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Sample records for geothermal energy field

  1. Symposium in the field of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, Miguel; Mock, John E.

    1989-04-01

    Mexico and the US are nations with abundant sources of geothermal energy, and both countries have progressed rapidly in developing their more accessible resources. For example, Mexico has developed over 600 MWe at Cerro Prieto, while US developers have brought in over 2000 MWe at the Geysers. These successes, however, are only a prologue to an exciting future. All forms of energy face technical and economic barriers that must be overcome if the resources are to play a significant role in satisfying national energy needs. Geothermal energy--except for the very highest grade resources--face a number of barriers, which must be surmounted through research and development. Sharing a common interest in solving the problems that impede the rapid utilization of geothermal energy, Mexico and the US agreed to exchange information and participate in joint research. An excellent example of this close and continuing collaboration is the geothermal research program conducted under the auspices of the 3-year agreement signed on April 7, 1986 by the US DOE and the Mexican Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). The major objectives of this bilateral agreement are: (1) to achieve a thorough understanding of the nature of geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary and fractured igneous rocks; (2) to investigate how the geothermal resources of both nations can best be explored and utilized; and (3) to exchange information on geothermal topics of mutual interest.

  2. Direct use of the geothermal energy at Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Velasco, E.; Casimiro-Espinoza, E.

    1995-12-31

    The main object of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE`s) Geothermal Field at Los Azufres, is to generate geothermal electricity; however with the new politics in Mexico, CFE has designed a pilot project in order to profit from the geothermal residual energy and to attract national or foreign investors and convince them that direct use of geothermal energy is an attractive feasible and economical project. The object of this paper is to present the CFE experiences in different pilot projects applied to direct uses of geothermal energy.

  3. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  5. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  6. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  7. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  8. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  9. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  10. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  11. The Geothermal Field Camp: Capacity building for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I.; Sule, R.; Saptadji, N. M.; Deon, F.; Herdianita, N. R.; Jolie, E.; Suryantini, N.; Erbas, K.

    2012-04-01

    In July 2011, the first geothermal field camp was hold on Java/Indonesia near the city Bandung south of the volcanic field Tangkuban Perahu. The course was organized by the Institut Teknologie Bandung (ITB) and International Centre for Geothermal Research (ICGR) of the German Centre of Geosciences (GFZ). The purpose of the Geothermal Field Camp is to combine both field based work and laboratory analysis to ultimately better understand the data collected in field and to integrate data gained by various disciplines. The training belongs to a capacity building program for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia and initially aims to train the trainers. In a later stage, the educational personal trained by the Geothermal Field Camp shall be able to hold their individual Geothermal Field Camp. This is of special interest for Indonesia where the multitude of islands hindered a broad uniform education in geothermal energy systems. However, Indonesia hold the largest geothermal potential worldwide and educated personal is necessary to successfully develop this huge potential scattered over region in future. The interdisciplinary and integrative approach combined with field based and laboratory methodologies is the guiding principle of the Geothermal Field Camp. Tangkuban Perahu was selected because this field allows the integration of field based structural geological analysis, observation and sampling of geothermal manifestations as hot springs and sinters and ultimately of structural geology and surface geochemistry. This innovative training introduces in methods used in exploration geology to study both, fault and fracture systems and fluid chemistry to better understand the selective fluid flow along certain fractures and faults. Field geology covered the systematic measurement of faults and fractures, fault plane and fracture population analysis. In addition, field hydro-geochemistry focused on sampling techniques and field measurements onsite. Subsequent data analysis

  12. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  13. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  14. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  15. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  16. Geothermal Energy - An Emerging Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John R.

    1987-01-20

    Address on the Department of Energy's overall energy policy, the role of alternative energy sources within the policy framework, and expectations for geothermal energy. Commendation of the industry's decision to pursue the longer-term field effort while demand for geothermal energy is low, and thus prepare for a substantial geothermal contribution to the nation's energy security.

  17. Sustainable energy development and water supply security in Kamojang Geothermal Field: The Energy-Water Nexus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofyan, Y.; Nishijima, J.; Fujimitsu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamojang Geothermal Field (KGF) is a typical vapor dominated hydrothermal system in West Java, Indonesia. This geothermal field is the oldest exploited geothermal field in Indonesia. From 1983 to 2005, more than 160 million tons of steam have been exploited from the KGF and more than 30 million tons of water were injected into the reservoir system. The injected water come from condensed water, local river and ground water. Sustainable production in the geothermal energy development is the ability of the production system applied to sustain the stable production level over long times and to manage the mass balance between production, injection and natural recharge in the geothermal reservoir during exploitation. Mass balance in the reservoir system can be monitored by using time lapse gravity monitoring. Mass variation of hydrodynamic in the reservoir of KGF from 1999 to 2005 is about -3.34 Mt/year while is about -3.78 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Another period between 2009 and 2010, mass variation decreased about -8.24 Mt. According to the history of production and injection, natural recharge to the KGF's reservoir is estimated at about 2.77 Mt/year from 1999 to 2005 and 2.75 Mt/year from 1999 to 2008. Between 2009 and 2010, KGF has a bigger mass deficiency rate throughout 200 MWe maintain production. Large amount of fresh water is needed for sustainable geothermal energy production, while the domestic water supply need is also increased. Natural recharge, about 50% of injected water, cooling system, drilling and other production activities in KGF spend large amounts of fresh water. Water consumption for local people around KGF is about 1.46 MT/year. The water volume around KGF of total runoff is the range between dry season 0.07 MT/month and rainy season 4.4 MT/month. The water demands for sustainable geothermal production of KGF and for local people's consumption will increase in the future. Integrated planning between the energy and water sectors in KGF

  18. Volcanology and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this book is to demonstrate how volcanological concepts can be applied to the evaluation and exploration of geothermal energy resources. In regard to the geothermal content of the book, some of the information comes from the first-hand experience gained during the authors' exploration work in Middle America and with the Los Alamos Hot Dry Rock program. Other cases discussed come from classic geothermal systems in many regions and settings. The book begins with a summary of recent practical advances in volcanology, and then moves on to describe the considerable importance of pyroclastic rocks as a took to evaluate geothermal systems, including an in-depth treatment of hydrovolcanism. Following chapters deal with surface manifestations of geothermal systems, and systems associated with calderas, silicic lava domes, and basaltic volcanoes. The last chapter is on geothermal systems in maturing composite volcanoes. The Appendices include a broad overview of field methods in volcanic regions, volcanic rock classifications and properties, thermodynamic properties of water vapor (steam tables), and the use of cuttings in geothermal well logs. A two-dimensional heat flow code used for estimating geothermal resources is also given. The book makes two significant contributions: first, in its treatment of eruption dynamics, focusing on quantitative and theoretical analysis of volcanic processes, and second, in its comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of hydrovolcanism, including fuel-coolant interactions and hydrofracturing.

  19. Energy Optimization Modeling of Geothermal Power Plant (Case Study: Darajat Geothermal Field Unit III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinaga, R. H. M.; Darmanto, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Darajat unit III geothermal power plant is developed by PT. Chevron Geothermal Indonesia (CGI). The plant capacity is 121 MW and load 110%. The greatest utilization power is consumed by Hot Well Pump (HWP) and Cooling Tower Fan (CTF). Reducing the utility power can be attempted by utilizing the wet bulb temperature fluctuation. In this study, a modelling process is developed by using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software version 9.430.The possibility of energy saving is indicated by Specific Steam Consumption (SSC) net in relation to wet bulb temperature fluctuation from 9°C up to 20.5°C. Result shows that the existing daily operation reaches its optimum condition. The installation of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) could be applied to optimize both utility power of HWP and CTF. The highest gain is obtained by VFD HWP installation as much as 0.80% when wet bulb temperature 18.5 °C.

  20. Geothermal Energy Summary

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Renner

    2007-08-01

    -traditional geothermal development is increasing. A comprehensive new MIT-led study of the potential for geothermal energy within the United States predicts that mining the huge amounts of stored thermal energy in the Earth’s crust not associated with hydrothermal systems, could supply a substantial portion of U.S. electricity with minimal environmental impact (Tester, et al., 2006, available at http://geothermal.inl.gov). There is also renewed interest in geothermal production from other non-traditional sources such as the overpressured zones in the Gulf Coast and warm water co-produced with oil and gas. Ormat Technologies, Inc., a major geothermal company, recently acquired geothermal leases in the offshore overpressured zone of Texas. Ormat and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center recently announced plans to jointly produce geothermal power from co-produced water from the Teapot Dome oilfield (Casper Star-Tribune, March 2, 2007). RMOTC estimates that 300 KWe capacity is available from the 40,000 BWPD of 88°C water associated with oil production from the Tensleep Sandstone (Milliken, 2007). The U. S. Department of Energy is seeking industry partners to develop electrical generation at other operating oil and gas fields (for more information see: https://e-center.doe.gov/iips/faopor.nsf/UNID/50D3734745055A73852572CA006665B1?OpenDocument). Several web sites offer periodically updated information related to the geothermal industry and th

  1. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  2. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-27

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  3. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-15

    intervals of 30 km. Reykjanes , Krysuvik, and Hengill . > have base temperatures of 280.220 and 260^ respectively. Hengill, the largest, has an area of 70...and 32 MW of electric power is planned. Reykjanes has had seven holes drilled to a maximum depth of 1,750 m. These wells vield brine with...0.001-0. 01 < 4 Cu 0. 00 0.001-0. 01 Zn 0. 00 0.005 Pb 0. 00 0.004 Fig. 28, The composition of the geothermal brine at Reykjanes compared with

  5. Geothermal energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  6. Feasibility of Geothermal Energy Extraction from Non-Activated Petroleum Wells in Arun Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarifudin, M.; Octavius, F.; Maurice, K.

    2016-09-01

    The big obstacle to develop geothermal is frequently came from the economical viewpoint which mostly contributed by the drilling cost. However, it potentially be tackled by converting the existing decommissioned petroleum well to be converted for geothermal purposes. In Arun Field, Aceh, there are 188 wells and 62% of them are inactive (2013). The major obstacle is that the outlet water temperature from this conversion setup will not as high as the temperature that come out from the conventional geothermal well, since it will only range from 60 to 180oC depending on several key parameters such as the values of ground temperature, geothermal gradient in current location, the flow inside of the tubes, and type of the tubes (the effect from these parameters are studied). It will just be considered as low to medium temperature, according to geothermal well classification. Several adjustments has to be made such as putting out pipes inside the well that have been used to lift the oil/gas and replacing them with a curly long coil tubing which act as a heat exchanger. It will convert the cold water from the surface to be indirectly heated by the hot rock at the bottom of the well in a closed loop system. In order to make power production, the binary cycle system is used so that the low to medium temperature fluid is able to generate electricity. Based on this study, producing geothermal energy for direct use and electricity generation in Arun Field is technically possible. In this study case, we conclude that 2900 kW of electricity could be generated. While for-direct utility, a lot of local industries in Northern Sumatera could get the benefits from this innovation.

  7. Benefits of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    One of the principal benefits of geothermal power plants is that they provide baseload power. Baseload power plants provide power all or most of the time and contrast with peaker plants which turn on or off as demand rises, or peaks, throughout the day. Geothermal plants contrast with other renewable energy resources like wind and solar energy that generate power intermittently.

  8. Geothermal energy in Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    The annual primary energy supply in Iceland, which has a population of 268,000, is 98,000 TJ (T = 10{sup 12}) or 366 GJ per capita, which is among the highest in the world. Geothermal energy provides about 48.8% of the total, hydropower 17.2%, oil 31.5% and coal 2.5%. The main use of geothermal energy is for space heating. About 85% of all houses are heated with geothermal energy; the rest are heated mainly by electricity. So far, geothermal resources have only, to a limited extent, been used for electric power generation, because of the availability of relatively cheap hydropower resources. Of the total electricity production of 5,000 GWh in 1995, only 288 GWh or 5.8% came from geothermal energy, 94% from hydro and 0.2% from fuels.

  9. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  10. Geothermal energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service are reviewed. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research.

  11. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document reviews Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research. 16 figs. (FSD)

  12. The geothermal fields of the Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaroh, Don; Okoth, William

    1994-09-01

    From the standpoint of geothermal energy, Kenya's resources are due to the presence of the Kenya rift which is part of the East African rift system. Geological, geophysical and geothermal studies indicate that Neogene volcanic activity has led to the presence of near surface heat generating sources. Geothermal fields of the Kenya rift occur in two types of environments. The main geothermal fields are associated with Quaternary volcanoes. The second type is associated with fissures that are related to active fault zones. In either case, these fields are dissected by numerous rift faults that give rise to a number of geothermal springs and fumaroles.

  13. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D.

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  14. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  15. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  16. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  17. The National Geothermal Energy Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The continuous demand for energy and the concern for shortages of conventional energy resources have spurred the nation to consider alternate energy resources, such as geothermal. Although significant growth in the one natural steam field located in the United States has occurred, a major effort is now needed if geothermal energy, in its several forms, is to contribute to the nation's energy supplies. From the early informal efforts of an Interagency Panel for Geothermal Energy Research, a 5-year Federal program has evolved whose objective is the rapid development of a commercial industry for the utilization of geothermal resources for electric power production and other products. The Federal program seeks to evaluate the realistic potential of geothermal energy, to support the necessary research and technology needed to demonstrate the economic and environmental feasibility of the several types of geothermal resources, and to address the legal and institutional problems concerned in the stimulation and regulation of this new industry.

  18. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  19. CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Project: 82-well closed loop GHP well field to provide geothermal energy as a common utilitiy for a new community college campus

    SciTech Connect

    Chevron Energy Solutions; Matt Rush; Scott Shulda

    2011-01-03

    Colorado Northwestern Community College (CNCC) is working collaboratively with recipient vendor Chevron Energy Solutions, an energy services company (ESCO), to develop an innovative GHP project at the new CNCC Campus constructed in 2010/2011 in Craig, Colorado. The purpose of the CNCC Craig Campus Geothermal Program scope was to utilize an energy performance contracting approach to develop a geothermal system with a shared closed-loop field providing geothermal energy to each building's GHP mechanical system. Additional benefits to the project include promoting good jobs and clean energy while reducing operating costs for the college. The project has demonstrated that GHP technology is viable for new construction using the energy performance contracting model. The project also enabled the project team to evaluate several options to give the College a best value proposition for not only the initial design and construction costs but build high performance facilities that will save the College for many years to come. The design involved comparing the economic feasibility of GHP by comparing its cost to that of traditional HVAC systems via energy model, financial life cycle cost analysis of energy savings and capital cost, and finally by evaluating the compatibility of the mechanical design for GHP compared to traditional HVAC design. The project shows that GHP system design can be incorporated into the design of new commercial buildings if the design teams, architect, contractor, and owner coordinate carefully during the early phases of design. The public also benefits because the new CNCC campus is a center of education for the much of Northwestern Colorado, and students in K-12 programs (Science Spree 2010) through the CNCC two-year degree programs are already integrating geothermal and GHP technology. One of the greatest challenges met during this program was coordination of multiple engineering and development stakeholders. The leadership of Principle Investigator

  20. Computers in geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinger, F.E.

    1984-10-01

    This article describes a data base and file management system for the IBM/PC, and gives a general idea of how the Power Base (PB) system might be applied to the running of a typical geothermal business. Requirements for running PB are a monitor, at least 256K, and two double-sided disk drives or a single drive and a hard disk. The relational data base created by PB is organized in filing card type records that are composed of fields. When a file is created, it can be designed according to a company's specific requirements and can allow changes in the layout at any time. Geothermal businesses can use this software package for shipping and client invoice tracking, most billing functions, inventory calculations and mailing data bases. Geothermal project planners might find PB's project tracking aspect useful.

  1. Geothermal energy: 1992 program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Geothermal energy is described in general terms with drawings illustrating the technology. A map of known and potential geothermal resources in the US is included. The 1992 program activities are described briefly. (MHR)

  2. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  3. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  4. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  5. Geothermal energy survey and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is an FY-1990 Annual Report on 'geothermal energy survey and technology' by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). First, concerning geothermal resources exploration project in which surveys have been executed throughout Japan since 1980, outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992 are summarized. As for surveys for promoting development of geothermal energy, surveys in 8 areas conducted for three years from 1988 to 1990 as well as future plans are also described. Then, the verification investigation for geothermal survey technologies, which has been executed since 1980 for the purpose of establishing geothermal survey technologies to promote the development of geothermal resources in Japan, is introduced with outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992. Furthermore, development conditions of power generation technologies utilizing geothermal energy such as binary-cycle power generation and hot dry rock power generation are described.

  6. Deformation study of Kamojang geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdhani, B. D.; Meilano, I.; Sarsito, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    GPS has proven to be an indispensable tool in the effort to understand crust deformation before, during, and after the big earthquake events through data analysis and numerical simulation. The development of GPS technology has been able to prove as a method for the detection of geothermal activity that related to deformation. Furthermore, the correlation of deformation and geothermal activity are related to the analysis of potential hazards in the geothermal field itself. But unfortunately, only few GPS observations established to see the relationship of tectonic and geothermal activity around geothermal energy area in Indonesia. This research will observe the interaction between deformation and geothermal sources around the geothermal field Kamojang using geodetic GPS. There are 4 campaign observed points displacement direction to north-east, and 2 others heading to south-east. The displacement of the observed points may have not able proven cause by deformation of geothermal activity due to duration of observation. Since our research considered as pioneer for such investigation in Indonesia, we expect our methodology and our findings could become a starter for other geothermal field cases in Indonesia.

  7. Geothermal energy and the production of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varet, J.

    Geothermal production of electricity, about 2,500 MW throughout the world, is considered. The types of geothermal resources are reviewed. A geothermal field can be used for the production of electricity only if the layer, a porous and permeable stock located at depths of 500 and 1500 m, is carried by a magmatic source at high temperatures. Prospecting and development of high energy geothermal energy are discussed, including feasibility studies and the construction of electric power stations. Once the existence of a field is determined, exploitation can begin, consisting of drilling, steam collecting and purifying, and the construction of turboalternator power plants. An example, the Bouillante-Guadeloupe geothermal power station, is presented. Production sites across the globe are reviewed, and electrical energy costs are discussed.

  8. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  9. Direct application of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  10. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  11. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  12. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  13. Status of non-electric use of geothermal energy in the Southern Negros geothermal field in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Chua, S.E.; Abito, G.F.

    1994-07-01

    A 1-MWt multi-crop drying facility using low-enthalpy waste geothermal heat is installed within the vicinity of the Southern Negros Geothermal Project (January, 1994). The plant is envisioned to demonstrate the direct use of geothermal resources for agro-industrial purposes and at the same time, provide major benefits by raising the quality of the agro-industrial products to meet higher standards. The development and design of the heat exchangers that supply the heat and the dryer used in the facility is presented. The process flow and the dryer parameters in the drying of coconut meat and other crops have been determined. The initial design of the dryers target the dehydration of coconut meat and other crops using boxes and trays.

  14. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  16. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  17. Perspectives of offshore geothermal energy in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armani, F. B.; Paltrinieri, D.

    2013-06-01

    Italy is the first European and world's fifth largest producer of geothermal energy for power generation which actually accounts for less than 2% of the total electricity production of the country. In this paper after a brief introduction to the basic elements of high-enthalpy geothermal systems, we discuss the potentialities represented by the submarine volcanoes of the South Tyrrhenian Sea. In particular we focus on Marsili Seamount which, according to the literature data, can be considered as a possible first offshore geothermal field; then we give a summary of the related exploitation pilot project that may lead to the realization of a 200MWe prototype power plant. Finally we discuss some economic aspects and the development perspectives of the offshore geothermal resource taking into account the Italian energy framework and Europe 2020 renewable energy target.

  18. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  19. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir in response to production from different horizons is studied using numerical simulation methods. The Olkaria geothermal field in Kenya is used as an example where a two-phase vapor-dominated zone overlies the main liquid-dominated reservoir. The possibility of improving energy recovery from vapor-dominated reservoirs by tapping deeper horizons is considered.

  20. Wood and fruit drying in Los Azufres geothermal field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro, E.; Pastrana, E.

    1996-12-31

    The main object of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE`s) Geothermal Field at Los Azufres, is to generate geothermal electricity; however with the new politics in Mexico CFE has built a pilot project in order to profit from the geothermal residual energy and to attract national or foreign investors and convince them that direct-use of geothermal energy is an attractive feasible and economical possibility. The object of this paper is to present the CFE experiences in wood and fruit drying using geothermal energy.

  1. Using geochemical and isotopic techniques for exploration of geothermal energy in Southern Sabalan geothermal field, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoumi, Rahim

    2017-04-01

    From a hydrogeochemical point of view the geothermal fluids in the study area can be divided into two categories, (1) Na-Cl and (2) Na-Ca-HCO3. In the study area, the hot water samples depict temperature and pH ranges of 22 °C to 77 °C and 6.4 to 7.3, respectively. The total dissolved solids vary from 456 mg/L to 7006 mg/L. The concentration of rare metallic and non-metallic elements such as Li, Rb, B, Ba, Sr, CS, Se, Al, As, Hg in cold and hot spring waters in the Bushdi area were also analyzed. The utmost concentration belongs to Se which ranges from 135 mg/L to 273 mg/L. Boron also shows notable concentration values, in most samples it exceeds 20 mg/L, and in certain samples it ranges from 28 mg/L to 33.5 mg/L. The concentration value of arsenic ranges from 3 mg/L to 4 mg/L. The maximum concentration value of mercury is 0.01 mg/L. The δ18O values of these samples vary from -12.4 ‰ to -7.5 ‰ and the δD values range from -78.6 ‰ to -70.6 ‰. Plotting δ18O versus δD demonstrates that the data points are clustered close to both, the global meteoric water line (GMWL) with the equation δD = 8 δ18O + 10 and, the national meteoric water line (NMWL) with the equation δD = 6.89 δ18O + 6.57. As can be observed, the geothermal fluids in the Bushdi area show relatively slight increase in δ18O values that may be caused by interaction of hot fluids with host volcanic rocks. In fact, this relatively slight increment in δ18O values may indicate the low to moderate temperature of the geothermal system. The δD values, in general, do not show notable variation because of very low hydrogen content of the host rocks. The slight increase in δD, however, may be in conjunction with vaporization and isotopic interaction with the host rocks. The 3H content of the cold and hot waters in the Bushdi area is relatively high and varies from 0.65 TU to 41.4 TU. This may be caused either by mixing with meteoric sources or rapid fluid flow within the system in a shorter time

  2. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Polsky, Yarom; Anovitz, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or "engineered" within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  3. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  4. 1985 international symposium on geothermal energy: international volume

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents information on geothermal electric power and discusses direct uses of geothermal energy. Country update reports are provided and international cooperation reports include topics such as: selected titles for a basic geothermal library, the role of the United Nations in the field of geothermal resources exploration in developing countries, and geothermal training at the International Institute for Geothermal research. International invited papers in this volume include: Hot Dry Rock--A European Perspective; A Summary of Modeling Studies of the East Okkaria Geothermal Field, Kenya; and The Latest Development of the Los Asufres Geothermal Field in Mexico. General papers are presented from Europe, the Western Pacific, Africa, North America, India, China, and Southeast Asia.

  5. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1981-06-15

    The focus is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150/sup 0/C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of noncondensing gases such as hydrogen sulfide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. It is shown that hydrogen sulfide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odor annoyances among members of the exposed public - some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 parts per million by volume. A risk assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. The risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic is also assessed. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry are summarized briefly.

  6. Geothermal: Energy for development - The World Bank and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsmeier, W.

    1986-01-01

    The World Bank views geothermal energy as one of a variety of natural resources which can be developed to supply the energy needs of a country. Since the World Bank Group finances projects in developing countries. This paper discusses geothermal energy only in that context. Geothermal power is generated in nine developing countries today, which represent nearly 40% of worldwide geothermal generating capacity. The World Bank has helped finance geothermal investments in six of these countries-the Phillippines, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Kenya.

  7. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  8. Advances in geothermal energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkis, I.B.; Eltez, M.

    1996-10-01

    One of the earliest examples of large scale use of the geothermal energy is the district heating system in Boise, Idaho. Established in 1892, this system now serves 266 customers--mostly residential. Today, excluding heat pumps, there are about 300 sites in America where geothermal energy is currently used in various applications; including district heating, absorption cooling and refrigeration, industrial processes, aquaculture, horticulture, and snow melting/freeze protection. Among these, 18 geothermal district heating systems are operating with 677 GBtu (714 TJ) total annual heat output. Geothermal activity was first generated in Italy, in 1904, with a 10 kWe capacity. Now, commercial power plants are in service using vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated plants with a world-wide installed capacity of 6 GWe. This paper looks at a hybrid cycle/integrated district HVAC system.

  9. Geothermal Program Review XI: proceedings. Geothermal Energy - The Environmental Responsible Energy Technology for the Nineties

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    These proceedings contain papers pertaining to current research and development of geothermal energy in the USA. The seven sections of the document are: Overview, The Geysers, Exploration and Reservoir Characterization, Drilling, Energy Conversion, Advanced Systems, and Potpourri. The Overview presents current DOE energy policy and industry perspectives. Reservoir studies, injection, and seismic monitoring are reported for the geysers geothermal field. Aspects of geology, geochemistry and models of geothermal exploration are described. The Drilling section contains information on lost circulation, memory logging tools, and slim-hole drilling. Topics considered in energy conversion are efforts at NREL, condensation on turbines and geothermal materials. Advanced Systems include hot dry rock studies and Fenton Hill flow testing. The Potpourri section concludes the proceedings with reports on low-temperature resources, market analysis, brines, waste treatment biotechnology, and Bonneville Power Administration activities. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  11. Subsurface geology and potential for geopressured-geothermal energy in the Turtle Bayou field-Kent Bayou field area, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    A 216 square mile area approximately 65 miles southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana, has been geologically evaluated to determine its potential for geopressured-geothermal energy production. The structural and stratigraphic analyses were made with emphasis upon the Early and Middle Miocene age sediments which lie close to and within the geopressured section. Three geopressured sands, the Robulus (43) sand, Cibicides opima sand, and Cristellaria (I) sand, are evaluated for their potential of producing geothermal energy. Two of these sands, the Robulus (43) sand and the Cibicides opima sand, meet several of the United States Department of Energy's suggested minimum requirements for a prospective geopressured-geothermal energy reservoir.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  13. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  14. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  15. Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy has been viewed by the author in two locations in the world: Klamath Falls, Oregon and Oradea, Romania. The former is not longer in operation; but, the latter has been operating since 1981. A third dairy using geothermal energy has been reported in Iceland which was established in 1930 to pasteurize milk and evaporate whey to produce brown whey cheese. This dairy merged with another co-op dairy in 1938 and was shut down. A description of the first two of these installations is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation in other geothermal locations. These two reported savings in energy costs by using geothermal heat; the Klamath Falls installation producing 7,600 L/day (2,000 gals/day) for a savings of $12,000 per year and the Oradea plant producing 70,000 L/day (18,500 gals/day) (winter) and 200,000 L/day (52,800 gals/day) (summer) for savings of $120,000 per year (savings 800 TOE - tonnes of oil equivalent).

  16. Lidar search for atmospheric atomic mercury in Icelandic geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Edner, H.; Faris, G.W.; Sunesson, A.; Svanberg, S. ); Bjarnason, J.O.; Kristmanndottir, H.; Sigurdsson, K.H. )

    1991-02-20

    A search for atmospheric atomic mercury as a possible tracer gas for geothermal energy exploration was performed in three Icelandic geothermal fields using differential absorption lidar technique. Contrary to expectations, concentrations basically only at the Atlantic background value of about 2 ng/m{sup 3} were found in Iceland.

  17. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  18. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, related to geothermal energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on geothermal energy—Contract Number DE-FG03-01SF22367—with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of geothermal energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of responses to information requests on geothermal energy and publications. The publications addressed: geothermal leasing, geothermal policy, constitutional and statutory authority for the development of geothermal district energy systems, and state regulation of geothermal district energy systems. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about geothermal energy for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to geothermal energy in the states. Coordination with the National Geothermal Collaborative: NCSL worked and coordinated with the National Geothermal Collaborative (NGC) to ensure that state legislatures were represented in all aspects of the NGC's efforts. NCSL participated in NGC steering committee conference calls, attended and participated in NGC business meetings and reviewed publications for the NGC. Additionally, NCSL and WSUEP staff drafted a series of eight issue briefs published by the NGC

  19. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  1. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  2. Careers in Geothermal Energy: Power from below

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new energy resources, scientists have discovered ways to use the Earth itself as a valuable source of power. Geothermal power plants use the Earth's natural underground heat to provide clean, renewable energy. The geothermal energy industry has expanded rapidly in recent years as interest in renewable energy has grown. In 2011,…

  3. Geothermal energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.

    1991-04-02

    This patent describes a combination with a source of heat energy, means for converting the heat energy into electrical energy. It comprises a pair of gears and frame means mounting the gears for rotation in operatively orientated relation to the source, one of the gears comprising a tubular element rotatably mounted by the frame means for exposure to the source of heat energy within a thermal heating region, the tubular element including deformable means in meshing engagement with the other of the gears within a thermally colder region for inducing rotation of the gears.

  4. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  5. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  6. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  7. Uncertainty analysis of geothermal energy economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Adil Caner

    This dissertation research endeavors to explore geothermal energy economics by assessing and quantifying the uncertainties associated with the nature of geothermal energy and energy investments overall. The study introduces a stochastic geothermal cost model and a valuation approach for different geothermal power plant development scenarios. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is employed to obtain probability distributions of geothermal energy development costs and project net present values. In the study a stochastic cost model with incorporated dependence structure is defined and compared with the model where random variables are modeled as independent inputs. One of the goals of the study is to attempt to shed light on the long-standing modeling problem of dependence modeling between random input variables. The dependence between random input variables will be modeled by employing the method of copulas. The study focuses on four main types of geothermal power generation technologies and introduces a stochastic levelized cost model for each technology. Moreover, we also compare the levelized costs of natural gas combined cycle and coal-fired power plants with geothermal power plants. The input data used in the model relies on the cost data recently reported by government agencies and non-profit organizations, such as the Department of Energy, National Laboratories, California Energy Commission and Geothermal Energy Association. The second part of the study introduces the stochastic discounted cash flow valuation model for the geothermal technologies analyzed in the first phase. In this phase of the study, the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) software was used to forecast the revenue streams of geothermal assets under different price and regulation scenarios. These results are then combined to create a stochastic revenue forecast of the power plants. The uncertainties in gas prices and environmental regulations will be modeled and their potential impacts will be

  8. Measurement of Subsidence in the Yangbajain Geothermal Fields from TerraSAR-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongsheng; Zhang, Jingfa; Li, Zhenhong

    2016-08-01

    Yangbajain contains the largest geothermal energy power station in China. Geothermal explorations in Yangbajain first started in 1976, and two plants were subsequently built in 1981 and 1986. A large amount of geothermal fluids have been extracted since then, leading to considerable surface subsidence around the geothermal fields. In this paper, InSAR time series analysis is applied to map the subsidence of the Yangbajain geothermal fields during the period from December 2011 to November 2012 using 16 senses of TerraSAR-X stripmap SAR images. Due to its high resolution and short repeat cycle, TerraSAR-X provides detailed surface deformation information at the Yangbajain geothermal fields.

  9. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  10. Hot Topics! Heat Pumps and Geothermal Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The recent rapid rises in the cost of energy has significantly increased interest in alternative energy sources. The author discusses the underlying principles of heat pumps and geothermal energy. Related activities for technology education students are included.

  11. THE FUTURE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Renner

    2006-11-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for reevaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and welldistributed nationally. This analysis will help determine how we can enlarge and diversify the portfolio of options we should be vigorously pursuing. One such option that is often ignored is geothermal energy, produced from both conventional hydrothermal and Enhanced (or engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS). An 18-member assessment panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of EGS becoming a major supplier of primary energy for U.S. base-load generation capacity by 2050. This report documents the work of the panel at three separate levels of detail. The first is a Synopsis, which provides a brief overview of the scope, motivation, approach, major findings, and recommendations of the panel. At the second level, an Executive Summary reviews each component of the study, providing major results and findings. The third level provides full documentation in eight chapters, with each detailing the scope, approach, and results of the analysis and modeling conducted in each area.

  12. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  13. Thermal and mass history of Fairway Field in east Texas: Implication for geothermal energy development in an oil and gas setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kweik, Ramsey Sharif

    Fairway Field is an oil field operated by Hunt Oil Company located in East Texas near the town of Poynor, Texas in Henderson County. The field was discovered in 1960 and is still producing today with the field life projected beyond 2015 (Webster et al., 2008). Hunt Oil Company granted access to over 2,900 open-hole well logs and pressure surveys for this research project. This thermal and mass history of production from a major hydrocarbon field is an especially rare opportunity, as oil and gas companies in Texas are generally not required to share pressure survey data with regulatory agencies, and thus these types of data are not typically available to the research community. This data set, coupled with fluid production and injection data, provides an opportunity to analyze temperature variations associated with fluid migration and field development as a function of time. Fairway Field was determined to have an average conductive heat flow value of 69 +/- 6 mW/m2. Using fluid production volumes, heat loss was determined to be -1.7 x 1017 Joules which represents a thermal recovery factor of -6.2% for the James Limestone Formation in Fairway Field. Given the fact that the field has been in development for over 50 years and has not exhibited a decrease but an increase in reservoir temperatures (+20 °F over 54 years), Fairway Field illustrates that sedimentary basins have considerable potential for geothermal development. An increased availability of pressure survey temperature data and fluid data from oil and gas companies provides a better understanding of such dynamic geothermal systems, helps evaluate the working life of a field, and is a tool for assessing development risk associated with future geothermal energy development in such settings.

  14. Geothermal Energy Contract List: Fiscal Year 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The Geothermal Energy R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. The program is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. The Geothermal Energy Contract List, Fiscal Year 1990 is a tabulation of geothermal R D contracts that were begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990). The R D activities are performed by national laboratories or industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions. The contract list is organized in accordance with the Geothermal Division R D work breakdown structure. The structure hierarchy consists of Resource Category (hydrothermal, geopressured-geothermal, hot dry rock, and magma energy), Project (hard rock penetration, reservoir technology, etc.), and Task (lost circulation control, rock penetration mechanics, etc.). For each contract, the contractor, the FY 1990 funding, and a brief description of the milestones planned for FY 1991 are provided.

  15. Ground Energy Balance For Shallow Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, P.; Rivera, J.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical borehole heat exchangers (BHE) represent the most common applications by far in the field of shallow geothermal energy. They are typically operated for decades for energy extraction from the top 400 m of the subsurface. During this lifetime, thermal anomalies are generated in the ground and surface-near aquifers. These anomalies often grow over the years and compromise the overall performance of the geothermal system. As a basis for prediction and control of the developing energy imbalance in the ground, the focus is often set on the ground temperatures. This is reflected, for instance, in regulative temperature thresholds. As an alternative to temperature, we examine the temporal and spatial variability of heat fluxes and power sources during geothermal heat pump operation. The underlying idea is that knowledge of the primary heat sources is fundamental for the control of ground temperature evolution. For analysis of heat fluxes, an analytical framework for BHE simulation based on Kelvin's line source is re-formulated. This is applied to a synthetic study and for modelling a long-term application in the field. Our results show that during early operation phase, energy is extracted mainly from the underground. Local depletion at the borehole enhances the vertical fluxes with the relative contribution from the bottom reaching a limit of 24 % of the total power demand. The relative contribution from the ground surface becomes dominant for Fourier numbers larger than 0.13. For the full life cycle, vertical heat flux from the ground surface dominates the basal heat flux towards the BHE and it provides about two thirds of the demanded power. Finally, we reveal that the time for ground energy recovery after BHE shutdown may be longer than what is expected from simulated temperature trends.

  16. Geothermal Fields on the Volcanic Axis of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado, S.; Gonzalez, A.

    1980-12-16

    At present in Mexico, geothermal energy is receiving a great impulse due to the excellent results obtained in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, in which a geothermoelectric plant is operated. This plant has four units of 37.5 MW each, with a total capacity of 150 MW, and under program 470 MW more by 1984. The Government Institution, Comisi6n Federal de Electricidad, is in charge of the exploration and exploitation of geothermal fields as well as construction and operation of power plants in Mexico. By this time CFE has an extensive program of exploration in the central part of Mexico, in the Eje Neovolcdnico. In this area, several fields with hydrothermal alteration are under exploration, like the Michoac6n geothermal area, where Los Azufres geothermal field is being developed. Seventeen wells have been drilled and twelve of them presented excellent results, including two dry steam wells. In other areas, such as Arar6, Cuitzeo, San Agustln del Maiz,Ixtldn de Los Hervores and Los Negritos, geological, geophysical and geochemical explorations have been accomplished, including shallow well drilling with good results. Another main geothermal area is in the State of Jalisco with an extension of 5,000 m2, where La Primavera geothermal field shows a lot of volcanic domes and has an intensive hydrothermal activity. Deep wells have been drilled, one of them with a bottom temperature of 29OOC. Other fields in this area, like San Narcos, Hervores de La Vega, La Soledad, Villa Corona, etc., have a good geothermal potential. A new geothermal area has been explored recently in the eastern part of the country named Los Humeros, Puebla. In this area studies are being made and there are plans for well drilling exploration by the beginning of 1981. Like this one, there are many other areas in the country in which 300 hydrothermal alteration zones are been classified and 100 of them are considered economically exploitable.

  17. Geothermal Energy Information Dissemination and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. John W. Lund

    2005-12-31

    The objective of this project is to continue on-going work by the Geo-Heat Center to develop and disseminate information; provide educational materials; develop short courses and workshops; maintain a comprehensive geothermal resource database; respond to inquiries from the public, industry and government; provide engineering, economic and environmental information and analysis on geothermal technology to potential users and developers; and provide information on market opportunities for geothermal development. These efforts are directed towards increasing the utilization of geothermal energy in the US and developing countries, by means of electric power generation and direct-use.

  18. Department of Energy--Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Program: Geothermal Risk Mitigation Strategies Report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2008-02-15

    An overview of general financial issues for renewable energy investments; geothermal energy investment barriers and risks; and recommendations for incentives and instruments to be considered to stimulate investment in geothermal energy development.

  19. Geothermal field's interaction with geophysical fields of another nature

    SciTech Connect

    Novik, Oleg B.; Mikhailovskaya, Irina B.; Repin, Dmitry G.; Yershov, Sergey V.

    1996-01-24

    The energy balance of active lithosphere zones is to a large extent determined by nonstationary interaction of mechanical (elastic and hydrodynamic), thermal, electromagnetic, and gravitational geophysical fields. Seismic disturbances of electromagnetic and temperature fields, repeatedly observed before earthquakes are a striking manifestation of this interaction (Sec. 1). Technological processes of exploitation of hydrothermal deposits are determined by the interaction of hydrodynamical and temperature field (Sec. 2). These “fast” interactions (with the characteristic time scale from seconds to years) take place against the background of “slow” thermomechanical interactions (time scale of Myears), the latter determining the formation of regional geothermal fields (Sec. 3).

  20. The Main Problems in the Development of Geothermal Energy Industry in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiahong; Wang, Shejiao; Li, Feng

    2017-04-01

    As early as 1980-1985, the geothermal energy research group of the Institute of Geology and Geophisics (Chinese Academy of Sciences) has proposed to pay attention to geothermal energy resources in oil fields. PetroChina began to study the geothermal energy resources in the region of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei from 1995. Subsequently, the geothermal resources in the Huabei, Daqing and Liaohe oil regions were evaluated. The total recoverable hot water of the three oilfields reached 19.3 × 1011m3. PetroChina and Kenya have carried out geothermal energy development and utilization projects, with some relevant technical achievements.On the basis of many years' research on geothermal energy, we summarized the main problems in the formation and development of geothermal energy in China. First of all, China's geothermal resources research is still unable to meet the needs of the geothermal energy industry. Secondly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy requires multi-disciplinary cooperation. Thirdly, the development and utilization of geothermal energy needs consideration of local conditions. Finally, the development and utilization of geothermal energy resources requires the effective management of local government.

  1. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C L; Bearden, Mark D; Horner, Jacob A; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B Peter

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  2. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Bearden, Mark D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Cabe, James E.; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  3. Geothermal Energy Technology: a current-awareness bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.B.

    1983-01-15

    This bulletin announces on a semimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technology required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use either directly or for production of electric power. The subject content encompasses: resource status and assessment, geology and hydrology of geothermal systems, geothermal exploration, legal and institutional aspects, economic and final aspects, environmental aspects and waste disposal, by-products, geothermal power plants, geothermal engineering, direct energy utilization, and geothermal data and theory.

