences of delta formation mechanisms on them. The survey associated the geotechnical engineering and the sedimentary geology of the late Pleistocene-Holocene deposits at five sites and also undifferentiated Pleistocene sediments. A cross-section which was rebuilt in the delta progradation-direction and between the Mekong and Bassac rivers represents the stratigraphy. Each sedimentary unit was formed under a different delta formation mechanism and revealed a typical geotechnical property sequence. The mechanical behaviors of the sediment succession in the tide-dominated delta with significant fluvial-activity and material source tend to be more cohesionless soils and strengths than those in the tide- and wave-dominated delta and even the coast. The particular tendency of the mechanical behavior of the deposit succession can be reasonably estimated from the delta formation mechanism. The characteristics of the clay minerals from the Mekong River produced the argillaceous soil which does not have extremely high plasticity. The microstructure development-levels are low to very high indicating how to choose hydraulic conductivity value, k, for estimating overconsolidation ratio, OCR, by the piezocone penetration tests (CPTU). The OCR of sediments in the delta types strangely change with depth but none less than 1. The post-depositional processes significantly influenced the microstructure development, particularly the dehydrating and oxidizing processes.

  12. Geotechnical issues and guidelines for storage of compressed air in excavated hard rock caverns

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.D.; Doherty, T.J.; Fossum, A.F.

    1982-04-01

    The results of a literature survey on the stability of excavated hard rock caverns are presented. The objective of the study was to develop geotechnical criteria for the design of compressed air energy storage (CAES) caverns in hard rock formations. These criteria involve geologic, hydrological, geochemical, geothermal, and in situ stress state characteristics of generic rock masses. Their relevance to CAES caverns, and the identification of required research areas, are identified throughout the text. This literature survey and analysis strongly suggests that the chief geotechnical issues for the development and operation of CAES caverns in hard rock are impermeability for containment, stability for sound openings, and hydrostatic balance.

  13. In-tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    A geotechnical study has been completed in H-Area for the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and the balance of the H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. The study consisted of subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and engineering analyses. The purpose of these investigations is to evaluate the overall stability of the H-Area tanks under static and dynamic conditions. The objectives of the study are to define the site-specific geological conditions at ITP and HTF, obtain engineering properties for the assessment of the stability of the native soils and embankment under static and dynamic loads (i.e., slope stability, liquefaction potential, and potential settlements), and derive properties for soil-structure interaction studies.

  14. Arra-Funded Geotechnical Characterization of Seismographic Station Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leith, W. S.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K. H.; Diehl, J.; Martin, A. J.; Jack, S.

    2010-12-01

    Through the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the USGS allocated funding to help support research capabilities, as well as improve and upgrade facilities in the bureau. As part of this effort, the USGS contracted a consortium consisting of principals from academia and commerce to perform geotechnical site characterization at 189 seismographic station sites—185 in California and four in the central U.S. In this pilot project of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS), site characterizations will be conducted at: 130 Southern California Seismographic Network (SCSN), 25 California Geological Survey (CGS), 30 Northern California Seismographic Network (NCSN), and four Central U.S. (CEUS) sites. Each site investigation, involving passive and active surface-wave techniques, includes one or more of established approaches such as the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR), 2-D array microtremor, 1-D refraction microtremor (ReMi), spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), and multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) methods. From this multi-method approach, we determine Vs (shear-wave velocity) profiles and the calculated Vs30 (the average shear-wave velocity in the upper 30 meters depth) for each site. In general, preliminary results based on field reports indicate observed records match expected values for surficial geologic conditions. Unexpected results are typically attributable to inaccurate or coarse map information and alternative explanations are verified through interpretations of local geologic structure observed during field investigations. For example, we find map-based geology to be consistent with observed records at the SCSN station CI.PLS, but not the case for CI.CWC, where inaccurate map information are at odds with our recorded velocities. At station CI.TIN (near edge of basalt outcrop) and NCSN station NC.MMLB (on rhyolite outcrop), the records observed in the shallow surface do not match expected rock values. Our pilot

  15. Geotechnical Trainspotting: Early Observations From the New Seattle Liquefaction Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, P.; Yelin, T.; Weaver, C. S.; Steidl, J. H.; Steller, R. A.; Gomberg, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    The Seattle Liquefaction Array (SLA) is a geotechnical monitoring array established by the US Geological Survey earlier this year in industrialized Seattle, Washington. Funding for the array was provided by the Advanced National Seismic System, at the behest of the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network's regional advisory committee. The SLA aims to further the understanding of earthquake-induced liquefaction, particularly the processes associated with repeatedly liquefied soils and the liquefaction of deeply buried deposits. The SLA occupies a site at which shaking-induced liquefaction was observed during earthquakes in 1949, 1965, and 2001. The SLA site is seismically noisy but important as it is similar to sites that host many structures in Seattle. The site is comprised chiefly by loose-to-dense interbedded coastal and river outwash sands. Instrumentation at the site includes four 3-component accelerometers at the surface and at depths of 5.4, 44.9, and 56.4 meters, a surface barometer, and six piezometers at depths of 6.9, 22.9, 28.9, 43.1, 46.9, and 51.9 meters. Emplacement depths were selected to sample a variety of liquefaction susceptibilities. Continuous data from all sensors are sampled at 200 samples per second, and are available from the IRIS DMC archive, with a buffer of data stored on site in the event of telemetry failure. To date, only a handful of earthquakes have produced shaking strong enough at the SLA to be observed within the high levels of background noise. However, the noise itself provides data useful to constrain the low-strain seismic and pressure response of the site. Notably, the array is within a few meters of a set of busy railroad tracks. Passing and parked trains expose the site to a broad bandwidth of deformations, including seismic frequencies, albeit with a source at the surface. Many times each day the site experiences both high levels of shaking, and step changes in the pressure field of a variety of amplitudes that may last from

  16. TBV-322/TBD-325 RESOLUTION ANALYSIS: GEOTECHNICAL ROCK PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Mrugala

    1999-09-13

    The process of underground excavation design is being performed in several phases to satisfy the requirements of Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). These phases were conceptualized to satisfy increasingly focused requirements as the YMP progresses and more detailed site characterization data are acquired. At the time that initial design analyses were prepared, the rock mass parameters were derived from the exploratory core drillings, and as such their values were considered preliminary. Field evidence was needed to verify the magnitudes of these parameters. According to the respective YMP procedures, incomplete data that require further verification are flagged by the TBV (To Be Verified) designation and data that are not available are flagged by the TBD (To Be Determined) designation. Field mapping activities performed during the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Loop (i.e., the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp) tunnel excavation resulted in accumulation of the field data that enlarge and complement the initial, core-derived rock property database. To date, a number of the ESF design confirmation analyses have been completed in a form of topical reports. These reports were prepared to satisfy the requirements of 10 CFR 60.141, ''Confirmation of Geotechnical and Design Parameters''. The design confirmation analyses are documentary in nature and provide a detailed account of the origin and derivation of rock mass parameters. The successive enlargement of the initial, core-derived rock property database created the need for development of meaningful procedures for data interpretation. In effect, each rock parameter has been represented by several values ranging in magnitudes. In a subsequent analysis (CRWMS M&O 1998a) the data were evaluated for consistency. The values of rock property data included in the topical analyses summarize both the initial core-derived and the field-obtained rock property data. Evaluation and verification of the

  17. Earthquake Engineering Research at Berkeley, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Twenty one papers presented by faculty paticipants and reseach personnel illustrate some of the research work in earthquake engineering being conducted at the University of California, Berkeley. Topics covered include: determining the intensity of ground motion from earthquake effects on historical monuments; structural damages; system identification in geotechnical engineering; seismic behavior of reinforced concretes, masonry buildings, frames, and shear walls; mathematical modelling; and liquid sloshing in rigid annular cylindrical and torus tanks.

  18. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  19. Geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fill incorporating waste foundry sand.

    PubMed

    Deng, An; Tikalsky, Paul J

    2008-11-01

    Waste foundry sand (WFS) can be converted into flowable fill for geotechnical applications. In this study, WFS samples were obtained from 17 independent metal casting facilities with different casting processes, thus representing a good range of WFS properties. The laboratory studies include physical, geotechnical and leaching properties of flowable fills consisting of WFS, cement, and fly ash mixed to different water contents. The main properties measured include WFS physical properties (density, particle gradation, grain shape, and fine content), WFS flowable fill geotechnical properties (unconfined compressive strength, hydraulic conductivity, setting time, and bleeding), and the fill's leaching properties (heavy metals and organics in the bleed water and the leachate extracted from hardened WFS flowable fills). The test results indicate that in terms of the physical properties, most of the data fall within narrow ranges, although data from the copper/aluminum-based WFS samples might fall beyond the ranges. Geotechnical properties of WFS flowable fills in both fresh and hardened phases were verified conforming to the features of specified flowable fills. Material leaching analyses indicate that the toxicity of WFS flowable fills is below regulated criteria. A mix formulation range originated from this study is proposed for the design of WFS made flowable fill.

  20. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  1. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  2. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  3. 10 CFR 63.132 - Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confirmation of geotechnical and design parameters. 63.132 Section 63.132 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Performance Confirmation Program §...

  4. Underground geotechnical and geological investigations at Ekati Mine-Koala North: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubec, Jaroslav; Long, Larry; Nowicki, Tom; Dyck, Darren

    2004-09-01

    Since 1998, BHP Billiton has mined diamonds at the Ekati Diamond Mine™ near Lac de Gras in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Current operations are based on mining multiple pipes by the open-pit method, but as some pits deepen, converting to underground mining is being considered. As a test of underground mining methods and to provide access to the lower elevations of the Panda and Koala pipes, the Koala North pipe is being developed for underground mining. Initially, the top 40 m of the pipe were mined as an open pit to provide grade information and a prepared surface for the transition to underground mining. Currently, Koala North is being developed as an open-benching, mechanized, trackless operation. Although the method was successfully used at several De Beers diamond operations in South Africa, it has never been tested in an Arctic environment. This case study describes basic geology, mining method layout and ongoing geological and geotechnical investigation. From the beginning of underground development, geotechnical daily routines have been fully integrated within the technical services department, which supports the operation. Geotechnical, geological and structural information obtained from underground mapping and core logging is compiled, processed, reviewed and analyzed on site by the geotechnical staff. Conclusions and recommendations are implemented as part of the operations in a timely manner. This ongoing "live" process enables the operators to make the most efficient use of resources both for ground support and excavations as well as to address safety issues, which are the top priority.

  5. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-01-05

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  6. Atlantic Margin Coring Project 1976: preliminary report on shipboard and some laboratory geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Adrian F.

    1977-01-01

    This report presents reduced shipboard geotechnical data collected during the 1976 Atlantic Margin Coring Project; results of laboratory tests of specific gravity, water content, bulk density, and Atterberg limits; and sedimentation-compression e log p curves showing consolidation. A description of the procedures used at sea and in the laboratory and a short preliminary summary of the shipboard results also is included.

  7. Physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling: geotechnical testing and model evaluation issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, Ivan; Mergili, Martin; Schneider-Muntau, Barbara; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    We used the software r.slope.stability for physically-based landslide susceptibility modelling in the 90 km² Collazzone area, Central Italy, exploiting a comprehensive set of lithological, geotechnical, and landslide inventory data. The model results were evaluated against the inventory. r.slope.stability is a GIS-supported tool for modelling shallow and deep-seated slope stability and slope failure probability at comparatively broad scales. Developed as a raster module of the GRASS GIS software, r.slope.stability evaluates the slope stability for a large number of randomly selected ellipsoidal potential sliding surfaces. The bottom of the soil (for shallow slope stability) or the bedding planes of lithological layers (for deep-seated slope stability) are taken as potential sliding surfaces by truncating the ellipsoids, allowing for the analysis of relatively complex geological structures. To take account for the uncertain geotechnical and geometric parameters, r.slope.stability computes the slope failure probability by testing multiple parameter combinations sampled deterministically or stochastically, and evaluating the ratio between the number of parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety below 1 and the total number of tested combinations. Any single raster cell may be intersected by multiple sliding surfaces, each associated with a slope failure probability. The most critical sliding surface is relevant for each pixel. Intensive use of r.slope.stability in the Collazzone Area has opened up two questions elaborated in the present work: (i) To what extent does a larger number of geotechnical tests help to better constrain the geotechnical characteristics of the study area and, consequently, to improve the model results? The ranges of values of cohesion and angle of internal friction obtained through 13 direct shear tests corresponds remarkably well to the range of values suggested by a geotechnical textbook. We elaborate how far an increased number of

  8. A Machine Learning Approach to Estimate Riverbank Geotechnical Parameters from Sediment Particle Size Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Fabio; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Borombovits, Daniel; Curwen, Graeme; Olley, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Assessing bank stability using geotechnical models traditionally involves the laborious collection of data on the bank and floodplain stratigraphy, as well as in-situ geotechnical data for each sedimentary unit within a river bank. The application of geotechnical bank stability models are limited to those sites where extensive field data has been collected, where their ability to provide predictions of bank erosion at the reach scale are limited without a very extensive and expensive field data collection program. Some challenges in the construction and application of riverbank erosion and hydraulic numerical models are their one-dimensionality, steady-state requirements, lack of calibration data, and nonuniqueness. Also, numerical models commonly can be too rigid with respect to detecting unexpected features like the onset of trends, non-linear relations, or patterns restricted to sub-samples of a data set. These shortcomings create the need for an alternate modelling approach capable of using available data. The application of the Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) approach is well-suited to the analysis of noisy, sparse, nonlinear, multidimensional, and scale-dependent data. It is a type of unsupervised artificial neural network with hybrid competitive-cooperative learning. In this work we present a method that uses a database of geotechnical data collected at over 100 sites throughout Queensland State, Australia, to develop a modelling approach that enables geotechnical parameters (soil effective cohesion, friction angle, soil erodibility and critical stress) to be derived from sediment particle size data (PSD). The model framework and predicted values were evaluated using two methods, splitting the dataset into training and validation set, and through a Bootstrap approach. The basis of Bootstrap cross-validation is a leave-one-out strategy. This requires leaving one data value out of the training set while creating a new SOM to estimate that missing value based on the

  9. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  10. The Contribution of Robert F. Corwin to Self-Potential and Geotechnical Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitterman, D. V.

    2007-12-01

    Throughout his career, Robert F. Corwin developed innovative geophysical methods to solve geotechnical problems. Most notable is his work on self-potential (SP) where his focus was a blend of electricity and water, a potentially lethal brew, to solve very practical problems. Corwin's work in SP started with the idea of applying the technique to marine mineral exploration; this early work is characterized by a theme that ran through his career: understanding the effects that can influence measurements, developing methodologies to obtain consistent and reliable data, and interpreting those data in a conservative and believable manner supported by the facts. He expanded the electricity-water connection to geothermal fluids and the SP signals produced by them. He was involved in geothermal exploration throughout the western U.S. including Alaska and Mexico. In addition to developing reliable field techniques he worked on interpretational methods that made SP interpretation quantitative. Corwin's most significant contribution was the study of leaky dams using SP. Water leakage produces an SP anomaly because of the electrokinetic properties of geologic materials. Through a series of SP studies for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers he developed a methodology for making and interpreting SP measurements that helped locate, assess, and remediate leakage. This success led to numerous surveys throughout Canada for regional power authorities. Corwin returned to marine geophysical studies throughout his career including SP measurements to locate moveable concrete mats placed in the Mississippi River to control bank erosion. Because of changes in river flow, these large articulated mats were often undercut, moved, and reburied causing hazardous bank conditions. SP and electrical resistivity measurements were found to accurately locate the mats. Corwin also worked on electrical resistivity measurements of the ocean floor. Starting with stationary

  11. Assessing dry density and gravimetric water content of soils in geotechnics with complex conductivity measurements : preliminary investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaouane, C.; Beck, Y.; Fauchard, C.; Chouteau, M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality controls of geotechnical works need gravimetric water content (w) and dry density (γd) measurements. Afterwards, results are compared to Proctor tests and referred to soil classification. Depending on the class of soils, different objectives must be achieved. Those measurements are usually carried out with neutron and gamma probes. Combined use of theses probes directly access (w, γd). Theses probes show great disadvantages as: nuclear hazard, heavy on-site, transporation and storage restrictions and low sampling volumes. Last decades showed a strong development of electrical and electromagnetic methods for mapping water content in soils. Still, their use in Geotechnics is limited due to interfacial effects neglected in common models but strong in compacted soils. We first showed that (w, γd) is equivalent to (φ, Sr) assuming density of particles γs=2.7 (g.cm-3). This assumption is true for common soils used in civil engineering. That first relationship allows us to work with meaningful parameters for geophysicists. Revil&Florsh recently adapted Vinegar&Waxman model for Spectal Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements at low frequencies (<50 kHz). This model relates quantitatively the electrical double layer polarization at the surface of grains. It takes into account saturation, porosity and granulometry. Standard granulometry and mineralogy are generally available in geotechnical campaigns. In-phase conductivity would be mostly related to saturation as quadrature conductivity would be related to porosity and surface conductivity. Although this model was developed for oil-bearing sands, we investigated its potential for compacted soils. Former DC-resistivity (ρ) measurements were carried out on a silty fined-grained soil (A1 in GTR classification or ML-CL in USCS) in a cylindrical cell (radius ~4 cm, heigth 7 cm). Median diameter of grain was 50 μm. For each measurement, samples were compacted at Proctor energy. We assessed (w, γd) by weighting and

  12. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Geotechnical modeling of high-level nuclear waste disposal by rock melting

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-12-01

    A new strategy has been developed for the geotechnical modeling of nuclear waste disposal by rock melting (DRM). Three seeparate tasks were performed to reach this objective: a review of the four scenarios which have been proposed for DRM, to date; an evaluation of computer-based numerical models which could be used to analyze the mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic processes involved in DRM; and a critical review of rock mass properties which are relevant to the design and safety of waste disposal by rock melting. It is concluded that several geotechnical aspects of DRM can be studied realistically with current state-of-the-art model capabilities and knowledge of material properties. The next step in the feasibility study of DRM should be a best-estimate calculation of the four cavity-melt and canister-burial concepts. These new analyses will indicate the most critical areas for subsequent research.

  14. An overview of the geotechnical damage brought by the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemanta Hazarika,; Takaji Kokusho,; Kayen, Robert; Dashti, Shideh; Yutaka Tanoue,; Shuuichi Kuroda and Kentaro Kuribayashi,; Daisuke Matsumoto,; Furuichi, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 (Japanese intensity = 7) that struck on April 16 brought devastation in many areas of Kumamoto Prefecture and partly in Oita Prefecture in Kyushu Region, Japan. The earthquake succeeds a foreshock of magnitude 6.5 (Japanese intensity = 7) on April 14. The authors conducted two surveys on the devastated areas: one during April 16-17, and the other during May 11-14. This report summarizes the damage brought to geotechnical structures by the two consecutive earthquakes within a span of twenty-eight hours. This report highlights some of the observed damage and identifies reasons for such damage. The geotechnical challenges towards mitigation of losses from such earthquakes are also suggested.

  15. Baseline practices and user needs for Web dissemination of geotechnical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, L.L.; Brown, M.P.; Chambers, D.; Davis, C.A.; Diehl, J.; Hitchcock, C.S.; Holzer, T.L.; Nigbor, R.L.; Plumb, C.; Real, C.; Reimer, M.; Steidl, J.H.; Sun, J.I.; Tinsley, J.C.; Vaughn, D.; ,

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings and recommendations of the User Scenario Work Group (USWG) in identifying a baseline of current practices within the geo-professional community and prioritizing desired functional requirements in the development of a comprehensive geotechnical information management system. This work was conducted as an initial phase of a larger project to demonstrate the effectiveness of a web based virtual data center for the dissemination of geotechnical data from multiple linked databases of various government and private sector organizations. An online survey was administered over the course of several months to practitioners across the nation. The results from the survey were compiled and examined to provide direction to the other project teams in the development of user-driven prototype data system.

  16. The Geotechnical Board National Research Council. [Annual] activities report, March 1, 1991--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smeallie, P.H.

    1993-08-11

    This report covers the activities of the Geotechnical Board and its two national committees, the US National Committee for Rock Mechanics (USNC/RM) and the US National Committee on Tunneling Technology (USNC/TT), for the period from March 1, 1991 to June 30, 1992. The report covers a 16-month period, through June of this year, to bring the reporting period in line with the National Research Council`s (NRC) fiscal year. Subsequent reports will cover the 12-month period July 1--June 30, unless individual contracts require otherwise. A description of the Geotechnical Board and its committees within the context of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council, as well as lists of current members of the board and national committees can be found in Attachment A.

  17. Integration of Centrifuge Testing in Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Education at Remote Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Shamy, Usama; Abdoun, Tarek; McMartin, Flora; Pando, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing, and assessing an educational module that integrates remote major research instrumentation into undergraduate classes. Specifically, this study employs Internet Web-based technologies to allow for real-time video monitoring and execution of cutting-edge experiments. The…

  18. Integration of centrifuge testing in undergraduate geotechnical engineering education at remote campuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Shamy, Usama; Abdoun, Tarek; McMartin, Flora; Pando, Miguel A.

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of a pilot study aimed at developing, implementing, and assessing an educational module that integrates remote major research instrumentation into undergraduate classes. Specifically, this study employs Internet Web-based technologies to allow for real-time video monitoring and execution of cutting-edge experiments. The students' activities within the module are centred on building a model of a shallow foundation on a sand deposit utilising a centrifuge facility and using this model for: (1) visual observation of the response of soil-foundation systems, (2) learning the use of instrumentation, (3) interpretation of acquired data, and (4) comparing experimental results to theoretical predictions. Testing a soil-foundation system helped the students identify the lab experiments needed to analyse and design the system. A survey was used to gauge students' perceptions of learning as a result of introducing the module, which were found to be positive.

  19. Geotechnical Analysis of Five Shelby Tube Samples from H-Area Retention Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    Geotechnical and geochemical analyses were performed on five Shelby tube samples collected in the H-Area Retention Basin (HRB) during July and August of 1998. The samples were collected as part of the HRB characterization study. The test results, which are documented in this report, will be used to support the HRB contaminant fate and transport modeling/analysis and to evaluate remedial options. The results will also be used as a base line for future treatability studies.

  20. MX Siting Investigation Geotechnical Evaluation Verification Study - Pine Valley Utah. Volume I. Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-24

    e.g., igneous , metamorphic, sedimentary). ROTARY WASH DRILLING - A boring technique in which advancement of the hole through overburden is accomplished...tract No. F04704-8O-C0006, CDRL Item 004A6. It contains an evaluation of the suitability of Pine Valley, Utah, for siting the MX Land Mobile Advanced ...process is to identify and rank geotechnically suit- T able areas which are sufficiently large for deployment of the MissilQ-X (MX), an advanced

  1. Effects of biochar amendment on geotechnical properties of landfill cover soil.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Yaghoubi, Poupak; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2015-06-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich product obtained when plant-based biomass is heated in a closed container with little or no available oxygen. Biochar-amended soil has the potential to serve as a landfill cover material that can oxidise methane emissions for two reasons: biochar amendment can increase the methane retention time and also enhance the biological activity that can promote the methanotrophic oxidation of methane. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength are the most important geotechnical properties that are required for the design of effective and stable landfill cover systems, but no studies have been reported on these properties for biochar-amended landfill cover soils. This article presents physicochemical and geotechnical properties of a biochar, a landfill cover soil and biochar-amended soils. Specifically, the effects of amending 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (of different particle sizes as produced, size-20 and size-40) to soil on its physicochemical properties, such as moisture content, organic content, specific gravity and pH, as well as geotechnical properties, such as hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength, were determined from laboratory testing. Soil or biochar samples were prepared by mixing them with 20% deionised water based on dry weight. Samples of soil amended with 5%, 10% and 20% biochar (w/w) as-is or of different select sizes, were also prepared at 20% initial moisture content. The results show that the hydraulic conductivity of the soil increases, compressibility of the soil decreases and shear strength of the soil increases with an increase in the biochar amendment, and with a decrease in biochar particle size. Overall, the study revealed that biochar-amended soils can possess excellent geotechnical properties to serve as stable landfill cover materials.

  2. Development of a coupled hydrological-geotechnical framework for rainfall-induced landslides prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaogang; Hong, Yang; Vergara, Humberto; Zhang, Ke; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Zhang, Yu; Qiao, Gang; Liu, Chun

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new coupled hydrological-geotechnical model called CRESLIDE (Coupled Routing and Excess Storage and SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium), which can alleviate the chronic flaws of landslides simulation and prediction. CRESLIDE is designed to improve the original landslides model (SLIDE) through the coupling of hydrological model (CREST) and to deliver an integrated system for predicting storm-triggered landslides. This coupled system is implemented and evaluated in Macon County, North Carolina, where Hurricane Ivan triggered widespread landslides in September 2004 during the hurricane season. Model simulations from CRESLIDE show its reliability to predict landslides occurrence (location and timing). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrates that the coupled system (CRESLIDE) has higher specificity (94.10%) and higher sensitivity (11.36%) compared to the original SLIDE model (specificity = 93.32%, sensitivity = 10.23%) and a well-known landslide model (TRIGRS, whose sensitivity is 6.98%). This improved predictive performance demonstrates the advantage of coupling hydrological and geotechnical models with a more realistic representation of infiltration. It warrants a better depiction of the spatial and temporal dependence of hydrological and geotechnical processes in the course of the rainfall-triggered landslide event. This kind of model integration is useful for landslides prediction and early warning.

  3. On the geotechnical characterisation of the polluted submarine sediments from Taranto.

    PubMed

    Vitone, Claudia; Federico, Antonio; Puzrin, Alexander M; Ploetze, Michael; Carrassi, Elettra; Todaro, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the first geomechanical laboratory experiments carried out on the polluted submarine clayey sediments of the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (South of Italy). The study had to face with extreme difficulties for the very soft consistency of the sediments and the contaminants. The mineralogy, composition and physical properties of the sediments were analysed, along with their compression and shearing behaviour. The investigation involved sediments up to about 20 m below the seafloor, along three vertical profiles in the most polluted area of the Mar Piccolo, facing the Italian Navy Arsenal. The experimental results were used to derive a preliminary geotechnical model of the site, necessary for the selection and design of the most sustainable in situ mitigation solutions. Moreover, the experimental data reveal that the clayey sediments of the most polluted top layer do not follow the classical geotechnical correlations for normally consolidated deposits. This seems to open interesting perspectives about the effects of pollutants on the geotechnical behaviour of the investigated sediments.

  4. Evaluation of the geotechnical properties of MSW in two Brazilian landfills.

    PubMed

    Machado, Sandro Lemos; Karimpour-Fard, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Nader; Carvalho, Miriam Fatima; do Nascimento, Julio C F

    2010-12-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW) play a key role in many aspects of waste disposal facilities and landfills. Because most of a landfill is made up of MSW, the overall stability of the landfill slopes are governed by the strength parameters and physical properties of the MSW. These parameters are also important in interactions involving the waste body and the landfill structures: cover liner, leachate and gas collection systems. On the other hand, the composition of the waste, which affects the geotechnical behavior of the MSW, is dependent on a variety of factors such as climate, disposal technology, the culture and habits of the local community. It is therefore essential that the design and stability evaluations of landfills in each region be performed based on the local conditions and the geotechnical characteristic of the MSW. The Bandeirantes Landfill, BL, in São Paulo and the Metropolitan Center Landfill, MCL, in Salvador, are among the biggest landfills in Brazil. These two disposal facilities have been used for the development of research involving waste mechanics in recent years. Considerable work has been made in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate parameters such as water and organic contents, composition, permeability, and shear strength. This paper shows and analyzes the results of tests performed on these two landfills. The authors believe that these results could be a good reference for certain aspects and geotechnical properties of MSW materials in countries with similar conditions.

  5. Probabilistic seismic and geotechnical evaluation at a dam site

    SciTech Connect

    Vanmarcke, E.H.

    1983-09-01

    This report examines the use of probabilistic methods in dealing with the problem of potential earthquake-induced liquefaction of foundation soils at an example dam site located in the central United States, near the New Madrid earthquake zone. The example dam is assumed to be a 1-mile long rolled-filled embankment founded on a 100-ft deep deposit of interbedded alluvial gravels, sands, silts, and clays. The study is seen as an opportunity to examine probabilistic concepts and procedures in the framework of an example engineering project. In this context, the main practical value of a probabilistic approach is that it permits more informed decision making about further data acquisition, additional engineering analysis, and if necessary, remedial action. The specific aim of the study is to show how probabilistic procedures complement and help to reinterpret the results of deterministic (earthquake-induced) liquefaction analysis. The procedures focus on evaluating the impact of the different sources of variability (in the input parameters) on the uncertainty in performance predictions, and they permit results of the liquefaction analyses to be seen in the broader framework of assessment of earthquake-related dam failure risks.

  6. Geophysical/Geotechnical Applications to Urban Transformation: Example of District of Yildirim of Bursa City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabulut, Savas; Imre, Nazire; Yeziz, Hatice; Caglak, Faruk; Tezel, Okan; Ozcep, Ferhat

    2013-04-01

    The city of Bursa, which is located near to the North Anatolian Fault Zone has a very active tectonic regime. The city has a local site effect problem, which is the subject of many studies for this region due to take place in the middle of the basin of the city center. However, in line with the law of new urban transformation, Turkey has started renovation of damaged old buildings and sub-urban buildings. The first example of study has been conducted in Bursa City Center in the district of Yıldırım and that has covered a big area. We used Turkish/Eurocode-8 Standard and Microzonation Criteria for all of this study. The study area covered 7 sub-district areas in particular the southern part of the conservancy district of the plains and northern part of the Uludag slope. We carried out geophysical (microtremors, seismic refraction method, surface wave analysis methods (MASW-MAM) and vertical electrical sounding) and geotechnical (boring up to 20 m and laboratory testing) studies at 75 sites to estimate elastical parameters, soil group, soil classification, and geological cross-sections. The study area was divided into two sub-areas as slope rubble (in the southern part) and alluvial deposits by using borehole data. Standard penetration tests were applied for each 1.5 m to all the boreholes and to estimate mechanical and index properties of soils, several laboratory test were applied to soil/rock specimens. Several soil problems such as soil bearing capacity, soil liquefaction potential, soil settlement analysis, soil amplification, soil expansion analysis were solved by using the results of geophysical, geotechnical and laboratory data. For the study area, deterministic and probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis was performed and ground motion level (magnitude and accelaration of design earthquake) was estimated as Mw:7.4 and a: 0.41 g for exceedence rate of 30% in 50 years. These values guided the solution of soil dynamic analysis. Vs30 map of soils for the

  7. Geotechnical hazards associated with closed municipal solid waste landfill sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powrie, W.; Richards, D.; Beaven, R.

    2015-09-01

    As pressure for new infrastructure and development grows, it is inevitable that building projects will encounter some of the c20,000 closed former solid waste landfills in the UK, many of which will have accepted municipal solid wastes (MSW). Construction on or across these sites brings a special set of geohazards associated with the potential for large and difficult to predict settlements, gas (and odour) release or generation, contaminated leachate and the breach of containment systems and other environmental controls. The presentation will discuss these issues with reference to recent research into understanding and predicting settlements in municipal solid waste landfills; assessing the total, current and residual gas potential of biodegradable wastes; the role of the hydraulic regime in the flushing of contaminants from the waste and the quality of leachate; and the need or otherwise for the long term integrity of engineered barriers and controls.

