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Sample records for geothermal resource geologic

  1. Philippine geothermal resources: General geological setting and development

    SciTech Connect

    Datuin, R.T.; Troncales, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Phillippine Archipelago has a composite geologic structure arising from the multi-stage development of volcanic-tectonic events evidenced by volcanism and seismic activity occurring along the active blocks of the major structural lines which traverse most of the major islands of the Phillipines. The widespread volcanic activity located along the active tectonic block has generated regions of high heat flow, where a vast number of potential rich geothermal resources could be exploited as an alternative source of energy. As part of a systematic geothermal development program launched by the Philippine government after the successful pilot study at the Tiwi geothermal field in 1967 by the Commission on Volcanology (now called the Philippine Institute of Volcanology-PIV), the Philippines developed four geothermal fields in the period 1972-84. These four areas, Tiwi in Albay, Mak-Ban in Laguna, Tongonan in Leyte, and Palinpinon in Southern Negros, have already contributed 891 MW installed capacity to the total electrical power supply of the country, which is mainly dependent on oil resources. The Philippines envisaged that, with its accelerated geothermal energy programme, it would be able to achieve its target of reducing the country's dependence on imported fossil fuel by about 20% within the next decade through the utilization of its vast geothermal energy resources.

  2. Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions.

    PubMed

    Scott, Samuel; Driesner, Thomas; Weis, Philipp

    2015-07-27

    A new and economically attractive type of geothermal resource was recently discovered in the Krafla volcanic system, Iceland, consisting of supercritical water at 450 °C immediately above a 2-km deep magma body. Although utilizing such supercritical resources could multiply power production from geothermal wells, the abundance, location and size of similar resources are undefined. Here we present the first numerical simulations of supercritical geothermal resource formation, showing that they are an integral part of magma-driven geothermal systems. Potentially exploitable resources form in rocks with a brittle-ductile transition temperature higher than 450 °C, such as basalt. Water temperatures and enthalpies can exceed 400 °C and 3 MJ kg(-1), depending on host rock permeability. Conventional high-enthalpy resources result from mixing of ascending supercritical and cooler surrounding water. Our models reproduce the measured thermal conditions of the resource discovered at Krafla. Similar resources may be widespread below conventional high-enthalpy geothermal systems.

  3. Geologic controls on supercritical geothermal resources above magmatic intrusions

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Samuel; Driesner, Thomas; Weis, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    A new and economically attractive type of geothermal resource was recently discovered in the Krafla volcanic system, Iceland, consisting of supercritical water at 450 °C immediately above a 2-km deep magma body. Although utilizing such supercritical resources could multiply power production from geothermal wells, the abundance, location and size of similar resources are undefined. Here we present the first numerical simulations of supercritical geothermal resource formation, showing that they are an integral part of magma-driven geothermal systems. Potentially exploitable resources form in rocks with a brittle–ductile transition temperature higher than 450 °C, such as basalt. Water temperatures and enthalpies can exceed 400 °C and 3 MJ kg−1, depending on host rock permeability. Conventional high-enthalpy resources result from mixing of ascending supercritical and cooler surrounding water. Our models reproduce the measured thermal conditions of the resource discovered at Krafla. Similar resources may be widespread below conventional high-enthalpy geothermal systems. PMID:26211617

  4. Geological controls on supercritical fluid resources in volcanic geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. W.; Driesner, T.; Weis, P.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale fluid convection in conventional volcanic geothermal systems is driven by the hydrothermal cooling of shallow intrusions. Recently, there has been increased interest in tapping supercritical fluid resources in volcanic geothermal systems, since such fluid reservoirs could provide a roughly order-of-magnitude greater potential for electricity production than conventional geothermal wells drilled to temperatures of 250-300 °C. The potential of supercritical geothermal reservoirs was demonstrated in 2010, when the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drilled into liquid magma at 2 km depth and encountered an overlying permeable, high-temperature (~450 °C) fluid reservoir capable of more than ~30 MWe of electricity production. However, a conceptual model describing the main factors governing the extent and structure of target reservoirs has remained elusive. Here, we present the first systematic investigation of the role of rock permeability, the brittle-ductile transition temperature, and the depth of magma chamber emplacement on the development of supercritical fluid reservoirs. We use the numerical modeling code CSMP++ to model two-phase flow of compressible water around an initially elliptical, 900 °C intrusion. Our models indicate that potentially exploitable supercritical fluid resources are an integral part of many magma-driven geothermal systems. Hotter and more extensive reservoirs are promoted by a brittle-ductile transition temperature higher than ~400 °C, an intrusion depth less than 3 km, and a host rock permeability of 10-14 to 10-15 m2. The systematic dependence of the size, location and hydrologic behavior of supercritical reservoirs on these factors aids the development of exploration models for different volcanic settings. In addition, by serving as the main agents of heat transfer at the interface of an intrusion and the overlying hydrothermal system, supercritical fluid reservoirs play a decisive role in determining the overall

  5. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  6. A Review of Methods Applied by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Assessment of Identified Geothermal Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an updated assessment of geothermal resources in the United States. The primary method applied in assessments of identified geothermal systems by the USGS and other organizations is the volume method, in which the recoverable heat is estimated from the thermal energy available in a reservoir. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. The new assessment will incorporate some changes in the models for temperature and depth ranges for electric power production, preferred chemical geothermometers for estimates of reservoir temperatures, estimates of reservoir volumes, and geothermal energy recovery factors. Monte Carlo simulations are used to characterize uncertainties in the estimates of electric power generation. These new models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of natural geothermal reservoirs.

  7. Geothermal Systems of the Great Basin and U.S. Geological Survey Plans for a Regional Resource Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.

    2002-01-01

    Based on current projections, the United States faces the need to increase its electrical power generating capacity by 40% (approximately 300,000 Megawatts-electrical or MWe) over the next 20 years (Energy Information Administration, EIA - Department of Energy). A critical question for the near future is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to this increasing demand for electricity. Geothermal energy constitutes one of the nation's largest sources of renewable and environmentally benign electrical power, yet the installed capacity of 2860 MWe falls far short of estimated geothermal resources. This is particularly true for the Great Basin region of the western United States, which has an installed capacity of about 500 MWe, much lower than the 7500 MWe resource estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in the late 1970s. The reasons for the limited development of geothermal power are varied, but political, economic and technological developments suggest the time is ripe for a new assessment effort. Technologies for power production from geothermal systems and scientific understanding of geothermal resource occurrence have improved dramatically in recent years. The primary challenges facing geothermal resource studies are (1) understanding the thermal, chemical and mechanical processes that lead to the colocation of high temperatures and high permeabilities necessary for the formation of geothermal systems and (2) developing improved techniques for locating, characterizing and exploiting these systems. Starting in the fall of 2002, the USGS will begin work with institutions funded by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program to investigate the nature and extent of geothermal systems in the Great Basin and to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources.

