Science.gov

Sample records for geothermal permitting process

  1. Geothermal policy development program: expediting the local geothermal permitting process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    For a number of years, concerns have been raised about the length of time and the complexity involved in obtaining required permits in order to develop the geothermal resource at the Geysers. Perhaps the most important factor is jurisdiction. At the Geysers, all three levels of government - local, state, and federal - exercise significant authority over various aspects of geothermal development. In addition, several agencies within each governmental level play an active role in the permitting process. The present study is concerned primarily with the local permitting process, and the ways in which this process could be expedited. This report begins by looking at the local role in the overall permitting process, and then reviews the findings and conclusions that have been reached in other studies of the problem. This is followed by a case study evaluation of recent permitting experience in the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties, and the report concludes by outlining several approaches to expediting the local permitting process.

  2. Environmental problems and geothermal permitting

    SciTech Connect

    Windrem, P.F.; Marr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of geothermal development, the attendant environmental hazards, and the jurisdictions of the various government agencies. Most examples of environmental hazards are drawn from the electric-power production in the geysers of northern California. The major enviromental effects of geothermal development are observed on air quality (including noise), land (including soil erosion, seismic activity and subsidence, wildlife habitat, and visual quality), and water quality. Ownership determines which agencies have jurisdiction, with the preparation of an environmental impact statement at the heart of the federal regulatory process and an environmental-impact report required at the state level. Environmental rules also cover power-plant construction and geothermal field abandonment. 58 references.

  3. Coordinating Permit Offices and the Development of Utility-Scale Geothermal Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K.; Witherbee, K.

    2013-10-01

    Permitting is a major component of the geothermal development process. Better coordination across government agencies could reduce uncertainty of the process and the actual time of permitting. This presentation highlights various forms of coordinating permit offices at the state and federal level in the western United States, discusses inefficiencies and mitigation techniques for permitting natural resource projects, analyzes whether various approaches are easily adaptable to utility-scale geothermal development, and addresses advantages and challenges for coordinating permit offices. Key successful strategies identified include: 1. Flexibility in implementing the approach (i.e. less statutory requirements for the approach); 2. Less dependence on a final environmental review for information sharing and permit coordination; 3. State and federal partnerships developed through memorandum of understanding to define roles and share data and/or developer information. A few of the most helpful techniques include: 1. A central point of contact for the developer to ask questions surrounding the project; 2. Pre-application meetings to assist the developer in identifying all of the permits, regulatory approvals, and associated information or data required; 3. A permit schedule or timeline to set expectations for the developer and agencies; 4. Consolidating the public notice, comment, and hearing period into fewer hearings held concurrently.

  4. Montana Geothermal Handbook: a guide to agencies, regulations, permits and financial aids for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Perlmutter, S.; Birkby, J.

    1980-10-01

    The handbook is divided into three parts: a list of the permits required for various thermal projects, and an estimate of time needed to obtain them; a brief discussion of the statutes and regulations referred to; (This information was gathered in a survey of state and federal regulations, as well as in conversations with numerous state and federal officials); and a description of the state and federal grant and loan funding available to a prospective geothermal developer. The names and addresses of the relevant state and federal agencies and legal citations are listed in appendices.

  5. Geothermal : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.Gordon

    1991-10-01

    The actual geothermal exploration and development may appear to be a simple and straightforward process in comparison to the legal and institutional maze which the developer must navigate in order to obtain all of the federal, state, and local leases, permits, licenses, and approvals necessary at each step in the process. Finally, and often most difficult, is obtaining a contract for the sale of thermal energy, brine, steam, or electricity. This guide is designed to help developers interested in developing geothermal resource sites in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory in the state of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington better understand the federal, state, and local institutional process, the roles and responsibilities of each agency, and how and when to make contact in order to obtain the necessary documents.

  6. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  7. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  8. Area- and site-specific geothermal leasing/permitting profiles; updated geothermal leasing/permitting performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Schumann, E.; Wieland, M.

    1982-02-01

    Sufficient discussion of the elements of the leasing and permitting programs is included to place the information developed in proper context. A table and process flow diagram developed previously which outline the steps in the non-competitive leasing process, is reprinted. Computer printout profiles are presented on 195 identifiable areas in the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Sufficient information on the boundaries of these areas is contained in the report to permit identification of their general location on any map of the appropriate state which shows township and range locations.

  9. Geothermal energy development in Washington State. A guide to the federal, state and local regulatory process

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Simpson, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Washington State's geothermal potential is wide spread. Hot springs and five strato volcanoes existing throughout the Cascade Range, limited hot spring activity on the Olympic Peninsula, and broad reaching, low temperature geothermal resources found in the Columbia Basin comprise the extent of Washington's known geothermal resources. Determination of resource ownership is the first step in proceeding with geothermal exploration and development activities. The federal and state processes are examined from pre-lease activity through leasing and post-lease development concerns. Plans, permits, licenses, and other requirements are addressed for the federal, state, and local level. Lease, permit, and other forms for a number of geothermal exploration and development activities are included. A map of public lands and another displaying the measured geothermal resources throughout the state are provided.

  10. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, L. H.

    1985-12-03

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight monoor copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  11. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  12. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  13. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  14. BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES FOR GEOTHERMAL BRINE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    PREMUZIC,E.T.; LIN,M.S.; BOHENEK,M.; JOSHI-TOPE,G.; ZHOU,W.; SHELENKOVA,L.; WILKE,R.

    1998-09-20

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL's Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  15. Biochemical processes for geothermal brine treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Bohenek, M.; Joshi-Tope, G.; Zhou, W.; Shelenkova, L.; Wilke, R.

    1998-08-01

    As part of the DOE Geothermal Energy Program, BNL`s Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) project is aimed at the development of cost-efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the disposal of geothermal wastes. Extensive chemical studies of high and low salinity brines and precipitates have indicated that in addition to trace quantities of regulated substances, e.g., toxic metals such as arsenic and mercury, there are significant concentrations of valuable metals, including gold, silver and platinum. Further chemical and physical studies of the silica product have also shown that the produced silica is a valuable material with commercial potential. A combined biochemical and chemical technology is being developed which (1) solubilizes, separates, and removes environmentally regulated constituents in geothermal precipitates and brines, (2) generates an amorphous silica product which may be used as feedstock for the production of revenue generating materials, (3) recover economically valuable trace metals and salts. Geothermal power resources which utilize low salinity brines and use the Stretford process for hydrogen sulfide abatement generate a contaminated sulfur cake. Combined technology converts such sulfur to a commercial grade sulfur, suitable for agricultural use. The R and D activities at BNL are conducted jointly with industrial parties in an effort focused on field applications.

  16. Operating Permits Program Review Process

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Chemical processing in geothermal nuclear chimney

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1973-10-01

    A closed rubble filled nuclear chimney is provided in a subterranean geothermal formation by detonation of a nuclear explosive device therein, with reagent input and product output conduits connecting the chimney cavity with appropriate surface facilities. Such facilities will usually comprise reagent preparation, product recovery and recycle facilities. Proccsses are then conducted in the nuclear chimney which processes are facilitated by temperature, pressure, catalytic and other conditions existent or which are otherwise provided in the nuclear chimney. (auth)

  18. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-30

    The activities of the Geothermal Office during the quarter are discussed, including: important geothermal events, geothermal waste disposal, a grant award by the California Energy Commission, the geothermal development meeting, and the current status of geothermal development in Imperial County. Activities of the Geothermal Planner are addressed, including permits, processing of EIR's, and other planning activities. Progress on the direct heat study is reported.

  19. Enthalpy restoration in geothermal energy processing system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Hugh B.

    1983-01-01

    A geothermal deep well energy extraction system is provided of the general type in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a relatively low temperature geothermal source by transferring thermal energy from the hot water to a working fluid for driving a primary turbine-motor and a primary electrical generator at the earth's surface. The superheated expanded exhaust from the primary turbine motor is conducted to a bubble tank where it bubbles through a layer of sub-cooled working fluid that has been condensed. The superheat and latent heat from the expanded exhaust of the turbine transfers thermal energy to the sub-cooled condensate. The desuperheated exhaust is then conducted to the condenser where it is condensed and sub-cooled, whereupon it is conducted back to the bubble tank via a barometric storage tank. The novel condensing process of this invention makes it possible to exploit geothermal sources which might otherwise be non-exploitable.

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.V.; Lacy, S.B.; Lowe, G.D.; Nussbaum, A.M.; Walter, K.M.; Willens, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    The engineering, economic, and environmental feasibility of the use of low and moderate temperature geothermal heat in the mining and processing of tungsten ore is explored. The following are covered: general engineering evaluation, design of a geothermal energy system, economics, the geothermal resource, the institutional barriers assessment, environmental factors, an alternate geothermal energy source, and alternates to geothermal development. (MHR)

  1. 30 CFR 941.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DAKOTA § 941.773 Requirements for permits and permit processing. (a) Part 773 of this chapter... permits, leases and certificates required by the State of South Dakota including compliance with: (1) Air...

  2. 30 CFR 941.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DAKOTA § 941.773 Requirements for permits and permit processing. (a) Part 773 of this chapter... permits, leases and certificates required by the State of South Dakota including compliance with: (1) Air...

  3. 30 CFR 941.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DAKOTA § 941.773 Requirements for permits and permit processing. (a) Part 773 of this chapter... permits, leases and certificates required by the State of South Dakota including compliance with: (1) Air...

  4. 30 CFR 941.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DAKOTA § 941.773 Requirements for permits and permit processing. (a) Part 773 of this chapter... permits, leases and certificates required by the State of South Dakota including compliance with: (1) Air...

  5. 30 CFR 941.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DAKOTA § 941.773 Requirements for permits and permit processing. (a) Part 773 of this chapter... permits, leases and certificates required by the State of South Dakota including compliance with: (1) Air...

  6. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  7. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 331 - Administrative Appeal Process for Permit Denials and Proffered Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Permit Denials and Proffered Permits A Appendix A to Part 331 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ADMINISTRATIVE APPEAL PROCESS Pt. 331, App. A Appendix A to Part 331—Administrative Appeal Process for Permit Denials and Proffered Permits ER28MR00.000...

  8. IT Solution to Improve the Permitting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Mary

    2013-02-14

    Over the past decade Houston has taken significant strides to implement and promote sustainability. Currently the City of Houston’s Green Building Resource Center stands testament to the determination of city officials to make Houston truly green. Houston was named a Solar America City by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 and is part of the Texas Solar Collaboration as part of the DOE Rooftop Challenge Grant. In that time, Houston has made significant progress in addressing the challenges associated with installing solar in the City. One of the challenges related to soft costs of solar are the time and associated costs related to the permitting process. From 2000 to 2010, the Houston area has witnessed unprecedented growth, with the population increasing by nearly 700,000. The City of Houston is working to address the needs of this growing population, including building the new One-Stop Code and Permitting building. The Houston Permitting Center opened in June 2011. It combines the majority of the City of Houston's permitting and licensing into one place with a mission to help customers achieve their goals while complying with the City’s regulations. The stated mission “requires a continuous pursuit of improving the customer experience. Providing excellent service, streamlining business processes, implementing innovative technologies, and proactively engaging customers are all cornerstones of this philosophy.”

  9. Onshore permitting systems analysis for coal, oil, gas, geothermal and oil shale leases. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The magnitude and complexity of permit processes raises a question as to their impact on the rate and scope of industrial development activity. One particular area where this issue is of concern is in new energy extraction and development activities. The initiation of new energy projects has been a national priority for several years. But, energy projects, because of their potential for creating land disturbances, are subject to many environmental and other regulations. Because of this, the permitting required of energy resource developers is extensive. Within the energy field, a major portion of development activities occurs on federal lands. This is particularly true in the Rocky Mountain states and Alaska where the principal landholder is the federal government. The permitting requirements for federal lands' development differ from those for private lands. This report assesses the impact of permitting processes for energy resource development on federal lands. The permitting processes covered include all of the major environmental, land-use, and safety permits required by agencies of federal and state governments. The lands covered include all federal lands, with emphasis on eight states with major development activities.

  10. 43 CFR 3203.5 - What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a geothermal lease? 3203.5 Section 3203.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3203.5 What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease? (a) The competitive geothermal leasing process consists of the following steps:...

  11. 43 CFR 3203.5 - What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... a geothermal lease? 3203.5 Section 3203.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3203.5 What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease? (a) The competitive geothermal leasing process consists of the following steps:...

  12. 43 CFR 3203.5 - What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... a geothermal lease? 3203.5 Section 3203.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3203.5 What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease? (a) The competitive geothermal leasing process consists of the following steps:...

  13. 43 CFR 3203.5 - What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a geothermal lease? 3203.5 Section 3203.5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3203.5 What is the general process for obtaining a geothermal lease? (a) The competitive geothermal leasing process consists of the following steps:...

  14. Environmental control technology (ECT) for geothermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, G.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the environmental control technology (ECT) program are to develop research priorities, research new and alternative technologies and to improve economics and performance of ECT systems. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council, Environmental Control Panel developed priorities and obtained industry input during 1980. H/sub 2/S controls, injection monitoring, solid waste characterization and control and subsidence were reviewed as high priority while noise controls were considered low priority. Since geothermal technology is still developing there is a need to continue researching new and alternative ECT. Often ECT systems must be designed for site specific applications and need modification for use of other sites. Most of the US geothermal experience is found at the Geysers, California where H/sub 2/S abatement is required. Various systems have been tested with mixed results. The bottom line is that the economics and performance of H/sub 2/S abatement systems are less than desirable.

  15. Advanced materials for geothermal energy processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1985-08-01

    The primary goal of the geothermal materials program is to ensure that the private sector development of geothermal energy resources is not constrained by the availability of technologically and economically viable materials of construction. This requires the performance of long-term high risk GHTD-sponsored materials R and D. Ongoing programs described include high temperature elastomers for dynamic sealing applications, advanced materials for lost circulation control, waste utilization and disposal, corrosion resistant elastomeric liners for well casing, and non-metallic heat exchangers. 9 refs.

  16. 40 CFR 124.4 - Consolidation of permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... processing a PSD permit with any other permit under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section when to do so would delay issuance of the PSD permit more than one year from the effective date of the application under...

  17. 40 CFR 124.4 - Consolidation of permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... processing a PSD permit with any other permit under paragraph (a) or (b) of this section when to do so would delay issuance of the PSD permit more than one year from the effective date of the application under...

  18. 40 CFR 74.14 - Opt-in permit process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opt-in permit process. 74.14 Section...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Permitting Procedures § 74.14 Opt-in permit process. (a) Submission. The designated representative of a combustion or process source may submit an opt-in permit application and a...

  19. 40 CFR 74.14 - Opt-in permit process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Opt-in permit process. 74.14 Section...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Permitting Procedures § 74.14 Opt-in permit process. (a) Submission. The designated representative of a combustion or process source may submit an opt-in permit application and a...

  20. Geothermal leasing and permitting data base: a tool for future planning. Final report, 22 August 1979-31 December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Schumann, E.; Wieland, M.

    1980-12-01

    A data file on all separate actions taken by the responsible agencies in implementing the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 was developed. A computerized data base on the non-competitive leasing program is described here. The required data were obtained from the files of the BLM State Offices where the lease applications are received and from Forest Service Regional Offices responsible for that agency's consultation. The states covered include: Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Subsequently, the data file was expanded to include: the competitive leasing history by KGRA, pre-lease exploratory permits, post-lease exploratory permits, post-lease drilling permits, leases on state land, and state drilling permits. (MHR)

  1. Advanced materials and biochemical processes for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.; van Rooyen, D.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two Geothermal Technology Division (GTD)-sponsored programs: (1) Geothermal Materials Development, and (2) Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines, are described. In the former, work in the following tasks is in progress: (1) high temperature elastomeric materials for dynamic sealing applications, (2) advanced high temperature (300/sup 0/C) lightweight (1.1 g/cc) well cementing materials, (3) thermally conductive composites for heat exchanger tubing, (4) corrosion rates for metals in brine-contaminated binary plant working fluids, and (5) elastomeric liners for well casing. Methods for the utilization and/or the low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues are being developed in the second program. This work is performed in two tasks. In one, microorganisms that can interact with toxic metals found in geothermal residues to convert them into soluble species for subsequent reinjection back into the reservoir or to concentrate them for removal by conventional processes are being identified. In the second task, process conditions are being defined for the encapsulation of untreated or partially biochemically treated residues in Portland cement-based formulations and the subsequent utilization of the waste fractions in building materials. Both processing methods yield materials which appear to meet disposal criteria for non-toxic solid waste, and their technical and economic feasibilities have been established.

  2. Deep geothermal processes acting on faults and solid tides in coastal Xinzhou geothermal field, Guangdong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guoping; Wang, Xiao; Li, Fusi; Xu, Fangyiming; Wang, Yanxin; Qi, Shihua; Yuen, David

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated the deep fault thermal flow processes in the Xinzhou geothermal field in the Yangjiang region of Guangdong Province. Deep faults channel geothermal energy to the shallow ground, which makes it difficult to study due to the hidden nature. We conducted numerical experiments in order to investigate the physical states of the geothermal water inside the fault zone. We view the deep fault as a fast flow path for the thermal water from the deep crust driven up by the buoyancy. Temperature measurements at the springs or wells constrain the upper boundary, and the temperature inferred from the Currie temperature interface bounds the bottom. The deepened boundary allows the thermal reservoir to revolve rather than to be at a fixed temperature. The results detail the concept of a thermal reservoir in terms of its formation and heat distribution. The concept also reconciles the discrepancy in reservoir temperatures predicted from both quartz and Na-K-Mg. The downward displacement of the crust increases the pressure at the deep ground and leads to an elevated temperature and a lighter water density. Ultimately, our results are a first step in implementing numerical studies of deep faults through geothermal water flows; future works need to extend to cases of supercritical states. This approach is applicable to general deep-fault thermal flows and dissipation paths for the seismic energy from the deep crust.

  3. 30 CFR 921.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for permits and permit processing. 921.773 Section 921.773 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.773 Requirements for permits...

  4. 30 CFR 903.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 903.773 Section 903.773 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA... Permits and Permit Processing, applies to any person who applies for a permit for surface coal mining...

  5. 30 CFR 942.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 942.773 Section 942.773 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE... Permits and Permit Processing, shall apply to any person who applies for a permit for surface coal mining...

  6. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  7. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines FY 1998 annual operating plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    As part of the overall Geothermal Energy Research which is aimed at the development of economical geothermal resources production systems, the aim of the Advanced Biochemical Processes for Geothermal Brines (ABPGB) effort is the development of economic and environmentally acceptable methods for disposal of geothermal wastes and conversion of by-products to useful forms. Methods are being developed for dissolution, separation and immobilization of geothermal wastes suitable for disposal, usable in inert construction materials, suitable for reinjection into the reservoir formation, or used for recovery of valuable metals.

  8. Model operating permits for natural gas processing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arend, C.

    1995-12-31

    Major sources as defined in Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 that are required to submit an operating permit application will need to: Evaluate their compliance status; Determine a strategic method of presenting the general and specific conditions of their Model Operating Permit (MOP); Maintain compliance with air quality regulations. A MOP is prepared to assist permitting agencies and affected facilities in the development of operating permits for a specific source category. This paper includes a brief discussion of example permit conditions that may be applicable to various types of Title V sources. A MOP for a generic natural gas processing plant is provided as an example. The MOP should include a general description of the production process and identify emission sources. The two primary elements that comprise a MOP are: Provisions of all existing state and/or local air permits; Identification of general and specific conditions for the Title V permit. The general provisions will include overall compliance with all Clean Air Act Titles. The specific provisions include monitoring, record keeping, and reporting. Although Title V MOPs are prepared on a case-by-case basis, this paper will provide a general guideline of the requirements for preparation of a MOP. Regulatory agencies have indicated that a MOP included in the Title V application will assist in preparation of the final permit provisions, minimize delays in securing a permit, and provide support during the public notification process.

  9. 40 CFR 124.210 - May I, as an interested party in the permit process, appeal a final standardized permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... permit process, appeal a final standardized permit? 124.210 Section 124.210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS PROCEDURES FOR DECISIONMAKING Procedures for RCRA Standardized Permit Opportunities for Public Involvement in the Standardized Permit Process § 124.210 May I, as...

  10. Geothermal injection treatment: process chemistry, field experiences, and design options

    SciTech Connect

    Kindle, C.H.; Mercer, B.W.; Elmore, R.P.; Blair, S.C.; Myers, D.A.

    1984-09-01

    The successful development of geothermal reservoirs to generate electric power will require the injection disposal of approximately 700,000 gal/h (2.6 x 10/sup 6/ 1/h) of heat-depleted brine for every 50,000 kW of generating capacity. To maintain injectability, the spent brine must be compatible with the receiving formation. The factors that influence this brine/formation compatibility and tests to quantify them are discussed in this report. Some form of treatment will be necessary prior to injection for most situations; the process chemistry involved to avoid and/or accelerate the formation of precipitate particles is also discussed. The treatment processes, either avoidance or controlled precipitation approaches, are described in terms of their principles and demonstrated applications in the geothermal field and, when such experience is limited, in other industrial use. Monitoring techniques for tracking particulate growth, the effect of process parameters on corrosion and well injectability are presented. Examples of brine injection, preinjection treatment, and recovery from injectivity loss are examined and related to the aspects listed above.

  11. Cementation process for minerals recovery from Salton Sea geothermal brines

    SciTech Connect

    Maimoni, A.

    1982-01-26

    The potential for minerals recovery from a 1000-MWe combined geothermal power and minerals recovery plant in the Salton Sea is examined. While the possible value of minerals recovered would substantially exceed the revenue from power production, information is insufficient to carry out a detailed economic analysis. The recovery of precious metals - silver, gold, and platinum - is the most important factor in determining the economics of a minerals recovery plant; however, the precious metals content of the brines is not certain. Such a power plant could recover 14 to 31% of the US demand for manganese and substantial amounts of zinc and lead. Previous work on minerals extraction from Salton Sea brines is also reviewed and a new process, based on a fluidized-bed cementation reaction with metallic iron, is proposed. This process would recover the precious metals, lead, and tin present in the brines.

  12. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema

    Pete McGrail

    2016-07-12

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  13. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs;Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONSI's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing environmental

  14. 32 CFR 855.12 - Processing a permit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 855.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.12 Processing a... and or the purpose of use. For example, the period of use for participants in an Air Force open house...

  15. 32 CFR 855.12 - Processing a permit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 855.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.12 Processing a... and or the purpose of use. For example, the period of use for participants in an Air Force open house...

  16. 32 CFR 855.12 - Processing a permit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 855.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.12 Processing a... and or the purpose of use. For example, the period of use for participants in an Air Force open house...

  17. 32 CFR 855.12 - Processing a permit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 855.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.12 Processing a... and or the purpose of use. For example, the period of use for participants in an Air Force open house...

  18. 32 CFR 855.12 - Processing a permit application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 855.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.12 Processing a... and or the purpose of use. For example, the period of use for participants in an Air Force open house...

  19. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  20. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. Quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, C.K.; Erickson, M.V.; Lowe, G.D.

    1980-02-01

    The status of the engineering and economic feasibility study of utilizing geothermal energy for the mining and processing of tungsten ore at the Union Carbide-Metals Division Pine Creek tungsten complex near Bishop, Calfironia is reviewed. Results of geophysical data analysis including determination of assumed resource parameters are presented. The energy utilization evaluation identifies potential locations for substituting geothermal energy for fossil fuel energy using current technology. Preliminary analyses for local environmental and institutional barriers to development of a geothermal system are also provided.

  1. Magnetic Nanofluid Rare Earth Element Extraction Process Report, Techno Economic Analysis, and Results for Geothermal Fluids

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pete McGrail

    2016-03-14

    This GDR submission is an interim technical report and raw data files from the first year of testing on functionalized nanoparticles for rare earth element extraction from geothermal fluids. The report contains Rare Earth Element uptake results (percent removal, mg Rare Earth Element/gram of sorbent, distribution coefficient) for the elements of Neodymium, Europium, Yttrium, Dysprosium, and Cesium. A detailed techno economic analysis is also presented in the report for a scaled up geothermal rare earth element extraction process. All rare earth element uptake testing was done on simulated geothermal brines with one rare earth element in each brine. The rare earth element uptake testing was conducted at room temperature.

  2. 30 CFR 947.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regulations: (1) Department of Ecology: Surface Water Rights Permit, RCW 90.03.250 Dam Safety Approval, RCW 90... deny a permit application to the Washington Department of Natural Resources, the Department of Ecology...

  3. 30 CFR 947.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations: (1) Department of Ecology: Surface Water Rights Permit, RCW 90.03.250 Dam Safety Approval, RCW 90... deny a permit application to the Washington Department of Natural Resources, the Department of Ecology...

  4. 30 CFR 947.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations: (1) Department of Ecology: Surface Water Rights Permit, RCW 90.03.250 Dam Safety Approval, RCW 90... deny a permit application to the Washington Department of Natural Resources, the Department of Ecology...

  5. 30 CFR 947.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations: (1) Department of Ecology: Surface Water Rights Permit, RCW 90.03.250 Dam Safety Approval, RCW 90... deny a permit application to the Washington Department of Natural Resources, the Department of Ecology...

  6. 30 CFR 947.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations: (1) Department of Ecology: Surface Water Rights Permit, RCW 90.03.250 Dam Safety Approval, RCW 90... deny a permit application to the Washington Department of Natural Resources, the Department of Ecology...

  7. Studies of geothermal power and process heat applications in St. Lucia and Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    Many countries have the potential to use geothermal energy for both power production and process heat applications. Two Los Alamos programs have studied the most effective use of geothermal energy in St. Lucia and Guatemala. The general objectives are (1) to reduce oil imports; (2) develop employment opportunities; and (3) make products more competitive. The initial St. Lucia studies emphasized power generation but a number of applications for the power plant's residual heat were also found and costs and systems have been determined. The costs of geothermal heat compare favorably with heat from other sources such as oil. In Guatemala, the development of the nation's first geothermal field is well advanced. Process heat applications and their coordination with power generation plants are being studied at Los Alamos. Guatemala has at least two fields that appear suitable for power and heat production. These fields are close to urban centers and to many potential heat applications.

  8. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... granted only upon an adequate showing that such food is free from microorganisms of public health... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit. 108.12 Section 108.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG...

  9. 30 CFR 933.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determine whether the operation and reclamation plans are consistent with actual site conditions. The... shall have the locations of the proposed permit boundaries, topsoil storage areas, sediment control... Code, Subchapter 5C); a development permit for operations in an area of environmental...

  10. 30 CFR 903.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-381. (2) Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq A.R.S. Title 49. (3) Resource Conservation..., Article 1. (9) Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act, 16 U.S.C. 661-667. (10) Noise Control Act, 42 U.S.C...-256); (iv) Solid waste and air pollution discharge permits, installation and operation permits...

  11. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  12. 30 CFR 933.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...); an approval of dam construction (NCGS 143-215.108), an air pollution control permit (NCGS 143-215.26... in a soil conservation district (NCGS 139-9); and compliance with any county ordinance regarding...

  13. 30 CFR 933.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...); an approval of dam construction (NCGS 143-215.108), an air pollution control permit (NCGS 143-215.26... in a soil conservation district (NCGS 139-9); and compliance with any county ordinance regarding...