  4. Renewable energy: energy from geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The geothermal resources of Florida are poor in most parts of the state, but offer potential in one or two areas. Groundwater heat pumps are efficient and presently abundant water resources exist in most Florida areas, but widespread use of these units could affect Florida's groundwater supplies if reinjection wells are not required. The effect of large numbers of wells on an aquifer in small geographic areas has not been adequately assessed. Data on groundwater heat pump energy use for Florida climatic conditions are needed as is information on the number of units currently operating.

  5. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  6. Projected Geothermal Energy Development in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Souther, Jack G.

    1980-12-01

    A systematic evaluation of geothermal energy resources in Canada was begun in 1973 with the compilation of an inventory of thermal springs and young igneous centres (11) and a study of the thermal regime of the Central Canada Plains (15). The status of this work is still very preliminary. The nature, distribution and grade of the geothermal resource-base can be estimated within reasonable limits but the impact of future economic and political constraints, and the rate of development of new conversion technologies are more difficult to forecast. Thus, projections of geothermal energy development in Canada are necessarily less precise than estimate of the resource-base.

  7. Regulation of geothermal energy development in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The regulatory system is presented in a format to help guide geothermal energy development. State, local, and federal agencies, legislation, and regulations are presented. Information sources are listed. (MHR)

  8. Addendum to material selection guidelines for geothermal energy-utilization systems. Part I. Extension of the field experience data base. Part II. Proceedings of the geothermal engineering and materials (GEM) program conference (San Diego, CA, 6-8 October 1982)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.S.; Ellis, P.F. II

    1983-05-01

    The extension of the field experience data base includes the following: key corrosive species, updated field experiences, corrosion of secondary loop components or geothermal binary power plants, and suitability of conventional water-source heat pump evaporator materials for geothermal heat pump service. Twenty-four conference papers are included. Three were abstracted previously for EDB. Separate abstracts were prepared for twenty-one. (MHR)

  9. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  10. Geothermal energy development in the Philippines: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, D.; Javellana, S.P.; Benavidez, P.J.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippines is the third largest producer of geothermal electricity after the US and Mexico. Geothermal exploration was started in 1962, and the first large commercial power plants came on-line in 1979 in two fields. By 1984, four geothermal fields had a combined installed capacity of 890 MWe and in 1992 these plants supplied about 20% of the country`s electric needs. Geothermal energy development was stimulated in the mid-1970s by the oil crisis and rapidly growing power demand, government support, available foreign funding, and a combination of private and government investment and technical expertise. However, no new geothermal capacity has been added since 1984, despite the growing demand for energy and the continuing uncertainty in the supply of crude oil. The Philippines` geothermal capacity is expected to expand by 270--1,100 MWe by the end of 1999. Factors that will affect the rate growth in this decade include suitable legislation, environmental requirements, financing, degree of private involvement, politics, inter-island electric grid connections, and viability of the remaining prospects.

  11. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  12. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  13. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  14. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  15. Geothermics of Nile delta and southeast Mediterranean: Investigation and geothermal energy potential

    SciTech Connect

    Zein El-Din, M.Y.; Zaghloul, Z.M.; Khidr, I.H. )

    1988-08-01

    The authors collected 289 temperature readings from 66 exploratory wells randomly distributed in an area about 57,000 km{sup 2} from different rock units of Tertiary and Quaternary ages. The bottom-hole temperature (BHT) readings were corrected using an empirical equation based on actual static formation temperatures collected from the study area. The authors modified the Fertl and Wichmann method to apply to the study area. If the Fertl and Wichmann curve is applied, readings can be corrected using a deduced relation. The geothermal gradient for each well calculated used the best-fit method utilizing all recorded BHTs in that well. A new geothermal gradient map was constructed using the corrected BHT values. A genetic relationship between the geothermal gradient and lithology, tectonic setup, gas saturation, and water saturation of the subsurface formations in the Nile delta and southeast Mediterranean area was sought. Isothermal maps at different depths in the study area were constructed. Areas of relatively high subsurface temperature were delineated. The Abu Madi gas field as a case study for geothermal behavior was emphasized. The geothermal reservoirs in the study area as possible new and renewable energy resources were defined and classified as low-temperature reservoirs. Two geothermal reservoirs have been recorded: a shallow one associated with Mit Ghamr-El Wastani rock units and a deep one associated with abu Madi-Qawassim Formations.

  16. Nevada Renewable Energy Training Project: Geothermal Power Plant Operators

    SciTech Connect

    Jim, Nichols

    2014-04-29

    The purpose of this project was to develop and institute a training program for certified geothermal power plant operators (GPO). An advisory board consisting of subject matter experts from the geothermal energy industry and academia identified the critical skill sets required for this profession. A 34-credit Certificate of Achievement (COA), Geothermal Power Plant Operator, was developed using eight existing courses and developing five new courses. Approval from the Nevada System of Higher Education Board of Regents was obtained. A 2,400 sq. ft. geothermal/fluid mechanics laboratory and a 3,000 sq. ft. outdoor demonstration laboratory were constructed for hands-on training. Students also participated in field trips to geothermal power plants in the region. The majority of students were able to complete the program in 2-3 semesters, depending on their level of math proficiency. Additionally the COA allowed students to continue to an Associate of Applied Science (AAS), Energy Technologies with an emphasis in Geothermal Energy (26 additional credits), if they desired. The COA and AAS are stackable degrees, which provide students with an ongoing career pathway. Articulation agreements with other NSHE institutions provide students with additional opportunities to pursue a Bachelor of Applied Science in Management or Instrumentation. Job placement for COA graduates has been excellent.

  17. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  18. International Legislation of Shallow Geothermal Energy Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hähnlein, S.; Bayer, P.; Blum, P.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change, energy savings and energy autonomy are frequently discussed topics. Hence, renewable energy resources are currently promoted worldwide. One of these is geothermal energy. Worldwide the number of shallow geothermal installations (< 400 m depth) is continuously rising. One consequence is widespread man-made temperature anomalies in natural aquifer systems. These have to be controlled to guarantee long-term usability of the geothermal reservoirs and to avoid adverse effects on groundwater ecosystems. However, nationally as well as internationally, regulations to achieve these controls are very heterogeneous, sometimes contradictory and scientifically questionable. For example, what is the optimal distance between adjacent, potentially competing ground source heat pump (GSHP) or groundwater heat pump (GWHP) systems? Answers to derive a good code of practice have to balance technical, economic and ecological criteria. The objective of our study is to review the current international legal status of thermal use of groundwater. We present the results of an international survey, which offers comprehensive insight in the worldwide legal situation of closed and open systems of shallow geothermal installations. The focus is on minimum distances of these systems and limits for groundwater temperature changes. We can conclude that there are only few regulations and recommendations for minimum distances of these installations and groundwater temperature changes. Some countries have no regulations and in addition if recommendations are given, these are not legally binding. However, to promote shallow geothermal energy as an economically attractive and sustainable energy source, an international homogeneous legislation is necessary.

  19. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

    1982-12-01

    The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

  20. Deep drilling for geothermal energy in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2016-04-01

    There is a societal request to find renewable CO2-free energy resources. One of the biggest such resources is provided by geothermal energy. In addition to shallow ground heat already extensively used in Finland, deep geothermal energy provides an alternative so far not exploited. Temperatures are high at depth, but the challenge is, how to mine the heat? In this presentation, the geological and geophysical conditions for deep geothermal energy production in Finland are discussed as well as challenges for drilling and conditions at depth for geothermal energy production. Finland is located on ancient bedrock with much lower temperatures than geologically younger volcanically and tectonically active areas. In order to reach sufficiently high temperatures drilling to depths of several kilometres are needed. Further, mining of the heat with, e.g., the principle of Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) requires high hydraulic conductivity for efficient circulation of fluid in natural or artificial fractures of the rock. There are many issues that must be solved and/or improved: Drilling technology, the EGS concept, rock stress and hydraulic fracturing, scale formation, induced seismicity and ground movements, possible microbial activity, etc. An industry-funded pilot project currently in progress in southern Finland is shortly introduced.

  1. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  2. Relative Contributions of Geothermal Pumping and Long-Term Earthquake Rate to Seismicity at California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jackson, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    In a tectonically active area, a definitive discrimination between geothermally-induced and tectonic earthquakes is difficult to achieve. We focus our study on California's 11 major geothermal fields: Amedee, Brawley, Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, The Geysers, Heber, Litchfield, Salton Sea, Susanville, and Wendel. The Geysers geothermal field is the world's largest geothermal energy producer. California's Department of Oil Gas and Geothermal Resources provides field-wide monthly injection and production volumes for each of these sites, which allows us to study the relationship between geothermal pumping activities and seismicity. Since many of the geothermal fields began injecting and producing before nearby seismic stations were installed, we use smoothed seismicity since 1932 from the ANSS catalog as a proxy for tectonic earthquake rate. We examine both geothermal pumping and long-term earthquake rate as factors that may control earthquake rate. Rather than focusing only on the largest earthquake, which is essentially a random occurrence in time, we examine how M≥4 earthquake rate density (probability per unit area, time, and magnitude) varies for each field. We estimate relative contributions to the observed earthquake rate of M≥4 from both a long-term earthquake rate (Kagan and Jackson, 2010) and pumping activity. For each geothermal field, respective earthquake catalogs (NCEDC and SCSN) are complete above at least M3 during the test period (which we tailor to each site). We test the hypothesis that the observed earthquake rate at a geothermal site during the test period is a linear combination of the long-term seismicity and pumping rates. We use a grid search to determine the confidence interval of the weighting parameters.

  3. Future Technologies to Enhance Geothermal Energy Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J J; Kaahaaina, N; Aines, R; Zucca, J; Foxall, B; Atkins-Duffin, C

    2008-07-25

    Geothermal power is a renewable, low-carbon option for producing base-load (i.e., low-intermittency) electricity. Improved technologies have the potential to access untapped geothermal energy sources, which experts estimate to be greater than 100,000 MWe. However, many technical challenges in areas such as exploration, drilling, reservoir engineering, and energy conversion must be addressed if the United States is to unlock the full potential of Earth's geothermal energy and displace fossil fuels. (For example, see Tester et al., 2006; Green and Nix, 2006; and Western Governors Association, 2006.) Achieving next-generation geothermal power requires both basic science and applied technology to identify prospective resources and effective extraction strategies. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has a long history of research and development work in support of geothermal power. Key technologies include advances in scaling and brine chemistry, economic and resource assessment, direct use, exploration, geophysics, and geochemistry. For example, a high temperature, multi-spacing, multi-frequency downhole EM induction logging tool (GeoBILT) was developed jointly by LLNL and EMI to enable the detection and orientation of fractures and conductive zones within the reservoir (Figure 1). Livermore researchers also conducted studies to determine how best to stave off increased salinity in the Salton Sea, an important aquatic ecosystem in California. Since 1995, funding for LLNL's geothermal research has decreased, but the program continues to make important contributions to sustain the nation's energy future. The current efforts, which are highlighted in this report, focus on developing an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) and on improving technologies for exploration, monitoring, characterization, and geochemistry. Future research will also focus on these areas.

  4. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Performance of deep geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikonda, Nikhil

    Geothermal energy is an important source of clean and renewable energy. This project deals with the study of deep geothermal power plants for the generation of electricity. The design involves the extraction of heat from the Earth and its conversion into electricity. This is performed by allowing fluid deep into the Earth where it gets heated due to the surrounding rock. The fluid gets vaporized and returns to the surface in a heat pipe. Finally, the energy of the fluid is converted into electricity using turbine or organic rankine cycle (ORC). The main feature of the system is the employment of side channels to increase the amount of thermal energy extracted. A finite difference computer model is developed to solve the heat transport equation. The numerical model was employed to evaluate the performance of the design. The major goal was to optimize the output power as a function of parameters such as thermal diffusivity of the rock, depth of the main well, number and length of lateral channels. The sustainable lifetime of the system for a target output power of 2 MW has been calculated for deep geothermal systems with drilling depths of 8000 and 10000 meters, and a financial analysis has been performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the system for a practical range of geothermal parameters. Results show promising an outlook for deep geothermal systems for practical applications.

  6. A database for the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1988-10-01

    A general use menu driven software package has been developed that stores and retrieves geothermal field data and produces a large variety of graphic displays. These include, for example, production plots, cross-sections, contour plots, base maps and Horner plots. This software package has been applied to the Geysers geothermal field which has open file data for over 200 wells. The data include production histories, directional surveys, lithology logs, wellhead temperatures and pressures, digitized base maps, steam entry locations, casing diagrams, pressure transient tests, heat flow measurements and noncondensible gas concentrations. Although the software was developed for use with data from the Geysers, it can be used with data from any geothermal reservoir. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. The Hydrogeochemistry of Qingshui Geothermal Field, Northeastern Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu-Wen, Chen; Cheng-Kuo, Lin; Wayne, Lin; Yu-Te, Chang; Pei-Shan, Hsieh

    2015-04-01

    The Qingshui geothermal field is located at the upstream valley of Lanyang Creek, northeastern Taiwan. It is renowned as a geothermal field. The previous studies demonstrated a higher geothermal gradient, 100oC/km warmer than a normal geotherm. However, Qingshui geothermal field has not been well developed due to the higher mining costs. In the recent years, the Taiwan government has been focusing on developing alternative and renewable energy and initiated a 10 year project, Nation Energy Program. This study is part of this project In general, it is very difficult to collect deep downhole samples without considerable change of hydro- and gas- chemistry of water under high temperature and pressure. A new sampling tool, GTF Sampler, was designed by the research team, Green Energy and Environment Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute. This tool can simultaneously collect high quality geothermal water and gas sample and moreover, the sampling depth can reach up to 800 meters. Accordingly, a more accurate measurements can be conducted in the laboratory. In this study, 10 geothermal samples were collected and measured. The results demonstrate that geothermal water samples are characterized with Na(K)-HCO3 water type and located at the mature water area in Giggenbach Na-K-Mg diagram. Several geothermometers, including silica and cation geothermometry, were used to estimate potential temperature in the geothermal reservoir systems. In general, the geothermoters of Na-K and Na-K-Ca obtain reservoir temperatures between 120-190oC and 130-210oC, respectively, but the silica geothermometer indicates a lower reservoir temperature between 90 and 170oC. There is no big difference among them. It is worth to note that all calculated temperatures are lower than those of in-situ downhole measurements; therefore, more detailed and advanced researches would be needed for the inconsistency. To examine the argument about igneous heat source in the previous studies, rare

  8. Reservoir engineering of Wairakei geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Malcom A.

    1988-01-01

    Wairakei was the first liquid dominated geothermal field exploited for major power production. As such many decisions were taken on an ad-hoc or experimental basis. In retrospect the choice of Wairakei was fortunate : with extensive shallow high permeability and major recharge it is an easy field to exploit. This lecture describes the history of the field and the contribution of reservoir engineering to field management, and describes the reservoir as it is now understood.

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Geothermal Heat Pumps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Geothermal Heat Pumps that are effective as of January 1, 2012. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=geo_heat.pr_crit_geo_heat_pumps

  10. Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Karl, Bernie

    2013-05-31

    The primary objective for the Fairbanks Geothermal Energy Project is to provide another source of base-load renewable energy in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). To accomplish this, Chena Hot Springs Resort (Chena) drilled a re-injection well to 2700 feet and a production well to 2500 feet. The re-injection well allows a greater flow of water to directly replace the water removed from the warmest fractures in the geothermal reservoir. The new production will provide access to warmer temperature water in greater quantities.

  11. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  12. Overview of the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market - The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.; Budraja, Vikram; Jaros, Richard; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Hinrichs, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    This overview at the Geothermal Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Technology Advancements to Support Growth in Geothermal Power Sales in a Dynamic Utility Market'' by John E. Mock; ''Geothermal Energy Market in Southern California: Past, Present and Future'' by Vikram Budraja; ''Taking the High Ground: Geothermal's Place in the Revolving Energy Market'' by Richard Jaros; ''Recent Developments in Japan's Hot Dry Rock Program'' by Tsutomu Yamaguchi; and ''Options in the Eleventh Year for Interim Standard Offer Number Four Contracts'' by Thomas C. Hinrichs.

  13. Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

  14. Geothermal Field Development in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, Hector Alonso

    1983-12-15

    Mexico is a Country characterized by its diversified means of Power Gerneration. Actual installed capacity is almost 19000 MW, of which 205 MW corresponds to Geothermal Plants, that is, 180 MW in Cerro Prieto and 25 MW of Portable Plants in Los Azufres. To date, 346 area with exploitation possibilites, are known. They are mainly distributed along the Volcanic Belt where the most prominent are, Los Azufres, La Primavera, Los Humeros, Ixtlan De Los Hervores and Los Negritos, among others. Proved reserves are 920 MW, and the accessible resource base are 4600 MW identified and 6000 MW undiscovered. The long range construction studies intends to achieve a total installed capacity of 100000 MW, by the end of this century, including 2000 MW Geothermal, through conventional and Portable Plants. It is not a definite program but a development strategy. The carrying out of a definite program, will depend upon the confirmation of Hypothesis made in previous studies, and the economic decisions related to the financial sources availability, and techologies to be used in the future as well.

  15. Cerro Prieto geothermal field: exploration during exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. The description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field are presented. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development.

  16. Geothermal Energy Program Summary Document, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal energy is derived from the internal heat of the earth. Much of it is recoverable with current or near current technology. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural applications. Three principal types of geothermal resources are exploitable through the year 2000. In order of technology readiness, these resources are: hydrothermal; geopressured (including dissolved natural gas); and hot dry rock. In hydrothermal systems, natural water circulation moves heat from deep internal sources toward the earth's surface. Geothermal fluids (water and steam) tapped by drilling can be used to generate electricity or provide direct heat. Geopressured resources, located primarily in sedimentary basins along the Gulf Coast of Texas and of Louisiana, consist of water and dissolved methane at high pressure and at moderately high temperature. In addition to recoverable methane, geopressured resources provide thermal energy and mechanical energy derived from high fluid pressures, although methane offers the greatest immediate value. Commercial development of geopressured energy may begin in the mid-1980s. Economic feasibility depends on the amount of methane that a given well can produce, a highly uncertain factor at present.

  17. GOCE and Future Gravity Missions for Geothermal Energy Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorutti, Alberto; Braitenberg, Carla; Pivetta, Tommaso; Mariani, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Geothermal energy is a valuable renewable energy source the exploitation of which contributes to the worldwide reduction of consumption of fossil fuels oil and gas. The exploitation of geothermal energy is facilitated where the thermal gradient is higher than average leading to increased surface heat flow. Apart from the hydrologic circulation properties which depend on rock fractures and are important due to the heat transportation from the hotter layers to the surface, essential properties that increase the thermal gradient are crustal thinning and radiogenic heat producing rocks. Crustal thickness and rock composition form the link to the exploration with the satellite derived gravity field, because both induce subsurface mass changes that generate observable gravity anomalies. The recognition of gravity as a useful investigation tool for geothermal energy lead to a cooperation with ESA and the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) that included the GOCE derived gravity field in the online geothermal energy investigation tool of the IRENA database. The relation between the gravity field products as the free air gravity anomaly, the Bouguer and isostatic anomalies and the heat flow values is though not straightforward and has not a unique relationship. It is complicated by the fact that it depends on the geodynamical context, on the geologic context and the age of the crustal rocks. Globally the geological context and geodynamical history of an area is known close to everywhere, so that a specific known relationship between gravity and geothermal potential can be applied. In this study we show the results of a systematic analysis of the problem, including some simulations of the key factors. The study relies on the data of GOCE and the resolution and accuracy of this satellite. We also give conclusions on the improved exploration power of a gravity mission with higher spatial resolution and reduced data error, as could be achieved in principle by flying

  18. DARPA Workshop on Geothermal Energy for Military Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    document is printed on 30% post-consumer recycled paper and is 100% recyclable. iii DARPA Workshop on Geothermal Energy for Military...describe ongoing federal support for geothermal energy research and development (R&D).  In Chapter 4, we report the main technical findings of the...Department of Energy (DOE) is the primary source of geothermal research funding in the federal government. Over the past few years, geothermal

  19. Geothermal energy market study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Ocean City, Maryland geothermal energy evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, C.E.

    1981-08-01

    This report is one of a series of studies that have been made by the Applied Physics Laboratory, or its subcontractors, to examine the technical and economic feasibility of the utilization of geothermal energy at the request of potential users.

  20. Deep geothermal processes acting on faults and solid tides in coastal Xinzhou geothermal field, Guangdong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guoping; Wang, Xiao; Li, Fusi; Xu, Fangyiming; Wang, Yanxin; Qi, Shihua; Yuen, David

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated the deep fault thermal flow processes in the Xinzhou geothermal field in the Yangjiang region of Guangdong Province. Deep faults channel geothermal energy to the shallow ground, which makes it difficult to study due to the hidden nature. We conducted numerical experiments in order to investigate the physical states of the geothermal water inside the fault zone. We view the deep fault as a fast flow path for the thermal water from the deep crust driven up by the buoyancy. Temperature measurements at the springs or wells constrain the upper boundary, and the temperature inferred from the Currie temperature interface bounds the bottom. The deepened boundary allows the thermal reservoir to revolve rather than to be at a fixed temperature. The results detail the concept of a thermal reservoir in terms of its formation and heat distribution. The concept also reconciles the discrepancy in reservoir temperatures predicted from both quartz and Na-K-Mg. The downward displacement of the crust increases the pressure at the deep ground and leads to an elevated temperature and a lighter water density. Ultimately, our results are a first step in implementing numerical studies of deep faults through geothermal water flows; future works need to extend to cases of supercritical states. This approach is applicable to general deep-fault thermal flows and dissipation paths for the seismic energy from the deep crust.

  1. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  2. Geothermal energy research in Kenya: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tole, Mwakio P.

    1996-11-01

    Geothermal energy for electricity generation is likely to become increasingly important in Kenya in the future. There are numerous centres of thermal activity in Kenya, particularly within the Rift Valley, although aridity and, consequently, availability of water may be a constraint to the development of large scale natural hydrothermal systems. Geothermal resources in the islands of Lake Turkana and those close to other rift lakes deserve further investigation as they do not suffer from the constraints of a shortage of water. The experience gained so far at Oikaria shows that environmental problems can be adequately addressed, though constant monitoring is necessary. H 2S emissions preclude the setting up of permanent residences within about 5 km of the geothermal power stations. Trace elements and radiation from geothermal fluids need to be monitored with respect to their impacts on plants and animals. The impact on the local hydrogeology also requires close observation. Multistage uses of geothermal fluids will greatly increase the benefits derived from this resource.

  3. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT, U.S. Department of Energy: Award No. DE-EE0002855 "Demonstrating the Commercial Feasibility of Geopressured-Geothermal Power Development at Sweet Lake Field - Cameron Parish, Louisiana"

    SciTech Connect

    Gayle, Phillip A., Jr.

    2012-01-13

    The goal of the project was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of geopressured-geothermal power development by exploiting the extraordinarily high pressured hot brines know to exist at depth near the Sweet Lake oil and gas field in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The existence of a geopressured-geothermal system at Sweet Lake was confirmed in the 1970's and 1980's as part of DOE's Geopressured-Geothermal Program. That program showed that the energy prices at the time could not support commercial production of the resource. Increased electricity prices and technological advancements over the last two decades, combined with the current national support for developing clean, renewable energy and the job creation it would entail, provided the justification necessary to reevaluate the commercial feasibility of power generation from this vast resource.

  4. Modeling of geothermal reservoirs: Fundamental processes, computer simulation, and field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article attempts to critically evaluate the present state of the art of geothermal reservoir simulation. Methodological aspects of geothermal reservoir modeling are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on flow in fractured media. Then we examine applications of numerical simulation to studies of reservoir dynamics, well test design and analysis, and modeling of specific fields. Tangible impacts of reservoir simulation technology on geothermal energy development are pointed out. We conclude with considerations on possible future developments in the mathematical modeling of geothermal fields. 45 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Heat-flow mapping at the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.

    1986-10-31

    Pertinent data were compiled for 187 temperature-gradient holes in the vicinity of The Geysers Geothermal field. Terrain-correction techniques were applied to most of the temperature-gradient data, and a temperature-gradient map was constructed. Cutting samples from 16, deep, production wells were analyzed for thermal conductivity. From these samples, the mean thermal conductivities were determined for serpentinized ultramafic rock, greenstone, and graywacke. Then, a heat flow map was made. The temperature-gradient and heat-flow maps show that The Geysers Geothermal field is part of a very large, northwesterly-trending, thermal anomaly; the commercially productive portion of the field may be 100 km/sup 2/ in area. The rate that heat energy flows through the surface by thermal conduction is estimated at 1.79 x 10/sup 9/MJ per year. The net heat energy loss from commercial production for 1983 is estimated at 180.14 x 10/sup 9/MJ.

  6. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  7. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  8. Reservoir assessment of The Geysers Geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Dykstra, H.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid in the field reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably respresent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resistivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. At the current generating capacity of 930 MWe, the estimated life of The Geysers Geothermal field reservoir is 129 years. The estimated reservoir life is 60 years for the anticipated maximum generating capacity of 2000 MWe as of 1990. Wells at The Geysers are drilled with conventional drilling fluid (mud) until the top of the steam reservoir is reached; then, they are drilled with air. Usually, mud, temperature, caliper, dual induction, and cement bond logs are run on the wells.

  9. Capture of Geothermal Heat as Chemical Energy

    DOE PAGES

    Jody, Bassam J.; Petchsingto, Tawatchai; Doctor, Richard D.; ...

    2015-12-11

    In this paper, fluids that undergo endothermic reactions were evaluated as potential chemical energy carriers of heat from geothermal reservoirs for power generation. Their performance was compared with that of H2O and CO2. The results show that (a) chemical energy carriers can produce more power from geothermal reservoirs than water and CO2 and (b) working fluids should not be selected solely on the basis of their specific thermo-physical properties but rather on the basis of the rate of exergy (ideal power) they can deliver. Finally, this article discusses the results of the evaluation of two chemical energy carrier systems: ammoniamore » and methanol/water mixtures.« less

  10. Capture of Geothermal Heat as Chemical Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, Bassam J.; Petchsingto, Tawatchai; Doctor, Richard D.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2015-12-11

    In this paper, fluids that undergo endothermic reactions were evaluated as potential chemical energy carriers of heat from geothermal reservoirs for power generation. Their performance was compared with that of H2O and CO2. The results show that (a) chemical energy carriers can produce more power from geothermal reservoirs than water and CO2 and (b) working fluids should not be selected solely on the basis of their specific thermo-physical properties but rather on the basis of the rate of exergy (ideal power) they can deliver. Finally, this article discusses the results of the evaluation of two chemical energy carrier systems: ammonia and methanol/water mixtures.

  11. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  12. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Bjornsson, S.; Lippmann, M.; Pruess, K.

    1982-09-01

    Numerical simulation methods are used to study how the exploitation of different horizons affects the behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir. Our reservoir model is a schematic representation of the Olkaria field in Kenya. The model consists of a two-phase vapordominated zone overlying the main liquid-dominated reservoir. Four different cases were studied, with fluid produced from: (1) the vapor zone only, (2) the liquid zone only, (3) both zones, and (4) both zones but with lower values for vertical permeability and porosity assumed. The results indicate that production from the shallow two-phase zone, although resulting in higher enthalpy fluids, may not be advantageous in the long run. Shallow production gives rise to a rather localized depletion of the reservoir, whereas production from deeper horizons may yield a more uniform depletion process if vertical permeability is sufficiently large. The exploitation from deeper zones causes boiling and subsequent upflow of steam that condenses at shallow depths. This tends to make temperatures and pressures more uniform throughout the reservoir, resulting in maximum energy recovery.

  13. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  14. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Projec

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    Drilling and temperature logging campaigns between the late 1970's and early 1980’s measured temperatures at Pilgrim Hot Springs in excess of 90°C. Between 2010 and 2014 the University of Alaska used a variety of methods including geophysical surveys, remote sensing techniques, heat budget modeling, and additional drilling to better understand the resource and estimate the available geothermal energy.

  15. Geothermal Well Stimulated Using High Energy Gas Fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.Y.; Jacobson, R.D.; Warpinski, N.; Mohaupt, Henry

    1987-01-20

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study of the High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF) technique for geothermal well stimulation. These experiments demonstrated that multiple fractures could be created to link a water-filled borehole with other fractures. The resulting fracture network and fracture interconnections were characterized by flow tests as well as mine back. Commercial oil field fracturing tools were used successfully in these experiments. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Enthalpy restoration in geothermal energy processing system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1983-01-01

    A geothermal deep well energy extraction system is provided of the general type in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a relatively low temperature geothermal source by transferring thermal energy from the hot water to a working fluid for driving a primary turbine-motor and a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface. The superheated expanded exhaust from the primary turbine motor is conducted to a bubble tank where it bubbles through a layer of sub-cooled working fluid that has been condensed. The superheat and latent heat from the expanded exhaust of the turbine transfers thermal energy to the sub-cooled condensate. The desuperheated exhaust is then conducted to the condenser where it is condensed and sub-cooled, whereupon it is conducted back to the bubble tank via a barometric storage tank. The novel condensing process of this invention makes it possible to exploit geothermal sources which might otherwise be non-exploitable.

  17. A study of geothermal drilling and the production of electricity from geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, K.G.; Livesay, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study of the production of electricity from geothermal energy with particular emphasis on the drilling of geothermal wells. A brief history of the industry, including the influence of the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act, is given. Demand and supply of electricity in the United States are touched briefly. The results of a number of recent analytical studies of the cost of producing electricity are discussed, as are comparisons of recent power purchase agreements in the state of Nevada. Both the costs of producing electricity from geothermal energy and the costs of drilling geothermal wells are analyzed. The major factors resulting in increased cost of geothermal drilling, when compared to oil and gas drilling, are discussed. A summary of a series of interviews with individuals representing many aspects of the production of electricity from geothermal energy is given in the appendices. Finally, the implications of these studies are given, conclusions are presented, and program recommendations are made.

  18. Quantifying uncertainties in geothermal energy exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, C.; Mottaghy, D.; Rath, V.; Wolf, A.; Pechnig, R.; Clauser, C.

    2009-04-01

    An increased use of geothermal energy requires reduction of cost and risk. Information on rock properties in the subsurface is essential for planning of projects for geothermal energy use. Based on a stochastic approach, the uncertainties in the rock properties at a given location and for a target parameter are quantified, such as temperature or flow rate. This way, not only average values and error estimates of the target parameter can be obtained, but also its spatial distribution. Based on this information, the risk within a geothermal project can be estimated better. As a result, cost may be reduced or estimated with less uncertainty. The approach employed is based on the algorithm of "Sequential Gaussian Simulation" (sgsim): First, the geometry of a geothermal reservoir model is discretized on some grid. Then the algorithm follows a random path through the model, and each grid node is assigned certain values for the required rock properties. These values take into account (a) assumed property distributions; (b) the correlation length; (c) primary data, such as borehole measurements; (d) secondary data, such as seismic data. A first realization is finished when the entire model is initialized. In order to obtain a distribution for the target parameter, more realizations need to be created by following other random paths. Each of these realizations is equally likely with suspect to the real situation which is defined by the measured data. Sgsim is implemented as a module of the in-house mass and heat flow simulator shemat_suite. This way, the generated realizations are directly used as input for mass and heat flow simulations. Thus, no time and effort is wasted for format conversion. As a demonstration of this method, an exploration scenario is simulated for a projected geothermal district heat use in The Hague, Netherlands. Multiple realizations are generated using the sgsim algorithm for the distribution of thermal conductivity within the geothermal reservoir

  19. Rare Earth Element Concentrations in Geothermal Wells at the Puna Geothermal Field, Hawaii

    DOE Data Explorer

    Fowler, Andrew; Zierenberg, Robert

    2016-12-09

    Rare earth element concentrations in the geothermal wells at the Puna geothermal field, Hawaii. Samples taken from geothermal wells KS-5, KS-6W, KS-9W, KS-14E, and KS-16N. Includes pH and concentrations for Cerium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Holmium, Lanthanum, Lutetium, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium, Terbium, Thulium, Yttrium, and Ytterbium. Samples collected on November 11-17, 2016.

  20. Promoting Geothermal Energy: Air Emissions Comparison and Externality Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Gawell, Karl

    2005-09-01

    When compared to fossil fuel energy sources such as coal and natural gas, geothermal emerges as one of the least polluting forms of energy, producing virtually zero air emissions. Geothermal offers a baseload source of reliable power that compares favorably with fossil fuel power sources. But unless legislative changes are enacted, geothermal energy will continue to be produced at only a fraction of its potential.

  1. City of El Centro geothermal energy utility core field experiment. Final report, February 16, 1979-November 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Province, S.G.; Sherwood, P.B.

    1984-11-01

    The City of El Centro was awarded a contract in late 1978 to cost share the development of a low to moderate temperature geothermal resource in the City. The resource would be utilized to heat, cool and provide hot water to the nearby Community Center. In December 1981, Thermal 1 (injector) was drilled to 3970 feet. In January 1982, Thermal 2 (producer) was drilled to 8510 feet. Before testing began, fill migrated into both wells. Both wells were cleaned out. A pump was installed in the producer, but migration of fill again into the injector precluded injection of produced fluid. A short term production test was undertaken and results analyzed. Based upon the analysis, DOE decided that the well was not useful for commercial production due to a low flow rate, the potential problems of continued sanding and gasing, and the requirement to lower the pump setting depth and the associated costs of pumping. There was no commercial user found to take over the wells. Therefore, the wells were plugged and abandoned. The site was restored to its original condition.

  2. Optimization of injection scheduling in geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lovekin, J.

    1987-05-01

    This study discusses the application of algorithms developed in Operations Research to the optimization of brine reinjection in geothermal fields. The injection optimization problem is broken into two sub-problems: (1) choosing a configuration of injectors from an existing set of wells, and (2) allocating a total specified injection rate among chosen injectors. The allocation problem is solved first. The reservoir is idealized as a network of channels or arcs directly connecting each pair of wells in the field. Each arc in the network is considered to have some potential for thermal breakthrough. This potential is quantified by an arc-specific break-through index, b/sub ij/, based on user-specified parameters from tracer tests, field geometry, and operating considerations. The sum of b/sub ij/-values for all arcs is defined as the fieldwide breakthrough index, B. Injection is optimized by choosing injection wells and rates so as to minimize B subject to constraints on the number of injectors and the total amount of fluid to be produced and reinjected. The study presents four computer programs which employ linear or quadratic programming to solve the allocation problem. In addition, a program is presented which solves the injector configuration problem by a combination of enumeration and quadratic programming. The use of the various programs is demonstrated with reference both to hypothetical data and an actual data set from the Wairakei Geothermal Field in New Zealand.

  3. Geology of the Olkaria Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Ogoso-Odongo, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Up to now development of the resource in Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya, has been based on fragmental information that is inconclusive in most respects. Development has been concentrated in an area of 4 km/sup 2/ at most, with well to well spacing of less than 300 m. The move now is to understand the greater Olkaria field by siting exploratory wells in different parts of the area considered of reasonable potential. To correlate the data available from the different parts of the field, the geology of the area, as a base for the composite field model, is discussed and shown to have major controls over fluid movements in the area and other features.

  4. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: legislative and institutional program, cities program, geothermal applications utilization technology, integrated alcohol/feedlot/geothermal operation, geothermal energy in the mining industry, geothermal space heating and cooling, identification of a suitable industry for a remote geothermal site, irrigation pumping, coal-fired/geothermal-assisted power plants, area development plans, and outreach. (MHR)

  5. Changes in thermal activity in the Rotorua geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Cody, A.D. ); Lumb, J.T. )

    1992-04-01

    During a period when geothermal fluid was being withdrawn for energy use at an increasing rate, the level of natural hydrothermal activity in the Rotorua geothermal field declined in an all-time low in the mid 1980s. total heatflow from a major hot-spring area fell by almost 50 percent, springs ceased their flow, and geysers displayed abnormal behavior consistent with a low aquifer pressure. since the enforced closure of bores within 1.5 km of Pohutu Geyser, sings of recovery, including a return to normal behavior of Pohutu and Waikorohihi Geysers, a resumption of activity at Kereru Geyser, and an increase in water flow from some springs are presented in this paper.

  6. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  7. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, D.S.

    1996-08-01

    The potential of geothermal energy for future electric power generation in New York State is evaluated using estimates of temperatures of geothermal reservoir rocks. Bottom hole temperatures from over 2000 oil and gas wells in the region were integrated into subsurface maps of the temperatures for specific geothermal reservoirs. The Theresa/Potsdam formation provides the best potential for extraction of high volumes of geothermal fluids. The evaluation of the Theresa/Potsdam geothermal reservoir in upstate New York suggests that an area 30 miles east of Elmira, New York has the highest temperatures in the reservoir rock. The Theresa/Potsdam reservoir rock should have temperatures about 136 {degrees}C and may have as much as 450 feet of porosity in excess of 8%. Estimates of the volumes of geothermal fluids that can be extracted are provided and environmental considerations for production from a geothermal well is discussed.

  8. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  9. Pilot fruit drier for Los Azufres geothermal field, Michoacan, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1993-02-01

    Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) has a Division in charge of the exploration of a geothermal reservoir located in Los Azufres, State of Michoacan. At present, CFE is only using the steam of the wells and rejecting the hot water that comes off associated with the steam. Based on a trip to the Los Azufres geothermal field in December of 1992, a design for a pilot geothermal fruit drier was undertaken for CFE. The details of the geothermal field and the local fruit production are detailed.

  10. Geothermal Energy Production from Oil/Gas Wells and Application for Building Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Honggang; Liu, Xiaobing

    2016-01-01

    One significant source of low-temperature geothermal energy is the coproduced hot water from oil/gas field production. In the United States, daily oil production has reached above 8 million barrels in recent years. Considering various conditions of wells, 5-10 times or more water can be coproduced in the range of temperature 120 F to 300 F. Like other geothermal resources, such energy source from oil/gas wells is under-utilized for its typical long distance from consumption sites. Many oil/gas fields, however, are relatively close (less than 10 miles) to consumers around cities. For instance, some petroleum fields in Pennsylvania are only a few miles away from the towns in Pittsburg area and some fields in Texas are quite close to Houston. In this paper, we evaluate geothermal potential from oil/gas wells by conducting numerical simulation and analysis of a fractured oil well in Hastings West field, Texas. The results suggest that hot water can be continuously coproduced from oil wells at a sufficient rate (about 4000 gallons/day from one well) for more than 100 years. Viable use of such geothermal source requires economical transportation of energy to consumers. The recently proposed two-step geothermal absorption (TSGA) system provides a promising energy transport technology that allows large-scale use of geothermal energy from thousands of oil/gas wells.

  11. The Geysers Geothermal Field Update1990/2010

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, P.; Lippmann, M.; Dobson, P.F.; Poux, B.

    2010-10-01

    all technical fields, as related to The Geysers steam-dominated geothermal system. The Geysers has seen many fundamental changes between 1990-2010 and yet the geothermal resource seems still to be robust to the extent that, long after its anticipated life span, we are seeing new geothermal projects being developed on the north and west peripheries of the field. It is hoped that this report provides a focused data source particularly for those just starting their geothermal careers, as well as those who have been involved in the interesting and challenging field of geothermal energy for many years. Despite many hurdles The Geysers has continued to generate electrical power for 50 years and its sustainability has exceeded many early researchers expectations. It also seems probable that, with the new projects described above, generation will continue for many years to come. The success of The Geysers is due to the technical skills and the financial acumen of many people, not only over the period covered by this report (1990-2010), but since the first kilowatt of power was generated in 1960. This Special Report celebrates those 50 years of geothermal development at The Geysers and attempts to document the activities that have brought success to the project so that a permanent record can be maintained. It is strongly hoped and believed that a publication similar to this one will be necessary in another 20 years to document further activities in the field.

  12. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James E; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  13. Geothermal energy control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1977-01-01

    A geothermal energy transfer and utilization system makes use of thermal energy stored in hot solute-bearing well water to generate super-heated steam from an injected flow of clean water; the super-heated steam is then used for operating a turbine-driven pump at the well bottom for pumping the hot solute-bearing water at high pressure and in liquid state to the earth's surface, where it is used by transfer of its heat to a closed-loop boiler-turbine-alternator combination for the generation of electrical or other power. Residual concentrated solute-bearing water is pumped back into the earth. The clean cooled water is regenerated at the surface-located system and is returned to the deep well pumping system also for lubrication of a novel bearing arrangement supporting the turbine-driven pump system. The bearing system employs liquid lubricated thrust and radial bearings with all bearing surfaces bathed in clean water serving as a lubricant and maintained under pressure to prevent entry into the bearings of contaminated geothermal fluid, an auxiliary thrust ball bearing arrangement comes into operation when starting or stopping the pumping system.