  8. Cone penetration and bevameter geotechnical tests in lunar regolith simulants: discrete element method analysis and experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchitsky, A. V.; Johnson, J.; Duvoy, P.; Wilkinson, A.; Creager, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    For in situ resource utilization on the Moon, asteroids, Mars, or other space body it is necessary to be able to simulate the interaction of mobile platforms and excavation machines with the regolith for engineering design, planning, and operations. For accurate simulations, tools designed to measure regolith properties will need to be deployed and interpreted. Two such tools are the penetrometer, used to measure a soil strength index as a function of depth, and the bevameter, used to characterize regolith surface properties of strength, friction and sinkage. The penetrometer interrogates regolith properties from the surface to a depth limited only by the capabilities of the instrument to penetrate the regolith while a bevameter interrogates only the upper few centimeters needed to describe a mobility platform's traction and sinkage. Interpretation of penetrometer and bevameter data can be difficult, especially on low gravity objects. We use the discrete element method (DEM) model to simulate the large regolith deformations and failures associated with the tests to determine regolith properties. The DEM simulates granular material behavior using large aggregates of distinct particles. Realistic physics of particle-particle interaction introduces many granular specific phenomena such as interlocking and force chain formation that cannot be represented using continuum methods. In this work, experiments using a cone penetrometer test (CPT) and bevameter on lunar simulants JSC-1A and GRC-1 were performed at NASA Glenn Research Center. These tests were used to validate the physics in the COUPi DEM model. COUPi is a general physical DEM code being developed to model machine/regolith interactions as part of a NASA Lunar Science Institute sponsored project on excavation and mobility modeling. The experimental results were used in this work to build an accurate model to simulate the lunar regolith. The CPT consists of driving an instrumented cone with opening angle of 60

  9. A marine dynamic penetrometer for the determination of sea floor geotechnical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, S.; Kaul, N. E.; Villinger, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present a seafloor lance penetration monitoring system: the Lance Insertion Retardation Meter (LIRmeter). The device can be used to infer geotechnical seafloor properties, such as bearing capacity by monitoring the deceleration of a free-fall penetrating lance. The deceleration record can be furthermore used to estimate mean grain size and mud content of the sea floor as well as total penetration depth. The LIRmeter is contained in a pressure vessel (440 x 110 mm) and equipped with accelerometers of different sensitivities to (i) determine sea floor resistance during penetration and (ii) to generate a depth axis. Typically, measurements are carried out in a pogo style fashion to allow a rapid measurement progress during field campaigns. The LIRmeter is intended to determine sea floor properties on the sole basis of deceleration measurements in order to achieve a mechanically and electronically robust system. Data is sampled at a resolution of 16 bit and at a rate of typically 500 Hz for each channel. The device can either be installed in any type of lance i.e. marine heat flow probes, gravity corers, piston corers or can be used in combination with a purpose built lance as a standalone instrument. It has a usable length of four meters, a total weight of 280 kg in air and can be operated up to full ocean depth (6000m). The bearing capacity of the sea floor is a critical factor for marine engineering projects such as burial of marine cables, pipeline laying and foundations. Knowledge of the mud content can provide constraints for the estimation of hydraulic conductivity. The identification of weak zones along a slope can moreover provide vital information for risk assessment studies. Traditionally, frame based, quasi static Cone Penetration Tests (CPT) or sampling methods like gravity coring are used to conduct these types of investigation. In comparison to established but time consuming and rather costly methods, the LIRmeter is intended (i) for near surface

  10. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  11. Saturation development in the bentonite barrier of the Mock-Up-CZ geotechnical experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacovský, J.; Svoboda, J.; Zapletal, L.

    This paper reports on both the methodology and the results of the measurement of saturation development during the operation of the Mock-Up-CZ experiment. This experiment simulates the engineered barrier system hydration process of the Swedish KBS-3V vertical disposal system. The Mock-Up-CZ model consists of a barrier of bentonite blocks and a heater which simulates the radioactive waste. The potential inflow of granitic water from the natural barrier is simulated by employing a flooding system installed on the inner side of the experimental tank. The whole experiment is enclosed in a cylindrical pressure tank the construction of which allowed for the high pressure caused by the considerable swelling of the bentonite. Six measurement profiles along the vertical profile of the tank allow the continuous measurement of the various on-going processes. A number of sensors were placed inside the bentonite barrier (40 thermometers, 50 hydraulic pressure cells and 37 humidity sensors). The experiment commenced on 7th May 2002. In the first phase, the bentonite barrier was loaded only with the heat created by the heater for a period of six months. During the second phase, which commenced on 4th November 2002, in addition to the continuing thermal activity, the barrier was saturated with synthetic granitic water. This phase will most likely be concluded at the end of 2005. It has been found that of all the geotechnical measurements currently being performed, the measurement of changes in water content is the most challenging. The results obtained from employing any of the usually accepted methods for the measurement of indirect water content are often somewhat unreliable. Despite the problematic nature of these methods, 37 humidity sensors were installed in the barrier. Moreover, the construction of the experimental tank provided for sampling locations with access points allowing core sampling by means of drilling. These samples allow the determination of the water content

  12. Experimental monitoring of geotechnical response of railway track systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsabhan, Abdullah H.

    An important issue that compromises rail track operations and safety is ballast fouling. Ballast fouling may lead to track deformation, reduction of track load capacity and train speed, and ultimately train derailment. This problem is quite costly for the railway industry thus, assessing and controlling ballast fouling and then preventing train derailment while optimizing maintenance operation is very important for reducing the overall cost of freight and passenger transportation. This study presents a proposed holistic methodology that extends assessing fouling while monitoring rail track deformation. The techniques uses deformation monitoring instruments (e.g., fiber optic (FO) sensors and LVDTs) coupled with Electromagnetic (EM) surveying: Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and a time domain reflectometry (TDR). The methodology aims at gathering data to create an early warning system that would allow railway engineers to develop a symptomatic approach to ballast maintenance procedures. This proposed methodology was tested on a full scale track model (FSTM). This model comprises 2.45 m rail supported by five ties embedded in ballast layer that was fouled under controlled conditions. The testing program considered three common types of fouling: mineral fouling, clay fouling, and silica sand fouling. A comparison between rail settlement measurements measured by LVDTs and rail bending strain measurement measured by FO sensors showed that FO sensors do not provide an indication of track deterioration due to cyclic loading, moisture content, and fouling depth. In addition, results showed a high correlation between rate of plastic settlement and amount of fouling detected by EM survey. Experimental results also showed that EM survey results can be used to determine depth and type of fouling.

  13. Geotechnical parameter spatial distribution stochastic analysis based on multi-precision information assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Spatial distribution of important geotechnical parameter named compression modulus Es contributes considerably to the understanding of the underlying geological processes and the adequate assessment of the Es mechanics effects for differential settlement of large continuous structure foundation. These analyses should be derived using an assimilating approach that combines in-situ static cone penetration test (CPT) with borehole experiments. To achieve such a task, the Es distribution of stratum of silty clay in region A of China Expo Center (Shanghai) is studied using the Bayesian-maximum entropy method. This method integrates rigorously and efficiently multi-precision of different geotechnical investigations and sources of uncertainty. Single CPT samplings were modeled as a rational probability density curve by maximum entropy theory. Spatial prior multivariate probability density function (PDF) and likelihood PDF of the CPT positions were built by borehole experiments and the potential value of the prediction point, then, preceding numerical integration on the CPT probability density curves, the posterior probability density curve of the prediction point would be calculated by the Bayesian reverse interpolation framework. The results were compared between Gaussian Sequential Stochastic Simulation and Bayesian methods. The differences were also discussed between single CPT samplings of normal distribution and simulated probability density curve based on maximum entropy theory. It is shown that the study of Es spatial distributions can be improved by properly incorporating CPT sampling variation into interpolation process, whereas more informative estimations are generated by considering CPT Uncertainty for the estimation points. Calculation illustrates the significance of stochastic Es characterization in a stratum, and identifies limitations associated with inadequate geostatistical interpolation techniques. This characterization results will provide a multi

  14. Subsidence monitoring with geotechnical instruments in the Mexicali Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Márquez Ramírez, V. H.; Robles, B.; Nava, F. A.; Farfán, F.; García Arthur, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    The Mexicali Valley (northwestern Mexico), situated in the southern part of the San Andreas fault system, is an area with high tectonic deformation, recent volcanism, and active seismicity. Since 1973, fluid extraction, from the 1500-3000 m depth range, at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), has influenced deformation in the Mexicali Valley area, accelerating the subsidence and causing slip along the traces of tectonic faults that limit the subsidence area. Detailed field mapping done since 1989 (González et al., 1998; Glowacka et al., 2005; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008) in the vicinity of the CPGF shows that many subsidence induced fractures, fissures, collapse features, small grabens, and fresh scarps are related to the known tectonic faults. Subsidence and fault rupture are causing damage to infrastructure, such as roads, railroad tracks, irrigation channels, and agricultural fields. Since 1996, geotechnical instruments installed by CICESE (Centro de Investigación Ciéntifica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, B.C.) have operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. Instruments are installed over or very close to the affected faults. To date, the network includes four crackmeters and eight tiltmeters; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 min range. Instrumental records typically show continuous creep, episodic slip events related mainly to the subsidence process, and coseismic slip discontinuities (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, 2010; Sarychikhina et al., 2015). The area has also been monitored by levelling surveys every few years and, since the 1990's by studies based on DInSAR data (Carnec and Fabriol, 1999; Hansen, 2001; Sarychikhina et al., 2011). In this work we use data from levelling, DInSAR, and geotechnical instruments records to compare the subsidence caused by anthropogenic activity and/or seismicity with slip recorded by geotechnical instruments, in an attempt to obtain more information

  15. Update of assessment of geotechnical risks, strategic petroleum reserve, Weeks Island site

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a critical reassessment of the geotechnical risks of continuing oil storage at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. It reviews all previous risk abatement recommendations, subsequent mitigative actions, and new information. Of increased concern, due to the discovery of a surface levels, is the long term maintainability of the mine as an oil storage repository. Mine operational changes are supported in order to facilitate monitoring of water entry diagnostics. These changes are also intended to minimize the volume in the mine available for water entry. Specific recommendations are made to implement the mine changes.

  16. Geotechnical properties of municipal solid waste at different phases of biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Krishna R.; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Degraded synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) anaerobically in controlled bench-scale reactors. > Performed laboratory tests to determine geotechnical properties of MSW at different phases of degradation. > Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. > Compression ratio reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. > Friction angle reduced, but cohesion increased with degradation. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation conducted to determine the variation of geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) at different phases of degradation. Synthetic MSW samples were prepared based on the composition of MSW generated in the United States and were degraded in bioreactors with leachate recirculation. Degradation of the synthetic MSW was quantified based on the gas composition and organic content, and the samples exhumed from the bioreactor cells at different phases of degradation were tested for the geotechnical properties. Hydraulic conductivity, compressibility and shear strength of initial and degraded synthetic MSW were all determined at constant initial moisture content of 50% on wet weight basis. Hydraulic conductivity of synthetic MSW was reduced by two orders of magnitude due to degradation. Compression ratio was reduced from 0.34 for initial fresh waste to 0.15 for the mostly degraded waste. Direct shear tests showed that the fresh and degraded synthetic MSW exhibited continuous strength gain with increase in horizontal deformation, with the cohesion increased from 1 kPa for fresh MSW to 16-40 kPa for degraded MSW and the friction angle decreased from 35{sup o} for fresh MSW to 28{sup o} for degraded MSW. During the triaxial tests under CU condition, the total strength parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were found to vary from 21 to 57 kPa and 1{sup o} to 9{sup o}, respectively, while the effective strength parameters

  17. Geologic logs of geotechnical cores from the subsurface Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maier, Katherine L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Tinsley, John C.; Gatti, Emma; Pagenkopp, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This report presents and summarizes descriptive geologic logs of geotechnical cores collected from 2009–12 in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California, by the California Department of Water Resources. Graphic logs are presented for 1,785.7 ft of retained cores from 56 borehole sites throughout the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Most core sections are from a depth of ~100–200 feet. Cores primarily contain mud, silt, and sand lithologies. Tephra (volcanic ash and pumice), paleosols, and gravels are also documented in some core sections. Geologic observations contained in the core logs in this report provide stratigraphic context for subsequent sampling and data for future chronostratigraphic subsurface correlations.

  18. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation Conterminous United States. Volume I. Coarse Screening.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    An Ald 495 FUGRO NATIONAL INC LONG BEACH CA F/I 13/p MX S ITING INVEStIGATION. BEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION CONTrR4M!NOU ’ U--ETC(W,) JUN 77 K L WILSON, R...TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS 1964 A LLJ 1* MX SITING INVESTIGATION GEOTECHNICAL EVALUATION CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES VOLUME I COARSE...Space and Missile Systems OrganizationI Norton Air Force Base, California 92409 * By: Fugro National , Inc. 3777 Long Beach BoulevardI Long Beach

  19. Geotechnical properties of Mississippi River delta sediments utilizing in situ pressure sampling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Rapid accumulation of organic-rich sediments and the subsequent anaerobic, biogenic decomposition of the organic material on the Mississippi River delta have led to sediment regions with high methane concentrations. The presence of the very soft, underconsolidated, gassy sediments creates a variety of problems for the acquisition of seismic data and samples for geotechnical analyses. A pressure core barrel has been developed by Texas AandM University, in conjunction with the US Geological Survey Mississippi Delta Project, to investigate these shallow gas-charged sediments.

  20. Geotechnical Analysis of Paleoseismic Shaking Using Liquefaction Features: Part I. Major Updating of Analysis Techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Obermeier, Stephen F.

    2003-01-01

    A new methodology is proposed for the geotechnical analysis of strength of paleoseismic shaking using liquefaction effects. The proposed method provides recommendations for selection of both individual and regionally located test sites, techniques for validation of field data for use in back-analysis, and use of a recently developed energy-based solution to back-calculate paleoearthquake magnitude and strength of shaking. The proposed method allows investigators to assess the influence of post-earthquake density change and aging. The proposed method also describes how the back-calculations from individual sites should be integrated into a regional assessment of paleoseismic parameters.

  1. Assessing Geotechnical Parameters and Slope Stability on the Architecture of Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, E. W.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2001-12-01

    SedFlux integrates process-based event models so as to numerically: 1) spread fluvial bedload across delta flats, 2) erode uplifted marine deposits, 3) disperse sediment from a river through surface (hypopycnal) plumes, or 4) subsurface (hyperpycnal) plumes, 5) disperse/sort shelf deposits by ocean storms, 6) fail seafloor deposits and remove as a turbidity current, or 7) a debris flow, 8) change the basin configuration due to thermal subsidence, or 9) tectonics (faults, uplift), and 10) compact the final deposit. SedFlux processes interact with evolving boundary conditions given: 11) fluctuations in sea level, 12) supply of sediment, and 13) ocean energy. Inevitably such a comprehensive model relies on a wide variety of input parameters that control these processes. They may be domain parameters that are set for a particular modeled region and are thus time-invariant and space-invariant. In contrast, many of the geotechnical parameters (sediment cohesion, sediment yield, Coulomb friction, permeability, plasticity index, porosity, viscosity, and consolidation coefficient) may be calculated using empirical relationships based on the properties of the developing deposit. In that sense the geotechnical parameters within the model domain vary in time and space. A series of numerical experiments were run: i) to determine how domain-invariant geotechnical input parameters affect the development of a continental margin; and ii) to contrast how margins would develop if these geotechnical parameters were allowed to vary based on deposit characteristics. As the coefficient of consolidation decreases, the numerical margins change from ones showing fewer failures, to margins having more failures located near the shelf-slope break, to margins having upper- to mid-slope failures. As sediment cohesion is increased, failure size increases but the number of seafloor failures decreases. As sediment yield increases, debris flows increasingly deposit their load on the continental

  2. Integrating weather and geotechnical monitoring data for assessing the stability of large scale surface mining operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiakakis, Chrysanthos; Agioutantis, Zacharias; Apostolou, Evangelia; Papavgeri, Georgia; Tripolitsiotis, Achilles

    2016-01-01

    The geotechnical challenges for safe slope design in large scale surface mining operations are enormous. Sometimes one degree of slope inclination can significantly reduce the overburden to ore ratio and therefore dramatically improve the economics of the operation, while large scale slope failures may have a significant impact on human lives. Furthermore, adverse weather conditions, such as high precipitation rates, may unfavorably affect the already delicate balance between operations and safety. Geotechnical, weather and production parameters should be systematically monitored and evaluated in order to safely operate such pits. Appropriate data management, processing and storage are critical to ensure timely and informed decisions. This paper presents an integrated data management system which was developed over a number of years as well as the advantages through a specific application. The presented case study illustrates how the high production slopes of a mine that exceed depths of 100-120 m were successfully mined with an average displacement rate of 10- 20 mm/day, approaching an almost slow to moderate landslide velocity. Monitoring data of the past four years are included in the database and can be analyzed to produce valuable results. Time-series data correlations of movements, precipitation records, etc. are evaluated and presented in this case study. The results can be used to successfully manage mine operations and ensure the safety of the mine and the workforce.

  3. Difficult Geotechnical Conditions Under the Palace Complex, Case Study from Cianowice, Near Krakow, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Mastalerczyk, Joanna; Gil, Regina

    2016-10-01

    The palace complex in Cianowice near Krakow (Lesser Poland, Poland) built around 1890, after 1945 ceased to function as a residential, so the whole building underwent successive devastation. Military activities, ad hoc repairs and long-term shortage of funds in Poland, led to the destruction of the magnificent assumptions. Since 2006. Palace remained completely unsecured and unattended. Performed in 2012-2015 modernization of the historic palace with the expansion of the basement (for residential building multigenerational) has become the occasion for a thorough diagnosis of the prevailing geotechnical conditions and the state of preservation of threads stone and brick walls and vaults chambers basement. Difficult ground conditions, water penetration, lack of insulation of horizontal and vertical has become one of the main causes of the destruction of the foundations and walls of basements. Moisture from the ground, rising damp in the walls (with dissolved salts in it), evaporate causing erosion of the walls. The result it led to the weakening of the structural and breakout layers of walls. The phenomenon has become particularly clear after the geotechnical surveys, excavations and complete discovery of the basement walls. The conducted works related to general technical renovation and restoration, included foundations (lining and insulation), walls, floors and roof. The assumption palace in Cianowice, through appropriate interference with the use of modern and introduction of a new substance, in any manner that emphasizes value and historical monument became possible to restore the important significance of the object and place.

  4. Preliminary Geophysical Survey for Assessing the Geotechnical Conditions and Geohazards at Huaca de La Luna, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavala, G. J.; Lopez, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Pando, M. A.; Lambert, C.; Morales, R.; Uceda, S.; Perucchio, R.; Castaneda, B.; Aguilar, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of near surface geophysical tests to help assess the geotechnical conditions of the archaeological complex of Huaca de la Luna located near the coastal city of Trujillo, Peru. This area of Peru has experienced damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in historic time. The huaca complex is a massive adobe temple progressively built by the Moche civilization from 100 AD to 650 AD. The geophysical tests carried out included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to help assess geotechnical conditions such as buried cavities and hallways, thickness and elastic properties of sand sediments, and the depth to the underlying granitic bedrock. The tests were performed to help with the investigation of structural damage observed along a massive adobe wall (north façade) which has shown signs of distress including fissures, settlements, and other damage. The geophysical results together with detailed Lidar surveying are being used as part of this investigation and highlight the usefulness of these non-destructive techniques for archaeological and historical sites.

  5. Water-induced granular decomposition and its effects on geotechnical properties of crushed soft rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, M.; Towhata, I.; Yamada, S.; Qureshi, M. U.; Kawano, K.

    2010-06-01

    The widespread availability of soft rocks and their increasing use as cheap rockfill material is adding more to geotechnical hazards because time-dependent granular decomposition causes significant damage to their mechanical properties. An experimental study was conducted through monotonic torsional shear tests on crushed soft rocks under fully saturated and dry conditions and compared with analogous tests on standard Toyoura sand. Due to the sensitivity of material to disintegration upon submergence, saturated conditions accelerated granular decomposition and, hence, simulated loss of strength with time, whereas, dry test condition represented the response of the soil with intact grains. A degradation index, in relation to gradation analyses after each test, was defined to quantify the degree of granular decomposition. Possible correlations of this index, with strength and deformation characteristics of granular soils, were explored. Enormous volumetric compression during consolidation and monotonic loading of saturated specimens and drastic loss of strength parameters upon submergence were revealed. It is revealed that the observed soil behaviour can be critical for embankments constructed with such rockfill materials. Moreover, the enhanced ability of existing soil mechanics models to predict time-dependent behaviour by incorporating water-induced granular decomposition can simplify several in situ geotechnical problems.

  6. Geotechnical Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    intervals under study. Still subject of research Mechanical caliper Diameter of borehole Measures borehole diameter Useful in a wet or dry hole Must be...recalibrated for each run. Averages three diameters Acoustic caliper Sonic ranging Measures borehole diameter Large range. Useful with highly irregular...2A 2 3A 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 4 0 Borehole gravity2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 Mechanical caliper 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0

  7. Transport Processes in Reacting Hydrothermal Flames with Applications to Military Waste Destruction in Supercritical Water and Geotechnical Rock Excavation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Transport Processes in Reacting Hydrothermal Flames with Applications to Military Waste Destruction in Supercritical Water and... Hydrothermal Burner Reactor System ...................................................... 2  3. Hydrothermal flame experiments... Hydrothermal Flames with Applications to Military Waste Destruction in Supercritical Water and Geotechnical Rock Excavation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-05

  8. Geotechnical Risk Classification for Underground Mines / Klasyfikacja Poziomu Zagrożenia Geotechnicznego W Kopalniach Podziemnych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Ritesh Kumar; Rinne, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Underground mining activities are prone to major hazards largely owing to geotechnical reasons. Mining combined with the confined working space and uncertain geotechnical data leads to hazards having the potential of catastrophic consequences. These incidents have the potential of causing multiple fatalities and large financial damages. Use of formal risk assessment in the past has demonstrated an important role in the prediction and prevention of accidents in risk prone industries such as petroleum, nuclear and aviation. This paper proposes a classification system for underground mining operations based on their geotechnical risk levels. The classification is done based on the type of mining method employed and the rock mass in which it is carried out. Mining methods have been classified in groups which offer similar geotechnical risk. The rock mass classification has been proposed based on bulk rock mass properties which are collected as part of the routine mine planning. This classification has been subdivided for various stages of mine planning to suit the extent of available data. Alpha-numeric coding has been proposed to identify a mining operation based on the competency of rock and risk of geotechnical failures. This alpha numeric coding has been further extended to identify mining activity under `Geotechnical Hazard Potential (GHP)'. GHP has been proposed to be used as a preliminary tool of risk assessment and risk ranking for a mining activity. The aim of such classification is to be used as a guideline for the justification of a formal geotechnical risk assessment. Górnictwo podziemne pociąga za sobą różnorakie zagrożenia spowodowane przez uwarunkowania geotechniczne. Urabianie złoża w połączeniu z pracą w zamkniętej przestrzeni oraz z niepewnymi danymi geotechnicznymi powodować może zagrożenia, które w konsekwencji prowadzić mogą do wypadków, a te potencjalnie powodować mogą skutki śmiertelne dla osób oraz

  9. Geotechnical characteristics and slope stability on the Ebro margin, western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Lee, H.J.; Kayen, R.E.; Hampton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Sedimentological and geotechnical analyses of core samples from the Ebro continental slope define two distinct areas on the basis of sediment type, physical properties and geotechnical behavior. The first area is the upper slope area (water depths of 200-500 m), which consists of upper Pleistocene prodeltaic silty clay with a low water content (34% dry weight average), low plasticity, and high overconsolidation near the seafloor. The second area, the middle and lower slope (water depths greater than 500 m), contains clay- and silt-size hemipelagic deposits with a high water content (90% average), high plasticity, and a low to moderate degree of overconsolidation near the sediment surface. Results from geotechnical tests show that the upper slope has a relatively high degree of stability under relatively rapid (undrained) static loading conditions, compared with the middle and lower slopes, which have a higher degree of stability under long-term (drained) static loading conditions. Under cyclic loading, which occurs during earthquakes, the upper slope has a higher degree of stability than the middle and lower slopes. For the surface of the seafloor, calculated critical earthquake accelerations that can trigger slope failures range from 0.73 g on the upper slope to 0.23 g on the lower slope. Sediment buried well below the seafloor may have a critical acceleration as low as 0.09 g on the upper slope and 0.17 g on the lower slope. Seismically induced instability of most of the Ebro slope seems unlikely given that an earthquake shaking of at least intensity VI would be needed, and such strong intensities have never been recorded in the last 70 years. Other cyclic loading events, such as storms or internal waves, do not appear to be direct causes of instability at present. Infrequent, particularly strong earthquakes could cause landslides on the Ebro margin slope. The Columbretes slide on the southwestern Ebro margin may have been caused by intense earthquake shaking

  10. Heartland Engineers: A Century of Superior Service 1907-2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    their years of exploration, mapping, navigation and stud - ies of the environment would lay the foundation for the USACE as a unique organization of...Engineers Construction began on Kanopolis Dam in 1940 Photo left: Workers reinforce the river bank with asphalt , 1939 War Department Theatre, Fort Riley, KS...WILLIAM M. WEAR CHIEF, AUDIOVISUAL SERVICES SECTION 1959 to 1994 JOHN E. MOYLAN CHIEF, GEOTECHNICAL BRANCH 1958 to 1991 CLYDE (BUCK) ROWLAND VISUAL

  11. Comparison of Shear-wave Profiles for a Compacted Fill in a Geotechnical Test Pit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvain, M. B.; Pando, M. A.; Whelan, M.; Bents, D.; Park, C.; Ogunro, V.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the use of common methods for geological seismic site characterization including: i) multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW),ii) crosshole seismic surveys, and iii) seismic cone penetrometer tests. The in-situ tests were performed in a geotechnical test pit located at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte High Bay Laboratory. The test pit has dimensions of 12 feet wide by 12 feet long by 10 feet deep. The pit was filled with a silty sand (SW-SM) soil, which was compacted in lifts using a vibratory plate compactor. The shear wave velocity values from the 3 techniques are compared in terms of magnitude versus depth as well as spatially. The comparison was carried out before and after inducing soil disturbance at controlled locations to evaluate which methods were better suited to captured the induced soil disturbance.

  12. Sludge ash/hydrated lime on the geotechnical properties of soft soil.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Hung, Min-Jui; Luo, Huan-Lin

    2007-06-25

    In this study, an effort to improve the properties and strength of soil, sewage sludge ash (SSA) and hydrated lime are applied to stabilize soft cohesive subgrade soil. Five different ratios (in weight percentage), 0%, 2%, 4%, 8%, and 16%, of sludge ash/hydrated lime are proposed for mixture with cohesive soil. Then, the effects of the different proportions of SSA/hydrated lime on soft cohesive soil are studied. Test results indicate that the unconfined compressive strength of specimens with additives was raised from three to seven times better than that of the untreated soil, and swelling behaviors were also effectively reduced for those specimens. Results of triaxial compression test indicate that the shear strength parameter, c, rose with an increased amount of additives and improved from 30 to 50-70kPa. On the whole, SSA/hydrated lime could particularly improve the geotechnical properties of cohesive subgrade soil.

  13. Nondestructive laboratory measurement of geotechnical and geoacoustic properties through intact core-liner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.; Edwards, B.D.; Lee, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution automated measurement of the geotechnical and geoacoustic properties of soil at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is performed with a state-of-the-art multi-sensor whole-core logging device. The device takes measurements, directly through intact sample-tube wall, of p-wave acoustic velocity, of soil wet bulk density, and magnetic susceptibility. This paper summarizes our methodology for determining soil-sound speed and wet-bulk density for material encased in an unsplit liner. Our methodology for nondestructive measurement allows for rapid, accurate, and high-resolution (1 cm-spaced) mapping of the mass physical properties of soil prior to sample extrusion.

  14. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  15. Geotechnical soil characterization of intact Quaternary deposits forming the March 22, 2014 SR-530 (Oso) landslide, Snohomish County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riemer, Michael F.; Collins, Brian D.; Badger, Thomas C.; Toth, Csilla; Yu, Yat Chun

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a description of the methods used to obtain and test the intact soil stratigraphy behind the headscarp of the March 22 landslide. Detailed geotechnical index testing results are presented for 24 soil samples representing the stratigraphy at 19 different depths along a 650 ft (198 m) soil profile. The results include (1) the soil's in situ water content and unit weight (where applicable); (2) specific gravity of soil solids; and (3) each sample's grain-size distribution, critical limits for fine-grain water content states (that is, the Atterberg limits), and official Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) designation. In addition, preliminary stratigraphy and geotechnical relations within and between soil units are presented.

  16. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybeł, Piotr; Wałach, Daniel; Jaskowska-Lemańska, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  17. Geotechnical Applications of the Self-Potential Method. Report 3. Development of Self-Potential Interpretation Techniques for Seepage Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Rehabilitation research work unit. The geotechnical problem at the site was anomalous underseepage in the foundation of a lar -ge embankment dike. SP data...magnitude of about 400 mV/atm is similar to that measured by other investigators for simi- lar test configurations (e.g., Ogilvy, Ayed, and Bogoslovsky 1969...1951 Marshall and Madden 1959 Mitchell 1976 Onsager 1931 Pourbaix 1949 Prigogine 1955 47 Geometric SP Source Models 140. This section summarized SP

  18. Analysis of hydrological and geotechnical aspects related to landslides caused by rainfall infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capparelli, Giovanna; La Sala, Gabriella; Vena, Mirko; Donato, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    A landslide is defined as a perceptible downward and outward movement of slope-forming soil, rock, and vegetation under the influence of gravity. Landslides can be triggered by both natural and human-induced changes in the environment. However rainfall is recognized as a major precursor for many types of slope movements. As a result of rainfall events and subsequent infiltration into the subsoil, the soil moisture can be significantly changed with a decrease in matric suction in unsaturated soil layers and/or increase in pore-water pressure in saturated layers. As a consequence, in these cases, the shear strength can be reduced enough to trigger the failure. An effective way to develop such an understanding is by means of computer simulation using numerical model. As part of the project PON "Integrated Early Warning System" our main objective was just to develop a numerical models that was able to consider the relation between rainfall, pore pressure and slope stability taking into account several components, including specific site conditions, mechanical, hydraulic and physical soil properties, local seepage conditions, and the contribution of these to soil strength. In this work the mechanism behind rainfall-triggered landslides is modeled by using combined infiltration, seepage and stability analyses. This method allows the evaluation of the terrain and its response based on geological, physical, hydrogeological and mechanical characteristics. The model is based on the combined use of two modules: an hydraulic module, to analyze the subsoil water circulation due to the rainfall infiltration under transient conditions and a geotechnical module, which provides indications regarding the slope stability. With regard to hydraulic module, variably saturated porous media flows have been modeled by the classical nonlinear Richards equation; in the geotechnical module the differential equilibrium equations have been solved taking into account the linear constitutive

  19. DEPSCoR FY 99: Use of Stochastic Modeling of Stratigraphic Relationships in High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data for Prediction of the Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the East China Sea Continental Margin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the East China Sea Continental Margin Louis R. Bartek Department of...of vertical and horizontal distribution of seismic facies (and therefore geotechnical and acoustic properties) • Determine the minimum data required...Resolution Seismic Reflection Data for Prediction of the Distribution of Acoustic and Geotechnical Property Variability in Near Surface Sediments on the

  20. Biogeomorphological implications of microscale interactions between sediment geotechnics and marine benthos: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, John M. H.; Meadows, Azra; Meadows, Peter S.

    2002-09-01

    At the foundations of biogeomorphological processes in the sea lie interactions between the activities of marine benthic animals and the geotechnical properties of their sedimentary environments. The potential significance of these interactions, which take place at a microscale level of millimetres to metres, for the large-scale geomorphology of the seabed has rarely been appreciated. In the context of this review, large-scale is defined as greater than 50 m to hundreds of kilometres. The present review addresses this link, drawing examples from a wide range of marine environments, including estuaries, the intertidal zone, continental shelves and slopes, and the deep sea. It firstly considers sediment stabilisation, slope failure, sediment mixing, biodeposition, sediment compaction, and hydrodynamic effects. This is followed by a consideration of two extremes of the ecological pyramid—the effects of marine meiofauna and marine vertebrates. The final section draws attention to the central role of faunal mucus and extracellular polymeric material (ECPM) in many of the microscale interactions that we describe. The implications of these microscale biological processes and features are discussed in terms of their influence on and control of the large-scale geomorphology of the seabed.

  1. Use of recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste in geotechnical applications: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Rafaela; Silva, Rui Vasco; de Brito, Jorge; Dhir, Ravindra

    2016-03-01

    The use of recycled aggregates (RA) in construction constitutes a significant step towards a more sustainable society and also creates a new market opportunity to be exploited. In recent years, several case-studies have emerged in which RA were used in Geotechnical applications, such as filling materials and in unbound pavement layers. This paper presents a review of the most important physical properties of different types of RA and their comparison with natural aggregates (NA), and how these properties affect their hydraulic and mechanical behaviour when compacted. Specifically, the effects of compaction on grading size distribution curves and density are analysed, as well as the consequences of particle crushing on the resilient modulus, CBR and permeability. The paper also contains an analysis of the influence of incorporating different RA types on the performance of unbound road pavement layers as compared with those built with NA by means of the International Roughness Index and deflection values. The results collected from the literature indicate that the performance of most RA is comparable to that of NA and can be used in unbound pavement layers or in other applications requiring compaction.

  2. Geotechnical assessment of a landslide along a natural gas pipeline for possible remediations (Karacabey-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topal, Tamer; Akin, Muge

    2009-04-01

    A new natural gas pipeline with a 0.90-m diameter is under construction to provide a gas connection between Turkey and Greece as well as to create a gas ring for southern Europe. The new pipeline route lies next to an existing small diameter gas pipeline broken by a landslide that occurred in February 2006 near Karacabey (Bursa). Although the existing pipeline has been temporarily repaired, either the pipeline route should be relocated or the landslide should be stabilized. The geological survey conducted in the study area reveals that relocation is not feasible due to the existence of other landslides in close vicinity to the site. In order to investigate the causes of the landslide and to suggest possible remedial measures, geotechnical investigations including surface geological mapping, trial pitting, drilling with field tests, inclinometer measurements, laboratory testing, and limit equilibrium analyses were conducted. The investigation revealed that the unconsolidated clayey soil slid on claystone along a non-circular failure surface. Based on the gathered data, possible remedial measures including partial removal of landslide material and construction of toe buttresses, slope flattening, lowering the pipeline, and surface drainage systems were evaluated. These are suggested to prevent the reactivation of the landslide, and thus to establish a safe route for both the existing and the new pipelines.