  14. 30 CFR 933.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...); an approval of dam construction (NCGS 143-215.108), an air pollution control permit (NCGS 143-215.26... in a soil conservation district (NCGS 139-9); and compliance with any county ordinance regarding...

  15. 30 CFR 912.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Idaho, pursuant to Idaho Code sections...

  16. 30 CFR 912.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Idaho, pursuant to Idaho Code sections...

  17. 30 CFR 912.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Idaho, pursuant to Idaho Code sections...

  18. 30 CFR 912.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO... without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Idaho, pursuant to Idaho Code sections...

  19. 30 CFR 933.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...); an approval of dam construction (NCGS 143-215.108), an air pollution control permit (NCGS 143-215.26... the removal of more than 250 tons of coal or shall conduct surface coal mining unless that person...

  20. A survey of geothermal process heat applications in Guatemala: An engineering survey

    SciTech Connect

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1988-08-01

    This study investigates how process heat from Guatemala's geothermal energy resources can be developed to reduce Guatemala's costly importation of oil, create new employment by encouraging new industry, and reduce fuel costs for existing industry. This investigation was funded by the US Agency for International Development and carried out jointly by the Guatemalan Government and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two sites, Amatitlan and Zunil, are being developed geothermally. Amatitlan is in the better industrial area but Zunil's geothermal development is more advanced. The industry around Zunil is almost exclusively agricultural and the development of an agricultural processing plant (freezing, dehydration, and cold storage) using geothermal heat is recommended. Similar developments throughout the volcanic zones of Guatemala are possible. Later, when the field at Amatitlan has been further developed, an industrial park can be planned. Potential Amatitlan applications are the final stage of salt refining, a thermal power plant, hospital/hotel heating and cooling, steam curing of concrete blocks, production of alcohol from sugar cane, and production of polyethylene from ethanol. Other special developments such as water pumping for the city of Guatemala and the use of moderate-temperature geothermal fluids for localized power production are also possible. 12 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Summary of the planning, management, and evaluation process for the Geothermal Program Review VI conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to present an overview of the planning, facilitation, and evaluation process used to conduct the Geothermal Program Review VI (PR VI) conference. This document was also prepared to highlight lessons learned from PR VI and, by utilizing the evaluation summaries and recommendations, be used as a planning tool for PR VII. The conference, entitled Beyond Goals and Objectives,'' was sponsored by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Division (GTD), PR VI was held in San Francisco, California on April 19--21, 1988 and was attended by 127 participants. PR VI was held in conjunction with the National Geothermal Association's (NGA) Industry Round Table. This document presents a brief summary of the activities, responsibilities, and resources for implementing the PR VI meeting and provides recommendations, checklists, and a proposed schedule for assisting in planning PR VII.

  2. 30 CFR 937.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON... operations without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Oregon, including compliance with Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals (ORS 197.180) and any relevant Country Comprehensive Land...

  3. 30 CFR 937.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON... operations without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Oregon, including compliance with Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals (ORS 197.180) and any relevant Country Comprehensive Land...

  4. 30 CFR 937.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON... operations without permits issued and/or certificates required by the State of Oregon, including compliance with Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals (ORS 197.180) and any relevant Country Comprehensive Land...

  5. 30 CFR 942.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE... compliance with applicable Federal laws and regulations other than the Act. (d) Review of Tennessee State... by the State of Tennessee. (2) If the Office determines that any State permit was granted contrary to...

  6. 30 CFR 942.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE... compliance with applicable Federal laws and regulations other than the Act. (d) Review of Tennessee State... by the State of Tennessee. (2) If the Office determines that any State permit was granted contrary to...

  7. 30 CFR 942.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE... compliance with applicable Federal laws and regulations other than the Act. (d) Review of Tennessee State... by the State of Tennessee. (2) If the Office determines that any State permit was granted contrary to...

  8. 30 CFR 937.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals (ORS 197.180) and any relevant Country Comprehensive Land Use Plans (ORS 197.005-ORS 197.775); license from the Division of State Lands where mines or exploration are on State lands (ORS 273.005-273.815); Solid Waste Disposal Permits, Hazardous Waste Transportation...

  9. 30 CFR 937.773 - Requirements for permits and permit processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with Oregon's Statewide Planning Goals (ORS 197.180) and any relevant Country Comprehensive Land Use Plans (ORS 197.005-ORS 197.775); license from the Division of State Lands where mines or exploration are on State lands (ORS 273.005-273.815); Solid Waste Disposal Permits, Hazardous Waste Transportation...

  10. Calculation tool for transported geothermal energy using two-step absorption process

    DOE Data Explorer

    Kyle Gluesenkamp

    2016-02-01

    This spreadsheet allows the user to calculate parameters relevant to techno-economic performance of a two-step absorption process to transport low temperature geothermal heat some distance (1-20 miles) for use in building air conditioning. The parameters included are (1) energy density of aqueous LiBr and LiCl solutions, (2) transportation cost of trucking solution, and (3) equipment cost for the required chillers and cooling towers in the two-step absorption approach. More information is available in the included public report: "A Technical and Economic Analysis of an Innovative Two-Step Absorption System for Utilizing Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources to Condition Commercial Buildings"

  11. Advanced biochemical processes for geothermal brines: Annual operating plan, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1995-02-01

    An R and D program to identify methods for the utilization and/or low cost of environmentally acceptable disposal of toxic geothermal residues has been established at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Laboratory work has shown that a biochemical process developed at BNL, would meet regulatory costs and environmental requirements. In this work, microorganisms which can convert insoluble species of toxic metals, including radionuclides, into soluble species, have been identified. These organisms serve as models in the development of a biochemical process in which toxic metals present in geothermal residual sludges are converted into water soluble species. The produced solution can be reinjected or processed further to concentrate and recover commercially valuable metals. After the biochemical detoxification of geothermal residual sludges, the end-products are non-toxic and meet regulatory requirements. The overall process is a technically and environmentally acceptable cost-efficient process. It is anticipated that the new biotechnology will reduce the cost of surface disposal of sludges derived from geothermal brines by 25% or better.

  12. Developing a Process for Commercial Silica Production from Geothermal Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Martin, S; Viani, B; Bruton, C

    2001-04-11

    Useful mineral by-products can be produced from geothermal brines. Although silica has many commercial uses, problems remain in producing a marketable product. We are conducting laboratory and modeling studies aimed at optimizing for rubber additive use, the properties of silica precipitates from Salton Sea and Coso-like geothermal fluids, Our goal is to develop a robust technique for producing silicas that have desirable physical and chemical properties for commercial use, while developing a generic understanding of silica precipitation that will allow extraction to be extended to additional fluid types, and to be easily modified to produce new types of marketable silica. Our experiments start with an acidified geothermal fluid similar to those treated by pH modification technology. Silica precipitation is induced by adding base and/or adding Mg or Ca salts to affect the nature of the precipitate. For the analog Salton Sea fluids, adding base alone caused silica to precipitate fairly rapidly. To date, we have characterized precipitates from experiments in which the final pH varied from 4 to 8, where NaOH and Na{sub 2}C0{sub 3} were added as bases, and CaCl{sub 2} and MgCl{sub 2} were added as salts. SEM photos of the silica precipitates from the Salton Sea and Cos0 fluids show that the silica particles are clusters of smaller silica particles down to the resolution of the SEM (about 80-100 nm in diameter). The particle sizes and surface areas of silicas from the Salton Sea and Coso analog brines are similar to the properties of the Degussa silica commonly used as a rubber additive. An evaluation of the strength of the silica-organic bond as tested by dispersion in oil (polybutadiene) was inconclusive. Neither the Degussa materials nor our laboratory precipitates dispersed readily in nor dispersed down to the fundamental particle size. Preliminary NMR data indicates that the Degussa silica has a smaller degree of silica polymerization (a slightly smaller average

  13. 77 FR 23540 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  14. 77 FR 58217 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  15. 77 FR 64846 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of... Paquet, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and...

  16. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction state. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process. Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination Process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure.

  17. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  18. Data acquisition for low-temperature geothermal well tests and long-term monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    Groundwater monitoring is an essential part of the development of a low-temperature geothermal field for production and injection wells. State water resource and environmental departments are requiring both geothermal well testing and long-term monitoring as a part of the permitting process for geothermal developments. This report covers water-level measurement methods, instruments used for well testing, geochemical sampling, examples of data acquisition and regulatory mandates on groundwater monitoring.

  19. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EMERGENCY PERMIT CONTROL... or other storage facility under his control, interstate shipment of any such food from the point of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without...

  20. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EMERGENCY PERMIT CONTROL... or other storage facility under his control, interstate shipment of any such food from the point of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without...

  1. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EMERGENCY PERMIT CONTROL... or other storage facility under his control, interstate shipment of any such food from the point of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without...

  2. 21 CFR 108.12 - Manufacturing, processing, or packing without a permit, or in violation of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EMERGENCY PERMIT CONTROL... or other storage facility under his control, interstate shipment of any such food from the point of... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Manufacturing, processing, or packing without...

  3. 77 FR 38051 - EPA Activities To Promote Environmental Justice in the Permit Application Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... more environmental good than any permit can compel. Reducing treatment failures, spills or other... prevention strategies--are publicized within the community. These practices also make good business sense... permitting process. The permit applicant also has an interest in being a good neighbor to the community on...

  4. FINAL REPORT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PHASE II ANIMAS VALLEY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Roy A.Cunniff; Roger L. Bowers

    2003-12-29

    Final Technical Report covering siting, permitting, and drilling two geothermal temperature gradient holes. This report provides a summary of geotechnical and geophysical data that led to the siting, drilling, and completion of 2 temperature gradient holes in the geothermal anomaly at Lightning Dock Known Geothermal Resource Area in the Animas Valley of New Mexico. Included in this report is a summary of institutional factors and data defining the well drilling process and acquiring drilling permits. Data covering the results of the drilling and temperature logging of these two holes are provided. The two gradient holes were sited on federal geothermal leases owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. and both holes were drilled into lakebed sediments some distance from the intense shallow geothermal anomaly located in the eastern half of Section 7, Township 25 South, Range 19 West.

  5. Geothermal Development and the Use of Categorical Exclusions Under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, A.; Young, K. R.

    2014-09-01

    The federal environmental review process under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) can be complex and time consuming. Currently, a geothermal developer may have to complete the NEPA process multiple times during the development of a geothermal project. One mechanism to reduce the timeframe of the federal environmental review process for activities that do not have a significant environmental impact is the use of Categorical Exclusions (CXs), which can exempt projects from having to complete an Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement. This study focuses primarily on the CX process and its applicability to geothermal exploration. In this paper, we: Provide generalized background information on CXs, including previous NEPA reports addressing CXs, the process for developing CXs, and the role of extraordinary circumstances; Examine the history of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) geothermal CXs; Compare current CXs for oil, gas, and geothermal energy; Describe bills proposing new statutory CXs; Examine the possibility of standardizing geothermal CXs across federal agencies; and Present analysis from the Geothermal NEPA Database and other sources on the potential for new geothermal exploration CXs. As part of this study, we reviewed Environmental Assessments (EAs) conducted in response to 20 geothermal exploration drilling permit applications (Geothermal Drilling Permits or Notices of Intents) since the year 2001, the majority of which are from the last 5 years. All 20 EAs reviewed for this study resulted in a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). While many of these FONS's involved proponent proposed or federal agency required mitigation, this still suggests it may be appropriate to create or expand an exploration drilling CX for geothermal, which would have a significant impact on reducing geothermal exploration timelines and up-front costs. Ultimately, federal agencies tasked with permitting and completing environmental

  6. Direct chlorination process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5 percent hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90 percent excess chlorine gas was used. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  7. Wyoming's industrial siting permit process and environmental impact assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Eric L.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of management of industrial residuals can be reduced through a rational system for siting and planning major industrial facilities. In the United States, Wyoming has moved in the direction of establishing a one-stop permitting system that provides important information for air and water quality planning and solid waste management with a minimum of regulatory overlap. This paper describes Wyoming's Industrial Development Information and Siting Act of 1975 and suggests ways in which the Wyoming permitting system can be improved and applied elsewhere.

  8. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  9. Self-organizing maps in geothermal exploration-A new approach for understanding geochemical processes and fluid evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehme, Maren; Bauer, Klaus; Nukman, Mochamad; Regenspurg, Simona

    2017-04-01

    Understanding geochemical processes is an important part of geothermal exploration to get information about the source and evolution of geothermal fluids. However, in most cases knowledge of fluid properties is based on few parameters determined in samples from the shallow subsurface. This study presents a new approach that allows to conclude from the combination of a variety of these data on processes occurring at depth in a geothermal reservoir. The neural network clustering technique called ;self-organizing maps; (SOMs) successfully distinguished two different geothermal settings based on a hydrochemical database and disclosed the source, evolution and flow pathways of geothermal fluids. Scatter plots, as shown in this study, are appropriate presentations of element concentrations and the chemical interaction of water and rock at depth. One geological setting presented here is marked by fault dominated fluid pathways and minor influence of volcanic affected fluids with high concentrations of HCO3, Ca and Sr. The second is a magmatically dominated setting showing strong alteration features in volcanic rocks and accommodates acidic fluids with high SO4 and Si concentrations. Former studies, i.e., Giggenbach (1988), suggested Cl, HCO3 and SO4 to be generally the most important elements for understanding hydrochemical processes in geothermal reservoirs. Their relation has been widely used to classify different water types in geothermal fields. However, this study showed that non-standard elements are at least of same importance to reveal different fluid types in geothermal systems. Therefore, this study is an extended water classification approach using SOM for element correlations. SOM have been proven to be a successful method for analyzing even relatively small hydrochemical datasets in geothermal applications.

  10. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  11. Method for evaluating the potential of geothermal energy in industrial process heat applications

    SciTech Connect

    Packer, M.B.; Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C., Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1980-05-01

    A method is presented for evaluating the technical and economic potential of geothermal energy for industrial process heat applications. The core of the method is a computer program which can be operated either as a design analysis tool to match energy supplies and demands, or as an economic analysis tool if a particular design for the facility has already been selected. Two examples are given to illustrate the functioning of the model and to demonstrate that results reached by use of the model closely parallel those that have been determined by more traditional techniques. Other features of interest in the model include: (1) use of decision analysis techniques as well as classical methods to deal with questions relating optimization; (2) a tax analysis of current regulations governing percentage depletion for geothermal deposits; and (3) development of simplified correlations for the thermodynamic properties of salt solutions in water.

  12. Geothermal enhancement of mineral processing in Nevada: Final report, April 25, 1985-June 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Trexler, D.T.; Hendrix, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    This report reviews mineral recovery techniques practiced at active mines throughout Nevada and determines those that may be enhanced by the application of geothermal heat energy from a nearby resource. Of the thirty-two active precious metal mines identified, ten have hot water on or near the property and could potentially benefit. A second purpose was to collect ore samples and geothermal fluids, determine if they are compatible in the hydrometallurgical process, and carry out laboratory tests to determine the effects of heating on recovery rates. In addition, interfering or counterproductive factors were also identified. The laboratory work consisted of measuring the effects of thermally enhancing two hydrometallurgical processes; cyanide heap-leaching of gold and silver ores and bacterial leaching of sulfide rich gold ores. Thermally enhanced cyanide heap-leaching of gold and silver ores produced increases in extraction ranging from 8 to 20% for gold and 17 to 40% for silver. The temperature required for these increases is 35/sup 0/C to 40/sup 0/C, well within the range of available geothermal resources.

  13. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  14. Ripple scalings in geothermal facilities, a key to understand the scaling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhl, Bernhard; Grundy, James; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Scalings are a widespread problem among geothermal plants which exploit the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Zone. They effect the technical and economic efficiency of geothermal plants. The majority of the scalings observed at geothermal facilities exploring the Malm aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin are carbonates. They are formed due to a disruption of the lime-carbonic-acid equilibrium during production caused by degassing of CO2. These scalings are found in the production pipes, at the pumps and at filters and can nicely be described using existing hydrogeochemical models. This study proposes a second mechanism for the formation of scalings in ground-level facilities. We investigated scalings which accumulated at the inlet to the heat exchanger. Interestingly, the scalings were recovered after the ground level facilities had been cleaned. The scalings showed distinct ripple structures, which is likely a result of solid particle deposition. From the ripple features the the flow conditions during their formation were calculated based on empirical equations (Soulsby, 2012). The calculations suggest that the deposits were formed during maintenance works. Thin section images of the sediments indicate a two-step process: deposition of sediment grains, followed by stabilization with a calcite layer. The latter likely occured during maintenance. To prevent this type of scalings blocking the heat exchangers, the maintenance procedure has to be revised. References: Soulsby, R. L.; Whitehouse, R. J. S.; Marten, K. V.: Prediction of time-evolving sand ripples in shelf seas. Continental Shelf Research 2012, 38, 47-62

  15. Processes in the Vicinity of an Injection Well of a Geothermal Facility in the Malm Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Thomas; Lafogler, Mark; Wenderoth, Frank; Bartels, Jörn

    2016-04-01

    With high temperatures, high transmissivities and low salinities the Malm Aquifer in the Bavarian Molasse Basin offers ideal conditions for the exploration of geothermal energy. In 2011 the Pullach geothermal facility was extended with a third geothermal well to account for the increasing heat demand. In the course of this extension an injection well was converted to a production well. Hence, for the first time in the history of geothermal exploration of the Malm Aquifer, data became accessible from the surrounding of an injection well which has been in operation for more than 5 years. This data, together with data froma a push-pull tracer test started 9 months before the conversion, allows unique access to the processes at the injection well and sets the baseline for an assessment of the long term behavior of geothermal heat and power plants in the Molasse Basin. The development of the production temperatures went faster than expected, after 4 years of production the initial temperatures have almost been reached. This can only be explained with a vertically heterogeneous distribution of the transmissivity. In this setting, the cold water forms a thin disc which extends much further from the injection well. Thus, the effective area of the heat exchange with the matrix of the aquifer is larger than in a homogeneous setting. The breakthrough of the tracers was affected by an unexpected delay of the start of the production. The regional flow led to a shift of the injected tracer pulses with the innermost tracer pulse being entirely transposed downstream of the injection well. The recovery rates mirror the sorption coefficients of the individual tracers as determined in batch tests and column tests. It became apparent, that the stagnation phase led to a bias towards sorption with slow kinetics and diffusion-limited matrix interactions. The hydrochemical data showed a significant increase of the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate indicating a

  16. Direct Chlorination Process for geothermal power plant off-gas - hydrogen sulfide abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, A.V.

    1983-06-01

    The Direct Chlorination Process removes hydrogen sulfide from geothermal off-gases by reacting hydrogen sulfide with chlorine in the gas phase. Hydrogen chloride and elemental sulfur are formed by this reaction. The Direct Chlorination Process has been successfully demonstrated by an on-site operation of a pilot plant at the 3 M We HPG-A geothermal power plant in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii. Over 99.5% hydrogen sulfide removal was achieved in a single reaction stage. Chlorine gas did not escape the pilot plant, even when 90% excess chlorine gas was used. A preliminary economic evaluation of the Direct Chlorination Process indicates that it is very competitive with the Stretford Process Compared to the Stretford Process, the Direct Chlorination process requires about one-third the initial capital investment and about one-fourth the net daily expenditure. Because of the higher cost of chemicals and the restricted markets in Hawaii, the economic viability of this process in Hawaii is questionable.

  17. Three-dimensional modelling and geothermal process simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The subsurface geological model or 3-D GIS is constructed from three kinds of objects, which are a lithotope (in boundary representation), a number of fault systems, and volumetric textures (vector fields). The chief task of the model is to yield an estimate of the conductance tensors (fluid permeability and thermal conductivity) throughout an array of voxels. This is input as material properties to a FEHM numerical physical process model. The main task of the FEHM process model is to distinguish regions of convective from regions of conductive heat flow, and to estimate the fluid phase, pressure and flow paths. The temperature, geochemical, and seismic data provide the physical constraints on the process. The conductance tensors in the Franciscan Complex are to be derived by the addition of two components. The isotropic component is a stochastic spatial variable due to disruption of lithologies in melange. The deviatoric component is deterministic, due to smoothness and continuity in the textural vector fields. This decomposition probably also applies to the engineering hydrogeological properties of shallow terrestrial fluvial systems. However there are differences in quantity. The isotropic component is much more variable in the Franciscan, to the point where volumetric averages are misleading, and it may be necessary to select that component from several, discrete possible states. The deviatoric component is interpolated using a textural vector field. The Franciscan field is much more complicated, and contains internal singularities. 27 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Geothermal handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    presented which will allow the Service to provide input to the federal leasing process. As an impact information source by which to judge the appropriateness of a specific activity at a specific site, a discussion of activities-impacts is provided on a phase by phase basis. Mitigation and possible enhancement techniques are also presented so that the impacts of the development can be dealt with and the fish and wildlife situation improved. The Service can achieve its objective only if biological input is made throughout the entire process of geothermal development, from exploration to testing to full field operation. A discussion of geothermal leasing procedures emphasizes the timing and nature of Service participation in current interagency lease processing, and there is a provision for the utilization of new knowledge, techniques, and responses as experience is accumulated.

  19. The direct application of geothermal energy to provide process heat in Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Altseimer, J.H.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    One part of an energy and resource development program in Central America is a geothermal process heat project in Guatemala. The feasibility of the direct heat application depends upon the production characteristics and reliability of the geothermal source. Other factors are the distance from the heat source, quantity of use, and capacity factor of the use facilities. Favorable conditions would be distances of under 5 km, heat requirements approximately equal to the well capacity, and high capacity factors (say 60% or higher) in the industrial plants. Depending upon the values of these factors, energy costs of less than $1.00/million Btus to greater than $5.00/million Btus have been estimated. This can be compared to about $5.00/million Btus for petroleum-based fuels in Guatemala in mid 1987. A survey was made of existing industries in the Amatitlan and Zunil geothermal areas. In both Amatitlan and Zunil the existing industries are spread out over an area too large to be called an optimum. The most promising situation for an industrial park development is at Amatitlan, except that proven production wells are not yet available. At Zunil, production wells exist, but a diverse nearby industrial base does not. However, both of these two areas are sufficiently promising to merit further development. Consequently, a demonstration project is underway aimed at the ultimate establishment of an agricultural processing center at Zunil. This center would have the capability to process agricultural products by dehydration, freezing, and cold storage. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Reservoir processes and fluid origins in the Baca geothermal system, Valles Caldera, New Mexico ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    At the Baca geothermal field in the Valles caldera, New Mexico, 19 deep wells were drilled in an attempt to develop a 50-MW (megawatts electric) power plant. The chemical and isotopic compositions of steam and water samples have been used to indicate uniquely the origin of reservoir fluids and natural reservoir processes. Two distinct reservoir fluids exist at Baca. These fluids originate from the same deep, high-temperature (335oC), saline (2500 mg/kg Cl) parent water but have had different histories during upflow which are described.-after Authors

  1. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  2. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Chipeta Processing, LLC - Chipeta Gas Plant Train IV Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Chipeta Processing, LLC, Chipeta Gas Plant Train IV Project, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, UT.

  3. Direct utilization of geothermal energy resources in food processing. Final report, May 17, 1978-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    In early 1978 financial assistance was granted for a project to utilize geothermal energy at Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.'s food processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Specifically, the project included exploring, testing, and developing the potential geothermal resource; retrofitting the existing gas/oil-fired steam system; utilizing the geothermal resource for food processing, space heating, and hot potable water; and injecting the spent geothermal water back into a disposal well. Based on preliminary investigations which indicated the presence of a local geothermal resource, drilling began in August 1979. Although the anticipated resource temperature of 380/sup 0/F was reached at total well depth (10,054 feet), adequate flow to meet processing requirements could not be obtained. Subsequent well testing and stimulation techniques also failed to produce the necessary flow, and the project was eventually abandoned. However, throughout the duration of the project, all activities were carefully monitored and recorded to ensure the program's value for future evaluation. This report presents a culmination of data collected during the Ore-Ida project.

  4. Potential Air Pollutant Emissions and Permitting Classifications for Two Biorefinery Process Designs in the United States

    DOE PAGES

    Eberle, Annika; Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; ...

    2017-04-26

    Advanced biofuel production facilities (biorefineries), such as those envisioned by the United States (U.S.) Renewable Fuel Standard and U.S. Department of Energy's research and development programs, often lack historical air pollutant emissions data, which can pose challenges for obtaining air emission permits that are required for construction and operation. To help fill this knowledge gap, we perform a thorough regulatory analysis and use engineering process designs to assess the applicability of federal air regulations and quantify air pollutant emissions for two feasibility-level biorefinery designs. We find that without additional emission-control technologies both biorefineries would likely be required to obtain majormore » source permits under the Clean Air Act's New Source Review program. The permitting classification (so-called 'major' or 'minor') has implications for the time and effort required for permitting and therefore affects the cost of capital and the fuel selling price. Consequently, we explore additional technically feasible emission-control technologies and process modifications that have the potential to reduce emissions to achieve a minor source permitting classification. Finally, our analysis of air pollutant emissions and controls can assist biorefinery developers with the air permitting process and inform regulatory agencies about potential permitting pathways for novel biorefinery designs.« less

  5. Potential Air Pollutant Emissions and Permitting Classifications for Two Biorefinery Process Designs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Annika; Bhatt, Arpit; Zhang, Yimin; Heath, Garvin

    2017-06-06

    Advanced biofuel production facilities (biorefineries), such as those envisioned by the United States (U.S.) Renewable Fuel Standard and U.S. Department of Energy's research and development programs, often lack historical air pollutant emissions data, which can pose challenges for obtaining air emission permits that are required for construction and operation. To help fill this knowledge gap, we perform a thorough regulatory analysis and use engineering process designs to assess the applicability of federal air regulations and quantify air pollutant emissions for two feasibility-level biorefinery designs. We find that without additional emission-control technologies both biorefineries would likely be required to obtain major source permits under the Clean Air Act's New Source Review program. The permitting classification (so-called "major" or "minor") has implications for the time and effort required for permitting and therefore affects the cost of capital and the fuel selling price. Consequently, we explore additional technically feasible emission-control technologies and process modifications that have the potential to reduce emissions to achieve a minor source permitting classification. Our analysis of air pollutant emissions and controls can assist biorefinery developers with the air permitting process and inform regulatory agencies about potential permitting pathways for novel biorefinery designs.

  6. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  7. A New Concept: Use of Negotiations in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permitting Process in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.J.; Rose, W.M.; Domenici, P.V.; Hollingsworth, L.