  14. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  15. Geothermal energy: The heat is on for New Mexico greenhouses

    SciTech Connect

    Berghage, R.; Shoenmackers, R.; Witcher, J.C. )

    1994-11-01

    Greenhouse operators are sensitive to energy costs related to heating, so operators are looking to alternative sources of energy like geothermal resources. The Rincon/Radium Springs and the Las Cruces-East Mesa geothermal areas of New Mexico offer a proven, environmentally benign, energy source that give substantial energy cost savings compared to traditional fossil fuels. A number of commercial greenhouses, both large and small, are already taking advantage of geothermal heat in the southwest to reduce their energy costs and increase their profitability.

  16. GEOTHERMAL / SOLAR HYBRID DESIGNS: USE OF GEOTHERMAL ENERGY FOR CSP FEEDWATER HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Turchi; Guangdong Zhu; Michael Wagner; Tom Williams; Dan Wendt

    2014-10-01

    This paper examines a hybrid geothermal / solar thermal plant design that uses geothermal energy to provide feedwater heating in a conventional steam-Rankine power cycle deployed by a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. The geothermal energy represents slightly over 10% of the total thermal input to the hybrid plant. The geothermal energy allows power output from the hybrid plant to increase by about 8% relative to a stand-alone CSP plant with the same solar-thermal input. Geothermal energy is converted to electricity at an efficiency of 1.7 to 2.5 times greater than would occur in a stand-alone, binary-cycle geothermal plant using the same geothermal resource. While the design exhibits a clear advantage during hybrid plant operation, the annual advantage of the hybrid versus two stand-alone power plants depends on the total annual operating hours of the hybrid plant. The annual results in this draft paper are preliminary, and further results are expected prior to submission of a final paper.

  17. Geothermal energy control system and method

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1976-01-01

    A geothermal energy transfer and utilization system makes use of thermal energy stored in hot solute-bearing well water to generate super-heated steam from an injected flow of clean water; the super-heated steam is then used for operating a turbine-driven pump at the well bottom for pumping the hot solute-bearing water at high pressure and in liquid state to the earth's surface, where it is used by transfer of its heat to a closed-loop boiler-turbine-alternator combination for the generation of electrical or other power. Residual concentrated solute-bearing water is pumped back into the earth. The clean cooled water is regenerated at the surface-located system and is returned to the deep well pumping system also for lubrication of a novel bearing arrangement supporting the turbine-driven pump system.

  18. Seismic monitoring at the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, A.E. Jr.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Majer, E.L.; Peterson, J.E. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes the efforts of LBL to utilize MEQ data in reservoir definition as well as in evaluating its performance. Results of the study indicate that the velocity and attenuation variations correlate with the known geology of the field. At the NW Geysers, high velocity anomalies correspond to metagraywacke and greenstone units while low velocity anomalies seem to be associated with Franciscan melanges. Low Vp/Vs and high attenuation delineate the steam reservoir suggesting undersaturation of the reservoir rocks. Ongoing monitoring of Vp/Vs may be useful in tracking the expansion of the steam zone with time. Spatial and temporal patterns of seismicity exhibit compelling correlation with geothermal exploitation. Clusters of MEQs occur beneath active injection wells and appear to shift with changing injection activities. High resolution MEQ locations hold promise for inferring fluid flow paths, especially in tracking injectate. This study has demonstrated that continuous seismic monitoring may be useful as an active reservoir management tool.

  19. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  20. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  1. A guide to geothermal energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kagel, Alyssa; Bates, Diana; Gawell, Karl

    2005-04-22

    Geothermal energy, defined as heat from the Earth, is a statute-recognized renewable resource. The first U.S. geothermal power plant, opened at The Geysers in California in 1960, continues to operate successfully. The United States, as the world's largest producer of geothermal electricity, generates an average of 15 billion kilowatt hours of power per year, comparable to burning close to 25 million barrels of oil or 6 million short tons of coal per year. Geothermal has a higher capacity factor (a measure of the amount of real time during which a facility is used) than many other power sources. Unlike wind and solar resources, which are more dependent upon weather fluctuations and climate changes, geothermal resources are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. While the carrier medium for geothermal electricity (water) must be properly managed, the source of geothermal energy, the Earth's heat, will be available indefinitely. A geothermal resource assessment shows that nine western states together have the potential to provide over 20 percent of national electricity needs. Although geothermal power plants, concentrated in the West, provide the third largest domestic source of renewable electricity after hydropower and biomass, they currently produce less than one percent of total U.S. electricity.

  2. Geo-electrical Structures of QP Geothermal Field, Southwest Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Chen, L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, X.; Xi, X.; Chen, R.

    2016-12-01

    The QP geothermal field is one the high-temperature geothermal fields in the Himalayan Geothermal Belt (HGB) of the southwest Tibet. The HGB is tectonically active because of the ongoing collision of the Indian and Asian continents. More than a half of the high-temperature geothermal fields in China are concentrated in HGB. However, the structures and geothermal systems of most of the high-temperature geothermal fields are still poor understood, due largely to few geophysical explorations having been conducted in theses areas. Debates also continue as to whether there are melting magmas in the upper crust serving as the heat source in the HGB, although more and more evidence has been reported from studies of helium isotope composition of hot spring gas, geochemical characteristics of spring water, and temperature field modeling. We carried out a MT/AMT study to explore the geothermal system in the QP geothermal field. Our result provide resistivity models in the forms of profile section, contour map of iso-elevation and three dimension image for understanding the reservoir, thermal path and heat source of the QP geothermal system. The result shows that the QP geothermal system has four geo-electrical layers from surface to a depth of more than 10 km, and it displays geo-electrical structure features similar to that of some volcanoes in USA and Iceland. The reservoir of the QP geothermal field has a resistivity of 1-10 Ω.m. In particular, we found a deep buried low resistivity anomaly with a resistivity of 1-8 Ω.m at more than 7 km depths in the field. This low resistivity anomaly is interpreted as partial melting magmas in the upper crust based on the comprehensive understanding of the geophysical, geochemical and geological data in the QP geothermal field. The partial melting magmas serve as the heat source of the geothermal system. Our result provides new geophysical evidence for the occurrence of partial melting in the upper crust in South Tibet.

  3. Interactive Maps from the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, part of the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts research towards the establishment of geothermal energy as an economically viable energy source within the Great Basin. The Center specializes in collecting and synthesizing geologic, geochemical, geodetic, geophysical, and tectonic data, and using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to view and analyze this data and to produce favorability maps of geothermal potential. The interactive maps are built with layers of spatial data that are also available as direct file downloads (see DDE00299). The maps allow analysis of these many layers, with various data sets turned on or off, for determining potential areas that would be favorable for geothermal drilling or other activity. They provide information on current exploration projects and leases, Bureau of Land Management land status, and map presentation of each type of scientific spatial data: geothermal, geophysical, geologic, geodetic, groundwater, and geochemical.

  4. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  5. Energy potential of geothermal energy in Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, M.; Kaltschmitt, M.

    2000-06-01

    The use of terrestrial heat could fulfill certain energy demands. For the evaluation of the possibilities in the energy system of Germany, the available potentials are one of the most important criteria. Within this context, in the past only the available resources and the reserves have been discussed. But these data have hardly practical relevance for the energy-political and energy-economic discussions, since they do not consider the conditions in the corresponding energy system. In this article, therefore, explanations additional to the overall existing amount of heat in underground portions are shown, which could be used also from a technical point of view. In addition, the demand-side restrictions are considered and the share of the available heat is pointed out which can be used within the energy system of Germany. The explanations show that consideration of the demand side is necessary to make relevant statements. The investigations also make clear that terrestrial heat will never be able to cover more than just a part of the energy demand for warmth in Germany.

  6. Development of an Enhanced Two-Phase Production System at the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Enedy

    2001-12-14

    A method was developed to enhance geothermal steam production from two-phase wells at THE Geysers Geothermal Field. The beneficial result was increased geothermal production that was easily and economically delivered to the power plant.

  7. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.; Bjoernsson, S.

    1981-06-01

    Numerical simulation methods are used to study how the exploitation of different horizons affects the behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir. The reservoir model is a schematic representation of the Olkaria field in Kenya. The model consists of a two phase vapor dominated zone overlying the main liquid dominated reservoir. Four different cases were studied, with fluid produced from: (1) the vapor zone only, (2) the liquid zone only, (3) both zones and (4) both zones, but assuming lower values for vertical permeability and porosity. The results indicate that production from the shallow two phase zone, although resulting in higher enthalpy fluids, may not be advantageous in the long run. Shallow production gives rise to a rather localized depletion of the reservoir, whereas production from deeper horizons may yield a more uniform depletion process, if vertical permeability is sufficiently large.

  9. Improved energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Boedvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.; Bjoernsson, S.

    1981-06-01

    Numerical simulation methods are used to study how the exploitation of different horizons affects the behavior of a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir. The reservoir model is a schematic representation of the Olkaria field in Kenya. The model consists of a two-phase vapor-dominated zone overlying the main liquid dominated reservoir. Four different cases were studied, with fluid produced from: 1) the vapor zone only, 2) the liquid zone only, 3) both zones and 4) both zones, but assuming lower values for vertical permeability and porosity. The results indicate that production from the shallow two-phase zone, although resulting in higher enthalpy fluids, may not be advantageous in the long run. Shallow production gives rise to a rather localized depletion of the reservoir, whereas production from deeper horizons may yield a more uniform depletion proces, if vertical permeability is sufficiently large.

  10. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: the legislative and institutional program, cities program, outreach, the integrated alcohol/feedlot/geothermal operation, geothermal energy in the mining industry, geothermal space heating and cooling, identification of a suitable industry for a remote geothermal site, irrigation pumping, coal-fired/geothermal-assisted power plants, and area development plans. (MHR)

  11. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.

    1982-09-01

    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  12. Industrial application of geothermal energy in southeast Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batdorf, J. A.; McClain, D. W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G. M.

    1980-02-01

    The main industries in Southeastern Idaho are phosphorus/ phosphate production and potato processing. Most of the energy required in the phosphate industries is electrical and therefore not replaceable by direct application of geothermal energy. The main area for direct use of geothermal energy in the phosphate industry is for drying of the ore at the mine site; however, most of this is energy now supplied by waste heat from the calcining process. There exists a large need for a dedicated supply of electrical energy to these industries and the possibility of using geothermal energy to generate electricity for these areas should be investigated. The potato processing industry uses most of its energy to provide process steam for drying and cooking. Geothermal energy can potentially replace most of these energy requirements provided a high energy source temperature can be located. A 200 F geothermal source could supply about 40% of the industry's needs. A 400 F geothermal source could supply nearly 90% of the industry's needs.

  13. Fiscal 1991 geothermal development promotion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-02-01

    The paper surveys the spouting of geothermal fluids in test boring wells, the well logging, and the status of geothermal fluids, as a part of the geothermal development promotion survey in the Mizuwake-Toge south area. In the spouting test of N3-MW-6 well, the 53rd swabbing led successfully to spouting. The spouting amounted to 3.6 tons/h in steam and geothermal water, but stopped spontaneously in 100 minutes. Results of the logging are hardly different between before and after the spouting indicating a maximum temperature of 200 C, barometric pressure of 75, and water levels of a 250-300m section. The geothermal water is a neutral Cl deep-area type. N2-MW-2 well spouted immediately after the 10th swabbing, indicating steam of 3 tons/h at the stable time, geothermal water of 7.3 tons/h, pH9, Cl of 1500ppm, and the total spouting time of 4029 minutes. The place where the geothermal fluid flows in is 635m deep, and when the well head pressure was 1.7-3.9 barometric pressure, the spouted fluid temperature was 199-198 C. The geothermal water is a Cl-HCO3 type. In both wells geothermal water is ground water originated from meteoric water which reacted with peripheral rocks by volcanic heating and was formed in the deep area.

  14. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    Washington's geothermal potential is discussed. The following topics are covered: exploration, drilling, utilization, legal and institutional setting, and economic factors of direct use projects. (MHR)

  15. Impact of enhanced geothermal systems on US energy supply in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Tester, Jefferson W; Anderson, Brian J; Batchelor, Anthony S; Blackwell, David D; DiPippo, Ronald; Drake, Elisabeth M; Garnish, John; Livesay, Bill; Moore, Michal C; Nichols, Kenneth; Petty, Susan; Toksoz, M Nafi; Veatch, Ralph W; Baria, Roy; Augustine, Chad; Murphy, Enda; Negraru, Petru; Richards, Maria

    2007-04-15

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing US supplies of indigenous renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well distributed nationally. A panel was assembled in September 2005 to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of geothermal becoming a major supplier of primary energy for US base-load generation capacity by 2050. Primary energy produced from both conventional hydrothermal and enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS) was considered on a national scale. This paper summarizes the work of the panel which appears in complete form in a 2006 MIT report, 'The future of geothermal energy' parts 1 and 2. In the analysis, a comprehensive national assessment of US geothermal resources, evaluation of drilling and reservoir technologies and economic modelling was carried out. The methodologies employed to estimate geologic heat flow for a range of geothermal resources were utilized to provide detailed quantitative projections of the EGS resource base for the USA. Thirty years of field testing worldwide was evaluated to identify the remaining technology needs with respect to drilling and completing wells, stimulating EGS reservoirs and converting geothermal heat to electricity in surface power and energy recovery systems. Economic modelling was used to develop long-term projections of EGS in the USA for supplying electricity and thermal energy. Sensitivities to capital costs for drilling, stimulation and power plant construction, and financial factors, learning curve estimates, and uncertainties and risks were considered.

  16. Alternative energy sources II; Proceedings of the Second Miami International Conference, Miami Beach, Fla., December 10-13, 1979. Volume 5 - Geothermal power/energy program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    This volume examines the geothermal resource and geothermal energy utilization, and surveys regional energy programs worldwide. The particular papers presented on geothermal energy include those on the temperature indicators for geothermal use, geothermal drilling research in the United States, and geothermal energy and biofuel production in agriculture. Energy programs from India, Egypt, Turkey, Greece and Puerto Rico are reviewed.

  17. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA )

    1989-08-01

    These are appendices A thru E of the Ahuachapan geothermal field reservoir analysis. The volume contains: mineralogy contours, ionic chlorine and silicon dioxide contours, well summaries, and temperature and pressure effects. (JEF)

  18. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    These are appendices F through I of the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field Reservoir Analysis. The volume contains: well logs, water chemistry plots, gas chemistry plots, temperature plots, and flow plots. (JEF)

  19. Investigation of deep permeable strata in the permian basin for future geothermal energy reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.; Swift, Douglas B.

    1999-09-23

    This project will investigate a previously unidentified geothermal energy resource, opening broad new frontiers to geothermal development. Data collected by industry during oil and gas development demonstrate deep permeable strata with temperatures {ge} 150 C, within the optimum window for binary power plant operation. The project will delineate Deep Permeable Strata Geothermal Energy (DPSGE) assets in the Permian Basin of western Texas and southeastern New Mexico. Presently, geothermal electrical power generation is limited to proximity to shallow, high-temperature igneous heat sources. This geographically restricts geothermal development. Delineation of a new, less geographically constrained geothermal energy source will stimulate geothermal development, increasing available clean, renewable world energy reserves. This proposal will stimulate geothermal reservoir exploration by identifying untapped and unrealized reservoirs of geothermal energy. DPSGE is present in many regions of the United States not presently considered as geothermally prospective. Development of this new energy source will promote geothermal use throughout the nation.

  20. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  1. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  2. Geothermal energy exploitation in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The essential factors, human and technical, which control the operation of geothermal systems, particularly those which allow prediction of behavior during and after exploitation, are sketched. The strategy and co-ordination involved in using New Zealand's geothermal resources for power production are considered. The broader aspects of the technical matters involved in the design of the parasitic plant reservoir system are described. (MHR)

  3. GeoPowering the West: Geothermal Energy--The Bountiful, Clean Energy Source for the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    General fact sheet describing U.S. Department of Energy's GeoPowering the West program. Geothermal energy represents a major economic opportunity for the American West, an area characterized by a steadily increasing population that requires reliable sources of heat and power. GeoPowering the West is pursuing this opportunity by: (1) Bringing together national, state and local stakeholders for state-sponsored geothermal development workshops; (2) Working with public power companies and rural electric cooperatives to promote use of geothermal power; (3) Promoting increased federal use of geothermal energy; (4) Helping American Indians identify and develop geothermal resources on tribal lands; and (5) Sponsoring non-technical educational workshops.

  4. Methods for the estimation of the energy stored in geothermal reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Donatini, F.

    2017-01-01

    The paper analyze the problem of the estimation of the potential of geothermal reservoirs with the objective of sizing of geothermal power plants in order to reach the goal of a correct matching of renewability and economic related issues. After an analysis of the typical approaches based on the First Order Method diffused in the literature since the late 70s and of the uncertainties connected with the use of simplified approaches, that have determined general overestimation of the geothermal energy stored in the reservoirs and of the size of the plants connected to various geothermal fields, the authors discuss about possible improvements based on the combination of theoretical simplified approaches with experimental data of heat flow, taking into account not only the energy stored, but also the possibility of producing a recharge.

  5. Comprehensive Cross-Training among STEM Disciplines in Geothermal Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, J. A.; Dutrow, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    One of the foremost areas of sustainability is society's need for energy. The US uses more energy per capita than any other country in the world with most of this energy coming from fossil fuels. With its link to climate change coupled with declining resources, renewable alternatives are being pursued. Given the high demand for energy, it is not a question of if these alternatives will be utilized but when and where. One of the "greenest" of the green technologies is geothermal energy. It is a renewable resource with a small environmental footprint. To educate advanced undergraduate and graduate students from across STEM disciplines in geothermal energy, a series of three distinct but linked and related courses are being developed and taught. Courses are focused on one of the STEM disciplines to provide students with essential discipline-specific knowledge and taught by different faculty members in the departments of geology, petroleum engineering and mathematics. These courses provide the foundation necessary for interdisciplinary research projects. The first course on Geologic Properties and Processes of Geothermal Energy was developed and taught in 2012. The class had an enrollment of 27 students including: 5 undergraduates and 4 graduate students in Geology, 12 undergraduates and two graduate students in Petroleum Engineering, and 4 non-matriculated undergraduate students. The course began with the essentials of heat and mass transfer, a common deficiency for all students, then progressed to the geologic materials of these systems: minerals, rocks and fluids. To provide students with first hand experience, two short research projects were embedded into the course. The first project involved analyses of cuttings from a well-studied geothermal system (Salton Sea, CA). Students were in teams consisting of both engineers and geologists. The first assignment was to identify minerals in the cuttings. They were then provided with XRD patterns for their cuttings to

  6. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6 percent of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the U.S. public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99 percent of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98 percent. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future U.S. energy markets.

  7. Geothermal energy program summary: Volume 1: Overview Fiscal Year 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Geothermal energy is a here-and-now technology for use with dry steam resources and high-quality hydrothermal liquids. These resources are supplying about 6% of all electricity used in California. However, the competitiveness of power generation using lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma still depends on the technology improvements sought by the DOE Geothermal Energy R and D Program. The successful outcome of the R and D initiatives will serve to benefit the US public in a number of ways. First, if a substantial portion of our geothermal resources can be used economically, they will add a very large source of secure, indigenous energy to the nation's energy supply. In addition, geothermal plants can be brought on line quickly in case of a national energy emergency. Geothermal energy is also a highly reliable resource, with very high plant availability. For example, new dry steam plants at The Geysers are operable over 99% of the time, and the small flash plant in Hawaii, only the second in the United States, has an availability factor of 98%. Geothermal plants also offer a viable baseload alternative to fossil and nuclear plants -- they are on line 24 hours a day, unaffected by diurnal or seasonal variations. The hydrothermal power plants with modern emission control technology have proved to have minimal environmental impact. The results to date with geopressured and hot dry rock resources suggest that they, too, can be operated so as to reduce environmental effects to well within the limits of acceptability. Preliminary studies on magma are also encouraging. In summary, the character and potential of geothermal energy, together with the accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal R and D Program, ensure that this huge energy resource will play a major role in future US energy markets. 7 figs.

  8. New Mexico statewide geothermal energy program. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Parker, S.K.

    1988-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of geothermal energy resource assessment work conducted by the New Mexico Statewide Geothermal Energy Program during the period September 7, 1984, through February 29, 1988, under the sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy and the State of New Mexico Research and Development Institute. The research program was administered by the New Mexico Research and Development Institute and was conducted by professional staff members at New Mexico State University and Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. The report is divided into four chapters, which correspond to the principal tasks delineated in the above grant. This work extends the knowledge of the geothermal energy resource base in southern New Mexico with the potential for commercial applications.

  9. Joint geophysical data analysis for geothermal energy exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamalwa, Antony Munika

    Geophysical data modelling often yields non-unique results and hence the interpretation of the resulting models in terms of underlying geological units and structures is not a straightforward problem. However, if multiple datasets are available for a region of study, an integrated interpretation of models for each of the geophysical data may results to a more realistic geological description. This study not only demonstrates the strength of resistivity analysis for geothermal fields but also the gains from interpreting resistivity data together with other geophysical data such as gravity and seismic data. Various geothermal fields have been examined in this study which includes Silali and Menengai geothermal fields in Kenya and Coso geothermal field in California, USA.

  10. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Summary of modeling studies of the Krafla geothermal field, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Eliasson, E.T.

    1983-08-01

    A comprehensive modeling study of the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland has been carried out. The study consists of four tasks: the analysis of well test data, modeling of the natural state of the field, the determination of the generating capability of the field, and modeling of well performance. The results of all four tasks are consistent with field observations.

  12. The Impact of Injection on Seismicity at The Geyses, CaliforniaGeothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, Ernest L.; Peterson, John E.

    2006-09-25

    Water injection into geothermal systems has often become arequired strategy to extended and sustain production of geothermalresources. To reduce a trend of declining pressures and increasingnon-condensable gas concentrations in steam produced from The Geysers,operators have been injecting steam condensate, local rain and streamwaters, and most recently treated wastewater piped to the field fromneighboring communities. If geothermal energy is to provide a significantincrease in energy in the United States (US Department of Energy (DOE)goal is 40,000 megawatts by 2040), injection must play a larger role inthe overall strategy, i.e., enhanced geothermal systems, (EGS). Presentedin this paper are the results of monitoring microseismicity during anincrease in injection at The Geysers field in California using data froma high-density digital microearthquake array. Although seismicity hasincreased due to increased injection it has been found to be somewhatpredicable, thus implying that intelligent injection control may be ableto control large increases in seismicity.

  13. Geothermal well-field and power-plant investment-decision analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1981-05-31

    Investment decisions pertaining to hydrothermal well fields and electric power plants are analyzed. Geothermal investment decision models were developed which, when coupled to a site-specific stochastic cash flow model, estimate the conditional probability of a positive decision to invest in the development of geothermal resource areas. Quantitative decision models have been developed for each major category of investor currently involved in the hydrothermal projects. These categories include: large, diversified energy resource corporations; independently operating resource firms; investor-owned electric utilities; municipal electric utilities; state-run resource agencies; and private third-party power plant investors. The geothermal cash flow, the investment decision analysis, and an example of model application for assessing the likely development of geothermal resource areas are described. The sensitivity of this investment behavior to federal incentives and research goals is also analyzed and discussed.

  14. Geothermal Heat Pump Profitability in Energy Services

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    If geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are to make a significant mark in the market, we believe that it will be through energy service pricing contracts offered by retailcos. The benefits of GHPs are ideally suited to energy service pricing (ESP) contractual arrangements; however, few retailcos are thoroughly familiar with the benefits of GHPs. Many of the same barriers that have prevented GHPs from reaching their full potential in the current market environment remain in place for retailcos. A lack of awareness, concerns over the actual efficiencies of GHPs, perceptions of extremely high first costs, unknown records for maintenance costs, etc. have all contributed to limited adoption of GHP technology. These same factors are of concern to retailcos as they contemplate long term customer contracts. The central focus of this project was the creation of models, using actual GHP operating data and the experience of seasoned professionals, to simulate the financial performance of GHPs in long-term ESP contracts versus the outcome using alternative equipment. We have chosen two case studies, which may be most indicative of target markets in the competitive marketplace: A new 37,000 square foot office building in Toronto, Ontario; we also modeled a similar building under the weather conditions of Orlando, Florida. An aggregated residential energy services project using the mass conversion of over 4,000 residential units at Ft. Polk, Louisiana. Our method of analyses involved estimating equipment and energy costs for both the base case and the GHP buildings. These costs are input in to a cash flow analysis financial model which calculates an after-tax cost for the base and GHP case. For each case study customers were assumed to receive a 5% savings over their base case utility bill. A sensitivity analysis was then conducted to determine how key variables affect the attractiveness of a GHP investment.

  15. Origin of first cells at terrestrial, anoxic geothermal fields.

    PubMed

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Bychkov, Andrew Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-04-03

    All cells contain much more potassium, phosphate, and transition metals than modern (or reconstructed primeval) oceans, lakes, or rivers. Cells maintain ion gradients by using sophisticated, energy-dependent membrane enzymes (membrane pumps) that are embedded in elaborate ion-tight membranes. The first cells could possess neither ion-tight membranes nor membrane pumps, so the concentrations of small inorganic molecules and ions within protocells and in their environment would equilibrate. Hence, the ion composition of modern cells might reflect the inorganic ion composition of the habitats of protocells. We attempted to reconstruct the "hatcheries" of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells. These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K(+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K(+)/Na(+) ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn, and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under the anoxic, CO(2)-dominated primordial atmosphere, the chemistry of basins at geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. The precellular stages of evolution might have transpired in shallow ponds of condensed and cooled geothermal vapor that were lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K(+), Zn(2+), and phosphorous compounds.

  16. Shear velocity of the Rotokawa geothermal field using ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ambient noise correlation is an increasingly popular seismological technique that uses the ambient seismic noise recorded at two stations to construct an empirical Green's function. Applications of this technique include determining shear velocity structure and attenuation. An advantage of ambient noise is that it does not rely on external sources of seismic energy such as local or teleseismic earthquakes. This method has been used in the geothermal industry to determine the depths at which magmatic processes occur, to distinguish between production and non-production areas, and to observe seismic velocity perturbations associated with fluid extraction. We will present a velocity model for the Rotokawa geothermal field near Taupo, New Zealand, produced from ambient noise cross correlations. Production at Rotokawa is based on the "Rotokawa A" combined cycle power station established in 1997 and the "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant established in 2010. Rotokawa Joint Venture, a partnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 Trust currently operates 174 MW of generation at Rotokawa. An array of short period seismometers was installed in 2008 and occupies an area of roughly 5 square kilometers around the site. Although both cultural and natural noise sources are recorded at the stations, the instrument separation distance provides a unique challenge for analyzing cross correlations produced by both signal types. The inter-station spacing is on the order of a few kilometers, so waves from cultural sources generally are not coherent from one station to the other, while the wavelength produced by natural noise is greater than the station separation. Velocity models produced from these two source types will be compared to known geological models of the site. Depending on the amount of data needed to adequately construct cross-correlations, a time-dependent model of velocity will be established and compared with geothermal production processes.

  17. Technology, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) is the technology pillar of the EU's energy and climate policy. The goal of the SET-Plan is to achieve EU worldwide leadership in the production of energy technological solutions capable of delivering EU 2020 and 2050 targets for a low carbon economy. The Joint Research Centre (JRC) runs and manages the SET-Plan Information System (SETIS) to support the SET-Plan. Under SETIS, the JRC publishes a number of regularly updated key references on the state of low carbon technology, research and innovation in Europe. Within the framework of the SET-Plan, the geothermal sector is placed into context with other power and heat generation technologies. The talk will give an introduction to some of JRC's geothermal research activities. Amongst others, the JRC Geothermal status report will be presented. This report aims to contribute to the general knowledge about the geothermal sector, its technology, economics and policies, with a focus on innovation, research, development and deployment activities as well as policy support schemes within the European Union. The speech will present the main findings of the report, providing an overview of the activities and progress made by the geothermal energy sector, the status of its sub-technologies and current developments. In addition, the speech will discuss the economic, market and policy aspects of geothermal energy for power production, direct use and ground source heat pumps in Europe and beyond.

  18. Geothermal Energy Research Development and Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The Federal program's goal, strategy, plans, and achievements are summarized. In addition, geothermal development by state and local governments and, where available, by the private sector is described. (MHR)

  19. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  20. Institutional and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, O. R.

    1977-01-01

    Until recently, the majority of work in geothermal energy development has been devoted to technical considerations of resource identification and extraction technologies. The increasing interest in exploiting the variety of geothermal resources has prompted an examination of the institutional barriers to their introduction for commercial use. A significant effort was undertaken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a part of a national study to identify existing constraints to geothermal development and possible remedial actions. These aspects included legislative and legal parameters plus environmental, social, and economic considerations.

  1. Solar box cookers and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    A major amount of world-wide forest depletion is caused by harvesting cooking wood. Solar box cookers can help to ameliorate this situation in that they use solar energy instead of wood to cook food. Usable year-round in the tropics and for 6 to 8 months of the year in most sunny areas of the world, the cookers can cook almost anything if there is 15 minutes of sunshine every hour. Developed in 1976 solar box cookers represent a major advance over early solar cookers. Solar box cookers are about the size of an ice chest, easily constructed by the users themselves and inexpensive. The cookers are made of cardboard or wood, and aluminum foil. Each box is topped with a sheet of glass above which an adjustable reflective lid is positioned to angle in sunlight. The food cooks in covered, dark-colored pans. One cooker can cook 10-15 pounds of food in three to five hours. Fruits, vegetables, meats, and any baked goods can be prepared, and water and milk pasteurized in them. The coking food does not have to be stirred and will not burn. The developer is also looking for ways the geothermal community could interface with solar box cookers.

  2. Geothermal energy and the environment - The global experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualetti, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The paper discusses the impact of environmental problems on the world's geothermal generating stations. The significant impacts include conflicts in land use, air pollution, subsidence, water pollution, induced seismicity, blowouts, and noise. Development of geothermal resources has been slowed down in some countries: in U.S., the emission of hydrogen sulfide produced a problem; in Japan, land use in national parks and waste-water disposal resulted in difficulties; and in El Salvador, waste-water disposal presented a difficulty. Geothermal development faces many regulations and difficulties, particularly in U.S., a country which could stimulate a global acceleration in this field with appropriately relaxed controls.

  3. Sources of subsidence at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbour, Andrew J.; Evans, Eileen; Hickman, Stephen H.; Eneva, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    At the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF) in Southern California, surface deformation associated with geologic processes including sediment compaction, tectonic strain, and fault slip may be augmented by energy production activities. Separating the relative contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources is especially important at the SSGF, which sits at the apex of a complex tectonic transition zone connecting the southern San Andreas Fault with the Imperial Fault; but this has been a challenging task so far. Here we analyze vertical surface velocities obtained from the persistent scatterer InSAR method and find that two of the largest subsidence anomalies can be represented by a set of volumetric strain nuclei at depths comparable to geothermal well completion zones. In contrast, the rates needed to achieve an adequate fit to the magnitudes of subsidence are almost an order of magnitude greater than rates reported for annual changes in aggregate net-production volume, suggesting that the physical mechanism responsible for subsidence at the SSGF is a complicated interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources.

  4. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-10-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of U.S. organizations sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  5. Exploration and development of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.; Halfman, S.E.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1983-07-01

    A multidisciplinary effort to locate, delineate, and characterize the geothermal system at Cerro Prieto, Baja California, Mexico, began about 25 years ago. It led to the identification of an important high-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system which went into production in 1973. Initially, the effort was undertaken principally by the Mexican electric power agency, the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Starting in 1977 a group of US organizations sponsored by the US Department of Energy, joined CFE in this endeavor. An evaluation of the different studies carried out at Cerro Prieto has shown that: (1) surface electrical resistivity and seismic reflection surveys are useful in defining targets for exploratory drilling; (2) the mineralogical studies of cores and cuttings and the analysis of well logs are important in designing the completion of wells, identifying geological controls on fluid movement, determining thermal effects and inferring the thermal history of the field; (3) geochemical surveys help to define zones of recharge and paths of fluid migration; and (4) reservoir engineering studies are necessary in establishing the characteristics of the reservoir and in predicting its response to fluid production.

  6. Investigation on effective promotion of geothermal energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-03-01

    Efficient and effective measures for promoting geothermal energy development are studied considering the present status and the problems of the geothermal energy development in Japan. To promote it smoothly, solutions to technical and socioeconomic problems are needed: There are many unclear points about the location and amount of geothermal resources. For geothermal energy development, it is necessary to establish a consensus of procedures for surveying the development and settlement of selling prices, and risk sharing in the development. It is indispensable to consider an adjustment with natural parks and hot springs for the development. Troubles in making an adjustment are seen in many cases, and it is necessary to make efforts for that understanding. Improvement of economical efficiency of geothermal power generation is an important subject. From the above mentioned studies, the conclusion is obtained that it is most effective to make rules for development and to expand and strengthen resource prospecting by the government. If the rules are made, reduction of the development cost and shortening of the development period are planned, and the future of the geothermal energy business is expected to be promising.

  7. Matched Field Detection of Microseismicity in a Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, D. C.; Harris, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The delineation of fractures in geothermal fields is an important aspect of reservoir management that often is attempted by mapping the distribution of microseismicity. Traditional methods of earthquake location frequently used for this purpose are labor-intensive, requiring phase-arrival picking and high-resolution location with a relative location routine such as hypoDD. Automatic picks often require assessment and correction by an analyst. Frequently, event superposition and poor signal-to-noise ratio limit the number of usable events to one-third or fewer of the detectable transients. In some applications smaller events may become so numerous that they come to resemble a continuous random process that is not amenable to location analysis suited to transient arrivals. We are exploring the application of matched field processing (MFP) to map emissions from a geothermal field. MFP is a technique developed in underwater sound to localize emissions from continuous sources such as submersibles. The technique resembles beamforming or FK analysis in that it focuses the wavefield emanating from a particular source location by matching, in the frequency domain, the phase and amplitude of waves incident across the observing aperture. It differs from beamforming and FK methods in that the phase and amplitude structure is not determined by a plane-wave model. Wavefield structure may be determined empirically, by measuring it from observations of reference events, or it may be developed by full-waveform synthetics computed through a velocity model of the medium. In this presentation, we explore the empirical approach. Our objective is to map all of the observable seismicity in a geothermal field, not just the larger events that are sufficiently distinct to permit accurate picks. Our approach would extend current techniques, using the larger events conventionally located as master events to define wavefield templates for mapping normally-discarded indistinct seismicity. Since

  8. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  9. The possibilities of utilisation of heat from Tattapani Geothermal field, India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarolkar, P.B.; Pitale, U.L.

    1996-12-31

    The Tattapani Geothermal field produces + 1800 1pm thermal water of 100{degrees}C from five production wells. The hot water production can sustain electricity production of 300 kWe by using a binary cycle power plant. The heat energy of effluent water from power plant can be utilized for direct heat utilization on horticulture, aquaculture, cold storage, silviculture etc; to augment the economics of the power plant be spot can be developed as a centre for tourist attraction by constructing botanical park, greenhouse, geyser show and crocodile farm. The direct heat utilization shemes can be planned in cascading order to achieve maximum utility of thermal water. Additional deep drilling is essential for optimum commercial utilization of the Geothermal energy. The direct heat utilisation shemes along with binary cycle power plant may help in development of the geothermal energy and boosting the economy of this region.

  10. Energy Return On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mansure, Chip

    2012-01-01

    The project provides an updated Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Results incorporate Argonne National Laboratory's Life Cycle Assessment and base case assumptions consistent with other projects in the Analysis subprogram. EROI is a ratio of the energy delivered to the consumer to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility. EROI is important in assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Currently EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out-of-date, of uncertain methodology, or presented online with little supporting documentation. This data set is a collection of files documenting data used to calculate the Energy Return On Investment (EROI) of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and erratum to publications prior to the final report. Final report is available from the OSTI web site (http://www.osti.gov/geothermal/). Data in this collections includes the well designs used, input parameters for GETEM, a discussion of the energy needed to haul materials to the drill site, the baseline mud program, and a summary of the energy needed to drill each of the well designs. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Whereas efficiency is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy extracted from the reservoir.

  11. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  12. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    California's geographic and end-use markets which could directly use low and moderate temperature geothermal resources are ranked and described, as well as those which have the highest potential for near-term commercial development of these resources. Building on previous market surveys, the assessment determined that out of 38 geothermal resource areas with characteristics for direct use development, five areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development: Susanville, Litchfield, Ontario Hot Springs, Lake Elsinore, and the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Twenty-nine applications were compared with previously selected criteria to determine their near-term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Seven categories were found to have the least impediments to development; agriculture and district heating applications are considered the highest. Ten-year projections were conducted for fossil fuel displacement from the higher rated applications. It is concluded that greenhouses have the greatest displacement of 18 x 10/sup 6/ therms per year.

  13. Innovations in the financing of geothermal energy for direct-use applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwass, P.

    1981-10-01

    The applications of direct use geothermal energy, its advantages, and its relative costs are examined. The following are discussed: capital needs for direct-use geothermal development, sources of geothermal financing, barriers to geothermal financing, and selected case studies of curent financing alternatives.

  14. Technically exploitable geothermal energy by using Borehole Heat Exchangers: A revisit of the Cologne case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Haibing; Hein, Philipp; Bucher, Anke; Kolditz, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    In previous studies, the amount of shallow geothermal energy was estimated by assuming a uniform temperature drop of at least 2 °C in the aquifer. In this work, a more comprehensive numerical model has been employed to evaluate the technically exploitable geothermal energy by using Borehole Heat Exchanger coupled Ground Source Heat Pump systems. A case study on the city of Cologne was revisited, adopting the same hydrogeological conditions and simulating the long-term evolution of the subsurface temperature field subject to the operation of borehole heat exchangers. It is found that the cities' heating demand could potentially be fully covered by BHE-coupled GSHP systems. The resulting equivalent uniform temperature drop is then around 1.6 °C . It was also found that utilising geothermal energy will lead to at least 50% reduction of CO2 equivalent emission in comparison to conventional district heating, depending on the source of electricity used for heat pump operation.

  15. Sustainability assessment of geothermal exploitation by numerical modelling: the example of high temperature Mofete geothermal field at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The active volcanic area of Campi Flegrei caldera has been the site of many geothermal investigations, since the early XX century. This caldera is characterised by high heat flow, with maximum value > 150 mWm-2, geothermal gradients larger than 200°Ckm-1 and diffuse magmatic gases discharge at the surface. These features encouraged an extensive campaign for geothermal investigation, started in 1939, with many drillings performed at Campanian volcanoes (Campi Flegrei and Ischia) and later at Vesuvius. Several wells aimed to the exploitation of high enthalpy geothermal energy, were drilled in the Campi Flegrei caldera, down to a maximum depth of ~3 km involving mainly two sites (Mofete and S.Vito geothermal fields) located in western and northern sector of caldera respectively. The most interesting site for geothermal exploitation was the Mofete zone, where a number of 4 productive wells were drilled and tested to produce electrical power. Based on data inferred from the productive tests it was established a potential electrical extractable power from Mofete field of at least 10MWe. More recently an empirical evaluation of the whole geothermal potential of the caldera provides a value of more than 1 GWe. The results of AGIP-ENEL exploration at Campi Flegrei highlighted the feasibility of geothermal exploitation. Here, we show for the first time the results of numerical simulations (TOUGH2 code ®) of fluids extraction and reinjection from the Mofete geothermal field, in order to produce at least 5MWe from zero emission power plant (Organic Rankine Cycle type). The simulation is aimed to understand the perturbation of the geothermal reservoir in terms of temperature, pressure change, and possible related seismicity, after different simulated time of exploitation. The modeling is mainly constrained by the data derived from geothermal exploration and productive tests performed since 1979 by AGIP-ENEL Companies. A general assessment of the maximum potential magnitude

  16. National Geothermal Data System: Interactive Assessment of Geothermal Energy Potential in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Lee; Richard, Stephen; Clark, Ryan; Patten, Kim; Love, Diane; Coleman, Celia; Chen, Genhan; Matti, Jordan; Pape, Estelle; Musil, Leah

    2012-01-30

    Geothermal-relevant geosciences data from all 50 states (www.stategeothermaldata.org), federal agencies, national labs, and academic centers are being digitized and linked in a distributed online network via the U.S. Department of Energy-funded National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) to foster geothermal energy exploration and development through use of interactive online ‘mashups,’data integration, and applications. Emphasis is first to make as much information as possible accessible online, with a long range goal to make data interoperable through standardized services and interchange formats. An initial set of thirty geoscience data content models is in use or under development to define a standardized interchange format: aqueous chemistry, borehole temperature data, direct use feature, drill stem test, earthquake hypocenter, fault feature, geologic contact feature, geologic unit feature, thermal/hot spring description, metadata, quaternary fault, volcanic vent description, well header feature, borehole lithology log, crustal stress, gravity, heat flow/temperature gradient, permeability, and feature descriptions data like developed geothermal systems, geologic unit geothermal properties, permeability, production data, rock alteration description, rock chemistry, and thermal conductivity. Map services are also being developed for isopach maps, aquifer temperature maps, and several states are working on geothermal resource overview maps. Content models are developed preferentially from existing community use in order to encourage widespread adoption and promulgate minimum metadata quality standards. Geoscience data and maps from other NGDS participating institutions, or “nodes” (USGS, Southern Methodist University, Boise State University Geothermal Data Coalition) are being supplemented with extensive land management and land use resources from the Western Regional Partnership (15 federal agencies and 5 Western states) to provide access to a comprehensive

  17. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  18. Protection policy for Hawaii's native wildlife during geothermal energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Lee

    1986-09-01

    Hawaii possesses abundant geothermal resources and rare native wildlife. Geothermal energy development has not posed a threat to native wildlife in the past, but development potential has recently reached a level at which concern for native wildlife is warranted. Potential geothermal resource areas in Hawaii intersect important native forest and endangered species habitat. The ability of existing laws to constrain development in these areas is in question. State and federal endangered species and environmental reporting laws have little ability to constrain geothermal development on private land. Hawaii's Land Use Law had been viewed by conservationists as protecting natural areas important to native wildlife, but recent decisions of the state Land Board sharply challenge this view. While this dispute was being resolved in the courts, the state legislature passed the Geothermal Subzone Act of 1983. Wildlife value was assessed in the geothermal subzone designation process mandated by this act, but the subzones designated primarily reflected inappropriate developer influence. All areas in which there was developer interest received subzone designation, and no area in which there was no developer interest was subzoned. This overriding emphasis on developer interest violated the intent of the sub-zone act, and trivialized the importance of other assessment criteria, among them native wildlife values.