  8. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  9. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  10. Integrating Geologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Data in a Statistical Analysis of Geothermal Resource Probability across the State of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Ito, G.; Thomas, D. M.; Hinz, N.; Frazer, L. N.; Waller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii offers the opportunity to gain knowledge and develop geothermal energy on the only oceanic hotspot in the U.S. As a remote island state, Hawaii is more dependent on imported fossil fuel than any other state in the U.S., and energy prices are 3 to 4 times higher than the national average. The only proven resource, located on Hawaii Island's active Kilauea volcano, is a region of high geologic risk; other regions of probable resource exist but lack adequate assessment. The last comprehensive statewide geothermal assessment occurred in 1983 and found a potential resource on all islands (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, 1983). Phase 1 of a Department of Energy funded project to assess the probability of geothermal resource potential statewide in Hawaii was recently completed. The execution of this project was divided into three main tasks: (1) compile all historical and current data for Hawaii that is relevant to geothermal resources into a single Geographic Information System (GIS) project; (2) analyze and rank these datasets in terms of their relevance to the three primary properties of a viable geothermal resource: heat (H), fluid (F), and permeability (P); and (3) develop and apply a Bayesian statistical method to incorporate the ranks and produce probability models that map out Hawaii's geothermal resource potential. Here, we summarize the project methodology and present maps that highlight both high prospect areas as well as areas that lack enough data to make an adequate assessment. We suggest a path for future exploration activities in Hawaii, and discuss how this method of analysis can be adapted to other regions and other types of resources. The figure below shows multiple layers of GIS data for Hawaii Island. Color shades indicate crustal density anomalies produced from inversions of gravity (Flinders et al. 2013). Superimposed on this are mapped calderas, rift zones, volcanic cones, and faults (following Sherrod et al., 2007). These features were used

  11. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  12. Subsurface geology and geopressured/geothermal resource evaluation of the Lirette-Chauvin-Lake Boudreaux area, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, W.S.

    1982-12-01

    The geology of a 125 square mile area located about 85 miles southeast of Baton Rouge and about 12 miles southeast of Houma, Louisiana, has been studied to evaluate its potential for geopressured/geothermal energy resources. Structure, stratigraphy, and sedimentation were studied in conjunction with pressure and temperature distributions over a broad area to locate and identify reservoirs that may be prospective. Recommendations concerning future site specific studies within the current area are proposed based on these findings.

  13. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  14. Geothermal resources assessed in Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of the Platanares geothermal site is part of a joint Honduras (Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica)/US (Los Alamos National Laboratory and US Geological Survey) assessment of the nationwide geothermal resource potential of Honduras. Platanares was selected as one of the initial sites for detailed study on the basis of previous geothermal reconnaissance work. The results of the geologic studies indicate that Platarnares' potential for development as an electrical power source is extremely good. This preliminary conclusion must be substantiated and refined through additional studies. Geophysical investigations are needed to further define the subsurface geology and fracture system. Several wells should be drilled to a depth of several hundred meters to measure thermal gradients. This will allow the calculation of the geothermal potential of the Platanares site and will indicate whether further development of the site is warranted.

  15. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  16. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  17. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, J. D.; Rapport, A.

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request.

  18. Outstanding issues for new geothermal resource assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A critical question for the future energy policy of the United States is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to an ever-increasing demand for electricity. Electric power production from geothermal sources exceeds that from wind and solar combined, yet the installed capacity falls far short of the geothermal resource base characterized in past assessments, even though the estimated size of the resource in six assessments completed in the past 35 years varies by thousands of Megawatts-electrical (MWe). The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working closely with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir permeability, limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production, and include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology.

  19. Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

  20. Geothermal Resources of the Cascades: USGS Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Muffler, Patrick

    Since 1979, the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has carried out a multidisciplinary research effort in the Cascade Range. The goal of this effort is to understand the tectonics, geology, and hydrology of the Cascades as a framework for characterizing and quantifying its geothermal resources. In May 1985, 5 years after an initial USGS-sponsored Cascades conference [Bacon, 1980], the Geothermal Research Program again sponsored a workshop on geothermal resources of the Cascade Range. Motivation for the workshop came primarily from the conviction within the Geothermal Research Program that the Cascade effort had advanced sufficiently that a forum with an explicitly geothermal focus was needed to promote the synthesis of ideas from diverse research projects. In addition, it was thought that research drilling plans in the Cascades that were being formulated by various other agencies also could benefit from the examination and evaluation that a workshop would foster. Accordingly, the workshop was designed to develop a common understanding of the status of various investigations among USGS and other scientists working in the Cascades, to stimulate renewed interest in understanding the geothermal regime of this volcanic chain, and to encourage the tectonic, geologic, and hydrologic synthesis necessary for a quantitative assessment of geothermal resources of the Cascades, a major objective of the USGS Geothermal Research Program.

  1. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R.A.; Ewing, T.E.; Kaiser, W.R.; Finley, R.J.

    1983-03-01

    Detailed structural mapping at several horizons in selected study areas within the Frio growth-fault trend demonstrates a pronounced variability in structural style. At Sarita in South Texas, shale mobilization produced one or more shale ridges, one of which localized a low-angle growth fault trapping a wedge of deltaic sediments. At Corpus Christi, shale mobilization produced a series of large growth faults, shale-cored domed anticlines, and shale-withdrawal basins, which become progressively younger basinward. At Blessing, major growth faults trapped sands of the Greta/Carancahua barrier system with little progradation. At Pleasant Bayou, a major early growth-fault pattern was overprinted by later salt tectonics - the intrusion of Danbury Dome and the development of a salt-withdrawal basin. At Port Arthur, low-displacement, long-lived faults formed on a sand-poor shelf margin contemporaneously with broad salt uplifts and basins. Variability in styles is related to the nature and extent of Frio sedimentation and shelf-margin progradation and to the presence or absence of salt. Structural styles that are conducive to the development of large geothermal reservoirs include blocks between widely spaced growth faults having dip reversal, salt-withdrawal basins, and shale-withdrawal basins. These styles are widespread on the Texas Gulf Coast. However, actually finding a large reservoir depends on demonstrating the existence of sufficient sandstone with adequate quality to support geopressured geothermal energy production.

  2. Leasing of federal geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    Pursuant to the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 and the regulations published on December 21, 1973, the first Federal geothermal competitive lease sale was held on January 22, 1974, by the Department of the Interior, offering 33 tracts totalling over 50,000 acres in three Known Geothermal Resource Areas in California. On January 1, 1974, Federal lands outside Known Geothermal Resource Areas were opened to noncompetitive lease applications, of which, 3,763 had been received by June 1, 1974. During fiscal year 1974, a total of 22 competitive leases had been issued in California and Oregon. The principal components in the Department involved in the leasing program are the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management. The former has jurisdiction over drilling and production operations and other activities in the immediate area of operations. The latter receives applications and issues leases and is responsible for managing leased lands under its jurisdiction outside the area of operations. The interrelationships of the above agencies and the procedures in the leasing program are discussed.

  3. Geothermal resources of Utah, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This map shows heat flow, Known Geothermal Resources Areas, thermal springs and wells, and areas of low-temperature geothermal waters. Also shown are Indian reservations, military reservation, national or state forests, and parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas, etc. (MHR)

  4. Applied geology as key in modern geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    The renewed interest in geothermal energy resources arises from two major reasons: I) The recent development in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technologies produces tangible pilot projects of future heat and power generation from low-enthalpy resources extending the worldwide geothermal potential, and (II) the political-social request for renewable energy to reduce climate gas emission. This new interest is tied with the question for economic risks and potential of individual geothermal resource types involving feasibility studies and utilization concepts to economically develop geothermal systems. From this perspective it is important to note that a geothermal system is part of a geologic system where geologic factors such as facies, faults, fractures, stress field, diagenesis, rock mechanics, fluid chemistry and geochemistry control key parameters as high porosity and high permeability domains, fluid flow, lateral and vertical temperature gradient, and overall reservoir behavior during injection and production. A site specific appropriate field development should therefore be based on a profound understanding of the geologic controls of a geothermal system involving a suite of modern exploration techniques. Applied geology is the key in this modern concept of geothermal exploration where geology is not only descriptive but also quantitative including 3D geological modeling and parametrisation. From different parts of the world various geothermal systems in both high and low enthalpy environments are described examined with individual exploration strategies. The first example from Western U.S.A. shows how structural geology, 3D geological modeling and surface geochemistry are combined to evidence permeability anisotropy controlled by faults. Another example from Indonesia demonstrates how secondary faults control the subsurface geochemistry and fluid flow in a geothermal system at the Sumatra mega shear zone. More examples from EGS resources in Alberta