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes a unique negotiation process leading to authorization of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to manage and dispose remote-handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) mixed wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The negotiation process involved multiple entities and individuals brought together under authority of the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) to discuss and resolve technical and facility operational issues flowing from an NMED-issued hazardous waste facility Draft Permit. The novel negotiation process resulted in numerous substantive changes to the Draft Permit, which were ultimately memorialised in a 'Draft Permit as Changed'. This paper discusses various aspects of the negotiation process, including events leading to the negotiations, regulatory basis for the negotiations, negotiation participants, and benefits of the process. (authors)

  8. Interaction of processes may explain induced seismicity after shut-in in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesus; Vilarrasa, Victor

    2015-04-01

    Deep fluid injection is a necessary operation in several engineering sectors, like geothermal energy production, natural gas storage, CO2 storage, etc. The seismicity associated to these activities has, in some occasions, reached unexpected magnitude, raising public concern. Moreover, the occurrence of such seismicity after the injection shut-in pointed out the incompleteness of the knowledge and the inability of fully managing these processes. On the other hand, the growing attention toward clean energy makes it clear that we cannot abandon these procedures, which have a huge potential. Therefore, deeply understanding the mechanisms that induce seismicity is crucial. In this study we consider hydraulic stimulation of deep geothermal systems and analyze the mechanisms that may induce or trigger seismicity. Given that the basic mechanism is fluid pressure increase, secondary triggering processes have been studied. In detail, we attempt to identify the potential mechanisms that may trigger seismicity in the post-injection phase, when the overpressure decreases. These mechanisms have been investigated with a coupled and uncoupled approach, in order to understand the individual effects of each one and the effects of the interactions between them on the reservoir stability. Besides fluid overpressure, another relevant process is the temperature variation. Indeed, in the case of enhanced geothermal systems, the temperature contrast between the injected cold fluid and the deep hot reservoir is great and induces thermal stress, which sensibly affects the in-situ stress field. Therefore, we have studied overpressure and temperature effects by means of analytic solutions and by means of hydro-mechanical and thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical simulations. Results show that in fractured rocks the spatial variability of hydraulic and mechanic parameters provokes no isotropic variation of the tensional field, in response to pressure and temperature perturbations. Another

  9. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and

  10. Modeling of geothermal reservoirs: Fundamental processes, computer simulation, and field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1988-09-01

    This article attempts to critically evaluate the present state of the art of geothermal reservoir simulation. Methodological aspects of geothermal reservoir modeling are briefly reviewed, with special emphasis on flow in fractured media. Then we examine applications of numerical simulation to studies of reservoir dynamics, well test design and analysis, and modeling of specific fields. Tangible impacts of reservoir simulation technology on geothermal energy development are pointed out. We conclude with considerations on possible future developments in the mathematical modeling of geothermal fields. 45 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. 2nd quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.V.; Willens, C.A.; Walter, K.M.; Carrico, R.L.; Lowe, G.D.; Lacy, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The completed geochemical analysis of groundwater in the Pine Creek area for evaluation of the geothermal potential of this location is presented. Also included is an environmental constraints analysis of Pine Creek noting any potential environmental problems if a geothermal system was developed onsite. Design of a geothermal system is discussed for site-specific applications and is discussed in detail with equipment recommendations and material specifications. A preliminary financial, economic, and institutional assessment of geothermal system located totally on Union Carbide property at Pine Creek is included. (MHR)

  12. 78 FR 38555 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, and 44 [Docket No. TTB-2013-0006; T.D. TTB... Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco, and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade...

  13. 78 FR 38646 - Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, and 44 [Docket No. TTB-2013-0006; Notice No... Importer Permit Requirements for Tobacco Products and Processed Tobacco, and Other Requirements for Tobacco Products, Processed Tobacco and Cigarette Papers and Tubes AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau...

  14. Processing of thermal parameters for the assessment of geothermal potential of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquale, V.; Chiozzi, P.; Gola, G.; Verdoya, M.

    2009-04-01

    The growing interest on renewable energy sources is stimulating new efforts aimed at the assessment of geothermal potential in several countries, and new developments are expected in the near future. In this framework, a basic step forward is to focus geothermal investigations on geological environments which so far have been relatively neglected. Some intracontinental sedimentary basins could reveal important low enthalpy resources. The evaluation of the geothermal potential in such geological contexts involves the synergic use of geophysical and hydrogeological methodologies. In sedimentary basins a large amount of thermal and hydraulic data is generally available from petroleum wells. Unfortunately, borehole temperature data are often affected by a number of perturbations which make very difficult determination of the true geothermal gradient. In this paper we addressed the importance of the acquisition of thermal parameters (temperature, geothermal gradient, thermal properties of the rock) and the technical processing which is necessary to obtain reliable geothermal characterizations. In particular, techniques for corrections of bottom-hole temperature (BHT) data were reviewed. The objective was to create a working formula usable for computing the undisturbed formation temperature for specific sedimentary basins. As test areas, we analysed the sedimentary basins of northern Italy. Two classical techniques for processing temperature data from oil wells are customarily used: (i) the method by Horner, that requires two or more measurements of bottom-hole temperatures carried out at the same depth but at different shut-in times te and (ii) the technique by Cooper and Jones, in which several physical parameters of the mud and formation need to be known. We applied both methods to data from a number of petroleum explorative wells located in two areas of the Po Plain (Apenninic buried arc and South Piedmont Basin - Pedealpine homocline). From a set of about 40 wells

  15. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  16. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  17. GEOTHERM user guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, James R.

    1977-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a computerized geothermal resources file developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The file contains data on geothermal fields, wells, and chemical analyses from the United states and international sources. The General Information Processing System (GIPSY) in the IBM 370/155 computer is used to store and retrieve data. The GIPSY retrieval program contains simple commands which can be used to search the file, select a narrowly defined subset, sort the records, and output the data in a variety of forms. Eight commands are listed and explained so that the GEOTHERM file can be accessed directly by geologists. No programming experience is necessary to retrieve data from the file.

  18. Applications of gas chemistry in evaluating physical processes in the Southern Negros (Palinpinon) geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Ramos-Candelaria, M.N.; Seastres, J.S. Jr.; Ruaya, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    Three major physical processes have occurred in the Palinpinon geothermal system due to exploitation from 1985 to 1991. They were identified using gas compositions and equilibria involving H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} to calculate temperature and vapor fraction in the reservoir. The first process is pressure drawdown in the southern part of the field, producing a local increase in the vapor fraction, with the liquid maintaining a high measured temperature, close to 300 C. The second process is vapor loss from an original liquid phase during its ascent through fractures. Wells affected by this process show high degrees of vapor loss (> 10%) when evaluated at the original high temperature of the liquid (290--300 C). But if vapor loss is modeled to occur at much lower temperatures (220--250 C), more realistic vapor losses (1--3%) are calculated. The last process involves mixing and cooling due to injection fluid returns to wells located in the northeastern part of the field. For some wells the fraction of injected brine in total temperatures can decline from 290 to 300 C to as low as 215--220 C, corresponding to periods when most of the produced fluids are derived from injected brine. Gas geothermometry gives a more reliable temperature estimate than quartz geothermometry for fluids with high fractions of injected brine, as the gas equilibria reflects the local reservoir temperature.

  19. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  20. 78 FR 22451 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement Correction In proposed...

  1. Cost of meeting geothermal hydrogen sulfide emission regulations. [DOW, EIC, Stretford, and iron catalyst processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Weakley, S.A.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1980-01-01

    H{sub 2}S emission abatement processes considered feasible for control of airborne emissions included two upstream and two downstream treatment techniques. From literature describing the technical aspects of the processes, individual treatment cost functions were developed. These functions were then used to estimate the range of costs that may be encountered when controlling H{sub 2}S emissions to meet given standards. Treatment costs include estimates of certain fixed charges and overheads that normally apply to long lived capital investment projects of similar nature. Continuing experience with control technology for H{sub 2}S abatement indicates process application may have a significant impact on the total cost of geothermal electricity at sites with H{sub 2}S concentrations in excess of 50 ppM{sub w}. Approximately four sites of the 38 USGS high temperature hydrothermal systems fall into this category. At Baca, New Mexico the cost of controlling H{sub 2}S emissions was estimated to be 5.5 mills per kWh. Calculations were based on a 50 MWe flashed steam plant using the Stretford-Peroxide combination of processes to achieve 99% abatement.

  2. Biochemical processing of geothermal brines and sludges: Adaptability to multiple industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Jin, J.Z.

    1994-07-01

    Extensive Research and Development effort leading to the identification of low cost environmentally acceptable disposal of geothermal brines and sludges has shown that biochemical processing of the waste streams meets these requirements. Further exploration of the process variables has also indicated that biochemical treatment of waste streams is a versatile technology, adaptable to several applications beyond that of rendering hazardous and/or mixed wastes to nonhazardous byproducts which meet regulatory requirements. Such advanced biochemical technologies may be used for solubilization and recovery of a few metals such as arsenic and mercury to the isolation of many metals, including radionuclides. Spin-offs from this technology have also applications in the treatment of crude oils, oil wastes and the recovery of valuable metals and salts. In the metal recovery mode the aqueous phase can be reinjected or treated further so that the end products meet the environmental drinking water standards. In this paper, recent studies dealing with the multiple industrial applications potential of biochemical processes will be discussed.

  3. Hazardous Waste Permitting

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To provide RCRA hazardous waste permitting regulatory information and resources permitted facilities, hazardous waste generators, and permit writers. To provide the public with information on how they can be involved in the permitting process.

  4. Impacts of shallow geothermal energy production on redox processes and microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Bonte, Matthijs; Röling, Wilfred F M; Zaura, Egija; van der Wielen, Paul W J J; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; van Breukelen, Boris M

    2013-12-17

    Shallow geothermal systems are increasingly being used to store or harvest thermal energy for heating or cooling purposes. This technology causes temperature perturbations exceeding the natural variations in aquifers, which may impact groundwater quality. Here, we report the results of laboratory experiments on the effect of temperature variations (5-80 °C) on redox processes and associated microbial communities in anoxic unconsolidated subsurface sediments. Both hydrochemical and microbiological data showed that a temperature increase from 11 °C (in situ) to 25 °C caused a shift from iron-reducing to sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions. Bioenergetic calculations could explain this shift. A further temperature increase (>45 °C) resulted in the emergence of a thermophilic microbial community specialized in fermentation and sulfate reduction. Two distinct maxima in sulfate reduction rates, of similar orders of magnitude (5 × 10(-10) M s(-1)), were observed at 40 and 70 °C. Thermophilic sulfate reduction, however, had a higher activation energy (100-160 kJ mol(-1)) than mesophilic sulfate reduction (30-60 kJ mol(-1)), which might be due to a trade-off between enzyme stability and activity with thermostable enzymes being less efficient catalysts that require higher activation energies. These results reveal that while sulfate-reducing functionality can withstand a substantial temperature rise, other key biochemical processes appear more temperature sensitive.

  5. Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

  6. Geothermal policy development program analysis of county general plans, specific plans and zoning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the local geothermal permitting practices of the four Geysers-Calistoga KGRA counties (i.e. Lake, Mendocino, Napa and Sonoma), in California, and the ways in which these processes could be expedited. The detailed analysis of local permitting processes undertaken in the course of this project revealed great variation in procedural approach, types of conditions imposed, phrasing of conditions and length of time it takes to process use permits; and these variations are described in the report. The analysis also revealed a number of interesting techniques employed by one or the other of the counties, or by Imperial County, to improve the process. These techniques are also described. Finally, four alternative approaches to expediting the local geothermal permitting process are identified.

  7. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  8. An approach to modeling coupled thermal-hydraulic-chemical processes in geothermal systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palguta, Jennifer; Williams, Colin F.; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Hickman, Stephen H.; Sonnenthal, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between hydrothermal fluids and rock alter mineralogy, leading to the formation of secondary minerals and potentially significant physical and chemical property changes. Reactive transport simulations are essential for evaluating the coupled processes controlling the geochemical, thermal and hydrological evolution of geothermal systems. The objective of this preliminary investigation is to successfully replicate observations from a series of hydrothermal laboratory experiments [Morrow et al., 2001] using the code TOUGHREACT. The laboratory experiments carried out by Morrow et al. [2001] measure permeability reduction in fractured and intact Westerly granite due to high-temperature fluid flow through core samples. Initial permeability and temperature values used in our simulations reflect these experimental conditions and range from 6.13 × 10−20 to 1.5 × 10−17 m2 and 150 to 300 °C, respectively. The primary mineralogy of the model rock is plagioclase (40 vol.%), K-feldspar (20 vol.%), quartz (30 vol.%), and biotite (10 vol.%). The simulations are constrained by the requirement that permeability, relative mineral abundances, and fluid chemistry agree with experimental observations. In the models, the granite core samples are represented as one-dimensional reaction domains. We find that the mineral abundances, solute concentrations, and permeability evolutions predicted by the models are consistent with those observed in the experiments carried out by Morrow et al. [2001] only if the mineral reactive surface areas decrease with increasing clay mineral abundance. This modeling approach suggests the importance of explicitly incorporating changing mineral surface areas into reactive transport models.

  9. Development of Geothermally Assisted Process for Production of Liquid Fuels and Chemicals from Wheat Straw

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

    1981-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in developing processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources. The most logical long term approach in terms of economics derives the carbohydrate substrate for fermentation from the hydrolysis of cellulosic crop and forest residues rather than from grains or other high grade food materials (1,2). Since the presence of lignin is the main barrier to the hydrolysis of cellulose from lignocellulosic materials, delignification processes developed by the wood pulping industry have been considered as possible prehydrolysis treatments. The delignification process under study in our laboratory is envisioned as a synthesis of two recently developed pulping processes. In the first step, called autohydrolysis, hot water is used directly to solubilize hemicellulose and to depolymerize lignin (3). Then, in a second step known as organosolv pulping (4), the autohydrolyzed material is extracted with aqueous alcohol. A s shown in Figure 1, this process can separate the original lignocellulosic material into three streams--hemicellulose in water, lignin in aqueous alcohol, and a cellulose pulp. Without further mechanical milling, delignified cellulose can be enzymatically hydrolyzed at 45-50 C to greater than 80% theoretical yield of glucose using fungal cellulases (5, 6). The resulting glucose syrup can then be fermented by yeast to produce ethanol or by selected bacteria to produce acetone and butanol or acetic and propionic acids (7). One objection to such a process, however, is the large energy input that is required. In order to extend our supplies of liquid fuels and chemicals, it is important that the use of fossil fuels in any lignocellulosic conversion process be minimized. The direct use of geothermal hot water in carrying out the autohydrolysis and extraction operations, therefore, seems especially attractive. On the one hand, it facilitates the conversion of non-food biomass to fuels and chemicals without wasting fossil

  10. Geothermal development plan: Graham-Greenlee counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal potential in Graham and Greenlee counties both of which contain significant quantities of geothermal energy that could be used for industrial, agricultural or residential use, is described. Projections are made of geothermal heat on line under both private and city-owned utility development. Potential users of geothermal energy, however, are limited since this area is sparsely populated and lacks an industrial base. Only a couple of industries were identified which could use geothermal energy for their process heat needs.

  11. Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Kelkar, Sharad

    2011-01-01

    The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing fractures, whether natural or man-made, is possibly the single most important factor, after temperature, which determines the feasibility of an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Rock deformation and in-situ stress changes induced by injected fluids can lead to shear failure on preexisting fractures which can generate microseismic events, and also enhance the permeability and accessible surface area of the geothermal formation. Hence, the ability to accurately model the coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical (THM) processes in fractured geological formations is critical in effective EGS reservoir development and management strategies. The locations of the microseismic events can serve as indicators of the zones of enhanced permeability, thus providing vital information for verification of the coupled THM models. We will describe a general purpose computational code, FEHM, developed for this purpose, that models coupled THM processes during multiphase fluid flow and transport in fractured porous media. The code incorporates several models of fracture aperture and stress behavior combined with permeability relationships. We provide field scale examples of applications to geothermal systems to demonstrate the utility of the method.

  12. Volcanology and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this book is to demonstrate how volcanological concepts can be applied to the evaluation and exploration of geothermal energy resources. In regard to the geothermal content of the book, some of the information comes from the first-hand experience gained during the authors' exploration work in Middle America and with the Los Alamos Hot Dry Rock program. Other cases discussed come from classic geothermal systems in many regions and settings. The book begins with a summary of recent practical advances in volcanology, and then moves on to describe the considerable importance of pyroclastic rocks as a took to evaluate geothermal systems, including an in-depth treatment of hydrovolcanism. Following chapters deal with surface manifestations of geothermal systems, and systems associated with calderas, silicic lava domes, and basaltic volcanoes. The last chapter is on geothermal systems in maturing composite volcanoes. The Appendices include a broad overview of field methods in volcanic regions, volcanic rock classifications and properties, thermodynamic properties of water vapor (steam tables), and the use of cuttings in geothermal well logs. A two-dimensional heat flow code used for estimating geothermal resources is also given. The book makes two significant contributions: first, in its treatment of eruption dynamics, focusing on quantitative and theoretical analysis of volcanic processes, and second, in its comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of hydrovolcanism, including fuel-coolant interactions and hydrofracturing.

  13. Automatic processing of induced events in the geothermal reservoirs Landau and Insheim, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Kai; Küperkoch, Ludger; Meier, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Induced events can be a risk to local infrastructure that need to be understood and evaluated. They represent also a chance to learn more about the reservoir behavior and characteristics. Prior to the analysis, the waveform data must be processed consistently and accurately to avoid erroneous interpretations. In the framework of the MAGS2 project an automatic off-line event detection and a phase onset time determination algorithm are applied to induced seismic events in geothermal systems in Landau and Insheim, Germany. The off-line detection algorithm works based on a cross-correlation of continuous data taken from the local seismic network with master events. It distinguishes events between different reservoirs and within the individual reservoirs. Furthermore, it provides a location and magnitude estimation. Data from 2007 to 2014 are processed and compared with other detections using the SeisComp3 cross correlation detector and a STA/LTA detector. The detected events are analyzed concerning spatial or temporal clustering. Furthermore the number of events are compared to the existing detection lists. The automatic phase picking algorithm combines an AR-AIC approach with a cost function to find precise P1- and S1-phase onset times which can be used for localization and tomography studies. 800 induced events are processed, determining 5000 P1- and 6000 S1-picks. The phase onset times show a high precision with mean residuals to manual phase picks of 0s (P1) to 0.04s (S1) and standard deviations below ±0.05s. The received automatic picks are applied to relocate a selected number of events to evaluate influences on the location precision.

  14. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  15. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  16. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  17. 9 CFR 130.4 - User fees for processing import permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., vectors, or germ plasm (embryos or semen) or to transport organisms or vectors1 Initial permit Per... Transit Permit (Animals, Animal Semen, Animal Embryos, Birds, Poultry, or Hatching Eggs).” 2 Permits...

  18. 9 CFR 130.4 - User fees for processing import permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., vectors, or germ plasm (embryos or semen) or to transport organisms or vectors1 Initial permit Per... Transit Permit (Animals, Animal Semen, Animal Embryos, Birds, Poultry, or Hatching Eggs).” 2 Permits...

  19. 9 CFR 130.4 - User fees for processing import permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., vectors, or germ plasm (embryos or semen) or to transport organisms or vectors1 Initial permit Per... Transit Permit (Animals, Animal Semen, Animal Embryos, Birds, Poultry, or Hatching Eggs).” 2 Permits...

  20. 9 CFR 130.4 - User fees for processing import permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., vectors, or germ plasm (embryos or semen) or to transport organisms or vectors1 Initial permit Per... Transit Permit (Animals, Animal Semen, Animal Embryos, Birds, Poultry, or Hatching Eggs).” 2 Permits...

  1. 9 CFR 130.4 - User fees for processing import permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., vectors, or germ plasm (embryos or semen) or to transport organisms or vectors1 Initial permit Per... Transit Permit (Animals, Animal Semen, Animal Embryos, Birds, Poultry, or Hatching Eggs).” 2 Permits...

  2. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  3. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  5. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  6. Converted-Wave Processing of a 3D-3C Refection Seismic Survey of Soda Lake Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Kent, T.; Echols, J.

    2012-12-01

    This 3D-3C seismic survey greatly improves the structural model of the Soda Lake, Nevada geothermal system. The picked top of a mudstone interval above reservoir levels reveals a detailed fault map. The geothermal reservoir is within a complex of nested grabens. Determining a "geothermal indicator" for the deeper reservoir in the seismic signal, and processing of the 3D converted-wave data, have been unsuccessful to date. Due to a high near-surface Vp/Vs ratio the shear-wave energy is under-sampled with 220 ft receiver spacing and 550 ft (168 m) line spacing. The 2D converted-wave data that we can image shows encouraging similarity to the deep structural features in the P-wave sections, but have little resolution of shallow structures. Higher-density receivers and a better shallow shear-wave model are needed in conjunction with this deep reflection study to effectively image the 3D converted waves.

  7. Epidemiological monitoring plan for geothermal developments.

    PubMed

    Deane, M

    1984-01-27

    In order to assure that geothermal developments in the Imperial Valley of California proceeded on an environmentally sound basis, The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration contracted with the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to conduct a comprehensive study of six aspects of the region and its potential problems: Air Quality Water Quality, Ecosystem Quality (Soil, Plants, Animals, etc.) Subsidence and Induced Seismicity, Health Effects, and Socio-Economic Effects which may result from the proposed development. This report of the possible health effects is designed to be repeated as geothermal developments progress. It includes both general health attributes and attributes which may be likely to be adversely affected by such developments and is focussed on two different populations, one likely to be affected and a second which is less likely to be affected. Such a design permits the easier identification of possible effects against a background of time-dependent processes in later phases of the study. This baseline study documents that before such developments, there were differences in health status of the two areas, which were chosen to maximize demographic comparability. It further identifies that odor, a possible problem associated with geothermal development, is currently present, and at times intense. Without such baseline monitoring, the likelihood is great that such effects in the future might be falsely ascribed to the geothermal development.

  8. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  9. Source processes of industrially-induced earthquakes at the Geysers geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.; Foulger, G.R.; Julian, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    Microearthquake activity at The Geysers geothermal area, California, mirrors the steam production rate, suggesting that the earthquakes are industrially induced. A 15-station network of digital, three-component seismic stations was operated for one month in 1991, and 3,900 earthquakes were recorded. Highly-accurate moment tensors were derived for 30 of the best recorded earthquakes by tracing rays through tomographically derived 3-D VP and VP / VS structures, and inverting P-and S-wave polarities and amplitude ratios. The orientations of the P-and T-axes are very scattered, suggesting that there is no strong, systematic deviatoric stress field in the reservoir, which could explain why the earthquakes are not large. Most of the events had significant non-double-couple (non-DC) components in their source mechanisms with volumetric components up to ???30% of the total moment. Explosive and implosive sources were observed in approximately equal numbers, and must be caused by cavity creation (or expansion) and collapse. It is likely that there is a causal relationship between these processes and fluid reinjection and steam withdrawal. Compensated linear vector dipole (CLVD) components were up to 100% of the deviatoric component. Combinations of opening cracks and shear faults cannot explain all the observations, and rapid fluid flow may also be involved. The pattern of non-DC failure at The Geysers contrasts with that of the Hengill-Grensdalur area in Iceland, a largely unexploited water-dominated field in an extensional stress regime. These differences are poorly understood but may be linked to the contrasting regional stress regimes and the industrial exploitation at The Geysers.

  10. Feasibility study: Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Grey, A.E.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M.; Haefner, D.R.

    1991-09-01

    This study presents a preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of selected conceptual processes for pyrolytic conversion of organic feedstocks or the decomposition/detoxification of hazardous wastes by coupling the process to the geopressured-geothermal resource. The report presents a detailed discussion of the resource and of each process selected for evaluation including the technical evaluation of each. A separate section presents the economic methodology used and the evaluation of the technically viable process. A final section presents conclusions and recommendations. Three separate processes were selected for evaluation. These are pyrolytic conversion of biomass to petroleum like fluids, wet air oxidation (WAO) at subcritical conditions for destruction of hazardous waste, and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) also for the destruction of hazardous waste. The scientific feasibility of all three processes has been previously established by various bench-scale and pilot-scale studies. For a variety of reasons detailed in the report the SCWO process is the only one deemed to be technically feasible, although the effects of the high solids content of the geothermal brine need further study. This technology shows tremendous promise for contributing to solving the nation's energy and hazardous waste problems. However, the current economic analysis suggests that it is uneconomical at this time. 50 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. 78 FR 18429 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... review of the permit, permit renewals, and the transfer, assignment, or sale of rights to an existing... rights of an existing permit, or any new application or action that OSM might require to be submitted in... request to transfer, assign or sell rights to an existing permit; 4. A mid-term review; 5. A request to...

  12. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  13. Geographic information system programs for use in the water-supply-allocation permitting process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, Paul; Price, C.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer programs designed for use in a geographic information system as an aid in the water-supply- allocation permitting process are described. These programs were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey during a project conducted in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. The programs enable a user to display proposed water-supply-allocation sites in a defined area together with present sites and important hydrologic and geographic features on a computer screen or on hardcopy plots. The programs are menu-driven and do not require familiarity with geographic information systems. Source codes for the programs are included in appendixes.

  14. Geothermal development plan: Pinal county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Wells drilled in the county provide evidence of geothermal energy sufficient for process heat and space heating and cooling applications. Annual energy consumption was estimated for industries whose process heat requirements are less than 105/sup 0/C (221/sup 0/F). This information was then used to model the introduction of geothermal energy into the process heat market. Also, agriculture and agribusiness industries were identified. Many of these are located on or near a geothermal resource and might be able to utilize geothermal energy in their operations.