  3. Geomembranes with incorporated optical fiber sensors for geotechnical and environmental applications

    SciTech Connect

    Borns, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    This research covers the development of optical-fiber sensors and the methods to incorporate the sensors within geomembranes during manufacture. Such systems are being developed to monitor the effects of strain on geomembranes including the location of tears. Other possible measurements utilize moisture and fluid-level sensors. Since the use of geomembranes in geotechnical and environmental applications is widespread and monitoring systems are generally lacking, the potential for this technology is significant. For example, a geomembrane-and-sensor system addresses the need to monitor landfill stabilization in general and specifically the behavior of geomembranes used in liner and cover designs. We have demonstrated that glass and plastic fibers can be attached to a geomembrane (1) during extrusion and lamination and (2) by hot shoe welding, glued tape runners, and welded runners. Using these methods, we have manufactured 30 m lengths of geomembrane with continuous optical Fiber across the length. Our preliminary focus has been on strain sensors to monitor landfill subsidence. We have utilized existing and newly developed strain sensors, e.g., microbend, Bragg grating, and adsorption band sensors. These sensors have been installed as arrays into several test membranes at a manufacturing scale (e.g., 3 to 4 m wide). The prototype monitoring systems were installed in laboratory test frames, and the sensors measured the strains across the membranes as they were loaded. We plan to scale these experiments up to the size of landfill cover system using a test cell under construction.

  4. Application of geotechnical and geophysical field measurements in an active alpine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, D. R.; Fankhauser, K.; Springman, S. M.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall can trigger landslides, rockfalls and debris flow events. When rainfall infiltrates into the soil, the suction (if there is any) is reduced, until positive water pressure can be developed, decreasing the effective stresses and leading to a potential failure. A challenging site for the study of mass movement is the Meretschibach catchment, a location in the Swiss Alps in the vicinity of Agarn, Canton of Valais. To study the effect of rainfall on slope stabilities, the soil characterization provides valuable insight on soil properties, necessary to establish a realistic ground model. This model, together with an effective long term-field monitoring, deliver the essential information and boundary conditions for predicting and validating rainfall- induced slope instabilities using numerical and physical modelling. Geotechnical monitoring, including soil temperature and volumetric water content measurements, has been performed on the study site together with geophysical measurements (ERT) to study the effect of rainfall on the (potential) triggering of landslides on a scree slope composed of a surficial layer of gravelly soil. These techniques were combined to provide information on the soil characteristics and depth to the bedrock. Seasonal changes of precipitation and temperature were reflected in corresponding trends in all measurements. A comparison of volumetric water content records was obtained from decagons, time domain reflectometry (TDR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) conducted throughout the spring and summer months of 2014, yielding a reasonable agreement.

  5. Geotechnical aspects in the epicentral region of the 2011, Mw5.8 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Russell A.; Lasley, Samuel; Carter, Mark W.; Munsey, Jeffrey W.; Maurer, Brett W.; Tuttle, Martitia P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconnaissance team documented the geotechnical and geological aspects in the epicentral region of the Mw (moment magnitude) 5.8 Mineral, Virginia (USA), earthquake of 23 August 2011. Tectonically and seismically induced ground deformations, evidence of liquefaction, rock slides, river bank slumps, ground subsidence, performance of earthen dams, damage to public infrastructure and lifelines, and other effects of the earthquake were documented. This moderate earthquake provided the rare opportunity to collect data to help assess current geoengineering practices in the region, as well as to assess seismic performance of the aging infrastructure in the region. Ground failures included two marginal liquefaction sites, a river bank slump, four minor rockfalls, and a ~4-m-wide, ~12-m-long, ~0.3-m-deep subsidence on a residential property. Damage to lifelines included subsidence of the approaches for a bridge and a water main break to a heavily corroded, 5-cm-diameter valve in Mineral, Virginia. Observed damage to dams, landfills, and public-use properties included a small, shallow slide in the temporary (“working”) clay cap of the county landfill, damage to two earthen dams (one in the epicentral region and one further away near Bedford, Virginia), and substantial structural damage to two public school buildings.

  6. Geotechnical and environmental considerations in highway layouts: an integrated GIS assessment approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadek, Salah; Kaysi, Isam; Bedran, Mounia

    Highway route layout design typically relies on aerial photographs, topographic maps and geologic maps. In this paper, a GIS platform, which incorporates the main digital data needed for evaluating route layouts, is used in a computer-based approach for highway layout assessment. Possible layouts are evaluated based on two sets of criteria. First, traditional evaluation criteria focussing on geometric design factors and impact on man-made features are considered. Next, the developed assessment framework builds on the GIS platform to generate specific environmental and geotechnical criteria for route layout evaluation. The developed approach integrates highway design, slope stability, and traffic noise modeling packages and specifically written codes with the GIS packages ARC/INFO and ArcView. A prototypical application of the assessment framework for a proposed highway south of the city of Beirut, Lebanon is presented. The results demonstrate the potential of the developed approach in incorporating new evaluation criteria at the route layout design stage and in automating the route layout assessment procedure.

  7. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M

    2016-07-19

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized.

  8. Quantitative analysis of physical and geotechnical factors affecting methane emission in municipal solid waste landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tecle, Dawit; Lee, Jejung; Hasan, Syed

    2009-01-01

    The amount of methane that vent from landfills is dependent on the physical, chemical and biological components of the soil cover. Especially moisture content and temperature of the soil are known as the major controlling factors. In situ moisture content measurement is very critical because the moisture content of the soil continuously changes within minutes to hours as a result of change in temperature. The presented study used time domain reflectometry to measure in situ moisture content and analyzed moisture content, temperature and methane data of the landfill soil cover in a quantitative manner. Geotechnical factors including soil grain size and uniformity coefficient of the soil were analyzed and their influence on moisture content and methane emission was examined. The authors used kriging and polynomial regression methods to characterize the spatial distribution of moisture content and methane emission. Methane emission showed good temporal correlation with soil temperature, however, no significant relationship between moisture content and methane emission was observed. Spatial distribution of soil attributes was also analyzed to examine its effect on those variables. The spatial pattern of moisture content was quite similar to that of uniformity coefficient, C u and that of clay content of the soil but strongly contrasted to that of methane emission.

  9. Kalman Filters in Geotechnical Monitoring of Ground Subsidence Using Data from MEMS Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng; Azzam, Rafig; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás M.

    2016-01-01

    The fast development of wireless sensor networks and MEMS make it possible to set up today real-time wireless geotechnical monitoring. To handle interferences and noises from the output data, Kalman filter can be selected as a method to achieve a more realistic estimate of the observations. In this paper, a one-day wireless measurement using accelerometers and inclinometers was deployed on top of a tunnel section under construction in order to monitor ground subsidence. The normal vectors of the sensors were firstly obtained with the help of rotation matrices, and then be projected to the plane of longitudinal section, by which the dip angles over time would be obtained via a trigonometric function. Finally, a centralized Kalman filter was applied to estimate the tilt angles of the sensor nodes based on the data from the embedded accelerometer and the inclinometer. Comparing the results from two sensor nodes deployed away and on the track respectively, the passing of the tunnel boring machine can be identified from unusual performances. Using this method, the ground settlement due to excavation can be measured and a real-time monitoring of ground subsidence can be realized. PMID:27447630

  10. Structural evolution of fold-thrust structures in analog models deformed in a large geotechnical centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Todd E.; Dixon, John M.

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the structural evolution of fault-propagation folds and fold-thrust systems with scaled analog modeling carried out using the 5.5 m radius geotechnical centrifuge at C-CORE, St. John's NL. The experiments presented here are the first of their kind, scaled ten times larger than predecessors and deformed using a custom rig with load monitoring and displacement control. Plane-layered models approximately 1 m long and representing 50 km sections are shortened horizontally under an enhanced gravity field of 160 g. The large model scale allows for a proportionally large number of bedding laminations that act as strain markers. This allows detailed analysis of strain partitioning and interplay, both at the scale of a fold-thrust system and the individual fold-thrust structure. Layer-parallel shortening ("LPS") and rotation of fault-bounded blocks are revealed by mapping contraction fault populations and bedding-contraction fault intersection angles. Low-angle contraction faulting and LPS are found to be dominant at early stages of development and rotation of fault-bounded blocks occurs during progressive folding of the hanging-wall panel during fault-propagation folding. Displacement-distance data obtained from major thrusts in the model show relative stretch values, and consequently fault slip/propagation ratios, that are similar to natural structures.

  11. Piezometer probe technology for geotechnical investigations in coastal and deep-ocean environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. H.; Burns, J. T.; Lipkin, J.; Percival, C. M.

    Three multisensor piezometer probes were developed and field tested for use in coastal (shallow water) fine-grained marine soils. Offshore sites were investigated in the Mississippi Delta. Pore water pressure measurements were determined at several depths below the sea floor using both absolute and differential pressure sensors placed in a four inch diameter probe. Pressure sensors were hard-wired to nearby platforms where signals were conditioned and analog recording devices monitored pore water pressure changes in the marine soils. Pore water pressures were monitored for several months. Two single sensor piezometer probes, light millimeters in diameter, were developed for deep-ocean investigations. These probes use differential pressure sensors and were tested in a hyperbaric chamber pressurized to 55 MPa (8000 psi). Testing was performed for a period of five weeks under high hydrostatic pressure with the probes inserted in reconstituted illitic marine soil. Small differential pore water pressures responded to both mechanically and thermally generated forcing functions. During shallow water investigations and deep-ocean simulated pressure tests, the sensors exhibited excellent sensitivity and stability. These developments in piezometer probe technology provide a means of assessing important geotechnical parameters of fine-grained seabed deposits.

  12. Computer Applications in Geotechnical Engineering (CAGE) and Geotechnical Aspects of the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (G-CASE) projects. User’s Guide: UTEXAS2 Slope-Stability Package. Volume 1. User’s Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    LIST command. The command to execute this on the Harris system are: »CORPS ARE YOU USING A PRINTER TERMINAL OR CRT? ENTER P OR C £ CORPS SYSTEM...inexpensive printers used in conjunction with microcomputers. An option has been added permitting the user to request a "Short-Form" of output when...surfaces; Input Lines 2D, 3D , and 4D - See Table 21. 75 iBMRinmiiH-MWJWii mnCFTBIT KF KTt Kn KM I ■i«^.anmnjin ■nun anvLnJuvannruviivi

  13. Application of System Identification in Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natke, H. G.

    System identification is a powerful tool in engineering. Its various methods in the frequency and in the time domain have been extensively discussed in earlier CISM courses. The aim of this course is to describe the state of the art in specific application areas, such as estimation of eigenquantities (in the aerospace industry, in civil engineering, in naval engineering etc.), noise source detection, fault detection by investigation of dynamic properties, such as machine sound characteristics, and the identification of the dynamic behaviour of flow induced systems (e.g. aerolastic problems). Geotechnical applications are also among the fields of interest. The lecture notes contain demonstrations of several methods and include a valuation by combining various kinds of experience. Such complex information includes not only theoretical aspects of identification but also advice on practical handling, for example concerning testing effort and data handling.

  14. Geotechnical simulation of tertiary creep behavior of landslides induced by extreme rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dok, Atitkagna; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    Rainstorm indirectly provokes landslides because of its ability to level up the groundwater table after certain hours dropping. This process causes excess pore water pressure generation and soil liquefaction at the sliding surface and determines the behavior of landslides triggered by extreme rainfall. Creep deformations are commonly observed in a slope before sliding down. Creep behavior, in particular tertiary creep behavior, is therefore the main focus in predicting the final failure time of a slope. Progressive failure/tertiary creep deformation is the stage when strain rate exponentially increases just before final collapse. This study aims at simulating geotechnical model of tertiary creep behavior in soils, which was empirically discovered by Saito (1965) and Fukuzono (1985) to help issue warning of rainfall-induced landslides in developing countries where there is no implemented methodology for issuing effective warming of landslides yet. Tertiary creep to failure is reproduced by pore-pressure-controlled test in ring shear apparatus, through which obvious relationship of A and α (alpha) values was obtained, following consistent range with those found in previous studies under slightly deviated trend due to different test condition: pore-pressure-controlled and shear stress development tests. Constant shear speed test under shear speed of v=1cm/s was conducted in the ring shear apparatus to obtain the relation curve of shear resistance and shear displacement, from which exponential expression of creep behavior is originated. The model formula is governed by two constants: m and γ (gamma) whose relation with constants A and alpha was examined. Geotechnical simulation of creep behavior is then constructed by assuming that shear strength of soil increases and remains constant after reaching its maximum value in residual condition. This is to quantify normally consolidated condition of soils in natural slope. Shear resistance diminishes, while pore pressure

  15. Submarine landslides in contourite drifts along the Pianosa Ridge (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): A geotechnical approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Sultan, Nabil; Garziglia, Sebastien; Jouet, Gwenael; Cauquil, Eric; Cattaneo, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    softening behaviour. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanical processes that control slope instability in a context of a contourite system by focusing on a plastered drift and by applying slope stability modelling, using the geotechnical data from cores and in situ measurements. 1D consolidation modelling with the SeCo software shows that the sedimentation rates found in the plastered drift during the last 150 kyr are not enough to generate significant overpressure. We propose that two factors probably favoured the instability of the plastered drift: 1) the geotechnical properties of the sediment layer containing zeolites, and 2) the presence of an incision (moat) created by bottom currents in the lower part of the plastered drift, generating locally a slope gradient up to 15°.

  16. Geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste at Orchard Hills Landfill, USA.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Krishna R; Hettiarachchi, Hiroshan; Parakalla, Naveen S; Gangathulasi, Janardhanan; Bogner, Jean E

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation to determine the geotechnical properties of fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) collected from the working phase of Orchard Hills Landfill located in Davis Junction (Illinois, USA). Laboratory testing was conducted on shredded MSW to determine the compaction, hydraulic conductivity, compressibility, and shear strength properties at in-situ gravimetric moisture content of 44%. In addition, the effect of increased moisture content during leachate recirculation on compressibility and shear strength of MSW was also investigated by testing samples with variable gravimetric moisture contents ranging from 44% to 100%. Based on Standard Proctor tests, a maximum dry density of 420 kg/m(3) was observed at 70% optimum moisture content. The hydraulic conductivity varied in a wide range of 10(-8)-10(-4)m/s and decreased with increase in dry density. Compression ratio values varied in a close range of 0.24-0.33 with no specific trend with the increase in moisture content. Based on direct shear tests, drained cohesion varied from 31 to 64 kPa and the drained friction angle ranged from 26 to 30 degrees. Neither cohesion nor friction angle demonstrated any correlation with the moisture content, within the range of moisture contents tested. The consolidated undrained triaxial shear tests on saturated MSW showed the total strength parameters (c and phi) to be 32 kPa and 12 degrees, and the effective strength parameters (c' and phi') to be 38 kPa and 16 degrees. The angle of friction (phi) decreased and cohesion (c) value increased with the increase in strain. The effective cohesion (c') increased with increase in strain; however, the effective angle of friction (phi') decreased first and then increased with the increase in strain. Such strain-dependent shear strength properties should be properly accounted in the stability analysis of bioreactor landfills.

  17. Geomorphological mapping and geotechnical testing of the March 22, 2014, SR530 landslide near Oso, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Reid, M. E.; Vallance, J. W.; Iverson, R. M.; Schmidt, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The March 22, 2014 landslide near Oso, Washington devastated a community, killing 43 people, destroying dozens of homes, and temporarily closing a section of State Route (SR) 530. The landslide, characterized as a debris avalanche - debris flow - rotational slide, was triggered by heavy precipitation in the region and initiated from a 200 m tall section of Pleistocene glacial deposits. The entire landslide encompassed an area of 1.2 km2. To understand the mobility of this landslide, we performed geological and geomorphological mapping throughout the initiation, transport, and deposition zones. In addition, we mapped a 450-m-long cross-section through the western distal lobe created by the excavation to reopen the SR530 roadbed to temporary traffic. Samples collected during mapping were used for geotechnical testing to evaluate the mobility of the landslide materials. Our detailed (1:300) geological mapping of the excavation revealed the juxtaposition of sand (glacial outwash) and clay (glaciolacustrine) debris avalanche hummocks towards the distal end of the landslide. Further, we found that two sections of the roadbed, having a combined length of at least 150 m, were entrained in the landslide. Throughout the debris avalanche deposit, 1:1200-scale geomorphological mapping identified a preponderance of sand boils located within thinner deposits between hummocks, suggesting that liquefaction played a role in the landslides mobility. In the central distal end of the landslide, we mapped on-lap deposits, wherein distal debris flow material overrode smaller hummocks of the larger debris avalanche deposit. Discovery of these deposits indicates that the run out of the landslide might have been even longer in places had topographic barriers (i.e., the other side of the valley) not reflected the flow back towards itself.

  18. Ambient Noise Surface Wave Tomography for Geotechnical Monitoring Using "Large N" Distributed Acoustic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Lindsey, N.; Martin, E. R.; Wagner, A. M.; Robertson, M.; Bjella, K.; Gelvin, A.; Ulrich, C.; Wu, Y.; Freifeld, B. M.; Daley, T. M.; Dou, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface wave tomography using ambient noise sources has found broad application at the regional scale but has not been adopted fully for geotechnical applications despite the abundance of noise sources in this context. The recent development of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) provides a clear path for inexpensively recording high spatial resolution (< 1m sampling) surface wave data in the context of infrastructure monitoring over significant spatial domains (10s of km). Infrastructure monitoring is particularly crucial in the context of high-latitude installations where a changing global climate can trigger reductions in soil strength due to permafrost thaw. DAS surface wave monitoring systems, particularly those installed in/near transport corridors and coupled to ambient noise inversion algorithms, could be a critical "early warning" system to detect zones of decreased shear strength before failure. We present preliminary ambient noise tomography results from a 1.3 km continuously recording subsurface DAS array used to record traffic noise next to an active road in Fairbanks, AK. The array, depolyed at the Farmer's Loop Permafrost Test Station, was designed as a narrow 2D array and installed via trenching at ~30 cm. We develop a pre-processing and QC approach to analyze the large resulting volume of data, equivalent to a 1300 geophone array sampled at 1 khz. We utilize automated dispersion analysis and a quasi-2D MC inversion to generate a shear wave velocity profile underneath the road in a region of discontinuous permafrost. The results are validated against a high-resolution ERT survey as well as direct-push data on ice content. We also compare vintages of ambient noise DAS data to evaluate the short-term repeatability of the technique in the face of changing noise environments. The resulting dataset demonstrates the utility of using DAS for real-time shear-modulus monitoring in support of critical infrastructure.

  19. Delineating Bukit Bunuh impact crater boundary by geophysical and geotechnical investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Azwin, I. N. Rosli, S.; Nordiana, M. M.; Ragu, R. R.; Mark, J.; Mokhtar, S.

    2015-03-30

    Evidences of crater morphology and shock metamorphism in Bukit Bunuh, Lenggong, Malaysia were found during the archaeological research conducted by the Centre for Global Archaeological Research Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia. In order to register Bukit Bunuh as one of the world meteorite impact site, detailed studies are needed to verify the boundary of the crater accordingly. Geophysical study was conducted utilising the seismic refraction and 2-D electrical resistivity method. Seismic refraction survey was done using ABEM MK8 24 channel seismograph with 14Hz geophones and 40kg weight drop while 2-D electrical resistivity survey was performed using ABEM SAS4000 Terrameter and ES10-64C electrode selector with pole-dipole array. Bedrock depths were digitized from the sections obtained. The produced bedrock topography map shows that there is low bedrock level circulated by high elevated bedrock and interpreted as crater and rim respectively with diameter approximately 8km. There are also few spots of high elevated bedrock appear at the centre of the crater which interpreted as rebounds zone. Generally, the research area is divided into two layers where the first layer with velocity 400-1100 m/s and resistivity value of 10-800 Om predominantly consists of alluvium mix with gravel and boulders. Second layer represents granitic bedrock with depth of 5-50m having velocity >2100 m/s and resistivity value of >1500 Om. This research is strengthen by good correlation between geophysical data and geotechnical borehole records executed inside and outside of the crater, on the rim, as well as at the rebound area.

  20. Geotechnical properties of core sample from methane hydrate deposits in Eastern Nankai Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Egawa, K.; Konno, Y.; Ito, T.; Kida, M.; Jin, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    To date, MH extraction has been simulated in several ways to help ensure the safe and efficient production of gas, with a particular focus on the investigation of landsliding, uneven settlement, and production well integrity. The mechanical properties of deep sea sediments and gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, typically obtained through material tests, are essential for the geomechanical response simulation to hydrate extraction. We conducted triaxial compression tests and the geotechnical properties of the sediments was investigated. Consolidated undrained compression tests were performed for silty sediments. And consolidated drained tests were performed for sandy samples. In addition, permeability was investigated from isotropic consolidation results. These core samples recovered from methane hydrate deposits of Daini Atsumi Knoll in Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. The pressure core samples were rapidly depressurized on the ship and it were frozen using liquid nitrogen to prevent MH dissociation. Undrained shear strength of the core samples increase linearly with depth from sea floor. These core samples should be normally consolidated sample in-situ. Drained shear strength increases dramatically with hydrate saturation increases. Peak stress ratio q/p' of the core sample which has 73% of hydrate saturation was approximately 2.0 and it decrease down to 1.3 at the critical state. Dilatancy also changed from compressive tendency to dilative tendency with hydrate saturation increase. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  1. Morphology of sea-floor landslides on Horizon Guyot: application of steady-state geotechnical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.; Schwab, W.C.; Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; Hein, J.R.; Quinterno, P.J.; Levin, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    Mass movement and erosion have been identified on the pelagic sediment cap of Horizon Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Trends in the size, shape and preservation of bedforms and sediment textural trends on the pelagic cap indicate that bottom-current-generated sediment transport direction is upslope. Slumping of the sediment cap occurred on and that the net bedload transport direction is upslope. Slumping of the sediment cap occurred on the northwest side of the guyot on a 1.6?? to 2.0?? slope in the zone of enhanced bottom-current activity. Submersible investigations of these slump blocks show them to be discrete and to have a relief of 6-15 m, with nodular chert beds cropping out along the headwall of individual rotated blocks. An evaluation of the stability of the sediment cap suggests that the combination of the current-induced beveling of the sea floor and infrequent earthquake loading accompanied by cyclic strength reduction is responsible for the initiation of slumps. The sediment in the area of slumping moved short distances in relatively coherent masses, whereas sediment that has moved beyond the summit cap perimeter has fully mobilized into sediment gravity flows and traveled large distances. A steady-state geotechnical analysis of Horizon Guyot sediment indicates the predisposition of deeply buried sediment towards disintegrative flow failure on appropriately steep slopes. Thus, slope failure in this deeper zone would include large amounts of internal deformation. However, gravitational stress in the near-surface sediment of the summit cap (sub-bottom depth < 14 m) is insufficient to maintain downslope movement after initial failure occurs. The predicted morphology of coherent slump blocks displaced and rafted upon a weakened zone at depth corresponds well with seismic-reflection data and submersible observations. ?? 1990.

  2. Supporting Active Learning in an Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Course Using Group-Based Audience Response Systems Quizzes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or "clickers" in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS…

  3. Geotechnical studies for evaluation and limitations of environmental and engineering hazards that affect the economic infrastructure in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.

    2014-12-01

    Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas of possible damage and changes to the structure, and the situation of the steel reinforcements. It showed the presence of different shapes of fractures and voids with the growing of moisture zones.

  4. Investigation of a slope endangered by rainfall-induced landslides using 3D resistivity tomography and geotechnical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, S.; Thielen, A.; Springman, S. M.

    2006-10-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides pose a common problem in areas with slopes steeper than the friction angle of the soil. A series of such landslides in North Switzerland inspired a detailed geophysical and geotechnical site investigation prior to a monitoring experiment. High-resolution 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to derive a detailed subsurface image, which was verified by direct penetration tests, boreholes and laboratory analysis of soil samples with respect to grain size distribution and plasticity. Resolution analysis of ERT configurations proved a combination of Wenner-, Schlumberger- and Dipole-Dipole data to be a reasonable compromise between measurement time and model accuracy. Furthermore, a statistical approach to reducing subjectivity in the interpretation of 3D resistivity models is suggested. Applying this classification scheme to field data yields a model in very good agreement with the geotechnical model. The 3D resistivity model is then interpreted quantitatively using laboratory data and a constitutive relation accounting for clay and silt contents. The dominant influence of saturation on resistivity predicted by this model is confirmed and exemplified during repeated surveys in a dry and a wet period. In wet summer 2004, a silty sand layer of high water saturation is confined between two less permeable layers, the sandstone bedrock below and a clayey sand layer on top. This layer may locally form an aquifer, which becomes rapidly saturated during heavy rainfalls and contributes to the risk of failure. The combined ERT and geotechnical survey helped to optimize the design of the forthcoming monitoring experiment and may be used as a guideline for the investigation of similar slope conditions.

  5. Enhanced Bank-Stability Modeling With Coupled Geotechnical, Hydraulic and Near-Bank Groundwater Sub-Models: Development and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.; Bankhead, N.

    2008-12-01

    Physically-based, deterministic bank-stability models have recently been developed to effectively simulate the driving and resisting forces governing streambank erosion. Significant advances have been made in the manner in which groundwater flow through variably saturated porous media, planar and circular geotechnical failures and fluvial sediment transport are simulated. However, to date, coupling these models has required tedious exporting and conversion of geometries and results and manual remeshing. In this presentation, we introduce the first fully integrated suite of models that deterministically simulate the controlling hydrologic, hydraulic and geotechnical processes that govern streambank erosion and channel-width adjustment. The model suite incorporates routines that: 1. Permit the user to enter between 5 and 23 points to describe the bank cross-sectional geometry; 2. Automatically generate a mesh by which to implicitly discretize the 2-D Richards equation utilizing finite volumes. The resulting pentadiagonal matrix is solved iteratively with Stone's Strongly Implicit Procedure (SIP). Timesteps are automatically adjusted to minimize mass balance and truncation errors; 3. Evaluate the force-equilibrium factor of safety (Fs), permitting the simulation of planar and cantilever shear failures with a horizontal slice method and planar shear failures with tension cracks with a rigorous vertical slice method. A random walk approach is adopted to search for the minimum Fs; 4. Estimate the increase in cohesion due to vegetation with a global load-sharing Fibre Bundle Model; and 5. Simulate the erosion of the bank face and bank toe with an excess shear stress approach. Management options to increase slope stability (through the addition of vegetation) and reduce channel- boundary erodibility (through the addition of natural and artificial structures) are also incorporated. We illustrate the efficacy of the modeling approach with a series of case studies in which

  6. Integrated methodology in karst hazard assessments: aerial photography, geophysics and geotechnical approaches (Zaragoza, Central Ebro Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansón López, D.; Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocovi Juan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Karst hazards are an important subject of research in the surroundings of Zaragoza, with a very clear application to determination of geological risks. The developing of methodological approaches to the urban planning and construction has been one of the main objectives of the Geotransfer Research Group from the University of Zaragoza. In this work, three different approaches were applied to urban planning in a zone in the proximities of Zaragoza. The studied zone covers 10000 square meters where 4 boreholes and 12 penetration tests have been realized. The geophysical approach consisted in magnetometry, GPR and EM radiation surveys. On the other hand, 12 different areal photographies, ranging from the 1950' to present, were analyzed. The availability of a large number of historical data and aerial photographies permitted to determine different karst hazards in the prospected area, in spite of karstic features not being evident at surface. The analysis from only geotechnical data does not show allow to infer karst activity because the geometry of the Quaternary cover-Tertiary substratum cannot clearly be linked to a subsidence doline. Conversely, the results obtained from geophysical techniques show a good coincidence of change of the measured properties with closed envelopes in map view: higher intensity of the magnetic field, higher apparent conductivity (wave in quadrature of EM data) linked to closed envelopes of adaptation features in the GPR profiles and higher attenuation of the waves. The results obtained indicate the presence of a sinkhole, filled with Quaternary gravels, below a flat area. The comparison between aerial photographs and geophysical data shows a direct correlation, whereas the geotechnical data are ambiguous and show contradictory results over the sinkhole, the penetration tests indicating higher strengths related to the historical filling of the subsident zone. The existence of several series of aerial photographs permitted to correlate the

  7. Geotechnical properties and preliminary assessment of sediment stability on the continental slope of the northwestern Alboran Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Lee, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of core samples from the western Alboran Sea slope reveal a large variability in texture and geotechnical properties. Stability analysis suggests that the sediment is stable under static gravitational loading but potentially unstable under seismic loading. Slope failures may occur if horizontal ground accelerations greater than 0.16 g are seismically induced. The, Alboran Sea is an active region, on which earthquakes inducing accelerations big enough to exceed the shear strength of the soft soil may occur. Test results contrast with the apparent stability deduced from seismic profiles. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  8. Assessment and evaluation of engineering options at a low-level radioactive waste storage site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanehiro, B. Y.; Guvanasen, V.

    1982-09-01

    Solutions to hydrologic and geotechnical problems associated with existing disposal sites were sought and the efficiency of engineering options that were proposed to improve the integrity of such sites were evaluated. The Weldon Spring site is generally like other low-level nuclear waste sites, except that the wastes are primarily in the form of residues and contaminated rubble from the processing of uranium and thorium ores rather than industrial isotopes or mill tailings.

  9. Geophysical and Geotechnical Determination of Sand Resources on the Florida Atlantic Continental Shelf: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkl, C. W.; Andrews, J. L.; Suthard, B. C.; Robertson, W.

    2007-12-01

    the ability to assess sand resource potential on the shelf. Sand resources on the Florida Atlantic continental shelf amount to something on the order of about 85 x 109 m3. These potential sand volumes, based on average 3 m depth assumptions, break down to about 1 x 109 m3 for the southeast (Miami, Broward, Palm Beach counties), 4.3 x 109 m3 for the central (Martin, St. Lucie, Indian River, Brevard counties), and 78.5 x 109 m3 for the northeast (Volusia, Flagler, St. Johns, Duval, Nassau counties) Florida shelf areas. It is effective to use multiple remote sensing methods to locate large sand bodies, but more detailed geotechnical surveys are required to better estimate these sand resource potentials.

  10. Paleoliquefaction studies in continental setting; geologic and geotechnical factors in interpretations and back-analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, Stephen F.; Pond, Eric C.; Olson, Scott M.; Green, Russell A.; Stark, Timothy D.; Mitchell, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Paleoliquefaction research in the last 15 years has greatly improved our ability to interpret the paleoseismic record throughout some large geographic areas, especially in regions of infrequent large earthquakes. Paleoliquefaction studies have been used extensively in the central and eastern U.S. to assess seismic hazards, and could be used elsewhere to good purpose because paleoliquefaction studies in some field settings can reveal more than other methods, such as fault studies, about the prehistoric strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude. We present guidelines for the conduct of a paleoliquefaction study in continental deposits, mainly in terms of the geologic/seismologic setting and geotechnical properties, because a successful interpretation requires factors from all these disciplines. No single discipline suffices alone. Their interactions must be appreciated in order to understand why seismically induced liquefaction features are found in some locales and not in others. The guidelines that we present also relate to three primary issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful for interpretations: Where was the tectonic source? What was the strength of shaking? And what was the magnitude? In discussing these issues we focus on the following aspects of level-ground liquefaction: (1) mechanisms that form seismic liquefaction features in the field; (2) field settings where liquefaction features should be present if strong seismic shaking has occurred; (3) field settings where an absence of liquefaction features indicates an absence of strong seismic shaking; (4) how liquefaction features should be used to interpret the tectonic source locale of a paleo-earthquake; and (5) how effects of liquefaction can be used to back-calculate the strength of shaking as well as earthquake magnitude. Several methods are available to back-calculate the strength of shaking and earthquake magnitude, and the most commonly used methods are presented and critiqued

  11. A progress report on the ARRA-funded geotechnical site characterization project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Stokoe, K.; Di Matteo, A.; Diehl, J.; Jack, S.