  5. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50[degree]C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110[degree]C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  6. Geothermal resources of the western arm of the Black Rock Desert, northwestern Nevada. Part I. Geology and geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, D.H.; Welch, A.H.; Maurer, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the geothermal potential of the western arm of the Black Rock Desert in northwestern Nevada included a compilation of existing geologic data on a detailed map, a temperature survey at 1-meter depth, a thermal-scanner survey, and gravity and seismic surveys to determine basin geometry. The temperature survey showed the effects of heating at shallow depths due to rising geothermal fluids near the known hot spring areas. Lower temperatures were noted in areas of probable near-surface ground-water movement. The thermal-scanner survey verified the known geothermal areas and showed relatively high-temperature areas of standing water and ground-water discharge. The upland areas of the desert were found to be distinctly warmer than the playa area, probably due to the low thermal diffusivity of upland areas caused by low moisture content. Surface geophysical surveys indicated that the maximum thickness of valley-fill deposits in the desert is about 3200 meters. Gravity data further showed that changes in the trend of the desert axis occurred near thermal areas. 53 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Geothermal resources of the western arm of the Black Rock Desert, northwestern Nevada; Part I, geology and geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Donald H.; Welch, Alan H.; Mauzer, Douglas K.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the geothermal potential of the western arm of the Black Rock Desert in northwestern Nevada included a compilation of existing geologic data on a detailed map, a temperature survey at 1-meter depth, a thermal-scanner survey, and gravity and seismic surveys to determine basin geometry. The temperature survey showed the effects of heating at shallow depths due to rising geothermal fluids near the known hot spring areas. Lower temperatures were noted in areas of probable near-surface ground-water movement. The thermal-scanner survey verified the known geothermal areas and showed relatively high-temperature areas of standing water and ground-water discharge. The upland areas of the desert were found to be distinctly warmer than the playa area, probably due to low thermal diffusivity resulting from low moisture content. The surface geophysical surveys indicated that the maximum thickness of valley-fill deposits in the desert is about 3,200 meters. Gravity data further showed that changes in the trend of the desert axis occurred near thermal areas. (USGS)

  8. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Daniel F.

    2015-11-30

    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  10. Geothermal resources assessment in Hawaii. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-02-21

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program.

  11. Classification of public lands valuable for geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godwin, Larry H.; Haigler, L.B.; Rioux, R.L.; White, D.E.; Muffler, L.J.; Wayland, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The Organic Act of 1879 (43 U.S.C. 31) that established the U.S. Geological Survey provided, among other things, for the classification of the public lands and for the examination of the geological structure, mineral sources, and products of the national domain. In order to provide uniform executive action in classifying public lands, standards for determining which lands are valuable for mineral resources, for example, leasable mineral lands, or for other products are prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey. This report presents the classification standards for determining which Federal lands are classifiable as geothermal steam and associated geothermal resources lands under the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (84 Star. 1566). The concept of a geothermal resources province is established for classification of lands for the purpose of retention in Federal ownership of rights to geothermal resources upon disposal of Federal lands. A geothermal resources province is defined as an area in which higher than normal temperatures are likely to occur with depth and in which there is a reasonable possibility of finding reservoir rocks that will yield steam or heated fluids to wells. The determination of a 'known geothermal resources area' is made after careful evaluation of the available geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and any evidence derived from nearby discoveries, competitive interests, and other indicia. The initial classification required by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 is presented.

  12. Geothermal resource data base: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in Arizona up to 1993. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction. In recent years, the primary growth in geothermal use in Arizona has occurred in aquaculture. Other uses include minor space heating and supply of warm mineral waters for health spas.

  13. Hawaii geothermal resource assessment: 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.; Kavahikaua, J.P.; Lienert, B.R.; Mattice, M.

    1982-10-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys throughout the State of Hawaii since February 1978. The results compiled during this study have been used to prepare a map of potential geothermal resource areas throughout the state. Approximately thirteen separate locations on three islands have been studied in detail. Of these, four areas are known to have direct evidence of a geothermal anomaly (Kilauea East Rift Zone, Kilauea Southwest Rift Zone, Kawaihae, and Olowalu-Ukumehame) and three others are strongly suspected of having at least a low-temperature resource (Hualalai west flank, Haleakala Southwest Rift, and Lualualei Valley). In the remainder of the areas surveyed, the data obtained either were contradictory or gave no evidence of a geothermal resource.

  14. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, M.P. . Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi . Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  15. Submarine geothermal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 20% of the earth's heat loss (or 2 ?? 1012 cal/s) is released through 1% of the earth's surface area and takes the form of hydrothermal discharge from young (Pleistocene or younger) rocks adjacent to active seafloor-spreading centers and submarine volcanic areas. This amount is roughly equivalent to man's present gross energy consumption rate. A sub-seafloor geothermal reservoir, to be exploitable under future economic conditions, will have to be hot, porous, permeable, large, shallow, and near an energy-deficient, populated land mass. Furthermore, the energy must be recoverable using technology achievable at a competitive cost and numerous environmental, legal and institutional problems will have to be overcome. The highest-temperature reservoirs should be found adjacent to the zones of the seafloor extension or volcanism that are subject to high sedimentation rates. The relatively impermeable sediments reduce hydrothermal-discharge flow rates, forcing the heat to be either conducted away or released by high-temperature fluids, both of which lead to reservoir temperatures that can exceed 300??C. There is evidence that the oceanic crust is quite permeable and porous and that it was amenable to deep (3-5 km) penetration by seawater at least some time in the early stages of its evolution. Most of the heat escapes far from land, but there are notable exceptions. For example, in parts of the Gulf of California, thermal gradients in the bottom sediments exceed 1??C/m. In the coastal areas of the Gulf of California, where electricity and fresh water are at a premium, this potential resource lies in shallow water (< 200 m) and within sight of land. Other interesting areas include the Sea of Japan, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Andaman Sea along the margins of the western Pacific, the Tyrrhenian Sea west of Italy, and the southern California borderland and west flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the west coast of the United States. Many questions remain to be

  16. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  17. Deep geothermal resources and energy: Current research and developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.; Milsch, H.; Hahne, B.; van Wees, J. D.; Bruhn, D.