  15. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  16. The geochemistry of lithium-bearing geothermal water, Taupo Volcanic Zone, and shallow fluid processes in a very active silicic volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, A. S.; Hoskin, P. W.; Rudnick, R. L.; Liu, X.; Boseley, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Li abundances and isotopic systematics of Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal fluids preserves a record of processes occurring within shallow portions of geothermal reservoirs as well as deeper portions of the arc crust. Understanding Li cycling and isotopic fractionation in TVZ geothermal systems contributes to a more refined understanding of physicochemical processes affecting New Zealand's geothermal resources. A comprehensive dataset of 73 samples was compiled, with samples collected from geothermal surface features (springs, spouters, geysers, etc.) and electric-power industry production wells, collectively representing18 geothermal fields across the breadth and width the TVZ. No comparable dataset of fluid analyses exists. Ion chromatography, AAS, and quadrupole ICP-MS analyses were done for Li, Cl-, SiO2, SO42- K, Na, Ca, Mg, B, Sr and Pb concentrations. Lithium abundance in geothermal fluids from the TVZ have a dataset-wide average of 5.9 mg/L and range 4 μg/L to 29 mg/L. The Li abundance and Li/Cl ratios for geothermal water and steam condensates vary systematically as a result of boiling, mixing, and water/rock reaction. Lithium abundance and Li/Cl ratios are, therefore, indicators of shallow (above 2.5 km) and locally variable reservoir processes. δ7Li analysis of 63 samples was performed at the University of Maryland, College Park. Data quality was controlled by measurement of L-SVEC as a calibration standard and by multiple analysis of selected samples. The average δ7Li value for TVZ geothermal fluids is -0.8%. Most δ7Li values for geothermal water fall within a small range of about -3% to+2% indicating similar processes are causing similar isotopic fractionation throughout the region. Considered together, Li aundances and δ7Li values, in combination with numerical models, indicate possible evolution pathways and water/rock reactions in TVZ geothermal systems. Models based on rocks and surface water analysis indicate that Li cycles and

  17. Using geothermal energy to heat a portion of a formation for an in situ heat treatment process

    DOEpatents

    Pieterson, Roelof; Boyles, Joseph Michael; Diebold, Peter Ulrich

    2010-06-08

    Methods of using geothermal energy to treat subsurface formations are described herein. Methods for using geothermal energy to treat a subsurface treatment area containing or proximate to hydrocarbons may include producing geothermally heated fluid from at least one subsurface region. Heat from at least a portion of the geothermally heated fluid may be transferred to the subsurface treatment area to heat the subsurface treatment area. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

  19. Geothermal reservoir technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    A status report on Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Reservoir Technology projects under DOE's Hydrothermal Research Subprogram is presented. During FY 1985 significant accomplishments were made in developing and evaluating methods for (1) describing geothermal systems and processes; (2) predicting reservoir changes; (3) mapping faults and fractures; and (4) field data analysis. In addition, LBL assisted DOE in establishing the research needs of the geothermal industry in the area of Reservoir Technology. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  1. Relating sulfide mineral zonation and trace element chemistry to subsurface processes in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libbey, R. B.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The nature and distribution of sulfide minerals and their trace element chemistry in the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system was determined through the study of cuttings and core from wells that intersect different regions of the hydrothermal cell, from the near surface to depths of > 3000 m. The observed sulfide mineral zonation and trace element enrichment correlate well with the present-day thermal structure of the system. Isocubanite and pyrrhotite are confined to the deep, low permeability regions, whereas an assemblage of chalcopyrite and pyrite predominates in the main convective upflow path. The presence of marcasite in the uppermost regions of the system reflects weakly acidic conditions (pH < 5) marginal to the upflow, where outflow and downward percolating fluids have dissolved deeply exsolved CO2. The presence of "chalcopyrite disease" in sphalerite may be an indication that the system is experiencing a heating trend, following the logic of "zone-refining" in volcanogenic massive sulfide systems. Sulfide sulfur at all analyzed depths in the Reykjanes geothermal system was derived from a mixture of basaltic and reduced seawater sources. Petrographic evidence suggests that seawater-derived hydrothermal fluids have altered primary igneous sulfides in the host rocks, a process that has been proposed as a major control of aqueous sulfide production in mid-ocean ridge environments. Calculations show that igneous sulfides in the host basalts likely account for less than 5% of the total available ore metal budget in the system, however, their contribution to fluid metal budgets is probably significant because of their relatively high solubility. The processes documented by this study are likely analogous to those operating in the feeder and deep reaction zones of mid-ocean ridge seafloor hydrothermal systems. The results show that sulfide mineral zonation and trace element chemistry vary as a function of physicochemical parameters that are relevant

  2. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  3. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  4. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume I. Review and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topies covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, Public Utilities Commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  5. Geothermal power development in Hawaii. Volume 1. Review and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    The history of geothermal exploration in Hawaii is reviewed briefly. The nature and occurrences of geothermal resources are presented island by island. An overview of geothermal markets is presented. Other topics covered are: potential markets of the identified geothermal areas, well drilling technology, hydrothermal fluid transport, overland and submarine electrical transmission, community aspects of geothermal development, legal and policy issues associated with mineral and land ownership, logistics and infrastructure, legislation and permitting, land use controls, Regulation 8, public utilities commission, political climate and environment, state plans, county plans, geothermal development risks, and business planning guidelines.

  6. Characterization of the geothermal resource at Lackland AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.

    1983-06-01

    The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.

  7. Geothermal materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the most pressing problems constraining the development of geothermal energy is the lack of satisfactory component and system reliability. This is due to the unavailability, on a commercial scale, of cost-effective materials that can function in a wide range of geothermal environments and to the unavailability of a comprehensive body of directly relevant test data or materials selection experience. Suitable materials are needed for service in geothermal wells and in process plant equipment. For both situations, this requires materials that can withstand high-temperature, highly-corrosive, and scale-forming geothermal fluids. In addition to requiring a high degree of chemical and thermal resistance, the downhole environment places demands on the physical/mechanical properties of materials for components utilized in well drilling, completion, pumping, and logging. Technical and managerial assistance provided by Brookhaven in the program for studying these materials problems is described.

  8. Discovering new events beyond the catalogue—application of empirical matched field processing to Salton Sea geothermal field seismicity

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jingbo; Templeton, Dennise C.; Harris, David B.

    2015-07-30

    Using empirical matched field processing (MFP), we compare 4 yr of continuous seismic data to a set of 195 master templates from within an active geothermal field and identify over 140 per cent more events than were identified using traditional detection and location techniques alone. In managed underground reservoirs, a substantial fraction of seismic events can be excluded from the official catalogue due to an inability to clearly identify seismic-phase onsets. Empirical MFP can improve the effectiveness of current seismic detection and location methodologies by using conventionally located events with higher signal-to-noise ratios as master events to define wavefield templatesmore » that could then be used to map normally discarded indistinct seismicity. Since MFP does not require picking, it can be carried out automatically and rapidly once suitable templates are defined. In this application, we extend MFP by constructing local-distance empirical master templates using Southern California Earthquake Data Center archived waveform data of events originating within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. We compare the empirical templates to continuous seismic data collected between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011. The empirical MFP method successfully identifies 6249 additional events, while the original catalogue reported 4352 events. The majority of these new events are lower-magnitude events with magnitudes between M0.2–M0.8. Here, the increased spatial-temporal resolution of the microseismicity map within the geothermal field illustrates how empirical MFP, when combined with conventional methods, can significantly improve seismic network detection capabilities, which can aid in long-term sustainability and monitoring of managed underground reservoirs.« less

  9. Discovering new events beyond the catalogue—application of empirical matched field processing to Salton Sea geothermal field seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jingbo; Templeton, Dennise C.; Harris, David B.

    2015-07-30

    Using empirical matched field processing (MFP), we compare 4 yr of continuous seismic data to a set of 195 master templates from within an active geothermal field and identify over 140 per cent more events than were identified using traditional detection and location techniques alone. In managed underground reservoirs, a substantial fraction of seismic events can be excluded from the official catalogue due to an inability to clearly identify seismic-phase onsets. Empirical MFP can improve the effectiveness of current seismic detection and location methodologies by using conventionally located events with higher signal-to-noise ratios as master events to define wavefield templates that could then be used to map normally discarded indistinct seismicity. Since MFP does not require picking, it can be carried out automatically and rapidly once suitable templates are defined. In this application, we extend MFP by constructing local-distance empirical master templates using Southern California Earthquake Data Center archived waveform data of events originating within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. We compare the empirical templates to continuous seismic data collected between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011. The empirical MFP method successfully identifies 6249 additional events, while the original catalogue reported 4352 events. The majority of these new events are lower-magnitude events with magnitudes between M0.2–M0.8. Here, the increased spatial-temporal resolution of the microseismicity map within the geothermal field illustrates how empirical MFP, when combined with conventional methods, can significantly improve seismic network detection capabilities, which can aid in long-term sustainability and monitoring of managed underground reservoirs.

  10. Data requirements for valuing externalities: The role of existing permitting processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.D.; Baechler, M.C.; Callaway, J.M.

    1990-08-01

    While the assessment of externalities, or residual impacts, will place new demands on regulators, utilities, and developers, existing processes already require certain data and information that may fulfill some of the data needs for externality valuation. This paper examines existing siting, permitting, and other processes and highlights similarities and differences between their data requirements and the data required to value environmental externalities. It specifically considers existing requirements for siting new electricity resources in Oregon and compares them with the information and data needed to value externalities for such resources. This paper also presents several observations about how states can take advantage of data acquired through processes already in place as they move into an era when externalities are considered in utility decision-making. It presents other observations on the similarities and differences between the data requirements under existing processes and those for valuing externalities. This paper also briefly discusses the special case of cumulative impacts. And it presents recommendations on what steps to take in future efforts to value externalities. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  12. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  13. Design and fabrication of polymer-concrete-lined pipe for testing in geothermal-energy processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeding, A.O.

    1981-12-01

    A specific polymer-concrete formulation was applied as a steel pipe liner in response to a need for durable, economical materials for use in contact with high temperature geothermal brine. Processes are described for centrifugally applying the liner to straight pipe, for casting the liner in pipe fittings, and for closure of field joints. Physical properties of the liner materials were measured. Compressive strengths of up to 165.8 MPa (24,045 psi) and splitting tensile strengths of 23.5 MPa (3408 psi) were measured at ambient temperature. Compressive strengths of 24 MPa (3490 psi) and splitting tensile strengths of 2.5 MPa (366 psi) were measured at about 150/sup 0/C (302/sup 0/F). A full-scale production plant is described which would be capable of producing about 950 m (3120 ft) of lined 305-mm-diam (12 in.) pipe per day. Capital cost of the plant is estimated to be about $8.6 million with a calculated return on investment of 15.4%. Cost of piping a geothermal plant with PC and PC-lined steel pipe is calculated to be $1.21 million, which compares favorably with a similar plant piped with alloy steel piping at a cost of $1.33 million. Life-cycle cost analysis indicates that the cost of PC-lined steel pipe would be 82% of that of carbon steel pipe over a 20-year plant operating life.

  14. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  15. Processes controlling aquifer fluid compositions in the Olkaria geothermal system, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karingithi, Cyrus W.; Arnórsson, Stefán; Grönvold, Karl

    2010-09-01

    The volcanic geothermal system of Olkaria in Kenya has been extensively drilled for development purposes. The well data show that the reservoir is liquid-dominated. Often downhole temperatures in thermally stabilized wells follow the boiling point curve with depth to at least 2 km. In one part of the field (Olkaria East), a vapor-dominated cap existed above the liquid reservoir when the first deep wells were sunk in the area. Many of the producing wells have excess discharge enthalpy, i.e. the enthalpy is higher than that of steam-saturated water at the temperature of producing aquifers. In some cases, inflow from feed zones in the vapor cap may contribute to the excess enthalpy. Geothermometer results indicate, however, that excess enthalpy is dominantly produced by phase segregation in the depressurization zone around producing wells, the liquid being partially retained in the aquifer by its capillary adsorption onto mineral grain surfaces while the steam flows into the wells. The flashed water discharged from wells is of the Na-Cl or Na-HCO 3 types containing 50-1200 ppm of Cl. The most abundant dissolved constituent (average on a molal basis) in the aquifer fluid is CO 2, followed by Na, Cl, Si, F, K and H 2S. Modelling of aquifer fluid compositions using the phase segregation model reveals that the concentrations of only one of the major reactive components (CO 2) may be externally controlled, i.e. by its flux to the hydrothermal fluid. All the other reactive components (Al, Ca, F, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, S) are controlled by close approach to local equilibrium with hydrothermal minerals. In the Olkaria West and Domes sectors, the CO 2 aquifer fluid concentration is controlled by its flux from the magma heat source, but in other parts of the Olkaria field, it closely approaches equilibrium with the epidote-prehnite-calcite-quartz hydrothermal mineral assemblage. The mineral assemblage pyrite-pyrrhotite-magnetite controls aquifer water H 2S and H 2 concentrations

  16. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  17. 78 FR 27220 - EPA Activities To Promote Environmental Justice in the Permit Application Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    .... Promising Practices are simply that: Good ideas in the form of suggestions to permit applicants. EPA... community members, who can be employees, customers, or investors in the applicant's company, to lead to... accountability to the neighboring community, may achieve more environmental good than any permit can compel...

  18. 75 FR 52057 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of applications delayed more than 180 days. SUMMARY: In accordance with... applications that have been in process for 180 days or more. The reason(s) for delay and the...

  19. Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics - TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Xu, Tianfu; Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yingqi; Wu,Yu-Shu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zhang,Guoxiang; Kennedy, Mack

    2005-03-15

    This project has been active for several years and has focused on developing, enhancing and applying mathematical modeling capabilities for fractured geothermal systems. The emphasis of our work has recently shifted towards enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and hot dry rock (HDR), and FY05 is the first year that the DOE-AOP actually lists this project under Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Our overall purpose is to develop new engineering tools and a better understanding of the coupling between fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and rock-mechanical deformation, to demonstrate new EGS technology through field applications, and to make technical information and computer programs available for field applications. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Improve fundamental understanding and engineering methods for geothermal systems, primarily focusing on EGS and HDR systems and on critical issues in geothermal systems that are difficult to produce. (2) Improve techniques for characterizing reservoir conditions and processes through new modeling and monitoring techniques based on ''active'' tracers and coupled processes. (3) Improve techniques for targeting injection towards specific engineering objectives, including maintaining and controlling injectivity, controlling non-condensable and corrosive gases, avoiding scale formation, and optimizing energy recovery. Seek opportunities for field testing and applying new technologies, and work with industrial partners and other research organizations.

  20. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1991-05-01

    Technical feasibility of a biotechnology based on biochemical reactions for detoxification of geothermal brines has been demonstrated. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that the emerging biotechnology is versatile and is applicable to a variety of geothermal sludges and materials with similar geochemical properties. Materials suitable for treatment are those which may contain few or many metals in concentrations exceeding those allowed by regulatory agencies. Comparison of several possible types of bioreactors and processes have led to the conclusion that a number of variables have to be considered in the design and development of a biochemical plant for the detoxification of geothermal type sludges. These include reactor size, effects of agitation, mixed cultures, state of the biomass, pH and dissolved oxygen, concentration of residual sludge, residence time, and temperature. Under optimum conditions, high rates of metal removal can be achieved. Some recent studies, dealing with the process variables and their optimization, will be discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  1. 76 FR 10940 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... F. Billings, Director, Office of Hazardous Materials Special Permits and Approvals, Pipeline and... Products and Chemicals, 4 11-30-2010 Allentown, PA. 14992-N VIP Transport, Inc., Corona, CA.. 4...

  2. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  3. Petition to Object to Noranda Alumina Processing Plant, LLC, Gramercy, Louisiana Title V Operating Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. Use of reaction path modeling to identify the processes governing the generation of neutral Na-Cl and acidic Na-Cl-SO 4 deep geothermal liquids at Miravalles geothermal system, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Luigi; Yock Fung, Antonio; Sanchez, Eddy

    2003-12-01

    The EQ3/6 Software Package was used to investigate the irreversible water-rock mass exchanges governing the production of neutral Na-Cl and acidic Na-Cl-SO 4 geothermal liquids circulating at depth into the Miravalles geothermal system. First, we reconstructed the in-situ reservoir composition, including pH, we evaluated the boundary conditions ( PCO 2, PH 2S , and/or PO 2), which are necessary for the implementation of reaction path modeling, we estimated the thermodynamic affinity of the reservoir liquids with respect to relevant hydrothermal solid phases, and we identified possible compositions of the initially acidic meteoric-magmatic liquids. Then we modeled both the interaction between meteoric-magmatic fluids and calc-alkaline volcanic rocks and the interaction between neutral Na-Cl waters and highly altered volcanic rocks. Reaction path modeling was performed through a purely stoichiometric approach without considering the kinetics of irreversible mass exchanges. Results of reaction path modeling suggest that the neutral Na-Cl liquids hosted in the Miravalles geothermal reservoirs are produced through interaction between initially acidic, magmatic-meteoric aqueous solutions and volcanic rocks and represent the final product of this process. However, the deep acid Na-Cl-SO 4 liquids of Miravalles are not intermediate products in this process. They are instead generated through interaction of neutral Na-Cl waters with volcanic rocks affected by advanced argillic alteration, representing old solfataras buried by later volcanics, as suggested by Robert O. Fournier about 10 years ago.

  5. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or

  6. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  7. Comparison of Selective Culturing and Biochemical Techniques for Measuring Biological Activity in Geothermal Process Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, Peter Albert

    2000-09-01

    For the past three years, scientists at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory have been conducting studies aimed at determining the presence and influence of bacteria found in geothermal plant cooling water systems. In particular, the efforts have been directed at understanding the conditions that lead to the growth and accumulation of biomass within these systems, reducing the operational and thermal efficiency. Initially, the methods selected were based upon the current practices used by the industry and included the collection of water quality parameters, the measurement of soluble carbon, and the use of selective medial for the determination of the number density of various types of organisms. This data has been collected on a seasonal basis at six different facilities located at the Geysers’ in Northern California. While this data is valuable in establishing biological growth trends in the facilities and providing an initial determination of upset or off-normal conditions, more detailed information about the biological activity is needed to determine what is triggering or sustaining the growth in these facilities in order to develop improved monitoring and treatment techniques. In recent years, new biochemical approaches, based upon the analyses of phospholipid fatty acids and DNA recovered from environmental samples, have been developed and commercialized. These techniques, in addition to allowing the determination of the quantity of biomass, also provide information on the community composition and the nutritional status of the organisms. During the past year, samples collected from the condenser effluents of four of the plants from The Geysers’ were analyzed using these methods and compared with the results obtained from selective culturing techniques. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the cost-benefit of implementing these techniques for tracking microbial activity in the plant study, in place of the selective culturing

  8. 78 FR 20393 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ..., routine activities and services. Our work relative to these activities and services largely correlates to... and have similar costs. We believe that this approach would recover the greatest percentage of our... review of applications. Direct costs would vary by permit because of differences in the...

  9. 77 FR 29455 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... Battery Group, Inc., 3 07-31-2012 Milwaukee, WI. 15510-N TEMSCO Helicopters, Inc., Ketchikan, 3 07-30-2012... Draper, UT. Renewal Special Permits Applications 12283-R Interstate Battery of Alaska, 3 06-30-2012 Anchorage, AK. 9929-R Alliant Techsystems Operations LLC, 3 07-30-2012 (Former Grantee ATK Elkton)...

  10. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  11. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (<60 mW/m2) heat flow and geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  12. UIC permitting process for class IID and Class III wells: Protection of drinking water in New York State

    SciTech Connect

    Hillenbrand, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region II, Underground Injection Control (UIC) Program regulates injection wells in the State of New York to protect drinking water; UIC regulations can be found under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Parts 124, 144, 146 and 147. Operators of solution mining injection wells (UIC Class IIIG) and produced fluid disposal wells (UIC Class IID) are required to obtain an UIC permit for authorization to inject. The permitting process requires submittal of drinking water, geologic and proposed operational data in order to assure that pressure build-up within the injection zone will not compromise confining layers and allow vertical migration of fluid into Underground Sources of Drinking Water (USDW). Additional data is required within an Area of Review (AOR), defined as an area determined by the intersection of the adjusted potentiometric surface produced by injection and a depth 50 feet below the base of the lowermost USDW, or a radius of 1/4 mile around the injection well, whichever is greater. Locations of all wells in the AOR must be identified, and completion reports and plugging reports must be submitted. Requirements are set for maximum injection pressure and flow rates, monitoring of brine properties of the injection well and monitoring of water supply wells in the AOR for possible contamination. Any noncompliance with permit requirements constitutes a violation of the Safe Drinking Water Act and is grounds for enforcement action, including possible revocation of permit. Presently four Class IID wells are authorized under permit in New York State. The Queenston sandstone, Medina sandstone, Salina B, Akron dolomite and Oriskany sandstone have been used for brine disposal; the lower Ordovician-Cambrian section is currently being considered as an injection zone. Over one hundred Class IIIG wells are authorized under permit in New York State and all have been utilized for solution mining of the Syracuse salt.

  13. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  14. Permit Fees

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  15. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  16. 77 FR 42363 - Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Defense, Wilson, NC. 15258-M Air Products and 3 07-31-2012 Chemicals, Inc., Tamaqua, PA. 10964-M Kidde Aerospace & 3 08-31-2012 Defense, Wilson, NC. NEW SPECIAL PERMIT APPLICATIONS 15080-N Alaska Airlines, 4 10..... 3 10-31-2012 13548-P A&S Batteries Inc., 4 11-30-2012 Billings, MT. 15537-P Austin Powder 4 10-31...

  17. Space-Time Evolution of Seismicity in North-Western Geysers Geothermal Field and its Connection to Stimulation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leptokaropoulos, Konstantinos; Staszek, Monika; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The rising needs for energy along with the recent requirements for more efficient usage and exploitation of the deep underground have resulted to a growing scientific and public concern on related environmental impacts. Hydraulic fracturing that has been carried out during the last decades is occasionally connected with triggered and induced seismicity worldwide. Data from geothermal fields can be used as a proxy for shale gas exploitation associated seismicity since they are both tightly connected to hydraulic fracturing. For that reason we utilize 'The Geysers' data from the compiled SHEER (Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks) database. The Geysers (California, USA) is the largest producing geothermal field in the world and has been sufficiently monitored and studied since the last decades. Seismic and technological data gathered during the past 40 years indicate a connection of seismic activity with the fluctuations of the injected fluid volume. In this study we verify and quantify this correlation by analyzing the data associated with 2 injection wells (Prati-9 and Prati-29) which covers a time period of approximately 7 years (from November 2007 to August 2014). The correlation between spatio-temporal seismicity evolution and variation of the injection data is performed by elaboration of original and smoothed time-series through specified statistical tools (cross correlation, binomial test to investigate significant rate changes, b-value variation). Our analysis indicate a short time delay of seismicity occurrence at distances larger than 200m from the injection well, whereas no evidence of significant correlation between injection rates and b-values was discovered. The obtained results are expected to contribute to a better comprehension of the role of hydraulic fracturing and the physical processes controlling seismogenesis in fluid injection sites. Acknowledgements: This work was supported within SHEER: "Shale Gas Exploration and

  18. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  19. Combined cycle power unit with a binary system based on waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Nikol'skii, A. I.; Semenov, V. N.

    2016-06-01

    The Russian geothermal power systems developed in the last few decades outperform their counterparts around the world in many respects. However, all Russian geothermal power stations employ steam as the geothermal fluid and discard the accompanying geothermal brine. In reality, the power of the existing Russian geothermal power stations may be increased without drilling more wells, if the waste brine is employed in combined cycle systems with steam and binary turbine units. For the example of the 50 MW Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal combined cycle power unit based on the waste geothermal brine is considered. It is of great interest to determine how the thermodynamic parameters of the secondary steam in the expansion unit and the pressure in the condenser affect the performance of the equipment in the combined cycle power unit at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant. For the utilization of the waste geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant, the optimal air temperature in the condensers of the combined cycle power unit is +5°C. The use of secondary steam obtained by flashing of the geothermal brine at Mutnovsk geothermal power plant 1 at a pressure of 0.2 MPa permits the generation of up to 8 MW of electric power in steam turbines and additional power of 5 MW in the turbines of the binary cycle.

  20. Geothermal Progress Monitor report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor (GPM) is the 11th since the inception of the publication in 1980. It continues to synthesize information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this energy technology. In addition, the GPM is a mechanism for transferring current information on geothermal technology development to the private sector, and, over time, provides a historical record for those interested in the development pathway of the resource. In sum, the Department of Energy makes the GPM available to the many diverse interests that make up the geothermal community for the multiple uses it may serve. This issue of the GPM points up very clearly how closely knit many of those diverse interests have become. It might well be called an international issue'' since many of its pages are devoted to news of geothermal development abroad, to the efforts of the US industry to participate in overseas development, to the support given those efforts by federal and state agencies, and to the formation of the International Geothermal Association (IGA). All of these events indicate that the geothermal community has become truly international in character, an occurrence that can only enhance the future of geothermal energy as a major source of energy supply worldwide. 15 figs.

  1. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  2. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program: Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    Geothermal Technologies Program Utah fact sheet describes the geothermal areas and use in Utah, focusing on power generation as well as direct use, including geothermally heated greenhouses, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths.

  4. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  5. New Mexico handbook for geothermal resource development state and local government regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    The regulatory aspects of a wide range of potential projects and sequences within the projects are covered, such as: exploration, demonstration, construction, commercialization, and operation. Such topics as environmental studies, water rights, district heating, taxation archaeological clearances, and construction permits are addressed. Other general information is provided which may assist a prospective geothermal developer in understanding which state and local agencies have review responsibilities, their review procedures, and the appropriate time frame necessary to complete their review process. (MHR)

  6. Approaches to Streamline Air Permitting for Combined Heat and Power: Permits by Rule and General Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet provides information about permit by rule (PBR) and general permit (GP) processes, including the factors that contributed to their development and lessons learned from their implementation.

  7. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-01-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  8. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  9. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.

  10. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  11. The geothermal program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    The main purpose of the geothermal program at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is to develop, improve and validate methods and instrumentation to: (1) determine geothermal reservoir parameters; (2) detect and characterize reservoir fractures and boundaries; and (3) identify and evaluate the importance of reservoir processes. The ultimate objective of the program, which includes field, theoretical and modeling activities, is to advance the state-of-the-art for characterizing geothermal systems and evaluating their productive capacity and longevity under commercial exploitation.

  12. Isotopic evidence for magmatic and meteoric water recharge and the processes affecting reservoir fluids in the Palinpinon geothermal system, Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Gerardo, J.Y.; Seastres, J.S. Jr.; Nuti, S.; D`Amore, F.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1993-10-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of meteoric and geothermal waters indicate that the Palinpinon geothermal system of Southern Negros is fed by a parent water that originated from a mixture of local meteoric (80%) and magmatic (20%) waters. The meteoric water has an isotopic concentration of {minus}8.5{per_thousand} and {minus}54{per_thousand} in {sup 18}O and {sup 2}H, respectively, which corresponds to an average infiltration altitude of about 1,000 m above sea level. With exploitation of the system and injection of wastewaters to the reservoir, the stable isotopic composition became heavier due to significant mixing of geothermal fluids with injection waters. Incursion of cooler meteoric waters, which is confirmed by the presence of tritium, also leads to the formation of acid-sulfate waters. Stable isotopes are effective as ``natural tracers`` to determine the origin and mixing of different fluids in the reservoir.

  13. Advances in geothermal energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkis, I.B.; Eltez, M.

    1996-10-01

    One of the earliest examples of large scale use of the geothermal energy is the district heating system in Boise, Idaho. Established in 1892, this system now serves 266 customers--mostly residential. Today, excluding heat pumps, there are about 300 sites in America where geothermal energy is currently used in various applications; including district heating, absorption cooling and refrigeration, industrial processes, aquaculture, horticulture, and snow melting/freeze protection. Among these, 18 geothermal district heating systems are operating with 677 GBtu (714 TJ) total annual heat output. Geothermal activity was first generated in Italy, in 1904, with a 10 kWe capacity. Now, commercial power plants are in service using vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated plants with a world-wide installed capacity of 6 GWe. This paper looks at a hybrid cycle/integrated district HVAC system.

  14. Environmental assessmental, geothermal energy, Heber geothermal binary-cycle demonstration project: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The proposed design, construction, and operation of a commercial-scale (45 MWe net) binary-cycle geothermal demonstration power plant are described using the liquid-dominated geothermal resource at Heber, Imperial County, California. The following are included in the environmental assessment: a description of the affected environment, potential environmental consequences of the proposed action, mitigation measures and monitoring plans, possible future developmental activities at the Heber anomaly, and regulations and permit requirements. (MHR)

  15. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update, FY 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, Joel Lawrence

    2001-08-01

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: 1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and 2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  16. Analysis of the permitting processes associated with exploration of Federal OCS leases. Final report. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Under contract to the Office of Leasing Policy Development (LPDO), Jack Faucett Associates is currently undertaking the description and analysis of the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) regulatory process to determine the nature of time delays that affect OCS production of oil and gas. This report represents the results of the first phase of research under this contract, the description and analysis of regulatory activity associated with exploration activities on the Federal OCS. Volume 1 contains the following three sections: (1) study results; (2) Federal regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases which involved the US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, US Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, and National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration; and (3) state regulatory activities during exploration of Federal OCS leases of Alaska, California, Louisiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Carolina and Texas. Volume II contains appendices of US Geological Survey, Environmental Protection Agency, Coast Guard, Corps of Engineers, the Coastal Zone Management Act, and Alaska. The major causes of delay in the regulatory process governing exploration was summarized in four broad categories: (1) the long and tedious process associated with the Environmental Protection Agency's implementation of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit; (2) thelack of mandated time periods for the completion of individual activities in the permitting process; (3) the lack of overall coordination of OCS exploratory regulation; and (4) the inexperience of states, the Federal government and industry relating to the appropriate level of regulation for first-time lease sale areas.