  19. Anthropogenic seismicity rates and operational parameters at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Emily E; Lajoie, Lia J

    2013-08-02

    Geothermal power is a growing energy source; however, efforts to increase production are tempered by concern over induced earthquakes. Although increased seismicity commonly accompanies geothermal production, induced earthquake rate cannot currently be forecast on the basis of fluid injection volumes or any other operational parameters. We show that at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field, the total volume of fluid extracted or injected tracks the long-term evolution of seismicity. After correcting for the aftershock rate, the net fluid volume (extracted-injected) provides the best correlation with seismicity in recent years. We model the background earthquake rate with a linear combination of injection and net production rates that allows us to track the secular development of the field as the number of earthquakes per fluid volume injected decreases over time.

  20. Tough2/PC application simulation project for Heber geothermal field, California, a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, Timothy S.; Khan, M. Ali; Antunez, Emilio

    1996-01-24

    A numerical simulation model for the Heber geothermal field in Southern California is being developed under a technology transfer agreement between the Department of Energy/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR). The main objectives of the cooperation are (1) to train DOGGR personnel in the use of the TOUGH2PC computer code; and (2) to develop a module compatible with TOUGH2 to investigate the effects of production/injection operations on the ground surface subsidence-rebound phenomenon observed in the Heber geothermal field. Initial-state calibration (undisturbed system) runs are being conducted to calibrate the model.

  1. Geothermal resource requirements for an energy self-sufficient spaceport

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, P.; Fioravanti, M.; Duchane, D.; Vaughan, A.

    1997-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the southwestern United States provide an opportunity for development of isolated spaceports with local energy self-sufficiency. Geothermal resources can provide both thermal energy and electrical energy for the spaceport facility infrastructure and production of hydrogen fuel for the space vehicles. In contrast to hydrothermal resources by which electric power is generated for sale to utilities, hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources are more wide-spread and can be more readily developed at desired spaceport locations. This paper reviews a dynamic model used to quantify the HDR resources requirements for a generic spaceport and estimate the necessary reservoir size and heat extraction rate. The paper reviews the distribution of HDR resources in southern California and southern New Mexico, two regions where a first developmental spaceport is likely to be located. Finally, the paper discusses the design of a HDR facility for the generic spaceport and estimates the cost of the locally produced power.

  2. Geochemical studies of the geothermal systems in Kenya: II. The Majimoto geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tole, Mwakio P.

    1992-04-01

    The Majimoto geothermal field discharges at the boundary between metamorphic schists and gneisses of Precambrian age, and Pleistocene volcanic ashes. The waters are near neutral, low salinity waters. Calculated reservoir temperatures are about 90°C. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate that the thermal waters are meteoric in origin. The field is suitable for development for uses in spa therapy, crop drying, milk pasteurisation, leather processing and house warming.

  3. Structural controls of the Tuscarora geothermal field, Elko County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dering, G.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tuscarora is an amagmatic geothermal system located ~90 km northwest of Elko, Nevada, in the northern part of the Basin and Range province ~15 km southeast of the Snake River Plain. Detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and well data have been integrated to identify the structural controls of the Tuscarora geothermal system. The structural framework of the geothermal field is defined by NNW- to NNE-striking normal faults that are approximately orthogonal to the present extension direction. Boiling springs, fumaroles, and siliceous sinter emanate from a single NNE-striking, west-dipping normal fault. Normal faults west of these hydrothermal features mostly dip steeply east, whereas normal faults east of the springs primarily dip west. Thus, the springs, fumaroles, and sinter straddle a zone of interaction between fault sets that dip toward each other, classified as a strike-parallel anticlinal accommodation zone. Faults within the geothermal area are mostly discontinuous along strike with offsets of tens to hundreds of meters, whereas the adjacent range-bounding fault systems of the Bull Run and Independence Mountains accommodate several kilometers of displacement. The geothermal field lies within a broad step over between the southward terminating west-dipping Bull Run fault zone and the northward terminating west-dipping Independence Mountains fault zone. Neither of these major fault zones is known to host high temperature geothermal systems. The accommodation zone lies within the broad step over and contains both east-dipping antithetic and west-dipping synthetic faults. Accommodation zones are relatively common structural components of extended terranes that transfer strain between oppositely dipping fault sets via a network of subsidiary normal faults. This study has identified the hinge zone of an anticlinal accommodation zone as the site most conducive to fluid up-flow. The recognition of this specific portion of an accommodation zone as a favorable

  4. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchane, D. V.

    1992-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  5. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-09-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  6. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  7. Use of Geothermal Energy for Electric Power Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mashaw, John M.; Prichett, III, Wilson

    1980-10-23

    The National Rural Electric Cooperative Association and its 1,000 member systems are involved in the research, development and utilization of many different types of supplemental and alternative energy resources. We share a strong commitment to the wise and efficient use of this country's energy resources as the ultimate answer to our national prosperity and economic growth. WRECA is indebted to the United States Department of Energy for funding the NRECA/DOE Geothermal Workshop which was held in San Diego, California in October, 1980. We would also like to express our gratitude to each of the workshop speakers who gave of their time, talent and experience so that rural electric systems in the Western U. S. might gain a clearer understanding of the geothermal potential in their individual service areas. The participants were also presented with practical, expert opinion regarding the financial and technical considerations of using geothermal energy for electric power production. The organizers of this conference and all of those involved in planning this forum are hopeful that it will serve as an impetus toward the full utilization of geothermal energy as an important ingredient in a more energy self-sufficient nation. The ultimate consumer of the rural electric system, the member-owner, expects the kind of leadership that solves the energy problems of tomorrow by fully utilizing the resources at our disposal today.

  8. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  9. Neutron radigoraphy of fluid flow for geothermal energy research

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R.; Polsky, Yarom; Anovitz, L.; Carmichael, Justin R.; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Jacobson, David; Hussey, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems seek to expand the potential for geothermal energy by engineering heat exchange systems within the earth. A neutron radiography imaging method has been developed for the study of fluid flow through rock under environmental conditions found in enhanced geothermal energy systems. For this method, a pressure vessel suitable for neutron radiography was designed and fabricated, modifications to imaging instrument setups were tested, multiple contrast agents were tested, and algorithms developed for tracking of flow. The method has shown success for tracking of single phase flow through a manufactured crack in a 3.81 cm (1.5 inch) diameter core within a pressure vessel capable of confinement up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi) using a particle tracking approach with bubbles of fluorocarbon-based fluid as the “particles” and imaging with 10 ms exposures.

  10. Identification of linear features at geothermal field based on Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) of the ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeruddin; Saepuloh, A.; Heriawan, M. N.; Kubo, T.

    2016-09-01

    Indonesia has about 40% of geothermal energy resources in the world. An area with the potential geothermal energy in Indonesia is Wayang Windu located at West Java Province. The comprehensive understanding about the geothermal system in this area is indispensable for continuing the development. A geothermal system generally associated with joints or fractures and served as the paths for the geothermal fluid migrating to the surface. The fluid paths are identified by the existence of surface manifestations such as fumaroles, solfatara and the presence of alteration minerals. Therefore the analyses of the liner features to geological structures are crucial for identifying geothermal potential. Fractures or joints in the form of geological structures are associated with the linear features in the satellite images. The Segment Tracing Algorithm (STA) was used for the basis to determine the linear features. In this study, we used satellite images of ALOS PALSAR in Ascending and Descending orbit modes. The linear features obtained by satellite images could be validated by field observations. Based on the application of STA to the ALOS PALSAR data, the general direction of extracted linear features were detected in WNW-ESE, NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE. The directions are consistent with the general direction of faults system in the field. The linear features extracted from ALOS PALSAR data based on STA were very useful to identify the fractured zones at geothermal field.

  11. Geothermal, an alternate energy source for power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, H.A.

    1985-02-01

    The economic development of nations depends on an escalating use of energy sources. With each passing year the dependence increases, reaching a point where the world will require, in the next six years, a volume of energetics equal to that consumed during the last hundred years. Statistics show that in 1982 about 70% of the world's energy requirements were supplied by oil, natural gas and coal. The remaining 30% came from other sources such as nuclear energy, hydroelectricity, and geothermal. In Mexico the situation is more extreme. For the same year (1982) 85% of the total energy consumed was supplied through the use of hydrocarbons, and only 15% through power generated by the other sources of electricity. Of the 15%, 65% used hydrocarbons somewhere in the power generation system. Geothermal is an energy source that can help solve the problem, particularly in Mexico, because the geological and structural characteristics of Mexico make it one of the countries in the world with a tremendous geothermal potential. The potential of geothermal energy for supplying part of Mexico's needs is discussed.

  12. Velocity and Attenuation Structure of the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Zucca, J. J.; Hutchings, L. J.; Kasameyer, P. W.

    1993-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field is located in northern California and is one of the world's largest producers of electricity from geothermal energy. The resource consists of primarily dry steam which is produced from a low, porosity fractured graywacke. Over the last several years steam pressure at the Geysers has been dropping. Concern over decline of the resource has prompted research to understand its fundamental nature. A key issue is the distribution of fluid in the matrix of the reservoir rock. In this paper we interpret seismic compressional-wave velocity and attenuation data at the Geysers in terms of the geologic structure and fluid saturation in the reservoir. Our data consist of approximately 300 earthquakes that are of magnitude 1.2 and are distributed in depth between sea level and 2.5 km. Using compressional-wave arrival times, we invert for earthquake location, origin time, and velocity along a three-dimensional grid. Using the initial pulse width of the compressional-wave, we invert for the initial pulse width associated with the source, and the one-dimensional Q structure. We find that the velocity structure correlates with known mapped geologic units, including a velocity high that is correlated with a felsite body at depth that is known from drilling. The dry steam reservoir, which is also known from drilling, is mostly correlated with low velocity. The Q increases with depth to the top of the dry steam reservoir and decreases with depth within the reservoir. The decrease of Q with depth probably indicates that the saturation of the matrix of the reservoir rock increases with depth.

  13. Full Moment Tensor Analysis at The Geysers Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, O. S.; Dreger, D. S.; Hellweg, M.; Lombard, P. N.; Ford, S. R.; Taira, T.; Taggart, J.; Weldon, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    Geothermal energy has been produced at The Geysers Geothermal Field in Northern California for more than forty years. It has been demonstrated that increased steam production and fluid injection correlates positively with changes in earthquake activity, resulting in thousands of tiny earthquakes each year with events ranging in magnitude up to 4.5. We determine source parameters for the largest of these earthquakes using a regional distance moment tensor method. We invert three-component, complete waveform data from broadband stations of the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network, the Northern California Seismic Network and the USArray deployment (2005-2007) for the complete, six-element moment tensor. Some solutions depart substantially from a pure double-couple with some events having large volumetric components. Care is needed in the assessment of the significance of the non-double-couple terms. We have worked to develop a systematic procedure for the evaluation of aleatoric and epistemic solution uncertainty (e.g. Ford et al., 2009; Ford et al., 2010). We will present the solutions for The Geysers events together with estimates of random errors and systematic errors due to imperfect station coverage and knowledge of the velocity structure, which are needed to compute Green's functions for the inversion. Preliminary results indicate that some events have large isotropic components that appear to be stable and suggestive of fluid or gas involvement during the rupture processes. We are presently incorporating full moment tensor capability in the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory's automatic processing system and analyst interface. This upgrade will enable improved monitoring at The Geysers and volcanically active regions of California.

  14. Status of Environmental Controls for Geothermal Energy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, John F.

    1980-05-01

    This report presents the initial findings and recommendations of the Environmental Controls Panel to the Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC). The Panel has been charged to assess the adequacy of existing environmental controls for geothermal energy systems, to review ongoing programs to develop environmental controls, and to identify controls-related research areas where redirection of federal efforts are appropriate to assure the availability of controls on a timely basis. In its deliberations, the Panel placed greatest emphasis on the use of geothermal resources for electricity generation, the application of geothermal energy receiving greatest attention today. The Panel discussed major known environmental concerns and their potential impact on the commercialization of geothermal resources, control options, regulatory considerations, and ongoing and planned research programs. The environmental concerns reviewed in this report include: air emissions, liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, seismicity, and hydrological alterations. For each of these concerns a brief description of the concern, associated legislation and regulations, control approaches, federal funding trend, and the Panel's recommendations and priorities are presented. In short, the Panel recommends that controls-related research efforts be rebalanced and enhanced, with the greatest emphasis placed on controls for hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and non-H{sub 2}S gaseous emissions, injection monitoring methods, systems to treat and use nongeothermal waters for environmental control purposes, solid waste characterization and management methods evaluation, and subsidence controls.

  15. Natural State Model of the Nesjavellir Geothermal Field, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Steingrimsson, B.; Bjornsson, S.; Gunnarsson, A.; Gunnlaugsson, E.

    1986-01-21

    The Nesjavellir geothermal system in southern Iceland is very complex from both a thermal and hydrologic point of view. There are large pressure and temperature gradients in the wellfield and zones with drastically different pressure potentials. Thus, natural fluid flow is substantial in the system and flow patterns are complex. We have developed a two-dimensional natural state model for the Nesjavellir system that matches reasonably well the observed pressure and temperature distributions. The match with field data has allowed determination of the energy recharge to the system and the permeability distribution. Fluids recharge the system at rate of 0.02 kg/s/m with an enthalpy of 1460 kJ/kg. The permeability in the main reservoir is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 to 2.0 md, which agrees well with injection test results from individual wells. Permeabilities in shallower reservoirs are about an order of magnitude higher. Most of the main reservoir is under twephase conditions, as are shallow aquifers in the southern part of the field. The model results also suggest that the low temperatures in the shallow part of the northern region of the field may be due to the young age of the system; i.e., the system is gradually heating up. If this is the case the estimated age of the system near the wellfield is on the order of a few thousand years.

  16. Numerical model of the Amiata Volcano geothermal fields, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allocca, Carmine; Borgia, Andrea; Filippo Michele, Di

    2013-04-01

    The Amiata geothermal fields form an annulus all around the Northeastern (Poggio Zoccolino field), Southeastern (Piancastagnaio field), Southern (Poggio al Nibbio field) and Southwestern (Bagnore field) base of the volcano. The fields, first exploited between the 1950s and the 1960s, produced an incondensable-gas rich fluid, which later evolved to become vapour-dominated. During the first years of geothermal exploitation, the pressure of the fields dropped from 40-50 bars (at Piancastagnaio) and 20-25 bars (at Bagnore) to about 20 bars and 5 bars, respectively. Depressurization of these fields induced the drainage of the freshwater aquifer contained in the volcanic rocks, a substantial drop of its water-table and a decrease in springs flow rates. Our work aims at modelling the hydrothermal system of the Amiata Volcano and the development of the geothermal fields. We use the TOUGH2 poly-phase , multi-component thermal porous-media flow code developed at LBNL, as implemented by the GUI Petrasim™, with the ESWAG equation of state. Our model is based on geological, geophysical and geochemical data made public during the past 50 years in addition to work published in scientific journals. It represent an area of 32 x 36 km2 with cells of 1*1 km; the model extends 6.65 km in depth and is divided in 58 layers that increase from 50 m thick at the surface to 400 m at depth for a total of about 48.000 cells. Although the geology of the model is necessarily simplified, it retains the characteristic topology and structure found in the field. Our results show that the hot fluids rising below the volcano become diverted outward by the fresh water of the volcanic aquifer that recharges the hydrothermal system at its centre. This topology of the hydrothermal system correctly reproduces the location of the geothermal fields and results in a superficial temperature gradient that is comparable to the measured one. At the base of the volcano, the incondensable gases (mainly CO2

  17. Temperature distribution in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo B, F.; Bermejo M, F.J.; Domiguez A, B.; Esquer P, C.A.; Navarro O, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    A series of temperature and pressure logs and flow rate measurements was compiled for each of the geothermal wells drilled to different reservoir depths between October 1979 and December 1980. Based on the valuable information obtained, a series of graphs showing the thermal characteristics of the reservoir were prepared. These graphs clearly show the temperature distribution resulting from the movement of fluids from the deep regions toward the higher zones of the reservoir, thus establishing more reliable parameters for locating new wells with better production zones. Updated information based on data from new deep wells drilled in the geothermal field is presented here. This new information does not differ much from earlier estimates and theories. However, the influence of faulting and fracturing on the hydrothermal recharge of the geothermal reservoir is seen more clearly.

  18. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  19. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. Structural Controls of the Tuscarora Geothermal Field, Elko County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dering, Gregory M.

    Detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and well data have been integrated to elucidate the stratigraphic framework and structural setting of the Tuscarora geothermal area. Tuscarora is an amagmatic geothermal system that lies in the northern part of the Basin and Range province, ˜15 km southeast of the Snake River Plain and ˜90 km northwest of Elko, Nevada. The Tuscarora area is dominated by late Eocene to middle Miocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks, all overlying Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. A geothermal power plant was constructed in 2011 and currently produces 18 MWe from an ˜170°C reservoir in metasedimentary rocks at a depth of 1740 m. Analysis of drill core reveals that the subsurface geology is dominated to depths of ˜700-1000 m by intracaldera deposits of the Eocene Big Cottonwood Canyon caldera, including blocks of basement-derived megabreccia. Furthermore, the Tertiary-Paleozoic nonconformity within the geothermal field has been recognized as the margin of this Eocene caldera. Structural relations combined with geochronologic data from previous studies indicate that Tuscarora has undergone extension since the late Eocene, with significant extension in the late Miocene-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. Kinematic analysis of fault slip data reveal an east-west-trending least principal paleostress direction, which probably reflects an earlier episode of Miocene extension. Two distinct structural settings at different scales appear to control the geothermal field. The regional structural setting is a 10-km wide complexly faulted left step or relay ramp in the west-dipping range-bounding Independence-Bull Run Mountains normal fault system. Geothermal activity occurs within the step-over where sets of east- and west-dipping normal faults overlap in a northerly trending accommodation zone. The distribution of hot wells and hydrothermal surface features, including boiling springs, fumaroles, and siliceous sinter, indicate that the geothermal

  1. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program, Erie County

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswanger, Robert C.

    2013-02-28

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings that are quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center

  2. Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Program Erie County

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswanger, Jr, Robert C

    2010-05-20

    The purpose of the Daemen Alternative Energy/Geothermal Technologies Demonstration Project is to demonstrate the use of geothermal technology as model for energy and environmental efficiency in heating and cooling older, highly inefficient buildings. The former Marian Library building at Daemen College is a 19,000 square foot building located in the center of campus. Through this project, the building was equipped with geothermal technology and results were disseminated. Gold LEED certification for the building was awarded. 1) How the research adds to the understanding of the area investigated. This project is primarily a demonstration project. Information about the installation is available to other companies, organizations, and higher education institutions that may be interested in using geothermal energy for heating and cooling older buildings. 2) The technical effectiveness and economic feasibility of the methods or techniques investigated or demonstrated. According to the modeling and estimates through Stantec, the energy-efficiency cost savings is estimated at 20%, or $24,000 per year. Over 20 years this represents $480,000 in unrestricted revenue available for College operations. See attached technical assistance report. 3) How the project is otherwise of benefit to the public. The Daemen College Geothermal Technologies Ground Source Heat Pumps project sets a standard for retrofitting older, highly inefficient, energy wasting and environmentally irresponsible buildings quite typical of many of the buildings on the campuses of regional colleges and universities. As a model, the project serves as an energy-efficient system with significant environmental advantages. Information about the energy-efficiency measures is available to other colleges and universities, organizations and companies, students, and other interested parties. The installation and renovation provided employment for 120 individuals during the award period. Through the new Center, Daemen will

  3. Spatial analysis of respiratory disease on an urbanized geothermal field.

    PubMed

    Durand, Michael; Wilson, J Gaines

    2006-06-01

    Chronic exposure to hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in the parts per billion-parts per million range occurs in the population of Rotorua, a city built upon an actively degassing geothermal field in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. H(2)S is acutely toxic at high concentrations but little is understood of the health effects of chronic, low-level exposure. In Rotorua, H(2)S emissions and ambient concentrations are heterogeneous and approximately 30% of the greater urban area's population live upon or <4 km downwind of the geothermal field. Spatial analysis of disease incidence clustering using a spatial scan statistic is a powerful tool with which to investigate the spatial relationship which may exist between H(2)S and respiratory disease. This paper reports findings from a spatial cluster analysis of 11 years of hospital discharge data at the census area unit resolution. Results indicate that the relative risk (RR) of incidence of noninfectious respiratory diseases may be substantially higher among residents living in the geothermal area than have been reported previously. RR >5 for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its associated conditions are found in clusters which are spatially coincident with the geothermal field. Future work which investigates neurological and circulatory disease groups at the same or better spatial resolution may provide further insight into the chronic health effects of H(2)S exposure than these preliminary findings indicate.

  4. Geothermal energy planning and communication for native Americans. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, T.A.

    1982-03-30

    The purpose was to explore and develop geothermal energy resources on Indian lands. Activities included the following: (1) continued review of Indian communities and their potential for geothermal energy development; (2) introduced tribes to the availability of geothermal energy and removed the barriers to the implementation of this energy source; (3) provided information by telephone and by mailing packages of information; (4) published articles on geothermal energy development in the UIPA newsletter and supplied articles to other Indian publication; (5) conducted two seminars specific to geothermal energy development on Indian lands in western states; (6) carried out survey of Indian attitudes and opinions toward energy in general and geothermal energy in specific; (7) incorporated geothermal energy development information in Economic Development Administration sponsored tribal government management programs, and (8) developed draft written material addressing Indian planning problems and supporting their ability to affect a more productive working relationship with government agencies and reduced dependency.

  5. Combining total energy and energy industrial center concepts to increase utilization efficiency of geothermal energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayliss, B. P.

    1974-01-01

    Integrating energy production and energy consumption to produce a total energy system within an energy industrial center which would result in more power production from a given energy source and less pollution of the environment is discussed. Strong governmental support would be required for the crash drilling program necessary to implement these concepts. Cooperation among the federal agencies, power producers, and private industry would be essential in avoiding redundant and fruitless projects, and in exploiting most efficiently our geothermal resources.

  6. Systems and methods for multi-fluid geothermal energy systems

    DOEpatents

    Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2017-09-19

    A method for extracting geothermal energy from a geothermal reservoir formation. A production well is used to extract brine from the reservoir formation. At least one of nitrogen (N.sub.2) and carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) may be used to form a supplemental working fluid which may be injected into a supplemental working fluid injection well. The supplemental working fluid may be used to augment a pressure of the reservoir formation, to thus drive a flow of the brine out from the reservoir formation.

  7. IRETHERM: The geothermal energy potential of Irish radiothermal granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Thomas; Jones, Alan; Muller, Mark; Feely, Martin; Brock, Andrew; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2014-05-01

    The IRETHERM project is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical and geological data. One aspect of IRETHERM's research focuses on Ireland's radiothermal granites, where increased concentrations of radioelements provide elevated heat-production (HP), surface heat-flow (SHF) and subsurface temperatures. An understanding of the contribution of granites to the thermal field of Ireland is important to assessing the geothermal energy potential of this low-enthalpy setting. This study focuses on the Galway granite in western Ireland, and the Leinster and the buried Kentstown granites in eastern Ireland. Shallow (<250 m) boreholes were drilled into the exposed Caledonian Leinster and Galway granites as part of a 1980's geothermal project. These studies yielded HP = 2-3 μWm-3 and HF = 80 mWm-2 at the Sally Gap borehole in the Northern Units of the Leinster granite, to the SW of Dublin. In the Galway granite batholith, on the west coast of Ireland, the Costelloe-Murvey granite returned HP = 7 μWm-3 and HF = 77 mWm-2, measured at the Rossaveal borehole. The buried Kentstown granite, 35 km NW of Dublin, has an associated negative Bouguer anomaly and was intersected by two mineral exploration boreholes at depths of 660 m and 490 m. Heat production is measured at 2.4 μWm-3 in core samples taken from the weathered top 30 m of the granite. The core of this study consists of a program of magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) data acquisition across the three granite bodies, over three fieldwork seasons. MT and AMT data were collected at 59 locations along two profiles over the Leinster granite. Preliminary results show that the northern units of the Leinster granite (40 km SW of Dublin) extend to depths of 2-5 km. Preliminary results from the southern profile suggest a greater thickness of granite to a depth of 6-9 km beneath the Tullow pluton, 75 km SW of

  8. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  9. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  10. Common Scientific Challenges in Carbon Sequestration and Geothermal Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBonte, A.; Groat, C. G.; Schwartz, L.

    2011-12-01

    In June of 2010, DOE convened a Carbon Sequestration- Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop composed of academic, industry, and government experts. Participants were charged with looking beyond needs unique to either geothermal energy or carbon storage to identify common research needs. The expectation is greater collaboration in the identified common research areas will accelerate understanding of scientific processes critical to scaling up Carbon Sequestration and Geothermal Energy Systems. The major topic areas of the workshop include: Assessment and Characterization, to aide preliminary screening for prospective sites at the regional scale and subsurface characterization to assess feasibility at the site scale, Reservoir Sustainability, such as understanding evolution of pore and fracture structure to determine storage or production capacity and integrity of the reservoir over its intended lifetime, Modeling, a key element to conceptualizing, predicting, and managing the effects of reservoir processes over a wide variety of temporal and spatial scales when subjected to perturbations, Monitoring, requiring improvements to sensors, and data collection and interpretation methods to track changes in the reservoir and seal properties, and Performance Assessment, as a critical component to both optimize economic aspects and minimize health and environmental risks of a project. Workshop outcomes detailing research to enable scale-up of both carbon sequestration and geothermal energy applications will be presented.

  11. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    SciTech Connect

    Cuprak, Greg

    2016-11-02

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution’s carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems is changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE’s efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  12. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, James

    2016-08-05

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems are changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  13. Seismic Activity at tres Virgenes Volcanic and Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antayhua, Y. T.; Lermo, J.; Quintanar, L.; Campos-Enriquez, J. O.

    2013-05-01

    The volcanic and geothermal field Tres Virgenes is in the NE portion of Baja California Sur State, Mexico, between -112°20'and -112°40' longitudes, and 27°25' to 27°36' latitudes. Since 2003 Power Federal Commission and the Engineering Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) initiated a seismic monitoring program. The seismograph network installed inside and around the geothermal field consisted, at the beginning, of Kinemetrics K2 accelerometers; since 2009 the network is composed by Guralp CMG-6TD broadband seismometers. The seismic data used in this study covered the period from September 2003 - November 2011. We relocated 118 earthquakes with epicenter in the zone of study recorded in most of the seismic stations. The events analysed have shallow depths (≤10 km), coda Magnitude Mc≤2.4, with epicentral and hypocentral location errors <2 km. These events concentrated mainly below Tres Virgenes volcanoes, and the geothermal explotation zone where there is a system NW-SE, N-S and W-E of extensional faults. Also we obtained focal mechanisms for 38 events using the Focmec, Hash, and FPFIT methods. The results show normal mechanisms which correlate with La Virgen, El Azufre, El Cimarron and Bonfil fault systems, whereas inverse and strike-slip solutions correlate with Las Viboras fault. Additionally, the Qc value was obtained for 118 events. This value was calculated using the Single Back Scattering model, taking the coda-waves train with window lengths of 5 sec. Seismograms were filtered at 4 frequency bands centered at 2, 4, 8 and 16 Hz respectively. The estimates of Qc vary from 62 at 2 Hz, up to 220 at 16 Hz. The frequency-Qc relationship obtained is Qc=40±2f(0.62±0.02), representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves at Tres Virgenes volcanic and geothermal field. This value correlated with those observed at other geothermal and volcanic fields.

  14. Protection of Hawaii's native wildlife during geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Hannah, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    Hawaii possesses unique wildlife and unique geothermal energy resources, and these attributes have recently come into conflict. In 1983, the Hawaii State Legislature passed the Geothermal Subzone Act, which specified that geothermal development in the state would be restricted to subzones demonstrating minimum adverse impacts. Assessment of native wildlife value was undertaken as part of the subzone designation process. Endangered species presence was used as an index of the value of areas to native fauna, and a forest categorized system was developed as an index of native flora importance. Large biologically unimportant areas were identified, but one subzone was placed in prime native forest and endangered species habitat, an apparent violation of the intent of the legislature.

  15. Volume strain within the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Mossop, Antony; Segall, Paul

    1999-12-10

    During the 1970s and 1980s. The Geysers geothermal region was rapidly developed as a site of geothermal power production. The likelihood that this could cause significant strain within the reservoir, with corresponding surface displacements, led to a series of deformation monitoring surveys. In 1973, 1975, 1977, and 1980, The Geysers region was surveyed using first-order, class I, spirit leveling. In 1994, 1995, and 1996, many of the leveling control monuments were resurveyed using high-precision Global Positioning System receivers. The two survey methods are reconciled using the GEOID96 geoid model. The displacements are inverted to determine volume strain within the reservoir. For the period 1980-1994, peak volume strains in excess of 5x10{sup -4} are imaged. There is an excellent correlation between the observed changes in reservoir steam pressures and the imaged volume strain. If reservoir pressure changes are inducing volume strain, then the reservoir quasi-static bulk modulus K must be <4.6x10{sup 9} Pa. However, seismic velocities indicate a much stiffer reservoir with K=3.4x10{sup 10} Pa. This apparent discrepancy is shown to be consistent with predicted frequency dependence in K for fractured and water-saturated rock. Inversion of surface deformation data therefore appears to be a powerful method for imaging pressure change within the body of the reservoir. Correlation between induced seismicity at The Geysers and volume strain is observed. However, earthquake distribution does not appear to have a simple relationship with volume strain rate. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  16. Absence of remote earthquake triggering within the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal production fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Guoqing; Zhan, Zhongwen; Chen, Xiaowei; Qin, Yan; Wdowinski, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal areas are long recognized to be susceptible to remote earthquake triggering, probably due to the high seismicity rates and presence of geothermal fluids. However, anthropogenic injection and extraction activity may alter the stress state and fluid flow within the geothermal fields. Here we examine the remote triggering phenomena in the Coso geothermal field and its surrounding areas to assess possible anthropogenic effects. We find that triggered earthquakes are absent within the geothermal field but occur in the surrounding areas. Similar observation is also found in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We hypothesize that continuous geothermal operation has eliminated any significant differential pore pressure between fractures inside the geothermal field through flushing geothermal precipitations and sediments out of clogged fractures. To test this hypothesis, we analyze the pore-pressure-driven earthquake swarms, and they are found to occur outside or on the periphery of the geothermal production field. Therefore, our results suggest that the geothermal operation has changed the subsurface fracture network, and differential pore pressure is the primary controlling factor of remote triggering in geothermal fields.

  17. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Mike; Detwiler, Russell L; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-09-30

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. Terralog USA, in collaboration with the University of California, Irvine (UCI), are currently investigating advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. This two-year research project, funded by the US Department of Energy, includes combined efforts for: 1) Resource characterization; 2) Small and large scale laboratory investigations; 3) Numerical simulation at both the laboratory and field scale; and 4) Engineering feasibility studies and economic evaluations. The research project is currently in its early stages. This paper summarizes our technical approach and preliminary findings related to potential resources, small-scale laboratory simulation, and supporting numerical simulation efforts.

  18. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  19. Ecological protection in the Las Tres Virgenes, Mexico, geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Zirahuen Ortega Varela, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The programs of environmental protection designed by Comision Federal de Electricidad are described in a general way. These programs detect, avoid, soften and compensate the environmental impacts product of the exploration, construction and operation activities of the geothermal field Las Tres Virgenes, this field is in the buffer zone of the biosphere reserve {open_quotes}El Vizcaino{close_quotes} at the north of the State of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

  20. Promotion of geothermal energy development in 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-01-01

    The paper investigates hot springs in fumarolic gas in the Iwatesan west area and evaluates effects of regional development on the neighboring environment. Details of each spring--PH, total evaporation residue, and spring quality--are as follows: 7.8, 2190mg/l, and Ca(center dot)Mg-HCO3(center dot)SO4 spring for Water well No. 18; 7.4, 1285mg/l, and Na-HCO3(center dot) Cl spring for Genbu hot spring; 7.6, 471mg/l, and Na(center dot)Ca-HCO3 type simple spring for Nukumori hot spring; and 2.9, 461mg/l, and acidity-Ca-SO4 type simple spring for Matsukawa hot spring. Variations are smaller than those in fiscal 1989. Only the Matsukawa hot spring has a large variation in its output of hot water, but a coefficient of its correlation with precipitation is 0.38. When installing a geothermal power plant, it is necessary to investigate the injection of geothermal water into the ground, hydrologic structures, etc. and to give careful consideration to the effect of the development on the sources of the hot spring.

  1. Subsidence and uplift at Heber Geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Boardman, T.S.

    1996-01-01

    Heber Geothermal field is in the Imperial Valley near the City of Heber, California, about 3 1/2 miles north of the Mexican border. The field is at the southern end of a network of irrigated agricultural fields extending across the valley floor. The Heber geothermal system is circular, producing water of moderate temperature (360{degrees}F) and low-salinity (13,000-14,000 ppm TDS). In cross section, the geothermal system resembles a lopsided mushroom. The system has three major permeability units: capping clays form 500 to 1800 feet; a high-matrix-permeability, deltaic-sandstone outflow reservoir from 1,800 to 5,500 feet; and feeder faults and fractures in indurated sediments below 5,500 feet. The deltaic sandstones were deposited by the ancestral Colorado River. As both power plants continue operating in Heber field, the need persists to monitor subsidence and uplift. The field`s subsidence bowl is not expected to expand significantly, but some small changes are expected due to pressure changes caused by production for the SIGC binary power plant. The three SIGC injection wells, located between the production areas for the two power plants, will be managed for adequate reservoir pressure support.

  2. Thermal conditions for geothermal energy exploitation in the Transcarpathian depression and surrounding units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcin, Dušan; Kutas, Roman; Bilčík, Dušan; Bezák, Vladimír; Korchagin, Ignat

    2016-03-01

    The contribution presents the results acquired both by direct cognitive geothermic methods and by modelling approaches of the lithosphere thermal state in the region of the Transcarpathian depression and surrounding units. The activities were aimed at the determination of the temperature field distribution and heat flow density distribution in the upper parts of the Earth's crust within the studied area. Primary new terrestrial heat flow density map was constructed from values determined for boreholes, from their interpretations and from newest outcomes of geothermal modelling methods based on steady-state and transient approaches, and also from other recently gained geophysical and geological knowledge. Thereafter we constructed the maps of temperature field distribution for selected depth levels of up to 5000 m below the surface. For the construction we have used measured borehole temperature data, the interpolation and extrapolation methods, and the modelling results of the refraction effects and of the influences of source type anomalies. New maps and other geothermic data served for the determination of depths with rock temperatures suitable for energy utilization namely production of electric energy minimally by the binary cycles. Consequently the thermal conditions were used to identify the most perspective areas for geothermal energy exploitation in the region under study.

  3. GIS Regional Spatial Data from the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy: Geochemical, Geodesic, Geologic, Geophysical, Geothermal, and Groundwater Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, part of the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts research towards the establishment of geothermal energy as an economically viable energy source within the Great Basin. The Center specializes in collecting and synthesizing geologic, geochemical, geodetic, geophysical, and tectonic data, and using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to view and analyze this data and to produce favorability maps of geothermal potential. The center also makes its collections of spatial data available for direct download to the public. Data are in Lambert Conformable Conic Projection.

  4. Geothermal Systems of the Yellowstone Caldera Field Trip Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Duncan; Neilson, Dennis L.; Nichols, Clayton R.

    1980-09-08

    Geothermal studies are proceedings on two fronts in the West Yellowstone area. High-temperature resources for the generation of electricity are being sought in the Island Park area, and lower temperatures resources for direct applications, primarily space heating, are being explored for near the town of West Yellowstone. Potential electric geothermal development in the Island Park area has been the subject of widespread publicity over fears of damage to thermal features in Yellowstone Park. At the time of writing this guide, companies have applied for geothermal leases in the Island Park area, but these leases have not yet been granted by the US Forest Service. The Senate is now discussing a bill that would regulate geothermal development in Island Park; outcome of this debate will determine the course of action on the lease applications. The Island Park area was the site of two cycles of caldera activity, with major eruptions at 2.0 and 1.2 million years ago. The US Geological Survey estimates that 16,850 x 10{sup 18} joules of energy may remain in the system. Geothermal resources suitable for direct applications are being sought in the West Yellowstone vicinity by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, under funding from the US Department of Energy. West Yellowstone has a mean annual temperature of 1-2 C. Research thus far suggests that basement rocks in the vicinity are at a depth of about 600 m and are probably similar to the rocks exposed north of Hebgen Lake, where Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks have been mapped. A few sites with anomalously warm water have been identified near the town. Work is continuing on this project.

  5. A Reservoir Assessment of the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.; Chapman, Rodger H.; Dykstra, Herman; Stockton, A.D.

    1981-01-01

    Big Sulphur Creek fault zone, in The Geysers Geothermal field, may be part of a deep-seated, wrench-style fault system. Hydrothermal fluid reservoir may rise through conduits beneath the five main anomalies associated with the Big Sulphur Creek wrench trend. Upon moderately dipping, fracture network. Condensed steam at the steep reservoir flank drains back to the hot water table. These flanks are defined roughly by marginally-producing geothermal wells. Field extensions are expected to be on the southeast and northwest. Some geophysical anomalies (electrical resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric) evidently are caused by the hot water geothermal field or zones of altered rocks; others (gravity, P-wave delays, and possibly electrical resistivity) probably represent the underlying heat source, a possible magma chamber; and others (microearthquake activity) may be related to the steam reservoir. A large negative gravity anomaly and a few low-resitivity anomalies suggest areas generally favorable for the presence of steam zones, but these anomalies apparently do not directly indicate the known steam reservoir. Monitoring gravity and geodetic changes with time and mapping microearthquake activity are methods that show promise for determining reservoir size, possible recharge, production lifetime, and other characteristics of the known stream field. Seismic reflection data may contribute to the efficient exploitation of the field by identifying fracture zones that serve as conduits for the steam. (DJE-2005)

  6. Geothermal energy: clean power from the Earth's heat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Sass, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Societies in the 21st century require enormous amounts of energy to drive the machines of commerce and to sustain the lifestyles that many people have come to expect. Today, most of this energy is derived from oil, natural gas, and coal, supplemented by nuclear power. Local exceptions exist, but oil is by far the most common source of energy worldwide. Oil resources, however, are nonrenewable and concentrated in only a few places around the globe, creating uncertainty in long-term supply for many nations. At the time of the Middle East oil embargo of the 1970s, about a third of the United States oil supply was imported, mostly from that region. An interruption in the flow of this import disrupted nearly every citizen’s daily life, as well as the Nation’s economy. In response, the Federal Government launched substantial programs to accelerate development of means to increasingly harness “alternative energies”—primarily biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. The new emphasis on simultaneously pursuing development of several sources of energy recognized the timeless wisdom found in the proverb of “not putting all eggs in one basket.” This book helps explain the role that geothermal resources can play in helping promote such diversity and in satisfying our Nation’s vast energy needs as we enter a new millennium. For centuries, people have enjoyed the benefits of geothermal energy available at hot springs, but it is only through technological advances made during the 20th century that we can tap this energy source in the subsurface and use it in a variety of ways, including the generation of electricity. Geothermal resources are simply exploitable concentrations of the Earth’s natural heat (thermal energy). The Earth is a bountiful source of thermal energy, continuously producing heat at depth, primarily by the decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes—principally of uranium, thorium, and potassium—that occur in small amounts in all rocks

  7. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-10-01

    This document represents the final report from the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of The Johns Hopkins University on its efforts on behalf of the Division of Geothermal Energy (DGE) of the Department of Energy (DOE). For the past four years, the Laboratory has been fostering development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. While the definition of ''Eastern'' has changed somewhat from time to time, basically it means the area of the continental United States east of the Rocky Mountains, plus Puerto Rico but excluding the geopressured regions of Texas and Louisiana. During these years, the Laboratory developed a background in geology, hydrology, and reservoir analysis to aid it in establishing the marketability of geothermal energy in the east. Contrary to the situation in the western states, the geothermal resource in the east was clearly understood to be inferior in accessible temperature. On the other hand, there were known to be copious quantities of water in various aquifers to carry the heat energy to the surface. More important still, the east possesses a relatively dense population and numerous commercial and industrial enterprises, so that thermal energy, almost wherever found, would have a market. Thus, very early on it was clear that the primary use for geothermal energy in the east would be for process heat and space conditioning--heating and cool electrical production was out of the question. The task then shifted to finding users colocated with resources. This task met with modest success on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. A great deal of economic and demographic analysis pinpointed the prospective beneficiaries, and an intensive ''outreach'' campaign was mounted to persuade the potential users to invest in geothermal energy. The major handicaps were: (1) The lack of demonstrated hydrothermal resources with known temperatures and expected longevity; and (2) The lack of a ''bellwether'' installation for entrepreneurs to see, touch, and

  8. Geothermal well stimulation - program summary and the Beowawe field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Verity, R.V.