    2012-04-01

    Energy from deep geothermal resources plays an increasing role in many European countries in their efforts to increase the proportion of renewables in their energy portfolio. Deep geothermal heat and electric power have a high load factor, are sustainable and environmentally friendly. However, the safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, also in less favourable regions, faces a number of issues requiring substantial research efforts: (1) The probability of finding an unknown geothermal reservoir has to be improved. (2) Drilling methods have to be better adapted and developed to the specific needs of geothermal development. (3) The assessment of the geothermal potential should provide more reliable and clear guidelines for the development. (4) Stimulation methods for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) have to be refined to increase the success rate and reduce the risk associated with induced seismicity. (5) Operation and maintenance in aggressive geothermal environments require specific solutions for corrosion and scaling problems. (6) Last but not least, emerging activities to harness energy from supercritical reservoirs would make significant progress with qualified input from research. In particular, sedimentary basins like e.g. the North German and Polish Basin, the Pannonian Basin, the Po Valley, the Bavarian Molasse Basin or the Upper Rhine Graben have a high geothermal potential, even if geothermal gradients are moderate. We will highlight projects that aim at optimizing exploration, characterization, and modeling prior to drilling and at a better understanding of physical, hydraulic and chemical processes during operation of a geothermal power plant. This includes geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations regarding potential geothermal reservoirs in sedimentary basins, as well as modelling of geothermally relevant reservoir parameters that influence the potential performance and long-term behavior of a future

  18. Prioritizing High-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackett, R.E.; Brill, T.C.; Sowards, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Utah Geological Survey and the Utah Energy Office recently released geothermal resource information for Utah as a "digital atlas." We are now expanding this project to include economic analyses of selected geothermal sites and previously unavailable resource information. The enhancements to the digital atlas will include new resource, demographic, regulatory, economic, and other information to allow analyses of economic factors for comparing and ranking geothermal resource sites in Utah for potential electric power development. New resource information includes temperature gradient and fluid chemistry data, which was previously proprietary. Economic analyses are based upon a project evaluation model to assess capital and operating expenses for a variety of geothermal powerplant configuration scenarios. A review of legal and institutional issues regarding geothermal development coupled with water development will also be included.

  19. Quantifying the undiscovered geothermal resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released summary results of an assessment of the electric power production potential from the moderate- and high-temperature geothermal resources of the United States (Williams et al., 2008a; USGS Fact Sheet 2008-3082; http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2008/3082). In the assessment, the estimated mean power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 Megawatts-electric (MWe), more than three times the estimated mean potential from identified geothermal systems: 9057 MWe. The presence of significant undiscovered geothermal resources has major implications for future exploration and development activities by both the government and private industry. Previous reports summarize the results of techniques applied by the USGS and others to map the spatial distribution of undiscovered resources. This paper describes the approach applied in developing estimates of the magnitude of the undiscovered geothermal resource, as well as the manner in which that resource is likely to be distributed among geothermal systems of varying volume and temperature. A number of key issues constrain the overall estimate. One is the degree to which characteristics of the undiscovered resources correspond to those observed among identified geothermal systems. Another is the evaluation of exploration history, including both the spatial distribution of geothermal exploration activities relative to the postulated spatial distribution of undiscovered resources and the probability of successful discoveries from the application of standard geothermal exploration techniques. Also significant are the physical, chemical, and geological constraints on the formation and longevity of geothermal systems. Important observations from this study include the following. (1) Some of the largest identified geothermal systems, such as The Geysers vapor-dominated system in northern California and the diverse geothermal manifestations found in Yellowstone

  20. The USGS national geothermal resource assessment: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.; Galanis, S.P.; DeAngelo, J.

    2007-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir volumes, and limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production. It will also include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology. An important focus in the assessment project is on the development of geothermal resource models consistent with the production histories and observed characteristics of exploited geothermal fields. New models for the recovery of heat from heterogeneous, fractured reservoirs provide a physically realistic basis for evaluating the production potential of both natural geothermal reservoirs and reservoirs that may be created through the application of EGS technology. Project investigators have also made substantial progress studying geothermal systems and the factors responsible for their formation through studies in the Great Basin-Modoc Plateau region, Coso, Long Valley, the Imperial Valley and central Alaska, Project personnel are also entering the supporting data and resulting analyses into geospatial databases that will be produced as part of the resource assessment.

  1. Geothermal resources and reserves in Indonesia: an updated revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, A.

    2015-02-01

    More than 300 high- to low-enthalpy geothermal sources have been identified throughout Indonesia. From the early 1980s until the late 1990s, the geothermal potential for power production in Indonesia was estimated to be about 20 000 MWe. The most recent estimate exceeds 29 000 MWe derived from the 300 sites (Geological Agency, December 2013). This resource estimate has been obtained by adding all of the estimated geothermal potential resources and reserves classified as "speculative", "hypothetical", "possible", "probable", and "proven" from all sites where such information is available. However, this approach to estimating the geothermal potential is flawed because it includes double counting of some reserve estimates as resource estimates, thus giving an inflated figure for the total national geothermal potential. This paper describes an updated revision of the geothermal resource estimate in Indonesia using a more realistic methodology. The methodology proposes that the preliminary "Speculative Resource" category should cover the full potential of a geothermal area and form the base reference figure for the resource of the area. Further investigation of this resource may improve the level of confidence of the category of reserves but will not necessarily increase the figure of the "preliminary resource estimate" as a whole, unless the result of the investigation is higher. A previous paper (Fauzi, 2013a, b) redefined and revised the geothermal resource estimate for Indonesia. The methodology, adopted from Fauzi (2013a, b), will be fully described in this paper. As a result of using the revised methodology, the potential geothermal resources and reserves for Indonesia are estimated to be about 24 000 MWe, some 5000 MWe less than the 2013 national estimate.

  2. Exploration for Hot Dry Rock geothermal resources in the Midcontinent USA. Volume 1. Introduction, geologic overview, and data acquisition and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hinze, W.J.; Braile, L.W.; von Frese, R.R.B.; Lidiak, E.G.; Denison, R.E.; Keller, G.R.; Roy, R.F.; Swanberg, C.A.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Morgan, P.

    1986-02-01

    The Midcontinent of North America is commonly characterized as a stable cratonic area which has undergone only slow, broad vertical movements over the past several hundreds of millions of years. This tectonically stable crust is an unfertile area for hot dry rock (HDR) exploration. However, recent geophysical and geological studies provide evidence for modest contemporary tectonic activity in limited areas within the continent and, therefore, the possibility of localized thermal anomalies which may serve as sites for HDR exploration. HDR, as an energy resource in the Midcontinent, is particularly appealing because of the high population density and the demand upon conventional energy sources. Five generalized models of exploration targets for possible Midcontinent HDR sites are identified: (1) radiogenic heat sources, (2) conductivity-enhanced normal geothermal gradients, (3) residual magnetic heat, (4) sub-upper crustal sources, and (5) hydrothermal generated thermal gradients. Three potential sources of HDR, each covering approximately a 2/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ area, were identified and subjected to preliminary evaluation. In the Mississippi Embayment test site, lateral thermal conductivity variations and subcrustal heat sources may be involved in producing abnormally high subsurface temperatures. Studies indicate that enhanced temperatures are associated primarily with basement rift features where vertical displacement of aquifers and faults cause the upward migration of hot waters leading to anomalously high local upper crustal temperatures. The Western Nebraska test site is a potential low temperature HDR source also related, at least in part, to groundwater movement. The Southeast Michigan test site was selected for study because of the possible presence of radiogenic plutons overlain by a thickened sedimentary blanket.

  3. Methods for regional assessment of geothermal resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muffler, P.; Cataldi, R.