  17. Geothermal reservoir assessment based on slim hole drilling. Volume 1, Analytical Method: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, H.J.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Observation Hole (SOH) program was supplied by the State of Hawaii to drill six, 4,000 foot scientific observation holes on Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii to confirm and stimulate geothermal, resource development in Hawaii. After a lengthy permitting process, three SOHs, totaling 18,890 feet of mostly core drilling were finally drilled along the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) in the Puna district on the Big Island. The SOH program was highly successful in meeting the highly restrictive permitting conditions imposed on the program, and in developing slim hole drilling techniques, establishing subsurface geological conditions, and initiating an assessment and characterization of the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii - even though permitting specifically prohibited pumping or flowing the holes to obtain data of subsurface fluid conditions. The first hole, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 306.1 C, and established subsurface thermal continuity along the KERZ between the HGP-A and the True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture wells. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole SOH-1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C, effectively doubled the size of the Hawaii Geothermal Project -- Abbott/Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) proven/probable reservoir, and defined the northern limit of the HGP-A/PGV reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C, and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential ''discovery.''

  18. Geothermal direct-heat study: Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-01

    Potential applications of geothermal energy which would be compatible with the agricultural activities in the county were identified and a plan to attract potential users to the area was developed. The intent of the first effort was to identify general classifications of industries which could utilize geothermal heat in production processes. Two levels of analyses were utilized for this effort. Initially, activities relying on previously developed engineering and industrial concepts were investigated to determine capital costs, employment, and potential energy savings. Second, innovative concepts not yet fully developed were investigated to determine their potential applicability to the agricultural base of the county. These investigations indicated that the major potential applications of geothermal heat would involve industries related to food processing or other direct agriculture-related uses of raw materials produced or imported to the county. An implementation plan which can be utilized by the county to market direct heat applications was developed. A socioeconomics analysis examined the potential effects on the county from development of direct heat projects. The county's planning and permitting requirements for dirct heat projects were also examined.

  19. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  20. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  1. Utilization of geothermal energy in a biomass-ethanol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bottomley, J.

    1980-12-01

    A study has been done on the uses of geothermal fluid in the processing of ethanol from wood and fodder beet. From a technical viewpoint, geothermal heat has large scale uses in the preheating, hydrolysis, and distillation stages. It is possible that heat exchangers would not be necessary as direct use of geothermal fluid could be viable. The financial advantages however are not conclusive assuming a geothermal steam and water cost of $2.50/ton.

  2. Timely Processing of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Permits when EPA or a PSD-Delegated Air Agency Issues the Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  3. The Impact of City-level Permitting Processes on Residential Photovoltaic Installation Prices and Development Times: An Empirical Analysis of Solar Systems in California Cities

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Dong, Changgui

    2013-04-01

    Business process or “soft” costs account for well over 50% of the installed price of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States, so understanding these costs is crucial for identifying PV cost-reduction opportunities. Among these costs are those imposed by city-level permitting processes, which may add both expense and time to the PV development process. Building on previous research, this study evaluates the effect of city-level permitting processes on the installed price of residential PV systems and on the time required to develop and install those systems. The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Rooftop Solar Challenge Program, which includes city-level permitting process “scores,” plus data from the California Solar Initiative and the U.S. Census. Econometric methods are used to quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes on more than 3,000 PV installations across 44 California cities in 2011. Results indicate that city-level permitting processes have a substantial and statistically significant effect on average installation prices and project development times. The results suggest that cities with the most favorable (i.e., highest-scoring) permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W (4%–12% of median PV prices in California) compared with cities with the most onerous (i.e., lowest-scoring) permitting practices, depending on the regression model used. Though the empirical models for development times are less robust, results suggest that the most streamlined permitting practices may shorten development times by around 24 days on average (25% of the median development time). These findings illustrate the potential price and development-time benefits of streamlining local permitting procedures for PV systems.

  4. Fault recognition depending on seismic acquisition and processing for application to geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buness, H.; von Hartmann, H.; Rumpel, H.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Schulz, R.

    2011-12-01

    Fault systems offer a large potential for deep hydrothermal energy extraction. Most of the existing and planned projects rely on enhanced permeability assumed to be connected with them. Target depth of hydrothermal exploration in Germany is in the order of 3 -5 km to ensure an economic operation due to moderate temperature gradients. 3D seismics is the most appropriate geophysical method to image fault systems at these depth, but also one of the most expensive ones. It constitutes a significant part of the total project costs, so its application was (and is) discussed. Cost reduction in principle can be achieved by sparse acquisition. However, the decreased fold inevitably leads to a decreased S/N ratio. To overcome this problem, the application of the CRS (Common Reflection Surface) method has been proposed. The stacking operator of the CRS method inherently includes more traces than the conventional NMO/DMO stacking operator and hence a better S/N ratio can be achieved. We tested this approach using exiting 3D seismic datasets of the two most important hydrothermal provinces in Germany, the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the German Molasse Basin (GMB). To simulate a sparse acquisition, we reduced the amount of data to a quarter respectively a half and did a reprocessing of the data, including new velocity analysis and residual static corrections. In the URG, the utilization of the variance cube as basis for a horizon bound window amplitude analysis has been successful for the detection of small faults, which would hardly be recognized in seismic sections. In both regions, CRS processing undoubtedly improved the imaging of small faults in the complete as well as in the reduced versions of the datasets. However, CRS processing could not compensate the loss of resolution due to the reduction associated with the simulated sparse acquisition, and hence smaller faults became undetectable. The decision for a sparse acquisition of course depends on the scope of the survey

  5. Geothermal development issues: Recommendations to Deschutes County

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, C.

    1982-07-01

    This report discusses processes and issues related to geothermal development. It is intended to inform planners and interested individuals in Deschutes County about geothermal energy, and advise County officials as to steps that can be taken in anticipation of resource development. (ACR)

  6. Geothermal Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-15

    intervals of 30 km. Reykjanes , Krysuvik, and Hengill . > have base temperatures of 280.220 and 260^ respectively. Hengill, the largest, has an area of 70...and 32 MW of electric power is planned. Reykjanes has had seven holes drilled to a maximum depth of 1,750 m. These wells vield brine with...0.001-0. 01 < 4 Cu 0. 00 0.001-0. 01 Zn 0. 00 0.005 Pb 0. 00 0.004 Fig. 28, The composition of the geothermal brine at Reykjanes compared with

  7. Geothermal progress monitor: Report No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This issue synthesizes information on all aspects of geothermal development in this country and abroad to permit identification and quantification of trends in the use of this source of energy. The contents include: (1) the Federal Beat; (2) The Industry Scene; (3) Financing; (4) Development Status; (5) Leasing and Drilling; (6) State and Local; (7) International; and (8) Technology Transfer. (ACR)

  8. 16 CFR 301.10 - Use of term “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... lamb which has been sheared, leaving a moire hair pattern on the pelt having the appearance of the true fur pattern of “Broadtail Lamb”; as for example: Dyed Broadtail-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina ...

  9. 16 CFR 301.10 - Use of term “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... lamb which has been sheared, leaving a moire hair pattern on the pelt having the appearance of the true fur pattern of “Broadtail Lamb”; as for example: Dyed Broadtail-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina ...

  10. 16 CFR 301.10 - Use of term “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... lamb which has been sheared, leaving a moire hair pattern on the pelt having the appearance of the true fur pattern of “Broadtail Lamb”; as for example: Dyed Broadtail-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina ...

  11. 16 CFR 301.10 - Use of term “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... lamb which has been sheared, leaving a moire hair pattern on the pelt having the appearance of the true fur pattern of “Broadtail Lamb”; as for example: Dyed Broadtail-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina ...

  12. 16 CFR 301.10 - Use of term “Broadtail-processed Lamb” permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... lamb which has been sheared, leaving a moire hair pattern on the pelt having the appearance of the true fur pattern of “Broadtail Lamb”; as for example: Dyed Broadtail-processed Lamb Fur origin: Argentina ...

  13. Louisiana Title V General Permits

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, B.E.; Neal, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires federal operating permits for all major sources of air pollution. In 1992, Title 40, Part 70 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 70) codified the law s requirements. These federal regulations, entitled Operating Permit Program, define the minimum requirements for state administered operating permit programs. The intent of Title V is to put into one document all requirements of an operating permit. General Permits for oil and gas facilities may be preferred if the facility can comply with all permit requirements. If greater flexibility than allowed by the General Permit is required, then the facility should apply for an individual Title V permit. General Permits are designed to streamline the permitting process, shorten the time it takes to obtain approval for initial and modified permits. The advantages of the General Permit include reduced paperwork and greater consistency because the permits are standardized. There should be less uncertainty because permit requirements will be known at the time of application. Approval times for Initial and modified General Permits should be reduced. Lengthy public notice procedures (and possible hearings) will be required for only the initial approval of the General Permit and not for each applicant to the permit. A disadvantage of General Permits is reduced flexibility since the facility must comply with the requirements of a standardized permit.

  14. Deformation near the Casa Diablo geothermal well field and related processes Long Valley caldera, Eastern California, 1993-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, J.F.; Langbein, J.O.; Farrar, C.D.; Wilkinson, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Regional first-order leveling lines, which extend from Lee Vining, CA, to Tom's Place, CA, have been surveyed periodically since 1957 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), and Caltrans. Two of the regional survey lines, or leveling networks, intersect at the Casa Diablo geothermal well field. These leveling networks, referenced to a distant bench mark (C916) near Lee Vining, provide time-series vertical control data of land-surface deformation that began around 1980. These data are also useful for delineating localized subsidence at Casa Diablo related to reservoir pressure and temperature changes owing to geothermal development that began in 1985. A comparison of differences in bench-mark elevations for five time periods between 1983 and 1997 shows the development and expansion of a subsidence bowl at Casa Diablo. The subsidence coincides spatially with the geothermal well field and temporally with the increased production rates and the deepening of injection wells in 1991, which resulted in an increase in the rate of pressure decline. The subsidence, superimposed on a broad area of uplift, totaled about 310 mm by 1997. The USGS established orthogonal tilt arrays in 1983 to better monitor deformation across the caldera. One tilt array (DBR) was established near what would later become the Casa Diablo geothermal well field. This array responded to magmatic intrusions prior to geothermal development, tilting away from the well field. With the start of geothermal fluid extraction in 1985, tilt at the DBR array reversed direction and began tilting into the well field. In 1991, geothermal power production was increased by a factor of four, and reservoir pressures began a period of steep decline. These changes caused a temporary three-fold increase in the tilt rate. The tilt rate became stable in 1993 and was about 40% lower than that measured in 1991-1992, but still greater than the rates measured during 1985-1990. Data from the

  15. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  16. MASSIVELY PARALLEL FULLY COUPLED IMPLICIT MODELING OF COUPLED THERMAL-HYDROLOGICAL-MECHANICAL PROCESSES FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang; Derek Gaston

    2010-02-01

    Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing) to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. In order to increase our understanding of how reservoirs behave under these conditions, we have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a continuum multiphase flow and heat transport model. In DEM simulations, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external load is applied. DEM models have been applied to a very wide range of fracturing processes from the molecular scale (where thermal fluctuations play an important role) to scales on the order of 1 km or greater. In this approach, the continuum flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite element grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms and

  17. Geothermal vegetable dehydration at Brady`s Hot Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the utilization of the Brady`s Springs geothermal resource for heat generation used in the food dehydration process. This geothermal system is located in the Forty-Mile Desert area of Nevada. Geothermal Food Processors, Inc. of Reno, Nevada started construction of the geothermal vegetable dehydration plant in 1978, and the plant started operations in 1979. The industrial process of vegetable dehydration at the plant is described. In July of 1992, the Brady`s Springs geothermal system began being used for power generation by the Brady`s Hot Springs geothermal power plant, operated by Oxbow Power Services, Inc. As a result, the water levels in the food processing plant wells have dropped below usable levels and the geothermal brine is now being supplied by the Oxbow power plant.

  18. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  19. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  20. New catalyst permits desulfurization of heavier resids. [RCD-8 catalyst, RCD Unibon process

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Russ, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    (1) The commerically proven RCD-8 catalyst offers superior metal removal and a twofold improvement in metal tolerance. For existing reduced-crude desulfurization units, this catalyst will allow processing feedstocks containing much higher metals level without sacrificing run length. Utilization of RCD-8 for new unit designs will significantly reduce investments for reactors and catalysts. RCD-8 has also proven to be an excellent catalyst for the desulfurization of heavy vacuum bottoms. Sulfur removal is accompanied by significant reduction in asphaltenes, non-distillables, and Conradson carbon. Thus, RCD-8 represents a substantial improvement over other hydroprocessing catalysts used in preparing feed for FCC, coking, hydrocracking or solvent-extraction units, in addition to producing low-sulfur fuel oil. 1 ref.

  1. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  2. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential for utilizing geothermal energy was evaluated. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 900C (1940F) were identified, and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated. One resource site contains a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2% per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without adverse affect on agriculture. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. It is suggested that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  3. Geothermal Technologies Program: Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Washington State. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  4. GEOTHERM Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeAngelo, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  5. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  6. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  7. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  8. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  9. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  10. Constraints and benefits of changing the distribution process for recreation special use permits in the U.S

    Treesearch

    Jessie Meybin; Robert Burns; Alan Graefe; James D. Absher

    2010-01-01

    A significant policy change governing recreation Special Use Permits on U.S. Federal lands was implemented in October 2008. The changes may have a major impact on current and potential recreation users, members of local communities, and existing outfitter/guide services. This paper presents findings from interviews with permit distribution supervisors about changes in...

  11. 75 FR 78800 - Office of Hazardous Materials Safety; Notice of Delays in Processing of Special Permits Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... Transportation, East Building, PHH-30, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, Southeast, Washington, DC 20590-0001, (202) 366... volume of special permit applications. Meaning of Application Number Suffixes N--New application. M... Application No. Applicant delay of completion Modification to Special Permits 10922-M FIBA Technologies, 4 12...

  12. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.G.

    1999-05-01

    This report reviews the specific objectives, status, and accomplishments of DOE's Geothermal Research Program for Fiscal Year 1998. The Exploration Technology research area focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to expose the deep portions of known systems. The Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal and hot dry rock reservoirs. The Drilling Technology projects focus on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. The Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Direct use research covers the direct use of geothermal energy sources for applications in other than electrical production.

  13. Lean in Air Permitting Guide

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lean in Air Permitting Guide is designed to help air program managers at public agencies better understand the potential value and results that can be achieved by applying Lean improvement methods to air permitting processes.

  14. Entropy production and optimization of geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelides, Efstathios E.

    2012-09-01

    Geothermal power plants are currently producing reliable and low-cost, base load electricity. Three basic types of geothermal power plants are currently in operation: single-flashing, dual-flashing, and binary power plants. Typically, the single-flashing and dual-flashing geothermal power plants utilize geothermal water (brine) at temperatures in the range of 550-430 K. Binary units utilize geothermal resources at lower temperatures, typically 450-380 K. The entropy production in the various components of the three types of geothermal power plants determines the efficiency of the plants. It is axiomatic that a lower entropy production would improve significantly the energy utilization factor of the corresponding power plant. For this reason, the entropy production in the major components of the three types of geothermal power plants has been calculated. It was observed that binary power plants generate the lowest amount of entropy and, thus, convert the highest rate of geothermal energy into mechanical energy. The single-flashing units generate the highest amount of entropy, primarily because they re-inject fluid at relatively high temperature. The calculations for entropy production provide information on the equipment where the highest irreversibilities occur, and may be used to optimize the design of geothermal processes in future geothermal power plants and thermal cycles used for the harnessing of geothermal energy.

  15. Handbook of Best Practices for Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John Travis; Blankenship, Douglas A.

    2012-02-01

    This Handbook is a description of the complex process that comprises drilling a geothermal well. The focus of the detailed Chapters covering various aspects of the process (casing design, cementing, logging and instrumentation, etc) is on techniques and hardware that have proven successful in geothermal reservoirs around the world. The Handbook will eventually be linked to the GIA web site, with the hope and expectation that it can be continually updated as new methods are demonstrated or proven.

  16. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  17. Hawaii geothermal project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  18. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  19. Geothermal monitor report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part 2 of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  20. 43 CFR 3261.15 - Must I give BLM my drilling permit application, drilling program, and operations plan at the same...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit... drilling program to allow BLM time to comply with National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and (2)...

  1. Industrial food processing and space heating with geothermal heat. Final report, February 16, 1979-August 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Kunze, J.F.; Marlor, J.K.

    1982-08-01

    A competitive aware for a cost sharing program was made to Madison County, Idaho to share in a program to develop moderate-to-low temperature geothermal energy for the heating of a large junior college, business building, public shcools and other large buildings in Rexburg, Idaho. A 3943 ft deep well was drilled at the edge of Rexburg in a region that had been probed by some shallower test holes. Temperatures measured near the 4000 ft depth were far below what was expected or needed, and drilling was abandoned at that depth. In 1981 attempts were made to restrict downward circulation into the well, but the results of this effort yielded no higher temperatures. The well is a prolific producer of 70/sup 0/F water, and could be used as a domestic water well.

  2. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  3. Feasibility study report for the Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery: a 14. 9-million-gallon-per-year ethanol synfuel refinery utilizing geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The construction and operation of a 14,980,000 gallon per year fuel ethanol from grain refinery in the Imperial Valley of California is proposed. The Imperial Valley Ethanol Refinery (refinery) will use hot geothermal fluid from geothermal resources at the East Mesa area as the source of process energy. In order to evaluate the economic viability of the proposed Project, exhaustive engineering, cost analysis, and financial studies have been undertaken. This report presents the results of feasibility studies undertaken in geothermal resource, engineering, marketing financing, management, environment, and permits and approvals. The conclusion of these studies is that the Project is economically viable. US Alcohol Fuels is proceeding with its plans to construct and operate the Refinery.

  4. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  5. A PACIFIC-WIDE GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH LABORATORY: THE PUNA GEOTHERMAL RESEARCH FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, P.; Seki, A.; Chen, B.

    1985-01-22

    The Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP-A) well, located in the Kilauea volcano east rift zone, was drilled to a depth of 6450 feet in 1976. It is considered to be one of the hot-test producing geothermal wells in the world. This single well provides 52,800 pounds per hour of 371 F and 160 pounds per square inch-absolute (psia) steam to a 3-megawatt power plant, while the separated brine is discharged in percolating ponds. About 50,000 pounds per hour of 368 F and 155 psia brine is discharged. Geothermal energy development has increased steadily in Hawaii since the completion of HGP-A in 1976: (1) a 3 megawatt power plant at HGP-A was completed and has been operating since 1981; (2) Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) has requested that their next increment in power production be from geothermal steam; (3) three development consortia are actively, or in the process of, drilling geothermal exploration wells on the Big Island; and (4) engineering work on the development of a 400 megawatt undersea cable for energy transmission is continuing, with exploratory discussions being initiated on other alternatives such as hydrogen. The purpose for establishing the Puna Geothermal Research Facility (PGRF) is multifold. PGRF provides a facility in Puna for high technology research, development, and demonstration in geothermal and related activities; initiate an industrial park development; and examine multi-purpose dehydration and biomass applications related to geothermal energy utilization.

  6. Molybdenum in icelandic geothermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnórsson, Stefán; Ívarsson, Gretar

    1985-07-01

    Molybdenum concentrations in Icelandic geothermal waters lie in the range 1 70 ppb. Warm waters and dilute high-temperature waters which contain high concentrations of sulphide are lowest in molybdenum. No correlation is otherwise observed between molybdenum concentrations and temperature. Surface waters and cold ground waters do not contain detectable molybdenum (<1 ppb). It seems likely that leaching rate is the prime factor in limiting molybdenum levels in these waters. Within individual geothermal fields molybdenum concentrations are either approximately constant or they vary regularly across the field. This regular variation may often be correlated with variations in other solute concentrations and subsurface temperatures and is taken to indicate a control of molybdenum mobility by a temperature dependent equilibrium. The evidence suggests that the solubility of molybdenite is responsible. Molybdenite has not been found in active geothermal systems in Iceland but is known to occur in some New Zealand geothermal systems and it has been identified in hydrothermally altered Tertiary basalt formations at Reydarártindur in southeast Iceland. Boiling and mixing with cold water leads to molybdenite undersaturation and thus these processes favour leaching of molybdenum from the rock. On the other hand, conductive cooling leads to supersaturation which favours removal of molybdenum from solution.

  7. Inverse Modeling of the Thermal Hydrodynamic and Chemical Processes During Exploitation of the Mutnovsky Geothermal Field (Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    A TOUGH2-EOS1 3D rectangular numerical model of the Mutnovsky geothermal field (Kiryukhin, 1996) was re-calibrated using natural state and history exploitation data during the time period 1984-2006 years. Recalibration using iTOUGH2-EOS1+tracer inversion modeling capabilities, was useful to remove outliers from calibration data, identify sets of the estimated parameters of the model, and perform estimations. Chloride ion was used as a "tracer" in this modeling. Thermal hydrodynamic observational data which were used for model recalibration are as follows: 37 temperature and 1 pressure calibration points - for natural state, 13 production wells with monthly averaged enthalpies (650 values during the time period 1983-1987, 2000-2006 years) and 1 transient pressure monitoring wells (57 values during 2003-2006 years) - for exploitation history match. Chemical observational data includes transient mass chloride concentrations from 10 production wells and chloride hot spring sampling data (149 values during 1999-2006 years). The following features of Mutnovsky geothermal reservoir based on integrated inverse modeling analysis of natural state and exploitation data were estimated and better understood: 1. Reservoir permeability was found to be one order more comparable to model-1996, especially the lower part coinciding with intrusion contact zone (600-800 mD at -750 - -1250 masl); 2. Local meteoric inflow in the central part of the field accounting for 45 - 80 kg/s since year 2002; 3. Reinjection rates were estimated significantly lower, than officially reported as 100% of total fluid withdrawal; 4. Upflow fluid flows were estimated hotter (314oC) and the rates are larger (+50%), than assumed before; 5. Global double porosity parameters estimates are: fracture spacing - 5 - 10 m, void fraction N 10-3; 6. Main upflow zone chloride mass concentration estimate is 150 ppm. Conversion of the calibrated TOUGH2-EOS1+tracer model into electrical resistivity model using TOUGH2

  8. Binary Cycle Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant New Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Robert G.; Jacobson, William O.

    1980-12-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) has been associated with geothermal exploration and development in the Imperial Valley since 1971. SDG and E currently has interests in the four geothermal reservoirs shown. Major SDG and E activities have included drilling and flow testing geothermal exploration wells, feasibility and process flow studies, small-scale field testing of power processes and equipment, and pilot plant scale test facility design, construction and operation. Supporting activities have included geothermal leasing, acquisition of land and water rights, pursual of a major new transmission line to carry Imperial Valley geothermal and other sources of power to San Diego, and support of Magma Electric's 10 MW East Mesa Geothermal Power Plant.

  9. The geothermal power organization

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  10. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  11. Volcanostratigraphy for supporting geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronto, S.; Sianipar, J. Y.; Pratopo, A. K.

    2016-09-01

    Volcanostratigraphy is stratigraphy related to volcanism and its products. This includes stratigraphy for a general scoping of a regional area and detailed analysis in a local area. On the basis of Indonesian Stratigraphic Code 1996, from low to high rank, volcanostratigraphic units are Hummock (Gumuk), Crown (Khuluk), Brigade (Bregada), Super Brigade (Manggala), and Arc (Busur). For more detailed stratigraphic study these ranked units can be classified into genetic rock units based on source location, processes and absolute age. Genetic processes include transportation and cooling or deposition mechanisms. These lead to physical- and chemical- properties of the volcanic rocks and provide the history of volcanism and potentially geothermal processes in an area. For many areas in Indonesia the understanding of the volcanostratigraphy is an important dataset for geothermal exploration.

  12. Petition Requesting the Administrator to Object to Operating Permit for DCP Midstream, LP's Platteville Gas Processing Plant

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Geothermal Today - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  15. Geothermal Today - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  16. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  17. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lienau, P. J.; Lunis, B. C.

    1991-09-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  18. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  19. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  20. Current Status of Geothermal Well Cement Development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study made in 1976 indicated that the cements used for well completion deteriorate in the geothermal environments and that the life expectancy of a well, and therefore the economics of geothermal processes, could be improved significantly if better materials were developed. On the basis of this assessment, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) helped the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy to organize a program to develop materials that meet the estimated design criteria for geothermal well cements. The BNL work involves research on polymer cements and full management of an integrated program involving contract research and industrial participation. The program consists of the following phases: (1) problem definition, (2) cement research and development, (3) property verification, (4) downhole testing, and (5) cementing of demonstration wells.

  1. Geothermal development attitudes surveyed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has conducted several surveys on public opinion towards the development of geothermal energy. The latest poll was designed to: measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development for electrical power supplied to Island of Hawaii residents only; measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development of electricity to be exported for use on Oahu; and identify barriers to, and opportunities for energy conservation programs, including geothermal development. In general, the residents of the County of Hawaii favor some form of geothermal development. Issues on geothermal development of concern to the public were similar to those mentioned in the 1982 study. Basically, the issues amount to a trade-off between the economic advantages and the environmental problems of geothermal development. The strong points in favor of development include a perceived need for more energy, a strong preference for alternate energy forms over petroleum, perceived benefits for the local economy and the employment rates, and the possibility that development may reduce or contain utility bills. On the other hand, it appears that geothermal development will cause health problems for those who live near the wells, be hazardous to flora and fauna in the Puna area, and create noise and odor above tolerable levels. These are oversimplified statements of the reasons behind both support and opposition for geothermal development.

  2. Geothermal energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  3. Geothermal Program Review XVII: proceedings. Building on 25 years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office (DOE) of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XVII in Berkeley, California, on May 18--20, 1999. The theme this year was "Building on 25 Years of Geothermal Partnership with Industry". In 1974, Congress enacted Public Law 93-410 which sanctioned the Geothermal Energy Coordination and Management Project, the Federal Government's initial partnering with the US geothermal industry. The annual program review provides a forum to foster this federal partnership with the US geothermal industry through the presentation of DOE-funded research papers from leaders in the field, speakers who are prominent in the industry, topical panel discussions and workshops, planning sessions, and the opportunity to exchange ideas. Speakers and researchers from both industry and DOE presented an annual update on research in progress, discussed changes in the environment and deregulated energy market, and exchanged ideas to refine the DOE Strategic Plan for research and development of geothermal resources in the new century. A panel discussion on Climate Change and environmental issues and regulations provided insight into the opportunities and challenges that geothermal project developers encounter. This year, a pilot peer review process was integrated with the program review. A team of geothermal industry experts were asked to evaluate the research in progress that was presented. The evaluation was based on the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) criteria and the goals and objectives of the Geothermal Program as set forth in the Strategic Plan. Despite the short timeframe and cursory guidance provided to both the principle investigators and the peer reviewers, the pilot process was successful. Based on post review comments by both presenters and reviewers, the process will be refined for next year's program review.