    2011-12-01

    For the past 18 months, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) has funded geotechnical site characterizations at 189 seismographic station sites in California and the central U.S. This ongoing effort applies methods involving surface-wave techniques, which include the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) technique and one or more of the following: spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), active and passive multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) and passive array microtremor techniques. From this multi-method approach, shear-wave velocity profiles (VS) and the time-averaged shear-wave velocity of the upper 30 meters (VS30) are estimated for each site. To accommodate the variability in local conditions (e.g., rural and urban soil locales, as well as weathered and competent rock sites), conventional field procedures are often modified ad-hoc to fit the unanticipated complexity at each location. For the majority of sites (>80%), fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion-based techniques are deployed and where complex geology is encountered, multiple test locations are made. Due to the presence of high velocity layers, about five percent of the locations require multi-mode inversion of Rayleigh wave (MASW-based) data or 3-D array-based inversion of SASW dispersion data, in combination with shallow P-wave seismic refraction and/or HVSR results. Where a strong impedance contrast (i.e. soil over rock) exists at shallow depth (about 10% of sites), dominant higher modes limit the use of Rayleigh wave dispersion techniques. Here, use of the Love wave dispersion technique, along with seismic refraction and/or HVSR data, is required to model the presence of shallow bedrock. At a small percentage of the sites, surface wave techniques are found not suitable for stand-alone deployment and site characterization is limited to the use of the seismic refraction technique. A USGS Open File Report-describing the surface geology, VS profile and the

  12. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  13. International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) Established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute in Oslo, Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solheim, A.; Nadim, F.

    2003-12-01

    As one of 13 new `Centres of Excellence' awarded by the Norwegian Research Council with a 10-year funding schedule, the International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) was established at the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI), in January 2003. The Centre is formed through a co-operation between several institutions, which in addition to NGI are the Gelogical Survey of Norway (NGU), Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR), University of Oslo (UiO) and the Norwegian University for Science and Technology (NTNU). The Centre is located in the NGI building in Oslo, Norway. Funding is for 10 years, and the centre is staffed by researchers from the partner institutions, visiting scientists, post-doctoral fellows and Ph.D. students. With the ultimate goal of geohazard mitigation and preventing the loss of lives and damage to infrastructure and environment, key research topics of the Centre are: Unsaturated soils and mechanisms for precipitation-induced slides in steep slopes; Risk and vulnerability analysis for geohazards; Earthquake hazard, vulnerability and risk evaluation; Rock slope failures - models and risks; Landslides in soft clay slopes (quick clay), fjord margins and coastal zones; GIS applications to geohazards; SAR applications to geohazards; Slide dynamics and mechanics of disintegration; Tsunami modelling and prediction; and Offshore Geohazards. As prospecting for hydrocarbons move into increasingly deeper waters of the world's continental margins, research on offshore geohazard forms an important activity of the new centre. Main offshore geohazards include slope instability, effects of shallow gas and gas hydrates on the behaviour of seafloor sediments, mud volcanism and diapirism. Of these, slope instability is considered to be the major hazard, because of the potentially serious third party impact. The current offshore geohazards project within ICG consists of three main themes: Assessment of offshore geohazards (site surveys); Geophysical methods for offshore

  14. Combined analysis of electrical resistivity and geotechnical SPT blow counts for the safety assessment of fill dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seokhoon; Sun, Chang-Guk

    2008-03-01

    Electrical resistivity survey and the geotechnical SPT blow counts ( N value) method were simultaneously analyzed to investigate the stability of a center-core type earth-fill dam against the seepage phenomenon. The coupling of these heterogeneous field methods provided a chance to understand the status of underground material by comparing the geophysical and geotechnical view. The analysis shows that the zones with low resistivity value generally have low N value, which means low stiffness. However, some zones with a high resistivity pattern are not accompanied by an increase of its N value, and are even showing a lower N value. These results imply that one should be careful to directly correlate resistivity value with the real status of the core material of a fill dam. And a highly resistive zone may be in poor status due to the effect of increase of resistivity value as a result of the piping condition. Additional laboratory tests show that there is a deficiency of fine soil particles believed as the clay at the troubled region, which means an increase in resistivity value. Therefore, multiple explorations should be planned to reduce the uncertainty in application of geophysical methods to dam safety evaluation in order to compensate the resistivity information of core material.

  15. Engineering uses of physics-based ground motion simulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Jack W.; Luco, Nicolas; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Graves, Robert W.; Maechling, Phillip J.; Olsen, Kim B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes validation methodologies focused on enabling ground motion simulations to be used with confidence in engineering applications such as seismic hazard analysis and dynmaic analysis of structural and geotechnical systems. Numberical simullation of ground motion from large erthquakes, utilizing physics-based models of earthquake rupture and wave propagation, is an area of active research in the earth science community. Refinement and validatoin of these models require collaboration between earthquake scientists and engineering users, and testing/rating methodolgies for simulated ground motions to be used with confidence in engineering applications. This paper provides an introduction to this field and an overview of current research activities being coordinated by the Souther California Earthquake Center (SCEC). These activities are related both to advancing the science and computational infrastructure needed to produce ground motion simulations, as well as to engineering validation procedures. Current research areas and anticipated future achievements are also discussed.

  16. Deformation analysis through the SBAS-DInSAR technique and geotechnical methods for structural damage assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonano, M.; Arangio, S.; Calò, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Manunta, M.; Marsella, M.; Sansosti, E.; Sonnessa, A.; Tagliafierro, V.; Lanari, R.

    2012-04-01

    a small separation between the acquisition orbits (baseline) in order to mitigate the noise effects, thus maximizing the coherent pixel density in the investigated area. The SBAS approach allows us to work at the full spatial resolution scale of the SAR acquisitions (Lanari et al., 2004), thus detecting and analyzing localized deformation affecting single structures or portions of them (intra-building movements). More recently, the full resolution SBAS approach has been extended in order to deal with multi-sensor SAR data collected by different radar systems acquiring with the same illumination geometry as for the case of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT satellites (Bonano et al., 2012), thus effectively exploiting the huge ESA SAR data archive for generating very long-term deformation time-series spanning almost 20 years. In this work, we apply the multi-sensor full-resolution SBAS-DInSAR technique for investigating the deformation phenomena occurring within the urban area of Roma (Italy), where almost 20 years of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR data are available. The achieved results are effectively exploited for analyzing the correlation between the ground deformation and the structural damage detected on some buildings located within the urban area of the city of Roma. To this aim, we benefit of the well-known geotechnical approaches, usually aimed at preventing buildings and infrastructures from settlements-induced damages, for better understanding and interpreting the temporal behavior of the detected displacements.

  17. Preliminary Geotechnical Investigation of Two Basaltic Landslide Sites in Mauritius, Offshore Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabycharun, Bhoopendra; Kuwano, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Kensuke; Fukuoka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Landslide hazards in developing areas in Mauritius became a great challenge as well as a fundamental concern for the government and the citizen of the country. In recent years, landslide disasters have caused losses of both public and private properties. In 2005, a large-scale landslide at Chitrakoot affected 54 houses and infrastructures, and it was reactivated in 2006, damaging another 14 houses. Vallee Pitot landslide is frequently reactivated in these years and threatening several houses in densely-populated zone. Although the long-term annual precipitation show slightly decreasing trend, number of tropical cyclone over Mauritius is clearly increasing at least in the past 3 decades. Being of volcanic origin, Mauritius has observed dramatic and quick weathering of the soil which may partly contributes to creating landslide-prone geo-environment. This study focuses on the preliminary geotechnical investigation of the above-mentioned two basaltic landslide areas in Mauritius. Recent investigation was conducted jointly by JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) and Ministry of Public Infrastructure and Land Transport of Government of Mauritius on both sites from 2012 to 2015 to survey the landslide surface and to implement countermeasures works. In the field investigation, aerial photo interpretation was used to investigate the zone of cracks and scarps for both sites. The landslide areas for Chitrakoot and Vallee Pitot were estimated to 1.8 km2 and 5,000 m2 respectively. Both sites are located in the highly populated area in the capital city of Mauritius. The geological features of the sites were studied with the borehole core logging data obtained from 6 boreholes and it was found that possible sliding surface was observed in the colluvium layer consisting of gravels and stiff silty-clays, at depths from 6 to 10 m below the ground surface. The rate of landslide movement during heavy rainfall amount exceeding 100 mm/hr was elaborated with past records of

  18. A select bibliography with abstracts of reports related to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant geotechnical studies (1972--1990)

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.W.; Martin, M.L.

    1993-08-01

    This select bibliography contains 941 entries. Each bibliographic entry contains the citation of a report, conference paper, or journal article containing geotechnical information about the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The entries cover the period from 1972, when investigation began for a WIPP Site in southeastern New Mexico, through December 1990. Each entry is followed by an abstract. If an abstract or suitable summary existed, it has been included; 316 abstracts were written for other documents. For some entries, an annotation has been provided to clarify the abstract, comment on the setting and significance of the document, or guide the reader to related reports. An index of key words/phrases is included for all entries.

  19. Summary of geotechnical services for the proposed Route 24/580/980 interchange improvement in Oakland, California

    SciTech Connect

    Tabatabaie, A.; Majchrzak, M.

    1996-02-01

    This report presents a summary of the geotechnical services in connection with the proposed Route 24/580/980 Interchange Improvement in Oakland, California. The purpose of the work was to provide drilling equipment and personnel to log test borings, collect soils samples, testing of excess soil cutting for environmental concerns and disposal of excess soils cutting. A field investigation was conducted from September 7 through September 26, 1995. The field work consisted of drilling 7 borings (B-1 through B-7) at the approximate locations shown on the Boring Location Map provided by CALTRANS. These borings extended to approximately 200 feet below the ground surface. This project is part of a CALTRANS earthquake retrofit project.

  20. Mapping refuse profile in Singapore old dumping ground through electrical resistivity, S-wave velocity and geotechnical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ke; Tong, Huan Huan; Noh, Omar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to track the refuse profile in Lorong Halus Dumping Ground, the largest landfill in Singapore, by electrical resistivity and surface wave velocity after 25 years of closure. Data were analyzed using an orthogonal set of plots by spreading 24 lines in two perpendicular geophone-orientation directions. Both geophysical techniques determined that refuse boundary depth was 13 ± 2 m. The refuse boundary revealed a certain degree of variance, mainly ascribed to the different principle of measurements, as well as the high heterogeneity of the subsurface. Discrepancy was higher in spots with greater heterogeneity. 3D analysis was further conducted detecting refuse pockets, leachate mounding and gas channels. Geotechnical monitoring (borehole) confirmed geophysical outcomes tracing different layers such as soil capping, decomposed refuse materials and inorganic wastes. Combining the geophysical methods with borehole monitoring, a comprehensive layout of the dumping site was presented showing the hot spots of interests.

  1. Stress history and geotechnical properties of sediment from the Cape Fear Diapir, Blake Ridge Diapir, and Blake Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winters, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Geotechnical properties of sediment from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 164 are presented as: (1) normalized shipboard strength ratios from the Cape Fear Diapir, the Blake Ridge Diapir, and the Blake Ridge; and (2) Atterberg limit, vane shear strength, pocket-penetrometer strength, and constant-rate-of-strain consolidation results from Hole 995A, located on the Blake Ridge. This study was conducted to understand the stress history in a region characterized by high sedimentation rates and the presence of gas hydrates. Collectively, the results indicate that sediment from the Blake Ridge exhibits significant underconsolidated behavior, except near the seafloor. At least 10 m of additional overburden was removed by erosion or mass wasting at Hole 993A on the Cape Fear Diapir, compared to nearby sites.

  2. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  3. Application of an integrated geotechnical and topographic monitoring system in the Lorano marble quarry (Apuan Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvini, Riccardo; Vanneschi, Claudio; Riccucci, Silvia; Francioni, Mirko; Gullì, Domenico

    2015-07-01

    Accurate slope stability analysis is essential for human activity in high-risk geological contexts. This may, however, not be enough in the case of quarrying where the dynamic and evolving environment also requires effective monitoring. A well-designed monitoring system requires the acquisition of a huge dataset over time, improving knowledge of the study area and helping to refine prediction from stability analysis. This paper reports the implementation of an integrated monitoring system in a marble quarry in the Apuan Alps (Italy) and some of the results obtained. The equipment consists of a traditional geotechnical monitoring system (extensometers, crackmeters and clinometers) and two modern topographic monitoring systems (a terrestrial interferometer and a robotic total station). This work aims to provide in-depth knowledge of the large scale rock mass behaviour as a result of marble exploitation, thereby allowing continuous excavation. The results highlight the importance of integrating different monitoring systems.

  4. Elevated lateral stress in unlithified sediment, Midcontinent, United States - geotechnical and geophysical indicators for a tectonic origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolery, E.W.; Schaefer, J.A.; Wang, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Indirect and direct geotechnical measurements revealed the presence of high lateral earth pressure (Ko) in shallow, unlithified sediment at a site in the northernmost Mississippi embayment region of the central United States. Results from pile-load and pressuremeter tests showed maximum Ko values greater than 10; however, the complex geologic environment of the Midcontinent made defining an origin for the anomalous Ko based solely on these measurements equivocal. Although in situ sediment characteristics indicated that indirect tectonic or nontectonic geologic mechanisms that include transient overburden loads (e.g., fluvial deposition/erosion, glacial advance/retreat) and dynamic shear loads (e.g., earthquakes) were not the dominant cause, they were unable to provide indicators for a direct tectonic generation. Localized stresses induced anthropogenically by the geotechnical field tests were also considered, but ruled out as the primary origin. A high-resolution shear-wave (SH) reflection image of geologic structure in the immediate vicinity of the test site revealed compression-style neotectonism, and suggested that the elevated stress was a tectonic manifestation. Post-Paleozoic reflectors exhibit a Tertiary (?) structural inversion, as evidenced by post-Cretaceous fault displacement and pronounced positive folds in the hanging wall of the interpreted faults. The latest stratigraphic extent of the stress effects (i.e., all measurements were in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary McNairy Formation), as well as the relationship of stress orientation with the orientation of local structure and regional stress, remain unknown. These are the subjects of ongoing studies. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. New constraints on oceanographic vs. seismic control on submarine landslide initiation: a geotechnical approach off Uruguay and northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Fei; Strasser, Michael; Preu, Benedict; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Kopf, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Submarine landslides are common along the Uruguayan and Argentinean continental margin, but size, type and frequency of events differ significantly between distinct settings. Previous studies have proposed sedimentary and oceanographic processes as factors controlling slope instability, but also episodic earthquakes have been postulated as possible triggers. However, quantitative geotechnical slope stability evaluations for this region and, for that matter, elsewhere in the South Atlantic realm are lacking. This study quantitatively assesses continental slope stability for various scenarios including overpressure and earthquake activity, based on sedimentological and geotechnical analyses on three up to 36 m long cores collected on the Uruguayan slope, characterized by muddy contourite deposits and a locus of landslides (up to 2 km3), and in a canyon-dominated area on the northern Argentinean slope characterized by sandy contourite deposits. The results of shear and consolidation tests reveal that these distinct lithologies govern different stability conditions and failure modes. The slope sectors are stable under present-day conditions (factor of safety >5), implying that additional triggers would be required to initiate failure. In the canyon area, current-induced oversteepening of weaker sandy contourite deposits would account for frequent, small-scale slope instabilities. By contrast, static vs. seismic slope stability calculations reveal that a peak ground acceleration of at least 2 m/s2 would be required to cause failure of mechanically stronger muddy contourite deposits. This implies that, also along the western South Atlantic passive margin, submarine landslides on open gentle slopes require episodic large earthquakes as ultimate trigger, as previously postulated for other, northern hemisphere passive margins.

  6. Soil variability in engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Natural geomaterials, as soils and rocks, show spatial variability and heterogeneity of physical and mechanical properties. They can be measured by in field and laboratory testing. The heterogeneity concerns different values of litho-technical parameters pertaining similar lithological units placed close to each other. On the contrary, the variability is inherent to the formation and evolution processes experienced by each geological units (homogeneous geomaterials on average) and captured as a spatial structure of fluctuation of physical property values about their mean trend, e.g. the unit weight, the hydraulic permeability, the friction angle, the cohesion, among others. The preceding spatial variations shall be managed by engineering models to accomplish reliable designing of structures and infrastructures. Materon (1962) introduced the Geostatistics as the most comprehensive tool to manage spatial correlation of parameter measures used in a wide range of earth science applications. In the field of the engineering geology, Vanmarcke (1977) developed the first pioneering attempts to describe and manage the inherent variability in geomaterials although Terzaghi (1943) already highlighted that spatial fluctuations of physical and mechanical parameters used in geotechnical designing cannot be neglected. A few years later, Mandelbrot (1983) and Turcotte (1986) interpreted the internal arrangement of geomaterial according to Fractal Theory. In the same years, Vanmarcke (1983) proposed the Random Field Theory providing mathematical tools to deal with inherent variability of each geological units or stratigraphic succession that can be resembled as one material. In this approach, measurement fluctuations of physical parameters are interpreted through the spatial variability structure consisting in the correlation function and the scale of fluctuation. Fenton and Griffiths (1992) combined random field simulation with the finite element method to produce the Random

  7. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  8. Tailings dams stability analysis using numerical modelling of geotechnical and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihai, S.; Zlagnean, M.; Oancea, I.; Petrescu, A.

    2009-04-01

    dam's state of safety. This study considered the SSR (Shear Strength Reduction) technique for slope stability numerical modelling. In the SSR finite element technique, elasto-plastic strength is assumed for dam's materials and shear strengths are progressively reduced until collapse occurs. Numerical modelling was performed on the most critical profile choosed through analysis of geophysical and geotechnical informational volume achieved by insitu or in laboratory tests. Finite element analysis were considered in two situations: first, before geophysical investigations and second considering the whole informational of data achieved. Both situations were analysed in static and pseudo-static conditions. The factor of safety before geophysical investigations is high enough to describe a stable state of stability even for the seismic load. The total displacement distributions were modified by the presence of internal erosional element giving a high state of instability, especially for the pseudo-static case. These analysis using the finite element method prove the importance of structural disturbance elements that may occure inside the dam body produced by internal erosional processes.

  9. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation. Verification Study - Pahroc Valley, Nevada. Volume I. Synthesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    characteristics (e.g., igneous , metamorphic, sedimentary). ROTARY WASH DRILLING - A boring technique in which advancement of the hole through overburden...Mobile Advanced ICBM system and presents the geological, geophysical, and soils engineering data upon which the evaluation is based. It is one of a...Missile-X (MX), an advanced intercontinental ballistic mis- sile system. The phases included are called Screening, Char- acterization, Ranking, and

  10. Seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of a landslide and clinker deposits, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Exploitation of vast coal and other resources in the Powder River Basin has caused recent, rapid increases in population and in commercial and residential development and has prompted land utilization studies. Two aspects of land utilization were studied for this report: (1) the seismic and geotechnical properties of a landslide and (2) the seismic, magnetic, and geotechnical properties of clinker deposits. (1) The landslide seismic survey revealed two layers in the slide area. The upper (low-velocity) layer is a relatively weak mantle of colluvium and unconsolidated and weathered bedrock that ranges in thickness from 3.0 to 7.5 m and has an average seismic velocity of about 390 m/s. It overlies high-velocity, relatively strong sedimentary bedrock that has velocities greater than about 1330 m/s. The low-velocity layer is also present at the other eight seismic refraction sites in the basin; a similar layer has also been reported in the Soviet Union in a landslide area over similar bedrock. The buried contact of the low- and high-velocity layers is relatively smooth and is nearly parallel with the restored topographic surface. There is no indication that any of the high-velocity layer (bedrock) has been displaced or removed. The seismic data also show that the shear modulus of the low-velocity layer is only about one-tenth that of the high-velocity layer and the shear strength (at failure) is only about one-thirtieth. Much of the slide failure is clearly in the shear mode, and failure is, therefore, concluded to be confined to the low-velocity layer. The major immediate factor contributing to landslide failure is apparently the addition of moisture to the low-velocity layer. The study implies that the low-velocity layer can be defined over some of the basin by seismic surveys and that they can help predict or delineate potential slides. Preventative actions that could then be taken include avoidance, dewatering, prevention of saturation, buttressing the toe, and

  11. Lunar Excavation Experiments in Simulant Soil Test Beds-Revisiting the Surveyor Geotechnical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2012-01-01

    (1) Establishing ISRU technologies on planetary bodies is an important long-term goal of NASA; (2) Excavation is a key component of these ISRU processes; (3) Lack of flight data relevant to lunar excavation; (4) Existing models of the excavation-cutting phenomenon give varying results; (5) The lack of predictive models of the dynamic behavior of soils in excavation implements is a major driver for these studies; and (6) Objective: Need to develop robust models of excavation cutting phenomena that generate predictive capabilities to aid the designer and engineer.

  12. The influence of different geotechnically relevant amendments on the reductive degradation of TCE by nZVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitag, Peter; Schöftner, Philipp; Waldner, Georg; Reichenauer, Thomas G.; Nickel, Claudia; Spitz, Marcus; Dietzel, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was widely used as a cleaning and degreasing agent. Companies needing these agents were often situated in or close to built up areas, so spillage led to contaminated sites which now can only be remediated using in situ techniques. The situation is compounded by the fact that TCE tends to seep through ground water bodies forming pools at the bottom of the aquifer. When reacting with TCE, nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) is known to reduce it into non-toxic substances. The difficulty is to bring it in contact with the pollutant. Attempts using passive insertion into the groundwater via wells yielded mixed results. Reasons for this are that ZVI tends to coagulate, to sediment and to adsorb on the matrix of the aquifer. Also, in inhomogeneous aquifers a passive application of nZVI can be difficult and might not bring the desired results, due to existence of preferential flow paths. A possible solution to this problem is the physical in situ mixing of ZVI into the contaminant source. This can, in principle, be done by adapting jet grouting - a method that uses a high pressure slurry jet, consisting of water and geotechnical additives ("binders"), to mix and compact zones ("columns") in soil. These columns are commonly used to solve foundation problems but can also be used to solve the problem of delivering nZVI to TCE source zones. This paper examines the influence binders have on the degradation reaction between TCE and nZVI. The necessity of these binders is explained by the fact that the subsoil structure is rearranged during the jetting process leading to subsidence on the surface. These subsidences could result in damage to neighbouring structures. A series of batch experiments was conducted in this study. Contaminated groundwater was brought into contact with samples of slurries commonly used in geotechnical applications. We tested the effects of concresole, bentonite, zeolithe, fly ash, slag sand and cement on the kinetics of TCE

  13. 3D Geotechnical Soil Model of Nice, France, Inferred from Seismic Noise Measurements, for Seismic Hazard Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E.; Duval, A.; Castan, M.; Vidal, S.

    2007-12-01

    In seismic risk studies, the assessment of lithologic site effect is based on an accurate knowledge of mechanical properties and geometry of superficial geological formations. Therefore, we built a 3D subsurface model in the city of Nice, southeastern France, using not only geological and geotechnical data but also geophysical inputs. We used especially ambient vibration recordings to supply the lack of borehole data over the city. Nice spreads over 72 km2 and roughly 20% of the city is built upon recent alluvium deposits. Other parts of the city lie on Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks to the east and thick Pliocene conglomerates to the west. Nearly 450 boreholes located mainly in the alluvial valleys were used. Because they are essentially linked to previous planned constructions (such as road network or important building), their distribution is rather heterogeneous over the studied area. In the valleys moreover, less than 40% of the boreholes are reaching the rock basement. These boreholes have been analyzed and a representative soil column made of 9 sedimentary layers has been recognized. Shear wave velocity of these layers were obtained from Standard Penetration Test values using several empirical correlation law described in the literature. Because of its cost, an extended boring survey was not feasible to complete our data set. Traditional seismic profiling was also not intended, as it is not possible to use intensive explosive sources in town. Recent years have seen many studies using ambient vibration measurements for site effect estimation. Especially, the very simple H/V technique was proven to be suitable for microzoning studies although some limitation were pointed out when dealing with 2D or 3D structures. Nevertheless, this technique alone provides only the fundamental eigenfrequency of the site under investigation. But assuming the shear wave velocity in the sediment it can helps to constrain the depth of the bedrock thanks to the well known f0=VS/4H

  14. Investigation of geotechnical parameters from CSEM mapping and monitoring data at the oases Kharga and Baris of Sahara desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Attia, Magdy; Khalil, Ahmed; Mekkawi, Mahmoud; Soliman, Mamdouh

    2016-04-01

    The site of investigation, oasis Kharga, is located at about 600 km south of Cairo, Egypt; Baris is about 90 km from Kharga also to south and towards more inside the desert. The work was aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at Baris and to estimate the water intake in the Oasis Kharga. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure of the Baris. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Here we can show the first results that we shall continue during some cycles of monitoring. The second part of our work was linked with mapping the massif structure inside the oasis City, where only using our device we could construct the geoelectrical sections for 5 profiles and show the real structure of the water volume and its complicated structure up to 200 meters depth recording the values of real not apparent resistivity. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We can conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation areas is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectrical heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1,2]. References 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability

  15. iCRESLIDE: Integration of Coupled Routing and Excess Storage and SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium for the Cascading Hydrologic-Geotechnical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Y.; Zhang, K.; Gourley, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    Floods and landslides account for the large number of natural hazards and affect more people than many other types of natural disasters around the world. This study proposed a coupled hydrological-geotechnical model iCRESLIDE (Integration of Coupled Routing and Excess Storage and SLope-Infiltration-Distributed Equilibrium). The iCRESLIDE is designed to remedy the discrepancy of the original landslide model (SLIDE) by coupling with a hydrological model (CREST) and building an integrated system for predicting cascading storm-flood-landslides using remote sensing and geospatial datasets. This coupled system is implemented and evaluated in Macon County, North Carolina, where Hurricane Ivan triggered widespread landslides in September 2004 during the hurricane season. Model simulations from iCRESLIDE show its reliability to predict landslides occurrence (location and time). Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrate that the iCRESLIDE has higher global accuracy (0.750) and higher sensitivity (11.36%) compared to the original SLIDE model. Such improved predictive performance demonstrates the advantage of coupling hydrological-geotechnical models, which calls more attentions and deserves further investigations in order to develop a not only geotechnical sound but also hydrological sensitive system for landslides early warning at regional scale. This talk will also present early results of the NFL (National-Flash-Landslide) Monitoring and Prediction system under development at the NOAA/OU National Weather Center.

  16. Field occurrences of liquefaction-induced features: A primer for engineering geologic analysis of paleoseismic shaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obermeier, S.F.; Olson, S.M.; Green, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Discussed in this paper are the factors that control the typical manifestations of liquefaction that are found in continental field settings. The factors are given mainly in terms of the local geologic field situation and the geotechnical properties there. A meaningful interpretation of liquefaction-based data for quantitative analysis of paleoseismic shaking requires understanding of both geologic and geotechnical roles in the mode of ground failure at a specific site. Recommendations are made for the size of the field area that must be searched for liquefaction effects, in order to develop adequate data for engineering geologic/geotechnical analyses of paleoseismicity. The areal extent must be based on an appreciation that the tectonic situation can cause seismically induced liquefaction effects to form in some locales, but not in others nearby, even for a strong earthquake in the region. Our guidelines for the conduct of the field search and preliminary analysis of the data relate to three issues for which liquefaction features are especially useful in answering: Has there been strong Holocene/latest Pleistocene shaking in the region? Where was the tectonic source? And what was the strength of shaking? Understanding of the various factors that control the manifestations of liquefaction effects, which we present in this paper, is essential for developing credible answers to these questions. ?? 2004 Elsvier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tunnelling in Urbanised Areas - Geotechnical Case Studies at Different Project Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Stefan; Poscher, Gerhard; Kohl, Bernhard

    Tunnelling in urbanised areas is always a challenge for the client and the contractor as well as for the designers, the engineers, and the geologists. The high demand for space and the disturbance of existing infrastructures by construction measures increasingly forces future infrastructure projects to be carried out underground. At the same time, interferences with human, natural or water resources shall be reduced and noise, dust, as well as site traffic shall be minimised. Quite frequently, politics also come into play. All these factors may lead to pre-determined routes, with ground conditions which may not always be very favourable. This article presents examples of different projects at different stages and emphasizes the importance of engineering geology in the route selection process. The most promising options are routes located in ground, which is not sensitive to settlement and/or water ingress. A longer route in favourable ground conditions is to be given preference over a shorter route in adverse ground conditions. In case of no alternative, the risk of surface settlements and exploding construction costs have to be taken into account. The first project presented is the railway line in the Inn valley / Tyrol, comprising four sections in urbanised areas, which - due to environmental and political reasons - have to cross infrastructure facilities and traffic lines, often in unfavourable ground conditions. There is a variety of construction methods in the tender design to be applied in urbanised tunnelling ranging from NATM tunnels with local groundwater draw-down and jet grouting enclosure against water pressure, to TBM-driven tunnels with hydro-shield. The second project is a planned by-pass for the city of Linz, which is at the environmental impact assessment stage. The alignment is dominated by geological considerations, avoiding unfavourable ground conditions to the greatest possible extent.

  18. Petrography, diagenesis and geotechnical properties of the El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group), El-Kharga Oasis, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashed, M. A.; Sediek, K. N.

    1997-10-01

    The El-Rufuf Formation (Thebes Group) outcrops widely in Egypt. It is quarried as an ornamental building stone and used as slabs in walls and floors. It is also important in foundation construction. The geotechnical behaviour of these rocks is commonly related to stratigraphical position, controlled by their petrography and textural and diagenetic features. The El-Rufuf Formation of Naqb Assiut, El-Kharga Oasis, consists of 63 m of micritic and neomorphosed limestones which are marly at the base. Microfacies analysis of these limestones indicates an inner to middle shelf open marine environment. The most common diagenetic features are neomorphism, silicification, dissolution and stylolites. There are clear relationships between the measured compressive strength of rocks and the facies and diagenetic features. Neomorphic sparry limestone has the lowest compressive strength, while cherty biomicritic limestone shows the highest values. Micritic and biomicritic limestones show intermediate values. Some anisotropism of compressive strength values is recorded in the stylolitic limestones and in the foliated marly part of the formation. The present study reveals that the El-Rufuf limestones, according to Deere's (1968) classification, are low to medium strength rocks with low modulus ratios (DL-CL), while the marly parts of the formation are low strength rocks with low modulus ratios (EL). The rocks of the marly part of the El-Rufuf Formation are unstable with regard to water and therefore have a zero softness coefficient.

  19. Testing the ability of a proposed geotechnical based method to evaluate the liquefaction potential analysis subjected to earthquake vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh Shahri, A.; Behzadafshar, K.; Esfandiyari, B.; Rajablou, R.

    2010-12-01

    During the earthquakes a number of earth dams have had severe damages or suffered major displacements as a result of liquefaction, thus modeling by computer codes can provide a reliable tool to predict the response of the dam foundation against earthquakes. These modeling can be used in the design of new dams or safety assessments of existing ones. In this paper, on base of the field and laboratory tests and by combination of several software packages a seismic geotechnical based analysis procedure is proposed and verified by comparison with computer model tests, field and laboratory experiences. Verification or validation of the analyses relies to ability of the applied computer codes. By use of Silakhor earthquake (2006, Ms 6.1) and in order to check the efficiency of the proposed framework, the procedure is applied to the Korzan earth dam of Iran which is located in Hamedan Province to analyze and estimate the liquefaction and safety factor. Design and development of a computer code by authors which named as “Abbas Converter” with graphical user interface which operates as logic connecter function that can computes and models the soil profiles is the critical point of this study and the results are confirm and proved the ability of the generated computer code on evaluation of soil behavior under the earthquake excitations. Also this code can make and render facilitate this study more than previous have done, and take over the encountered problem.

  20. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data for the Cache River/Heron Pond area in southern Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holmes, Jr., Robert R.

    1996-01-01

    Heron Pond, located in extreme southern Illinois, lies immediately adjacent to the upper Cache River. The upper Cache River is encroaching on Heron Pond, which has raised the issue of the possibility of a failure of the Heron Pond wall, the area between Heron Pond and the upper Cache River. Hydraulic, geotechnical, geomorphic, and biologic data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Water Resources (IDNR/OWR) for use in designing a mitigation plan by the IDNR/OWR to prevent the failure of the Heron Pond wall. The river is sluggish during floods with velocities generally 1-2 feet per second. Biologic activity in the area have increased bank instability, which already is a problem because of saturated soils in the Heron Pond wall. In the area adjacent to the Heron Pond, the right descending bank of the upper Cache River receded 0.5 foot between September 21, 1995 and June 25, 1996. Comparisons between two surveys, 1958 and 1995, indicate that the channel near the discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging station near the Burlington Northern Railroad crossing has widened by more than 10 feet with less than 0.5 foot of incision.

  1. Layered Systems Engineering Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Overman, Marvin J.

    2009-01-01

    A notation is described for depicting the relationships between multiple, contemporaneous systems engineering efforts undertaken within a multi-layer system-of-systems hierarchy. We combined the concepts of remoteness of activity from the end customer, depiction of activity on a timeline, and data flow to create a new kind of diagram which we call a "Layered Vee Diagram." This notation is an advance over previous notations because it is able to be simultaneously precise about activity, level of granularity, product exchanges, and timing; these advances provide systems engineering managers a significantly improved ability to express and understand the relationships between many systems engineering efforts. Using the new notation, we obtain a key insight into the relationship between project duration and the strategy selected for chaining the systems engineering effort between layers, as well as insights into the costs, opportunities, and risks associated with alternate chaining strategies.

  2. Geotechnical aspects of development over reclaimed former alluvial mining land and ponds in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeap, E. B.; Tan, B. K.; Chow, W. S.