    1978-01-01

    A consistent, agreed-upon terminology is prerequisite for geothermal resource assessment. Accordingly, we propose a logical, sequential subdivision of the "geothermal resource base", accepting its definition as all the thermal energy in the earth's crust under a given area, measured from mean annual temperature. That part of the resource base which is shallow enough to be tapped by production drilling is termed the "accessible resource base", and it in turn is divided into "useful" and "residual" components. The useful component (i.e. the thermal energy that could reasonably be extracted at costs competitive with other forms of energy at some specified future time) is termed the "geothermal resource". This in turn is divided into "economic" and "subeconomic" components, based on conditions existing at the time of assessment. In the format of a McKelvey diagram, this logic defines the vertical axis (degree of economic feasibility). The horizontal axis (degree of geologic assurance) contains "identified" and "undiscovered" components. "Reserve" is then designated as the identified economic resource. All categories should be expressed in units of thermal energy, with resource and reserve figures calculated at wellhead, prior to the inevitable large losses inherent in any practical thermal use or in conversion to electricity. Methods for assessing geothermal resources can be grouped into 4 classes: (a) surface thermal flux, (b) volume, (c) planar fracture and (d) magmatic heat budget. The volume method appears to be most useful because (1) it is applicable to virtually any geologic environment, (2) the required parameters can in Sprinciple be measured or estimated, (3) the inevitable errors are in part compensated and (4) the major uncertainties (recoverability and resupply) are amenable to resolution in the foreseeable future. The major weakness in all the methods rests in the estimation of how much of the accessible resource base can be extracted at some time in the

  4. The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource, research and use

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-de Wys, J.

    1990-01-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Resource has an estimated accessible resource base of 5700 quads of gas and 11,000 quads of thermal energy in the onshore Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area alone. After 15 years the program is now beginning a transition to commercialization. The program presently has three geopressured- geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana. Supporting research in the Geopressured Program includes research on rock mechanics, logging, geologic studies, reservoir modeling, and co-location of brine and heavy oil, environmental monitoring, geologic studies, hydrocarbons associated with the geopressured brines and development of a pH monitor for harsh environments, research support in prediction of reservoir behavior, thermal enhanced oil recovery, direct use, hydraulic and thermal conversion, and use of supercritical processes and pyrolysis in detoxification. The on-going research and well operations are preparing the way to commercialization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource is covered in this report. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. A new classification scheme for deep geothermal systems based on geologic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    A key element in the characterization, assessment and development of geothermal energy systems is the resource classification. Throughout the past 30 years many classifications and definitions were published mainly based on temperature and thermodynamic properties. In the past classification systems, temperature has been the essential measure of the quality of the resource and geothermal systems have been divided into three different temperature (or enthalpy) classes: low-temperature, moderate-temperature and high-temperature. There are, however, no uniform temperature ranges for these classes. It is still a key requirement of a geothermal classification that resource assessment provides logical and consistent frameworks simplified enough to communicate important aspects of geothermal energy potential to both non-experts and general public. One possible solution may be to avoid classifying geothermal resources by temperature and simply state the range of temperatures at the individual site. Due to technological development, in particular in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems or Engineered Geothermal Systems; both terms are considered synonymously in this thesis) technology, currently there are more geothermal systems potentially economic than 30 years ago. An alternative possibility is to classify geothermal energy systems by their geologic setting. Understanding and characterizing the geologic controls on geothermal systems has been an ongoing focus on different scales from plate tectonics to local tectonics/structural geology. In fact, the geologic setting has a fundamental influence on the potential temperature, on the fluid composition, the reservoir characteristics and whether the system is a predominantly convective or conductive system. The key element in this new classification for geothermal systems is the recognition that a geothermal system is part of a geological system. The structural geological and plate tectonic setting has a fundamental influence on

  6. Geology and geothermal resources of the Santiam Pass area of the Oregon Cascade Range, Deschutes, Jefferson and Linn Counties, Oregon. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, B.E.

    1992-10-01

    This open-file report presents the results of the Santiam Pass drilling program. The first phase of this program was to compile all available geological, geophysical and geothermal data for the Santiam Pass area and select a drill site on the basis of these data (see Priest and others, 1987a), A summary of the drilling operations and costs associated with the project are presented in chapter 1 by Hill and Benoit. An Overview of the geology of the Santiam Pass area is presented by Hill and Priest in chapter 2. Geologic mapping and isotopic age determinations in the Santiam Pass-Mount Jefferson area completed since 1987 are summarized in chapter 2. One of the more important conclusions reached in chapter 2 is that a minimum of 2 km vertical displacement has occurred in the High Cascade graben in the Santiam Pass area. The petrology of the Santiam Pass drill core is presented by Hill in chapter 3. Most of the major volcanic units in the core have been analyzed for major, minor, and trace element abundances and have been studied petrographically. Three K-Ar ages are interpreted in conjunction with the magnetostratigraphy of the core to show that the oldest rocks in the core are approximately 1.8 Ma. Geothermal and geophysical data collected from the Santiam Pass well are presented by Blackwell in chapter 4. The Santiam Pass well failed to penetrate beneath the zone of lateral groundwater flow associated with highly permeable Quaternary volcanic rocks. Calculated geothermal gradients range from about 50{degree}C/km at depth 700-900 m, to roughly 110{degree}C/km from 900 m to the bottom of the well at 929 m. Heat-flow values for the bottom part of the hole bracket the regional average for the High Cascades. Blackwell concludes that heat flow along the High Cascades axis is equal to or higher than along the western edge of the High Cascades.

  7. Geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-06-13

    This report describes the geothermal resources of the Southern Powder River Basin. The report contains a discussion of the hydrology as it relates to the movement of heated water, a description and interpretation of the thermal regime, and four maps: a generalized geological map, a structure contour map, a thermal gradient contour map, and a ground water temperature map. 10 figs. (ACR)

  8. 1979-1980 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.; Schuster, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for seven papers. Also included are a bibliography of geothermal resource information for the State of Washington, well temperature information and locations in the State of Washington, and a map of the geology of the White Pass-Tumac Mountain Area, Washington. (MHR)

  9. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (<60 mW/m2) heat flow and geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  10. Geothermal energy resource assessment of parts of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Kienle, J.

    1982-08-01

    The central Seward Peninsula was the subject of a geological, geophysical and geochemical reconnaissance survey during a 30-day period in the summer of 1980. The survey was designed to investigate the geothermal energy resource potential of this region of Alaska. A continental rift system model was proposed to explain many of the Late Tertiary-to-Quaternary topographic, structural, volcanic and geothermal features of the region. Geologic evidence for the model includes normal faults, extensive fields of young alkalic basalts, alignment of volcanic vents, graben valleys and other features consistent with a rift system active from late Miocene time to the present. Five traverses crossing segments of the proposed rift system were run to look for evidence of structure and geothermal resources not evident from surface manifestation. Gravity, helium and mercury soil concentrations were measured along the traverses. Seismic, resistivity, and VLF studies are presented.

  11. Resource assessment for geothermal direct use applications

    SciTech Connect

    Beer, C.; Hederman, W.F. Jr.; Dolenc, M.R.; Allman, D.W.

    1984-04-01

    This report discusses the topic geothermal resource assessment and its importance to laymen and investors for finding geothermal resources for direct-use applications. These are applications where the heat from lower-temperature geothermal fluids, 120 to 200/sup 0/F, are used directly rather than for generating electricity. The temperatures required for various applications are listed and the various types of geothermal resources are described. Sources of existing resource data are indicated, and the types and suitability of tests to develop more data are described. Potential development problems are indicated and guidance is given on how to decrease technical and financial risk and how to use technical consultants effectively. The objectives of this report are to provide: (1) an introduction low-temperature geothermal resource assessment; (2) experience from a series of recent direct-use projects; and (3) references to additional information.