    1983-12-01

    Republic Geothermal, Inc. and its subcontractors have planned and executed laboratory studies and eight well stimulation field experiments under the Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP). The program, begun in February 1979, has concentrated on extending petroleum industry stimulation technology for use by the geothermal industry. The most recent experiment was in a naturally fractured Chevron well at Beowawe and involved an acid stimulation of a damaged interval which yielded a 2.3-fold increase in injectivity. Overall results to date have shown that stimulation is viable where adequate reservoirs are penetrated by wells encountering formation damage or locally tight formations. However, wells in marginal naturally fractured reservoirs have not been saved by the types of well stimulation jobs performed thus far. A recent discovery is that many wells can possibly be made outstanding producers by widening and propping compliant natural fractures. Confirmation of this constitutes unfinished business of the GRWSP, adn offers one of the greatest potential opportunities for enhancing the economics of geothermal power production.

  9. Thermal Modeling of an Area N-W of the Larderello Geothermal Field, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellani, S.; Gherardi, F.

    2008-12-01

    A wide area enclosed between the ancient Etruscan town of Volterra and the northern rim of the Larderello high enthalpy geothermal field (Tuscany, Italy) shows thermal features which suggest further investigations aimed at mid-low enthalpy geothermal energy exploitation. Thermal gradients are in the range 75 - 100 C°/km, while surface heat flow spans between 100 - 150 mW/m2. Numerical simulations were performed to predict the spatial distribution of temperature and fluid circulation paths, constrained by field data. Temperature control based on real data is allowed by a few deep exploratory geothermal wells along with several shallower gradient wells, down to a maximum of about 3 km. The model domain extends over an area 20 by 10 km; thickness is 6 km. Local geology is simplified in four different terrains, according to the generalized stratigraphy of the area. Several sets of simulations were carried out running SHEMAT and TOUGH2 numerical codes, considering various boundary conditions, inner geometries and hydraulic permeabilities. The model was realized by means of unsteady forward simulations, under the assumptions of impervious and isothermal top and bottom boundaries, lateral adiabatic faces and variable internal physical properties. The results indicate that the present temperature and pressure distribution of hot fluids with depth in the northern border area of the Larderello field allows to hypothesize a fruitful exploitation of the medium- enthalpy geothermal resources, possibly with low-boiling point fluids binary plants for electricity generation.

  10. 3-D analysis and interpretation of magnetotelluric data from the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samrock, F.; Kuvshinov, A.; Bakker, J.; Jackson, A.; Fisseha, S.

    2015-09-01

    The Main Ethiopian Rift Valley encompasses a number of volcanoes, which are known to be actively deforming with reoccurring periods of uplift and setting. One of the regions where temporal changes take place is the Aluto volcanic complex. It hosts a productive geothermal field and the only currently operating geothermal power plant of Ethiopia. We carried out magnetotelluric (MT) measurements in early 2012 in order to identify the source of unrest. Broad-band MT data (0.001-1000 s) have been acquired at 46 sites covering the expanse of the Aluto volcanic complex with an average site spacing of 1 km. Based on this MT data it is possible to map the bulk electrical resistivity of the subsurface down to depths of several kilometres. Resistivity is a crucial geophysical parameter in geothermal exploration as hydrothermal and magmatic reservoirs are typically related to low resistive zones, which can be easily sensed by MT. Thus by mapping the electrical conductivity one can identify and analyse geothermal systems with respect to their temperature, extent and potential for production of energy. 3-D inversions of the observed MT data from Aluto reveal the typical electrical conductivity distribution of a high-enthalpy geothermal system, which is mainly governed by the hydrothermal alteration mineralogy. The recovered 3-D conductivity models provide no evidence for an active deep magmatic system under Aluto. Forward modelling of the tippers rather suggest that occurrence of melt is predominantly at lower crustal depths along an off-axis fault zone a few tens of kilometres west of the central rift axis. The absence of an active magmatic system implies that the deforming source is most likely situated within the shallow hydrothermal system of the Aluto-Langano geothermal field.

  11. Southwest Alaska Regional Geothermal Energy Project

    SciTech Connect

    Holdmann, Gwen

    2015-04-30

    The village of Elim, Alaska is 96 miles west of Nome, on the Seward Peninsula. The Darby Mountains north of the village are rich with hydrothermal systems associated with the Darby granitic pluton(s). In addition to the hot springs that have been recorded and studied over the last 100 years, additional hot springs exist. They are known through a rich oral history of the region, though they are not labeled on geothermal maps. This research primarily focused on Kwiniuk Hot Springs, Clear Creek Hot Springs and Molly’s Hot Springs. The highest recorded surface temperatures of these resources exist at Clear Creek Hot Springs (67°C). Repeated water sampling of the resources shows that maximum temperatures at all of the systems are below boiling.

  12. Deep Geothermal Energy for Lower Saxony (North Germany) - Combined Investigations of Geothermal Reservoir Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, Barbara; Thomas, Rüdiger

    2014-05-01

    In Germany, successful deep geothermal projects are mainly situated in Southern Germany in the Molassebecken, furthermore in the Upper Rhine Graben and, to a minor extend, in the North German Basin. Mostly they are hydrothermal projects with the aim of heat production. In a few cases, they are also constructed for the generation of electricity. In the North German Basin temperature gradients are moderate. Therefore, deep drilling of several thousand meters is necessary to reach temperatures high enough for electricity production. However, the porosity of the sedimentary rocks is not sufficient for hydrothermal projects, so that natural fracture zones have to be used or the rocks must be hydraulically stimulated. In order to make deep geothermal projects in Lower Saxony (Northern Germany) economically more attractive, the interdisciplinary research program "Geothermal Energy and High-Performance Drilling" (gebo) was initiated in 2009. It comprises four focus areas: Geosystem, Drilling Technology, Materials and Technical System and aims at improving exploration of the geothermal reservoir, reducing costs of drilling and optimizing exploitation. Here we want to give an overview of results of the focus area "Geosystem" which investigates geological, geophysical, geochemical and modeling aspects of the geothermal reservoir. Geological and rock mechanical investigations in quarrys and core samples give a comprehensive overview on rock properties and fracture zone characteristics in sandstones and carbonates. We also show that it is possible to transfer results of rock property measurements from quarry samples to core samples or to in situ conditions by use of empirical relations. Geophysical prospecting methods were tested near the surface in a North German Graben system. We aim at transferring the results to the prospection of deep situated fracture zones. The comparison of P- and S-wave measurements shows that we can get hints on a possible fluid content of the

  13. An approach for geochemical assessment of Chipilapa geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Nieva, D.; Verma, M.P.; Portugal, E.; Torres, V.

    1993-01-28

    It presents a systematic methodology to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of Chipilapa- Ahuachapan geothermal field through the highly diluted natural manifestations (springs and domestic wells) in its surroundings. The manifestations are classified in three main groups according to their mechanism of formation: high salinity water (HSW), medium salinity water (MSW), and Sulfated Water (SW). The reservoir temperature at Chipilapa geothermal field is around 220°C which is estimated with application of various chemical geothermometers. The isotopic studies indicate that the heating of local meteoric water with the separated steam of deep reservoir fluids is a dominating process in the formation of springs and domestic wells fluids. The process of formation of primary and secondary vapor explains the isotopic composition of fumaroles.

  14. Some Comments on the La Primavera Geothermal Field, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    A., Bernardo Dominguez; Lippmann, Marcelo J.

    1983-12-15

    The La Primavera geothermal field is located about 20 km west of the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, in the western part of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis. Initial results of five deep exploration wells (down to 2000 m depth) were very promising; measured downhole temperatures exceed 300{degrees}C. During production, however, downhole temperatures dropped, and the chemistry of the fluids changed. The analysis of geologic, mineralogic, geochemical, and well completion data indicate that colder fluids flow down the wellbore from shallower aqifers cooling the upper zones of the gothermal reservoir. This problem is attributed to inadequate well completions. Doubts have arisen about continuing the exploration of the field because of the somewhat disappointing drilling results. However, a more thorough analysis of all available data indicates that a good geothermal prospect might exist below 3000 m, and that it could be successfully developed with appropriately located and completed wells.

  15. Subsidence: Causes, Effects, and Mitigations in Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sektiawan, Akta; Adi Prasetyo, Ganung; Patera Adli, Dida; Yuantoro, Ethis

    2016-09-01

    Subsidence is the motion of the ground surface as it moves down relatively. It can occur in a wide range of area. It is an impact of production of large mass and volume of saturation from the reservoir. It doesn't happen especially in geothermal fields only, but also in oil and gas industry. Large fluid volume production leads to the decrease of pore pressure inside reservoir. This decline disturbs the pressure stability and overburden pressure compress the pores. It results the drop in ground surface. The decrease in ground surface level induces a devastating effect in the construction of some facilities, such as building, pipeline, canal, and river. It may interrupt the balance in the ecosystems nearby. Good management and several survey methods (such as levelling and gravity) will reduce the risk of subsidence and the other effects related to it. This discussion output can be used as a guide for minimizing subsidence impact in the geothermal field in general.

  16. Geothermal Energy Potential of Turkey: Inferred from the Aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ates, Abdullah; Bilim, Funda; Buyuksarac, Aydin; Bektas, Ozcan

    2010-05-01

    Geothermal energy potential of Turkey is well known. There are lots of hot springs with over 30° C water temperatures. However, the significance of these geothermal energy potential of Turkey is not adequately understood. We believe that the main reason for this; is the lack of exploration methods and tools in a wide area as large as Turkey. We exploited a well known physical property of rocks to estimate the geothermal energy potential. Physically, substances lose their magnetization above a temperature known as the Curie that is the 580° C for magnetite. Properties of the Curie temperature have been exploited to observe the bottom depth of the magnetization. That is the depth where the heat reaches to 580° C. In another word, there is no magnetization below this depth. In normal crust this depth is about 22-24 km. Thus, investigation of the bottom depth of magnetization by using aeromagnetic anomalies can lead to information that if there are any anomalous regions well above the normal crust. The aeromagnetic anomalies of whole of Turkey were surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. The survey was completed during late 1980's. Five kilometers grid data were available and used for regional exploration purposes. Exploration of the geothermal energy potential of Turkey was done from west to east in the similar way to search for shallow high temperature regions. These are from west to east; i.) Western Turkey: Two major shallow depth regions were determined at the west of Kutahya and the north-east of Denizli. The Curie Point Depths (CPDs) were calculated as about 7 km and about 9 km in Kutahya and Denizli, respectively. Also, high heat flow values and crustal thinning (about 32 km from gravity anomalies of western Turkey) were calculated for western Turkey. ii.) Central Turkey: A CPD depth of 8 km was calculated. This gives us a temperature gradient of 0.073° C/m. Geothermal energy potential was studied using water chemistry and isotopic

  17. Hydrogeologic model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Retana, M.; Cuellar, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogeological model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field has been developed. It considers the lithology and structural features of the area and discerns their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids in the system. Three aquifers were identified, their zones of mixing and flow patterns were obtained on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Recency of Faulting and Neotechtonic Framework in the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field and Other Geothermal Fields of the Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Wesnousky; S. John Caskey; John W. Bell

    2003-02-20

    We studied the role that earthquake faults play in redistributing stresses within in the earths crust near geothermal fields. The geographic foci of our study were the sites of geothermal plants in Dixie Valley, Beowawe, and Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada. Our initial results show that the past history of earthquakes has redistributed stresses at these 3 sites in a manner to open and maintain fluid pathways critical for geothermal development. The approach developed here during our pilot study provides an inexpensive approach to (1) better define the best locations to site geothermal wells within known geothermal fields and (2) to define the location of yet discovered geothermal fields which are not manifest at the surface by active geothermal springs. More specifically, our investigation shows that induced stress concentrations at the endpoints of normal fault ruptures appear to promote favorable conditions for hydrothermal activity in two ways. We conclude that an understanding of the spatial distribution of active faults and the past history of earthquakes on those faults be incorporated as a standard tool in geothermal exploration and in the siting of future boreholes in existing geothermal fields.

  19. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Longyear, A.B.

    1981-12-01

    The potential geothermal direct-use energy market and its application to projects in California are assessed. Project identification effort is to be focused on those that have the highest probability for near-term successful commercial operations. Near-term herein means 2 to 5 years for project implementation. Phase I has been focused on defining and assessing: (1) the geothermal direct-use resources that are suitable for near-term utilization; and (2) the generic applications (municipal heating districts, horticultural greenhouse firms, laundries, etc.) that are suitable for near-term projects. Five economic development regions in the state, containing recognized geothermal direct-use resources, have been defined. Thirty-eight direct use resources have been evaluated in these regions. After assessment against pre-selected criteria, twenty-seven have been rated with a priority of I, II or III, thereby qualifying them for further marketing effort. The five areas with a priority of I are summarized. These areas have no perceived impediments to near-term development. Twenty-nine generic categories of applications were assessed against previously selected criteria to determine their near term potential for direct use of geothermal fluids. Some twenty industry, commercial and institutional application categories were rated with a priority of I, II or III and warrant further marketing efforts. The seven categories with a priority of I are listed. These categories were found to have the least impediments to near-term application projects.

  20. Development of San Kamphaeng Geothermal Energy Project in Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Ramingwong, T.; Praserdvigai, S.

    1984-06-01

    San Kamphaeng Geothermal Field located in northern Thailand, has been selected for a case study and exploration drilling program due to relevant geologic data obtained from the area and favorable sociological conditions. The first geothermal exploration well in Thailand, GTE-1, was commenced at the end of 1981. At present, six geothermal exploration wells (GTE-1 to GTE-6), with an average maximum depth of 500 m., have been drilled. Two wells encountered hot water while the rest are dry. GTE-2 is now discharging hot water of 85C with a very small discharge. GTE-6 encountered hot water of 120C at a depth of 489 m. It is now discharging hot water of 104SC at 3.6 bars pressure and at approximately 4 1/s at the well head. A number of shallow wells, with depths of less than 50 m., were drilled in the thermal manifestation area. Here, resistivity surveys showed relatively low values at shallow depths, suggesting possible zones of thermal water accumulation. Five shallow wells encountered hot water with temperatures ranging from 100C to 130C. A reservoir model of the San Kamphaeng geothermal system is proposed. Under the joint technical program between the governments of Thailand and Japan, a deep exploration well of 1500 m. is scheduled to start in July of 1984.

  1. The shallow seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field (Italy) as seen from Receiver Function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana Agostinetti, Nicola; Licciardi, Andrea; Piccinini, Davide; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Saccorotti, Gilberto

    2017-04-01

    The Larderello field (Tuscany, Italy) is the oldest example in the world of geothermal energy exploitation for industrial purposes. Despite its century long history of exploration and exploitation, the deep structure (4-8km depth) of the Larderello field is still poorly known, due to (a) the lack of resolution of the applied exploration techniques and (b) the lack of interest in the investigation of deep geothermal reservoirs, given the abundant amount of energy extracted from the shallow reservoirs. Recently, the increasing demand of green-energy promoted a renewed interest in the geothermal industrial sector, which translated into new exploration efforts, especially to obtain a detailed characterization of deep geothermal sources. We investigate the seismic structure of the Larderello geothermal field using Receiver Function (RF) analysis. Crustal seismic structures are routinely investigated using the RF methodology, where teleseismic P-wave are analysed to extract P-to-S converted phases that can be related to the propagation of the P-wave across a seismic discontinuity. We compute RF from 26 seismic stations, belonging to both temporary and permanent networks: the GAPSS and RETREAT experiments and the Italian Seismic Network. The RF data-set is migrated at depth and decomposed into azimuthal harmonics. Computing the first, k=0, and the second, k=1, harmonics allows to separate the "isotropic" contribution, due to the change of the isotropic properties of the sampled materials (recorded on the k=0 harmonics), from the "anisotropic" contribution, where the energy is related to the propagation of the P-wave through anisotropic materials (recorded on the k=1 harmonics). Preliminary results allow us: (1) to infer the position of the main S-wave velocity discontinuities in the study area, mainly a shallow Tyrrhenian Moho and a very-low S-wave velocity body in the center of the Larderello dome, at about 5-15km depth; and (2) to map the presence of anisotropic

  2. The total flow concept for geothermal energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    A geothermal development project has been initiated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) to emphasize development of methods for recovery and conversion of the energy in geothermal deposits of hot brines. Temperatures of these waters vary from 150 C to more than 300 C with dissolved solids content ranging from less than 0.1% to over 25% by weight. Of particular interest are the deposits of high-temperature/high-salinity brines, as well as less saline brines, known to occur in the Salton Trough of California. Development of this resource will depend on resolution of the technical problems of brine handling, scale and precipitation control, and corrosion/erosion resistant systems for efficient conversion of thermal to electrical energy. Research experience to date has shown these problems to be severe. Hence, the LLL program emphasizes development of an entirely different approach called the Total Flow concept.

  3. Oil field geothermal waters of Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.

    1983-08-01

    Over 150 million gallons of water a day are brought to the surface in the oil fields of Wyoming. The temperature of this water is nearly always greater than 90/sup 0/F, and ranges as high as 230/sup 0/F. The location, volume, temperature, and present use status of co-produced oil field thermal waters are presented briefly.

  4. Magnetotelluric Exploration of the Sipoholon Geothermal Field, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niasari, S. W.; Muñoz, G.; Kholid, M.; Suhanto, E.; Ritter, O.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) measurements have been carried out at 96 sites around the Sipoholon Geothermal field, in the province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. The Sipoholon geothermal field is a low enthalpy geothermal system located in a pull-apart basin controlled by the Sumatra fault system. One of the main difficulties in understanding this system is an apparently random distribution of temperatures in 15 hot springs in the area. High levels of electromagnetic noise with several high voltage power lines in a densely populated area is challenging for natural source MT measurements. Noise at long periods and in the dead band (1s to 10s) could be removed with robust remote reference processing and high frequency noise could be suppressed with a delay line filter. After dimensionality and directionality analysis of the data, we found a regional strike direction consistent with the Sumatra fault. We present results of 2D inversion of the data along several profiles perpendicular to the main strike direction. Modeling results indicate a shallow (< 1000 m) low resistivity layer, zones of high resistivity at intermediate depths (approximately 500 to 5000 m), and regions of low resistivity in the depth range of 2 to 4 km. These deep zones of low resistivity could be caused by hydrothermal alteration or hydrothermal fluids. The shallow low resistivity correlates spatially with the graben areas of the pull-apart system and is likely associated with (unconsolidated) sedimentary fill.

  5. Los Azufres geothermal field: Observed response after 12-year exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    Exploitation of the Los Azufres Geothermal field was initiated in August 1982, with the electric power generation of five 5-MW wellhead units. Since then another 70 MW have been installed. A large amount of information has been compiled, including geologic, geochemical, production, and reservoir characteristics. The data were evaluated to detect the extent of observable changes in the main reservoir parameters over the twelve-year production period. Pressure and temperature measurements in Los Azufres wells show that geothermal fluid distribution is strongly influenced by the presence of permeable structures. Wellhead production and chemical analysis of the separated brine show that we are dealing with a highly heterogeneous reservoir, were the drawdown and enthalpy changes depend on the position of the well being studied.

  6. Hybrid System for Snow Melting and Space Cooling by using Geothermal Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Makoto; Kubota, Hideki

    This paper aims to develop a hybrid system for snow melting and space cooling by using geothermal energy in order to improve the availability factor of the borehole heat exchanger. Based on field experiments, a feasibility evaluation of the system was performed. First, snow melting experiments using geothermal energy were performed and the comparatively good road surface situation was realized. The primary energy reduction rate over 70% was shown in comparison with the conventional snow melting system. Second, regarding a snow melting tank with the hot water piping, it was clarified that the snow melting was possible even in the low temperature water of approximately 9-10°C by using water sprinkling in the tank jointly. Finally, by supplying the space cooling and dehumidification panel with the cold through the borehole heat exchanger in summer, it was shown that the good cooling effect was obtained.

  7. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperature are indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system are described.

  8. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-09

    Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described, including the depth to reservoir, production rates of existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, legal, and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  9. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  10. Reservoir Studies of the Seltjarnarnes Geothermal Field, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Tulinius, H.; Spencer, A.L.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kristmannsdottir, H.; Thorsteinsson, T.; Sveinbjornsdottir, A.E.

    1987-01-20

    The Seltjarnarnes geothermal field in Iceland has been exploited for space heating for the last 16 years. A model of the field has been developed that integrates all available data. The model has been calibrated against the flow rate and pressure decline histories of the wells and the temperature and chemical changes of the produced fluids. This has allowed for the estimation of the permeability and porosity distribution of the system, and the volume of the hot reservoir. Predictions of future reservoir behavior using the model suggest small pressure and temperature changes, but a continuous increase in the salinity of the fluids produced. 10 figs., 23 refs.

  11. Simulation of the Heber geothermal field, a TOUGH2/PC application

    SciTech Connect

    Antunez, E.; Lippmann, M.; Ali Khan, M.

    1995-03-01

    A numerical simulation model for the Heber geothermal field in southern California is being developed under a technology transfer agreement between the Department of Energy/LBL and the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (Division). The two objectives of the cooperation are: (1) to train Division personnel in the use of the TOUGH2/PC computer code; and (2) to develop a module compatible with TOUGH2 to investigate the effects of production/injection operations on the ground surface subsidence-rebound phenomenon observed in the field. The compaction of the rock formation will be handled assuming an elastic behavior of the rock-fluid system. Considered will be changes in pore volume and in-grid block dimensions, as well as, the process by which the change in formation volume is transmitted to the surface (vertical deformation; subsidence and rebound).

  12. Small biphase wellhead plant for the Cerro Prieto Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Oropeza, A.; Hays, L.

    1996-12-31

    In a system of geothermal wells in a geothermal field, there are different production conditions of the flows, temperatures and pressures. At plants where the installed capacity requires the use of many wells, it is necessary to regulate the well`s pressure to ensure a stable condition for the turbines. Reducing the steam pressure on the wellhead is achieved by using an orifice plate (flash orifice). Use of an orifice plate results in a waste or loss of well pressure that could be utilized for production of electricity. The Cerro Prieto field, operated by the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), has many wells operating at a very high pressure and producing a lot of water. Much of this pressure and water is not utilized in the production of electricity. With the purpose of taking advantage of this pressure CFE has evaluated a proposal by Biphase Energy Co. Biphase has designed and patented a turbine that works directly with the steam and water mixture coming from the wellhead, acting as a separator. Biphase has developed a model of its turbine and successfully operated it in Coso Hot Springs California. Knowing this CFE has signed an agreement with Biphase Energy Company to install and operate a biphasic turbine at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field located near Mexicali, Mexico.

  13. Hydrothermal surface alteration in the Copahue Geothermal Field (Argentina)

    SciTech Connect

    Mas, Graciela R.; Mas, Luis C.; Bengochea, Leandro

    1996-01-24

    In the area of the Copahue Geothermal Field, there are five active geothermal manifestations, which mainly consist of fumaroles, hot springs and mud pots. Four of these manifestations are located in Argentina: Las Máquinas, Termas de Copahue, Las Maquinitas and El Anfiteatro, and the fifth on the Chilean side: Chancho Co. All of them present a strong acid sulfate country rock alteration, characterized by the assemblage alunite + kaolinite + quartz + cristobalite + pyrite + sulfur + jarosite, as the result of the base leaching by fluids concentrated in H2SO4 by atmospheric oxidation at the water table in a steam heated environment of H2S released by deeper boiling fluids. Another alteration zone in this area, called COP-2, is a fossil geothermal manifestation which shows characteristics of neutral to alkaline alteration represented mainly by the siliceous sinter superimposed over the acid alteration. The mineralogy and zoning of these alteration zones, and their relation with the hidrothermal solutions and the major structures of the area are analized.

  14. Strategies and Perceptions of Students' Field Note-Taking Skills: Insights from a Geothermal Field Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohaney, Jacqueline; Brogt, Erik; Kennedy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Field note-taking skills are fundamental in the geosciences but are rarely explicitly taught. In a mixed-method study of an introductory geothermal field lesson, we characterize the content and perceptions of students' note-taking skills to derive the strategies that students use in the field. We collected several data sets: observations of the…

  15. Strategies and Perceptions of Students' Field Note-Taking Skills: Insights from a Geothermal Field Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dohaney, Jacqueline; Brogt, Erik; Kennedy, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Field note-taking skills are fundamental in the geosciences but are rarely explicitly taught. In a mixed-method study of an introductory geothermal field lesson, we characterize the content and perceptions of students' note-taking skills to derive the strategies that students use in the field. We collected several data sets: observations of the…

  16. Field testing advanced geothermal turbodrill (AGT). Phase 1 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maurer, W.C.; Cohen, J.H.

    1999-06-01

    Maurer Engineering developed special high-temperature geothermal turbodrills for LANL in the 1970s to overcome motor temperature limitations. These turbodrills were used to drill the directional portions of LANL`s Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Wells at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. The Hot Dry Rock concept is to drill parallel inclined wells (35-degree inclination), hydraulically fracture between these wells, and then circulate cold water down one well and through the fractures and produce hot water out of the second well. At the time LANL drilled the Fenton Hill wells, the LANL turbodrill was the only motor in the world that would drill at the high temperatures encountered in these wells. It was difficult to operate the turbodrills continuously at low speed due to the low torque output of the LANL turbodrills. The turbodrills would stall frequently and could only be restarted by lifting the bit off bottom. This allowed the bit to rotate at very high speeds, and as a result, there was excessive wear in the bearings and on the gauge of insert roller bits due to these high rotary speeds. In 1998, Maurer Engineering developed an Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) for the National Advanced Drilling and Excavation Technology (NADET) at MIT by adding a planetary speed reducer to the LANL turbodrill to increase its torque and reduce its rotary speed. Drilling tests were conducted with the AGT using 12 1/2-inch insert roller bits in Texas Pink Granite. The drilling tests were very successful, with the AGT drilling 94 ft/hr in Texas Pink Granite compared to 45 ft/hr with the LANL turbodrill and 42 ft/hr with a rotary drill. Field tests are currently being planned in Mexico and in geothermal wells in California to demonstrate the ability of the AGT to increase drilling rates and reduce drilling costs.

  17. Reservoir and hydrogeochemical characterizations of geothermal fields in Salihli, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özen, Tuğbanur; Bülbül, Ali; Tarcan, Gültekin

    2012-10-01

    Geothermal and hydrochemical characteristics of thermal waters in the Salihli geothermal area are described in this study. This geothermal area is geographically divided into five main groups; Kurşunlu, Caferbey, Greenhouse, Üfürük and Sart geothermal fields. In the study area, the outlet temperatures of the thermal waters are between 30 and 90 °C, their discharges are between 2 and 80 l/s in springs and the depths of wells vary between 200 and 1189 m. Hydrochemical analysis results suggest four different water types of Na-HCO3, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-SO4 in Kurşunlu, Caferbey-Greenhouse, Sart, and Üfürük, respectively. Cold waters are mainly dominated by the HCO3 and SO4 anions and Na, Ca, and Mg cations. Results of environmental isotope and chemical analysis show that the thermal waters are of meteoric origin and the major hydrogeochemical processes show that the thermal waters may be mixing of their end members and/or water-rock interaction at high temperature conditions. The mixed thermal waters are replenished by rainwater and/or groundwater at various depths. EC-tritium and EC-chloride plots indicated shallow and deep circulating groundwater types in the study area. Assessment of the various empirical chemical geothermometers and geochemical modelling suggests that the aquifer temperature in the study area is about 160 °C. The thermal waters are mostly supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals (calcite, aragonite, and dolomite) at all temperatures. These are likely to cause scaling problems during production and utilization of thermal water.

  18. Seismicity and coupled deformation modeling at the Coso Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaven, J. O.; Hickman, S. H.; Davatzes, N. C.

    2015-12-01

    Micro-seismicity in geothermal reservoirs, in particular in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), is a beneficial byproduct of injection and production, as it can indicate the generation of high-permeability pathways on either pre-existing or newly generated faults and fractures. The hazard of inducing an earthquake large enough to be felt at the surface, however, is not easily avoided and has led to termination of some EGS projects. To explore the physical processes leading to permeability creation and maintenance in geothermal systems and the physics of induced earthquakes , we investigated the evolution of seismicity and the factors controlling the migration, moment release rate, and timing of seismicity in the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF). We report on seismicity in the CGF that has been relocated with high precision double-difference relocation techniques and simultaneous velocity inversions to understand hydrologic reservoir compartmentalization and the nature of subsurface boundaries to fluid flow. We find that two distinct compartments are present within the CGF, which are divided by an aseismic gap showing a relatively low Vp/Vs ratio, likely indicating lower temperatures or lower pore pressures within the gap than in the adjacent reservoir compartments. Well-located events with Mw> 3.5 tend to map onto reactivated fault structures that were revealed when imaged by the relocated micro-seismicity. We relate the temporal and spatial migration of moment release rate to the injection and production histories in the reservoir by employing a thermo-poro-elastic finite element model that takes into account the compartment boundaries defined by the seismicity. We find that pore pressure effects alone are not responsible for the migration of seismicity and that poro-elastic and thermo-elastic stress changes are needed in addition to fluid pressure effects to account for the observed moment release rates.

  19. Exploration of geothermal energy in the western Pannonian basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, T.; Wórum, G.; Nádor, A.; Uhrin, A.; Bíró, I.; Musitz, B.; Kóbor, M.; Dövényi, G.; Horváth, F.; Pap, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Pannonian basin has been a favourable site for hot water utilisation in spas since the medieval ages. Deliberate drilling activity started already more than a century ago and Hungary has become soon a center of balneological teraphy in Central Europe. The increasing interest for wellness resorts and mainly geothermal energy prospects has initiated recently the first systematic survey in the western Pannonian basin. The regional scale of the survey and access to a wealth of drillhole and seismic data led to the elaboration of novel research strategy. The Pannonian basin formed by rifting, major extension and subsidence of an Alpine orogenic terrain during the Middle Miocene. In the Late Miocene to Pliocene postrift period it was a big lake, which has been filled up by clastic materials transported by big rivers. Four regional aquifers can be defined in the basin from top to bottom: (1) delta front sand packages and their lateral equivalents (Újfalu Formation), (2) deep water delta front turbidite and sheet sand packages (Szolnok Formation), (3) Middle Miocene biogenic limestones and (4) fractured and karstified Mesozoic carbonates in the basement of Tertiary strata. In order to fully evaluate the geothermal potential of these aquifers seismic mapping was completed by borehole geology, well logs and flow tests. In addition a large and most complete geothermal data base available for the region has been prepared to facilitate integrated interpretation. A series of maps will be presented to illustrate the main results of the project and deliver the most important message: there are favourable conditions at large areas in the western Pannonian basin for multipurpose utilisation of geothermal energy.

  20. Geothermal Technologies Program - Geothermal Energy: Putting Creative Ideas to Work (Green Jobs)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Rapid expansion of U.S. geothermal capacity is opening new job opportunities across the nation. With more than 3,000 megawatts (MW) already installed, the United States leads the world in existing geothermal capacity.

  1. Gas geochemistry of the Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1993-04-01

    Increases in gas concentrations in Central and Southeast Geysers steam are related to the decreases in pressure caused by heavy exploitation in the 1980s. When reservoir pressures in the central parts of the field decreased, high-gas steam from undrilled reservoir margins (and possibly from underlying high-temperature zones) flowed into exploited central areas. The Northwest Geysers reservoir probably lacks high-gas marginal steam and a decline in pressure may not cause a significant increase of gas concentrations in produced steam.

  2. Using a new Geothermal Well Field as a Field Laboratory to Facilitate Comprehensive Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, K.; Dowling, C. B.

    2011-12-01

    In Fall 2010, the faculty of the Department of Geological Sciences at Ball State University (BSU) took advantage of several recently drilled monitoring wells within BSU's newly constructed ground-source geothermal well field, currently the largest in the U.S., to create an undergraduate field laboratory for hydrogeological experiments. Using the Investigative Case-Based Learning approach, upper-level undergraduate students developed research projects that would assist BSU's Facilities in evaluating and maintaining the geothermal fields. The students designed original hypotheses and explored how to test them with the available equipment within one semester. They focused on observing and measuring the potential impact of the geothermal well field on groundwater temperature and flow direction using two shallow monitoring wells in gravel (~30 ft) and eight deeper monitoring wells in limestone (~70 ft). The results will be used for comparisons when the geothermal plant goes online in Fall 2011. Undergraduate and graduate students will perform experiments throughout this initial period and continue even after the geothermal field is activated. Through the use of different assessment tools, including peer evaluation, instructors' assessment and an assessment of understanding, we determined that twenty-five percent of the class gained full comprehensive understanding. These students were able to design new experiments by assessing their semester data, integrating their knowledge from previous classes, and synthesizing new hypotheses. The majority of the class was able to further expand their understanding of the scientific process, but not to the extent as the top students.

  3. Geothermal energy market study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Definition of markets for geothermal energy in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The cost and revenue streams for each year in the lifetime of a geothermal energy conversion project are calculated by the Geothermal Resource Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) computer program. The program gives preliminary economic evaluations of projects under a wide range of resource, demand, and financial conditions.

  4. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reviewed on the following: area development plans, evaluation of geothermal applications, continued evaluation of geothermal resources, engineering and economic analyses, technical assistance in the state of Arizona, the impact of various growth patterns upon geothermal energy development, and the outreach program. (MHR)

  5. Geothermal pump down-hole energy regeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-08-03

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a turbine motor for driving an electrical power generator at the earth 3 S surface, the solute bearing water being returned into the earth by a reinjection well. Efficiency of operation of the total system is increased by an arrangement of coaxial conduits for greatly reducing the flow of heat from the rising brine into the rising exhaust of the down-well turbine motor.

  6. Geothermal pump down-hole energy regeneration system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a turbine motor for driving an electrical power generator at the earth 3 s surface, the solute bearing water being returned into the earth by a reinjection well. Efficiency of operation of the total system is increased by an arrangement of coaxial conduits for greatly reducing the flow of heat from the rising brine into the rising exhaust of the down-well turbine motor.

  7. Multicomponent CO2-Brine Simulations of Fluid and Heat Transfer in Sedimentary-Basin Geothermal Systems: Expanding Geothermal Energy Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    In a carbon dioxide plume geothermal (CPG) system, carbon dioxide (CO2) is pumped into existing high-permeability geologic formations that are overlain by a low-permeability caprock. The resulting CO2 plume largely displaces native formation fluid and is heated by the natural in-situ heat and background geothermal heat flux. A portion of the heated CO2 is piped to the surface to produce power and/or to provide heat for direct use before being returned to the geologic reservoir. Non-recoverable CO2 in the subsurface is geologically sequestered, serving as a CO2 sink. As such, this approach results in a geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. We present results of calculations concerning geothermal power plant efficiencies and energy production rates in both traditional reservoir-based systems and engineered geothermal systems (EGS) when CO2, rather than water, is used as the subsurface working fluid. While our previous studies have examined geologic systems with established CO2 plumes, we focus here on multicomponent (CO2 + brine) systems. Numerical simulations (e.g., Randolph and Saar, Geophysical Research Letters, 2011) indicate that CPG systems provide several times the heat energy recovery of similar water-based systems. Furthermore, the CPG method results in higher geothermal heat extraction efficiencies than both water- and CO2-based EGS. Therefore, CPG should further extend the applicability of geothermal energy utilization to regions with subsurface temperatures and heat flow rates that are even lower than those that may be added due to switching from water- to CO2-based EGS. Finally, simulations at present suggest that multicomponent effects - e.g., buoyant flow as CO2 rises over denser brine - may enhance heat extraction in CPG systems compared to traditional water-based geothermal approaches.

  8. Natural polarization studies at Balcova geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Ercan, A.; Drahor, M.; Atasoy, E.

    1986-06-01

    Contrasting resistivity, temperature, pressure, porosity and fluid migrations are the main causes of ion accumulations along the discontinuities which create coupling-induced natural current flow which is observed as the Natural Polarization Potential (NPP) on the surface. Natural Polarization Electric Field (NPE) variations were recorded along 13 profiles about 2.5 km each in a north-south direction. Interpretation of the coincident anomalies of the NPP and the NPE field resulted in determination of the polarization angle, polarization focal depth and the azimuths of the polarized interfaces. Considerable agreement between faults delineated by previous geological and geophysical investigations and polarization discontinuities was observed. The polarization plane was observed to be horizontal in high temperature areas but steepened gradually in relatively colder regions in the northern costal area. From the polarization depth distribution two depression zones were observed, separated by an uplifted section elongated in a north-south direction. The basin at the eastern side had an estimated polarization depth of 1.1 km and was limited by the Agamemnon-2 and -1 faults, while the western basin had an estimated depth of 1.3 km and extended in the east-west direction not previously reported. The eastern basin extends on the north side around the town of Inciralti, the western basin appeared to be elongated towards the town of Cesme.

  9. Hot dry rock geothermal energy -- a renewable energy resource that is ready for development now

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.; Myers, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, is a very large and well-distributed resource of nonpolluting, and essentially renewable, energy that is available globally. Its use could help mitigate climatic change and reduce acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nations's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and several other countries. On a national scale we can begin to develop this new source, using it directly for power generation or for direct-heat applications, or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fuel power plants. In the HDR concept, which has been demonstrated in the field in two different applications and flow- tested for periods up to one year, heat is recovered from the earth by pressurized water in a closed-loop circulation system. As a consequence, minimal effluents are released to the atmosphere, and no wastes are produced. This paper describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source.

  10. Fractal characterization of subsurface fracture network for geothermal energy extraction system

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe; Takahashi, H.

    1993-01-28

    As a new modeling procedure of geothermal energy extraction systems, the authors present two dimensional and three dimensional modeling techniques of subsurface fracture network, based on fractal geometry. Fluid flow in fractured rock occurs primarily through a connected network of discrete fractures. The fracture network approach, therefore, seeks to model fluid flow and heat transfer through such rocks directly. Recent geophysical investigations have revealed that subsurface fracture networks can be described by "fractal geometry". In this paper, a modeling procedure of subsurface fracture network is proposed based on fractal geometry. Models of fracture networks are generated by distributing fractures randomly, following the fractal relation between fracture length r and the number of fractures N expressed with fractal dimension D as N =C·r-D, where C is a constant to signify the fracture density of the rock mass. This procedure makes it possible to characterize geothermal reservoirs by the parameters measured from field data, such as core sampling. In this characterization, the fractal dimension D and the fracture density parameter C of a geothermal reservoir are used as parameters to model the subsurface fracture network. Using this model, the transmissivities between boreholes are also obtained as a function of the fracture density parameter C, and a parameter study of system performances, such as heat extraction, is performed. The results show the dependence of thermal recovery of geothermal reservoir on fracture density parameter C.