    Mining of tin placers in Quaternary alluvium is the main type of mining activity in Peninsular Malaysia over the past hundred years. Worked out mines have left behind a landscape consisting of highly inhomogeneous tailing fill and numerous large and medium size ponds often underlain by thick slurries of fine clay and silt on limestone bedrock. Rapid urbanization around the two main tin mining areas in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Ipoh, has led to the use of this previously mined land for residential, commercial and industrial purposes. Highly irregular karstic limestone bedrock poses major problems for the construction of high-rise buildings requiring piling to bedrock. Soft slime trapped during tailing deposition or during reclamation has caused numerous and often irreparable damage to houses built on former mining land. Characterization studies were undertaken on two ponds for their chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties with the aim of finding a solution to the reclamation of slime filled mine ponds. Environmental considerations favour the slime material to be used as foundation material or as raw material for ceramic or bricks. Increase of the solid content by dewatering constitutes the best option to increase the strength of the slime material so as to make it acceptable as foundation material after further treatment. Studies indicate that a few reagents can be used to successfully dewater the slime. Development of a reclamation technique along this line is being carried out.

  3. A Review of Attitudes towards Sharing Geotechnical Data and the use of Geospatial Data Portals in Hong Kong and the U.K.: Lessons for Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Ashley M.

    2016-04-01

    Reusing existing subsurface data can greatly cut the time and financial costs of site investigations, and reduce uncertainty regarding ground conditions that can result in delays and overspend. In Hong Kong SAR it is common practice for consultancies to deposit records in the form of factual and interpretive reports, borehole logs and laboratory test data with the Geotechnical Engineering Office (GEO) who make this information openly available to access for future investigative works. In addition to these deposits, other datasets available at GEO include, amongst others, landslide records, aerial photographs and as-built records. These archives are the first source of information about development sites in Hong Kong and no investigation takes place without a thorough desk study. Increasingly these data are digital, and can be accessed through a GIS-based online portal. In the U.K. the British Geological Survey (BGS) acts as a custodian for geoscience data deposited by the public and private sectors on a voluntary basis, and encourages organisations to make their data publicly available through the BGS online data portals. The facility to deposit digital data via the BGS website has recently been launched and should increase uptake of data sharing in the U.K. as it becomes easier for users to batch upload records digitally. Issues regarding data ownership and confidentiality are being overcome by the establishment, in some cities, of knowledge exchange networks where members who sign up to view data are expected under the terms of membership to deposit data. This has received backing from local government in some areas. The U.K. may not have the density of existing data that Hong Kong has but as knowledge exchange gathers momentum the BGS datasets are expected to grow rapidly. In Europe there appears to be a reluctance to share data. However, escalating demand for land, greater redevelopment of brownfield sites and an ever-growing need to ensure future construction

  4. Underground facility for geoenvironmental and geotechnical research at the SSC Site in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.F.; Myer, L.R.

    1994-10-31

    The subsurface environment is an important national resource that is utilized for construction, waste disposal and groundwater supply. Conflicting and unwise use has led to problems of groundwater contamination. Cleanup is often difficult and expensive, and perhaps not even possible in many cases. Construction projects often encounter unanticipated difficulties that increase expenses. Many of the difficulties of predicting mechanical behavior and fluid flow and transport behavior stem from problems in characterizing what cannot be seen. An underground research laboratory, such as can be developed in the nearly 14 miles of tunnel at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site, will provide a unique opportunity to advance scientific investigations of fluid flow, chemical transport, and mechanical behavior in situ in weak and fractured, porous rock on a scale relevant to civil and environmental engineering applications involving the subsurface down to a depth of 100 m. The unique element provided by underground studies at the SSC site is three-dimensional access to a range of fracture conditions in two rock types, chalk and shale. Detailed experimentation can be carried out in small sections of the SSC tunnel where different types of fractures and faults occur and where different rock types or contacts are exposed. The entire length of the tunnel can serve as an observatory for large scale mechanical and fluid flow testing. The most exciting opportunity is to mine back a volume of rock to conduct a post-experiment audit following injection of a number of reactive and conservative tracers. Flow paths and tracer distributions can be examined directly. The scientific goal is to test conceptual models and numerical predictions. In addition, mechanical and hydrological data may be of significant value in developing safe and effective methods for closing the tunnel itself.

  5. Geotechnical studies relevant to the containment of underground nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1982-05-01

    The Department of Energy and the Department of Defense are actively pursuing a program of nuclear weapons testing by underground explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Over the past 11 years, scores of tests have been conducted and the safety record is very good. In the short run, emphasis is put on preventing the release of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. In the long run, the subsidence and collapse of the ground above the nuclear cavities also are matters of interest. Currently, estimation of containment is based mostly on empiricism derived from extensive experience and on a combination of physical/mechanical testing and numerical modeling. When measured directly, the mechanical material properties are obtained from short-term laboratory tests on small, conventional samples. This practice does not determine the large effects of scale and time on measured stiffnesses and strengths of geological materials. Because of the limited data base of properties and in situ conditions, the input to otherwise fairly sophisticated computer programs is subject to several simplifying assumptions; some of them can have a nonconservative impact on the calculated results. As for the long-term, subsidence and collapse phenomena simply have not been studied to any significant degree. This report examines the geomechanical aspects of procedures currently used to estimate containment of undergroung explosions at NTS. Based on this examination, it is concluded that state-of-the-art geological engineering practice in the areas of field testing, large scale laboratory measurements, and numerical modeling can be drawn upon to complement the current approach.

  6. Scaling and Predicting the Geotechnical Resistance Provided by Alfalfa in Experimental Studies of Alluvial-Channel Morphology and Planform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankhead, N.; Simon, A.

    2008-12-01

    Several complex interactions occur between riparian vegetation and bank stability processes. Although there are both positive and negative effects of riparian vegetation on streambank stability, a link between increased vegetation density and decreased bank erosion and lateral migration rates of channels has generally been recorded. The ability of vegetation to promote increased bank stability leads to a positive feedback, in which bank stability then allows the growth and establishment of more vegetation. To study interactions between vegetation density and channel planform, past flume studies have used alfalfa sprouts (Medicago sativa), seeded over the entire floodplain in varying densities. Such studies have observed reductions in braiding intensity with increased alfalfa density. It has been assumed in these studies that the alfalfa sprouts increase the resistance of the bank material to lateral erosion. When alfalfa sprouts are scaled up they simulate mature riparian trees well. However, the geotechnical properties of alfalfa roots, and quantification of the increase in resistance provided to the banks under different densities of alfalfa have thus far been ignored. It is therefore unknown if the resistance provided by the alfalfa roots also scales well to real-world root-reinforcement values. To quantify additional bank strength, alfalfa sprouts were grown in sand and the roots tested at regular intervals to measure tensile strength. Results of tensile-strength measurements for alfalfa sprouts displayed the typical non-linear decrease of tensile strength (in MPa) with increasing root diameter. Values for the additional cohesion provided by alfalfa roots were calculated by inputting alfalfa tensile-strength and root density data to the root-reinforcement model, RipRoot, resulting in root-reinforcement values of 0 to 11.8 kPa. These values are similar to those that would be expected under field conditions. The root-cohesion values calculated for alfalfa sprouts

  7. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This document contains the Quarterly Report of a Novel Geotechnical/Geostatistical Approach for Exploration and Production of Natural Gas from Multiple Geologic Strata for October 1 - December 31, 1996. This report is presented to the US DOE, Office of Fossil Energy by the College of West Virginia. A brief summary update of the following ongoing projects is presented: production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata (including coal deposits), dewatering of producing wells, and descriptions of cold weather production problems. A brief update of the project in Poland where brine wastewater is converted into potable water is also mentioned.

  8. Engineering Practice and Engineering Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, William T.; Kline, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Offers ways of applying science and technology studies to the teaching of engineering ethics. Suggests modifications of both detailed case studies on engineering disasters and hypothetical, ethical dilemmas employed in engineering ethics classes. (Author/CCM)

  9. Geotechnical and structural lessons learnt from the aqaba (ml = 6.2) earthquake of Novemeber 22, 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Homoud, A.

    2003-04-01

    This study reflects in some details on the following aspects related to the region: geological and tectonic setting, seismicity, swarms activity data base and seismic hazard assessment. Moreover, it documents the following aspects of the November 22, 1995 earthquake: tectonic, seismological, instrumental seismic data, strong motion recordings and response spectral and local site effect analysis, geotechnical effects and structural observations in the region affected by the earthquake. The study identifies local site effects on structural damages. These observations were analyzed in connection with the observed damages. It is concluded that liquefaction potential, effect of soil column, poor quality of construction, and underestimating the design base shear are the main factors that contributed to the observed damages. Practical recommendations are suggested for the authorities to avoid similar damages in newly constructed buildings and lifelines during future similar earthquakes. On November 22, 1995, the Gulf of Aqaba region was shaken by a strong earthquake that was felt from Sudan to Lebanon. The epicenter was located in the gulf water midway between the Egyptian cities of Dahab and Nuweiba on the Sinai Peninsula. The main shock was followed by thousands of aftershocks, the strongest of which occurred on November 23, 1995 with a local magnitude of 5.4. The main shock triggered strong motion accelerographs belonging to the Jordanian and Israeli networks at Aqaba and Eilat cities, respectively. Structural damages to buildings and lifeline systems were reported in several cities located along the gulf coast including Aqaba in Jordan,Haql in Saudi Arabia, Sharm Al-Sheik, Dahab and Nuweiba in Egypt, and Eilat in Israel. In the city of Nuweiba, located 40 km north of the epicenter, surveyed damage suggests that the horizontal peak ground was in the range of 0.16 g - 0.25 g. Strong motion records indicated that at the port cit of Eilat (a distance of 92.7 km from the

  10. Interaction of Hydraulic and Geotechnical Processes, and Sediment Transport in Controlling Channel Morphology in an Active Meander Bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Kuhnle, R.

    2004-12-01

    Evolution of meanders in incised alluvial channels is controlled by interactions between hydraulic forces acting on the bed and bank toe, and gravitational forces acting on in situ bank material. Vertical and lateral accretion of point bars lead to re-direction of flows in a downvalley direction that impinge on bank-toe surfaces causing undercutting, steepening and ultimate failure of the bank mass by gravity. The processes and forms inherent in incised meanders have been studied at an actively evolving meander bend on Goodwin Creek, Mississippi since 1996. Periodic surveys dating from 1977 to 1996 coupled with the dating of woody vegetation growing on the channel banks and bars were used to determine a migration rate of about 0.5 m/y since the mid-1960s. Up to 28 repetitive surveys were conducted at each of 10 monumented cross sections between 1996 and 2003 over an 82 m-long reach. Over the seven years of monitoring, 894 m3 of bank materials have been eroded from the reach while 436 m3 of sediment have been deposited on the bed and bar. Mean annual sediment concentrations have been essentially stable since the percent of cultivated land in the basin stabilized in the early 1990s. Migration of the outside bend by mass-wasting and toe removal of failed material has been matched by commensurate lateral accretion of point bars. Existing point bars grow vertically at a rate of about 5 cm/yr and now support establishing woody vegetation. Aggradation on the channel bed and lateral channel migration by bar accretion and opposite-bank retreat results in net erosion of all sediment but a net deposition of hydraulically-controlled sands and gravels. The erosion represents series of bank-failure episodes with subsequent removal of failed material by stormflow. A direct correlation between volumes of bar accretion and opposite-side bank erosion was developed, thus establishing a link between hydraulic and geotechnical processes. Peak-flow water-surface slopes increase with

  11. New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    reveal the natural and resonance characteristics of the ground by capturing persistent natural vibrations. These microtremors are the result of the interaction of surface waves arriving from distant sources and the stiffness structure of the site under investigation. As such, these resonance effects are effective in constraining the layer thicknesses of the SASW shear wave velocity structure and aid in determining the depth of the deepest layer. Together, the hybridized SASW and H/V procedure provides a complete data set for modeling the geotechnical aspects of ground amplification of earthquake motions. Data from these investigations are available at http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/geotech.

  12. Assessment of the Efficiency of Consolidation Treatment through Injections of Expanding Resins by Geotechnical Tests and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography.

    PubMed

    Apuani, T; Giani, G P; d'Attoli, M; Fischanger, F; Morelli, G; Ranieri, G; Santarato, G

    2015-01-01

    The design and execution of consolidation treatment of settled foundations by means of injection of polyurethane expanding resins require a proper investigation of the state of the foundation soil, in order to better identify anomalies responsible for the instability. To monitor the injection process, a procedure has been developed, which involves, in combination with traditional geotechnical tests, the application of a noninvasive, geophysical technique based on the electrical resistivity, which is strongly sensitive to presence of water or voids. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool to produce effective 3D images of the foundation soils before, during, and after the injections. The achieved information allows designing the consolidation scheme and monitoring its effects on the treated volumes in real time. To better understand the complex processes induced by the treatment and to learn how variations of resistivity accompany increase of stiffness, an experiment was carried out in a full-scale test site. Injections of polyurethane expanding resin were performed as in real worksite conditions. Results confirm that the experimented approach by means of 3D resistivity imaging allows a reliable procedure of consolidation, and geotechnical tests demonstrate the increase of mechanical stiffness.

  13. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  14. Assessment of the Efficiency of Consolidation Treatment through Injections of Expanding Resins by Geotechnical Tests and 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Apuani, T.; Giani, G. P.; d'Attoli, M.; Fischanger, F.; Morelli, G.; Ranieri, G.; Santarato, G.

    2015-01-01

    The design and execution of consolidation treatment of settled foundations by means of injection of polyurethane expanding resins require a proper investigation of the state of the foundation soil, in order to better identify anomalies responsible for the instability. To monitor the injection process, a procedure has been developed, which involves, in combination with traditional geotechnical tests, the application of a noninvasive, geophysical technique based on the electrical resistivity, which is strongly sensitive to presence of water or voids. Three-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography is a useful tool to produce effective 3D images of the foundation soils before, during, and after the injections. The achieved information allows designing the consolidation scheme and monitoring its effects on the treated volumes in real time. To better understand the complex processes induced by the treatment and to learn how variations of resistivity accompany increase of stiffness, an experiment was carried out in a full-scale test site. Injections of polyurethane expanding resin were performed as in real worksite conditions. Results confirm that the experimented approach by means of 3D resistivity imaging allows a reliable procedure of consolidation, and geotechnical tests demonstrate the increase of mechanical stiffness. PMID:26167521

  15. Physical and geotechnical properties and assessment of sediment stability on the continental slope and basin of the Bransfield Basin (Antarctica Peninsula)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casas, D.; Ercilla, G.; Estrada, F.; Alonso, B.; Baraza, J.; Lee, H.; Kayen, R.; Chiocci, F.

    2004-01-01

    Our investigation is centred on the continental slope of the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent basin. Type of sediments, sedimentary stratigraphy, and physical and geotechnical characterization of the sediments have been integrated. Four different types of sediments have been defined: diamictons, silty and muddy turbidites, muddy, silty and muddy matrix embedded clast contourites. There is a close correspondence between the physical properties (density, magnetic susceptibility and p-wave velocity) and the texture and/or fabric as laminations and stratification. From a quantitative point of view, only a few statistical correlations between textural and physical properties have been found. Within the geotechnical properties, only water content is most influenced by texture. This slope, with a maximum gradient observed (20??), is stable, according to the stability under gravitational loading concepts, and the maximum stable slope that would range from 22?? to 29??. Nevertheless, different instability features have been observed. Volcanic activity, bottom currents, glacial loading-unloading or earthquakes can be considered as potential mechanisms to induce instability in this area. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  16. Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Reader, G.T.; Hooper

    1983-01-01

    The Stirling engine was invented by a Scottish clergyman in 1816, but fell into disuse with the coming of the diesel engine. Advances in materials science and the energy crisis have made a hot air engine economically attractive. Explanations are full and understandable. Includes coverage of the underlying thermodynamics and an interesting historical section. Topics include: Introduction to Stirling engine technology, Theoretical concepts--practical realities, Analysis, simulation and design, Practical aspects, Some alternative energy sources, Present research and development, Stirling engine literature.

  17. Neural Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Bin

    About the Series: Bioelectric Engineering presents state-of-the-art discussions on modern biomedical engineering with respect to applications of electrical engineering and information technology in biomedicine. This focus affirms Springer's commitment to publishing important reviews of the broadest interest to biomedical engineers, bioengineers, and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines. Recent volumes have covered modeling and imaging of bioelectric activity, neural engineering, biosignal processing, bionanotechnology, among other topics.

  18. Engineering technologies for lunar-based astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, John P.; Johnson, Stewart W.

    1994-06-01

    Planning is underway to return to the Moon and explore Mars. Scientific outposts on the Moon will conduct a variety of exploration and experimentation, including astronomical observations. For lunar-based astronomy, we propose a progression in capability over time from small automated telescopes to a 16-meter reflector. Initial autonomous telescopes could be emplaced prior to permanent human outposts. Each telescope established on the Moon would be a working instrument performing exciting science as well as a science and engineering test bed for the next step-up in capabilities. Robotic telescopes on Earth, such as those at Mount Hopkins in Arizona, USA, continue to demonstrate the technology to operate small lunar telescopes which could be placed on the lunar surface as part of the Artemis initiative. Future transportation systems will allow emplacement of progressively larger and more complex lunar telescopes. Lunar observatories call for imaginative solutions to diverse problems in optics, controls, materials, structures, construction, energy management, and geotechnical and environmental engineering.

  19. Optical engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T T

    1998-01-01

    The Optical Engineering thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was created in the summer of 1996 with the following main objectives: (1) to foster and stimulate leading edge optical engineering research and efforts key to carrying out LLNL's mission and enabling major new programs; (2) to bring together LLNL's broad spectrum of high level optical engineering expertise to support its programs. Optical engineering has become a pervasive and key discipline, with applications across an extremely wide range of technologies, spanning the initial conception through the engineering refinements to enhance revolutionary application. It overlaps other technologies and LLNL engineering thrust areas.

  20. National geotechnical centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallam, J. A.; Kunz, N.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    A high G-ton centrifuge, able to take a 2700 kg (6000 lb) payload up to 300 G, is described. The stability of dams and embankments, the bearing capacity of soil foundations, and the dynamic behavior of foundations due to vibration of machinery are examples of applications. A power rating of 6,000 kW (9,000 hp) was established for the motor. An acceptable maximum speed of 70 rpm was determined. A speed increase with a ratio of 1:3 is discussed. The isolated tension straps, the anti-spreader bar and the flexwall bucket, and safety precautions are also discussed.

  1. Geotechnical reconnaissance of the Mississippi River Delta flood-protection system after Hurricane Katrina: Chapter 3C in Science and the storms-the USGS response to the hurricanes of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luna, Ronaldo; Summers, David; Hoffman, David; Rogers, J. David; Sevi, Adam; Witt, Emitt C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the post-Hurricane Katrina conditions of the flood-protection system of levees and floodwalls that failed in the environs of the Mississippi River Delta and New Orleans, La. Damage conditions and suggested mechanisms of failure are presented from the geotechnical point of view.

  2. International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering (2nd) Held in Rolla, Missouri on 1-5 June 1988. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    Rapids flow The Vantage Member of the Ellensburg Formation and the Priest Rapids interbed are exposed in is an arkosic sandstone deposited by the ances...identify soils which may be susceptable to soils used for construction, compromises dispersion unambiguously. mustones and arkosic sandstones of the

  3. International Conference on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering (2nd) Held in Rolla, Missouri on 1-5 June 1988. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-30

    with encountered and their solutions, could prove valuable to the core ( Ehler , 1983). Soletanche is currently the drilling subcontractor... Ehler , 1983). ’-"-- :. -’ ,,, - Fig. 4 Map View of Planned Demonstration Borehole Fig. 3 Vertical Cross Section of Planned Demonstration Borehole Rock...collar-to-punchout trajectory, Bull. 020. Figure 10. Ehler , W.C. (1983), "Final Report on Investigations for Seepage Control Navajo Dam", BuReclamation

  4. Engineering Geological Model of the Contact between Two Petrographic and Stratigraphic Units along the Zagreb-Split Highway, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosel, Tomislav; Mlinar, Željko; Grgec, Damir

    The highway route Zagreb-Split, section through Lika region, was designed along the valley of the River Gacka. In this section the highway level line often crosses or goes along the contact zone between two lithological types. The significant differences of rock mass properties of two types would represent the geotechnical problem. The type of contact was also not known as well as the possible weathering degree. Investigation results showed no significant difference in characteristics between Cretaceous limestones and Eocene- Oligocene breccias. Using the results of comprehensive investigations engineering geologi- cal model was made.

  5. Geotechnical In-Situ Technology (GIST) Network Development of real-time GIS tools for interpreting slope instability from geo-databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, D. J.; Harrap, R.; Diederichs, M. S.; Ball, D.

    2003-04-01

    Slope stability hazard assessment is generally based on an understanding of the expected slope failure mechanism, and the strength of the soil and rock materials under different moisture conditions. Slope stability may be reduced by factors external to the slope, including earthquake loading and modifications to the slope geometry, either by human activities or natural erosion processes. Stability analysis may be based on regional or more localized approaches, both of which may be based in development and analysis of a geo-database. On a regional scale, assessment is based on analysis of surface data, including geomorphological evidence of pre-existing or ongoing slope failures, slope angle, distribution of surficial geology, vegetative cover and precipitation. Assessment of the relative importance of these factors is based on understanding the slope failure mechanisms. Geospatial analysis tools have been implemented in GIS programs to assess the relative likelihood of slope instability and to create slope hazard maps. On a local scale, assessment of slope instability may be based on the results of geotechnical instrumentation of the surface and sub-surface materials. For complex, heavily instrumented slopes, compilation of the relevant information, including slope movement, piezometric pressure, precipitation and temperature, into a geo-database is required. Analysis of the information collected, coupled with parametric analyses of slope instability using numerical simulation tools, is required to assess the potential for slope instability. These analyses generally result in a quantitative assessment of instability in the form of factor of safety or probability of failure. Case history examples of the application of GIS tools written for analysis of slope instability at both the regional and local scale will be provided in this paper. At the regional scale, analysis of the potential for instability of sensitive clay slopes along river valleys resulting in slope

  6. Geological and geotechnical characterization of the debris avalanche and pyroclastic deposits of Cotopaxi Volcano (Ecuador). A contribute to instability-related hazard studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, L.; Apuani, T.; Corazzato, C.; Uttini, A.

    2017-02-01

    The huge volcanic debris avalanche occurred at 4.5 ka is a major event in the evolution of the Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador. The present volcanic hazard in the Cotopaxi region is related to lahars generated by volcanic eruptions and concurrent ice melting. This paper presents the geological and geotechnical field and laboratory characterization of the 4.5 ka Cotopaxi debris avalanche deposit and of the younger unconsolidated pyroclastic deposits, representing the probable source of future shallow landslides. The debris avalanche formed a deposit with a well-developed hummocky topography, and climbed a difference in height of about 260 m along the slopes of the adjacent Sincholagua volcano. The debris avalanche deposit includes four lithofacies (megablock, block, mixed, and sheared facies) that represent different flow regimes and degrees of substratum involvement. The facies distribution suggests that, in the proximal area, the debris avalanche slid predominantly confined to the valleys along the N and NE flank of the volcanic cone, emplacing a stack of megablocks. When the flow reached the break in slope at the base of the edifice, it became unconfined and spread laterally over most of the area of the Rio Pita valley. A dynamic block fragmentation and dilation occurred during the debris avalanche transport, emplacing the block facies. The incorporation of the older Chalupas Ignimbrite is responsible for the mixed facies and the sheared facies. Geotechnical results include a full-range grain size characterization, which enabled to make broader considerations on possible variability among the sampled facies. Consolidated drained triaxial compression tests, carried out on the fine fraction < 4.76 mm, point out that shear strength for cohesionless sandy materials is only due to effective friction angle, and show a quite homogeneous behaviour over the set of tested samples. The investigated post-4.5 pyroclastic deposits constitute a 5-12 m thick sequence of poorly

  7. Engineering Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Nicole; Stanley, Wendy; Bieniek, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    For many teachers, engineering can be intimidating; teachers receive little training in engineering, particularly those teaching early elementary students. In addition, the necessity of differentiating for students with special needs can make engineering more challenging to teach. This article describes a professional development program…

  8. Engine Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    PS 212, a plasma-sprayed coating developed by NASA, is used to coat valves in a new rotorcam engine. The coating eliminates the need for a liquid lubricant in the rotorcam, which has no crankshaft, flywheel, distributor or water pump. Developed by Murray United Development Corporation, it is a rotary engine only 10 inches long with four cylinders radiating outward from a central axle. Company officials say the engine will be lighter, more compact and cheaper to manufacture than current engines and will feature cleaner exhaust emissions. A licensing arrangement with a manufacturer is under negotiation. Primary applications are for automobiles, but the engine may also be used in light aircraft.

  9. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  10. In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) geotechnical report, WSRC-TR-95-0057, Revision 0, Volume 6

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The SRS/ITP Soil Evaluation Testing Program was developed and performed to investigate the behavior of the soil deposits at the Savannah River Site`s In-Tank Precipitation facility under dynamic loading. There were two distinct soil deposits involved in the current testing program: the Tobacco Road formation (sampled at depths between 28 and 100 feet at the site) and the Santee formation (sampled from depths between 170 and 180 feet). The Tobacco Road samples consisted of clayey sands (typically {open_quotes}SC{close_quotes} by the Unified Soil Classification System), yellow to reddish-brown in color with fine to medium sized sand particles. The Santee samples were also clayey sands, but nearly white in color. The two types of cyclic triaxial tests performed at the U.C. Berkeley Geotechnical Laboratories as part of this testing program were (a) traditional liquefaction tests and (b) low-amplitude cyclic tests designed to provide information on threshold strains for these specimens. This report describes the results of both the liquefaction testing component of the study, which was limited to the soils from the Tobacco Road formation, and the low-amplitude testing of both Tobacco Road and Santee specimens. Additional information was obtained from some of the specimens by (a) measuring the volumetric strains of many of the specimens when drainage (and reconsolidation) was permitted following liquefaction, or (b) determining the residual stress-strain behavior of other specimens subjected to monotonic loading immediately following liquefaction. This document is Volume 6 of the In-Tank Precipitation Facility (ITP) and H-Tank Farm (HTF) Geotechnical Report, and contains laboratory test results.

  11. Estimating the geotechnical Parameters from CSEM monitoring Data for the Buildings and the Environment at the City of 15th May, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Atya, Magdy; Khachay, Oleg

    2015-04-01

    The site of investigation, 15th May city, is a new suburb of Helwan, at about 35 km south of Cairo, Egypt. The work is aimed to investigate the rock mass stability at "Quarter 27" in 15th May City, which is linked with cracks formation into the buildings. A controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) approach developed earlier by IGF UB RAS (Geophysical Federal Institute, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Science) is applied to image the ranked deformation levels in the massive structure. The wide profile system of observation has been used to monitor the three components of the alternating magnetic field along predefined measuring lines in the study area. Four cycles of observation have been carried out in 2008, 2010, 2011, and 2012. The acquired data sets have been subjected to analytical processing procedure to estimate the changes in the geotechnical parameters during the time of these four cycles of observation. The analytical treatments provided good information about the structure of the rock massive and its rank of degradation, the lateral distribution of the geotechnical heterogeneity, and finally a conclusive outcome about foundation stability. We conclude that the general dynamic state close to the destruction level within the investigation area is getting worse over the time; this is reflected in the crack's densities and positions, also on the changes in the lateral distribution of geoelectric heterogeneity as an indicator of the saturation of the surface rock in the study area with water [1]. Reference 1. Magdy A. Atya, Olga A. Hachay, Mamdouh M. Soliman, Oleg Y. Khachay, Ahmed B. Khalill, Mahmoud Gaballah, Fathy F.Shaaban and Ibrahim A.El. Hemali. CSEM imaging of the near surface dynamics and its impact for foundation stability at quarter 27,15-th of May City, Helwan, Egypt. // Earth sciences research journal, 2010,Vol.14, N1, p.76-87.

  12. Sea floor engineering geomorphology: recent achievements and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, David B.; Hooper, James R.

    1999-12-01

    New mapping technology is providing perspectives of the sea floor "as if there were no ocean", revealing that ocean floors exhibit a wide variety of relief, sediment properties, and active geologic processes such as erosion, faulting, fluid expulsion, and landslides. The development of coastal and offshore resources, such as oil and gas and minerals, involves sea floor engineering in remote, complex, and sometimes hazardous environments. Optimum engineering design and construction practice require detailed surveys of sea floor geomorphology, geologic conditions on the sea bed and to various depths beneath it, combined with geotechnical properties of the sediments and oceanographic information. Integrated site survey models attempt to predict conditions and process frequencies and magnitudes relevant to the engineering design lifetimes of sea floor installations, such as cables, pipelines, production platforms, as well as supporting coastal infrastructure such as jetties, wharves, bridges and harbors. Recent use of deep water areas for oil and gas production, pipelines, and cable routes are also showing that the "world's greatest slopes", beyond the continental shelves contain exciting, exotic, and enigmatic geomorphological features and processes. Safe and cost-effective engineering use of these regions depends upon exciting new technical and conceptual advances for understanding sea floor geomorphology — a task which has barely begun.

  13. Shockwave Engine: Wave Disk Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-14

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: MSU is developing a new engine for use in hybrid automobiles that could significantly reduce fuel waste and improve engine efficiency. In a traditional internal combustion engine, air and fuel are ignited, creating high-temperature and high-pressure gases which expand rapidly. This expansion of gases forces the engine’s pistons to pump and powers the car. MSU’s engine has no pistons. It uses the combustion of air and fuel to build up pressure within the engine, generating a shockwave that blasts hot gas exhaust into the blades of the engine’s rotors causing them to turn, which generates electricity. MSU’s redesigned engine would be the size of a cooking pot and contain fewer moving parts—reducing the weight of the engine by 30%. It would also enable a vehicle that could use 60% of its fuel for propulsion.

  14. Invisible Engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  15. Aerojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA is developing technology for air-breathing rocket engines that could help make space transportation safe, reliable and affordable for ordinary people. Powered by engines that breathe oxygen from the air, the spacecraft would be completely reusable, take off and land at airport runways, and be ready to fly again within days. The engines would get their initial take-off power from specially designed rockets, called air-augmented rockets, that boost performance about 15 percent over conventional rockets. When the vehicle's velocity reaches twice the speed of sound, the rockets are turned off and the engines rely totally on oxygen in the atmosphere to burn the hydrogen fuel. Once the vehicle's speed increases to about 10 times the speed of sound, the engine converts to a conventional rocket-power mode to propel the vehicle into orbit. This Quick Time movie features an aerojet engine which is the main propulsion system of the X-series future launch vehicles.

  16. Information engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  17. Engineering ethics beyond engineers' ethics.

    PubMed

    Basart, Josep M; Serra, Montse

    2013-03-01

    Engineering ethics is usually focused on engineers' ethics, engineers acting as individuals. Certainly, these professionals play a central role in the matter, but engineers are not a singularity inside engineering; they exist and operate as a part of a complex network of mutual relationships between many other people, organizations and groups. When engineering ethics and engineers' ethics are taken as one and the same thing the paradigm of the ethical engineer which prevails is that of the heroic engineer, a certain model of the ideal engineer: someone both quite individualistic and strong enough to deal with all the moral challenges that could arise. We argue that this is not the best approach, at least today in our interrelated world. We have achieved a high degree of independence from nature by means of technology. In exchange for this autonomy we have become increasingly tied up with very complex systems to which we constantly delegate new tasks and powers. Concerns about safety keep growing everywhere due to the fact that now we have a sensitive awareness of the huge amount of power we are both consuming and deploying, thus, new forms of dialogue and consensus have to be incorporated at different levels, in different forums and at different times. Within these democratic channels of participation not just the needs and interests, but also the responsibilities and mutual commitments of all parties should be taken into account.

  18. Engineering solutions to the long-term stabilization and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, D.R.; Lommler, J.C.

    1995-03-01

    Engineering solutions to the safe and environmentally protective disposal and isolation of uranium mill tailings in the US include many factors. Cover design, materials selection, civil engineering, erosive forces, and cost effectiveness are only a few of those factors described in this paper. The systems approach to the engineering solutions employed in the US is described, with emphasis on the standards prescribed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. Stabilization and isolation of the tailings from humans and the environment are the primary goals of the US uranium mill tailings control standards. The performance of cover designs with respect to water infiltration, radon exhalation, geotechnical stability, erosion protection, human and animal intrusion prevention, and longevity are addressed. The need for and frequency of surveillance efforts to ensure continued disposal system performance are also assessed.