  12. The 1980-1982 Geothermal Resource Assessment Program in Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, Michael A.; Phillips, William M.; Schuster, J.Eric

    1983-08-01

    Since 1978, the Division of Geology and Earth Resources of the Washington Department of Natural Resources has participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's (USDOE) State-Coupled Geothermal Resource Program. Federal and state funds have been used to investigate and evaluate the potential for geothermal resources, on both a reconnaissance and area-specific level. Preliminary results and progress reports for the period up through mid-1980 have already been released as a Division Open File Report (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981). Preliminary results and progress summaries of work carried out from mid-1980 through the end of 1982 are presented in this report. Only one other summary report dealing with geothermal resource investigations in the state has been published. An Information Circular released by the Division (Schuster and others, 1978) compiled the geology, geochemistry, and heat flow drilling results from a project in the Indian Heaven area in the south Cascades. The previous progress report for the geothermal program (Korosec, Schuster, and others, 1981) included information on temperature gradients measured throughout the state, heat flow drilling in the southern Cascades, gravity surveys for the southern Cascades, thermal and mineral spring investigations, geologic mapping for the White Pass-Tumac Mountain area, and area specific studies for the Camas area of Clark County and Mount St. Helens. This work, along with some additional studies, led to the compilation of the Geothermal Resources of Washington map (Korosec, Kaler, and others, 1981). The map is principally a nontechnical presentation based on all available geothermal information, presented as data points, tables, and text on a map with a scale of 1:500,000.

  13. California low-temperature geothermal resources update: 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy -- Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program to bring the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources up to date and to encourage development of the resources. The Oregon Institute of Technology, Geo-Heat Center (OIT/GHC) and the University of Utah Research Institute (UURI) established subcontracts and coordinated the project with the state resource teams from the western states that participated in the program. The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) entered into contract numbered 1092--023(R) with the OIT/GHC to provide the California data for the program. This report is submitted in fulfillment of that contract.

  14. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  15. Geothermal Energy - An Emerging Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John R.

    1987-01-20

    Address on the Department of Energy's overall energy policy, the role of alternative energy sources within the policy framework, and expectations for geothermal energy. Commendation of the industry's decision to pursue the longer-term field effort while demand for geothermal energy is low, and thus prepare for a substantial geothermal contribution to the nation's energy security.

  16. Geology of the Rotorua geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, C.P. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper discusses the Rotorua geothermal system located in the south part of Rotorua Caldera, which collapsed during and after the eruption of Mamaku Ignimbrite some 140 ka ago. Drillholes provide geological and hydrological information to 300 m depth. The Mamaku Ignimbrite aquifer has been drilled in the east and south of the field where it contains fluid at or near boiling point. The Ignimbrite drops from south to north across exposed and buried caldera collapse scarps. Rotorua City domes comprise a buried N-S ridge rising at either end to form north and south domes; both contain mostly sub-boiling water up to 190{degrees} C which flows laterally through the outer 40 m of permeably rhyolite as indicated by temperature data. The Fenton Park aquifer comprises sands and gravels in the shallow sedimentary sequence which contain hot water derived possibly from Whakarewarewa, the south dome or the Rotoatamaheke Fault.

  17. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  18. National Geothermal Data System: State Geological Survey Contributions to Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.; Richard, S. M.; Clark, R.; Love, D.; Coleman, C.; Caudill, C.; Matti, J.; Musil, L.; Day, J.; Chen, G.

    2012-12-01

    In collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists the Arizona Geological Survey is leading the effort to bring legacy geothermal data to the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System (NGDS). NGDS is a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers entering its final stages of development. Once completed the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. This presentation focuses on the scientific and data integration methodology as well as State Geological Survey contributions to date. The NGDS is built using the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) data integration framework to promote interoperability across the Earth sciences community and with other emerging data integration and networking efforts. Core to the USGIN concept is that of data provenance; by allowing data providers to maintain and house their data. After concluding the second year of the project, we have nearly 800 datasets representing over 2 million data points from the state geological surveys. A new AASG specific search catalog based on popular internet search formats enables end users to more easily find and identify geothermal resources in a specific region. Sixteen states, including a consortium of Great Basin states, have initiated new field data collection for submission to the NGDS. The new field data includes data from at least 21 newly drilled thermal gradient holes in previously unexplored areas. Most of the datasets provided to the NGDS are being portrayed as Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Services (WMS) and Web Feature Services (WFS), meaning that the data is compatible with a

  19. 30 CFR 1202.351 - Royalties on geothermal resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Royalties on geothermal resources. 1202.351 Section 1202.351 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.351 Royalties on geothermal resources....

  20. 30 CFR 1202.351 - Royalties on geothermal resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Royalties on geothermal resources. 1202.351 Section 1202.351 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.351 Royalties on geothermal resources....

  1. 30 CFR 1202.351 - Royalties on geothermal resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Royalties on geothermal resources. 1202.351 Section 1202.351 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.351 Royalties on geothermal resources....

  2. Geology and slope stability in selected parts of The Geysers geothermal resources area: a guide to geologic features indicative of stable and unstable terrain in areas underlain by Franciscan and related rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bedrossian, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a 4-month study of various geologic and topographic features related to the stability of Franciscan terrain in The Geysers GRA are presented. The study consisted of investigations of geologic and topographic features, throughout The Geysers GRA, and geologic mapping at a scale of 1:12,000 of approximately 1500 acres (600 hectares) of landslide terrain within the canyon of Big Sulphur Creek in the vicinity of the Buckeye mine (see plate 1). The area mapped during this study was selected because: (1) it is an area of potential future geothermal development, and (2) it illustrates that large areas mapped as landslides on regional scales (McLaughlin, 1974, 1975b; McNitt, 1968a) may contain zones of varying slope stability and, therefore, should be mapped in more detail prior to development of the land.

  3. Geothermal-resource survey of the Tennessee Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Treat, N.L.

    1982-08-01

    An overview appraisal of the geothermal resources in the Tennessee Valley Region revealed geothermal resources of potential usefulness in two of 13 subregions: the New Madrid Seismic Zone and the central segment of the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. The appraisal was based on geologic features of the region (hot springs, groundwater aquifers, and structure) and temperature data for oil and gas wells and shallow water wells. Site-specific exploration for economic appraisal was not carried out. The geothermal gradient for each of the subregions was established by linear regression of all of the bottom-hole temperature data for the oil and gas wells. A routine statistical procedure identified all unusually warm wells within each subregion, and their locations were plotted. Hot spots in a subregion were identified by localized clustering of such wells in numbers exceeding statistical expectations based on the intensity of drilling activity. Of the two areas most likely for extraction of geothermal energy, the New Madrid Seismic Zone has a high geothermal gradient at shallow depths (less than 500 meters). However, the higher gradient does not continue at greater depth since convective circulation is the probable cause of the higher-than-normal groundwater temperatures. Although a high geothermal gradient does persist at depth in the central segment of the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain, engineering problems are likely to hinder the current economic use of geothermal energy in this subregion. The extraction of geothermal resources in the 11 other subregions is not considered to be feasible at present because (1) the heat source is too deep, or (2) there are no suitable aquifers.

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  5. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  6. Geothermal resources of the Washakie and Great Divide basins, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Great Divide and Washakie Basins of southern Wyoming are described. Oil well bottomhole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data were interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. It was concluded large areas in Wyoming are underlain by water hotter than 120{sup 0}F. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist within each basin. 68 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  7. 30 CFR 202.351 - Royalties on geothermal resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Royalties on geothermal resources. 202.351 Section 202.351 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 202.351 Royalties on geothermal resources. (a)(1) Royalties...