  11. A database for The Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Cox, B.L.; Fuller, P.; Ripperda, M.; Tulinius, H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goldstein, N.; Flexser, S.; Pruess, K. ); Truesdell, A. )

    1989-09-01

    In Fiscal Year 1985-1986 the Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) began a multi-year project for SLC to organize and analyze the field data from The Geysers. In the first year, most of the work concentrated on the development of a comprehensive database for The Geysers, and conventional reservoir engineering analysis of the data. Essentially, all non-proprietary data for wells at The Geysers have been incorporated into the database, as well as proprietary data from wells located on State leases. In following years, a more detailed analysis of The Geysers data has been carried out. This report is a summary of the non- proprietary work performed in FY 1985--1986. It describes various aspects of the database and also includes: review sections on Field Development, Geology, Geophysics, Geochemistry and Reservoir Engineering. It should be emphasized that these background chapters were written in 1986, and therefore only summarize the information available at that time. The appendices contain individual plots of wellhead pressures, degree of superheat, steam flow rates, cumulative mass flows, injection rates and cumulative injection through 1988 for approximately 250 wells. All of the data contained in this report are non-proprietary, from State and non-State leases. The production/injection and heat flow data from the wells were obtained from the California State Division of Oil and gas (DOG) (courtesy of Dick Thomas). Most of the other data were obtained from SLC files in Sacramento (courtesy of Charles Priddy), or DOG files in Santa Rosa (courtesy of Ken Stelling). 159 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  13. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  14. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M.

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  15. Reflection seismic imaging in the volcanic area of the geothermal field Wayang Windu, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, Ulrich; Wiyono, Wiyono; Pramono, Bambang; Krawczyk, CharLotte M.

    2014-05-01

    Reflection seismic exploration in volcanic areas is still a scientific challenge and requires major efforts to develop imaging workflows capable of an economic utilization, e.g., for geothermal exploration. The SESaR (Seismic Exploration and Safety Risk study for decentral geothermal plants in Indonesia) project therefore tackles still not well resolved issues concerning wave propagation or energy absorption in areas covered by pyroclastic sediments using both active P-wave and S-wave seismics. Site-specific exploration procedures were tested in different tectonic and lithological regimes to compare imaging conditions. Based on the results of a small-scale, active seismic pre-site survey in the area of the Wayang Windu geothermal field in November 2012, an additional medium-scale active seismic experiment using P-waves was carried out in August 2013. The latter experiment was designed to investigate local changes of seismic subsurface response, to expand the knowledge about capabilities of the vibroseis method for seismic surveying in regions covered by pyroclastic material, and to achieve higher depth penetration. Thus, for the first time in the Wayang Windu geothermal area, a powerful, hydraulically driven seismic mini-vibrator device of 27 kN peak force (LIAG's mini-vibrator MHV2.7) was used as seismic source instead of the weaker hammer blow applied in former field surveys. Aiming at acquiring parameter test and production data southeast of the Wayang Windu geothermal power plant, a 48-channel GEODE recording instrument of the Badan Geologi was used in a high-resolution configuration, with receiver group intervals of 5 m and source intervals of 10 m. Thereby, the LIAG field crew, Star Energy, GFZ Potsdam, and ITB Bandung acquired a nearly 600 m long profile. In general, we observe the successful applicability of the vibroseis method for such a difficult seismic acquisition environment. Taking into account the local conditions at Wayang Windu, the method is

  16. Does shallow geothermal energy use threaten groundwater ecosystem functions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne I.; Ferraro, Francesco; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Griebler, Christian; Lueders, Tillmann

    2010-05-01

    Today, the use of geothermal energy is strongly promoted as an alternative and sustainable source of energy. However, regarding the authorization, regulation and monitoring of such facilities with respect to possible environmental impacts, a severe lack of knowledge has been identified. Aquifers are not only abiotic reservoirs of water and sediment, but they are complex ecosystems harbouring an almost untapped diversity of microorganisms and fauna. Intrinsic groundwater organisms are highly adapted to extremely oligotrophic, but stable conditions including temperature. At the same time, groundwater biota are the key drivers of important ecosystem services, especially functions connected to water quality. So what happens if groundwater biota need to cope with sudden temperature dynamics caused by GSHP use? Potential effects of thermal use on pristine aquifers, and on groundwater systems already facing enhanced loads of nutrients or contamination require urgent scientific attention. Within this project, we have assessed - both in the field and in the laboratory - the impacts of temperature discharge and withdrawal on biotic parameters and functional characteristics of exemplary shallow groundwater systems. In the field, aquifer microbes did not show significant impacts under increased temperatures in terms of total cell numbers, selected enzyme activities and carbon production. However, bacterial diversity clearly increased with temperature, accompanied by the appearance of new bacterial lineages and the disappearance of others. On the contrary, faunal diversity decreased with temperature, highlighting the temperature sensitivity of groundwater invertebrates. These results demonstrate that aquifer thermal energy discharge can affect intrinsic aquifer biotic populations, while at the same time being only one of several drivers contributing to total variability connected to seasonal dynamics and spatial heterogeneity. In laboratory column experiments covering a larger

  17. A sustainability analysis of geothermal energy development on the island of Dominica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Kiyana Marie-Jose

    Dominica is heavily dependent on fossil fuels to meet its electricity generation needs. Dominica's volcanic origin and current volcanic activity allow the island to be an ideal place for the production of geothermal energy. Once geothermal exploration and development has begun in Dominica, it is uncertain whether the efforts will produce an environmentally, economically and socially feasible exploitation of the resource. Using content analysis and cost benefit analysis, this study examined the impacts of geothermal energy development based on the triple bottom line of sustainability for the Wotten Waven community, as well as the island as a whole. The results indicate that this project will have an overall positive impact on the triple bottom line of sustainability for Dominica. Therefore, geothermal energy may provide substantial net benefits to economic and sustainable development of the island. Assessing the sustainability of geothermal development is important as Dominica begins to produce geothermal energy.

  18. Geothermal Energy Development Project at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, Did Not Meet Recovery Act Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-19

    Report No. D-2011-108 September 19, 2011 Geothermal Energy Development Project at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada...COMMANDING OFFICER, NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND SOUTHWEST DIRECTOR, NAVY SHORE ENERGY PROGRAM OFFICE COMMANDING OFFICER, NAVAL AIR SYSTEMS ...COMMAND SUBJECT: Geothermal Energy Development Project at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada, Did Not Meet Recovery Act Requirements (Report No. D

  19. Fractal analysis of pressure transients in the Geysers Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Acuna, J.A.; Ershaghi, I.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1992-01-01

    The conventionally accepted models for the interpretation of pressure transient tests in naturally fractured reservoirs usually involve simplistic assumptions regarding the geometry and transport properties of the fractured medium. Many single well tests in this type of reservoirs fail to show the predicted behavior for dual or triple porosity or permeability systems and cannot be explained by these models. This paper describes the application of a new model based on a fractal interpretation of the fractured medium. The approach, discussed elsewhere [2], [6], is applied to field data from The Geysers Geothermal Field. The objective is to present an alternative interpretation to well tests that characterizes the fractured medium in a manner more consistent with other field evidence. The novel insight gained from fractal geometry allows the identification of important characteristics of the fracture structure that feeds a particular well. Some simple models are also presented that match the field transient results.

  20. Reservoir simulation studies on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, M.; Abril, A.; Arellano, V.; Marquez, R.

    1982-01-01

    A reservoir engineering and simulation study is being carried out on the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. A preliminary material balance has been applied to the old part of this field. A single block with constant properties in the horizontal direction was used for this preliminary material balance. The vertical block column was subdivided in several levels in order to take into account the known lithologic column. From existing pressure and enthalpy field histories, a single phase (liquid) reservoir assumption was selected. Under this assumption, a lateral radial recharge was considered in obtaining the pressure and enthalpy history match. These preliminary results indicate that another type of recharge is probably taking place in this part of the field, rather than lateral radial.

  1. The Ngatamariki Geothermal Field, NZ: Surface Manifestations - Past and Present

    SciTech Connect

    Brotheridge, J.M.A.; Browne, P.R.L.; Hochstein, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Ngatamariki geothermal field, located 7 km south of Orakeikorako, discharges dilute chloride-bicarbonate waters of almost neutral pH from springs mostly on the margins of the field. Rhyolite tuffs in the northwestern part of the field are weakly silicified, probably due to their having reacted with heated groundwaters. Sinter deposits are common at Ngatamariki but are mostly relict from former activity. In 1994, the natural heat loss from the field was 30 {+-} 5 MW{sub thermal}. There has been a shift of thermal activity southward over the past 60 years; the changes were recognized by comparing air photographs taken in 1941 and 1991. In 1948, a hydrothermal eruption deposited breccia around its crater, which is now occupied by a pool at 52.5 C. Another pool at 88 C, first noticed in 1993, deposits a mixture of silica and calcite.

  2. Temporal changes in shear velocity from ambient noise at New Zealand geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civilini, F.; Savage, M. K.; Townend, J.

    2016-12-01

    We use ambient noise to compare shear velocity changes with geothermal production processes at the Ngatamariki and Rotokawa geothermal fields, located in the central North Island of New Zealand. We calculate shear velocity changes through an analysis of cross correlation functions of diffusive seismic wavefields between stations, which are proportional to Green's functions of the station path. Electricity production at Ngatamariki uses an 82 MW binary type power station manufactured by Ormat Technologies, which began operations in mid-2013 and is owned and operated by Mighty River Power. The "Nga Awa Purua" triple flash power plant at the Rotokawa geothermal field was established in 2010 with parnership between Mighty River Power and Tauhara North No. 2 trust and currently operates 174 MW of generation. The seismometers of both networks, deployed primarily to observe microseismicity within the field, were installed prior to well stimulation and the start of production. Although cultural noise dominates the energy spectrum, a strong natural ambient noise signal can be detected when filtering below 1 Hz. Despite similar noise settings, the signal-to-noise ratio of cross correlation stacks at Rotokawa was more than two times greater than at Ngatamariki. We use stacks of cross correlations between stations prior to the onset of production as references, and compare them with cross correlations of moving stacks in time periods of well stimulation and the onset of electricity production.

  3. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  4. Hydrogeochemistry and reservoir model of Fuzhou geothermal field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, H. F.; Goff, Fraser

    1986-03-01

    Fuzhou geothermal field is a low- to intermediate-temperature geothermal system consisting of meteoric water that circulates deeply along faults. The area of the field is about 9 km 2 but it is elongated in a NNW-trending direction. Fluids in the field are controlled by a series of four NNW extensional faults in Cretaceous granitic basement (Fuzhou fault zone). These faults feed warm waters into overlying permeable Quaternary sediments. The hydrothermal system consists of north and south parts whose chemical compositions are subtly different. In the northern part the system discharges sulfate/chloride waters with relatively low chloride concentrations, but in the south the system discharges chloride waters having relatively high chloride concentrations. Maximum wellhead temperatures are 97°C, which agrees with the chalcedony geothermometer in many cases. Based on the solubility of quartz, the deep-reservoir temperature cannot exceed 123 to 131°C. From heat and mass balance calculations, we conclude that the present total extracted capacity of fluid from the reservoir (20,000 tons/day) could be doubled without noticeable drawdown. We estimate the recoverable heat in the reservoir to be about 1.71 × 10 11 MJ.

  5. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  6. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  7. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakewell, C. A.; Renner, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources that can provide substitute energy at defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified installations with possible geothermal resources and Atlantic coastal plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to east coast bases. These locations and resource configurations, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage.

  8. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Pritchett, J.W.; Stevens, J.L.; Luu, L.; Combs, J.

    1996-11-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses, and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. The work accomplished during Year 1 of this ongoing program is described in the present report. A brief overview of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is given. The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature, and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures. Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter. Finally, plans for future work are outlined.

  9. Solar Field Optical Characterization at Stillwater Geothermal/Solar Hybrid Plant

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Guangdong; Turchi, Craig

    2017-01-27

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) can provide additional thermal energy to boost geothermal plant power generation. For a newly constructed solar field at a geothermal power plant site, it is critical to properly characterize its performance so that the prediction of thermal power generation can be derived to develop an optimum operating strategy for a hybrid system. In the past, laboratory characterization of a solar collector has often extended into the solar field performance model and has been used to predict the actual solar field performance, disregarding realistic impacting factors. In this work, an extensive measurement on mirror slope error andmore » receiver position error has been performed in the field by using the optical characterization tool called Distant Observer (DO). Combining a solar reflectance sampling procedure, a newly developed solar characterization program called FirstOPTIC and public software for annual performance modeling called System Advisor Model (SAM), a comprehensive solar field optical characterization has been conducted, thus allowing for an informed prediction of solar field annual performance. The paper illustrates this detailed solar field optical characterization procedure and demonstrates how the results help to quantify an appropriate tracking-correction strategy to improve solar field performance. In particular, it is found that an appropriate tracking-offset algorithm can improve the solar field performance by about 15%. The work here provides a valuable reference for the growing CSP industry.« less

  10. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  11. Transported Low-Temperature Geothermal Energy for Thermal End Uses Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhiyao; Liu, Xiaobing; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub; Li, Jan-Mou

    2016-10-01

    The use of geothermal energy is an emerging area for improving the nation’s energy resiliency. Conventionally, geothermal energy applications have focused on power generation using high temperature hydrothermal resources or enhanced geothermal systems. However, many low temperature (below 150°C/300°F) geothermal resources are also available but have not been fully utilized. For example, it is estimated that 25 billion barrels of geothermal fluid (mostly water and some dissolved solids) at 176°F to 302°F (80°C to 150°C) is coproduced annually at oil and gas wells in the United States (DOE 2015). The heat contained in coproduced geothermal fluid (also referred as “coproduced water”) is typically wasted because the fluid is reinjected back into the ground without extracting the heat.

  12. Fracture patterns in graywacke outcrops at The Geysers geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Sammis, Charles G.; Lin Ji An; Ershaghi, I.

    1991-01-01

    The Geysers geothermal field covers an area of more than 35,000 acres and represents one of the most significant steam fields in the world. The heterogeneous nature of the reservoir, its fracture network and non-sedimentary rock distinguish it from ordinary sandstone reservoirs in terms of reservoir definition and evaluation (Stockton et al. 1984). Analysis of cuttings, record of steam entries, temperature and pressure surveys and spinner logs have contributed to an understanding of the subsurface geology and rock characteristics of the Geysers. Few conventional electrical log data are available for the main body of the reservoir. It is generally believed that while the fractures are the main conducts for fluid transport through the reservoirs, tight rocks between the major fractures contain the bulk of the fluid reserves. No independent measurement of liquid and vapor saturation can be made from the existing downhole tools. Pressure depletion in The Geysers geothermal field has become a major concern to the operators and utility companies in recent years. Plans for further development activities and future field management are contingent upon accurate computer modeling and definition of the field. The primary issues in reliable characterization of The Geysers field are the role of the rock matrix in holding liquid reserves and providing pressure support, the nature of fracture network, extent of liquid saturation in the reservoirs and injection pattern strategies to maximize heat recovery. Current modeling of The Geysers field is done through the use of general purpose geothermal reservoir simulators. Approaches employed include treating the reservoir as a single porosity equivalent or a dual porosity system. These simulators include formulation to represent transport of heat, steam and water. Heterogeneities are represented by spatial variations in formation or fracture permeability-thickness product, porosity or fluid saturations. Conceptual models based on dual

  13. Health and safety implications of alternative energy technologies. I. Geothermal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, A. P.; Etnier, E. L.

    1981-07-01

    An evaluation of potential occupational and public health aspects of geopressure, hydrothermal, hot dry rock, silviculture, crop and animal residues, fermentable plant products, municipal waste, and plantation energy technologies has been performed. Future development of these energy options in the United States will contain hazards that could easily be eliminated by safer equipment design and common-sense attention to operation and maintenance. Occupational exposure to hydrogen sulfide gas occurs near all geothermal sites and wherever organic matter decomposes anaerobically. Respiratory damage has occurred to laborers in geothermal fields, while farm workers have been fatally overcome when employed near agitating liquid manure systems. However, the most frequent and severe of reported injuries to geothermal workers is dermal exposure to caustic sludges produced by H2S abatement systems. Principal health and safety considerations of biomass pathways are directly related to the diffuse nature of solar energy fixation by photosynthesis and subsequent transfer to animal food chains. Since the potential fuel is in an unconcentrated form, cultivation, harvest, and transport are necessarily laborintensive. Thus, a significant potential for occupational injuries and fatalities exists. Of all biomass systems evaluated, direct burning of solid fuels presents the greatest public health risk. Data are presented to characterize the population at risk and the frequency and severity of injuries.

  14. NEDO'S project on geothermal reservoir engineering -- a reservoir engineering study of the Kirishima field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Kitamura, H.; Ishido, T.; Miyazaki, S.; Abe, I.; Nobumoto, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to promote the development of geothermal energy resources, it is important to understand and (to the extent possible) to alleviate potential risks associated with each proposed development project. Further, it is essential to estimate the generation capacity of the reservoir prior to full-scale commitment so that the power plant design may be intelligently formulated. Starting in 1984, the New Energy Development Organization (NEDO) in Japan undertook a four-year program to develop technical methods for the evaluation of potential geothermal resources and for the prediction of production capacity and the appropriate level of electrical generation to be anticipated. NEDO’s general approach to theoretical reservoir evaluation is described, as is the schedule and progress along the four-year program toward its four main goals: development of reservoir simulators, drilling of observation wells in two model fields (the Sumikawa field in northern Honshu and the Kirishima field in southern Kyushu), well tests in the model fields, and reservoir simulation with natural-state and production calculation for both fields. The remainder of the paper describes some results obtained from the well testing program in the Kirishima field and ongoing studies of it.

  15. Distribution of geothermal fields on the Juan De Fuca ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, K.; Aikman F. III; Embley, R.; Hammond, S.; Malahoff, A.; Lupton, J.

    1985-01-10

    Near bottom water temperatures were mapped along 400 km of the strike of the Juan de Fuca Ridge as part of a combined Sea MARC/Seabeam experiment to image the variability of morphology and structure along a spreading center segment. The water temperature data collected by a continuously towed thermistor chain, in addition to salinity data, indicate that there are four geothermal areas spaced at distances of 100 km from each other south of the Cobb propagator and one field just to the north of the propagator on the Endeavor Ridge segment. Each thermal region is located above a morphological dome on the spreading center. These domes are an average of 100--200 m shallower than the rest of the axis. The structure of bottom water suggests that the geothermal regions are on average 20 km long and that the heat from these fields raises the temperature in the water column by a minimum of 0.06/sup 0/C up to 300 m above the bottom. Two simple models are used to estimate the heat flux associated with these features.

  16. Durability of various cements in a well of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, Ralph F., Jr.; Kukacka, Larry E.

    1982-10-08

    The durability of each of 16 different cements was evaluated by both room temperature compressive strength and water permeability measurements, following various periods of treatment of the cements in flowing geothermal fluid of the Cerro Prieto field of Mexico. Some of these cements were selected through a Department of Energy program to develop improved cements for geothermal well completion while the others were contributed by several other institutions interested in the tests. Two types of specimens of the cements were used in the tests: (a) 50 mm cubes which were precured 1 da in molds under water in an autoclave at 200 C and 20 MPa and (b) cement slurries which were prepared and cast in sandstone cups at the field. Federal de Electricidad a set of both types of specimens was installed in baskets which were placed 700 m downhole a well at 214 C, and an identical set of specimens was installed in special aboveground vessels near the wellhead. Following periods of 1 da. 3 mo, 6 mo. and 12 mo, specimens were withdrawn from the geothermal treatment and divided evenly between the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the National Bureau of Standards for property measurements. This paper gives the downhole results by the latter laboratory. Final values will be published when the results of both laboratories are collated and reviewed.

  17. Modeling discharge requirements for deep geothermal wells at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, MX

    SciTech Connect

    Menzies, Anthony J.; Granados, Eduardo E.; Puente, Hector Gutierrez; Pierres, Luis Ortega

    1995-01-26

    During the mid-l980's, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) drilled a number of deep wells (M-200 series) at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Baja California, Mexico to investigate the continuation of the geothermal reservoir to the east of the Cerro Prieto-II and III production areas. The wells encountered permeability at depths ranging from 2,800 to 4,400 m but due to the reservoir depth and the relatively cold temperatures encountered in the upper 1,000 to 2,000 m of the wells, it was not possible to discharge some of the wells. The wells at Cerro Prieto are generally discharged by injecting compressed air below the water level using 2-3/8-inch tubing installed with either a crane or workover rig. The objective of this technique is to lift sufficient water out of the well to stimulate flow from the reservoir into the wellbore. However, in the case of the M-200 series wells, the temperatures in the upper 1,000 to 2,000 m are generally below 50 C and the heat loss to the formation is therefore significant. The impact of heat loss on the stimulation process was evaluated using both a numerical model of the reservoir/wellbore system and steady-state wellbore modeling. The results from the study indicate that if a flow rate of at least 300 liters/minute can be sustained, the well can probably be successfully stimulated. This is consistent with the flow rates obtained during the successful stimulations of wells M-202 and M-203. If the flow rate is closer to 60 liters/minute, the heat loss is significant and it is unlikely that the well can be successfully discharged. These results are consistent with the unsuccessful discharge attempts in wells M-201 and M-205.

  18. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  19. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, April 1, 1981-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Activities included the identification and delineation of geothermal prospects, the comparison of conventional energy use patterns with geothermal sources, the preparation of area development plans and the compilation of detailed economic and energy data for each area. Current emphasis is on commercialization. (MHR)

  20. 75 FR 33613 - Notice of the Carbon Sequestration-Geothermal Energy-Science Joint Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...The DOE Geothermal Technologies Program, Office of Science- Geosciences Program and Office of Fossil Energy-Carbon Sequestration Program will be holding a joint workshop on Common Research Themes for Carbon Storage and Geothermal Energy, June 15-16, 2010. Experts from industry, academia, national labs, and State and Federal geological surveys will discuss geosciences research needs for......

  1. Energy Returned On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Annual Report FY2010

    SciTech Connect

    Mansure, A.J.

    2010-12-31

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation. Often comparisons of energy systems inappropriately use 'efficiency' when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electric energy delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility.

  2. Geochemical evidence of drawdown in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Manon, M.A.; Jimenez, S.M.E.; Sanchez, A.A.; Fausto, L.J.J.

    1979-01-01

    Some wells of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field have undergone changes in the chemistry of fluids produced which reflect reservoir processes. Pressure decreases due to production in the southeastern part of the field have produced both drawdown of lower chloride fluids from an overlying aquifer and boiling in the aquifer with excess steam reaching the wells. These reservoir changes are indicated by changes in fluid chloride concentrations, Na/K ratios and measured enthalpies and by comparisons of aquifer fluid temperatures and chloride concentrations calculated from enthalpy and chemical measurements. Fluid temperatures have not been greatly affected by this drawdown because heat contained in the rock was transferred to the fluid. When this heat is exhausted, fluid temperatures may drop rapidly. ?? 1979.

  3. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  4. Report to the Legislature on the California Energy Commission's Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report documents the California Energy Commission's administration of its Geothermal Development Grant Program for Local Governments. The Energy Commission established this program as a result of the passage of Assembly Bill 1905 (Bosco) in 1980. This legislation established the mechanism to distribute the state's share of revenues received from the leasing of federal mineral reserves for geothermal development. The federal government deposits these revenues in the Geothermal Resources Development Account (GRDA) created by AB 1905. The state allocates funds from the GRDA to the California Parklands and Renewable Resources Investment Fund, the counties of origin where the federal leases are located, and the Energy Commission. The legislation further directs the Energy Commission to disburse its share as grants to local governments to assist with the planning and development of geothermal resources. Activities which are eligible for funding under the Energy Commission's grant program include resource development projects, planning and feasibility studies, and activities to mitigate the impacts of existing geothermal development.

  5. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  6. Utilization of geothermal energy in a biomass-ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, J.

    1980-12-01

    A study has been done on the uses of geothermal fluid in the processing of ethanol from wood and fodder beet. From a technical viewpoint, geothermal heat has large scale uses in the preheating, hydrolysis, and distillation stages. It is possible that heat exchangers would not be necessary as direct use of geothermal fluid could be viable. The financial advantages however are not conclusive assuming a geothermal steam and water cost of $2.50/ton.

  7. Modelling of the thermal structure of the Mexican Volcanic Belt for geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, Damien; María Prol-Ledesma, Rosa; Smit, Jeroen; Limberger, Jon; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2017-04-01

    Mexico is a major geothermal energy player in the world with an installed capacity of over 900 MW for electricity production, positioning Mexico at the 6th position. The installed capacity is supported by 4 geothermal location: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, Los Humeros, and Las Tres Virgenes. Two of these sites are in Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) a volcanic arc structure that is the result of the subduction of the Cocos Plate underneath the North American plate. The interesting feature of this onshore volcanic arc is the combination of magmatism with the extentional stress field within the arc with a shear component as a result of the oblique subduction. As a result of this combination, is a very favourable regional setup for the development of geothermal energy. The core of the work is the establishment of a thermal model at present day at the scale of TMVB. The elements considered in the thermal-tectonic model are the composition of the lithosphere, the volcanic evidences, and temperature measurements available. The newly developed b3t software at Utrecht University and TNO will perform the modelling, which allow the identification of thermal variation in the lithosphere at present-day with the data integration. The result of the thermal-tectonic modelling is a thermal model of the TMVB lithosphere that is considered according to the general geological and geodynamical context. The variation of temperature are intricately related to the magmatic centres and the lithological composition of the TMVB.

  8. An Experiment to Test Geophysical Methods For Monitoring Fluid Re-Injection at the Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Bowles-Martinez, E.; Feucht, D. W.; Ryan, J.; Caldwell, T. G.; Bannister, S. C.; Bertrand, T.; Bennie, S.; Bourguignon, S.

    2010-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is supporting US students to participate in GNS Science’s geothermal research program supported by the New Zealand Government. The NSF international program aims to quick-start a new generation of geothermal-oriented US geophysics students who will be poised to be active participants and leaders in US geothermal energy development. This year’s project evaluated joint passive seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) field measurements to determine three-dimensional (3-D) reservoir characteristics during fluid withdrawal and re-injection. A preliminary test of the ability to achieve repeatable MT data in high noise locations was carried out in the Wairakei geothermal field using a 14-site base-line MT survey and repeat occupations at four sites. Different data processing schemes identified MT frequency bands where impedance phase tensor data were most sensitive to known variables such as daily solar source variations, wind, and drilling operations. Other frequency bands were identified where good MT repeatability will allow further tests. A streamlined method was developed for visualizing 3-D earthquake focal mechanisms resulting from production changes in geothermal reservoirs. The computer program allows spatial sorting of seismic events and thus subsurface fracture identification.

  9. Geothermal Program Review XV: proceedings. Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XV in Berkeley, March 24-26, 1997. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focussed on {open_quotes}The Role of Research in the Changing World of Energy Supply.{close_quotes} This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this conference.

  10. A reservoir engineering assessment of the San Jacinto-Tizate Geothermal Field, Nicaragua

    SciTech Connect

    Ostapenko, S.; Spektor, S.; Davila, H.; Porras, E.; Perez, M.

    1996-01-24

    More than twenty yews have passed since geothermal research and drilling took place at the geothermal fields in Nicaragua- Tbe well horn Momotombo Geothermal Field (70 We) has been generating electricity since 1983, and now a new geothermal field is under exploration. the San Jacinto-Tizate. Two reservoirs hydraulic connected were found. The shallow reservoir (270°C) at the depth of 550 - 1200 meters, and the deep one at > 1600 meters. Both of theme are water dominated reservoirs, although a two phase condition exist in the upper part of the shallow one. Different transient tests and a multi-well interference test have been carried out, very high transmissivity value were estimated around the well SJ-4 and average values for the others. A preliminar conceptual model of the geothermal system is given in this paper, as the result of the geology, geophysics, hydrology studies, drilling and reservoir evaluation.

  11. Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plant Field Verification Projects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.

    2001-07-03

    In the spring of 2000, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory issued a Request for Proposal for the construction of small-scale (300 kilowatt [kW] to 1 megawatt [MW]) geothermal power plants in the western United States. Five projects were selected for funding. Of these five, subcontracts have been completed for three, and preliminary design work is being conducted. The three projects currently under contract represent a variety of concepts and locations: a 1-MW evaporatively enhanced, air-cooled binary-cycle plant in Nevada; a 1-MW water-cooled Kalina-cycle plant in New Mexico; and a 750-kW low-temperature flash plant in Utah. All three also incorporate direct heating: onion dehydration, heating for a fish hatchery, and greenhouse heating, respectively. These projects are expected to begin operation between April 2002 and September 2003. In each case, detailed data on performance and costs will be taken over a 3-year period.

  12. An assessment of leadership in geothermal energy technology research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Bruch, V.L.

    1994-03-01

    Geothermal energy is one of the more promising renewable energy technologies because it is environmentally benign and, unlike most renewable energy sources, can provide base power. This report provides an assessment of the research and development (R&D) work underway in geothermal energy in the following countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. While the R&D work underway in the US exceeds the R&D efforts of the other countries, the lead is eroding. This erosion is due to reductions in federal government funding for geothermal energy R&D and the decline of the US petroleum industry. This erosion of R&D leadership is hindering commercialization of US geothermal energy products and services. In comparison, the study countries are promoting the commercialization of their geothermal energy products and services. As a result, some of these countries, in particular Japan, will probably have the largest share of the global market for geothermal energy products and services; these products and services being targeted toward the developing countries (the largest market for geothermal energy).

  13. Potential of utilization of geothermal energy in Arizona. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    Arizona is one of the fastest growing states in the United States. It is in the midst of the movement of the population of the United States from its cold regions to the warm Southwest. Being a hot, arid region, its electrical demand is nearly 50% higher in the peak hot summer months than that of the other seven months. The major uncertainty of utilizing geothermal energy in Arizona is that very little exploration and development have occurred to date. The potential is good, based on (a) the fact that there are over 3000 thermal wells in Arizona out of a total of about 30,000 shallow (less than 1000 ft) irrigation wells. In addition, there is much young volcanic rock in the State of Arizona. The combination of data from thermal wells, young volcanic rock, water geochemistry and other geological tools, indicate that there is a large geothermal resource throughout the southern half of the state. It is believed that most of this resource is in the range of 50/sup 0/C (122/sup 0/F) to 150/sup 0/C (302/sup 0/F), limiting its uses to direct heat utilization rather than for electric power generation.

  14. Geothermal energy: opportunities for California commerce. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    This report provides a preliminary engineering and economic assessment of five direct use projects using low and moderate temperature geothermal resources. Each project site and end-use application was selected because each has a high potential for successful, near-term (2 to 5 years) commercial development. The report also includes an extensive bibliography, and reference and contact lists. The five projects are: Wendel Agricultural Complex, East Mesa Livestock Complex, East Mesa Vegetable Dehydration Facility, Calapatria Heating District and Bridgeport Heating District. The projects involve actual investors, resource owners, and operators with varying financial commitments for project development. For each project, an implementation plan is defined which identifies major barriers to development and methods to overcome them. All projects were determined to be potentially feasible. Three of the projects cascade heat from a small-scale electric generator to direct use applications. Small-scale electric generation technology (especially in the 0.5 to 3 MW range) has recently evolved to such a degree as to warrant serious consideration. These systems provide a year-round heating load and substantially improve the economic feasibility of most direct use energy projects using geothermal resources above 200/sup 0/F.

  15. Microearthquake Studies at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    DOE Data Explorer

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this project is to detect and locate microearthquakes to aid in the characterization of reservoir fracture networks. Accurate identification and mapping of the large numbers of microearthquakes induced in EGS is one technique that provides diagnostic information when determining the location, orientation and length of underground crack systems for use in reservoir development and management applications. Conventional earthquake location techniques often are employed to locate microearthquakes. However, these techniques require labor-intensive picking of individual seismic phase onsets across a network of sensors. For this project we adapt the Matched Field Processing (MFP) technique to the elastic propagation problem in geothermal reservoirs to identify more and smaller events than traditional methods alone.

  16. RAPID CASING CORROSION IN HIGH TEMPERATURE LIQUID DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bixley, P.F.; Wilson, D.M.

    1985-01-22

    Downhole logging and workover operations on 12-20 year old wells in several high temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal fields in New Zealand has shown that severe corrosion has commonly occurred in the production casing string where this is unprotected by larger diameter casings. To date corrosion products from only one well have been examined in detail. These indicate that corrosion attack commences at the outer casing wall and continues at a rate as great as 0.8mm/year. Rapid corrosion has been attributed to neutral or slightly acid high bicarbonate waters formed by the absorption of steam and gas into shallow aquifers not directly connected to the deeper, high chloride reservoir.

  17. Geophysical surveys in Parvati valley geothermal field, Kullu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakesh Kumar, S. B.; Singh, Mohan; Gupta, L.; Rao, G. V.

    1982-08-01

    Direct current resistivity surveys and shallow temperature measurements were carried out for geothermal exploration in a part of Parvati valley, goethermal field, Himachal Pradesh, India. At a few places, the Schlumberger soundings pointed to the presence of a relatively low-resistivity shallow layer, which probably represents fractured and jointed quartzite, saturated with hot/cold water. Wenner resistivity profiles indicate the presence of some possible shallow subsurface lateral hot water channels across the valley at Manikaran. Shallow temperature measurements show a good subsurface thermal anomaly near the confluence of the rivers Brahmaganga and Parvati. The results of the survey, together with other available geodata, suggest that an anomalous heat source does not lie beneath the study area. It is postulated that the meteoric water, originating at high elevations after heating as a result of circulation at depth, emerges at the surface in the Parvati valley as hot springs, after mixing in various proportions with near surface cold waters.

  18. Numerical simulation of the Mori geothermal field, JP

    SciTech Connect

    Yukihiro Sakagawa; Masahiro Takahashi; Mineyuki Hanano; Tsuneo Ishido; Nobuhiro Demboya

    1994-01-20

    A numerical study of the Mori geothermal field which consisted of a series of three-dimensional natural state modeling and history matching was carried out with porous models. Finally satisfactory fits both on temperature and pressure of the natural state and on pressure history caused by exploitation were obtained. The results indicate that the deep hot water ascends mainly through the fractures near the caldera wall and the fractures confined to some lithofaces, and some of the ascending hot water flows to the west from the caldera. A sketch of the geological structure, the way of making up the initial numerical model, the way of concluding free parameters, and results of calculations of natural state modeling and history matching for the best numerical model are presented.

  19. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  20. Geothermal handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  1. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Cuprak

    2011-08-31

    West Chester University is launching a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution is in the process of designing and implementing this project to build well fields, a pumping station and install connecting piping to provide the geothermal heat/cooling source for campus buildings. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply. For this grant, WCU will extend piping for its geo-exchange system. The work involves excavation of a trench approximately 8 feet wide and 10-12 feet deep located about 30 feet north of the curb along the north side of West Rosedale for a distance of approximately 1,300 feet. The trench will then turn north for the remaining distance (60 feet) to connect into the mechanical room in the basement of the Francis Harvey Green Library. This project will include crossing South Church Street near its intersection with West Rosedale, which will involve coordination with the Borough of West Chester. After installation of the piping, the trench will be backfilled and the surface restored to grass as it is now. Because the trench will run along a heavily-used portion of the campus, it will be accomplished in sections to minimize disruption to the campus as much as possible.

  2. Absence of Remote Triggering in Geothermal Fields Due to Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Zhang, Q.; Lin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Operational geothermal fields typically have high seismicity rates, which could be caused by both tectonic and anthropogenic activities. Due to the high background seismicity and possible interaction between fluid and seismic waves, geothermal areas have been recognized to be susceptible to large remote earthquakes. However, whether human activity (geothermal production) affects remote earthquake triggering by changing the stress state is unclear. Here we choose two geothermal fields, Coso and Salton Sea in southern California, to study the spatiotemporal distributions of the triggered earthquakes following the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. These two geothermal fields have been in operation since 1980s with comparable net capacity, and have long-term geothermal fluid loss. By analyzing the regional catalog recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network, we find that these two operational geothermal areas remain unaffected by the remote mainshocks, whereas the surrounding areas show vigorous triggered responses. We interpret this phenomenon as a result of human activity, which presumably has brought the stress state away from failure by reducing pore pressure. To further understand how much the human activity can affect the stress state, we also conduct a systematic study on Long Valley Caldera in northern California as a comparison site. Long Valley Caldera hosts an active geothermal field with net capacity about one sixth of that in Coso or Salton Sea geothermal field, and the extraction volume is not constantly larger than the injection. We will show comparisons of the triggered response in Long Valley with the two geothermal fields in southern California.

  3. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  4. Opportunities for support of geothermal energy activities from Petroleum Violation Escrow funds

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a reference for the geothermal community regarding the extent to which Petroleum Violation Escrow (PVE) funds might be employed by states to fund research, development, demonstration and applications pertaining to geothermal energy resources. The document highlights the background and status of the PVE funds being disbursed through state energy agencies and summarizes the types of energy-related activities being conducted with these funds and the process used to select and approve these activities. These funds provides a mechanism for expanding the contribution of geothermal technologies to domestic energy conservation and security.

  5. Geothermal Energy R&D Program Annual Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    Geothermal budget actual amounts are shown for FY 1989 -1992, broken down by about 15 categories. Here, the main Program categories are: Exploration Technology, Drilling Technology, Reservoir Technology, Conversion Technology (power plants and materials), Industry-Coupled Drilling, Drilling Applications, Reservoir Engineering Applications, Direct Heat, Geopressured Wells Operation, and Hot Dry Rock Research. Here the title--Industry-Coupled Drilling--covered case studies of the Coso, CA, and Dixie Valley, NV, fields, and the Long Valley Exploratory Well (which had started as a magma energy exploration project, but reported here as a hydrothermal prospect evaluation well). (DJE 2005)

  6. Analysis of the Fractures pattern at the Chingshui geothermal field, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C.; Lo, W.; Song, S.

    2010-12-01

    Magma chambers in the shallow crust and shallow intrusive igneous rock result in a high heat flow and geothermal gradient. Hot springs, one of geothermal potential phenomena, is widely distributed in Taiwan, especially in the Slate Belt and Tananao Complex of Central Range. The Slate Belt is mainly composed of meta-sandstone, argillite and slate, which have high porosity for geothermal source reservoirs. While the Tananao Complex is composed of phyllite, schist, gneiss, limestone and amphibolites, which have low porosity, but heat flow can conduct along cleavages, Joints, and other fractures. The purpose of this study is to delineate the fracture pattern and geothermal structure by field geologic survey and joints analysis. The rocks cropping out in the mapped area belong mainly to the Lushan Formation of Miocene age, which can be divided into two members: Chingshuihu member and Jentse member in ascending order. The Chingshuihu member is composed of slate or phyllite with thin beds of metasandstone. The Jentse member is composed of alternation of argillite and metasandstone. The geothermal reservoir of the Chingshui geothermal field might be related to the fault damage zone of the Chingshuihsi fault and Xiaonanao fault. Linking damage zones were caused by the interaction and linkage of fault segments in the geothermal field and developed a wide range of fracture patterns that depend on the nature of the interaction between the two fault segments. The fault damage zone and high porosity of sandstone resulted in well geothermal reservoir. The information obtained from the field geologic survey and Joint analysis indicate that the joint systems could be divided into four sets in terms of the strike and dip. Further, the geothermal reservoir is confined to a zone that extends 800m in width along N30E, 1km in length, and has an 80 dip toward SE. The main geothermal field is found in the NW of the reservoir; this area is located between the Chingshuihsi fault and

  7. 3D Extended Logging for Geothermal Resources: Field Trials with the Geo-Bilt System

    SciTech Connect

    Mallan, R; Wilt, M; Kirkendall, B; Kasameyer, P

    2002-05-29

    Geo-BILT (Geothermal Borehole Induction Logging Tool) is an extended induction logging tool designed for 3D resistivity imaging around a single borehole. The tool was developed for deployment in high temperature geothermal wells under a joint program funded by the California Energy Commission, Electromagnetic Instruments (EMI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. EM1 was responsible for tool design and manufacture, and numerical modeling efforts were being addressed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) and other contractors. The field deployment was done by EM1 and LLNL. The tool operates at frequencies from 2 to 42 kHz, and its design features a series of three-component magnetic sensors offset at 2 and 5 meters from a three-component magnetic source. The combined package makes it possible to do 3D resistivity imaging, deep into the formation, from a single well. The manufacture and testing of the tool was completed in spring of 2001, and the initial deployment of Geo-BILT occurred in May 2001 at the Lost Hills oil field in southern California at leases operated by Chevron USA. This site was chosen for the initial field test because of the favorable geological conditions and the availability of a number of wells suitable for tool deployment. The second deployment occurred in April 2002 at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, operated by Caithness Power LLC, in central Nevada. This constituted the first test in a high temperature environment. The Chevron site features a fiberglass-cased observation well in the vicinity of a water injector. The injected water, which is used for pressure maintenance and for secondary sweep of the heavy oil formation, has a much lower resistivity than the oil bearing formation. This, in addition to the non-uniform flow of this water, creates a 3D resistivity structure, which is analogous to conditions produced from flowing fractures adjacent to geothermal boreholes. Therefore, it is an excellent site for testing the 3D capability of

  8. Geothermal field case studies that document the usefulness of models in predicting reservoir and well behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1989-03-01

    The geothermal industry has shown significant interest in case histories that document field production histories and demonstrate the techniques which work best in the characterization and evaluation of geothermal systems. In response to this interest, LBL has devoted a significant art of its geothermal program to the compilation and analysis of data from US and foreign fields (e.g., East Mesa, The Geysers, Susanville, and Long Valley in California; Klamath Falls in Oregon; Valles Caldera, New Mexico; Cerro Prieto and Los Azufres in Mexico; Krafla and Nesjavellir in Iceland; Larderello in Italy; Olkaria in Kenya). In each of these case studies we have been able to test and validate in the field, or against field data, the methodology and instrumentation developed under the Reservoir Technology Task of the DOE Geothermal Program, and to add to the understanding of the characteristics and processes occurring in geothermal reservoirs. Case study results of the producing Cerro Prieto and Olkaria geothermal fields are discussed in this paper. These examples were chosen because they illustrate the value of conceptual and numerical models to predict changes in reservoir conditions, reservoir processes, and well performance that accompany field exploitation, as well as to reduce the costs associated with the development and exploitation of geothermal resources. 14 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Geothermal Field Case Studies that Document the Usefulness of Models in Predicting Reservoir and Well Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.