  19. Holistic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Domenico; Martinelli, David

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how to prepare high-quality engineers who are better equipped to serve in the changing global marketplace, and suggest educators in pursuing the holistic concept of the "unity of knowledge" that will yield a definition of engineering more fitting for the times ahead. The unity of knowledge is fundamentally…

  20. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  1. Corrosion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  2. Electrochemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses engineering ramifications of electrochemistry, focusing on current/potential distribution, evaluation of trade-offs between influences of different phenomena, use of dimensionless numbers to assist in scale-over to new operating conditions, and economics. Also provides examples of electrochemical engineering education content related to…

  3. Systems Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerano, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This short course provides information on what systems engineering is and how the systems engineer guides requirements, interfaces with the discipline leads, and resolves technical issues. There are many system-wide issues that either impact or are impacted by the thermal subsystem. This course will introduce these issues and illustrate them with real life examples.

  4. Genetic Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  5. Engineering Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Under Goddard Space Flight Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory SBIR (Small Business Innovative Research) contracts, AST Engineering Services, Inc. developed a system engineering computer software tool to model how certain applications will affect a proposed system's performance. Quantitative System Engineering (QASE) evaluates system timing, capacity and availability. The system is used to predict performance of proposed real-time, aerospace systems, embedded systems, and/or scientific systems, as well as in support of NASA's EDOS (Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Operations System) initiative.

  6. Green Engineering

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  7. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  8. Electrochemical Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkire, Richard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses an electrochemical engineering course that combines transport phenomena and basic physical chemistry. Lecture notes and homework problems are used instead of a textbook; an outline of lecture topics is presented. (MLH)

  9. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Fitzhugh T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly reviews the increasing application of geologic principles, techniques and data to engineering practices in the areas of land use and zoning controls, resource management energy programs and other fields. (BR)

  10. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The project has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc., and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). This section, Volume II, contains a detailed discussion of the methodology used and the geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study. A companion document, Volume 1, provides an overview of the program, technique and results of the study. In combination, Volumes I and II cover the completion of the research undertaken under Phase I of this DOE project, which included the identification of five high-potential sites for natural gas production on the Eccles Quadrangle, Raleigh County, West Virginia. Each of these sites was selected for its excellent potential for gas production from both relatively shallow coalbeds and the deeper, conventional reservoir formations.

  11. Development of a surface-wave imaging system for geotechnical applications based on distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) and ambient noise interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Daley, T. M.; Freifeld, B. M.; Tang, D. G.; Zhang, R.; Wagner, A. M.; Dou, S.; Lindsey, N.; Bjella, K.; Pevzner, R.

    2014-12-01

    Distributed fiber-optic sensing methods have been used since the 1980's for continuous monitoring of near-surface soil properties, typically exploiting Raman scattering to measure temperature (DTS) or stimulated Brillouin scattering to measure strain (DSS). Recent advances in high speed measurement of Rayleigh scattering has enabled distributed recording of seismic waves over long sections of fiber; this approach, referred to as distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) has the potential to allow nearly continuous monitoring of near-surface mechanical properties, a crucial target for geotechnical management of infrastructure dependent on soil strength. We present initial results from our effort to build a real-time soil property monitoring system based on DAS; our approach employs seismic interferometry and dispersion analysis of ambient noise generated by infrastructure to provide a continuously updated model of shear modulus. Our preliminary results include an in-depth investigation of DAS fiber response in the context of active sources; this component of our study verifies classical models for the azimuthal response of straight fibers to propagating surface waves. We also explore the "noisescape" of linear infrastructure and show a usable seismic signal band of 8-40 hz at a series of sites, primarily consisting of Rayleigh waves. Finally, we present preliminary results from a DAS monitoring array installed at the Richmond Field Station near a heavily used road and compare interferometric processing of the acquired data to that generated by surface deployment of geophones.

  12. GIS modelling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran city using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.

    2014-09-01

    The main issue in determining the seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view to all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking factors such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education, the physical distance to a hospitals (or medical care centers), etc. into account and categorized under four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and distance from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end in this paper using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the amount of importance of criteria or alternatives are determined and using geographical information system (GIS), the vulnerability of Tehran metropolitan as a result of an earthquake, is studied. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults of the Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran city is analysed and classified into four levels including high, medium, low and safe. The results show that regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey respectively make 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran area highly vulnerable and also 34, 14 and 27% are safe.

  13. GIS modeling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran using multi-criteria decision-making techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.

    2015-03-01

    The main issue in determining seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view of all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking into account factors such as peak ground acceleration at the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education and the physical distance to hospitals (or medical care centers) and categorizing them into four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end, this paper uses the analytic hierarchy process to study the importance of criteria or alternatives and uses the geographical information system to study the vulnerability of Tehran to an earthquake. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults: Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran is analyzed and classified into four levels: high, medium, low and safe. The results show that, regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey make, respectively, 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran highly vulnerable, while 34, 14 and 27% is safe.

  14. Software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridge, Ernest M., III; Hiott, Jim; Golej, Jim; Plumb, Allan

    1993-01-01

    Today's software systems generally use obsolete technology, are not integrated properly with other software systems, and are difficult and costly to maintain. The discipline of reverse engineering is becoming prominent as organizations try to move their systems up to more modern and maintainable technology in a cost effective manner. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) created a significant set of tools to develop and maintain FORTRAN and C code during development of the space shuttle. This tool set forms the basis for an integrated environment to reengineer existing code into modern software engineering structures which are then easier and less costly to maintain and which allow a fairly straightforward translation into other target languages. The environment will support these structures and practices even in areas where the language definition and compilers do not enforce good software engineering. The knowledge and data captured using the reverse engineering tools is passed to standard forward engineering tools to redesign or perform major upgrades to software systems in a much more cost effective manner than using older technologies. The latest release of the environment was in Feb. 1992.

  15. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meyman, U.

    1987-02-03

    A rotary engine is described comprising: two covers spaced from one another; rotors located between the covers and rotating and planetating in different phases; the rotors interengaging to form working chambers therebetween; means to supply fluid to the working chambers and means to exhaust fluid from the working chambers during the operating cycle of the engine; gearing for synchronizing rotation and planetation of the rotors and each including first and second gears arranged so that one of the gears is connected with the rotors while the other of the gears is connected with an immovable part of the engine and the gears engage with one another; carriers interconnecting the rotors and planetating in the same phase with the planetation of the rotors for synchronizing the rotation and planetation of the rotors; shafts arranged to support the carriers during their planetations; and elements for connecting the covers with one another.

  16. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L. )

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  17. Photoreceptor engineering

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Thea; Möglich, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Sensory photoreceptors not only control diverse adaptive responses in Nature, but as light-regulated actuators they also provide the foundation for optogenetics, the non-invasive and spatiotemporally precise manipulation of cellular events by light. Novel photoreceptors have been engineered that establish control by light over manifold biological processes previously inaccessible to optogenetic intervention. Recently, photoreceptor engineering has witnessed a rapid development, and light-regulated actuators for the perturbation of a plethora of cellular events are now available. Here, we review fundamental principles of photoreceptors and light-regulated allostery. Photoreceptors dichotomize into associating receptors that alter their oligomeric state as part of light-regulated allostery and non-associating receptors that do not. A survey of engineered photoreceptors pinpoints light-regulated association reactions and order-disorder transitions as particularly powerful and versatile design principles. Photochromic photoreceptors that are bidirectionally toggled by two light colors augur enhanced spatiotemporal resolution and use as photoactivatable fluorophores. By identifying desirable traits in engineered photoreceptors, we provide pointers for the design of future, light-regulated actuators. PMID:26137467

  18. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  19. Engineering Geology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatheway, Allen W.

    1978-01-01

    Engineering geology remains a potpourri of applied classical geology, and 1977 witnessed an upswing in demand for these services. Traditional foundation-related work was slight, but construction related to national needs increased briskly. Major cities turned to concerns of transit waste-water treatment and solid-waste disposal. (Author/MA)

  20. Adaptive Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderSteen, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Engineers today cannot meet their professional obligation to the welfare of society if they do not have a broad, multidisciplinary vision, and yet a multidisciplinary vision is becoming enormously difficult to obtain. A new curriculum must emerge that can integrate a focused, discipline-based scientific approach with an integrated approach. To do…

  1. Engineering seismology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    N.N, Ambraseys

    1991-01-01

    Twenty years have elasped since the first issue of Earthquakes & Volcanoes. Apart from the remarkable increases in the number of scientists actively enagaged in earth sciences, what are the outstanding achievements during the past 20 years in the field of engineering seismology, which is my own speciality?

  2. Concurrent engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Leger, L.; Hunter, D.; Jones, C.; Sprague, R.; Berke, L.; Newell, J.; Singhal, S.

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: issues (liquid rocket propulsion - current development approach, current certification process, and costs of engineering changes); state of the art (DICE information management system, key government participants, project development strategy, quality management, and numerical propulsion system simulation); needs identified; and proposed program.

  3. Geoscience techniques for engineering assessment of Oman to India pipeline route

    SciTech Connect

    Baerenwald, P.D.; Mullee, J.E.; Campbell, K.J.

    1996-12-31

    A variety of geoscience techniques were used to define soil conditions and evaluate geologic processes in order to develop design criteria for complex segments of the proposed Oman to Indian pipeline route. Geophysical survey data, seafloor cores, ROV observation of the seafloor, and oceanographic measurements were the principal field data collected. Geotechnical soil testing, and X-ray radiography, detailed geologic logging, and C-14 age dating of cores were carried out. The diverse sets of field data and lab test results were integrated by a multi-disciplined team of geoscientists and engineers to develop geologic and soil models, soil design criteria, a turbid flow model, and seafloor stability models. The integrated approach used here is applicable to other complex areas where seafloor stability needs to be assessed or design criteria need to be developed for active geologic processes.

  4. Engineering Students' Perceptions of Engineering Specialties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shivy, V.A.; Sullivan, T.N.

    2005-01-01

    The field of engineering is defined by a number of specialty areas, thus most engineering students must decide upon an educational specialty track within the engineering major. Data on familiarity with, and perceptions of similarity among 11 engineering specialties were collected from 129 undergraduate engineering students from a public urban…

  5. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, Edward V.

    1988-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in the context of software engineering: early use of the term; the 1968 NATO conference; Barry Boehm's definition; four requirements fo software engineering; and additional criteria for software engineering. Additionally, the four major requirements for software engineering--computer science, mathematics, engineering disciplines, and excellent communication skills--are discussed. The presentation is given in vugraph form.

  6. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  7. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  8. Engineering Review Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  9. Geotechnical and Surface Wave Investigation of Liquefaction and Strong Motion Instrumentation sites of the Denali Fault, Mw 7.9, Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Thompson, E.; Minasian, D.; Collins, B.; Moss, R.; Sitar, N.; Carver, G.

    2003-12-01

    Following the Mw 7.9 earthquake on the Denali and Totschunda faults on 3 November 2002, we conducted two investigations to map the regional extent and severity of liquefaction ground failures and assess the geotechnical properties of these sites, as well as profile the soil properties beneath three seismometers located at Alyeska Pump Stations 9, 10, and 11. The most noteworthy observations are that liquefaction damage was focused towards the eastern end of the rupture area. For example, liquefaction features in the river bars of the Tanana River, north of the fault-break, are sparsely located from Fairbanks to Delta, but are pervasive throughout the eastern area of the break to Northway Junction, the eastern limit of our survey. Likewise, for the four glacier-proximal rivers draining toward the north, little or no liquefaction was observed on the western Delta and Johnson Rivers, whereas the eastern Robertson River and non-glacial Tok River, and especially the Nabesna River, had observable-to-abundant fissures and sand vents. Several rivers systems were studied in detail. The Nabesna River emerges from its glacier, and drains and fines northward as it crosses the fault zone resulting in an asymmetrical liquefaction pattern. South of the fault, falling liquefaction resistance of soil (fining from sandy gravel to gravely sand) and rising loads from ground motions (approaching the fault) abruptly intersect such that there is a well defined, narrow, soil transition from undisturbed-to-fully liquefied approximately 5 kilometers from the fault. North of the fault, both liquefaction resistance (continued fining) and ground motions fall in tandem, leaving a much broader zone of liquefaction. The Delta River liquefaction occurrence is more complex, where side-entering glacial rivers form non-liquefiable gravel fans and alter the composition and compactness of the main-stem deposits. Immediately upstream of the gravelly Canwell glacier tributary, and immediately at the

  10. Application of Ambient Noise Array Tomography on Geotechnical Scales and Comparison with Independent Geophysical Information: A Test for the Thessaloniki Area (Northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthymidis, Marios; Papazachos, Costas; Savvaidis, Alexandros; Theodoulidis, Nikos; Fikos, Ilias

    2015-04-01

    Ambient noise array tomography has been recently recognized as a promising tool for the study of the shallow 2D/3D geophysical structure. The method basis relies on the implementation of cross-correlation analysis on ambient noise data, which is able to provide the Green's Function of the medium between two spatially separated recording stations (Gouedard et al. 2008). The obtained cross-correlation trace contains information about the group and phase velocity of the surface waves that are dominant in the ambient noise wavefield. A typical application, similar to larger-scale studies, employs appropriate narrow-band Gaussian filters on the cross-correlation trace (Multiple Filter Analysis), allowing the construction of the group velocity dispersion curves for selected paths within the study area. An inversion procedure leads to tomographic images (group velocity maps for specific frequencies), which can be locally inverted to derive 1D shear wave (S-Wave) velocity profiles. The superposition of all the local 1D S-Wave velocity profiles can potentially lead to a pseudo-3D (or pseudo-2D) velocity model for the subsurface structure. In order to study the capability of the ambient noise array tomography method to provide reliable geophysical ground models on geotechnical scales in urban environments, a relative small circular array (radius of 500m approximately) incorporating 34 recording stations was installed inside the city of Thessaloniki (Northern Greece). The study area corresponds to the boundary between the geological bedrock and Quaternary/Neogene sediments, with the gneiss bedrock showing a gradual thickness increase from its NE outcrop towards the SW, to the coastline of the city. Large-scale studies in the broader Thessaloniki area (e.g. Anastasiadis et al. 2001, Panou et al. 2005) have showed that the bedrock exhibits a more or less 2D structure in the study area, gradually dipping towards the coastline realizing depths possibly exceeding 200m. Furthermore

  11. The Reloca Slide offshore Central Chile (35.5°S) - a Revision Based on Geotechnical Sliding Plane Characterization and Tsunami Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, D.; Kopf, A.; Ikari, M.; Trütner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Reloca Slide is a submarine failure of ~ 24 km3 volume at the lower slope of the continental margin of Central Chile. The sliding event appears to be of post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) age. The evacuation site exhibits a 30° steep and 2000 m high failure plane, the slide deposits in the Chile Trench are preserved as scattered 10-600 m high angular blocks incorporated in a ~60 m high debris fan. The combination of a steep and high failure surface (high velocity) and the apparent cohesiveness of the displaced material (little disintegration) makes Reloca Slide a likely source for a local tsunami. Our numerical simulations show that a comparable event at the lower slope would generate waves of > 8 m offshore amplitude that would impact the Chilean coast within ~25 minutes. Reloca Slide is unique along the Central Chilean margin by its size and particular morphology. Yet, much of the unfailed lower slope along a ~1500 km long stretch shares general morphology, tectonic situation and sedimentary properties with the Reloca Slide source region. It is therefore of high relevance for risk mitigation to understand preconditioning factors and triggering mechanisms of as critical boundary conditions for similar potential future events. Core samples were taken directly from the failure plane, oedometer tests indicate a former burial depth of ~ 500 m. Samples are used to run geotechnical experiments for an improved understanding of the mechanics of the failure process. We are particularly interested in the question of whether the failure of the lowermost slope is a continuing process linked to the subduction of the Nazca Plate (e.g. a process needed to re-establish a critically tapered accretionary wedge), or, alternatively, if it is related to particular local conditions or an exceptional triggering event. We report on results from direct and rotary shear experiments to characterize frictional properties and strength of the materials at the detachment surface of the slide.

  12. Geotechnical Feasibility Analysis of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) in Bedded Salt Formations: a Case Study in Huai'an City, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guimin; Li, Yinping; Daemen, Jaak J. K.; Yang, Chunhe; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Yanlong

    2015-09-01

    The lower reaches of the Yangtze River is one of the most developed regions in China. It is desirable to build compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plants in this area to ensure the safety, stability, and economic operation of the power network. Geotechnical feasibility analysis was carried out for CAES in impure bedded salt formations in Huai'an City, China, located in this region. First, geological investigation revealed that the salt groups in the Zhangxing Block meet the basic geological conditions for CAES storage, even though the possible unfavorable characteristics of the salt formations include bedding and different percentages of impurities. Second, mechanical tests were carried out to determine the mechanical characteristics of the bedded salt formations. It is encouraging that the samples did not fail even when they had undergone large creep deformation. Finally, numerical simulation was performed to evaluate the stability and volume shrinkage of the CAES under the following conditions: the shape of a single cavern is that of a pear; the width of the pillar is adopted as two times the largest diameter; three regular operating patterns were adopted for two operating caverns (internal pressure 9-10.5 MPa, 10-11.5 MPa, and 11-12.5 MPa), while the other two were kept at high pressure (internal pressure 10.5, 11.5, and 12.5 MPa) as backups; an emergency operating pattern in which two operating caverns were kept at atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) for emergency while the backups were under operation (9-10.5 MPa), simulated for 12 months at the beginning of the 5th year. The results of the analysis for the plastic zone, displacement, and volume shrinkage support the feasibility of the construction of an underground CAES power station.

  13. From the rupture to the buildings: reconciling engineering evidences of the April 6 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertito, V.; Iervolino, I.; Calcaterra, D.; de Luca Tupputi, F.; Santo, A.; di Crescenzo, G.; Festa, G.; Zollo, A.; Silvestri, F.; D'Onofrio, A.; Simonelli, A.; Manfredi, G.; Verderame, G.; Ricci, P.; James, V.; Penna, A.; Sica, S.; Monaco, P.; Totani, G.

    2009-12-01

    The April 6 2009 L’Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) was the first case, in Italy, of a well recorded seismic event the near-source region of which is densely populated of engineering structures. In fact, because of the short distance from the fault (0km Joyner and Boore distance), the strong motion parameters relevant for the damage description may not be obtained by 1D attenuation relationships, which do not account for fault extension and fail in the fault vicinity. On the other hand, the large amount of data coming from strong-motion, regional and teleseismic records, GPS, SAR, surface geology, geotechnical profiles and detailed damage surveys provide an unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the rupture and propagation on the seismic response of buildings. Because in Italy the current state of earthquake engineering research and its interaction with bordering Earth Sciences may be considered advanced, also because it recently benefitted of large research programs funded by the governmental department for civil protection, a research group (AQ-FII) has been set up to apply an integrated approach to reconcile earthquake engineering evidences from the event. State-of-the art models are employed to simulate source, path, site effects and engineering systems’ response. This ambitious project has a threefold scope: (1) to confirm and/or explore seismologic near-fault effects and their modelling issues; (2) to deepen structural and geotechnical engineering understanding of near-source seismic response and observed variability at small scale (i.e., individual structure level); (3) to validate the comprehensive and multi-disciplinary approach to earthquake science invoked in the last decades. The AQ-FII group includes: a seismological component for the modelling of the source and radiation; a geological component characterizing the propagation features at large scale in the region (the Aterno valley); a geotechnical competency for the characterization of

  14. Re-engineering Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Bernard M.; Silevitch, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, leaders gathered by the National Association of Manufacturers declared yet another "STEM" emergency. In the face of global competition, they argued, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded annually to U.S. students in science, math and engineering must double by 2015. In fact, the need for STEM talent is even more critical…

  15. Heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekos, N. F., Jr.; Parsons, E. L., Jr.

    1989-09-01

    For the past decade, the Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored projects to develop diesel and gas turbine engines capable of operating on low-cost, coal-based fuels. Much of the current work addresses the use of coal-water fuel (CWF) in diesel and turbines, although there is some work with dry coal feed and other coal fuels. Both the diesel and gas turbine portions of the program include proof-of-concept and support projects. Specific highlights of the program include: engine tests and economic analyses have shown that CWF can replace 70 percent of the diesel oil used in the duty cycle of a typical main-line locomotive; A. D. Little and Cooper-Bessemer completed a system and economic study of coal-fueled diesel engines for modular power and industrial cogeneration markets. The coal-fueled diesel was found to be competitive at fuel oil prices of $5.50 per million British thermal units (MBtu); Over 200 hours of testing have been completed using CWF in full-scale, single-cylinder diesel engines. Combustion efficiencies have exceeded 99 percent; Both CWF and dry coal fuel forms can be burned in short residence time in-line combustors and in off-base combustors with a combustion efficiency of over 99 percent; Rich/lean combustion systems employed by the three major DOE contractors have demonstrated low NO(sub x) emissions levels; Contractors have also achieved promising results for controlling sulfur oxide (SO(sub x)) emissions using calcium-based sorbents; Slagging combustors have achieved between 65 and 95 percent slag capture, which will limit particulate loading on pre-turbine cleanup devices. For many of the gas turbine and diesel applications emission standards do not exist. Our goal is to develop coal-fueled diesels and gas turbines that not only meet all applicable emission standards that do exist, but also are capable of meeting possible future standards.

  16. Engineering Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John

    An ideal textbook for a first tribology course, this book provides an interdisciplinary understanding of the field. It includes materials constraints, real design problems and solutions (such as those for journal and rolling element bearing), cams and followers and heavily loaded gear teeth. Including physics, materials science, and surface and lubricant chemistry, the volume integrates quantitative material from a wide variety of disciplines with traditional engineering approaches.

  17. Web Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  18. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  19. Planetary engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  20. Siting and Geotechnical Program Focus and Directions. Report upon the deliberations of a workshop held at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, Illinois on August 4-5, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, S. K.

    The report reviews the status of the Siting and Geotechnical Systems Area of the Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Program, and recommends future directions for research in the area. Participants at the workshop were divided into four working groups concentrating on the following topics: (1) soil and rock properties and constitutive laws; (2) ground motion predictions and the effects of soil conditions on near surface motions, and the influence of soil properties on ground failure hazards; (3) ground motion measurements, arrays, and instrumentation; and (4) soil-structure interaction and design aspects.

  1. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  2. Engineering Design Handbook: Value Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-07-20

    worthwhile contribution to those goings-on, is often as important to the employee as the amount of compensation he receives. Training in the elements...be set up for: top management, operational management, operating personnel, and value engineers. 4-2.3.1 TOP Managiement Briefings In these...that is what you are being paid to handle, and the level of compensation is very likely to be (or should be) commensurate with your efficacy in

  3. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  4. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Norman

    1988-01-01

    The goals of the Software Engineering Institute's Education Program are as follows: to increase the number of highly qualified software engineers--new software engineers and existing practitioners; and to be the leading center of expertise for software engineering education and training. A discussion of these goals is presented in vugraph form.

  5. Linking geotechnical and rheological properties of a submarine mudflow deposit, and its source material, for mobility analysis: the case of the Pointe-du-Fort Slide, Saguenay Fjord, Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locat, J.; Locat, P.; Locat, A.; Leroueil, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Pointe-du-Fort submarine mass movement likely took place, at the time of the February 5 1663 earthquake as a sidewall slope failure which generated a mudflow that extended over a distance of 1070m with a final flow thickness of 10-15m resting on a slope of 1.4degree. The slide involved about 1.5 millions of cubic meters of clayey sediments from an original slope of 24 degrees. The source material is a postglacial clay which has been overconsolidated by about 13m of coastal erosion. The in situ vane shear strength (intact) varies from about 40 kPa, near the surface, to 100 kPa at a depth of 18m, and the remolded strength varies from 1 to 3 kPa, which is similar to that of the remolded strength of the debris. Using rheological testing on mudflow material, flow simulation with BING, Johnson's equation for critical flow thickness, and in situ geotechnical testing in the source zone, a good agreement was found between measurements carried out source and deposit materials. So, for the first time, we have been able to use the predicted flow properties based on the strength characteristics of the source material and the use of empirical relationships between yield strength, viscosity and liquidity index to correctly predict the mobility of the mudflow, its flow properties and their link with actual geotechnical properties of the mudflow deposit.

  6. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Brownfield, L.A.

    1980-12-02

    The major components of this rotary engine are two equal sized rotary units, the housing containing them along with associated ignition and cooling systems. Each of the rotary units consists of a shaft, gear, two outer compressor wheels, and one center power wheel which has twice the axial thickness as the compressor wheel. All the wheels are cylindrical in shape with a lobe section comprising a 180/sup 0/ arc on the periphery of each wheel which forms an expanding and contracting volumetric chamber by means of leading and trailing lips. The lobes of the first rotary unit are situated 180/sup 0/ opposite the lobes of the second adjacent mating rotary unit, thus lobes can intermesh with its corresponding wheel.

  7. Radial engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kmicikiewicz, M.A.

    1988-03-01

    A radial engine is described comprising: a housing; equally spaced openings disposed in ring-like arrangement on the periphery of the housing; a piston and cylinder arrangement in each of the opening, a piston rod for each arrangement fixed to and extending radially inwardly from its respective piston and through its respective opening; shoe means pivotally attached at the other end of each of the piston rod; radial guide means extending in the housing in line with each of the piston rods, and the shoe means provided with guide means followers to ensure radial reciprocal movement of the piston rods and shoe means; and a connecting ring journaled on a crankshaft for circular translation motion in the housing, the ring including a circular rim. Each shoe means includes an arcuate follower member being slidably connected to the rim of the connecting ring.

  8. How Engineers Engineer: Lessons from My First Big Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2008-01-01

    Little did the author realize how much his first engineering project would change his career path, but when it came, he was hooked forever on doing R&D-type engineering. In this article, the author takes the reader back to his first really important electrical engineering project. While the technology he worked on back then is antiquated by…

  9. The responsibilities of engineers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin; Gardoni, Paolo; Murphy, Colleen

    2014-06-01

    Knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers is the foundation for answering ethical questions about the work of engineers. This paper defines the responsibilities of engineers by considering what constitutes the nature of engineering as a particular form of activity. Specifically, this paper focuses on the ethical responsibilities of engineers qua engineers. Such responsibilities refer to the duties acquired in virtue of being a member of a group. We examine the practice of engineering, drawing on the idea of practices developed by philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre, and show how the idea of a practice is important for identifying and justifying the responsibilities of engineers. To demonstrate the contribution that knowledge of the responsibilities of engineers makes to engineering ethics, a case study from structural engineering is discussed. The discussion of the failure of the Sleipner A Platform off the coast of Norway in 1991 demonstrates how the responsibilities of engineers can be derived from knowledge of the nature of engineering and its context.

  10. Industrial Education. "Small Engines".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parma City School District, OH.

    Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides the student with information and manipulative experiences on small gasoline engines. Included are sections on shop adjustment, safety, small engines, internal combustion, engine construction, four stroke engines, two stroke engines,…

  11. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, Evan

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  12. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; Stewart, Jonathan P.; D'Elia, Beniamino

    2008-07-01

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, Vs30, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.).

  13. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-07-08

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V{sub s30}, etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  14. Statistical Analysis of Geotechnical Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    The Data of Fig. 2a. 36 Figure 4. Probability Paper Plot of Compaction Data. 37 Figure 5. Scatter Plot of Compaction Control Data Showing Water 38...Autocorrelation Function of Water Content Over Small Interval 87 of San Francisco Bay Mud. Figure 22. Autocorrelation Function of Water Content Over Large Interval...A Copper 90 Porphyry. Figure 25. Autocorrelation Function of Compacted Water Content in Clay 91 Core of an Embankment Dam. Figure 26. Autocorrelation

  15. Microgravimetric Techniques for Geotechnical Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    Teoria ed Applicata, Vol 13, pp 254-263. Jung, K. 1961. Schwerkraftverfahren in der Angewandten Geophysik, Geest’ und Portig, Leipzig. LaFehr, T. R ...8217"· f ~;-,~". 11 ... , " j MISCRLAN~OUS PAP~ R GL-80-13 ML::ROGRAVIMETRIC TECHNIQUES FOR GEC)TECHNICAL APPLICATIONS by Dv1ain K. Butler...for Assistant: Secrel:ary of the Army ( R &-D) Department: of the Army ’’’/ashington, D. C. 20310 Under Project No. 4AI61101A91D RO 10 .1

  16. Two treatment methods for stormwater sediments--pilot plant and landfarming--and reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Petavy, F; Ruban, V; Conil, P; Viau, J Y; Auriol, J C

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to present a pilot plant for the treatment of stormwater sediments and to compare the decontamination rate to that obtained by landfarming. The possibilities for reuse of the treated sediments in civil engineering are also studied. Four sediments from retention/infiltration ponds or from street sweeping were studied. In each case organic matter (OM), total hydrocarbons (TH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured. Geotechnical tests were carried out to evaluate the reuse possibilities of the treated sediments. Treatment by means of the pilot plant was efficient at reducing TH and PAH concentrations: THs were reduced by 53-97% and PAHs were decreased by 60-95%. By comparison, a reduction of 45-75% in TH concentration is obtained with landfarming, whereas there is no significant decrease in PAHs. Furthermore, geotechnical tests showed that the treated fractions from the pilot plant can be reused as road embankments and as a capping layer. These results are most encouraging and show that stormwater sediments can valuably be reused after treatment in a pilot plant. Landfarming is less efficient but this technique could be used as a pretreatment in the case of high TH pollution.

  17. The TeleEngineering Toolkit Software Reference Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    K. Fairley , Jill M. Jackson, Jeffrey L. Williamson, and Benjamin T. Webb August 2007 En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D ev el op m...Ferry Road Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Sandra K. Fairley , Jill M. Jackson, Jeffrey L. Williamson and Benjamin T. Webb Geotechnical and Structures...Webb, Sandra K. Fairley , Jill M. Jackson, and Jeffrey L. Williamson of the ERDC Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory (GSL), prepared this report

  18. Engine roughness control means

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Doi, N.; Yoshioka, S.; Okimoto, H.; Veda, K.

    1987-08-04

    This patent describes a control system for a vehicle engine comprising engine condition detecting means for detecting an engine operating condition and producing an engine condition signal representing the engine operating condition, engine combustion control means for controlling a condition of combustion in the engine; and a control factor storage means for storing control factors for controlling the engine combustion. A modifying means connect the comparator means to receive the output signal and to modify the control factor from the storage means by the output of the comparator means so that the combustion control means is controlled by the modified control factor in a direction that the engine vibrations are suppressed. A reference signal changes means connected with the engine condition detecting means to change the reference roughness signal in accordance with the engine operating condition so that the reference signal is decreased when the engine is in idling operation.

  19. Annular nozzle engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, AL

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include: (1) driver rocket subsystem; (2) annular nozzle engine technology; (3) expansion-deflection nozzle; (4) aerospike-nozzled engine background; (5) aerospike testing; (6) linear aerospike; and (7) the combined cycle engine.

  20. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.L.

    1987-03-31

    An internal combustion four cycle rotary engine is described comprising: a generally cylindrical having one or more accurately spaced cylinders, each carrying a piston therein extending radially of a central rotational axis of the rotor; stationary bearings support shaft means disposed coaxially of the rotor, unitary combustion chamber means carrying main bearing means for rotatably supporting the same on the shaft means and providing one or more individual combustion chambers, each independently communicating with one of the cylinders; the chamber means being mounted concentrically of the rotor and rotatably moveable therewith about the shaft means; cam means comprising a pair of registeringly aligned, axially spaced, continuously curvilinear cam track means which are formed radially assymmetrical about a central axis coincident with the rotational axis of the rotor; the pair of cam track means being located axially outwardly of the cylinders in parallel planes lying formal to the rotational axis and adjacent opposite axial ends of the rotor; cam rider assembly means, each having follower means engaged with the track means for following the contour thereof; and means coupling a rider assembly means to the piston in each cylinder whereby to effect reciprocal strokes of each piston coaxially of its associated cylinder and radially of the rotor in response to the movements of the follower means along the track means; the track means being constructed and arranged to produce distinctly dissimilar movements of the pistons, to produce strokes of unequal duration and length during the respective intake, compression, combustion and exhaust strokes thereof.

  1. Engineering allostery

    DOE PAGES

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; ...

    2014-10-08

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or as orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, in this papermore » we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most crucial for allostery to be identified. Finally, this approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases.« less

  2. Engineering allostery

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Srivatsan; Taylor, Noah; Genuth, Naomi; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M.

    2014-10-08

    Allosteric proteins have great potential in synthetic biology, but our limited understanding of the molecular underpinnings of allostery has hindered the development of designer molecules, including transcription factors with new DNA-binding or ligand-binding specificities that respond appropriately to inducers. Such allosteric proteins could function as novel switches in complex circuits, metabolite sensors, or as orthogonal regulators for independent, inducible control of multiple genes. Advances in DNA synthesis and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the assessment of millions of mutants in a single experiment, providing new opportunities to study allostery. Using the classic LacI protein as an example, in this paper we describe a genetic selection system using a bidirectional reporter to capture mutants in both allosteric states, allowing the positions most crucial for allostery to be identified. Finally, this approach is not limited to bacterial transcription factors, and could reveal new mechanistic insights and facilitate engineering of other major classes of allosteric proteins such as nuclear receptors, two-component systems, G protein-coupled receptors, and protein kinases.