  8. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, M.L.; Cheung, P.K.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    The procedures and methods used to develop a geothermal gradient map of Oklahoma are discussed. Two areas, Haskell and Pittsburg Counties, in the Arkoma Basin, are discussed in detail. Three sandstone units, the Spiro, Cromwell, and Hartshorne were selected as potential low-temperature geothermal water sources. The average temperature ranged from 103/sup 0/F at Hartshorne to 158/sup 0/F at Cromwell. (MJF)

  9. Meager Creek Geothermal Project: preliminary resource evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Stauder, J.J.; Menzies, A.J.; Harvey, C.C.; Leach, T.M.

    1983-09-01

    A 190-200/sup 0/C geothermal resource has been identified in the Meager Creek Geothermal Area (South Meager, previously called the South Reservoir), British Columbia, Canada, on the basis of surface and near surface exploration and the results of a three well deep drilling exploration program. The geothermal resource appears to be fracture dominated with limited flow capacity. It is associated with the Meager Creek Fault Zone which was encountered by the deep wells at a depth of 1200-1600 meters (400-800 meters below MSL). Temperatures of up to 270/sup 0/C were encountered below the Meager Creek Fault Zone but both petrologic and well testing data indicate that the rock is generally impermeable. The high temperatures at depth appear to be a manifestation of the abnormally high (approximately equal to 90/sup 0/C/km) regional geothermal gradient.

  10. Geothermal-resource survey of the Tennessee Valley Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, W. P.; Treat, N. L.

    1982-08-01

    An overview appraisal of the geothermal resources in the Tennessee Valley Region revealed geothermal resources of potential usefulness in two of 13 subregions: the New Madrid Seismic Zone and the central segment of the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. The appraisal was based on geologic features of the region (hot springs, groundwater aquifers, and structure) and temperature data for oil and gas wells and shallow water wells. Site specific exploration for economic appraisal was not carried out. The geothermal gradient for each of the subregions was established by linear regression of all of the bottom hole temperature data for the oil and gas wells. A routine statistical procedure identified all unusually warm wells within each subregion, and their locations were plotted. Hot spots in a subregion were identified by localized clustering of such wells in numbers exceeding statistical expectations based on the intensity of drilling activity. Of the two areas most likely for extraction of geothermal energy, the New Madrid Seismic Zone has a high geothermal gradient at shallow depths (less than 500 meters).

  11. Geologic assessment of the fossil energy and geothermal potential of the Sudan

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary report provides geological input to the consideration of appropriate activities that can enhance the exploration and development of fossil-fuel and possible geothermal energy resources of the Sudan, and is based on study of available literature in early 1982. 59 references, 16 figures, 7 tables.

  12. Geologic Map and GIS Data for the Patua Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2011-10-31

    Patua—ESRI Geodatabase (ArcGeology v1.3): - Contains all the geologic map data, including faults, contacts, folds, veins, dikes, unit polygons, and attitudes of strata and faults. - List of stratigraphic units. - Locations of geothermal wells. - Locations of 40Ar/39Ar and tephra samples.

  13. Geothermal Resource Verification for Air Force Bases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Geothermal Resources ............................ 12 Overview ........................................................ 12 Hydrothermal Convection Systems...exploration techniques. In some regions where thick sedimentary occur usable hydrothermal resources may be encountered in deep v.elIE where there is no...effort to locate a low to moderate temperature hydrothermal regime suitable for space heating at Hill Air Force Base, Utah, was recently completed and

  14. Geothermal resource assessment in Honduras: How we got to Platanares

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, A.W.; Frank, J.A.; Flores, W.

    1988-01-01

    The initial phase of a geothermal resource assessment of Honduras is essentially complete. Reconnaissance scale geological and geochemical investigations were performed at six previously identified sites to determine relative potentials for electricity generation or direct heat use. Two of the six sites were eliminated because of low potential for the production of electricity and detailed geological and geochemical work was concentrated at the remaining four sites. After an evaluation of new data, two sites (Platanares and San Ignacio) were selected for detailed geophysical surveys and one (Platanares) for gradient drilling. Very encouraging results were obtained from the drilling and it is apparent that a feasibility phase investigation is warranted at Platanares.

  15. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  16. Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources, Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This document highlights the applications of low-temperature geothermal resources and the potential for future uses as well as current Geothermal Technologies Program-funded projects related to low-temperature resources.

  17. A geothermal resource data base: New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-07-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in New Mexico up to 1993. Economically important geothermal direct-use development in New Mexico and the widespread use of personal computers (PC) in recent years attest to the need for an easily used and accessible data base of geothermal data in a digital format suitable for the PC. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction.

  18. Water Intensity of Electricity from Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, G. S.; Glassley, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    BACKGROUND Electricity from geothermal resources could play a significant role in the United States over the next few decades; a 2006 study by MIT expects a capacity of 100GWe by 2050 as feasible; approximately 10% of total electricity generating capacity up from less than 1% today. However, there is limited research on the water requirements and impacts of generating electricity from geothermal resources - conventional as well as enhanced. To the best of our knowledge, there is no baseline exists for water requirements of geothermal electricity. Water is primarily required for cooling and dissipation of waste heat in the power plants, and to account for fluid losses during heat mining of enhanced geothermal resources. MODEL DESCRIPTION We have developed a model to assess and characterize water requirements of electricity from hydrothermal resources and enhanced geothermal resources (EGS). Our model also considers a host of factors that influence cooling water requirements ; these include the temperature and chemical composition of geothermal resource; installed power generation technology - flash, organic rankine cycle and the various configurations of these technologies; cooling technologies including air cooled condensers, wet recirculating cooling, and hybrid cooling; and finally water treatment and recycling installations. We expect to identify critical factors and technologies. Requirements for freshwater, degraded water and geothermal fluid are separately estimated. METHODOLOGY We have adopted a lifecycle analysis perspective that estimates water consumption at the goethermal field and power plant, and accounts for transmission and distribution losses before reaching the end user. Our model depends upon an extensive literature review to determine various relationships necessary to determine water usage - for example relationship between thermal efficiency and temperature of a binary power plant, or differences in efficiency between various ORC configurations

  19. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  20. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1980-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  1. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  2. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Phase I studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM file for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Phase II studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  3. Geothermal resources in Arizona: a bibliography. Circular 23

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    All reports and maps generated by the Geothermal Project of the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology and the Arizona Geothermal Commercialization Team of the University of Arizona are listed. In order to provide a more comprehensive listing of geothermal papers from other sources have been included. There are 224 references in the bibliography. (MHR)

  4. Geothermal resources in Arizona: a bibliography. Circular 23

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography references all reports and maps generated by the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology and the Arizona Geothermal Commercialization Team of the Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arizona. To provide a more comprehensive listing of geothermal energy in Arizona, all available geothermal papers from other sources have been included. A total of 224 references are presented. (MHR)

  5. Geologic map of the Sulphur Springs Area, Valles Caldera Geothermal System, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Gardner, J.N.

    1980-12-01

    The geologic and tectonic setting and geology of Sulphur Springs Area are described. Geologic faults, sheared or brecciated rock, volcanic vents, geothermal wells, hydrothermal alteration, springs, thermal springs, fumaroles, and geologic deposits are indicated on the map. (MHR)

  6. 3D Geological Model for "LUSI" - a Deep Geothermal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohrabi, Reza; Jansen, Gunnar; Mazzini, Adriano; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen A.