  4. Federal Geothermal Research Program Update Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.L.

    2001-08-15

    The Department of Energy's Geothermal Program serves two broad purposes: (1) to assist industry in overcoming near-term barriers by conducting cost-shared research and field verification that allows geothermal energy to compete in today's aggressive energy markets; and (2) to undertake fundamental research with potentially large economic payoffs. The four categories of work used to distinguish the research activities of the Geothermal Program during FY 2000 reflect the main components of real-world geothermal projects. These categories form the main sections of the project descriptions in this Research Update. Exploration Technology research focuses on developing instruments and techniques to discover hidden hydrothermal systems and to explore the deep portions of known systems. Research in geophysical and geochemical methods is expected to yield increased knowledge of hidden geothermal systems. Reservoir Technology research combines laboratory and analytical investigations with equipment development and field testing to establish practical tools for resource development and management for both hydrothermal reservoirs and enhanced geothermal systems. Research in various reservoir analysis techniques is generating a wide range of information that facilitates development of improved reservoir management tools. Drilling Technology focuses on developing improved, economic drilling and completion technology for geothermal wells. Ongoing research to avert lost circulation episodes in geothermal drilling is yielding positive results. Conversion Technology research focuses on reducing costs and improving binary conversion cycle efficiency, to permit greater use of the more abundant moderate-temperature geothermal resource, and on the development of materials that will improve the operating characteristics of many types of geothermal energy equipment. Increased output and improved performance of binary cycles will result from investigations in heat cycle research.

  5. Geothermal innovative technologies catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.

    1988-09-01

    The technology items in this report were selected on the basis of technological readiness and applicability to current technology transfer thrusts. The items include technologies that are considered to be within 2 to 3 years of being transferred. While the catalog does not profess to be entirely complete, it does represent an initial attempt at archiving innovative geothermal technologies with ample room for additions as they occur. The catalog itself is divided into five major functional areas: Exploration; Drilling, Well Completion, and Reservoir Production; Materials and Brine Chemistry; Direct Use; and Economics. Within these major divisions are sub-categories identifying specific types of technological advances: Hardware; Software; Data Base; Process/Procedure; Test Facility; and Handbook.

  6. Demonstration of EIC's copper sulfate process for removal of hydrogen sulfide and other trace contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine inlet temperatures and pressures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The results obtained during the operation of an integrated, one-tenth commercial scale pilot plant using EIC's copper sulfate process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide and other contaminants from geothermal steam at turbine upstream conditions are discussed. The tests took place over a six month period at Pacific Gas and Electric Company's Unit No. 7 at The Geysers Power Plant. These tests were the final phase of a development effort which included the laboratory research and engineering design work which led to the design of the pilot plant. Broadly, the objectives of operating the pilot plant were to confirm the preliminary design criteria which had been developed, and provide data for their revisions, if appropriate, in a plant which contained all the elements of a commercial process using equipment of a size sufficient to provide valid scale-up data. The test campaign was carried out in four phases: water testing; open circuit, i.e., non integrated scrubbing, liquid-solid separation and regeneration testing; closed circuit short term; and closed circuit long term testing.

  7. Emission control of gas effluents from geothermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Geothermal steam at the world's five largest power plants contains from 0.15 to 30% noncondensable gases including CO(2), H(2)S, H(2), CH(4), N(2), H(3)BO(3), and NH(3). At four of the plants the gases are first separated from the steam and then discharged to the environment; at the fifth, the noncondensables exhaust directly to the atmosphere along with spent steam. Some CO(2) and sulfur emission rates rival those from fossil-fueled plants on a per megawatt-day basis. The ammonia and boron effluents can interfere with animal and plant life. The effects of sulfur (which emerges as H(2)S but may oxidize to SO(2)) on either ambient air quality or longterm human health are largely unknown. Most geothermal turbines are equipped with direct contact condensers which complicate emission control because they provide two or more pathways for the effluents to reach the environment. Use of direct contact condensers could permit efficient emission control if coupled to processes that produce saleable quantities of purified carbon dioxide and elemental sulfur.

  8. Utah geothermal institutional handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wagstaff, L.W.; Green, S.

    1982-01-01

    Included in the Handbook are lists of the main permits required and the names of agencies and persons associated with the permits; a summary of pertinent laws, regulations, and permits; and charts outlining typical development and permitting procedures.

  9. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  10. Benefits of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    One of the principal benefits of geothermal power plants is that they provide baseload power. Baseload power plants provide power all or most of the time and contrast with peaker plants which turn on or off as demand rises, or peaks, throughout the day. Geothermal plants contrast with other renewable energy resources like wind and solar energy that generate power intermittently.

  11. Geothermal energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service are reviewed. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research.

  12. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  13. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document reviews Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research. 16 figs. (FSD)

  14. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D.

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  15. Geothermal energy in Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    The annual primary energy supply in Iceland, which has a population of 268,000, is 98,000 TJ (T = 10{sup 12}) or 366 GJ per capita, which is among the highest in the world. Geothermal energy provides about 48.8% of the total, hydropower 17.2%, oil 31.5% and coal 2.5%. The main use of geothermal energy is for space heating. About 85% of all houses are heated with geothermal energy; the rest are heated mainly by electricity. So far, geothermal resources have only, to a limited extent, been used for electric power generation, because of the availability of relatively cheap hydropower resources. Of the total electricity production of 5,000 GWh in 1995, only 288 GWh or 5.8% came from geothermal energy, 94% from hydro and 0.2% from fuels.

  16. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  17. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  18. Geothermal Produced Fluids: Characteristics, Treatment Technologies, and Management Options

    SciTech Connect

    Finster, Molly; Clark, Corrie; Schroeder, Jenna; Martino, Louis

    2015-10-01

    Geothermal power plants use geothermal fluids as a resource and create waste residuals as part of the power generation process. Both the geofluid resource and the waste stream are considered produced fluids. The chemical and physical nature of produced fluids can have a major impact on the geothermal power industry and can influence the feasibility of geothermal power development, exploration approaches, power plant design, operating practices, and the reuse or disposal of residuals. In general, produced fluids include anything that comes out of a geothermal field and that subsequently must be managed on the surface. These fluids vary greatly depending on the geothermal reservoir being harnessed, power plant design, and the life cycle stage in which the fluid exists, but generally include water and fluids used to drill geothermal wells, fluids used to stimulate wells in enhanced geothermal systems, and makeup and/or cooling water used during operation of a geothermal power plant. Additional geothermal-related produced fluids include many substances that are similar to waste streams from the oil and gas industry, such as scale, flash tank solids, precipitated solids from brine treatment, hydrogen sulfide, and cooling-tower-related waste. This review paper aims to provide baseline knowledge on specific technologies and technology areas associated with geothermal power production. Specifically, this research focused on the management techniques related to fluids produced and used during the operational stage of a geothermal power plant; the vast majority of which are employed in the generation of electricity. The general characteristics of produced fluids are discussed. Constituents of interest that tend to drive the selection of treatment technologies are described, including total dissolved solids, noncondensable gases, scale and corrosion, silicon dioxide, metal sulfides, calcium carbonate, corrosion, metals, and naturally occurring radioactive material. Management

  19. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  20. Flows and Heat Exchange in a Geothermal Bed in the Process of Extraction of a Vapor-Water Mixture from It

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramazanov, M. M.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Abasov, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    With the use of the finite-difference method, a nonstationary nonlinear problem on the heat and mass transfer in a geothermal bed in the process of extraction of a vapor-water mixture from it was solved numerically with regard for the heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks. The results obtained were analyzed and compared with the results of earlier investigations. It was established that the heat exchange between the bed and its roof and bottom influences the heat and mass transfer in the neighborhood of a producing well in it. It is shown that this heat exchange increases somewhat the pressure (temperature) of the phase transition of the heat-transfer medium and changes its saturation with water. At the stage of stationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, this change leads to a decrease in the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium, i.e., to an additional evaporation of water from it. However, at the stage of substantially nonstationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, the pattern is more complex: within certain time intervals, the heat exchange in separate regions of the bed decreases the content of vapor in the heat-transfer medium (increases its saturation with water). Moreover, in both the cases of absence and presence of heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks, the distributions of the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium in the bed executes damped oscillations and, in so doing, approaches the stationary state.

  1. Lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) nanoparticles synthesized by hydrothermal method as adsorbent of lithium recovery process from geothermal fluid of Lumpur Sidoarjo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerochim, Lukman; Sapputra, Gede Panca Ady; Widodo, Amien

    2016-04-01

    Lumpur Sidoarjo is one of geothermal fluid types which has a great potential as source of lithium. Adsorption method with Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4) as an adsorbent has been chosen for lithium recovery process due to low production cost and environmental friendly. LiMn2O4 was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 200 °C for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, and 72 hrs. As prepared LiMn2O4 powder is treated by acid treatment with 0.5 M HCl solution for 24 hrs. XRD test result reveals that all of as-prepared samples are indexed as spinel structure of LiMn2O4 (JCPDS card no 35-0782) with no impurity peaks detected. SEM images show that LiMn2O4 has nanoparticles morphology with particle size around 25 nm. The highest adsorption efficiency of adsorbent is obtained by sample hydrothermal for 72 hrs with 42.76%.

  2. Detection of fractures within the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS geothermal reservoir by processing of Vertical Seismic Profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubrano Lavadera, P.; Marthelot, J. M.; Zillmer, M.; Cornet, F.

    2012-04-01

    The 4 component multi-source/multi-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profile) conducted at the Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) site in 2007 provides records of seismic waves recorded in the fractured granite basement within wells GPK3 and GPK4. Waves generated at 26 surface positions, located at distances between 500m and 5km from the well head in different azimuths, are recorded by 3 component geophones at depths between 5000m and 3000m with a 20m depth interval. The seismic source is a vibrator emitting a 16s long sweep with frequencies varying linearly between 8 and 88 Hz. Two shot locations were simultaneously recorded, one with an upsweep [8 to 88Hz], the other with a downsweep [88 to 8Hz]. Successive correlation with the two sweeps allows retrieving distinct seismograms for each shot from the mixed raw uncorrelated records. Most records show clear downgoing P and S waves. Detecting waves reflected or diffracted by fractures intersecting the wells requires extracting low amplitude upgoing waves from the dominant downgoing wavefield. However, the up to 30° inclination of the well relative to the vertical and the 60 to 90° dips of the fracture zones make the separation of the different waves complex. The wavefield separation of the vertical geophone component is done in the frequency-wavenumber Fourier domain which separates waves according to their apparent velocity across the receiver antenna. Picking of the first arrival times and shifting times allows aligning predominant P wave downgoing wavefield at constant times, or infinite apparent velocity in Fourier domain. Filtering the infinite apparent velocity attenuates all the waves having the same apparent velocity as the first arrivals. A second filtering at the downgoing S waves velocities is then applied, providing two downgoing wavefields, one for the P waves and the other for the S waves. The residuals correspond to the upgoing wavefield. To reduce the reverberations in the upgoing

  3. Boise Geothermal Aquifer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the final product of a detailed review and quantitative evaluation of existing data for the Boise Front Geothermal Aquifer. Upon review of the many publications, and raw data for the Boise geothermal aquifer, it became clear that adequate data only exists for analysis of current and proposed development within a limited area. This region extends approximately 1.5 miles southeast of the State Capitol to 0.5 mile northwest. Though there are geothermal wells located along the Boise Front outside of this area, the lack of production and water level data preclude any detailed discussions and analysis of their relationship to the central resource. As a result, discussion will concentrate on major users such as the Capitol Mall (CM) Boise Geothermal LTD. (BGL), Veterans Administration (VA) and Boise Warm Springs Water District (BWSWD). The objectives of this study are: Define the inter-relationship of the existing wells and/or portions of the geothermal aquifer; evaluate the effects of current and proposed development on the geothermal aquifer; estimate longevity of the geothermal resource; and make recommendations for an on-going monitoring program. 44 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Geothermal energy for copper dump leaching

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    This report evaluates the possibility of using geothermal energy to heat a sulfuric acid leaching solution for the purpose of faster and more efficient copper recovery from copper-containing minerals. Experimental studies reported in the literature have shown that this technique can be economically feasible for the extraction of copper from low-grade dump ores. Its main advantage appears to be the considerable reduction in long-term leaching periods; it could also be less expensive than other conventional processing operations if an economical geothermal resource were provided. However, this process has some pitfalls which might restrict the extent of geothermal energy use. Nevertheless, the process is still technologically sound, especially if groundwaters are used directly in the leaching operation.

  5. 19 CFR 142.24 - Special permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ENTRY PROCESS Special Permit for Immediate Delivery § 142.24 Special permit. (a) Conditions for issuance. At the discretion of the port director, a special permit for immediate delivery may be issued on... of a shipment of merchandise under a special permit for immediate delivery, the importer shall note a...

  6. The Coso geothermal area: A laboratory for advanced MEQ studies for geothermal monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.; Richards-Dinger, K.

    2004-01-01

    The permanent 16-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the Coso geothermal area, California, supplemented by 14 temporary instruments deployed in connection with the DOE Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Project, provides high-quality microearthquake (MEQ) recordings that are well suited to monitoring a producing geothermal area. We are currently using these data to investigate structure and active processes within the geothermal reservoir by applying three advanced methods: a) high-precision MEQ hypocenter location; b) time-dependent tomography; c) complete (moment tensor) MEQ source mechanism determination. Preliminary results to date resolve seismogenic structures in the producing field more clearly than is possible with conventional earthquake-location techniques. A shallow part of the producing field shows clear changes in the ratio of the seismic wave speeds, Vp/V s, between 1996 and 2002, which are probably related to physical changes in the reservoir caused by fluid extraction.

  7. Navy Geothermal Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  8. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  9. Geothermal Energy Summary

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Renner

    2007-08-01

    Following is complete draft.Geothermal Summary for AAPG Explorer J. L. Renner, Idaho National Laboratory Geothermal energy is used to produce electricity in 24 countries. The United States has the largest capacity (2,544 MWe) followed by Philippines (1,931 MWe), Mexico (953 MWe), Indonesia (797 MWe), and Italy (791 MWe) (Bertani, 2005). When Chevron Corporation purchased Unocal Corporation they became the leading producer of geothermal energy worldwide with projects in Indonesia and the Philippines. The U. S. geothermal industry is booming thanks to increasing energy prices, renewable portfolio standards, and a production tax credit. California (2,244 MWe) is the leading producer, followed by Nevada (243 MWe), Utah (26 MWe) and Hawaii (30 MWe) and Alaska (0.4 MWe) (Bertani, 2005). Alaska joined the producing states with two 0.4 KWe power plants placed on line at Chena Hot Springs during 2006. The plant uses 30 liters per second of 75°C water from shallow wells. Power production is assisted by the availability of gravity fed, 7°C cooling water (http://www.yourownpower.com/) A 13 MWe binary power plant is expected to begin production in the fall of 2007 at Raft River in southeastern Idaho. Idaho also is a leader in direct use of geothermal energy with the state capital building and several other state and Boise City buildings as well as commercial and residential space heated using fluids from several, interconnected geothermal systems. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 modified leasing provisions and royalty rates for both geothermal electrical production and direct use. Pursuant to the legislation the Bureau of Land management and Minerals Management Service published final regulations for continued geothermal leasing, operations and royalty collection in the Federal Register (Vol. 72, No. 84 Wednesday May 2, 2007, BLM p. 24358-24446, MMS p. 24448-24469). Existing U. S. plants focus on high-grade geothermal systems located in the west. However, interest in non

  10. Industrial application of geothermal energy in Southeast Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Batdorf, J.A.; McClain, D.W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G.M.

    1980-02-01

    Those phosphate related and food processing industries in Southeastern Idaho are identified which require large energy inputs and the potential for direct application of geothermal energy is assessed. The total energy demand is given along with that fractional demand that can be satisfied by a geothermal source of known temperature. The potential for geothermal resource development is analyzed by examining the location of known thermal springs and wells, the location of state and federal geothermal exploration leases, and the location of federal and state oil and gas leasing activity in Southeast Idaho. Information is also presented regarding the location of geothermal, oil, and gas exploration wells in Southeast Idaho. The location of state and federal phosphate mining leases is also presented. This information is presented in table and map formats to show the proximity of exploration and development activities to current food and phosphate processing facilities and phosphate mining activities. (MHR)

  11. Transient multiphase processes during the explosive eruption of basalt through a geothermal borehole (Namafjall, Iceland, 1977) and implications for natural volcanic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartevelle, S.; Valentine, G. A.

    2007-12-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that vertical flows of gas-particle mixtures are characterized by transient behavior, with development of waves of high particle concentration separated by regions of relatively clean gas. In contrast, most models of explosive flow in volcanic conduits either treat the multiphase mixture as a single fluid (pseudo-fluid approximation) and/or assume steady flow, thereby eliminating the potential for time- dependent effects related to multiphase dynamics. The 8 September 1977 explosive eruption of basaltic tephra through a geothermal borehole (Namafjall, Iceland) provides a unique test case for multiphase volcanic processes, given that its vertical extent (~1 km) is similar to that of natural volcanic conduits and its geometry is exactly known. We model this eruption by solving separate, time-dependent governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy of the gas and particle phases, allowing for drag and heat transfer between the phases. Model results are consistent with the development of transient waves of high particle concentration that propagate up the borehole, resulting in complex compressible flow phenomena along with ejection of particles in pulses in a manner that is consistent with observations at Námafjall. These transient processes occur even though the influx of gas and particles at the base of the borehole is treated as constant. Our results indicate that transient multiphase behavior is likely to be common in volcanic conduit flows, and that a key topic of future research is quantifying the types of time-dependent behaviors and their impacts on eruption column dynamics.

  12. Transient multiphase processes during the explosive eruption of basalt through a geothermal borehole (Námafjall, Iceland, 1977) and implications for natural volcanic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartevelle, S.; Valentine, G. A.

    2007-10-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that vertical flows of gas-particle mixtures are characterized by transient behavior, with development of waves of high particle concentration separated by regions of relatively clean gas. In contrast, most models of explosive flow in volcanic conduits either treat the multiphase mixture as a single fluid (pseudo-fluid approximation) and/or assume steady flow, thereby eliminating the potential for time-dependent effects related to multiphase dynamics. The 8 September 1977 explosive eruption of basaltic tephra through a geothermal borehole (Námafjall, Iceland) provides a unique test case for multiphase volcanic processes, given that its vertical extent (˜ 1 km) is similar to that of natural volcanic conduits and its geometry is exactly known. We model this eruption by solving separate, time-dependent governing equations for conservation of mass, momentum, and energy of the gas and particle phases, allowing for drag and heat transfer between the phases. Model results are consistent with the development of transient waves of high particle concentration that propagate up the borehole, resulting in complex compressible flow phenomena along with ejection of particles in pulses in a manner that is consistent with observations at Námafjall. These transient processes occur even though the influx of gas and particles at the base of the borehole is treated as constant. Our results indicate that transient multiphase behavior is likely to be common in volcanic conduit flows, and that a key topic of future research is quantifying the types of time-dependent behaviors and their impacts on eruption column dynamics.

  13. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  14. 25 CFR 212.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 212.56 Section 212.56 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS..., authorize the production of, or removal of oil and gas, or geothermal resources, or other minerals except...

  15. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS... contract, or authorize the production of, or removal of oil and gas, geothermal resources, or other...

  16. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS... contract, or authorize the production of, or removal of oil and gas, geothermal resources, or other...

  17. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS... contract, or authorize the production of, or removal of oil and gas, geothermal resources, or other...

  18. 25 CFR 211.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 211.56 Section 211.56 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS... contract, or authorize the production of, or removal of oil and gas, geothermal resources, or other...

  19. 25 CFR 212.56 - Geological and geophysical permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Geological and geophysical permits. 212.56 Section 212.56 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS..., authorize the production of, or removal of oil and gas, or geothermal resources, or other minerals...

  20. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) A New Era in Geothermal Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) announced in September 2007 that an international industrial consortium has signed a new contract to collaborate in exploratory deep drilling in Iceland. The main objective of the IDDP is to investigate whether it is economically feasible to produce energy from geothermal systems at supercritical conditions. This will require drilling to depths of 4 to 5 km in order to reach temperatures of 400 to 600°C. Today, geothermal wells in Iceland typically range up to 2.5 km in depth and produce steam at about 300°C, or less, at a rate sufficient to generate about 4 to 7 megawatts of electricity. It is estimated that producing steam from a well penetrating a reservoir with temperatures >450°C, and at a rate of 0.67 cubic meters a second, could generate 40 to 50 MWe. If IDDP's test of this concept proves successful, it could lead to major improvements in the development of high-temperature geothermal resources worldwide. The consortium collaborating to fund this investigation of supercritical geothermal energy consists of three leading Icelandic power companies, Hitaveita Sudurnesja Ltd., Landsvirkjun, Orkuveita Reykjavikur, together with Orkustofnun (the National Energy Authority) and Alcoa Inc. (an international aluminum company). The three power companies financed a feasibility study for the project that was completed in 2003. Each of the three power companies is committed to drill, at their own cost, a 3.5 to 4.0 km deep well in a geothermal field that they operate. The design of these wells will permit them to be deepened to 4.5 or 5.0 km by the IDDP, and funded by the consortium with additional funds from international scientific agencies. The first deep IDDP well will be drilled in the latter part of 2008 in the Krafla geothermal field near the northern end of the central rift zone of Iceland, within a volcanic caldera that has had recent volcanic activity. Two new wells, ~4 km deep, will then be drilled at the Hengill and

  1. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  2. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  3. Geothermal-well design handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A simplified process is presented for estimating the performance of geothermal wells which are produced by natural, flashing flows. The well diameter and depth, and reservoir conditions must be known; then it is possible to determine the total pressure drop in a flowing well, and therefore to find the fluid pressure, temperature, and steam quality at the wellhead. By applying the handbook process to several input data sets, the user can compile sufficient information to determine the interdependence of input and output parameters. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  5. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  6. Geothermal irrigation pump

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-04-20

    A deep well pumping apparatus utilizing a geothermal source of energy is disposed within or above a stratum having a cool irrigating fluid, and an associated heat exchange unit is disposed within a stratum having the geothermal source. An organic working fluid is conveyed under pressure through the heat exchange unit and applied as a gas to a turbine assembly operatively coupled to the pump. The spent working fluid and cool irrigation fluid are then conveyed to the surface.

  7. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  8. The National Geothermal Collaborative, EERE-Geothermal Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Erikson

    2006-05-26

    Summary of the work conducted by the National Geothermal Collaborative (a consensus organization) to identify impediments to geothermal development and catalyze events and dialogues among stakeholders to over those impediments.

  9. Geothermal Program Review XIV: proceedings. Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies conducted its annual Program Review XIV in Berkeley, April 8-10, 1996. The geothermal community came together for an in-depth review of the federally-sponsored geothermal research and development program. This year`s theme focused on ``Keeping Geothermal Energy Competitive in Foreign and Domestic Markets.`` This annual conference is designed to promote technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal developers; equipment and service suppliers; representatives from local, state, and federal agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. Program Review XIV consisted of eight sessions chaired by industry representatives. Introductory and overview remarks were presented during every session followed by detailed reports on specific DOE-funded research projects. The progress of R&D projects over the past year and plans for future activities were discussed. The government-industry partnership continues to strengthen -- its success, achievements over the past twenty years, and its future direction were highlighted throughout the conference. The comments received from the conference evaluation forms are published in this year`s proceedings. Individual papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  11. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geothermal direct heat applications program summary

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    The use of geothermal energy for direct heat purposes by the private sector within the US has been quite limited to date. However, there is a large potential market for thermal energy in such areas as industrial processing, agribusiness, and space/water heating of commercial and residential buildings. Technical and economic information is needed to assist in identifying prospective direct heat users and to match their energy needs to specific geothermal reservoirs. Technological uncertainties and associated economic risks can influence the user's perception of profitability to the point of limiting private investment in geothermal direct applications. To stimulate development in the direct heat area, the Department of Energy, Division of Geothermal Energy, issued two Program Opportunity Notices (PON's). These solicitations are part of DOE's national geothermal energy program plan, which has as its goal the near-term commercialization by the private sector of hydrothermal resources. Encouragement is being given to the private sector by DOE cost-sharing a portion of the front-end financial risk in a limited number of demonstration projects. The twenty-two projects summarized herein are direct results of the PON solicitations.

  13. National Geothermal Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. F.; Cuyler, D.; Snyder, W. S.; Allison, M. L.; Blackwell, D. D.; Williams, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System is to design, build, implement, deploy and populate a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers. These providers will develop, collect, serve, and maintain geothermal-relevant data that operates as an integral component of NGDS. As a result the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. Five separate NGDS projects provide the data support, acquisition, and access to cyber infrastructure necessary to reduce cost and risk of the nation's geothermal energy strategy and US DOE program goals focused on the production and utilization of geothermal energy. The U.S DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Technologies Program is developing the knowledge and data foundation necessary for discovery and development of large-scale energy production while the Buildings Technology Program is focused on other practical applications such as direct use and residential/commercial ground source heat pumps. The NGDS provides expanded reference and resource data for research and development activities (a subset of the US DOE goals) and includes data from across all fifty states and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers. Thus, the project incorporates not only high-temperature potential but also moderate and low-temperature locations incorporating US DOE's goal of adding more geothermal electricity to the grid. The program, through its development of data integration cyberinfrastructure, will help lead to innovative exploration technologies through increased data availability on geothermal energy capacity. Finally

  14. Geothermal surface alteration of basalts, Krýsuvík Iceland—Alteration mineralogy, water chemistry and the effects of acid supply on the alteration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markússon, Sigurdur H.; Stefánsson, Andri

    2011-09-01

    The geothermal surface alteration of basalts and associated water chemistry at Krýsuvík, SW Iceland were studied. The geothermal area was characterised with zones of intensive surface alteration, steam vents, mud pots and hot springs. The steam-heated geothermal surface waters had pH values between 1.69 and 7.67 and total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations between 154 and 6660 ppm, with Cl and SO 4 concentration decreasing and increasing with decreasing pH, respectively. Alteration mineral assemblages observed were strongly associated with the surface intensity. In areas of most intensive activity the basaltic rocks were altered to amorphous silica, anatase and pyrite with a crust of native sulphur at the surface. With decreased activity, kaolinite became important, as well as iron oxyhydroxides and oxides. On the flanks of the area montmorillonite was the predominant alteration product. Based on these observations the surface geothermal activity was divided into three groups: (1) high activity areas with active steam vents and mud pots and intensive acid leaching, (2) medium activity areas where the ground is hot, steam vents and mud pots are uncommon and the surface alteration is less intensive and (3) low activity areas on the margins of the surface geothermal activity. The primary factors influencing the steam-heated acid sulphate alteration of basalts included the redox state (oxidation front), supply of acids and pH, and the extent of reaction. The formation of iron- and sulphur-containing minerals and the respective elemental mobility depended on the redox conditions with pyrite formation under reduced conditions and goethite and/or hematite under oxidised conditions. At low pH, Ca, Mg, K and Na were mobile and leached out, whereas Fe, Ti and Al and to a large degree Si were retained in the alteration product. At higher pH values > 5 the mobility of Ca, Mg, K and Na was reduced due to the formation of clays.

  15. Geothermal heat in a heat pump use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, A.; Hansen, J.; Obermeyer, H.; Pavlova, I.