    1989-03-21

    The geothermal industry has shown significant interest in case histories that document field production histories and demonstrate the techniques which work best in the characterization and evaluation of geothermal systems. In response to this interest, LBL has devoted a significant part of its geothermal program to the compilation and analysis of data from US and foreign fields (e.g., East Mesa, The Geysers, Susanville, and Long Valley in California; Klamath Fall in Oregon; Valles Caldera, New Mexico; Cerro Prieto and Los Azufres in Mexico; Krafla and Nesjavellir in Iceland; Larderello in Italy; Olkaria in Kenya). In each of these case studies we have been able to test and validate in the field, or against field data, the methodology and instrumentation developed under the Reservoir Technology Task of the DOE Geothermal Program, and to add to the understanding of the characteristics and processes occurring in geothermal reservoirs. Case study results of the producing Cerro Prieto and Olkaria geothermal fields are discussed in this paper. These examples were chosen because they illustrate the value of conceptual and numerical models to predict changes in reservoir conditions, reservoir processes, and well performance that accompany field exploitation, as well as to reduce the costs associated with the development and exploitation of geothermal resources.

  10. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  11. A comparison of long-term changes in seismicity at The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trugman, Daniel T.; Shearer, Peter M.; Borsa, Adrian A.; Fialko, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Geothermal energy is an important source of renewable energy, yet its production is known to induce seismicity. Here we analyze seismicity at the three largest geothermal fields in California: The Geysers, Salton Sea, and Coso. We focus on resolving the temporal evolution of seismicity rates, which provides important observational constraints on how geothermal fields respond to natural and anthropogenic loading. We develop an iterative, regularized inversion procedure to partition the observed seismicity rate into two components: (1) the interaction rate due to earthquake-earthquake triggering and (2) the smoothly varying background rate controlled by other time-dependent stresses, including anthropogenic forcing. We apply our methodology to compare long-term changes in seismicity to monthly records of fluid injection and withdrawal. At The Geysers, we find that the background seismicity rate is highly correlated with fluid injection, with the mean rate increasing by approximately 50% and exhibiting strong seasonal fluctuations following construction of the Santa Rosa pipeline in 2003. In contrast, at both Salton Sea and Coso, the background seismicity rate has remained relatively stable since 1990, though both experience short-term rate fluctuations that are not obviously modulated by geothermal plant operation. We also observe significant temporal variations in Gutenberg-Richter b value, earthquake magnitude distribution, and earthquake depth distribution, providing further evidence for the dynamic evolution of stresses within these fields. The differing field-wide responses to fluid injection and withdrawal may reflect differences in in situ reservoir conditions and local tectonics, suggesting that a complex interplay of natural and anthropogenic stressing controls seismicity within California's geothermal fields.

  12. Transported Geothermal Energy Technoeconomic Screening Tool - Calculation Engine

    DOE Data Explorer

    Liu, Xiaobing

    2016-09-21

    This calculation engine estimates technoeconomic feasibility for transported geothermal energy projects. The TGE screening tool (geotool.exe) takes input from input file (input.txt), and list results into output file (output.txt). Both the input and ouput files are in the same folder as the geotool.exe. To use the tool, the input file containing adequate information of the case should be prepared in the format explained below, and the input file should be put into the same folder as geotool.exe. Then the geotool.exe can be executed, which will generate a output.txt file in the same folder containing all key calculation results. The format and content of the output file is explained below as well.

  13. Design of a small fruit drier using geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1996-02-01

    A fruit drier was originally proposed for a project at the Los Azufres geothermal field in Mexico. Since the drier was to be used in a demonstration project to interest local fruit growers and processors, the size was minimal to expedite construction and minimize cost. The design was based on preliminary work reported by Herman Guillen. The design is described here, as it can be adapted to many small or experimental situations. The actual design will handle about 900 kg (2000 lbs) of fruit (wet) per drying cycle. Cutting, storing and packaging of the fruit should be done on site in a separate building. A cold-storage facility may be designed to keep fresh fruit when harvest exceeds the capacity of the drier.

  14. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  15. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  16. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical modeling of heat extraction from the Tattapani geothermal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nand Pandey, Sachchida; Vishal, Vikram

    2017-04-01

    Modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in enhanced geothermal systems is presented using the finite element method of modeling for a 3-D domain. The reservoir consists of a single horizontal fracture surrounded by low permeable rock matrix. The flow is imposed on a fracture plane, consisting of a doublet system. The reservoir rock mechanical properties were taken from the field data of the Tattapani geothermal field, India. We investigate the effects of injection temperature and mass flow rate on the energy output. The results indicate that temperature and pressure changes within the reservoirs occur due to injection of cold water. The temperature drop and fluid overpressure inside the reservoirs/fracture affect the transport properties of the fracture. The spatial-temporal variations of fracture aperture inside the reservoir greatly impact the thermal drawdown and therefore net energy output. The results showed that maximum aperture evolution occurs near the injection zone than the production zone. The fracture aperture evolution is a result of combined effects of thermal stress and fluid overpressure inside the fracture. The fracture opening reduces the injection pressure required to circulate the fixed volume of water. The effects of the injection temperature on heat extraction were also analyzed under different reservoir formations. The results indicate that reservoir permeability plays a significant role on heat extraction, highlighting the important effect of water losses. For each factor, it is concluded that thermal breakthrough primarily depends on injection temperate, mass flow rate, reservoir permeability and well distances. The results of this study can help in choosing the operational parameters for successful operation of geothermal system. The study will also be helpful to optimize the EGS performance under varying reservoir conditions.

  18. Microearthquakes in the ahuachapan geothermal field, el salvador, central america.

    PubMed

    Ward, P L; Jacob, K H

    1971-07-23

    Microearthquakes occur on a steeply dipping plane interpreted here as the fault that allows hot water to circulate to the surface in the geothermal region. These small earthquakes are common in many geothermal areas and may occur because of the physical or chemical effects of fluids and fluid pressure.

  19. Gas chemistry and thermometry of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Nehring, N.L.; D'Amore, F.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal gases at Cerro Prieto are derived from high temperature reactions within the reservoir or are introduced with recharge water. Gases collected from geothermal wells should, therefore, reflect reservoir conditions. Interpretation of gas compositions of wells indicates reservoir temperatures, controls of oxygen and sulfur fugacities, and recharge source and direction.

  20. Seismostatistical characterization of microseismicity observed at geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, T.; Asanuma, H.; Adachi, M.; Saeki, K.; Aoyama, K.; Ozeki, H.; Häring, M. O.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, occurrence of felt earthquakes has been recognized as one of the most critical environmental burdens associated with geothermal development. We have taken seismostatistical approach to evaluate characteristics of the microseismicity at geothermal fields to establish realtime and automated monitoring techniques of the reservoir changes and risk assessment of the felt earthquakes. In this study, we have introduced the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, JASA, 1988) to statistically model the time series of occurrences and the magnitude of microseismic events from hydrothermal and EGS fields. Here maximum likelihood estimation has been employed to estimate optimum parameters of the ETAS model. We analyzed microseismic events observed at Yanaizu Nishiyama, one of the largest hydrothermal fields in Japan. In this field, four felt earthquakes with local magnitude larger than 3.0 occurred during production operation since 1996, although no clear correlation between the occurrence of the felt earthquakes and operation to the reservoir has been observed (Asanuma et al., Trans. GRC, 2011). We found that the occurrence rate of primary fluid signals, which are the events triggered by external forcing and have been interpreted to be independent from a series of aftershocks (Hainzl and Ogata, JGR, 2005), correlated to the reinjection rate (Fig. 1). However, no significant change in the other parameters in the ETAS model has been observed. We also analyzed microseismic events observed at Basel EGS site in Switzerland, where some felt earthquakes occurred during and after hydraulic stimulation. The estimated ETAS model demonstrated that there is a correlation between the occurrence rate of primary fluid signals and injection rate. We, however, found that there is limitation to fit the ETAS model to the induced seismic events and new seismostatistical model is required for microseismic reservoir monitoring.ig. 1 A relation among production

  1. Geothermal energy environmental problems and control methods: review of recent findings

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, V.T.; Caskey, J.F.; Pfundstein, R.T.; Rifkin, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The findings of a literature review on the environmental concerns and associated control methods of geothermal energy utilization are presented. The document introduces the environmental problems associated with geothermal energy utilization; assesses the current status of control methods; references appropriate environmental documents; and identifies areas where additional environmental research is needed. The review attempts to consolidate current understanding of the environmental impact of geothermal energy development. Approximately 180 reports written by authors in industry, government and academia have been reviewed in the areas of air emissions, surface and subsurface liquid discharges, solid wastes, noise, subsidence, and induced seismicity.

  2. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  3. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  4. Reservoir analysis of the Palinpinon geothermal field, Negros Oriental, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Amistoso, A.E.; Aquino, B.G.; Aunzo, Z.P.; Jordan, O.T.; Ana, F.X.M.S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Doughty, C.

    1993-10-01

    The Philippine National Oil Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have conducted an informal cooperative project on the reservoir evaluation of the Palinpinon geothermal field in the Philippines. The work involved the development of various numerical models of the field in order to understand the observed data. A three-dimensional porous medium model of the reservoir has been developed that matches well the observed pressure declines and enthalpy transients of the wells. Submodels representing the reservoir as a fractured porous medium were developed for the analysis of chemical transport of chlorides within the reservoir and the movement of the cold water front away from injection wells. These models indicate that the effective porosity of the reservoir varies between 1 and 7% and the effective permeability between 1 and 45 millidarcies. The numerical models were used to predict the future performance of the Palinpinon reservoir using various possible exploitation scenarios. A limited number of make-up wells were allocated to each sector of the field. When all the make-up wells had been put on line, power production gradually began to decline. The model indicates that under the assumed conditions it will not be possible to maintain the planned power production of 112.5 MWe at Palinpinon I and 80 MWe at Palinpinon II for the next 30 years, but the decline in power output will be within acceptable normal operating capacities of the plants.

  5. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  6. The Potential of Geothermal as a Major Supplier of U.S. Primary Energy using EGS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tester, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Recent national focus on the value of increasing our supply of indigenous, renewable energy underscores the need for re-evaluating all alternatives, particularly those that are large and well-distributed nationally. To transition from our current hydrocarbon-based energy system, we will need to expand and diversify the portfolio of options we currently have. One such option that has been undervalued and often ignored completely in national assessments is geothermal energy from both conventional hydrothermal resources and enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Although geothermal energy is currently used for both electric and non-electric applications worldwide from conventional hydrothermal resources and in groundsource heat pumps, most of the emphasis in the US has been generating electricity. For example, a 2006 MIT-led study focused on the potential for EGS to provide 100,000 MWe of base-load electric generating capacity in the US by 2050. Since that time, a Cornell-led study has evaluated the potential for geothermal to meet the more than 25 EJ per year demand in the US for low temperature thermal energy for heating and other direct process applications Field testing of EGS in the US, Europe, and Australia is reviewed to outline what remains to be done for large-scale deployment. Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) needs in five areas important to geothermal deployment on a national scale will be reviewed: 1. Resource - estimating the magnitude and distribution of the US resource 2. Reservoir Technology - establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation 3. Utilization - exploring end use options for district heating, electricity generation and co-generation. 4. Environmental impacts and tradeoffs -- dealing with water and land use and seismic risk and quantifying the reduction in carbon emissions with increased deployment 5. Economics - projecting costs

  7. A New Concept for Geothermal Energy Extraction: The Radiator - Enhanced Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilpert, M.; Geiser, P.; Marsh, B. D.; Malin, P. E.; Moore, S.

    2014-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) in hot dry rock frequently underperform or fail due to insufficient reservoir characterization and poorly controlled permeability stimulation. Our new EGS design is based on the concept of a cooling radiator of an internal combustion engine, which we call the Radiator EGS (RAD-EGS). Within a hot sedimentary aquifer, we propose to construct vertically extensive heat exchanger vanes, which consist of rubblized zones of high permeability and which emulate a hydrothermal system. A "crows-foot" lateral drilling pattern at multiple levels is used to form a vertical array that includes S1 and Shmax. To create the radiator, we propose to use propellant fracing. System cool-down is delayed by regional background flow and induced upward flow of the coolant which initially heats the rock. Tomographic Fracture Imaging is used to image and control the permeability field changes. Preliminary heat transfer calculations suggest that the RAD-EGS will allow for commercial electricity production for at least several tens of years.

  8. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    The following subjects are covered: Oregons' geothermal potential, exploration methods and costs, drilling, utilization methods, economic factors of direct use projects, and legal and institutional setting. (MHR)

  9. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  10. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  11. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  12. 3D Magnetotelluic characterization of the Coso GeothermalField

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Gregory A.; Hoversten, G. Michael; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Gasperikova, Erika

    2007-04-23

    Electrical resistivity may contribute to progress inunderstanding geothermal systems by imaging the geometry, bounds andcontrolling structures in existing production, and thereby perhapssuggesting new areas for field expansion. To these ends, a dense grid ofmagnetotelluric (MT) stations plus a single line of contiguous bipolearray profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Cosogeothermal system. Acquiring good quality MT data in producing geothermalsystems is a challenge due to production related electromagnetic (EM)noise and, in the case of Coso, due to proximity of a regional DCintertie power transmission line. To achieve good results, a remotereference completely outside the influence of the dominant source of EMnoise must be established. Experimental results so far indicate thatemplacing a reference site in Amargosa Valley, NV, 65 miles from the DCintertie, isstill insufficient for noise cancellation much of the time.Even though the DC line EM fields are planar at this distance, theyremain coherent with the nonplanar fields in the Coso area hence remotereferencing produces incorrect responses. We have successfully unwrappedand applied MT times series from the permanent observatory at Parkfield,CA, and these appear adequate to suppress the interference of thecultural EM noise. The efficacy of this observatory is confirmed bycomparison to stations taken using an ultra-distant reference site eastof Socorro, NM. Operation of the latter reference was successful by usingfast ftp internet communication between Coso Junction and the New MexicoInstitute of Mining and Technology, using the University of Utah site asintermediary, and allowed referencing within a few hours of datadownloading at Coso. A grid of 102 MT stations was acquired over the Cosogeothermal area in 2003 and an additional 23 stations were acquired toaugment coverage in the southern flank of the first survey area in 2005.These data have been inverted to a fully three

  13. Tentative estimate of bulk permeability of basement rocks from heat discharges in a geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekioka, Mitsuru

    1988-09-01

    A simple, columnar model is applied to fissured basement rocks including a geothermal reservoir at depth in a geothermal system to derive a formula determining the bulk permeability of the rocks (the extended permeability averaged for the whole fissured basement rocks), under some assumptions and approximations. The bulk permeability is found to depend mainly upon the conductive and convective heat discharges and the thermal conductivity of the rock in steaming grounds. Tentative estimate of the bulk permeability is carried out for the eight geothermal fields in Japan where the above three variables are available. Finally, the field data are presented to support a part of the estimated bulk permeability.

  14. Response of shallow geothermal energy pile from laboratory model tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marto, A.; Amaludin, A.

    2015-09-01

    In shallow geothermal energy pile systems, the thermal loads from the pile, transferred and stored in the soil will cause thermally induced settlement. This factor must be considered in the geotechnical design process to avoid unexpected hazards. Series of laboratory model tests were carried out to study the behaviour of energy piles installed in kaolin soil, subjected to thermal loads and a combination of axial and thermal loads (henceforth known as thermo-axial loads). Six tests which included two thermal load tests (35°C and 40°C) and four thermo-axial load tests (100 N and 200 N, combined with 35°C and 40°C thermal loads) were conducted. To simulate the behaviour of geothermal energy piles during its operation, the thermo-axial tests were carried out by applying an axial load to the model pile head, and a subsequent application of thermal load. The model soil was compacted at 90% maximum dry density and had an undrained shear strength of 37 kPa, thus classified as having a firm soil consistency. The behaviour of model pile, having the ultimate load capacity of 460 N, was monitored using a linear variable displacement transducer, load cell and wire thermocouple, to measure the pile head settlement, applied axial load and model pile temperature. The acquired data from this study was used to define the thermo-axial response characteristics of the energy pile model. In this study, the limiting settlement was defined as 10% of the model pile diameter. For thermal load tests, higher thermal loads induced higher values of thermal settlement. At 40°C thermal load an irreversible settlement was observed after the heating and cooling cycle was applied to the model pile. Meanwhile, the pile response to thermo-axial loads were attributed to soil consistency and the magnitude of both the axial and thermal loads applied to the pile. The higher the thermoaxial loads, the higher the settlements occurred. A slight hazard on the model pile was detected, since the settlement

  15. Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy--- A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century

    SciTech Connect

    Tester, J.W.; Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States and in several other countries. On a national scale, we can begin to develop this new energy source, using it directly for geothermal power or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fueled systems, in diverse applications such as: baseload power generation, direct heat use, feedwater heating in conventional power plants, and pumped storage/load leveling power generation. This report describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept in several applications. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Discovery and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field: a case history. Bulletin 97

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, W.R.; Hiner, J.E.; Forest, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    A case history of the exploration, development (through 1980), and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field is presented. Sections on geochemistry, geophysics, and temperature-gradient drilling are included.

  17. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, G.M.; Duffield, R.B.; Smith, M.C.; Wilson, M.G.

    1980-08-01

    The Fenton Hill Project is still the principal center for developing methods, equipment, and instrumentation for creating and utilizing HDR geothermal reservoirs. The search for a second site for a similar experimental system in a different geological environment has been intensified, as have the identification and characterization of other HDR areas that may prove suitable for either experimental or commercial development. The Phase I fracture system was enlarged during FY79. Drilling of the injection well of the Phase II system began at Fenton Hill in April 1979. Environmental monitoring of the Fenton Hill area continued through FY79. The environmental studies indicate that the hot dry rock operations have caused no significant environmental impact. Other supporting activities included rock physics, rock mechanics, fracture mapping, and instrumentation development. Two closely related activities - evaluation of the potential HDR energy resource of the US and the selection of a site for development of a second experimental heat-extraction system generally similar to that at Fenton Hill - have resulted in the collection of geology, hydrology, and heat-flow data on some level of field activity in 30 states. The resource-evaluation activity included reconnaissance field studies and a listing and preliminary characterization of US geothermal areas in which HDR energy extraction methods may be applicable. The selection of Site 2 has taken into account such legal, institutional, and economic factors as land ownership and use, proximity to possible users, permitting and licensing requirements and procedures, environmental issues, areal extent of the geothermal area, and visibility to and apparent interest by potential industrial developers.

  18. Generating capacity of the Heber geothermal field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1983-12-01

    Using numerical simulation techniques and the radial model developed for the study of the natural state of the Heber field (Lippmann and Bodvarsson, 1983b), the response of this geothermal system to exploitation is analyzed. In this study the generation rate in the field is allowed to build up over a period of 10 years; after that, 30 years of constant power production is assumed. Full (100%) injection of the spent brines is considered, the fluids being injected 2250 m (near injection) or 4250 m (far injection) from the center of the system. The study shows that a maximum of 6000 kg/s (equivalent to approximately 300 MW/sub e/) of fluids may be produced for the near injection case, but only 3000 kg/s (equivalent to approximately 150 MW/sub e/) for the far injection case. The results indicate that the possible extraction rates (generating capacity) generally are limited by the pressure drop in the reservoir. The average temperature of the produced fluids will decline 10 to 18/sup 0/C over the 40-year period.

  19. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Seismotectonics of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollar, C. J.; Reyes, L. M.; Quintanar, L.; Arellano, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    We studied the background seismic activity in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (CPGF) using a network of 21 digital stations. Earthquakes are located below the exploitation area of the CPGF, between 3 and 12 km depth, within the basement. Earthquakes follow roughly a N30°E trend perpendicular to the Cerro Prieto fault. This activity is located on a horst-like structure below the geothermal field and coincides with the zone of maximum subsidence in the CPGF. Two earthquake swarms occurred along the SE-NW strike of the Cerro Prieto fault and in the neighborhood of the Cerro Prieto volcano. Magnitudes range from -0.3 to 2.5. A Vp/Vs=1.91 ratio of the activity below the volcano suggests a water-saturated medium and/or a partial-melt medium. We calculated 76 focal mechanisms of individual events. On June 1 and September 10, 1999, two earthquakes of Mw 5.2 and 5.3 occurred in the basement at depths of 7.4 and 3.8 km below the CPGF. Maximum peak accelerations above the hypocenter ranged from 128.0 to 432.0 cm/s2. Waveform modeling results in a fault geometries given by strike=236°, dip=60°, rake=-58° (normal) and strike=10°, dip=90°, rake=159° (right lateral strike-slip) for the June and September events. Observed triangular source time function of 0.7 seconds and a double source with a total duration of 1.9 seconds for the June and September events were used to calculate the synthetics seismograms. Static stress drops and seismic moments for the June and September events are: Δ\\sigma=82.5 MPa (825 bars), Mo= 7.65x1016 Nm (7.65x1023 dyne-cm) and Δ\\sigma=31.3 MPa (313 bars) and Mo=1.27x1017 Nm (1.27x1024 dyne-cm). These stress drops are typical of continental events rather than stress drops of events originated in spreading centers. We concluded from the focal mechanisms of the background seismicity and June and September 1999 events, that a complex stress environment exits in the CPGF due to the continual thinning of the crust in the Cerro Prieto basin.

  1. Federal Assistance Program Quarterly Project Progress Report. Geothermal Energy Program: Information Dissemination, Public Outreach, and Technical Analysis Activities. Reporting Period: January 1 - March 31, 2001 [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.

    2002-03-22

    The final report of the accomplishments of the geothermal energy program: information dissemination, public outreach and technical analysis activities by the project team consisting of the Geo-Heat Center, Geothermal Resources Council, Geothermal Education Office, Geothermal Energy Association and the Washington State University Energy Program.

  2. Shallow Geothermal Admissibility Maps: a Methodology to Achieve a Sustainable Development of Shallow Geothermal Energy with Regards to Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréthaut, D.; Parriaux, A.; Tacher, L.

    2009-04-01

    Implantation and use of shallow geothermal systems may have environmental impacts. Traditionally, risks are divided into 2 categories: direct and indirect. Direct risks are linked with the leakage of the circulating fluid (usually water with anti-freeze) of ground source heat pumps into the underground which may be a source of contamination. Indirect risks are linked with the borehole itself and the operation of the systems which can modify the groundwater flow, change groundwater temperature and chemistry, create bypasses from the surfaces to the aquifers or between two aquifers. Groundwater source heat pumps (GWSHP) may provoke indirect risks, while ground source heat pumps (GSHP) may provoke both direct and indirect risks. To minimize those environmental risks, the implantation of shallow geothermal systems must be regulated. In 2007, more than 7000 GSHP have been installed in Switzerland, which represents 1.5 Mio drilled meters. In the canton of Vaud, each shallow geothermal project has to be approved by the Department of the Environment. Approximately 1500 demands have been treated during 2007, about 15 times more than in 1990. Mapping shallow geothermal systems implantation restrictions due to environmental constrains permits: 1) to optimize the management and planning of the systems, 2) to minimize their impact on groundwater resources and 3) to facilitate administrative procedures for treating implantation demands. Such maps are called admissibility maps. Here, a methodology to elaborate them is presented and tested. Interactions between shallow geothermal energy and groundwater resources have been investigated. Admissibility criteria are proposed and structured into a flow chart which provides a decision making tool for shallow geothermal systems implantation. This approach has been applied to three areas of West Switzerland ranging from 2 to 6 km2. For each area, a geological investigation has been realized and complementary territorial information (e

  3. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  4. The xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock``) energy resource of the United States: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Nunz, G.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents revised estimates, based upon the most current geothermal gradient data, of the xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock`` or HDR) energy resources of the United States. State-by-state tabular listings are provided of the HDR energy resource base, the accessible resource base, and the potentially useful resource base. The latter further subdivided into components with potential for electricity generation, process heat, and space heat. Comparisons are made with present estimates of fossil fuel reserves. A full-sized geothermal gradient contour map is provided as a supplement in a pocket inside the back cover of the report.

  5. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1981-03-31

    The tasks, objectives and completed work are discussed for the legislative and institutional program, cities program, geothermal applications utilization technology, and outreach. The work on the Maryvale Terrace development and the New Mexico Energy Institute are described. (MHR)

  6. Development of the Geothermal Heat Pump Market in China; Renewable Energy in China

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-03-01

    This case study is one in a series of Success Stories on developing renewable energy technologies in China for a business audience. It focuses on the development of the geothermal heat pump market in China.

  7. Remote triggering and numerical simulations of passing seismic waves at the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik

    2017-04-01

    Seismic waves generated by large magnitude earthquakes can affect geological systems located thousands of kilometers far from the epicenter. The Larderello-Travale geothermal field is one of the most studied high-enthalpy geothermal systems worldwide shown to be sensitive to incoming seismic energy. In this study we detected local seismic activity at the Larderello-Travale field, coinciding with the passage of Rayleigh waves released by the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The earthquakes of local magnitudes 1.6 and 1.7 occurred at 6 km and 8 km depth, respectively. We suggest that these earthquakes were dynamically triggered by transient Rayleigh waves which induced a maximum vertical displacement of approximately 7.5 mm at the hydrothermal field (for waves with period of 200 s). We estimate a dynamic stress of about 8 kPa for a measured peak ground velocity of 0.8 mm/s and propose that this additional stress in a clock-advance process triggered the local earthquakes which may have eventually occurred naturally at a later time. Previous studies also report increased seismic activity at the Larderello-Travale geothermal field after regional earthquakes. We conducted numerical simulations of P-, S-, Love and Rayleigh waves propagating through a detailed model of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field based on the known velocity structure. This enables us to identify potential regions where seismic energy may accumulate due to local structure. Results indicate that maximum displacements focus differently when considering body or surface waves. We identify a region located at 3-5 km depth (k-horizon) that may correspond to the brittle-ductile boundary where almost no seismic energy is focused.

  8. Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

  9. An exploitation model and performance predictions for the Ahuachapan Geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, L. ); Cuellar, G.; Escobar, C. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador which has been producing electrical power since 1975. The power plant currently generates at approximately 50 per cent of its total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub c} because of a substantial reservoir pressure drawdown and limited drilling of make-up wells. The focus of this study is to develop means for increasing the power production over the next 30 years. One possible option is to devise an injection scheme to decrease the pressure decline and increase the energy recovery from the reservoir. Another possibility is to drill step-out wells to increase the size of the wellfield. A three-dimensional numerical model of the field has been developed to determine the effects of injection and expanded fluid production. The model was used to predict the responses of the existing and proposed production wells for different levels of electrical power generation. The overall reservoir response to different exploitation and injection scenarios was also investigated. The model predicts that the geothermal system can provide steam to generate 90 MW{sub c} for no more than 20 y, even with reinjection and a large-scale drilling program. The results also indicate that the system can produce about 75 MW{sub c} for a 30-y period with significant reinjection and the drilling of about 20 new production wells.

  10. Multidisciplinary exploration of the Tendaho Graben geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, Egidio; Rizzello, Daniele; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Marini, Luigi; Meqbel, Naser; Stimac, Jim; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesch; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede

    2017-04-01

    The NW-SE trending Tendaho Graben is the major extensional feature of the Afar, Ethiopia. Rifting and volcanic activity within the graben occurred mostly between 1.8 and 0.6 Ma, but extended to at least 0.2 Ma. Very recent (0.22- 0.03 Ma) activity is focused along the southern part of the younger and active Manda Hararo Rift, which is included in the north-western part of the graben. Extension gave rise to about 1600 m of vertical displacement (verified by drilling) of the basaltic Afar Stratoid sequence, over a crust with a mean thickness of about 23 km. The infill of graben, overlying the Stratoids, consists of volcanic and sedimentary deposits that have been drilled by six exploratory wells. Within the graben, two main geothermal fields have been explored by intensive geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys over an area that approximately covers a square sector of 40x40 km. Both new and existing data sets have been integrated. The Dubti-Ayrobera system is located along the central axis of the graben. Available data, acquired in the last three decades, comprise more than two thousands gravity and magnetic stations, 229 magnetotelluric stations and structural-geological and geochemical observations. The Alalobeda system is located along the SW flank of the graben, at about 25 km from the Dubti-Ayrobera system and has been very recently studied by means of gravimetric (300 stations), magnetotelluric and TDEM (140 stations) geological and geochemical surveys. The new residual magnetic anomaly map has been used to map the younger normal polarity basalt distribution and infer the location of the unknown main rift axis. The bedrock surface resulting by the 3D inversion of the new residual Bouguer anomaly enlightens the main normal faults hindered by sediments and the secondary structures represented by horsts and grabens. The three-dimensional resistivity models allow mapping the sedimentary infill of the graben, fracture zones in the Afar Stradoids bedrock and

  11. Relevance of deep-subsurface microbiology for underground gas storage and geothermal energy production.

    PubMed

    Gniese, Claudia; Bombach, Petra; Rakoczy, Jana; Hoth, Nils; Schlömann, Michael; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Krüger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives the reader an introduction into the microbiology of deep geological systems with a special focus on potential geobiotechnological applications and respective risk assessments. It has been known for decades that microbial activity is responsible for the degradation or conversion of hydrocarbons in oil, gas, and coal reservoirs. These processes occur in the absence of oxygen, a typical characteristic of such deep ecosystems. The understanding of the responsible microbial processes and their environmental regulation is not only of great scientific interest. It also has substantial economic and social relevance, inasmuch as these processes directly or indirectly affect the quantity and quality of the stored oil or gas. As outlined in the following chapter, in addition to the conventional hydrocarbons, new interest in such deep subsurface systems is rising for different technological developments. These are introduced together with related geomicrobiological topics. The capture and long-termed storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage (CCS), for example, in depleted oil and gas reservoirs, is considered to be an important options to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming. On the other hand, the increasing contribution of energy from natural and renewable sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, or biogas production leads to an increasing interest in underground storage of renewable energies. Energy carriers, that is, biogas, methane, or hydrogen, are often produced in a nonconstant manner and renewable energy may be produced at some distance from the place where it is needed. Therefore, storing the energy after its conversion to methane or hydrogen in porous reservoirs or salt caverns is extensively discussed. All these developments create new research fields and challenges for microbiologists and geobiotechnologists. As a basis for respective future work, we introduce the three major topics, that is

  12. Analysis of pressure transient data from the Sumikawa geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Ishido, T.; Kikuchi, T.; yano, Y.; Miyazaki, Y.; Nakao, S.; Hatakeyama, K.

    1992-01-01

    The permeability structure of the Sumikawa geothermal field in northern Japan has been the subject of an extensive pressure-transient testing investigation since 1986. In this paper, various pertinent data sets are presented and analyzed, including results showing reservoir heterogeneity (i.e. boundary) effects and apparent double porosity behavior. Interference tests between wells SB-3 and SD-2 (both of which have feedpoints in dacitic layers in the ''marine-volcanic complex'' formation) were carried out during 1990. The results have been interpreted to indicate the presence of a moderately high permeability ({approx} 4 darcy-meters) layer with two impermeable boundaries intersecting at a right angle. The 1988 pressure buildup data for well SN-7D are also explained by assuming two impermeable boundaries in a high transmissivity reservoir within the deep ''granodiorite'' formation. Interference tests between wells S-4 and KY-1 have suggested that a very permeable north-south channel is present in the ''altered andesite'' layer. Although the response was successfully interpreted using an ''anisotropic line-source model'' by Garg et al. (1991), a ''double porosity channel model'' seems to be particularly applicable for explaining both the short-term and long-term behavior observed in this series of tests.

  13. Results of investigations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Goff, F.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Hanold, B.

    1990-04-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahuachapan. High-temperature downhole instruments, including a temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity spinner/temperature/pressure (STP), and fluid sampler, were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine if chemical deposits were present in well casings or liners and to investigate a suspected break in the casing in one well. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 80 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut-in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. The geochemical data obtained show a system configuration like that proposed by C. Laky and associates in 1989. Our data indicate recharge to the system from the volcanic highlands south of the field. Additionally, our data indicate encroachment of dilute fluids into deeper production zones because of overproduction. 17 refs., 50 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Radon and ammonia transects across the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Semprini, L.; Kruger, P.

    1981-01-01

    Radon and ammonia transects, conducted at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, involve measurement of concentration gradients at wells along lines of structural significance in the reservoir. Analysis of four transects showed radon concentrations ranging from 0.20 to 3.60 nCi/kg and ammonia concentrations from 17.6 to 59.3 mg/l. The data showed the lower concentrations in wells of lowest enthalpy fluid and the higher concentrations in wells of highest enthalpy fluid. Linear correlation analysis of the radon-enthalpy data indicated a strong relationship, with a marked influence by the two-phase conditions of the produced fluid. It appears that after phase separation in the reservoir, radon achieves radioactive equilibrium between fluid and rock, suggesting that the phase separation occurs well within the reservoir. A two-phase mixing model based on radon-enthalpy relations allows estimation of the fluid phase temperatures in the reservoir. Correlations of ammonia concentration with fluid enthalpy suggests an equilibrium partitioning model in which enrichment of ammonia correlates with higher enthalpy vapor.

  15. Thermal Fracturing of Volcanic Rocks for Geothermal Field Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaro, Tulus; Deon, Fiorenza; Bakker, Richard; Barnhoorn, Auke

    2017-04-01

    Thermal fracturing is considered to be a potential mechanism to create additional fractures in geothermal fields. The injected cold water into the hot host rock suddenly cools down the host rock, causing a considerable shrinkage of the material and thus potentially increased local stresses that may potentially lead to the formation of cooling related fractures. This is likely to happen in the near wellbore environment or along existing faults or fractures, ie. areas where the hot rocks juxtaposed to cold fluids. In this research, we experiment with thermal fracturing by exposing heated granitic and basaltic samples with cold water to see the extend of the thermal microfracturing inside the samples at different temperatures. Before and after the heat treatment, the micro CT-scanner is used to get high-resolution 3D images of fracture planes and fracture network connectivity. Moreover, the porosity is measured before and after treatment by using the pycnometer to see the effect of the different temperatures. In addition, the changes in geomechanical behaviour are tested by using an unconfined compressive strength (UCS) apparatus on heat treated and non-heat treated samples. We compare the changes in Young Modulus, Poisson's Ratio and ultimate strength of the various samples and record the influence of the thermal fractures on the stress-driven fracturing behaviour in the UCS test.

  16. Field Studies of Geothermal Reservoirs Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C Witcher

    2002-07-30

    The Rio Grande rift provides an excellent field laboratory to study the nature of geothermal systems in an extensional environment. Much of the geologic complexity that is found in the Basin and Range is absent because the rift is located on cratonic crust with a thin and well-characterized Phanerozoic stratigraphy and tectonic history. On the other hand, the Neogene thermo-tectonic history of the rift has many parallels with the Basin and Range to the west. The geology of the southern Rio Grande rift is among the best characterized of any rift system in the world. Also, most geologic maps for the region are rather unique in that detailed analyses of Quaternary stratigraphic and surficial unit are added in concert with the details of bedrock geology. Pleistocene to Holocene entrenchment of the Rio Grande and tributaries unroofs the alteration signatures and permeability attributes of paleo outflow plumes and upflow zones, associated with present-day, but hidden or ''blind,'' hydrothermal systems at Rincon and San Diego Mountain.

  17. Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water are discussed. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the first one.

  18. The structural architecture of the Los Humeros volcanic complex and geothermal field, Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norini, Gianluca; Groppelli, Gianluca; Sulpizio, Roberto; Carrasco Núñez, Gerardo; Davila Harris, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The development of geothermal energy in Mexico is a very important goal, given the presence of a large heat anomaly, associated with the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, the renewability of the resource and the low environmental impact. The Quaternary Los Humeros volcanic complex is an important geothermal target, whose evolution involved at least two caldera events, that alternated with other explosive and effusive activity. The first caldera forming event was the 460 ka eruption that produced the Xaltipan ignimbrite and formed a 15-20 km wide caldera. The second collapse event occurred 100 ka with the formation of the Zaragoza ignimbrite and a nested 8-10 km wide caldera. The whole volcano structure, the style of the collapses and the exact location of the calderas scarps and ring faults are still a matter of debate. The Los Humeros volcano hosts the productive Los Humeros Geothermal Field, with an installed capacity of 40 MW and additional 75 MW power plants under construction. Recent models of the geothermal reservoir predict the existence of at least two reservoirs in the geothermal system, separated by impermeable rock units. Hydraulic connectivity and hydrothermal fluids circulation occurs through faults and fractures, allowing deep steam to ascend while condensate flows descend. As a consequence, the plans for the exploration and exploitation of the geothermal reservoir have been based on the identification of the main channels for the circulation of hydrothermal fluids, constituted by faults, so that the full comprehension of the structural architecture of the caldera is crucial to improve the efficiency and minimize the costs of the geothermal field operation. In this study, we present an analysis of the Los Humeros volcanic complex focused on the Quaternary tectonic and volcanotectonics features, like fault scarps and aligned/elongated monogenetic volcanic centres. Morphostructural analysis and field mapping reveal the geometry, kinematics and dynamics of

  19. Data assimilation for the investigation of deep temperature and geothermal energy in the Netherlands.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, Damien; Limberger, Jon; Lipsey, Lindsey; Cloetingh, Sierd; van Wees, Jan-Diederik

    2016-04-01

    Deep geothermal energy systems, mostly for the direct use of heat, have been attracting more and more interest in the past 10 years in Western Europe. In the Netherlands, where the sector took off with the first system in 2005, geothermal energy is seen has a key player for a sustainable future. To support the development of deep geothermal energy system, the scientific community has been working on tools that could be used to highlight area of potential interest for geothermal exploration. In the Netherlands, ThermoGIS is one such tool that has been developed to inform the general public, policy makers, and developers in the energy sector of the possibility of geothermal energy development. One major component incorporated in this tool is the temperature model. For the Netherlands, we created a thermal model at the lithospheric scale that focus on the sedimentary deposits for deep geothermal exploration. This regional thermal modelling concentrates on the variations of geological thermal conductivity and heat production both in the sediments and in the crust. In addition, we carried out special modelling in order to specifically understand convectivity in the basin, focusing on variations at a regional scale. These works, as well as recent improved of geological knowledge in the deeper part of the basin, show interesting evidence for geothermal energy development. At this scale, the aim of this work is to build on these models and, using data assimilation, to discriminate in the actual causes of the observed anomalies. The temperature results obtained for the Netherlands show some thermal patterns that relate to the variation of the thermal conductivity and the geometry of the sediments. There is also strong evidence to indicate that deep convective flows are responsible for thermal anomalies. The combination of conductive and local convective thermal patterns makes the deeper part of the Dutch sedimentary basin of great interest for the development of geothermal

  20. Geothermal energy at Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and at Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station, California. Final Report 1

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.; Chapman, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine and evaluate sources of geothermal energy at two military bases in southern California, the Long Beach Naval Shipyard and Naval Station and the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station. One part of the project focused on the natural geothermal characteristics beneath the naval bases. Another part focused on the geothermal energy produced by oilfield operations on and adjacent to each base. Results of the study are presented here for the US Department of the Navy to use in its program to reduce its reliance on petroleum by the development of different sources of energy. The project required research of various reports and data, both published and unpublished, particularly those of the California Department of Conservation, Division of Oil and Gas and of oil companies with leases on or adjacent to the naval bases. Important field investigations included the measurement of well-head temperatures of fluids produced from selected oil wells at each naval base and a detailed gravity survey of the Seal Beach naval base and vicinity. The well-head temperatures were needed to evaluate individual wells as sources of geothermal energy, while the gravity survey attempted to discover subsurface geologic structures that might contain geothermal fluids of temperatures higher than those predicted by the regional geothermal conditions.