  3. Rotary engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Z.

    1990-08-28

    This paper discusses an engine. It comprises a cylinder block; cylinders contained in the cylinder block; matching pistons, each piston reciprocatingly received in one of the cylinders; matching piston rods, each rod connected to one of the pistons and extending outwardly from the block; sheave gears, each sheave gear having a sheave gear axis and a circumference disposed about the sheave gear axis bearing a set of gear teeth thereon; means connecting a respective one of the sheave gears to a respective one of the pistons rods such that reciprocation of the pistons in the cylinders causes rotation of the sheave gears about the sheave gears axes; a combination flywheel/ring gear having a ring gear axis and an outer circumference disposed about the axis bearing a set of ring gear teeth thereon; and means positioning the flywheel/ring gear such that the gear teeth on the flywheel/ring gear engaged the gear teeth on the sheave gears. The flywheel/ring gear is rotated about by its axis by rotation of the sheave gears upon reciprocation of the pistons in the cylinders.

  4. Taking an engine`s temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, S.W.; Beshears, D.L.; Cates, M.R.; Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic and ceramic-coated components will be of increasing importance in the advanced engines now under development. Ceramics enable engines to run at much higher temperatures than the superalloys in more conventional engines can. The two options for noncontact high-temperature measurements of ceramic components are pyrometry and phosphor thermometry. This article describes how when properly applied as a thin coating, thermally sensitive phosphors can monitor the temperature of ceramic surfaces inside an engine.

  5. Mod II engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karl, David W.

    1987-01-01

    The Mod II engine, a four-cylinder, automotive Stirling engine utilizing the Siemens-Rinia double-acting concept, was assembled and became operational in January 1986. This paper describes the Mod II engine, its first assembly, and the subsequent development work done on engine components up to the point that engine performance characterization testing took place. Performance data for the engine are included.

  6. An Engineering Context for Software Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    from a database. Richard Fairley presents one of the definitions reminiscent of industrial engineering practice, ... the technological and...2002. [Fair85] Fairley , Richard, Software Engineering Concepts, McGraw-Hill, 1985. [Flo87] Florman, Samuel C., The Civilized Engineer, St. Martins

  7. Software engineering as an engineering discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, Glenn B.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to explore the emerging field of software engineering from a variety of perspectives: university programs; industry training and definition; government development; and technology transfer. In doing this, the panel will address the issues of distinctions among software engineering, computer science, and computer hardware engineering as they relate to the challenges of large, complex systems.

  8. Engineering Encounters: Blasting off with Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Emily A.; Childs, Gregory T.; Cannaday, E. Ashley; Roehrig, Gillian H

    2014-01-01

    What better way to engage young students in physical science concepts than to have them engineer flying toy rockets? The integration of engineering into science classrooms is advocated by the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) and researchers alike (Brophy et al. 2008), as engineering provides: (1) A "real-world…

  9. Environmental Engineering in Mining Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahamud-Lopez, Manuel Maria; Menendez-Aguado, Juan Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the current profile of the environmental engineer and the programming of the subject "Environmental Engineering and Technology" corresponding to the studies of Mining Engineering at the University of Oviedo in Spain, is discussed. Professional profile, student knowledge prior to and following instruction as well as…

  10. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  11. Genome scale engineering techniques for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongming; Bassalo, Marcelo C; Zeitoun, Ramsey I; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic engineering has expanded from a focus on designs requiring a small number of genetic modifications to increasingly complex designs driven by advances in genome-scale engineering technologies. Metabolic engineering has been generally defined by the use of iterative cycles of rational genome modifications, strain analysis and characterization, and a synthesis step that fuels additional hypothesis generation. This cycle mirrors the Design-Build-Test-Learn cycle followed throughout various engineering fields that has recently become a defining aspect of synthetic biology. This review will attempt to summarize recent genome-scale design, build, test, and learn technologies and relate their use to a range of metabolic engineering applications.

  12. Using Collaborative Engineering to Inform Collaboration Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lynne P.

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration is a critical competency for modern organizations as they struggle to compete in an increasingly complex, global environment. A large body of research on collaboration in the workplace focuses both on teams, investigating how groups use teamwork to perform their task work, and on the use of information systems to support team processes ("collaboration engineering"). This research essay presents collaboration from an engineering perspective ("collaborative engineering"). It uses examples from professional and student engineering teams to illustrate key differences in collaborative versus collaboration engineering and investigates how challenges in the former can inform opportunities for the latter.

  13. Strengthening Environmental Engineering Education in Afghanistan through Cooperating Military Academies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, J. A.; Mahbob, M.; Seely, G. E.; Ressler, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Many developing countries suffer from substandard employment of environmental engineering and science principles, which leads to poor management of natural and cultural resources, increased public health concerns, and limitations on economic investment and growth. Thus, prior to the implementation of well-intentioned programs designed to promote development, methods for sustaining basic needs, which are the focus of most environmental engineering disciplines, must be designed into the social fabric of the developing culture. Education is a promising method for fostering this development across cultures. Recently, the US Air Force Academy (USAFA) partnered with the US Military Academy (USMA) to implement a Civil Engineering Program at the National Military Academy of Afghanistan (NMAA), Kabul, Afghanistan. This work will outline the process followed during course development, deployment, and implementation, paying particular attention to challenges and benefits at each stage in the process. This cooperation may serve as a model for future implementation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics education programs in developing countries. Consistent with US Civil Engineering programs, the NMAA Civil Engineering program introduces students to a broad range of introductory-level civil engineering subjects--environmental, hydraulic, geotechnical, structural, construction, and transportation engineering. Basic environmental engineering and science principles are addressed through the implementation of an introductory environmental engineering course. Course development followed a three-stage process: (1) course development by US faculty at their home institution, (2) imbedding of US Faculty at the NMAA, and (3) implementation of the course within the NMAA Civil Engineering curriculum using adjunct Afghan faculty hired from Kabul University. An existing environmental engineering course taught at USAFA was used as a model for course development. Although this

  14. Alternative Automobile Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David Gordon

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for cleaner and more efficient engines have stimulated a search for alternatives to the conventional spark-ignition engine. So far, the defects of the alternative engines are clearer than the virtues. The following engines are compared: spark ignition, diesel, vapor-cycle, Stirling, and gas turbine. (Author/MA)

  15. Exo-Skeletal Engine: Novel Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Cristos C.; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2004-01-01

    The exo-skeletal engine concept represents a new radical engine technology with the potential to substantially revolutionize engine design. It is an all-composite drum-rotor engine in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. The exo-skeletal engine is described in some detail with respect to geometry, components, and potential benefits. Initial evaluations and results for drum rotors, bearings, and weights are summarized. Component configuration, assembly plan, and potential fabrication processes are also identified. A finite element model of the assembled engine and its major components is described. Preliminary results obtained thus far show at least a 30-percent reduction of engine weight and about a 10-dB noise reduction, compared with a baseline conventional high-bypass-ratio engine. Potential benefits in all aspects of this engine technology are identified and tabulated. Quantitative assessments of potential benefits are in progress.

  16. Engineering Lessons Learned and Systems Engineering Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.

    2005-01-01

    Systems Engineering is fundamental to good engineering, which in turn depends on the integration and application of engineering lessons learned and technical standards. Thus, good Systems Engineering also depends on systems engineering lessons learned from within the aerospace industry being documented and applied. About ten percent of the engineering lessons learned documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System are directly related to Systems Engineering. A key issue associated with lessons learned datasets is the communication and incorporation of this information into engineering processes. Systems Engineering has been defined (EINIS-632) as "an interdisciplinary approach encompassing the entire technical effort to evolve and verify an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, product, and process solutions that satisfy customer needs". Designing reliable space-based systems has always been a goal for NASA, and many painful lessons have been learned along the way. One of the continuing functions of a system engineer is to compile development and operations "lessons learned" documents and ensure their integration into future systems development activities. They can produce insights and information for risk identification identification and characterization. on a new project. Lessons learned files from previous projects are especially valuable in risk

  17. Software Engineering Guidebook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John; Wenneson, Greg

    1993-01-01

    The Software Engineering Guidebook describes SEPG (Software Engineering Process Group) supported processes and techniques for engineering quality software in NASA environments. Three process models are supported: structured, object-oriented, and evolutionary rapid-prototyping. The guidebook covers software life-cycles, engineering, assurance, and configuration management. The guidebook is written for managers and engineers who manage, develop, enhance, and/or maintain software under the Computer Software Services Contract.

  18. Inlet Engineering Toolbox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-31

    ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center,CIRP - The Coastal Inlets Research Program,3909 Halls Ferry Road,Vicksburg,MS,39180... Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Engineering Toolbox The Inlet Engineering Toolbox (IET) Work Unit develops desktop PC and web-based tools to...aid in studies of the consequences of engineering actions at coastal inlets and adjacent beaches. District scientists and engineers need rapid

  19. Biomedical engineering education through global engineering teams.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, C; Blanckenberg, M; Garth-Davis, B; Eisenberg, M

    2012-01-01

    Most industrial projects require a team of engineers from a variety of disciplines. The team members are often culturally diverse and geographically dispersed. Many students do not acquire sufficient skills from typical university courses to function efficiently in such an environment. The Global Engineering Teams (GET) programme was designed to prepare students such a scenario in industry. This paper discusses five biomedical engineering themed projects completed by GET students. The benefits and success of the programme in educating students in the field of biomedical engineering are discussed.

  20. Teaching Engineering Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-03-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be disregarded safely if the practices of engineering are better articulated and modeled through student engagement in engineering projects. A clearer distinction between science and engineering practices is outlined, and prior research is described that suggests that precollege engineering design can strengthen children's understandings about scientific concepts. However, a piecemeal approach to teaching engineering practices is unlikely to result in students understanding engineering as a discipline. The implications for science teacher education are supplemented with lessons learned from a number of engineering education professional development projects.

  1. Landsat 8 Multispectral and Pansharpened Imagery Processing on the Study of Civil Engineering Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.; Karagianni, A. Ch.

    2016-06-01

    Scientific and professional interests of civil engineering mainly include structures, hydraulics, geotechnical engineering, environment, and transportation issues. Topics included in the context of the above may concern urban environment issues, urban planning, hydrological modelling, study of hazards and road construction. Land cover information contributes significantly on the study of the above subjects. Land cover information can be acquired effectively by visual image interpretation of satellite imagery or after applying enhancement routines and also by imagery classification. The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM - Landsat 8) is the latest satellite in Landsat series, launched in February 2013. Landsat 8 medium spatial resolution multispectral imagery presents particular interest in extracting land cover, because of the fine spectral resolution, the radiometric quantization of 12bits, the capability of merging the high resolution panchromatic band of 15 meters with multispectral imagery of 30 meters as well as the policy of free data. In this paper, Landsat 8 multispectral and panchromatic imageries are being used, concerning surroundings of a lake in north-western Greece. Land cover information is extracted, using suitable digital image processing software. The rich spectral context of the multispectral image is combined with the high spatial resolution of the panchromatic image, applying image fusion - pansharpening, facilitating in this way visual image interpretation to delineate land cover. Further processing concerns supervised image classification. The classification of pansharpened image preceded multispectral image classification. Corresponding comparative considerations are also presented.

  2. Humanitarian engineering in the engineering curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandersteen, Jonathan Daniel James

    There are many opportunities to use engineering skills to improve the conditions for marginalized communities, but our current engineering education praxis does not instruct on how engineering can be a force for human development. In a time of great inequality and exploitation, the desire to work with the impoverished is prevalent, and it has been proposed to adjust the engineering curriculum to include a larger focus on human needs. This proposed curriculum philosophy is called humanitarian engineering. Professional engineers have played an important role in the modern history of power, wealth, economic development, war, and industrialization; they have also contributed to infrastructure, sanitation, and energy sources necessary to meet human need. Engineers are currently at an important point in time when they must look back on their history in order to be more clear about how to move forward. The changing role of the engineer in history puts into context the call for a more balanced, community-centred engineering curriculum. Qualitative, phenomenographic research was conducted in order to understand the need, opportunity, benefits, and limitations of a proposed humanitarian engineering curriculum. The potential role of the engineer in marginalized communities and details regarding what a humanitarian engineering program could look like were also investigated. Thirty-two semi-structured research interviews were conducted in Canada and Ghana in order to collect a pool of understanding before a phenomenographic analysis resulted in five distinct outcome spaces. The data suggests that an effective curriculum design will include teaching technical skills in conjunction with instructing about issues of social justice, social location, cultural awareness, root causes of marginalization, a broader understanding of technology, and unlearning many elements about the role of the engineer and the dominant economic/political ideology. Cross-cultural engineering development

  3. Service Cart For Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Gim Shek

    1995-01-01

    Cart supports rear-mounted air-cooled engine from Volkswagen or Porsche automobile. One person removes, repairs, tests, and reinstalls engine of car, van, or home-built airplane. Consists of framework of wood, steel, and aluminum components supported by four wheels. Engine lifted from vehicle by hydraulic jack and gently lowered onto waiting cart. Jack removed from under engine. Rear of vehicle raised just enough that engine can be rolled out from under it. Cart easily supports 200-lb engine. Also used to hold transmission. With removable sheet-metal top, cart used as portable seat.

  4. The Phillips Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hargreaves, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book is about the Stirling engine and its development from the heavy cast-iron machine of the 19th century to that of today. It is a history of a research effort spanning nearly 50 years, together with an outline of principles, and some technical details and descriptions of the more important engines. Contents include: the hot-air engine; the 20th-century revival; the Stirling cycle; rhombic-drive engines; heating and cooling; pistons and seals; electric generators and heat pumps; exotic heat sources; the engine and the environment; swashplate engines; and the past and the future.

  5. Improving engineering effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiero, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Methodologies to improve engineering productivity were investigated. The rocky road to improving engineering effectiveness is reviewed utilizing a specific semiconductor engineering organization as a case study. The organization had a performance problem regarding new product introductions. With the help of this consultant as a change agent the engineering team used a systems approach to through variables that were effecting their output significantly. Critical factors for improving this engineering organization's effectiveness and the roles/responsibilities of management, the individual engineers and the internal consultant are discussed.

  6. Tripropellant engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. B.

    1978-01-01

    Engine performance data, combustion gas thermodynamic properties, and turbine gas parameters were determined for various high power cycle engine configurations derived from the space shuttle main engine that will allow sequential burning of LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen fuels. Both stage combustion and gas generator pump power cycles were considered. Engine concepts were formulated for LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 propellants. Flowrates and operating conditions were established for this initial set of engine systems, and the adaptability of the major components of shuttle main engine was investigated.

  7. Engine valve driving apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Uesugi, T.; Oda, H.

    1989-01-03

    An engine valve driving apparatus for an internal combustion engine having a cam driven engine valve is described. It consists of a camshaft rotatable in synchronism with rotation of a crankshaft of an engine and a movable cam member supported by the camshaft for axial movement and prevented from turning relative to the camshaft. The movable cam member can be axially shifted between an operative position wherein the cam member is cooperative with a member of the engine valve so as to cause an operation of the engine valve and an inoperative position wherein the cam member is out of cooperation with the member.

  8. The Streambank Erosion Control Evaluation and Demonstration Act of 1974, Section 32, Public Law 93-251. Appendix C. Geotechnical Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    to balance the charge deficiency) of a natural soil as shown in Figure C48 ( Fernando , Burau, and Arulanandan 1977). t The numerical values given in...analysis should be conducted using total stress analysis (Chowdhury .1978, Duncan and Buchignani 1975, Edil and Vallejo 1977, Hey 1979, U. S. Army Corps of...Engineers (in prep- aration), and Vallejo 1977). The soil shear strength is determined from unconsolidated-undrained triaxial compression tests on

  9. Engineering Ethics in the Subject of Engineering History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isohata, Hiroshi

    Engineering ethics has been focused in the field of engineering education since the introduction of accreditation system of engineering education. In this paper, contents of the subject of engineering history are examined and discussed from the viewpoints of education of engineering ethics through a practical case of civil engineering history in a college. For the first step, codes of engineering ethics regulated in various engineering organizations are analyzed and the common contents are extracted to set the requirements for the education of engineering ethics. Then contents of the subject of engineering history are examined according to the requirements. Finally, conditions of engineering history for engineering ethics are discussed.

  10. Engineering and Engineering Technology Degrees, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of B.S., M.S./P.E., and Ph.D. degrees in engineering and engineering technology awarded by U.S. colleges and universities is tabulated according to the following criteria: by state, by school, curriculum, type of recipient, and by school and degree level. (KR)

  11. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Edward

    2014-03-31

    The objective of the Cummins ARES program, in partnership with the US Department of Energy (DOE), is to develop advanced natural gas engine technologies that increase engine system efficiency at lower emissions levels while attaining lower cost of ownership. The goals of the project are to demonstrate engine system achieving 50% Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) in three phases, 44%, 47% and 50% (starting baseline efficiency at 36% BTE) and 0.1 g/bhp-hr NOx system out emissions (starting baseline NOx emissions at 2 – 4 g/bhp-hr NOx). Primary path towards above goals include high Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), improved closed cycle efficiency, increased air handling efficiency and optimized engine subsystems. Cummins has successfully demonstrated each of the phases of this program. All targets have been achieved through application of a combined set of advanced base engine technologies and Waste Heat Recovery from Charge Air and Exhaust streams, optimized and validated on the demonstration engine and other large engines. The following architectures were selected for each Phase: Phase 1: Lean Burn Spark Ignited (SI) Key Technologies: High Efficiency Turbocharging, Higher Efficiency Combustion System. In production on the 60/91L engines. Over 500MW of ARES Phase 1 technology has been sold. Phase 2: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) System Key Technologies: Advanced Ignition System, Combustion Improvement, Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Base engine technologies intended for production within 2 to 3 years Phase 3: Lean Burn Technology with Exhaust and Charge Air Waste Heat Recovery System Key Technologies: Lower Friction, New Cylinder Head Designs, Improved Integrated Waste Heat Recovery System. Intended for production within 5 to 6 years Cummins is committed to the launch of next generation of large advanced NG engines based on ARES technology to be commercialized worldwide.

  12. The engineering and geological constraints of the intraslope basins and submarine canyons of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, W.R.; Yuh Liu, J.; Ponthier, J.

    1995-10-01

    It is well realized that future hydrocarbon discoveries on the upper and lower continental slope and rise off Texas and Louisiana necessitate innovative methods for the construction of platforms and pipelines in a very difficult engineering and complex geological environment. There are 105 intraslope basins and 5 major submarine canyons on the continental slope of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, many of which may be prime targets for hydrocarbon production. Examination of the physiographic, geophysical and geotechnical characteristics of the intraslope basins of Pigmy and Vaca basins and the Alaminos submarine canyon are used as examples to typify the various engineering and geological constraints that are most likely to be encountered on the continental slope and rise and along the Sigsbee Escarpment in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. High-resolution bathymetry identifies such constraints as high-angle intraslope basin walls, walls that exceed 40 degrees are not uncommon. Sediment slumps and other instabilities, such as long-term sediment creep and other affects of halokenesis and contemporaneous faulting, are illustrated and evaluated from high-resolution geophysics. The small canyons and large gullies that dissect the parameter flanks of Alaminos Canyon, that may be the results of both recent and old turbidity currents and debris flows, are structures that require engineering consideration in the implement of seafloor structures in, near or down slope of these features.

  13. Twin engine synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kobus, J.R.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for synchronizing the speeds of two engines, each having its own throttle level connected by an associated cable to a respective hand throttle lever, comprising moving means carried by the throttle lever of one of the engines for moving the throttle lever of the one engine independently of its associated cable and its respective hand throttle lever to increase or decrease the speed of the one engine until the speed of the one engine matches the speed of the other engine. The moving means moves the throttle lever of the one engine without moving its associated cable or its respective hand throttle lever, and actuating means mounted remote from the throttle lever of the one engine for actuating the moving means.

  14. Structural Engineering: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation presents the work of the Structural Engineering Division of the Engineering Directorate. The work includes: providing technical expertise and leadership for the development, evaluation, and operation of structural, mechanical, and thermal spaceflight systems.

  15. Rotorcraft convertible engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, J. C.; Earle, R. V.; Mar, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Rotorcraft Convertible Engine Study was to define future research and technology effort required for commercial development by 1988 of convertible fan/shaft gas turbine engines for unconventional rotorcraft transports. Two rotorcraft and their respective missions were defined: a Fold Tilt Rotor aircraft and an Advancing Blade Concept (ABC) rotorcraft. Sensitivity studies were conducted with these rotorcraft to determine parametrically the influence of propulsion characteristics on aircraft size, mission fuel requirements, and direct operating costs (DOC). The two rotorcraft were flown with conventional propulsion systems (separate lift/cruise engines) and with convertible propulsion systems to determine the benefits to be derived from convertible engines. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine the optimum engine cycle and staging arrangement for a convertible engine. Advanced technology options applicable to convertible engines were studied. Research and technology programs were identified which would ensure technology readiness for commercial development of convertible engines by 1988.

  16. NASA systems engineering handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  17. Educating the Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Melanie; Wallace, Mack

    2003-01-01

    Presented as a conversation between a teacher and engineer about school design, addresses educators' preferences and engineers' perspectives on issues, such as windows, sustainable design, sinks, acoustics, and natural ventilation. (EV)

  18. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  19. The coupling of engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccaccio, Paul

    1921-01-01

    This report examines the idea of coupling numerous engines together to turn a single propeller, which the author feels would free aircraft design from the problems of multi-engine and propeller design.

  20. Keeping Engineers Current.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1985-01-01

    Notes several options for keeping practicing engineers abreast of the state of the art, including university seminars, videotape courses, and instruction via satellite. Also cites the need for engineers to be encouraged to pursue life-long professional education. (DH)

  1. Chemical Engineering Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Louis

    1978-01-01

    The opinion is presented that chemical engineering education seems to emphasize the professor's research and/or professional interests with little regard for the real needs of the student who intends to become a practicing engineer. (BB)

  2. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; Mcduffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-01-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive. Superseded by: NASA/SP-2007-6105 Rev 1 (20080008301).

  3. Computerized Interactive Harness Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billitti, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computerized interactive harness engineering program inexpensive, interactive system for learning and using engineering approach to interconnection systems. Basically data-base system that stores information as files of individual connectors and handles wiring information in circuit groups stored as records.

  4. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  5. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  6. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  7. 40 CFR 90.116 - Certification procedure-determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. 90.116 Section 90.116 Protection of Environment...-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 90.116 Certification procedure—determining engine displacement, engine class, and engine families. (a)...

  8. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static- tested in development • This

  9. Earthquake engineering research: 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research addressed two questions: What progress has research produced in earthquake engineering and which elements of the problem should future earthquake engineering pursue. It examined and reported in separate chapters of the report: Applications of Past Research, Assessment of Earthquake Hazard, Earthquake Ground Motion, Soil Mechanics and Earth Structures, Analytical and Experimental Structural Dynamics, Earthquake Design of Structures, Seismic Interaction of Structures and Fluids, Social and Economic Aspects, Earthquake Engineering Education, Research in Japan.

  10. Cruise Missile Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Williams International's F107 fanjet engine is used in two types of cruise missiles, Navy-sponsored Tomahawk and the Air Force AGM-86B Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM). Engine produces about 600 pounds thrust, is one foot in diameter and weighs only 141 pounds. Design was aided by use of a COSMIC program in calculating airflows in engine's internal ducting, resulting in a more efficient engine with increased thrust and reduced fuel consumption.

  11. Biomedical Engineering Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The Masters of Engineering program with concentration in Biomedical Engineering at Tennessee State University was established in fall 2000. Under... biomedical engineering . The lab is fully equipped with 10 Pentium5-based, 2 Pentium4-based laptops for mobile experiments at remote locations, 8 Biopac...students (prospective graduate students in biomedical engineering ) are regularly using this lab. This summer, 8 new prospective graduate students

  12. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  13. Unified Engineering Software System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L. R.; Gordon, S.; Peltzman, A.; Dube, M.

    1989-01-01

    Collection of computer programs performs diverse functions in prototype engineering. NEXUS, NASA Engineering Extendible Unified Software system, is research set of computer programs designed to support full sequence of activities encountered in NASA engineering projects. Sequence spans preliminary design, design analysis, detailed design, manufacturing, assembly, and testing. Primarily addresses process of prototype engineering, task of getting single or small number of copies of product to work. Written in FORTRAN 77 and PROLOG.

  14. COBRA Main Engine Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim; Sides, Steve; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The COBRA (CO-Optimized Booster for Reusable Applications) project include the following: 1. COBRA main engine project team. 2. COBRA and RLX cycles selected. 3. COBRA proto-type engine approach enables mission success. 4. COBRA provides quick, low cost demo of cycle and technologies. 5. COBRA cycle I risk reduction supports. 6. Achieving engine safety. 6. RLX cycle I risk reduction supports. 7. Flight qualification. 9. Life extension engine testing.

  15. Engineering for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lottero-Perdue, Pamela S.; Lovelidge, Sarah; Bowling, Erin

    2010-01-01

    As calls for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education at the elementary level become more vociferous, elementary teachers may be wondering whether engineering is meant for "all" students. However, the authors assert that engineering can be taught in inclusive environments. It may be especially empowering for those who…

  16. Educating More Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Indicates that there will be a substantially increased demand for environmental engineers during the next few years, especially in the areas of water pollution control and sanitary engineering. Educators see the need for additional engineering graduates and for improved environmental training programs in schools. (JR)

  17. Principles of Naval Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of shipboard machinery, equipment, and engineering plants are presented in this text prepared for engineering officers. A general description is included of the development of naval ships, ship design and construction, stability and buoyancy, and damage and casualty control. Engineering theories are explained on the background of ship…

  18. Personality Characteristics of Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Henk T.; Schmidt, Henk G.; Kruisman, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the personality characteristics of a group of engineers with a variety of years of experience. It was executed to remedy shortcomings of the literature concerning this issue and to produce suggestions for a postgraduate training programme for engineers. A total of 103 engineers were tested with…

  19. H-1 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Alignment of the H-1 engine performed in the Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA ), building 4708, in February 1960. A cluster of eight H-1 engines were used to thrust the first stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle. The H-1 engine was developed under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  20. H-1 Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The H-1 engines for the Saturn I vehicle in the alignment fixture. A cluster of eight H-1 engines were used to thrust the first stage of the Saturn I launch vehicle. The H-1 engine was developed under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  1. Engineering for Native Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarosz, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    The engineering workforce is overwhelmingly male and White. To attract and retain American Indian and other minority-group students, engineering programs must offer practical, hands-on, team activities; show that engineering is beneficial to society and Indian communities; use inclusive textbooks; offer distance-learning opportunities; and…

  2. The Engineering Manpower Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyworth, George A.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the shortage of qualified engineers and the importance to the United States of high-quality engineering faculty, high-quality engineering graduates, and strong math and science departments in high schools. The author argues that it is up to the private sector to encourage these trends. (CT)

  3. Program (systems) engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroff, Lynn E.; Easter, Robert W.; Pomphrey, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Program Systems Engineering applies the principles of Systems Engineering at the program level. Space programs are composed of interrelated elements which can include collections of projects, advanced technologies, information systems, etc. Some program elements are outside traditional engineering's physical systems, such as education and public outreach, public relations, resource flow, and interactions within the political environments.

  4. 20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for the Tod tandem compound engine' showing crank end. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  5. 21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Engine identified as a 'single cylinder vacuum assist engine for Tod tandem compound engine' showing compressor. - Carnegie Steel-Ohio Works, Steam Engines, 912 Salt Springs Road, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  6. Solar powered Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, R.J.

    1987-11-24

    In a solar dish module which comprises a dish which receives incident solar rays and reflects them to a focus at which is located the combination of a receiver and a heat engine organized and arranged so that the heat energy of the reflected solar rays collected at the receiver powers the engine, and wherein the receiver and heat engine are supported from the dish by a framework, the improvement is described which comprises journal means for journaling at least the engine on the framework to maintain certain predetermined spatial orientation for the engine in relation to the direction of gravity irrespective of spatial orientation of the dish.

  7. Armored geomembrane cover engineering.

    PubMed

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities--a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers.

  8. CF 6 engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricklin, R.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the activities which led to defining deterioration rates of the CF6 family of engines, a description of what was learned, and an identification of means of conserving fuel based upon the program findings are presented. The program to define the deterioration levels and modes for the CF6 family of engines involved four distinct phases: analysis of inbound engine test results, analysis of airline cruise data, analysis of airline test cell data resulting from testing of refurbished engines, and inspection of engine hardware.

  9. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  10. RS-84 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, E.

    2003-01-01

    The RS-84 is the first reusable hydrocarbon staged combustion liquid rocket engine. This engine is being developed to meet NASA s crew safety goals with a highly reliable and low cost main engine as a part of the NASA Space Launch Initiative program for the next generation reusable launch system. The NASA-MSFC and Rocketdyne team brings over 50 years of successful rocket engine development experience to meet the challenges of this new program. This team s extensive design database has been anchored with almost five decades of hydrocarbon rocket engine development and flight operations experience including Delta, Atlas, and Saturn vehicles and nearly three decades of successfully operating the world s only reusable pump-fed rocket engine, the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The team also fully benefits from the proven and experienced engineering staffs that recently completed the successful MC-1 FASTRAC , XRS-2200, and RS-68 engine development programs and the ongoing IPD and RS-76 technology development. Advances in integrated parametric design and analysis tools, advanced materials knowledge base, and state-of-the-art fabrication processes anchored and refined during the recent engine development programs are already being used by the team to design this engine.

  11. Stirling engine application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Cunningham, D.

    1983-01-01

    A range of potential applications for Stirling engines in the power range from 0.5 to 5000 hp is surveyed. Over one hundred such engine applications are grouped into a small number of classes (10), with the application in each class having a high degree of commonality in technical performance and cost requirements. A review of conventional engines (usually spark ignition or Diesel) was then undertaken to determine the degree to which commercial engine practice now serves the needs of the application classes and to detemine the nature of the competition faced by a new engine system. In each application class the Stirling engine was compared to the conventional engines, assuming that objectives of ongoing Stirling engine development programs are met. This ranking process indicated that Stirling engines showed potential for use in all application classes except very light duty applications (lawn mowers, etc.). However, this potential is contingent on demonstrating much greater operating life and reliability than has been demonstrated to date by developmental Stirling engine systems. This implies that future program initiatives in developing Stirling engine systems should give more emphasis to life and reliability issues than has been the case in ongoing programs.

  12. Engineered phages for electronics.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue

    2016-11-15

    Phages are traditionally widely studied in biology and chemistry. In recent years, engineered phages have attracted significant attentions for functionalization or construction of electronic devices, due to their specific binding, catalytic, nucleating or electronic properties. To apply the engineered phages in electronics, these are a number of interesting questions: how to engineer phages for electronics? How are the engineered phages characterized? How to assemble materials with engineered phages? How are the engineered phages micro or nanopatterned? What are the strategies to construct electronics devices with engineered phages? This review will highlight the early attempts to address these questions and explore the fundamental and practical aspects of engineered phages in electronics, including the approaches for selection or expression of specific peptides on phage coat proteins, characterization of engineered phages in electronics, assembly of electronic materials, patterning of engineered phages, and construction of electronic devices. It provides the methodologies and opens up ex-cit-ing op-por-tu-ni-ties for the development of a variety of new electronic materials and devices based on engineered phages for future applications.

  13. Institute for Mechanical Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Institute of Mechanical Engineering has the objectives of supporting in Canada the following activities: improvement of vehicles, propulsion systems, and transportation-related facilities and services; improvements in the design and operation of maritime engineering works; protection of the environment; enhancement of energy flexibility; advancement of firms engaged in manufacturing and resource extraction; and related programs of other government departments and agencies. In 1990-91 the Institute, which had changed its name that year from the Division of Mechanical Engineering, consolidated its research activities from nine laboratories to six programs. Activities in these six programs are described: Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Coastal Zone Engineering, Cold Regions Engineering, Combustion and Fluids Engineering, Ground Transportation Technology, and Machinery and Engine Technology.

  14. Advanced engine technology

    SciTech Connect

    Heisler, H.

    1995-12-31

    This book provides a comprehensive reference for anyone wanting to study the way in which modern vehicle engines work, and why they are designed as they are. The book covers virtually all configurations of commercially-produced engines, and features the latest engine technology including up-to-date coverage of electronic engine management and exhaust emission control. Chapters cover valves and camshafts; camshaft chain belt and gear train drives; engine balance and vibration; combustion chamber design and engine performance; induction and exhaust systems; supercharging systems; carburetted fuel systems; fuel injection systems; ignition systems; engine testing equipment; diesel in-line fuel injection pump systems; diesel rotary and unit injector fuel injection pump systems; emission control; cooling and lubrication systems; and alternative power units.