    2016-09-01

    The considered innovative technology proposes to use alternative energy sources for the process efficiency in low-height construction. The world economy depends on price rises for energy sources and the danger of environmental pollution increases. Geothermal energy is the basic resource saving and environmentally safe renewable heat source that is characterized by inexhaustibility, permanent all the-year-round use, universal prevalence of resources and the ability to replace considerable volumes of traditional energy carriers. The expediency and power efficiency to apply a heat pump with the use of geothermal heat is proved for low-height construction.

  16. Geothermal energy: 1992 program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Geothermal energy is described in general terms with drawings illustrating the technology. A map of known and potential geothermal resources in the US is included. The 1992 program activities are described briefly. (MHR)

  17. Geothermal resources of Utah, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This map shows heat flow, Known Geothermal Resources Areas, thermal springs and wells, and areas of low-temperature geothermal waters. Also shown are Indian reservations, military reservation, national or state forests, and parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas, etc. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal patterns of Louisiana salt domes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.B. )

    1989-09-01

    Seven salt domes of Louisiana, in the shallow to intermediate depth ranges, were selected for the investigation of geothermal patterns associated with them. Equilibrium geotemperatures were determined from the bottom hole temperatures of wells drilled in the salt dome areas. Isothermal contour mapping was attempted for various depth levels, namely, 8,000, 9,000, 10,000, 12,000, and 14,000 ft. Limited availability of data permitted construction of isothermal contour maps on some of the depth horizons for each of the domes.

  19. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  20. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  1. Geothermal Energy - An Emerging Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John R.

    1987-01-20

    Address on the Department of Energy's overall energy policy, the role of alternative energy sources within the policy framework, and expectations for geothermal energy. Commendation of the industry's decision to pursue the longer-term field effort while demand for geothermal energy is low, and thus prepare for a substantial geothermal contribution to the nation's energy security.

  2. Application of HydroGeoSphere to model the response to anthropogenic climate change of three-dimensional hydrological processes in the geologically, geothermally, and topographically complex Valles Caldera super volcano, New Mexico: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, M.; Cadol, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is expected to reduce streamflow in the southwestern USA due to reduction in precipitation and increases in evaporative demand. Understanding the effects of climate change in this region is particularly important for mountainous areas since these are primary sources of recharge in arid and semi-arid environments. Therefore we undertook to model effects of climate change on the hydrological processes in Valles Caldera (448 km2), located in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico. In Valles Caldera modeling the surficial, hydrogeological, and geothermal processes that influence hydrologic fluxes each present challenges. The surficial dynamics of evaporative demand and snowmelt both serve to control recharge dynamics, but are complicated by the complex topography and spatiotemporal vegetation dynamics. Complex factors affecting evaporative demand include leaf area index, temperature, albedo, and radiation affected by topographic shading; all of these factors vary in space and time. Snowmelt processes interact with evaporative demand and geology to serve as an important control on streamflow generation, but modeling the effects of spatiotemporal snow distributions on streamflow generation remains a challenge. The complexity of Valles Caldera's geology—and its associated hydraulic properties—rivals that of its surficial hydrologic forcings. Hydrologically important geologic features that have formed in the Valles Caldera are three-dimensionally intricate and include a dense system of faults, alluvium, landslides, lake deposits, and features associated with the eruption and collapse of this super volcano. Coupling geothermally-driven convection to the hydrologic cycle in this still-active geothermal system presents yet an additional challenge in modeling Valles Caldera. Preliminary results from applying the three-dimensional distributed hydrologic finite element model HydroGeoSphere to a sub-catchment of Valles Caldera will be

  3. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exploration for utility-grade geothermal resources has mostly relied on identifying obvious surface manifestations of possible geothermal activity, e.g., locating and working near steaming ground or hot springs. This approach has lead to the development of over 130 resources worldwide, but geothermal exploration done in this manner is akin to locating hydrocarbon plays by searching for oil seeps. Confining exploration to areas with such features will clearly not discover a blind resource, that is, one that does not have surface expression. Blind resources, however, constitute the vast majority of hydrocarbon plays; this may be the case for geothermal resources as well. We propose a geothermal exploration strategy for finding blind systems that is based on an understanding of the geologic processes that transfer heat from the mantle to the upper crust and foster the conditions for hydrothermal circulation or enhanced geothermal exploration. The strategy employs a genetically based screening protocol to assess potential geothermal sites. The approach starts at the plate boundary scale and progressively focuses in on the scale of a producing electrical-grade field. Any active margin or hot spot is a potential location for geothermal resources. Although Quaternary igneous activity provides a clear indication of active advection of hot material into the upper crust, it is not sufficient to guarantee a potential utility-grade resource. Active faulting and/or evidence of high strain rates appear to be the critical features associated with areas of utility-grade geothermal potential. This is because deformation on its own can advect sufficient heat into the upper crust to create conditions favorable for geothermal exploitation. In addition, active deformation is required to demonstrate that open pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids are present and/or can be maintained. The last step in the screening protocol is to identify any evidence of geothermal activity

  4. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-12-31

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  5. Fourteenth workshop geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Miller, F.G.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Fourteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 24--26, 1989. Major areas of discussion include: (1) well testing; (2) various field results; (3) geoscience; (4) geochemistry; (5) reinjection; (6) hot dry rock; and (7) numerical modelling. For these workshop proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  6. 78 FR 18420 - Special Permit Applications Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Special Permit Applications Actions AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of actions on special... processing of, special permits from the Department of Transportation's Hazardous Material Regulations (49...

  7. Geothermal: Energy for development - The World Bank and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsmeier, W.

    1986-01-01

    The World Bank views geothermal energy as one of a variety of natural resources which can be developed to supply the energy needs of a country. Since the World Bank Group finances projects in developing countries. This paper discusses geothermal energy only in that context. Geothermal power is generated in nine developing countries today, which represent nearly 40% of worldwide geothermal generating capacity. The World Bank has helped finance geothermal investments in six of these countries-the Phillippines, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Kenya.

  8. Enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    McLarty, L.; Grabowski, P.

    1998-07-01

    A vast amount of geothermal energy is stored in the upper portion of the earth's crust; this energy is accessible with current drilling technology. The US Geological Survey has estimated that in the US, the heat energy stored in the upper 10 kilometers of the earth's crust is over 33 {times} 10{sup 24} Joules. Only a small fraction of this energy could conceivably be extracted. However, just one tenth of one percent of this energy is sufficient to provide the US with all its current level of non-transportation energy needs for over 500 years. Current technology is being used widely to extract geothermal energy in areas where subterranean water contacted hot rock formations, became heated, and was trapped by an impermeable layer in the earth's crust, forming a geothermal hydrothermal reservoir. The water serves as a medium to transport the heat to the surface through a conventional well similar to an oil well. Unfortunately, hydrothermal reservoirs are not widespread and represent only a minuscule portion of the geothermal energy that is accessible with current technology. Scientists and engineers in the US, Europe, Japan, and Australia, are developing systems that extract heat from the earth where there is insufficient permeability or water in the rock formation to transport the heat to the surface. Such systems are referred to as Enhanced Geothermal Systems.

  9. Advanced geothermal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetten, J. T.; Murphy, H. D.; Hanold, R. J.; Myers, C. W.; Dunn, J. C.

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the U.S. Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico was producing 10 MW thermal, and still climbing, proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction was demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive.

  10. Geothermal Exploration Case Studies on OpenEI (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.; Bennett, M.; Atkins, D.

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) resource assessment (Williams et al., 2008) outlined a mean 30 GWe of undiscovered hydrothermal resource in the western United States. One goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) is to accelerate the development of this undiscovered resource. DOE has focused efforts on helping industry identify hidden geothermal resources to increase geothermal capacity in the near term. Increased exploration activity will produce more prospects, more discoveries, and more readily developable resources. Detailed exploration case studies akin to those found in oil and gas (e.g. Beaumont and Foster, 1990-1992) will give developers central location for information gives models for identifying new geothermal areas, and guide efficient exploration and development of these areas. To support this effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been working with GTO to develop a template for geothermal case studies on the Geothermal Gateway on OpenEI. In 2012, the template was developed and tested with two case studies: Raft River Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Raft_River_Geothermal_Area) and Coso Geothermal Area (http://en.openei.org/wiki/Coso_Geothermal_Area). In 2013, ten additional case studies were completed, and Semantic MediaWiki features were developed to allow for more data and the direct citations of these data. These case studies are now in the process of external peer review. In 2014, NREL is working with universities and industry partners to populate additional case studies on OpenEI. The goal is to provide a large enough data set to start conducting analyses of exploration programs to identify correlations between successful exploration plans for areas with similar geologic occurrence models.

  11. Geothermal Energy Research and Development Program; Project Summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This is an internal DOE Geothermal Program document. This document contains summaries of projects related to exploration technology, reservoir technology, drilling technology, conversion technology, materials, biochemical processes, and direct heat applications. [DJE-2005

  12. The loop2 insertion of type IX myosin acts as an electrostatic actin tether that permits processive movement.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, Kerstin; Liao, Wanqin; Pieper, Uwe; Oeding, Stefanie J; Bähler, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although class IX myosins are single-headed, they demonstrate characteristics of processive movement along actin filaments. Double-headed myosins that move processively along actin filaments achieve this by successive binding of the two heads in a hand-over-hand mechanism. This mechanism, obviously, cannot operate in single-headed myosins. However, it has been proposed that a long class IX specific insertion in the myosin head domain at loop2 acts as an F-actin tether, allowing for single-headed processive movement. Here, we tested this proposal directly by analysing the movement of deletion constructs of the class IX myosin from Caenorhabditis elegans (Myo IX). Deletion of the large basic loop2 insertion led to a loss of processive behaviour, while deletion of the N-terminal head extension, a second unique domain of class IX myosins, did not influence the motility of Myo IX. The processive behaviour of Myo IX is also abolished with increasing salt concentrations. These observations directly demonstrate that the insertion located in loop2 acts as an electrostatic actin tether during movement of Myo IX along the actin track.

  13. NPDES Permit Writers' Course

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of the NPDES permit writers' course is to provide the basic regulatory framework and technical considerations that support the development of wastewater discharge permits as required under the NPDES Permit Program.

  14. Historical Permit Fee Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements. Historical fee rates.

  15. Title V Operating Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  16. EPA Issued Operating Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This site will provide basic information on clean air permitting under the title V operating permits program, provide access to state and regional permitting programs, and maintain access to proposed and final regulatory requirements.

  17. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  18. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  19. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  20. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  1. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  2. The role of active and ancient geothermal processes in the generation, migration, and entrapment of oil in the basin and Range Province, western USA. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Collister, J.W.; Curtiss, D.K.

    1997-06-01

    The Basin and Range (B&R) physiographic province of the western USA is famous not only for its geothermal and precious-metal wealth, but also for its thirteen oil fields, small but in some cases highly productive. The Grant Canyon field in Railroad Valley, for example, for years boasted production of more than 6000 barrels of oil (BO) per day from just two wells; aggregate current production from the Blackburn field in Pine Valley commonly exceeds 1000 BO per day. These two and several other Nevada oil fields are unusually hot at reservoir depth--up to 130{degrees}C at depths as shallow as 1.1 km, up to three times the value expected from the prevailing regional geothermal gradient.

  3. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  4. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  5. Geothermal materials development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-06-01

    This ongoing R&D program is a part of the Core Research Category of the Department of Energy/Geothermal Division initiative to accelerate the utilization of geothermal resources. High risk materials problems that if successfully solved will result in significant reductions in well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs, are emphasized. The project has already developed several advanced materials systems that are being used by the geothermal industry and by Northeastern Electric, Gas and Steam Utilities. Specific topics currently being addressed include lightweight C0{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive scale and corrosion resistant liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, elastomer-metal bonding systems, and corrosion mitigation at the Geysers. Efforts to enhance the transfer of the technologies developed in these activities to other sectors of the economy are also underway.

  6. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  7. Computers in geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinger, F.E.

    1984-10-01

    This article describes a data base and file management system for the IBM/PC, and gives a general idea of how the Power Base (PB) system might be applied to the running of a typical geothermal business. Requirements for running PB are a monitor, at least 256K, and two double-sided disk drives or a single drive and a hard disk. The relational data base created by PB is organized in filing card type records that are composed of fields. When a file is created, it can be designed according to a company's specific requirements and can allow changes in the layout at any time. Geothermal businesses can use this software package for shipping and client invoice tracking, most billing functions, inventory calculations and mailing data bases. Geothermal project planners might find PB's project tracking aspect useful.

  8. Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council fifth annual report. Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, Fred H.

    1981-07-07

    Geothermal energy is the natural heat of the earth, and can be tapped as a clean, safe, economical alternative source of energy. Much of the geothermal energy resource is recoverable with current or near-current technology and could make a significant contribution both to increasing domestic energy supplies and to reducing the US dependence on imported oil. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural process applications. This report describes the progress for fiscal year 1980 (FY80) of the Federal Geothermal Program. It also summarizes the goals, strategy, and plans which form the basis for the FY81 and FY82 program activities and reflects the recent change in national policy affecting Federal research, development and demonstration programs. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council (IGCC) believes that substantial progress can and will be made in the development of geothermal energy. The IGCC goals are: (1) reduce the institutional barriers so that geothermal projects can be on-line in one-half the current time; (2) make moderate temperature resources an economically competitive source of electricity; (3) remove the backlog of noncompetitive lease applications; (4) competitive lease all KGRA lands; and (5) cut the cost of hydrothermal technology by 25%.

  9. West Florida continental shelf: a study of geothermal flows and other processes affecting radionuclides and trace metals. Final report, July 1, 1977-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, K.A.; Betzer, P.R.; Byrne, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    The characteristics and distribution of submarine geothermal springs along Florida's west coast were studied. The composition of the effluent, expressed as chlorinity ratios, indicates the source is normal seawater. Six springs have been definitely identified, occupying an 85 km/sup 2/ area off Fort Myers, Florida. The effluent is acidified, impoverished in magnesium and phosphate, and enriched in calcium, silica, Ra-226, Rn-222 and metals, and reduced compared to the parent seawater. 6 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  10. The Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model with an Application to a Geothermal Reservoir at Heber, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.

    1981-01-01

    A financial accounting model that incorporates physical and institutional uncertainties was developed for geothermal projects. Among the uncertainties it can handle are well depth, flow rate, fluid temperature, and permit and construction times. The outputs of the model are cumulative probability distributions of financial measures such as capital cost, levelized cost, and profit. These outputs are well suited for use in an investment decision incorporating risk. The model has the powerful feature that conditional probability distribution can be used to account for correlations among any of the input variables. The model has been applied to a geothermal reservoir at Heber, California, for a 45-MW binary electric plant. Under the assumptions made, the reservoir appears to be economically viable.

  11. Advanced geothermal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Murphy, H.D.; Hanold, R.J.; Myers, C.W.; Dunn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the US Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was producing 10 MW thermal - and still climbing - proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction has been demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive. Noteworthy among these technological advances are techniques in computer simulation of geothermal reservoirs, new means for well stimulation, new high-temperature logging tools and packers, new hard-rock penetration techniques, and new methods for mapping fracture flow paths across large underground areas in reservoirs. In addition, many of these same technological advances can be applied by the petroleum industry to help lower production costs in domestic oil and gas fields. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  12. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  13. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  14. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  15. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  16. Prospects of the complex development of highly parameter geothermal brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    The high efficiency of complex processing of high-temperature hydrothermal brines with utilization of heat energy in a binary geothermal power plant and subsequent extraction of solved chemical compounds is shown. Promising technological schemes are given, where electric power, which is generated in the binary geothermal power plant, is used in a block to recover chemistry components. The technology for integrated processing of geothermal brines of the chloride-sodium-calcium type is developed, which provides the manufacture not only of marketable products but also of practically overall reagents of processed water that are necessary to realize the technology. Priority areas for development are indicated, and the preliminary estimates for a Berikey geothermal deposit are given. It is shown that only established resources of thermal brines of the Berikey deposit make it possible to produce more than 2000 t of lithium carbonate and, thereby, to completely provide Russian industry requirements for it.

  17. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  18. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  19. Geothermal energy survey and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is an FY-1990 Annual Report on 'geothermal energy survey and technology' by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). First, concerning geothermal resources exploration project in which surveys have been executed throughout Japan since 1980, outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992 are summarized. As for surveys for promoting development of geothermal energy, surveys in 8 areas conducted for three years from 1988 to 1990 as well as future plans are also described. Then, the verification investigation for geothermal survey technologies, which has been executed since 1980 for the purpose of establishing geothermal survey technologies to promote the development of geothermal resources in Japan, is introduced with outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992. Furthermore, development conditions of power generation technologies utilizing geothermal energy such as binary-cycle power generation and hot dry rock power generation are described.

  20. Matched Field Detection of Microseismicity in a Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, D. C.; Harris, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    The delineation of fractures in geothermal fields is an important aspect of reservoir management that often is attempted by mapping the distribution of microseismicity. Traditional methods of earthquake location frequently used for this purpose are labor-intensive, requiring phase-arrival picking and high-resolution location with a relative location routine such as hypoDD. Automatic picks often require assessment and correction by an analyst. Frequently, event superposition and poor signal-to-noise ratio limit the number of usable events to one-third or fewer of the detectable transients. In some applications smaller events may become so numerous that they come to resemble a continuous random process that is not amenable to location analysis suited to transient arrivals. We are exploring the application of matched field processing (MFP) to map emissions from a geothermal field. MFP is a technique developed in underwater sound to localize emissions from continuous sources such as submersibles. The technique resembles beamforming or FK analysis in that it focuses the wavefield emanating from a particular source location by matching, in the frequency domain, the phase and amplitude of waves incident across the observing aperture. It differs from beamforming and FK methods in that the phase and amplitude structure is not determined by a plane-wave model. Wavefield structure may be determined empirically, by measuring it from observations of reference events, or it may be developed by full-waveform synthetics computed through a velocity model of the medium. In this presentation, we explore the empirical approach. Our objective is to map all of the observable seismicity in a geothermal field, not just the larger events that are sufficiently distinct to permit accurate picks. Our approach would extend current techniques, using the larger events conventionally located as master events to define wavefield templates for mapping normally-discarded indistinct seismicity. Since

  1. Progress in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S. ); Kang, Sun Ki . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    Studies directed at the development of an environmentally acceptable technology for the treatment and disposal of geothermal sludges have shown that a biotechnology based on microbial biochemical processes is technically and economically feasible. Process designs for the emerging biotechnology have to take several variables into consideration. In the present paper some of these variables will be discussed in terms of their effect on the cost and efficiency of potential processes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the potato and onion industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular potato or onion processor's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  3. Design Considerations for Artificial Lifting of Enhanced Geothermal System Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Xina Xie; K. K. Bloomfield; G. L. Mines; G. M. Shook

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluates the effect of production well pumping requirements on power generation. The amount of work that can be extracted from a geothermal fluid and the rate at which this work is converted to power increase as the reservoir temperature increases. Artificial lifting is an important issue in this process. The results presented are based on a configuration comprising one production well and one injection well, representing an enhanced geothermal system. The effects of the hydraulic conductivity of the geothermal reservoir, the flow rate, and the size of the production casing are considered in the study. Besides submersible pumps, the possibility of using lineshaft pumps is also discussed.

  4. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular greenhouse firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  5. High-resolution seismic studies applied to injected geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.T.; Kasameyer, P.

    1985-01-01

    The application of high-resolution microseismicity studies to the problem of monitoring injected fluids is one component of the Geothermal Injection Monitoring Project at LLNL. The evaluation of microseismicity includes the development of field techniques, and the acquisition and processing of events during the initial development of a geothermal field. To achieve a specific detection threshold and location precision, design criteria are presented for seismic networks. An analysis of a small swarm near Mammoth Lakes, California, demonstrates these relationships and the usefulness of high-resolution seismic studies. A small network is currently monitoring the Mammoth-Pacific geothermal power plant at Casa Diablo as it begins production.

  6. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the chemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular chemical firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry and mechanisms for stimulating interest; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based on extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  7. Prospects for geothermal commercialization in the lumber industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bressler, S.E.; Hanemann, W.M.

    1980-03-01

    A number of areas considered directly relevant to a particular lumber firm's decision to use or not to use geothermal energy for its commercial needs are emphasized. These areas include: current fuel uses and problems, and future fuel concerns; firm decision-making processes, including managerial and financing conventions; perceived commercial potential for geothermal energy in the industry; the potential institutional framework for user involvement in geothermal development; and the role that government might most effectively play in stimulating user development. The results are based upon extensive personal interviews with decision-makers in the industry. (MHR)

  8. Environmental impacts during geothermal development: Some examples from Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Goff, F.

    1997-04-01

    The impacts of geothermal development projects are usually positive. However, without appropriate monitoring plans and mitigation actions firmly incorporated into the project planning process, there exists the potential for significant negative environmental impacts. The authors present five examples from Central America of environmental impacts associated with geothermal development activities. These brief case studies describe landslide hazards, waste brine disposal, hydrothermal explosions, and air quality issues. Improved Environmental Impact Assessments are needed to assist the developing nations of the region to judiciously address the environmental consequences associated with geothermal development.

  9. Geothermal development plan: Cochise/Santa Cruz Counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Cochise/Santa Cruz Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified three potential geothermal resource areas with potential for resource temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F). Geothermal resources are found to occur near the towns of Willcox, San Simon, and Bowier. Population growth rates are expected to average three percent per year over the next 30 years in Willcox; Bowie and San Simon are expected to grow much slower. Regional employment is based on agriculture and copper mining, though future growth in trade, services and international trade is expected. A regional energy-use analysis is also included. Urban use, copper mining and agriculture are the principal water users in the region and substantial reductions in water use are anticipated in the future. The development plan also contains a section identifying potential geothermal energy users in the region. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy might economically provide the energy equivalent of 3,250,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector. In addition, geothermal energy utilization might help stimulate an agricultural and livestock processing industry.

  10. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  11. Geothermal Systems for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  12. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-27

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  13. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  14. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  15. Geothermal industry assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  16. OIT geothermal system improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-08-01

    Three geothermal wells drilled during the original campus construction vary from 396 m (1,300 ft) to 550 m (1,800 ft). These wells supply all of the heating and part of the cooling needs of the 11-building, 62,200 m{sup 2} (670,000 ft{sup 2}) campus. The combined capacity of the well pumps is 62 L/s(980 gpm) of 89{degrees}C (192{degrees}F) geothermal fluids. Swimming pool and domestic hot water heating impose a small but nearly constant year-round flow requirement. In addition to heating, a portion of the campus is also cooled using the geothermal resource. This is accomplished through the use of an absorption chiller. The chiller, which operates on the same principle as a gas refrigerator, requires a flow of 38 L/s (600 gpm) of geothermal fluid and produces 541 kW (154 tons) of cooling capacity (Rafferty, 1989). The annual operating costs for the system is about $35,000 including maintenance salary, equipment replacement and cost of pumping. This amounts to about $0.05 per square foot per year.

  17. Geothermal Systems for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  18. Geothermal Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  19. 77 FR 8946 - Notice of Application for Special Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Application for Special Permits AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: List of Applications for Special Permits. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures governing the application for, and the processing of, special permits from the Department of...

  20. 50 CFR 665.13 - Permits and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... service incurred in processing the permit. The fee may not exceed such costs and is specified with each.... (ii) Mau Zone limited access permit. (iii) Coral reef ecosystem special permit. (iv) American Samoa...

  1. 50 CFR 665.13 - Permits and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... service incurred in processing the permit. The fee may not exceed such costs and is specified with each.... (ii) Mau Zone limited access permit. (iii) Coral reef ecosystem special permit. (iv) American Samoa...

  2. 50 CFR 665.13 - Permits and fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... service incurred in processing the permit. The fee may not exceed such costs and is specified with each.... (ii) Mau Zone limited access permit. (iii) Coral reef ecosystem special permit. (iv) American Samoa...

  3. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of...

  4. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of...

  5. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of...

  6. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of...

  7. 30 CFR 773.10 - Review of permit history.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Review of permit history. 773.10 Section 773.10... REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING § 773.10 Review of permit history. (a) We, the regulatory authority, will rely upon the permit history information you, the applicant, submit under § 778.12 of...

  8. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a DOE-funded distributed network of databases and data sites. Much of the risk of geothermal energy development is associated with exploring for, confirming and characterizing the available geothermal resources. The overriding purpose of the NGDS is to help mitigate this up-front risk by serving as a central gateway for geothermal and relevant related data as well as a link to distributed data sources. Assessing and categorizing the nation's geothermal resources and consolidating all geothermal data through a publicly accessible data system will support research, stimulate public interest, promote market acceptance and investment, and, in turn, the growth of the geothermal industry. Major participants in the NGDS to date include universities, laboratories, the Arizona Geological Survey and Association of American State Geologists (Arizona Geological Survey, lead), the Geothermal Resources Council, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Geothermal Energy Association is collaborating with the NGDS to insure that it meets the needs of the geothermal industry.

  9. Industrial application of geothermal energy in southeast Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batdorf, J. A.; McClain, D. W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G. M.

    1980-02-01

    The main industries in Southeastern Idaho are phosphorus/ phosphate production and potato processing. Most of the energy required in the phosphate industries is electrical and therefore not replaceable by direct application of geothermal energy. The main area for direct use of geothermal energy in the phosphate industry is for drying of the ore at the mine site; however, most of this is energy now supplied by waste heat from the calcining process. There exists a large need for a dedicated supply of electrical energy to these industries and the possibility of using geothermal energy to generate electricity for these areas should be investigated. The potato processing industry uses most of its energy to provide process steam for drying and cooking. Geothermal energy can potentially replace most of these energy requirements provided a high energy source temperature can be located. A 200 F geothermal source could supply about 40% of the industry's needs. A 400 F geothermal source could supply nearly 90% of the industry's needs.

  10. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  11. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  12. Geothermal Energy Program Summary Document, FY 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal energy is derived from the internal heat of the earth. Much of it is recoverable with current or near current technology. Geothermal energy can be used for electric power production, residential and commercial space heating and cooling, industrial process heat, and agricultural applications. Three principal types of geothermal resources are exploitable through the year 2000. In order of technology readiness, these resources are: hydrothermal; geopressured (including dissolved natural gas); and hot dry rock. In hydrothermal systems, natural water circulation moves heat from deep internal sources toward the earth's surface. Geothermal fluids (water and steam) tapped by drilling can be used to generate electricity or provide direct heat. Geopressured resources, located primarily in sedimentary basins along the Gulf Coast of Texas and of Louisiana, consist of water and dissolved methane at high pressure and at moderately high temperature. In addition to recoverable methane, geopressured resources provide thermal energy and mechanical energy derived from high fluid pressures, although methane offers the greatest immediate value. Commercial development of geopressured energy may begin in the mid-1980s. Economic feasibility depends on the amount of methane that a given well can produce, a highly uncertain factor at present.

  13. Arizona geothermal institutional handbook: Arizona geothermal commercialization planning team, January 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Malysa, L.

    1980-05-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to assist in understanding the various procedures and requirements necessary for the development of geothermal energy in the State of Arizona. It contains the names of key persons and agencies who are directly or indirectly involved in the institutional process. A detailed assessment of all agencies and the role they play in geothermal energy development is provided. The handbook is divided into four sections: State and Local rules and regulations, the Federal rules and regulations, references, and a technical bibliography. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal areas as analogues to chemical processes in the near-field and altered zone of the potential Yucca Mountain, Nevada repository

    SciTech Connect

    Bruton, C.J.; Glassley, W.E.; Meike, A.