  1. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  2. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Laney

    2005-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have conducted research and development (R&D) in geothermal energy since 1971. The Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) works in partnership with industry to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the U.S. energy supply. Geothermal energy production, a $1.5 billion a year industry, generates electricity or provides heat for direct use applications. The technologies developed by the Geothermal Technologies Program will provide the Nation with new sources of electricity that are highly reliable and cost competitive and do not add to America's air pollution or the emission of greenhouse gases. Geothermal electricity generation is not subject to fuel price volatility and supply disruptions from changes in global energy markets. Geothermal energy systems use a domestic and renewable source of energy. The Geothermal Technologies Program develops innovative technologies to find, access, and use the Nation's geothermal resources. These efforts include emphasis on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with continued R&D on geophysical and geochemical exploration technologies, improved drilling systems, and more efficient heat exchangers and condensers. The Geothermal Technologies Program is balanced between short-term goals of greater interest to industry, and long-term goals of importance to national energy interests. The program's research and development activities are expected to increase the number of new domestic geothermal fields, increase the success rate of geothermal well drilling, and reduce the costs of constructing and operating geothermal power plants. These improvements will increase the quantity of economically viable geothermal resources, leading in turn to an increased number of geothermal power facilities serving more energy demand. These new geothermal projects will take advantage of geothermal resources in locations where development is not currently possible or

  3. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, Marcelo J.; Antunez, Emilio u.

    1996-01-24

    In order to remain competitive it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them is also given.

  4. Information systems and technology transfer programs on geothermal energy and other renewable sources of energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Antunez, E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to remain competitive, it is necessary to stay informed and use the most advanced technologies available. Recent developments in communication, like the Internet and the World Wide Web, enormously facilitate worldwide data and technology transfer. A compilation of the most important sources of data on renewable energies, especially geothermal, as well as lists of relevant technology transfer programs are presented. Information on how to gain access to, and learn more about them, is also given.

  5. Thermal Properties of Cement-Based Composites for Geothermal Energy Applications.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaohua; Memon, Shazim Ali; Yang, Haibin; Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-04-27

    Geothermal energy piles are a quite recent renewable energy technique where geothermal energy in the foundation of a building is used to transport and store geothermal energy. In this paper, a structural-functional integrated cement-based composite, which can be used for energy piles, was developed using expanded graphite and graphite nanoplatelet-based composite phase change materials (CPCMs). Its mechanical properties, thermal-regulatory performance, and heat of hydration were evaluated. Test results showed that the compressive strength of GNP-Paraffin cement-based composites at 28 days was more than 25 MPa. The flexural strength and density of thermal energy storage cement paste composite decreased with increases in the percentage of CPCM in the cement paste. The infrared thermal image analysis results showed superior thermal control capability of cement based materials with CPCMs. Hence, the carbon-based CPCMs are promising thermal energy storage materials and can be used to improve the durability of energy piles.

  6. Thermal Properties of Cement-Based Composites for Geothermal Energy Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiaohua; Memon, Shazim Ali; Yang, Haibin; Dong, Zhijun; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-01-01

    Geothermal energy piles are a quite recent renewable energy technique where geothermal energy in the foundation of a building is used to transport and store geothermal energy. In this paper, a structural–functional integrated cement-based composite, which can be used for energy piles, was developed using expanded graphite and graphite nanoplatelet-based composite phase change materials (CPCMs). Its mechanical properties, thermal-regulatory performance, and heat of hydration were evaluated. Test results showed that the compressive strength of GNP-Paraffin cement-based composites at 28 days was more than 25 MPa. The flexural strength and density of thermal energy storage cement paste composite decreased with increases in the percentage of CPCM in the cement paste. The infrared thermal image analysis results showed superior thermal control capability of cement based materials with CPCMs. Hence, the carbon-based CPCMs are promising thermal energy storage materials and can be used to improve the durability of energy piles. PMID:28772823

  7. Geothermal energy technology: issues, R and D needs, and cooperative arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In 1986, the National Research Council, through its Energy Engineering Board, formed the Committee on Geothermal Energy Technology. The committee's study addressed major issues in geothermal energy technology, made recommendations for research and development, and considered cooperative arrangements among government, industry, and universities to facilitate RandD under current severe budget constraints. The report addresses four types of geothermal energy: hydrothermal, geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. Hydrothermal systems are the only type that are now economically competitive commercially. Further technology development by the Department of Energy could make the uneconomical hydrothermal resources commercially attractive to the industry. The economics are more uncertain for the longer-term technologies for extracting energy from geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma systems. For some sites, the cost of energy derived from geopressured and hot dry rock systems is projected within a commercially competitive range. The use of magma energy is too far in the future to make reasonable economic calculations.

  8. Efficient Use of Geothermal Energy in Spas - Call for Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, W.; Ponweiser, K.; Gollob, K.; Götzl, G.; Schneider, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    In Central Europe, the Pannonian Basin and adjacent areas are holding some of the most attractive geothermal energy resources available from subsurface hot water reservoirs. In fact, utilization of geothermal energy has a long-standing tradition in the region, mainly for thermal and medicinal bathing. Nevertheless, putting to use the extractable heat in a technical and economical optimum manner, and integrating the various energy flows (heating, cooling, vitiated air, etc.) in the application system as well as returning the cooled effluent (excluding used bath water) back to the reservoir, has not found general acceptance to date. This is regrettable not least because thermal spas can be regarded as virtually ideal objects for an integrated management of energy flows on a low temperature level. Hardly any other facilities are in nearly constant, year-round need of heat at a low temperature, as is actually delivered by most thermal aquifers. Also, waste heat and solar energy can be added without much inconvenience, and if hotels and/or therapeutic facilities are to be supplied, there will be cooling demand as well. Many spas in the region are about to update their technology. Complementing this development by an initiative for an integrated and therefore economical use of all the heat sinks and sources that may be present was the main objective of the "network project" PANTHERM (www.pantherm.eu) designed at the University of Applied Life Sciences and Natural Resources, Vienna, in cooperation with four Austrian and ten Hungarian, Slovak and Slovenian partners, and funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency, Vienna. In the course of a technical feasibility study it was dealt with the problem, and - by example of the spa of Sárvár in Hungary - demonstrated also, in which way the given mass and energy flows need to be interconnected in order to achieve an optimum energy yield, always with an eye on cost-effectiveness and sustainability. The other Eastern

  9. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  10. Geothermal energy employment and requirements 1977-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    An assessment of the manpower needs of the geothermal industry is presented. The specific objectives were to: derive a base line estimate of the manpower involved in geothermal activities, determine if there is any current or impending likelihood of skill shortages, forecast future employment in the geothermal industry, conduct a technology assessment to ascertain the possibilities of some sudden breakthrough, and suggest alternatives commensurate with the findings. The methodology for fulfilling the objectives is described. Detailed results of these pursuits (objectives) are presented. Alternatives that are suggested, based upon the findings of the study, are summarized.

  11. Niland development project geothermal loan guaranty: 49-MW (net) power plant and geothermal well field development, Imperial County, California: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The proposed federal action addressed by this environmental assessment is the authorization of disbursements under a loan guaranteed by the US Department of Energy for the Niland Geothermal Energy Program. The disbursements will partially finance the development of a geothermal well field in the Imperial Valley of California to supply a 25-MW(e) (net) power plant. Phase I of the project is the production of 25 MW(e) (net) of power; the full rate of 49 MW (net) would be achieved during Phase II. The project is located on approximately 1600 acres (648 ha) near the city of Niland in Imperial County, California. Well field development includes the initial drilling of 8 production wells for Phase I, 8 production wells for Phase II, and the possible need for as many as 16 replacement wells over the anticipated 30-year life of the facility. Activities associated with the power plant in addition to operation are excavation and construction of the facility and associated systems (such as cooling towers). Significant environmental impacts, as defined in Council on Environmental Quality regulation 40 CFR Part 1508.27, are not expected to occur as a result of this project. Minor impacts could include the following: local degradation of ambient air quality due to particulate and/or hydrogen sulfide emissions, temporarily increased ambient noise levels due to drilling and construction activities, and increased traffic. Impacts could be significant in the event of a major spill of geothermal fluid, which could contaminate groundwater and surface waters and alter or eliminate nearby habitat. Careful land use planning and engineering design, implementation of mitigation measures for pollution control, and design and implementation of an environmental monitoring program that can provide an early indication of potential problems should ensure that impacts, except for certain accidents, will be minimized.

  12. Advanced Horizontal Well Recirculation Systems for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary and Crystalline Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Mike S.; Detwiler, Russell L.; Lao, Kang; Serajian, Vahid; Elkhoury, Jean; Diessl, Julia; White, Nicky

    2012-12-13

    There is increased recognition that geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought, with potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. Recent advances in drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock vast new geothermal resources, with some estimates for potential electricity generation from geothermal energy now on the order of 2 million megawatts. The primary objectives of this DOE research effort are to develop and document optimum design configurations and operating practices to produce geothermal power from hot permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations using advanced horizontal well recirculation systems. During Phase I of this research project Terralog Technologies USA and The University of California, Irvine (UCI), have completed preliminary investigations and documentation of advanced design concepts for paired horizontal well recirculation systems, optimally configured for geothermal energy recovery in permeable sedimentary and crystalline formations of varying structure and material properties. We have also identified significant geologic resources appropriate for application of such technology. The main challenge for such recirculation systems is to optimize both the design configuration and the operating practices for cost-effective geothermal energy recovery. These will be strongly influenced by sedimentary formation properties, including thickness and dip, temperature, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, permeability, and porosity; and by working fluid properties.

  13. Colorado geothermal commercialization program: community development of geothermal energy in Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    A district heating system for the Pagosa Springs central business district is in the planning stage. A detailed analysis of the project is presented. It comprises area and site specific studies and describes in detail the recent, current, anticipated, and postulated geothermal development activities. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal energy market study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: geothermal community heating for Cape Charles, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Leffel, C.S. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    An economic feasibility study for a geothermal community heating system has been made for the residential heat load of Cape Charles, Virginia using the JHU/APL GRITS Computer Program. The effects of inflation, interest rates, wellhead temperatures, and the addition of reinjection wells are investigated.

  15. PNAS Plus: Origin of first cells at terrestrial, anoxic geothermal fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.; Bychkov, Andrew Yu.; Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-04-01

    All cells contain much more potassium, phosphate, and transition metals than modern (or reconstructed primeval) oceans, lakes, or rivers. Cells maintain ion gradients by using sophisticated, energy-dependent membrane enzymes (membrane pumps) that are embedded in elaborate ion-tight membranes. The first cells could possess neither ion-tight membranes nor membrane pumps, so the concentrations of small inorganic molecules and ions within protocells and in their environment would equilibrate. Hence, the ion composition of modern cells might reflect the inorganic ion composition of the habitats of protocells. We attempted to reconstruct the "hatcheries" of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells. These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K+/Na+ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn, and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under the anoxic, CO2-dominated primordial atmosphere, the chemistry of basins at geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. The precellular stages of evolution might have transpired in shallow ponds of condensed and cooled geothermal vapor that were lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K+, Zn2+, and phosphorous compounds.

  16. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  17. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  18. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine he direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  19. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  20. Hot dry rock geothermal energy. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This second EPRI workshop on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, held in May 1994, focused on the status of worldwide HDR research and development and used that status review as the starting point for discussions of what could and should be done next: by U.S. federal government, by U.S. industry, by U.S. state governments, and by international organizations or through international agreements. The papers presented and the discussion that took place indicate that there is a community of researchers and industrial partners that could join forces, with government support, to begin a new effort on hot dry rock geothermal development. This new heat mining effort would start with site selection and confirmatory studies, done concurrently. The confirmatory studies would test past evaluations against the most current results (from the U.S. site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, and from the two sites in Japan, the one in Russia, and the two in western Europe) and the best models of relevant physical and economic aspects. Site selection would be done in the light of the confirmatory studies and would be influenced by the need to find a site where success is probable and which is representative enough of other sites so that its success would imply good prospects for success at numerous other sites. The test of success would be circulation between a pair of wells, or more wells, in a way that confirmed, with the help of flow modeling, that a multi-well system would yield temperatures, flows and lifetimes that support economically feasible power generation. The flow modeling would have to have previously achieved its own confirmation from relevant data taken from both heat mining and conventional hydrothermal geothermal experience. There may be very relevant experience from the enhancement of ''hot wet rock'' sites, i.e., sites where hydrothermal reservoirs lack, or have come to lack, enough natural water or steam and are helped by water injected cold and produced hot. The new

  1. Spatial Correlation of Airborne Magnetic Anomalies with Reservoir Temperatures of Geothermal Fields, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can; Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2013-04-01

    Geothermal areas in Western Anatolia are remarkably located throughout Büyük Menderes Graben (BMG) and Gediz Graben (GG). These E-W trending grabens have been subjected to N-E stretching since Miocene. Except for these major outcomes of the extensional forces, NE-SW oriented and relatively short grabens take place in Western Anatolia as well. Among them, BMG and GG are remarkable with topographic escarpments that reveal footwall of steeply-dipping active normal faults. They manifest themselves via numerous earthquakes and geothermal activity (fluid discharges from springs and wells). Geothermal discharges are aligned along the rims of E-W trending normal faults trending over detachment faults. Concerning BMG, geothermal manifestations extend along the northern sector of the graben. Geothermal reservoirs inside BMG are the limestone and conglomerate units within Neogene sediments and the marble-quartzite units within The Menderes Massif rocks. The main high and low enthalpy geothermal fields along BMG and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Kızıldere (242°C), Germencik (232°C), Aydın-Ilıcabası (101°C), Yılmazköy (142°C), Salavatlı (171°C), Söke (26°C), Pamukkale (36°C), Karahayıt (59°C), Gölemezli (101°C) and Yenice (70°C). Through GG, reservoir temperatures decrease from east to west. Geothermal reservoirs inside GG are metamorphics and granodiorite of the Menderes Massif rocks. The Neogene sediments act as cap rock of the geothermal reservoirs. Geothermal fields inside the graben and their reservoir temperatures are as follows: Alaşehir (215°C), Salihli (155°C), Urganlı (85°C), Kurşunlu (135°C), Caferbey (150°C), Sart (100°C). In order to investigate the spatial correlation of magnetic anomalies and the reservoir temperatures of geothermal fields in the region, we analysed airborne magnetic data which were collected by General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey. Airborne magnetic data were taken

  2. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  3. Assessing geothermal energy potential in upstate New York. Final report, Tasks 1, 3, and 4

    SciTech Connect

    Manger, K.C.

    1996-07-25

    New York State`s geothermal energy potential was evaluated based on a new resource assessment performed by the State University of New York at Buffalo (SUNY-Buffalo) and currently commercial technologies, many of which have become available since New York`s potential was last evaluated. General background on geothermal energy and technologies was provided. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed to evaluate the economics of using geothermal energy to generate electricity in upstate New York. A conventional rankine cycle, binary power system was selected for the economic evaluation, based on SUNY-Buffalo`s resource assessment. Binary power systems are the most technologically suitable for upstate New York`s resources and have the added advantage of being environmentally attractive. Many of the potential environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy are not an issue in binary systems because the geothermal fluids are contained in a closed-loop and used solely to heat a working fluid that is then used to generate the electricity Three power plant sizes were selected based on geologic data supplied by SUNY-Buffalo. The hypothetical power plants were designed as 5 MW modular units and sized at 5 MW, 10 MW and 15 MW. The life-cycle cost analysis suggested that geothermal electricity in upstate New York, using currently commercial technology, will probably cost between 14 and 18 cents per kilowatt-hour.

  4. Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect

    Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

  5. Low-Temperature Projects of the Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Program: Evaluation and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Tom; Snyder, Neil; Gosnold, Will

    2016-10-23

    This paper discusses opportunities and challenges related to the technical and economic feasibility of developing power generation from geothermal resources at temperatures of 150 degrees C and lower. Insights from projects funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Geothermal Technologies Office inform these discussions and provide the basis for some lessons learned to help guide decisions by DOE and the industry in further developing this resource. The technical basis for low-temperature geothermal energy is well established and the systems can be economic today in certain situations. However, these applications are far from a 'plug and play' product; successful development today requires a good knowledge of geothermal system design and operation.

  6. Magmatic Fluid Source of the Chingshui Geothermal Field: Evidence of Carbonate Isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S. R.; Lu, Y. C.; Wang, P. L.; John, C. M.; MacDonald, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Chingshui geothermal field is located at the northern tip of the Miocene Lushan Slate Formation, which was part of the Eurasian continental margin subject to the Plio-Pleistocene collision associated with the Luzon Arc. The remnant heat of the Taiwan orogeny has long been considered to drive the circulation of hydrothermal fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field. However, recent studies based on magnetic anomalies and helium isotopic ratios suggest that the heat might instead be derived from igneous bodies. By examining isotope data of calcite veins and scaling in geothermal wells, this study aimed to clarify the fluid origin and possible heat source accounting for the geothermal fluids in the Chingshui geothermal field. Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses indicate that veins from outcrops and scalings in geothermal wells have high and low d values, respectively. Data for veins in drilled cores fall in between outcrop veins and scalings values. Such an isotopic pattern could be interpreted as the mixing of two end member fluids. The clumped isotope analysis of calcite veins from the outcrops yielded precipitation temperatures of up to 232 ± 16 ℃ and a reconstructed d18O fluid value of 9.5 ‰(magmatic fluid: 6-11 ‰; metamorphic fluid: 5-28 ‰ by Taylor, 1974). The inferred d18O values of hot fluids for the vein formation are significantly different from that of meteoric water in Chingshui area (around -5.4 ‰) as well as the scaling in geothermal wells (around -7.6 ‰). Previous study of magnetotelluric image demonstrated two possible fluid reservoirs at different depths (Chen et al. 2012). Our isotope data combined with these lines of evidence suggest that the scaling in geothermal wells could be derived from fluids originating from the shallower reservoir. In contrast, the veins present at outcrops could have been formed from 18O-enriched, deeply-sourced fluids related to either metamorphic dehydration or magmatic processes.

  7. Advanced Condenser Boosts Geothermal Power Plant Output (Fact Sheet), The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    When power production at The Geysers geothermal power complex began to falter, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) stepped in, developing advanced condensing technology that dramatically boosted production efficiency - and making a major contribution to the effective use of geothermal power. NREL developed advanced direct-contact condenser (ADCC) technology to condense spent steam more effectively, improving power production efficiency in Unit 11 by 5%.

  8. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  9. Structural compartmentalisation of a geothermal system, the Torre Alfina field (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, Gianluca; Pinton, Annamaria; De Benedetti, Arnaldo A.; Giordano, Guido; Rossetti, Federico; Soligo, Michele; Berardi, Gabriele

    2013-11-01

    Recent surging of renewed industrial interest in the exploration of low and medium enthalpy geothermal fields makes the accurate assessment of the geothermal potential essential to minimise uncertainties during both exploration and exploitation. The Torre Alfina field is a case of abandoned, but promising, geothermal field of central Italy where the roles of the internal structural setting and of the recharge areas on the hydrothermal circulation are largely unconstrained. In this paper, field structural data integrated with geomorphic lineament analysis document the occurrence of post-orogenic deformation structures controlling the compartmentalisation of the Torre Alfina geothermal field. Strike-slip and subordinate normal fault systems (with associated network fractures) cut and dislocate the internal architecture of the reservoir and prevent its hydraulic connection with Mount Cetona, considered to be the recharge area and where hydrothermal manifestation, including travertine deposition, occurs. 230Th/234U radiometric dating of superposed travertine units gives 200, 120 and 90 ka respectively, inferred to correspond to the age of the fossil hydrothermal circulation during tectonic activity. The results have been used for illustrating a new geological conceptual model for the Torre Alfina area where the geothermal system is composed of different compartments. Tectonic structures define the main boundaries between compartments, helping the understanding of why productive and non-productive wells were found in apparently similar structural settings within the Torre Alfina field.

  10. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Final report, June 1979-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Pagosa Springs Geothermal District Heating System was conceptualized, designed, and constructed between 1979 to 1984 under the US Department of Energy Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program to demonstrate the feasibility for utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources for direct-use applications. The Pagosa Springs system successfully provides space heating to public buildings, school facilities, residences, and commercial establishments at costs significantly lower than costs of available conventional fuels. The Pagosa Springs project encompassed a full range of technical, institutional, and economic activities. Geothermal reservoir evaluations and testing were performed, and two productive approx.140/sup 0/F geothermal supply wells were successfully drilled and completed. Transmission and distribution system design, construction, startup, and operation were achieved with minimum difficulty. The geothermal system operation during the first two heating seasons has been fully reliable and well respected in the community. The project has proven that low to moderate-temperature waters can effectively meet required heating loads, even for harsh winter-mountain environments. The principal difficulty encountered has been institutional in nature and centers on the obtaining of the geothermal production well permits and the adjudicated water rights necessary to supply the geothermal hot water fluids for the full operating life of the system. 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  12. Case studies on developing local industry by using hot spring water and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Akira; Umetsu, Yoshio; Narita, Eiichi

    1997-12-31

    We have investigated the new ways to develop local industries by using hot spring water, geothermal water and geothermal energy from the Matsukawa Geothermal Power Plant in Iwate Prefecture, which is the first geothermal power plant established in Japan. The new dyeing technique, called {open_quotes}Geothermal Dyeing{close_quotes} was invented in which hydrogen sulfide in the water exhibited decoloration effect. By this technique we succeeded to make beautiful color patterns on fabrics. We also invented the new way to make the light wight wood, called {open_quotes}Geo-thermal Wood{close_quotes} by using hot spring water or geothermal water. Since polysaccharides in the wood material were hydrolyzed and taken out during the treatment in the hot spring water, the wood that became lighter is weight and more porous state. On the bases of these results, we have produced {open_quotes}Wooded Soap{close_quotes} on a commercial scale which is the soap, synthesized in the pore of the treated wood in round slice. {open_quotes}Collapsible Wood Cabin{close_quotes} was also produced for enjoyable outdoor life by using the modified properties of Geothermal Wood.

  13. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  14. Preliminary investigation of scale formation and fluid chemistry at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Counce, D.; Bergfeld, D.; Goff, F.; Johnson, S.D.; Moore, J.N.; Nimz, G.

    1997-06-27

    The chemistry of geothermal, production, and injection fluids at the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada, was characterized to address an ongoing scaling problem and to evaluate the effects of reinjection into the reservoir. Fluids generally followed mixing-dilution trends. Recharge to the Dixie Valley system apparently originates from local sources. The low-pressure brine and injection waters were saturated with respect to amorphous silica, which correlated with the ongoing scaling problem. Local shallow ground water contains about 15% geothermal brine mixed with regional recharge. The elevated Ca, Mg, and HCO{sub 3} content of this water suggests that carbonate precipitation may occur if shallow groundwater is reinjected. Downhole reservoir fluids are close to equilibrium with the latest vein mineral assemblage of wairakite-epidote-quartz-calcite. Reinjection of spent geothermal brine is predicted to affect the region near the wellbore differently than it does the region farther away.

  15. Analysis of earthquake clustering and source spectra in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal field is located within the tectonic step-over between San Andreas Fault and Imperial Fault. Since the 1980s, geothermal energy exploration has resulted with step-like increase of microearthquake activities, which mirror the expansion of geothermal field. Distinguishing naturally occurred and induced seismicity, and their corresponding characteristics (e.g., energy release) is important for hazard assessment. Between 2008 and 2014, seismic data recorded by a local borehole array were provided public access from CalEnergy through SCEC data center; and the high quality local recording of over 7000 microearthquakes provides unique opportunity to sort out characteristics of induced versus natural activities. We obtain high-resolution earthquake location using improved S-wave picks, waveform cross-correlation and a new 3D velocity model. We then develop method to identify spatial-temporally isolated earthquake clusters. These clusters are classified into aftershock-type, swarm-type, and mixed-type (aftershock-like, with low skew, low magnitude and shorter duration), based on the relative timing of largest earthquakes and moment-release. The mixed-type clusters are mostly located at 3 - 4 km depth near injection well; while aftershock-type clusters and swarm-type clusters also occur further from injection well. By counting number of aftershocks within 1day following mainshock in each cluster, we find that the mixed-type clusters have much higher aftershock productivity compared with other types and historic M4 earthquakes. We analyze detailed spatial variation of 'b-value'. We find that the mixed-type clusters are mostly located within high b-value patches, while large (M>3) earthquakes and other types of clusters are located within low b-value patches. We are currently processing P and S-wave spectra to analyze the spatial-temporal correlation of earthquake stress parameter and seismicity characteristics. Preliminary results suggest that the

  16. The Momotombo Geothermal Field, Nicaragua: Exploration and development case history study

    SciTech Connect

    1982-07-01

    This case history discusses the exploration methods used at the Momotombo Geothermal Field in western Nicaragua, and evaluates their contributions to the development of the geothermal field models. Subsequent reservoir engineering has not been synthesized or evaluated. A geothermal exploration program was started in Nicaragua in 1966 to discover and delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in western Nicaragua. Exploration began at the Momotombo field in 1970 using geological, geochemical, and geophysical methods. A regional study of thermal manifestations was undertaken and the area on the southern flank of Volcan Momotombo was chosen for more detailed investigation. Subsequent exploration by various consultants produced a number of geotechnical reports on the geology, geophysics, and geochemistry of the field as well as describing production well drilling. Geological investigations at Momotombo included photogeology, field mapping, binocular microscope examination of cuttings, and drillhole correlations. Among the geophysical techniques used to investigate the field sub-structure were: Schlumberger and electromagnetic soundings, dipole mapping and audio-magnetotelluric surveys, gravity and magnetic measurements, frequency domain soundings, self-potential surveys, and subsurface temperature determinations. The geochemical program analyzed the thermal fluids of the surface and in the wells. This report presents the description and results of exploration methods used during the investigative stages of the Momotombo Geothermal Field. A conceptual model of the geothermal field was drawn from the information available at each exploration phase. The exploration methods have been evaluated with respect to their contributions to the understanding of the field and their utilization in planning further development. Our principal finding is that data developed at each stage were not sufficiently integrated to guide further work at the field, causing inefficient use of

  17. Observing and Modeling Temporal Variations of Seismic Velocities at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, V. H.; Tsai, V. C.; Taira, T.

    2016-12-01

    Perturbations in subsurface elastic parameters induce changes in seismic velocity. To understand the stress perturbations due to geothermal operation, we apply seismic noise interferometry to examine the temporal variations of seismic velocity (dv/v) at the Geysers Geothermal Field, California. Our observations show a strong positive correlation between dv/v and net production (steam production minus fluid injection), and a strong negative correlation between dv/v and fluid injection. Notably, there is little time lag (less than a month) between dv/v and fluid injection in the SE region of the field, suggesting a rapid response in elastic properties in this highly saturated region. The influx of fluid decreases the effective shear modulus, which in turn decreases the velocities. A number of hypotheses have been suggested to cause stress perturbations in the field, including poroelastic-induced stresses, direct elastic loading and thermoelastic-induced stresses. We perform a 1-D hydrological simulation to calculate the expected variations in dv/v due to different stresses by considering Murnaghan's theory of finite deformations and the third-order terms in the strain energy function. The synthetic dv/v measurements are spatially averaged based on computed sensitivity kernels, allowing for direct comparison with both the amplitude and phase of dv/v observations. We show the order-of-magnitude effect that each of the stresses have on the dv/v measurement, and explore the possibility of using dv/v to constrain important hydrological and elastic properties such as hydraulic conductivity in the field.

  18. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    The results of the analyses as well as a plan for the development of the geothermal resource are described. Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described. These characteristics include physiography, demography, economy, and goals and ojectives of the citizens as they would relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource is described. The reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperatures ae indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The amounts and types of energy currently consumed by end users are estimated. Using this data base, conceptual engineering designs and cost estimates for three alternative district heating systems are presented. In addition, the results of a life cycle cost analysis for these alternatives are discussed. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects are discussed. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system at Hawthorne are described. A time-line chart shows the tasks, the time estimated to be required for each, and the interrelationships among the activities.

  19. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-09

    The results of the analyses as well as a plan for geothermal development are described. The major findings and specific barriers to development that would have to be addressed are identified. Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described. These characteristics include physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they would relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described. Based on available information, the reservoir is generally described, defining the depth to the reservoir, production rates of the existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The amounts and types of energy currently consumed, by end-user, are estimated. From this information, a conceptual engineering design and cost estimates are presented. Finally, the results of a life cycle analysis of the economic feasibility are discussed. A time-line chart shows the tasks, the time estimated to be required for each and the interrelatioships among the activities. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed. These include the financial, environmental, legal and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering, and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  20. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Fruit drying with geothermal energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-14

    Largest problem was lack of proper recording and controlling instrumentation. Agricultural products tested were green papaya powder, banana slices, and pineapple slices. Results show that a temperature of 120 F is a good drying temperature. Papaya should be mature green and not overly ripe; banana ripeness is also important; and pineapple slice thickness should be very uniform for even drying. Geothermal drying is feasible. Figs, tabs.

  1. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  2. Simple interpretations of chemical transients in multi-feed, two-phase geothermal wells; Examples from Philippine Geothermal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Ruaya, J.R.; Solis, R.P.; Solana, R.R.; Seastres, J.S. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the main process responsible for the extreme variations in chloride concentrations in the water discharged by selected multi-feed, two-phase geothermal wells in the Philippines is steam addition brought about by fluid flashing in the formation or by a shallow and distinct steam zone. Correlation of enthalpy with chloride data over a span of seven years for well 106, Tongonan field, revealed the entry of reservoir fluid from the hotter portion of the field as the well responded to exploitation. Using a plot of discharge enthalpy versus total chloride, the deep chloride near well OP-3D which is drilled at the periphery of the Bacon-Manito field, has been determined at about 8700 mg/k. This is somewhat higher than the inferred chloride level of 7000 mg/kg in the postulated main geothermal reservoir. The competing effects of returns of reinjected water and flashing in the formation on the observed chloride concentrations in the discharge water of well PN-20D, Palinpinon field, have been segregated using the technique described above.

  3. The projection of world geothermal energy consumption from time series and regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanullang, Elwin Y.; Supriatna, Agus; Supriatna, Asep K.

    2015-12-01

    World population growth has many impacts on human live activities and other related aspects. One among the aspects is the increase of the use of energy to support human daily activities, covering industrial aspect, transportation, domestic activities, etc. It is plausible that the higher the population size in a country the higher the needs for energy to support all aspects of human activities in the country. Considering the depletion of petroleum and other fossil-based energy, recently there is a tendency to use geothermal as other source of energy. In this paper we will discuss the prediction of the world consumption of geothermal energy by two different methods, i.e. via the time series of the geothermal usage and via the time series of the geothermal usage combined with the prediction of the world total population. For the first case, we use the simple exponential smoothing method while for the second case we use the simple regression method. The result shows that taking into account the prediction of the world population size giving a better prediction to forecast a short term of the geothermal energy consumption.

  4. Reservoir engineering applications for development and exploitation of geothermal fields in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Vasquez, N.C.; Sarmiento, Z.F.

    1986-07-01

    After a geothermal well is completed, several tests and downhole measurements are conducted to help evaluate the subsurface fluid and reservoir properties intersected. From these tests, a conceptual model of the well can be developed by integrating data from the various parts of the field. This paper presents the completion techniques applied in geothermal wells, as well as the role of reservoir engineering science in delineating a field for development. Monitoring techniques and other reservoir engineering aspects of a field under exploitation are also discussed, with examples from the Philippines.

  5. Geothermal Power Development in the Phillippines

    SciTech Connect

    Jovellanos, Jose U.; Alcaraz, Arturo; Datuin, Rogelio

    1980-12-01

    The generation of electric power to meet the needs of industrial growth and dispersal in the Philippines is aimed at attaining self-reliance through availment of indigenous energy resources. The Philippines by virtue of her position in the high-heat flow region has in abundance a number of exploitable geothermal fields located all over the country. Results indicate that the geothermal areas of the Philippines presently in various stages of exploration and development are of such magnitude that they can be relied on to meet a significant portion of the country's power need. Large scale geothermal energy for electric power generation was put into operation last year with the inauguration of two 55-MW geothermal generating units at Tiwi, Albay in Southern Luzon. Another two 55-MW units were added to the Luzon Grid in the same year from Makiling-Banahaw field about 70 kilometers south of Manila. For 1979 alone, therefore, 220-MW of generating capacity was added to the power supply coming from geothermal energy. This year a total of 220-MW power is programmed for both areas. This will bring to 443-MW of installed generating capacity from geothermal energy with 3-MW contributed by the Tongonan Geothermal pilot plant in Tongonan, Leyte, Central Philippines in operation since July 1977. Financial consideration of Philippine experience showed that electric power derived from geothermal energy is competitive with other sources of energy and is a viable source of baseload electric power. Findings have proven the technical and economic acceptability of geothermal energy resources development. To realize the benefits that stem from the utilization of indigenous geothermal resources and in the light of the country's ever increasing electric power demand and in the absence of large commercial oil discovery in the Philippines, geothermal energy resource development has been accelerated anew. The program includes development of eight fields by 1989 by adding five more fields to the

  6. Volcanic rock petrochemistry as an exploration technique for geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fultz, L.A.; Bell, E.J.; Trexler, D.T.

    1983-12-01

    Large high-level silicic magma chambers offer a high potential for economically viable geothermal systems. While purely basic volcanic systems rarely form thermal anomalies, they may provide the necessary long-term heat input to silicic systems, by underplating, to sustain a high-temperature geothermal system. Petrographic and microprobe, geochemical, geochronologic, and isotopic data on young volcanic rocks in west-central Nevada indicate compositions that may result from magmatic differentiation, crystal fractionation, variation in magmatic source regions and in particular, magma mixing. Analysis of the petrochemistry and the recognition of magma mixing textures of extrusive rocks may indicate interacting mafic magma with buried shallow silicic magma systems. These systems may provide a shallow heat source for development of geothermal resources.

  7. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  8. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  9. Fact sheets relating to use of geothermal energy in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    A compilation of data relating to geothermal energy in each of the 50 states is presented. The data are summarized on one page for each state. All summary data sheets use a common format. Following the summary data sheet there are additional data on the geology of each state pertaining to possible hydrothermal/geothermal resources. Also there is a list of some of the reports available pertaining to the state and state energy contacts. The intent of these documents is to present in a concise form reference data for planning by the Department of Energy.

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 1. Potential noise issues with geothermal development in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, J.C.

    1980-06-01

    This report concerns primarily the environmental noise expected to arise from construction and operation at HGP-A. A brief discussion of expected noise effects if the geothermal field is developed is included. Some of this discussion is applicable to noise problems that may arise if other geothermal fields are found and developed, but site-specific discussion of other fields can be formulated only when exact locations are identified. There is information concerning noise at other geothermal fields, especially the Geysers. This report includes only second-hand references to such information. No measurements of ambient sound levels near the HGP-A are available, no reliable and carefully checked sound level measurements from the HGP-A well operation are available.

  11. Numerical simulations of passing seismic waves at the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Fuchs, Florian; Saenger, Erik H.

    2017-06-01

    Passing seismic waves released by large-magnitude earthquakes may affect geological systems located thousands of miles far from the epicenter. The M9.0 Tohoku earthquake struck on 11 March 2011 in Japan. We detected local seismic activity at the Larderello-Travale geothermal field, Italy, coinciding with the maximum amplitudes of the Rayleigh waves generated by the Tohoku earthquake. We suggest that the earthquakes were triggered by passing Rayleigh waves that induced locally a maximum vertical displacement of approximately 7.5 mm (for waves with period of 100 s). The estimated dynamic stress was about 8 kPa for a measured peak ground velocity of 0.8 mm/s. Previous similar observations pointed out local seismicity at the Larderello-Travale Geothermal Field triggered by the 2012 Mw5.9 Po Plain earthquake. We conducted forward numerical modeling to investigate the effects caused by passing P, S, Love, and Rayleigh waves through the known velocity structure of the geothermal field. Results indicate that maximum displacements focus differently when considering body or surface waves, with displacement values being higher within the first 2 km of depth. The focusing of the displacement below 3 km seems to be strongly controlled by the velocity structure of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field. We propose that seismic activity triggered by passing seismic waves may be related to a clock-advancing mechanism for local seismic events that may have occurred in any case. Furthermore, our analysis shows that local anisotropies in the velocity structure of the Larderello-Travale geothermal field (possibly linked to compartments of elevated pore pressures) strongly control the reactivation of regions of the geothermal field affected by passing seismic waves.

  12. The Krafla Geothermal Field, Iceland: 3. The Generating Capacity of the Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodvarsson, G. S.; Pruess, K.; Stefansson, V.; Eliasson, E. T.

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents analytical and numerical studies of the generating capacity of the Krafla field. A general lumped parameter model is developed which can be used to obtain rough estimates of the generating capacity of a geothermal field based on the size of the wellfield, the average formation porosity, and the amount of recharge to the system. The model is applied to the old wellfield at Krafla. More sophisticated calculations of the generating capacity of the Krafla field are also performed using distributed-parameter models. Two-dimensional areal models of the various reservoir regions at Krafla are developed and their generating capacities (MWe) evaluated. The results obtained indicate that the old wellfield can sustain steam production of 30 MWe for 30 years. The estimated power potential of the new wellfield is 20 MWe for 30 years. To obtain the required steam production several additional wells may be drilled in the old and new wellfields.

  13. Geothermal Technology: A Smart Way to Lower Energy Bills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahan, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Heating costs for both natural gas and oil have risen dramatically in recent years--and will likely continue to do so. Consequently, it is important that students learn not only about traditional heating technology, but also about the alternative methods that will surely grow in use in the coming years. One such method is geothermal. In this…

  14. Geothermal Technology: A Smart Way to Lower Energy Bills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahan, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Heating costs for both natural gas and oil have risen dramatically in recent years--and will likely continue to do so. Consequently, it is important that students learn not only about traditional heating technology, but also about the alternative methods that will surely grow in use in the coming years. One such method is geothermal. In this…

  15. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  16. Analysis of Injection-Induced Micro-Earthquakes in a Geothermal Steam Reservoir, The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-15

    In this study we analyze relative contributions to the cause and mechanism of injection-induced micro-earthquakes (MEQs) at The Geysers geothermal field, California. We estimated the potential for inducing seismicity by coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analysis of the geothermal steam production and cold water injection to calculate changes in stress (in time and space) and investigated if those changes could induce a rock mechanical failure and associated MEQs. An important aspect of the analysis is the concept of a rock mass that is critically stressed for shear failure. This means that shear stress in the region is near the rock-mass frictional strength, and therefore very small perturbations of the stress field can trigger an MEQ. Our analysis shows that the most important cause for injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers is cooling and associated thermal-elastic shrinkage of the rock around the injected fluid that changes the stress state in such a way that mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, the cooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shear strength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are then reactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slip along fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers.

  17. Reservoir Simulation on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field: A Continuing Study

    SciTech Connect

    Castaneda, M.; Marquez, R.; Arellano, V.; Esquer, C.A.

    1983-12-15

    The Cerro Prieto geothermal field is a liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir of complex geological and hydrological structure. It is located at the southern end of the Salton-Mexicali trough which includes other geothermal anomalies as Heber and East Mesa. Although in 1973, the initial power plant installed capacity was 75 MW of electrical power, this amount increased to 180 MW in 1981 as field development continued. It is expected to have a generating capacity of 620 MW by the end of 1985, when two new plants will be completely in operation. Questions about field deliverability, reservoir life and ultimate recovery related to planned installations are being presently asked. Numerical modeling studies can give very valuable answers to these questions, even at the early stages in the development of a field. An effort to simulate the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir has been undergoing for almost two years. A joint project among Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and Intercomp of Houstin, Texas, was created to perform reservoir engineering and simulation studies on this field. The final project objective is tosimulate the behavior of the old field region when production from additional wells located in the undeveloped field zones will be used for feeding the new power plants.

  18. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (<60 mW/m2) heat flow and geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  19. Geothermal Power/Oil & Gas Coproduction Opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    DOE

    2012-02-01

    Coproduced geothermal resources can deliver near-term energy savings, diminish greenhouse gas emissions, extend the economic life of oil and gas fields, and profitably utilize oil and gas field infrastructure. This two-pager provides an overview of geothermal coproduced resources.

  20. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.