  15. Perceptions regarding biomedical engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James E.

    1995-10-01

    Perceptions of biomedical engineering are important because they can influence private and public decisions on R&D funding and public policy. A survey was conducted of a group of persons active in biomedical engineering research in an attempt to determine the perceptions of the general public and of the biomedical community regarding biomedical engineering. The public is believed to have 'a little' knowledge of biomedical engineering, and to have a wide range of opinions on what biomedical engineers do. The survey respondents believe they are in general agreement with the public on several questions regarding biomedical engineering. However, the public is believed to be more inclined than workers in the field to think that biomedical engineering increases the cost of health care, and to be less supportive of increased R&D funding for health care technology.

  16. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  17. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  18. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  19. REMR (Repair, Evaluation, Maintenance, and Rehabilitation) Research Program Development Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    team from OCE; four WES Laboratories, Structures (SL), Environmental (EL), Geotechnical (GL), and Hydraulics (HL); Construction Engineering Research...from each Corps Laboratory (Structures, Geotechnical , Hydraulics, Environmental, Construction BI-2 Engineering , Cold Regions, Engineer topographic... GEOTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL AND SLOPE STABILI- ZATION (Continued) r. Overuse damage (compaction of r. Erosion control methods soil

  20. Mechanical Engineering Department technical review

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.B.; Abrahamson, L.; Denney, R.M.; Dubois, B.E

    1982-01-01

    Technical achievements and publication abstracts related to research in the following Divisions of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory are reported in this biannual review: Nuclear Fuel Engineering; Nuclear Explosives Engineering; Weapons Engineering; Energy Systems Engineering; Engineering Sciences; Magnetic Fusion Engineering; and Material Fabrication. (LCL)

  1. Microfluidics and microbial engineering.

    PubMed

    Kou, Songzi; Cheng, Danhui; Sun, Fei; Hsing, I-Ming

    2016-02-07

    The combination of microbial engineering and microfluidics is synergistic in nature. For example, microfluidics is benefiting from the outcome of microbial engineering and many reported point-of-care microfluidic devices employ engineered microbes as functional parts for the microsystems. In addition, microbial engineering is facilitated by various microfluidic techniques, due to their inherent strength in high-throughput screening and miniaturization. In this review article, we firstly examine the applications of engineered microbes for toxicity detection, biosensing, and motion generation in microfluidic platforms. Secondly, we look into how microfluidic technologies facilitate the upstream and downstream processes of microbial engineering, including DNA recombination, transformation, target microbe selection, mutant characterization, and microbial function analysis. Thirdly, we highlight an emerging concept in microbial engineering, namely, microbial consortium engineering, where the behavior of a multicultural microbial community rather than that of a single cell/species is delineated. Integrating the disciplines of microfluidics and microbial engineering opens up many new opportunities, for example in diagnostics, engineering of microbial motors, development of portable devices for genetics, high throughput characterization of genetic mutants, isolation and identification of rare/unculturable microbial species, single-cell analysis with high spatio-temporal resolution, and exploration of natural microbial communities.

  2. A Powerful New Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from NASA's Glenn Research Center, Moller International created a new coating for rotary engines, which significantly improves the fuel consumption of a vehicle while reducing emissions. The new coatings are offered in the new Rotapower(R) engine, which is produced and distributed by Moller subsidiary, Freedom Motors, Inc. The coating allows the Rotapower engine to function smoother than other models, reducing wear and protecting the engine. The Rotapower engine has the ability to operate on a variety of fuels, including gasoline, natural gas, diesel, alcohol, and kerosene. A small and lightweight engine, it is projected to replace many of today's bulkier versions. The 10 horsepower model fits in the palm of one's hand, while the 160 horsepower model fits into a 5-gallon bucket. The clean running Rotapower engine is environmentally appealing, because it eliminates over 98 percent of the total emissions given off by traditional piston engines. Fewer pollutants are spewed into the air, making it especially attractive in areas where air pollution is a major problem. Due to the clean-burning nature of the engine, it meets the stringent standards set by the California Air Resources Board. The engine also has numerous commercial benefits in several types of recreational, industrial, and transportation applications, including personal watercraft, snowmobiles, portable generators. and pumps.

  3. Educating the humanitarian engineer.

    PubMed

    Passino, Kevin M

    2009-12-01

    The creation of new technologies that serve humanity holds the potential to help end global poverty. Unfortunately, relatively little is done in engineering education to support engineers' humanitarian efforts. Here, various strategies are introduced to augment the teaching of engineering ethics with the goal of encouraging engineers to serve as effective volunteers for community service. First, codes of ethics, moral frameworks, and comparative analysis of professional service standards lay the foundation for expectations for voluntary service in the engineering profession. Second, standard coverage of global issues in engineering ethics educates humanitarian engineers about aspects of the community that influence technical design constraints encountered in practice. Sample assignments on volunteerism are provided, including a prototypical design problem that integrates community constraints into a technical design problem in a novel way. Third, it is shown how extracurricular engineering organizations can provide a theory-practice approach to education in volunteerism. Sample completed projects are described for both undergraduates and graduate students. The student organization approach is contrasted with the service-learning approach. Finally, long-term goals for establishing better infrastructure are identified for educating the humanitarian engineer in the university, and supporting life-long activities of humanitarian engineers.

  4. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2011-11-01

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  5. Staged combustion with piston engine and turbine engine supercharger

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Larry E.; Anderson, Brian L.; O'Brien, Kevin C.

    2006-05-09

    A combustion engine method and system provides increased fuel efficiency and reduces polluting exhaust emissions by burning fuel in a two-stage combustion system. Fuel is combusted in a piston engine in a first stage producing piston engine exhaust gases. Fuel contained in the piston engine exhaust gases is combusted in a second stage turbine engine. Turbine engine exhaust gases are used to supercharge the piston engine.

  6. J-2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This chart is an illustration of J-2 Engine characteristics. A cluster of five J-2 engines powered the Saturn V S-II (second) stage with each engine providing a thrust of 200,000 pounds. A single J-2 engine powered the S-IVB stage, the Saturn IB second stage, and the Saturn V third stage. The engine was uprated to provide 230,000 pounds of thrust for the fourth Apollo Saturn V flight and subsequent missions. Burning liquid hydrogen as fuel and using liquid oxygen as the oxidizer, the cluster of five J-2 engines for the S-II stage burned over one ton of propellant per second, during about 6 1/2 minutes of operation, to take the vehicle to an altitude of about 108 miles and a speed of near orbital velocity, about 17,400 miles per hour.

  7. Liquid rocket engine test facility engineering challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Hartwig; Ziegenhagen, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    Liquid rocket engines for launch vehicles and space crafts as well as their subsystems need to be verified and qualified during hot-runs. A high test cadence combined with a flexible test team helps to reduce the cost for test verification during development/qualification as well as during acceptance testing for production. Test facility intelligence allows to test subsystems in the same manner as during complete engine system tests and will therefore reduce development time and cost. This paper gives an overview of the maturing of test engineering know how for rocket engine test stands as well as high altitude test stands for small propulsion thrusters at EADS-ST in Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen and is split into two parts: Part 1 gives a historical overview of the EADS-ST test stands at Ottobrunn and Lampoldshausen since the beginning of Rocket propulsion activities in the 1960s. Part 2 gives an overview of the actual test capabilities and the test engineering know-how for test stand construction/adaptation and their use during running programs. Examples of actual realised facility concepts are given to demonstrate cost saving potential for test programs in both cases for development/qualification issues as well as for production purposes.

  8. Engineered human vaccines

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhu, J.S. . Div. of Immunology and Neurobiology)

    1994-01-01

    The limitations of human vaccines in use at present and the design requirements for a new generation of human vaccines are discussed. The progress in engineering of human vaccines for bacteria, viruses, parasites, and cancer is reviewed, and the data from human studies with the engineered vaccines are discussed, especially for cancer and AIDS vaccines. The final section of the review deals with the possible future developments in the field of engineered human vaccines and the requirement for effective new human adjuvants.

  9. Diesel Engine Technology Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    AFWAL-TR-87-20 54 83-021-DET DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Kaupert, Andrew W., Lt. Col. USAFR Air Force Reserves Detroit Detachment 2 Ann Arbor, MI...nn AFR OH 45433-6563 63723F 3139 1 01 01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) DIESEL ENGINE TECHNOLOGY UPDATE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Kaupert...methodology for technology prediction. The objective of the present report is to update the technology transfer/ 0 development status of diesel engine

  10. STV engine design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) engine design criteria and issues; (2) design requirements for man rating; (3) test requirements for man rating; (4) design requirements for space basing; (5) engine operation requirements; (6) health monitoring; (7) lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) feed system; (8) lunar excursion vehicle (LEV) propellant system; (9) area ratio gimbal angle limits; (10) reaction control system; and (11) engine configuration and characteristics. This document is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. 1988 Annual Report. (The Hydrologic Engineering Center)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Brunner Hydraulic Engineer Randy Hills Hydraulic Engineer David M. Goldman Hydraulic Engineer Penni R. Baker Computer Programmer Analyst Alfred T. Onodera...Engineer Alfredo E. Montalvo Hydraulic Engineer Michael W. Burnham Hydraulic Engineer Dennis J. Huff Hydraulic Engineer David T. Ford Hydraulic Engineer...William J. Charley Hydraulic Engineer Robert D. Carl Hydraulic Engineer Gloria F. Briley Secretary (Typing) Rochelle Barkin Computer System Analyst

  12. Stirling Engine Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Noboru

    Recent advances in the feasibility studies related to the Stirling engines and Stirling engine heat pumps which have been considered attractive due to their promising role in helping to solve the global environmental and energy problems,are reviewed. This article begins to describe the brief history of the Stirling engines and theoretical thermodynamic analysis of the Stirling cycle in order to understand several advantages on the Stirling engine. Furthermore,they could throw light on our question why the dream engines had not been promoted to practical applications during two hundred years. The present review shows that the Stirling engines with several unique advantages including 30 to 40% thermal efficiency and preferable exhaust characteristics,had been designed and constructed by recent tackling for the development of the advanced automobile and other applications using them. Based on the current state of art,it is being provided to push the Stirling engines combined with heat pumps based on the reversed Rankine cycle to the market. At present,however, many problems, especially for the durability, cost, and delicate engine parts must be enforced to solve. In addition,there are some possibilities which can increase the attractiveness of the Stirling engines and heat pumps. The review closes with suggestions for further research.

  13. Rocket Engine Oscillation Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tom; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Rocket engine oscillating data can reveal many physical phenomena ranging from unsteady flow and acoustics to rotordynamics and structural dynamics. Because of this, engine diagnostics based on oscillation data should employ both signal analysis and physical modeling. This paper describes an approach to rocket engine oscillation diagnostics, types of problems encountered, and example problems solved. Determination of design guidelines and environments (or loads) from oscillating phenomena is required during initial stages of rocket engine design, while the additional tasks of health monitoring, incipient failure detection, and anomaly diagnostics occur during engine development and operation. Oscillations in rocket engines are typically related to flow driven acoustics, flow excited structures, or rotational forces. Additional sources of oscillatory energy are combustion and cavitation. Included in the example problems is a sampling of signal analysis tools employed in diagnostics. The rocket engine hardware includes combustion devices, valves, turbopumps, and ducts. Simple models of an oscillating fluid system or structure can be constructed to estimate pertinent dynamic parameters governing the unsteady behavior of engine systems or components. In the example problems it is shown that simple physical modeling when combined with signal analysis can be successfully employed to diagnose complex rocket engine oscillatory phenomena.

  14. Tripropellant Engine Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of modifying the space shuttle main engine (SSME) for dual mode operation was investigated. Various high power cycle engine configurations derived from the SSME were configurations that will allow sequential burning of LOX/hydrocarbon and LOX/hydrogen were studied in order to identify concepts that make maximum use of SSME hardware and best satisfy the dual mode booster engine system application. Engine cycles were formulated for LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 propellants. Flow rates and operating cycles were established and the adaptability of the major components of the SSME was evaluated.

  15. Diesel Engine Alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T

    2003-08-24

    There are basically three different modes of combustion possible for use in reciprocating engines. These include, diffusion burning, as occurs in current diesel engines, flame propagation combustion such as used in conventional SI engines, and homogeneous combustion such as is used in the SwRI HCCI engine. Diesel engines currently offer significant fuel consumption benefits relative to other powerplants for on and off road applications; however, costs and efficiency may become problems as the emissions standards become even more stringent. This presentation presents a discussion of the potentials of HCCI and flame propagation engines as alternatives to the diesel engines. It is suggested that as the emissions standards become more and more stringent, the advantages of the diesel may disappear. The potential for HCCI is limited by the availability of the appropriate fuel. The potential of flame propagation engines is limited by several factors including knock, EGR tolerance, high BMEP operation, and throttling. These limitations are discussed in the context of potential for improvement of the efficiency of the flame propagation engine.

  16. SOFIA Engineer Thomas Keilig

    NASA Video Gallery

    Thomas Keilig, the German Aerospace Agency's (DLR) chief telescope engineer for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), comments on technical details of the high-tech primary ...

  17. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  18. Engineering of Secondary Metabolism.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Secondary (specialized) metabolites, produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, and other organisms, exhibit enormous structural variation, and consequently display a wide range of biological activities. Secondary metabolism improves and modulates the phenotype of the host producer. Furthermore, these biological activities have resulted in the use of secondary metabolites in a variety of industrial and pharmaceutical applications. Metabolic engineering presents a powerful strategy to improve access to these valuable molecules. A critical overview of engineering approaches in secondary metabolism is presented, both in heterologous and native hosts. The recognition of the increasing role of compartmentalization in metabolic engineering is highlighted. Engineering approaches to modify the structure of key secondary metabolite classes are also critically evaluated.

  19. Vehicle/engine integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, L. P.; Vinopal, T. J.; Florence, D. E.; Michel, R. W.; Brown, J. R.; Bergeron, R. P.; Weldon, V. A.

    1984-04-01

    VEHICLE/ENGINE Integration Issues are explored for orbit transfer vehicles (OTV's). The impact of space basing and aeroassist on VEHICLE/ENGINE integration is discussed. The AOTV structure and thermal protection subsystem weights were scaled as the vehicle length and surface was changed. It is concluded that for increased allowable payload lengths in a ground-based system, lower length-to-diameter (L/D) is as important as higher mixture ration (MR) in the range of mid L/D ATOV's. Scenario validity, geometry constraints, throttle levels, reliability, and servicing are discussed in the context of engine design and engine/vehicle integration.

  20. Tripropellant engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. B.; Kirby, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    The potential for converting the space shuttle main engine (SSME) to a dual-fuel, dual-mode engine using LOX/hydrocarbon propellants in mode 1 and LOX/H2 in mode 2 was examined. Various engine system concepts were formulated that included staged combustion and gas generator turbine power cycles, and LOX/RP-1, LOX/CH4, and LOX/C3H8 mode 1 propellants. Both oxidizer and fuel regenerative cooling were considered. All of the SSME major components were examined to determine their adaptability to the candidate dual-fuel engines.

  1. Engine and method for operating an engine

    DOEpatents

    Lauper, Jr., John Christian; Willi, Martin Leo; Thirunavukarasu, Balamurugesh; Gong, Weidong

    2008-12-23

    A method of operating an engine is provided. The method may include supplying a combustible combination of reactants to a combustion chamber of the engine, which may include supplying a first hydrocarbon fuel, hydrogen fuel, and a second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber. Supplying the second hydrocarbon fuel to the combustion chamber may include at least one of supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into an intake system of the engine and supplying at least a portion of the second hydrocarbon fuel from an outlet port that discharges into the combustion chamber. Additionally, the method may include combusting the combustible combination of reactants in the combustion chamber.

  2. Perturbing engine performance measurements to determine optimal engine control settings

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-12-30

    Methods and systems for optimizing a performance of a vehicle engine are provided. The method includes determining an initial value for a first engine control parameter based on one or more detected operating conditions of the vehicle engine, determining a value of an engine performance variable, and artificially perturbing the determined value of the engine performance variable. The initial value for the first engine control parameter is then adjusted based on the perturbed engine performance variable causing the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. Operation of the vehicle engine is controlled based on the adjusted initial value for the first engine control parameter. These acts are repeated until the engine performance variable approaches the target engine performance variable.

  3. Students' Changing Images of Engineering and Engineers. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocuns, Andrew; Stevens, Reed; Garrison, Lari; Amos, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the images of engineers and engineering that students construct over the course of their undergraduate engineering educations. Students in their first year of study to become engineers knew very little about the work they would be doing as an engineer and their expectations were more specific, hopeful, and high status than…

  4. 77 FR 9837 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...; AD 2012-03-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lycoming Engines reciprocating engines. This AD was prompted by a... carburetor with one eligible for installation. We are issuing this AD to prevent engine in-flight...

  5. Systems Engineering and Integration as a Foundation for Mission Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    requirements, and ultimately provide a context for definition of mission engineering. 14. SUBJECT TERMS mission engineering, systems engineering...requirements, and ultimately provide a context for definition of mission engineering. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii TABLE OF...of Defense (DOD) circles without formal definition or scope. However, the use of the term in systems engineering contexts implies a relationship that

  6. Engineer: The Professional Bulletin of Army Engineers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Granite” fashioned in a T- Wall design that will bear the names of our Fallen Engineers. This project has received initial ap- proval to be placed...or private sponsorship. See page 5 for an artist’s rendering of the proposed mon- ument. The goal is to unveil the first sets of T- Walls at ENFORCE...resulting in the award of the Purple Heart. AEA is accepting donations to support the design and con- struction of a Memorial Wall for Fallen Engineers

  7. A novel geotechnical/geostatistical approach for exploration and production of natural gas from multiple geologic strata, Phase 1. Volume 1, Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Reeves, T.K.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.; Brunk, R.; Hawkins, L.

    1991-05-01

    This research program has been designed to develop and verify a unique geostatistical approach for finding natural gas resources. The research has been conducted by Beckley College, Inc. (Beckley) and BDM Engineering Services Company (BDMESC) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Phase 1 of the project consisted of compiling and analyzing relevant geological and gas production information in selected areas of Raleigh County, West Virginia, ultimately narrowed to the Eccles, West Virginia, 7 {1/2} minute Quadrangle. The Phase 1 analysis identified key parameters contributing to the accumulation and production of natural gas in Raleigh County, developed analog models relating geological factors to gas production, and identified specific sites to test and verify the analysis methodologies by drilling. Based on the Phase 1 analysis, five sites have been identified with high potential for economic gas production. Phase 2 will consist of drilling, completing, and producing one or more wells at the sites identified in the Phase 1 analyses. The initial well is schedules to the drilled in April 1991. This report summarizes the results of the Phase 1 investigations. For clarity, the report has been prepared in two volumes. Volume 1 presents the Phase 1 overview; Volume 2 contains the detailed geological and production information collected and analyzed for this study.

  8. Geohazard identification: the gap between the possible and reality in geophysical surveys for the engineering industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, Julie M.

    2011-03-01

    Offshore Contractors engaged in the business of installing pipelines and subsea structures routinely rely on third party survey data to identify and assess the risk of surface and buried geohazards. In many cases, route or site survey data are supplied to a marine Contractor with the latter having little or no input to the manner in which the geophysical and geotechnical data are acquired, processed and reported. Often, the completed survey reports indicate that neither data acquisition nor the subsequent data processing were carried out with the ultimate goal of the survey or the end user in mind. This lack of focus at the survey stage can contribute to incorrect or over-optimistic assessments of geohazard risk, with serious impact on offshore installation operations as a consequence. Two case studies from the North Sea are discussed where inappropriate data processing and reporting of geophysical data had a negative impact on offshore installation operations; these are used as a basis for a more general discussion of the underlying reasons for the production of engineering survey reports which are "not-fit-for-purpose".

  9. Determination and Assessment of Parameters Influencing Rock Mass Cavability in Block Caving Mines Using the Probabilistic Rock Engineering System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ramin; Ataei, Mohammad; Khalokakaie, Reza; Jalali, Seyed Mohammad Esmaeil; Sereshki, Farhang

    2015-05-01

    Mining methods such as block caving or sublevel caving rely on the characteristics of the rock mass to cave efficiently to fulfill an economical production. The identification of influencing parameters and cavability assessment are, thus, a prime geotechnical focus for all potential caving projects. In the caving operation, many factors, such as natural and induced factors, affect the caving performance. In this study, after discussing the caving process and identifying all effective parameters, the interaction matrix based on the rock engineering system (RES) is introduced to study the influencing parameters in rock mass cavability. The interaction matrix analyzes the interrelationship between the parameters affecting rock engineering activities. As the interaction matrix codes are not unique, probabilistic coding can be performed non-deterministically, allowing consideration of uncertainties in the RES analysis. As a result, the parameters with the highest probability of being dominant or subordinate, and also the parameters with the highest probability of being interactive, are introduced. The proposed approach could be a simple but efficient tool in the evaluation of the parameters affecting the cavability of rock mass in block caving mines and, hence, useful in decision-making under uncertainties.

  10. NASA Systems Engineering Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirshorn, Steven R.; Voss, Linda D.; Bromley, Linda K.

    2017-01-01

    The update of this handbook continues the methodology of the previous revision: a top-down compatibility with higher level Agency policy and a bottom-up infusion of guidance from the NASA practitioners in the field. This approach provides the opportunity to obtain best practices from across NASA and bridge the information to the established NASA systems engineering processes and to communicate principles of good practice as well as alternative approaches rather than specify a particular way to accomplish a task. The result embodied in this handbook is a top-level implementation approach on the practice of systems engineering unique to NASA. Material used for updating this handbook has been drawn from many sources, including NPRs, Center systems engineering handbooks and processes, other Agency best practices, and external systems engineering textbooks and guides. This handbook consists of six chapters: (1) an introduction, (2) a systems engineering fundamentals discussion, (3) the NASA program project life cycles, (4) systems engineering processes to get from a concept to a design, (5) systems engineering processes to get from a design to a final product, and (6) crosscutting management processes in systems engineering. The chapters are supplemented by appendices that provide outlines, examples, and further information to illustrate topics in the chapters. The handbook makes extensive use of boxes and figures to define, refine, illustrate, and extend concepts in the chapters.

  11. Engineers: Going Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feest, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This article demonstrates the need for engineering courses in UK higher education to give a higher priority to global and sustainability issues. In support of this case, the author summarizes and assesses evidence from a recently-concluded study by the Institute of Education, University of London, and Engineers Against Poverty, a specialist…

  12. Teaching Engineering Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Carlsen, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering is featured prominently in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and related reform documents, but how its nature and methods are described is problematic. This paper is a systematic review and critique of that representation, and proposes that the disciplinary core ideas of engineering (as described in the NGSS) can be…

  13. Engineering for Everyone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Christine M.; Higgins, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The new Next Generation Science Standards make it a priority for schools to focus more on the E in STEM, to help students learn the skills and practices of engineering. Schools that are doing so face a challenge, however: How to design educational experiences in engineering that engage all students--including girls and minorities, who are…

  14. The New Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knepler, Henry

    1977-01-01

    As engineers become increasingly responsive to social issues, technology is no longer the only determinant of what they do. Ecological, social, cultural, psychological, and political influences are important considerations, and the changes are moving engineering schools to reconsider basic changes in both the mode and social content of their…

  15. Free piston stirling engines

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents a basic introduction to free piston Stirling engine technology through a review of specialized background material. It also includes information based on actual construction and operation experience with these machines, as well as theoretical and analytical insights into free piston Stirling engine technology.

  16. Ann Wagner, Mechanical Engineer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Betsy K.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a profile of Ann Wagner, a mechanical engineer at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, and her job responsibilities there. Also includes a brief history of mechanical engineering as well as a sample graph and data activity sheet with answers. (AIM)

  17. Systems Engineering Measurement Primer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Systems Engineering Measurement Primer A Basic Introduction to Systems Engineering Measurement Concepts and Use Version 1.0 March 1998 This document...Federal Systems Garry Roedler Lockheed Martin Management & Data Systems Cathy Tilton The National Registry, Inc. E. Richard Widmann Raytheon Systems...IV 1. INTRODUCTION

  18. Advances in Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Vacanti, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, we reported on a concept now known as Tissue Engineering. Here, we report on some of the advances in this now thriving area of research. In particular, significant advances in tissue engineering of skin, liver, spinal cord, blood vessels, and other areas are discussed. PMID:26711689

  19. Stirling engine piston ring

    DOEpatents

    Howarth, Roy B.

    1983-01-01

    A piston ring design for a Stirling engine wherein the contact pressure between the piston and the cylinder is maintained at a uniform level, independent of engine conditions through a balancing of the pressure exerted upon the ring's surface and thereby allowing the contact pressure on the ring to be predetermined through the use of a preloaded expander ring.

  20. Diesel Engine Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foutes, William A.

    Written in student performance terms, this curriculum guide on diesel engine repair is divided into the following eight sections: an orientation to the occupational field and instructional program; instruction in operating principles; instruction in engine components; instruction in auxiliary systems; instruction in fuel systems; instruction in…

  1. First-Grade Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Peters, Kari Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Can students build a house that is cost effective and strong enough to survive strong winds, heavy rains, and earthquakes? First graders in Ms. Peter's classroom worked like engineers to answer this question. They participated in a design challenge that required them to plan like engineers and build strong and cost-effective houses that would fit…

  2. Computers in Engineering Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushby, N. J.

    This bibliography cites 26 books, papers, and reports dealing with various uses of computers in engineering education; and describes several computer programs available for use in teaching aeronautical, chemical, civil, electrical and electronic, mechanical, and nuclear engineering. Each computer program entry is presented by name, author,…

  3. Searches Conducted for Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Patricia

    This paper reports an industrial information specialist's experience in performing online searches for engineers and surveys the databases used. Engineers seeking assistance fall into three categories: (1) those who recognize the value of online retrieval; (2) referrals by colleagues; and (3) those who do not seek help. As more successful searches…

  4. NASA Engineering Network (NEN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topousis, Daria; Trevarthen, Ellie; Yew, Manson

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the NASA Engineering Network (NEN). NEN is designed to search documents over multiple repositories, submit and browse NASA Lessons Learned, collaborate and share ideas with other engineers via communities of practice, access resources from one portal, and find subject matter experts via the People, Organizations, Projects, Skills (POPS) locator.

  5. Courseware Engineering Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Lorna

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of the Courseware Engineering Methodology (CEM), created to guide novices in designing effective courseware. Discusses CEM's four models: pedagogical (concerned with the courseware's pedagogical aspects), conceptual (dealing with software engineering), interface (relating to human-computer interaction), and hypermedia…

  6. Small Gas Engine Repair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    Instructional materials are provided for a small gas engine course. A list of objectives appears first, followed by a list of internal parts and skills/competencies related to those parts for engine work, ignition and electrical systems, fuel system, crankcase lubrication system, arc welding skills, and gas welding skills. Outlines are provided…

  7. Engine monitoring display study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornsby, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    The current study is part of a larger NASA effort to develop displays for an engine-monitoring system to enable the crew to monitor engine parameter trends more effectively. The objective was to evaluate the operational utility of adding three types of information to the basic Boeing Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) display formats: alphanumeric alerting messages for engine parameters whose values exceed caution or warning limits; alphanumeric messages to monitor engine parameters that deviate from expected values; and a graphic depiction of the range of expected values for current conditions. Ten training and line pilots each flew 15 simulated flight scenarios with five variants of the basic EICAS format; these variants included different combinations of the added information. The pilots detected engine problems more quickly when engine alerting messages were included in the display; adding a graphic depiction of the range of expected values did not affect detection speed. The pilots rated both types of alphanumeric messages (alert and monitor parameter) as more useful and easier to interpret than the graphic depiction. Integrating engine parameter messages into the EICAS alerting system appears to be both useful and preferred.

  8. Diesel Engine Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Diesel engine technicians maintain and repair the engines that power transportation equipment such as heavy trucks, trains, buses, and locomotives. Some technicians work mainly on farm machines, ships, compressors, and pumps. Others work mostly on construction equipment such as cranes, power shovels, bulldozers, and paving machines. This article…

  9. Engineering Students' Sustainability Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haase, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability issues are increasingly important in engineering work all over the world. This article explores systematic differences in self-assessed competencies, interests, importance, engagement and practices of newly enrolled engineering students in Denmark in relation to environmental and non-environmental sustainability issues. The…

  10. Engineering Design Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike

    2004-01-01

    In the author's opinion, the separation of content between science, math, engineering, and technology education should not exist. Working with the relationship between these content areas enhances students' efforts to learn about the physical world. In teaching students about design, technology, and engineering, attention should be given to the…

  11. The Engineering Technician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    Occupational and educational information concerning 12 categories of engineering technicians and engineering technology is presented. This information covers the role of the technicians, student qualifications, typical job titles, and typical educational programs. The categories presented are (1) air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, (2)…

  12. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  13. Stirling engine design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1978-01-01

    This manual is intended to serve both as an introduction to Stirling engine analysis methods and as a key to the open literature on Stirling engines. Over 800 references are listed and these are cross referenced by date of publication, author and subject. Engine analysis is treated starting from elementary principles and working through cycles analysis. Analysis methodologies are classified as first, second or third order depending upon degree of complexity and probable application; first order for preliminary engine studies, second order for performance prediction and engine optimization, and third order for detailed hardware evaluation and engine research. A few comparisons between theory and experiment are made. A second order design procedure is documented step by step with calculation sheets and a worked out example to follow. Current high power engines are briefly described and a directory of companies and individuals who are active in Stirling engine development is included. Much remains to be done. Some of the more complicated and potentially very useful design procedures are now only referred to. Future support will enable a more thorough job of comparing all available design procedures against experimental data which should soon be available.

  14. Make Room for Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesdorfer, Sarah; Greenhalgh, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS Lead States 2013) urge science teachers to include engineering practices and ideas in their already full science curriculum, but many teachers do not know where to start. Only 7% of high school science teachers report feeling "very well prepared" to teach engineering. The…

  15. Concurrent Software Engineering Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stankovic, Nenad; Tillo, Tammam

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent engineering or overlapping activities is a business strategy for schedule compression on large development projects. Design parameters and tasks from every aspect of a product's development process and their interdependencies are overlapped and worked on in parallel. Concurrent engineering suffers from negative effects such as excessive…

  16. Engineer Doctrine for Joint Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    command relationships. Engineer forces could be OPERATION FUERTE APOYO ENGINEER COMMAND AND CONTROL In late October 1998, Hurricane Mitch slammed into...Salvador, and Guatemala. OPERATION FUERTE APOYO ENGINEER COMMAND AND CONTROL USSOUTHCOM ENGINEER Miami, FL JTF-B J7 Soto Cano, HO JTF-Aguila Engineer

  17. Definition of the Engineering Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Billy Vaughn

    In an effort to more clearly define the engineering method, this document attempts to draw distinctions between engineering and science. Part I, "Some Thoughts on Engineering," discusses strategies that engineers employ to solve problems, and the characteristics of the types of engineering problems. Part II, "The Principal Rule of the Engineering…

  18. Technician Career Opportunities in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engineers' Council for Professional Development, New York, NY.

    Career opportunities for engineering technicians are available in the technologies relating to air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration, aviation and aerospace, building construction, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, electronics, industrial engineering, instrumentation, internal combustion engines, mechanical…

  19. Engineering Sustainable Engineers through the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherton, Yvette Pearson; Sattler, Melanie; Mattingly, Stephen; Chen, Victoria; Rogers, Jamie; Dennis, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the challenges of sustainable development, our approach to education must be modified to equip students to evaluate alternatives and devise solutions that meet multi-faceted requirements. In 2009, faculty in the Departments of Civil, Industrial and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Texas at Arlington began implementation…

  20. Advanced Natural Gas Reciprocating Engine(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Doris; Boucher, Cheryl

    2009-09-30

    Energy independence and fuel savings are hallmarks of the nation’s energy strategy. The advancement of natural gas reciprocating engine power generation technology is critical to the nation’s future. A new engine platform that meets the efficiency, emissions, fuel flexibility, cost and reliability/maintainability targets will enable American manufacturers to have highly competitive products that provide substantial environmental and economic benefits in the US and in international markets. Along with Cummins and Waukesha, Caterpillar participated in a multiyear cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy to create a 50% efficiency natural gas powered reciprocating engine system with a 95% reduction in NOx emissions by the year 2013. This platform developed under this agreement will be a significant contributor to the US energy strategy and will enable gas engine technology to remain a highly competitive choice, meeting customer cost of electricity targets, and regulatory environmental standard. Engine development under the Advanced Reciprocating Engine System (ARES) program was divided into phases, with the ultimate goal being approached in a series of incremental steps. This incremental approach would promote the commercialization of ARES technologies as soon as they emerged from development and would provide a technical and commercial foundation of later-developing technologies. Demonstrations of the Phase I and Phase II technology were completed in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Program tasks in Phase III included component and system development and testing from 2009-2012. Two advanced ignition technology evaluations were investigated under the ARES program: laser ignition and distributed ignition (DIGN). In collaboration with Colorado State University (CSU), a laser ignition system was developed to provide ignition at lean burn and high boost conditions. Much work has been performed in Caterpillar’s DIGN program under the ARES program. This work