    1995-02-01

    The need to bound system performance of the potential Yucca Mountain repository for thousands of years after emplacement of high-level nuclear waste requires the use of computer codes. The use of such codes to produce reliable bounds over such long time periods must be tested using long-lived natural and historical systems as analogues. The geothermal systems of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) in New Zealand were selected as the site most amenable to study. The rocks of the TVZ are silicic volcanics that are similar in composition to Yucca Mountain. The area has been subjected to temperatures of 25 to 300 C which have produced a variety of secondary minerals similar to those anticipated at Yucca Mountain. The availability of rocks, fluids and fabricated materials for sampling is excellent because of widespread exploitation of the systems for geothermal power. Current work has focused on testing the ability of the EQ3/6 code and thermodynamic data base to describe mineral-fluid relations at elevated temperatures. Welfare starting long-term dissolution/corrosion tests of rocks, minerals and manufactured materials in natural thermal features in order to compare laboratory rates with field-derived rates. Available field data on rates of silica precipitation from heated fluids have been analyzed and compared to laboratory rates. New sets of precipitation experiments are being planned. The microbially influenced degradation of concrete in the Broadlands-Ohaaki geothermal field is being characterized. The authors will continue to work on these projects in FY 1996 and expand to include the study of naturally occurring uranium and thorium series radionuclides, as a prelude to studying radionuclide migration in heated silicic volcanic rocks. 32 refs.

  15. The Geothermal Field Camp: Capacity building for geothermal energy systems in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I.; Sule, R.; Saptadji, N. M.; Deon, F.; Herdianita, N. R.; Jolie, E.; Suryantini, N.; Erbas, K.

    2012-04-01

    of the collected data with statistical techniques allowed a reliable interpretation and application of the related software. The course starts with a lecture day reviewing on geothermal exploration, introduction into structural geology, geochemistry and applied volcanology (1st day) and continues with practical work in the Tangkuban Perahu volcano field and surrounding area (2nd - 5th days, from morning until late afternoon). The collected field data are processed and analyzed daily after field work. On the last day, each group of participants gives a presentation related to their field and laboratory investigations and to evidence the lessons learned. In particular, the participants learn practical work in field and laboratory, and theoretical data analysis. Sampling and analysis of self-collected data are fundamental for any interpretation and assessment of reservoir potential. The success of the first Geothermal Field Camp 2011 speaks for a continuation and extension of the training program in 2012 and the following years. Future activity will integrate more collaboration partners and will cover a larger diversity of educational topics and geological-geothermal setting.

  16. National Geothermal Data System: Transforming the Discovery, Access, and Analytics of Data for Geothermal Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, Kim

    2013-05-01

    data are insufficient for promoting geothermal exploration. Authors of this paper are Arlene Anderson, US DOE Geothermal Technologies Office, David Blackwell, Southern Methodist University (SMU), Cathy Chickering (SMU), Toni Boyd, Oregon Institute of Technology’s GeoHeat Center, Roland Horne, Stanford University, Matthew MacKenzie, Uberity, Joe Moore, University of Utah, Duane Nickull, Uberity, Stephen Richard, Arizona Geological Survey, and Lisa Shevenell, University of Nevada, Reno. “NGDS User Centered Design: Meeting the Needs of the Geothermal Community,” discusses the user- centered design approach taken in the development of a user interface solution for the NGDS. The development process is research based, highly collaborative, and incorporates state-of-the-art practices to ensure a quality user interface for the widest and greatest utility. Authors of this paper are Harold Blackman, Boise State University, Suzanne Boyd, Anthro-Tech, Kim Patten, Arizona Geological Survey, and Sam Zheng, Siemens Corporate Research. “Fueling Innovation and Adoption by Sharing Data on the DOE Geothermal Data Repository Node on the National Geothermal Data System,” describes the motivation behind the development of the Geothermal Data Repository (GDR) and its role in the NGDS. This includes the benefits of using the GDR to share geothermal data of all types and DOE’s data submission process. Authors of this paper are Jon Weers, National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Arlene Anderson, US DOE Geothermal Technologies Office. Finally, “Developing the NGDS Adoption of CKAN for Domestic & International Data Deployment,” provides an overview of the “Node-In-A-Box” software package designed to provide data consumers with a highly functional interface to access the system, and to ease the burden on data providers who wish to publish data in the system. It is important to note that this software package constitutes a reference implementation and that the NGDS architecture

  17. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Imperial County, geothermal development. Quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal development activities have increased during the October to December period. Nine power plant projects are proceeding, this includes two constructed facilities, one facility under construction, three facilities scheduled to begin construction in 1982, and three facilities in the planning or permitting stage. Geothermal exploration activities are continuing with activities in East Brawley, Truckhaven, and near the Superstition Mountains. Interest in direct heat development seems to be increasing. The City of El Centro project is under construction and there are several direct heat projects in preliminary planning stages. Permitting, planning, and waste disposal activities are reviewed.

  19. Colorado geothermal institutional handbook: a user's guide of agencies regulations, permits, and aids for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Forman, N.A.

    1980-01-01

    The following are included: principal state agencies, applicable state legislation, applicable state regulations, local agencies and regulations, federal agencies and regulations, information sources, and agencies and individuals. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal Development Plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Pima County is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic province in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Continued growth as indicated by such factors as population growth, employment and income will require large amounts of energy. It is believed that geothermal energy could provide some of the energy that will be needed. Potential users of geothermal energy within the county are identified.

  1. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  2. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  3. Recent geothermal reservoir engineering activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Benson, S.M.; Pruess, K.

    1987-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the most recent activities in reservoir engineering for the geothermal group of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The primary emphasis of the geothermal program of LBL is dedicated to reservoir engineering including theoretical investigations, the development and application of mathematical models, and field studies. The objectives of these activities are to develop and validate methods and instruments which will be utilized in the determination of the parameters of geothermal systems, and the identification and evaluation of the importance of the distinct processes which occur in reservoirs. The ultimate goal of the program is the development of state of the art technologies which characterize geothermal reservoirs and evaluate their productive capacity and longevity.

  4. Direct application of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  5. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  6. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  7. Crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary: interplay between volcano deformation, geothermal processes, and plate spreading in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland since 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Sturkell, Erik; Islam, Tariqul

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates can be studied. The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland, comprised of several volcanic systems, is particularly well suited to study interplay between volcanoes, geothermal areas and plate spreading, as the zone is relatively simple and accommodates the full spreading of the plates (18.6 mm/yr in a direction of 105 degrees according to NUVEL-1A predictions). The most recent volcanic activity in the area was the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984). In 2007-2008 two intrusive events were detected: one in Upptypingar and the other in Þeistareykir. Extensive crustal deformation studies have been carried out in the NVZ; we report the results of recent GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) studies focusing on Krafla, Þeistareykir and Askja volcanic systems in the NVZ. An extensive GPS survey was undertaken in 2013, with over 135 stations occupied. This data was evaluated in conjunction with data acquired since 2008, to generate a velocity field spanning this entire time period. In addition to an existing continuous GPS (cGPS) station, three cGPS stations were installed in the area in 2011-2012. The 2008-2013 GPS velocities were compared to earlier GPS results, and complementary analysis of InSAR images was undertaken. Earlier studies have shown that the Krafla caldera underwent uplift during 1984-1989, followed by subsidence. Since 1995, the maximum subsidence in Krafla has shifted from directly above the shallow magma chamber towards an array of boreholes (geothermal exploitation) in Leirbotnar. Similar subsidence has been observed around another array of boreholes in Bjarnaflag, 7 km further south. The most significant signal on the velocities calculated from campaign GPS data over the 5 year period, is plate spreading with an E-W velocity of about 12 mm/yr over a 30 km wide area. However it also shows an

  8. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy; Boyd, Toni; Horne, Roland; MacKenzie, Matthew; Moore, Joseph; Nickull, Duane; Richard, Stephen; Shevenell, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  9. Geothermal materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level 1 and 2 Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results transferred to industry. In FY 1990, the R D efforts were focused on reducing well drilling and completion costs and on mitigating corrosion in well casing. Activities on lost circulation control materials, CO{sub 2}- resistant lightweight cements, and thermally conductive corrosion and scale-resistant protective liner systems have reached the final development stages, and cost-shared field tests are planned for the FY 1991--1992 time frame. Technology transfer efforts on high temperature elastomers for use in drilling tools are continuing under Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) sponsorship.

  10. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  11. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Doug; Leggett, Jim

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  12. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  13. Hawaii's geothermal program

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpette, G.

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports that in a forest on the island of Hawaii, legal and regulatory activity has postponed the start-up of a small new power plant and imperilled the design and construction of several facilities like it. The same old story Hardly. The power plants at stake are not nuclear or coal- or even oil-fired, but geothermal, widely considered one of the more environmentally benign ways of generating electricity. In a further twist, the opposition is coming not only from the usual citizens; and environmental groups, but also from worshippers of a native good and, it has been alleged, growers of marijuana, a lucrative local crop. The clash occurs just as geothermal power sources have finally proven commercially viable, experts say, adding that technological advances and industry trends in the United States and elsewhere seem to factor great expansion in its use.

  14. Navy Geothermal Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    the geothermal portion of the R&D program are those that require attention because of operational expansion and mission-related problems such as...RESOURCE/ PROBLEM MAJOR CLAIMA.. ’ ASSESSMENT - ACTIVITY, CONSULTED , I"" C NI E U R&D J EGTORD OA RECOMMENDSI I NNO FURTHER CONSIDERATION zz7 MILITARY...disposal problems and environmental concerns. Resource Confirmation The exploration methods discussed under the sections titled "Preliminary Site Survey

  15. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Prencipe, Loretta; Todaro, Richard M.; Cuyler, David; Eide, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  16. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  17. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  18. Stanford Geothermal Program

    SciTech Connect

    R. Horn

    1999-06-30

    Reliable measurement of steam-water relative permeability functions is of great importance for geothermal reservoir performance simulation. Despite their importance, these functions are poorly known due to the lack of fundamental understanding of steam-water flows, and the difficulty of making direct measurements. The Stanford Geothermal Program has used an X-ray CT (Computer Tomography) scanner to obtain accurate saturation profiles by direct measurement. During the last five years, the authors have carried out experiments with nitrogen-water flow and with steam-water flow, and examined the effects of heat transfer and phase change by comparing these sets of results. In porous rocks, it was found that the steam-water relative permeabilities follow Corey type relationships similar to those in nitrogen-water flow, but that the irreducible gas phase saturation is smaller for steam than for nitrogen. The irreducible saturations represent substantial fractions of the recoverable energy in place yet are hard to determine in the field. Understanding the typical magnitude of irreducible saturations will lead to a much clearer forecast of geothermal field performance. In fracture flow, indirect measurements suggested that the relative permeabilities follow a linear (or ''X-curve'') behavior - but there is still considerable uncertainty in the knowledge of this behavior.

  19. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  20. Geothermal resources in the northwestern border

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1982-10-01

    The Valley of Mexicali, located in one of the rifting zones of the world, has been assessed to contain a potential of between 850 and 1700 MW of electric capacity with present technology. Cerro Prieto, one of the areas in the valley, has a present operating capacity of 180 MW. Two more plants with a capacity of 220 MW each are being built for operation in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Aside from the electricity producing application of geothermal fluids, a process has been developed for the production of potassium chloride by evaporating the brine in a solar pond and further crystallizing the residues. Some processes are also being developed to use the hot water in hydroponics, aqua culture, etc. Collaboration with bordering bodies involved in geothermal energy has been very fruitful for the exchange of technical information. Agreements have been signed with San Diego Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison for the export of a total capacity of 275 MW.

  1. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, J. D.; Rapport, A.

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request.

  2. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  3. 43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well? 3261.16 Section 3261.16 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit § 3261.16 Can...

  4. 43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well? 3261.16 Section 3261.16 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit § 3261.16 Can...

  5. 43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well? 3261.16 Section 3261.16 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit § 3261.16 Can...

  6. 43 CFR 3261.16 - Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can my operations plan, drilling permit, and drilling program apply to more than one well? 3261.16 Section 3261.16 Public Lands: Interior... MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Drilling Operations: Getting a Permit § 3261.16 Can...

  7. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  8. The National Solar Permitting Database

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Renic

    2014-08-31

    "The soft costs of solar—costs not associated with hardware—remain stubbornly high. Among the biggest soft costs are those associated with inefficiencies in local permitting and inspection. A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory estimates that these costs add an average of $0.22/W per residential installation. This project helps reduce non-hardware/balance of system (BOS) costs by creating and maintaining a free and available site of permitting requirements and solar system verification software that installers can use to reduce time, capital, and resource investments in tracking permitting requirements. Software tools to identify best permitting practices can enable government stakeholders to optimize their permitting process and remove superfluous costs and requirements. Like ""a Wikipedia for solar permitting"", users can add, edit, delete, and update information for a given jurisdiction. We incentivize this crowdsourcing approach by recognizing users for their contributions in the form of SEO benefits to their company or organization by linking back to users' websites."

  9. The National Solar Permitting Database

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, Renic

    2014-08-31

    "The soft costs of solar — costs not associated with hardware — remain stubbornly high. Among the biggest soft costs are those associated with inefficiencies in local permitting and inspection. A study by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory estimates that these costs add an average of $0.22/W per residential installation. This project helps reduce non-hardware/balance of system (BOS) costs by creating and maintaining a free and available site of permitting requirements and solar system verification software that installers can use to reduce time, capital, and resource investments in tracking permitting requirements. Software tools to identify best permitting practices can enable government stakeholders to optimize their permitting process and remove superfluous costs and requirements. Like ""a Wikipedia for solar permitting"", users can add, edit, delete, and update information for a given jurisdiction. We incentivize this crowdsourcing approach by recognizing users for their contributions in the form of SEO benefits to their company or organization by linking back to users' websites."

  10. Developments in Geothermal Waste Treatment Biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1989-03-21

    Extensive laboratory studies have indicated that the application of biochemical processes in the development of biotechnology suitable for conversion of geothermal wastes from hazardous to non-hazardous materials is technically and economically feasible. These studies have also shown that such biotechnology may require bioreactors capable of handling different amounts and types of residual sludges. Particular attention has to be paid to the duration of treatment, efficiency of cycling, and maintenance of biomass. Laboratory studies addressing these parameters are described.

  11. Developments in geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive laboratory studies have indicated that the application of biochemical processes in the development of biotechnology suitable for conversion of geothermal wastes from hazardous to nonhazardous materials is technically and economically feasible. These studies have also shown that such biotechnology may require bioreactors capable of handling different amounts and types of residual sludges. Particular attention has to be paid to the duration of treatment, efficiency of cycling, and maintenance of biomass. Laboratory studies addressing these parameters are described. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Monitoring Geothermal Features in Yellowstone National Park with ATLAS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Berglund, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) must produce an Environmental Impact Statement for each proposed development in the vicinity of known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Yellowstone National Park. In addition, the NPS monitors indicator KGRAs for environmental quality and is still in the process of mapping many geothermal areas. The NPS currently maps geothermal features with field survey techniques. High resolution aerial multispectral remote sensing in the visible, NIR, SWIR, and thermal spectral regions could enable YNP geothermal features to be mapped more quickly and in greater detail In response, Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies, in partnership with NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program, is conducting a study on the use of Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) multispectral data for monitoring geothermal features in the Upper Geyser Basin. ATLAS data were acquired at 2.5 meter resolution on August 17, 2000. These data were processed into land cover classifications and relative temperature maps. For sufficiently large features, the ATLAS data can map geothermal areas in terms of geyser pools and hot springs, plus multiple categories of geothermal runoff that are apparently indicative of temperature gradients and microbial matting communities. In addition, the ATLAS maps clearly identify geyserite areas. The thermal bands contributed to classification success and to the computation of relative temperature. With masking techniques, one can assess the influence of geothermal features on the Firehole River. Preliminary results appear to confirm ATLAS data utility for mapping and monitoring geothermal features. Future work will include classification refinement and additional validation.

  13. Monitoring Geothermal Features in Yellowstone National Park with ATLAS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph; Berglund, Judith

    2000-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) must produce an Environmental Impact Statement for each proposed development in the vicinity of known geothermal resource areas (KGRAs) in Yellowstone National Park. In addition, the NPS monitors indicator KGRAs for environmental quality and is still in the process of mapping many geothermal areas. The NPS currently maps geothermal features with field survey techniques. High resolution aerial multispectral remote sensing in the visible, NIR, SWIR, and thermal spectral regions could enable YNP geothermal features to be mapped more quickly and in greater detail In response, Yellowstone Ecosystems Studies, in partnership with NASA's Commercial Remote Sensing Program, is conducting a study on the use of Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) multispectral data for monitoring geothermal features in the Upper Geyser Basin. ATLAS data were acquired at 2.5 meter resolution on August 17, 2000. These data were processed into land cover classifications and relative temperature maps. For sufficiently large features, the ATLAS data can map geothermal areas in terms of geyser pools and hot springs, plus multiple categories of geothermal runoff that are apparently indicative of temperature gradients and microbial matting communities. In addition, the ATLAS maps clearly identify geyserite areas. The thermal bands contributed to classification success and to the computation of relative temperature. With masking techniques, one can assess the influence of geothermal features on the Firehole River. Preliminary results appear to confirm ATLAS data utility for mapping and monitoring geothermal features. Future work will include classification refinement and additional validation.

  14. The Geothermal Stimulator: A Pathway To Understanding Geothermal Stimulation In The Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siratovich, P. A.; Villeneueve, M.; Cole, J. W.; kennedy, B.; Gravley, D. M.; Lavallee, Y.; Heap, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal cycling of rock by heating and rapid quenching in water significantly affects its physical, mechanical and elastic properties. Understanding the processes that lead to these changes is relevant to nuclear waste repositories, tunnel excavations and geothermal energy production. In this study we present a novel technique where specially designed equipment simulates the cyclic thermal stimulation processes employed by the conventional geothermal industry. To enhance productivity and injectivity of geothermal wells, geothermal operators commonly inject fluids cooler than reservoirs into wells at pressures less than natural fracture gradients which can result in enhanced fluid handling capacities. In an attempt to better understand this process, the investigation of thermal stimulation at a laboratory scale has been conceived and implemented. We have designed and built an apparatus that allows the heating and quenching of representative samples by thermal stimulation in a pressure vessel capable of attaining 350°C and 24 MPa and sustaining pressure during quenching cycles. These conditions are similar to those encountered at depth in geothermal reservoirs during stimulation procedures. We have tested several lithologies similar to those found in geothermal environments and have also utilized core sourced from production wells in an active commercial geothermal field. Our studies have characterized specimens prior to and subsequent to thermal stimulation for density, porosity, permeability, micro-structural texture, mineralogical fabrics, acoustic velocities, dynamic and static elastic modulii, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and thermal expansion coefficients. Our studies indicate that our stimulation apparatus is capable of enhancing both microscopic and macroscopic permeability, increasing porosity, reducing bulk density and attenuating seismic velocities. We have enhanced porosity in our specimens by up to 2.5% over original values, attenuated

  15. A modeling approach of the hydro-thermal and chemical processes for managing the deep geothermal resource of the Val de Marne (Paris Basin, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Virginie; Le Brun, Morgane; Lopez, Simon; Castillo, Christelle; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of the geothermal resource of the Dogger formation in Paris Basin (between 1500 m and 2000 m depth) for district heating started in the early 1970's with 110 geothermal wells drilled between 1970 and 1985. Technically, exploitations are referred as "doublet operation" the pair of wells involved in the geothermal loop. The warm water is pumped from a production well to the district heating plant where fluid heat is extracted through a heat exchanger to a district heating network. Then, the cooled brine is re-injected in a second well. Inside the reservoir, the wells are open-hole and lie around 1 km apart to protect the producer from the cold front growing around the injector. The reinjection allows the stabilization of the reservoir pressure and protects the surface from brines containing high concentrations of dissolved chemical components (Cl-, SO42-, Fe2+, H2S, CO2) allowing salinities between 5 to 35 g/l. With the current geothermal revival of the Paris Basin, the exploitation of the resource of the Dogger aquifer is facing new challenges: • New doublets are implemented and their location must be optimized with regards to the interferences with the existing operations. • Most of the wells still operating are next to 30 years old. They would need to be restored or shut down for scaling and/or corrosion problems, implying the drilling of new ones. • Geochemical modeling highlighted that the scaling risk is increasing with time due to the thermodynamic disequilibrium induced by the temperature variation during the heat production. For instance, Iron sulfide (Mackinawite and Pyrite), carbonate and sulfate (Calcite, Siderite, Anhydrite), silica (Chalcedony) and some clay minerals have tendency to precipitate. Mackinawite, Calcite and Siderite are clearly identified in some well scales. • The resource has been cooled by the 30 years of reinjection. The temperature at the production well is expected to decrease in the coming years as well as

  16. Geodetic Study of Ground Instability at Active Geothermal Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, M. H.; Bawner, E.; Nanis, H.; Alotaibi, M.; Suwihli, S.

    2016-12-01

    Active geothermal systems may cause substantial crustal deformation that can damage the precious infrastructure and increase the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes in the surrounding region. Geothermal production practices commonly contribute to surface motions triggered by natural tectonic and volcanic forces at active geothermal fields and may intensify their significance over years. Hence, routine monitoring of active geothermal sites is required to evaluate the impact of production activities and assess associated ground instabilities. Knowledge of the reservoir geometry, compaction, and response to production behaviors will aid in identifying ideal locations for new production and recharge wells to advance the performance of such a reservoir. This study investigates active geothermal processes and recent seismic events and their impacts on crustal deformation at the Raft River Geothermal Power Plant (RGP) in southeastern Idaho and at the Coso Geothermal (CG) field in eastern California. Contemporary geodetic observations from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) imply a rapid rate of ground subsidence ( 7 cm/yr) across the Raft River Valley with a local anomaly of ample uplift (3 cm/yr) near RGP. The measured rate of deflation at CG is 3.1 cm/yr throughout a large area ( 55 sq km) that is directly correlating with the extent of active geothermal production. These rapid rates of ground deformation indicate considerable depressurization of the two reservoirs. Volumetric analysis and modeling are currently underway to characterize the two reservoirs and to infer their deformation source parameters. Understanding the hydrothermal-geomechanical response of the reservoirs to fluid production and injection is crucial for their management and development.

  17. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  18. Silica recovery and control in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to investigate methods of controlling silica in waste geothermal brines produced at the HGP-A Generator Facility. Laboratory testing has shown that the rate of polymerization of silica in the geothermal fluids is highly pH dependent. At brine pH values in excess of 8.5 the suspension of silica polymers flocculated and rapidly precipitated a gelatinous silica mass. Optimum flocculation and precipitation rates were achieved at pH values in the range of 10.5 to 11.5. The addition of transition metal salts to the geothermal fluids similarly increased the rate of polymerization as well as the degree of precipitation of the silica polymer from suspension. A series of experiments performed on the recovered silica solids demonstrated that methanol extraction of the water in the gels followed by critical point drying yielded surface areas in excess of 300 M{sup 2}/g and that treatment of the dried solids with 2 N HCl removed most of the adsorbed impurities in the recovered product. A series of experiments tested the response of the waste brines to mixing with steam condensate and non-condensable gases.The results demonstrated that the addition of condensate and NCG greatly increased the stability of the silica in the geothermal brines. They also indicated that the process could reduce the potential for plugging of reinjection wells receiving waste geothermal fluids from commercial geothermal facilities in Hawaii. Conceptual designs were proposed to apply the gas re-combination approach to the disposal of geothermal waste fluids having a range of chemical compositions. Finally, these designs were applied to the geothermal fluid compositions found at Cerro Prieto, Ahuachapan, and Salton Sea.

  19. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  20. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for Pagosa Springs, Colorado. Final report, June 1979-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Pagosa Springs Geothermal District Heating System was conceptualized, designed, and constructed between 1979 to 1984 under the US Department of Energy Program Opportunity Notice (PON) program to demonstrate the feasibility for utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources for direct-use applications. The Pagosa Springs system successfully provides space heating to public buildings, school facilities, residences, and commercial establishments at costs significantly lower than costs of available conventional fuels. The Pagosa Springs project encompassed a full range of technical, institutional, and economic activities. Geothermal reservoir evaluations and testing were performed, and two productive approx.140/sup 0/F geothermal supply wells were successfully drilled and completed. Transmission and distribution system design, construction, startup, and operation were achieved with minimum difficulty. The geothermal system operation during the first two heating seasons has been fully reliable and well respected in the community. The project has proven that low to moderate-temperature waters can effectively meet required heating loads, even for harsh winter-mountain environments. The principal difficulty encountered has been institutional in nature and centers on the obtaining of the geothermal production well permits and the adjudicated water rights necessary to supply the geothermal hot water fluids for the full operating life of the system. 28 figs., 15 tabs.

  1. Protection policy for Hawaii's native wildlife during geothermal energy development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, Lee

    1986-09-01

    Hawaii possesses abundant geothermal resources and rare native wildlife. Geothermal energy development has not posed a threat to native wildlife in the past, but development potential has recently reached a level at which concern for native wildlife is warranted. Potential geothermal resource areas in Hawaii intersect important native forest and endangered species habitat. The ability of existing laws to constrain development in these areas is in question. State and federal endangered species and environmental reporting laws have little ability to constrain geothermal development on private land. Hawaii's Land Use Law had been viewed by conservationists as protecting natural areas important to native wildlife, but recent decisions of the state Land Board sharply challenge this view. While this dispute was being resolved in the courts, the state legislature passed the Geothermal Subzone Act of 1983. Wildlife value was assessed in the geothermal subzone designation process mandated by this act, but the subzones designated primarily reflected inappropriate developer influence. All areas in which there was developer interest received subzone designation, and no area in which there was no developer interest was subzoned. This overriding emphasis on developer interest violated the intent of the sub-zone act, and trivialized the importance of other assessment criteria, among them native wildlife values.

  2. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Malheur County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance.

  3. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jessie; Spaziani, Gina

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  4. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    DOEpatents

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  5. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  6. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  7. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  8. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  9. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  10. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  11. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1981-06-15

    The focus is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150/sup 0/C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of noncondensing gases such as hydrogen sulfide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. It is shown that hydrogen sulfide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odor annoyances among members of the exposed public - some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 parts per million by volume. A risk assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. The risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic is also assessed. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry are summarized briefly.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  13. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  14. Federal Environmental Permitting Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The handbook consists of eight chapters addressing permitting and licensing requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Federal Insectide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Each chapter consists of: (1) an introduction to the statute and permitting requirements; (2) a diagram illustrating the relationship between permitting requirements under the statute being discussed and permitting requirements from other environmental statutes which may have to be addressed when applying for a particular permit (e.g., when applying for a RCRA permit, permits and permit applications under the CWA, CAA, SDWA, etc. would have to be listed in the RCRA permit application); and, (3) a compilation of the permitting requirements for the regulatory program resulting from the statute. In addition, the Handbook contains a permitting keyword index and a listing of hotline telephone numbers for each of the statutes.

  15. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  16. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    SciTech Connect

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  17. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  18. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Treis, Tania

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  19. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  20. Geothermal resource data base: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in Arizona up to 1993. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction. In recent years, the primary growth in geothermal use in Arizona has occurred in aquaculture. Other uses include minor space heating and supply of warm mineral waters for health spas.