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal applications require the correct simulation of flow and heat transport processes in porous media, and many of these media, like deep volcanic hydrothermal systems, host a certain degree of fracturing. This work aims to understand the heat and fluid transport within a new-born sedimentary hosted geothermal system, termed Lusi, that began erupting in 2006 in East Java, Indonesia. Our goal is to develop conceptual and numerical models capable of simulating multiphase flow within large-scale fractured reservoirs such as the Lusi region, with fractures of arbitrary size, orientation and shape. Additionally, these models can also address a number of other applications, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), CO2 sequestration (Carbon Capture and Storage CCS), and nuclear waste isolation. Fractured systems are ubiquitous, with a wide-range of lengths and scales, making difficult the development of a general model that can easily handle this complexity. We are developing a flexible continuum approach with an efficient, accurate numerical simulator based on an appropriate 3D geological model representing the structure of the deep geothermal reservoir. Using previous studies, borehole information and seismic data obtained in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126), we present here the first 3D geological model of Lusi. This model is calculated using implicit 3D potential field or multi-potential fields, depending on the geological context and complexity. This method is based on geological pile containing the geological history of the area and relationship between geological bodies allowing automatic computation of intersections and volume reconstruction. Based on the 3D geological model, we developed a new mesh algorithm to create hexahedral octree meshes to transfer the structural geological information for 3D numerical simulations to quantify Thermal-Hydraulic-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) physical processes.

  7. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  8. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, D.W.; Stavnes, S.A.

    1982-06-01

    The following regional geological and geophysical studies are reported: establishment of a geothermal gradient data base from approximately 45,000 bottom hole temperatures recorded from well logs and interpretation of this data in terms of regional geology and establishment and interpretation of a second data base of geothermal gradients from thermal logging data from 144 holes of opportunity in the state. (MHR)

  9. Classification of geothermal resources by potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.

    2015-03-01

    When considering and reporting resources, the term "geothermal potential" is often used without clearly stating what kind of potential is meant. For renewable energy resources it is nowadays common to use different potentials: theoretical, technical, economic, sustainable, developable - decreasing successively in size. In such a sequence, the potentials are progressively realizable and more and more rewarding financially. The theoretical potential describes the physically present energy, the technical potential the fraction of this energy that can be used by currently available technology and the economic potential the time- and location-dependent fraction of the previous category; the sustainable potential constrains the fraction of the economic potential that can be utilized in the long term; the developable potential is the fraction of the economic resource which can be developed under realistic conditions. In converting theoretical to technical potential, the recovery factor (the ratio extractable heat/heat present at depth) is of key importance. An example (global geothermal resources) is given, with numerical values of the various potentials. The proposed classification could and should be used as a kind of general template for future geothermal energy resources reporting.

  10. 30 CFR 1202.351 - Royalties on geothermal resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Royalties on geothermal resources. 1202.351 Section 1202.351 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Natural Resources Revenue ROYALTIES Geothermal Resources § 1202.351 Royalties on...

  11. 2014 Low-Temperature and Coproduced Geothermal Resources Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Reinhardt, Program Manager

    2014-09-01

    As a growing sector of geothermal energy development, the Low-Temperature Program supports innovative technologies that enable electricity production and cascaded uses from geothermal resources below 300° Fahrenheit.

  12. Overview of Resources for Geothermal Absorption Cooling for Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xiaobing; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R; Mehdizadeh Momen, Ayyoub

    2015-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of a literature review in three areas: available low-temperature/coproduced geothermal resources in the United States, energy use for space conditioning in commercial buildings, and state of the art of geothermal absorption cooling.

  13. Geology of Platanares geothermal area, Copan, Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Duffield, W.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Ramos, N.; Flores, W.; Eppler, D.; Ritchie, A.; Escobar, C.

    1987-05-01

    The Platanares, Copan (Honduras) geothermal area is located in a highly faulted terrain of Paleozoic(.) metamorphic rocks, Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks, and Tertiary volcanic rocks. All thermal manifestations are located along faults. The volcanic rocks are probably too old to represent the surface expression of an active crustal magma body. Thus, the thermal water is interpreted to be heated during deep circulation in a regime of elevated heat flow. The water chemistry suggests that the geothermal reservoir originates within the Cretaceous sedimentary sequence and that the reservoir temperature may be as high as 240/sup 0/ C. Two exploration coreholes penetrated the volcanic sequence and bottomed within Cretaceous redbeds. Well PLTG-1 is 650 m deep and flows at 3 Mw thermal from a 160/sup 0/ C permeable zone. Well PLTG-2 is 401 m deep and has a thermal gradient of 139/sup 0/ C/km. Exploration drilling is continuing, with a third corehole to be drilled in May, 1987.

  14. Geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Wind River Basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth for each basin, is tabulated. Background heat flow in the Wind River Basin is generally insufficient to produce high conductive gradients. Only where hydrologic systems re-distribute heat through mass movement of water will high temperatures occur at shallow depths. Aquifers which may have the confinement and structural characteristics necessary to create such geothermal systems are the Lance/Fort Union, Mesa Verde, Frontier, Muddy, Cloverly, Sundance, Nugget, Park City, Tensleep, Amsden, Madison, Bighorn, and Flathead Formations. Of these the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison Limestone are the most attractive in terms of both productivity and water quality. Most of the identified geothermal anomalies in the Wind River Basin occur along complex structures in the southwest and south. The most attractive geothermal prospects identified are anomalous Areas 2 and 3 north of Lander, Sweetwater Station Springs west of Jeffrey City, and the thermal springs southwest of Dubois. Even in these areas, it is unlikely temperatures in excess of 130 to 150/sup 0/F can be developed. 16 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  15. Geothermal resource assessment, South Dakota: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Seven geothermal aquifers in South Dakota contain an accessible resource base of about 11,207 x 10/sup 18/ J. The potentially productive geothermal aquifers are: Deadwood Formation (Cambrian), Winnipeg Formation + Red River Formation + Englewood Limestone (Ordovician through Devonian), Madison Limestone (Mississippian), Minnelusa Formation (Mississippian-Permian), Inyan Kara Group (Cretaceous), and Newcastle Sandstone (Cretaceous). The resource estimate was obtained by first using heat flow, thermal conductivity, temperature gradient, and stratigraphic data to estimate aquifer temperatures. The heat content of each aquifer was determined from the product of the volumetric heat capacity, aquifer volume, and temperature difference between the aquifer and the mean annual temperature for a 14 x 14 grid of 240 km/sup 2/ cells. Geothermal fluid temperatures range from about 120/sup 0/C in the Deadwood Formation in the Williston Basin to about 30/sup 0/C for the Newcastle Sandstone in south-central South Dakota. The area containing the resource lies largely west of the Missouri River. About 10,000 km/sup 2/ of the resource area is characterized by anomalously high heat flow values greater than 100 mW m/sup -2/.

  16. Geothermal energy resource investigations at Mt. Spurr, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, D.L.; Wescott, E.M.

    1986-12-01

    Spurr volcano is a composite Quaternary cone of largely andesitic composition located on the west side of Cook Inlet about 80 miles west of Anchorage and about 40 miles from the Beluga electrical transmission line. Geologic mapping (Plate 1-1) shows that the present summit depression was produced by a Mt. St. Helens-type sector collapse, rather than by a caldera collapse. Geochronologic and previous tephrachronologic studies show that there has been an active magmatic system at Spurr volcano during the late Pleistocene-to-Holocene time interval that is of critical interest for geothermal energy resource assessment. Major effort was devoted to geochemical and geophysical surveys of the accessible area south of Mt. Spurr, in addition to geologic mapping and geochronologic studies. Many coincident mercury and helium anomalies were found, suggesting the presence of geothermal systems at depth. Extremely large electrical self-potential anomalies were also found, together with extensive zones of low resistivity discovered by our controlled-source audiomagnetotelluric survey. The juxtaposition of all of these different types of anomalies at certain areas on the south slope of Crater Peak indicates the presence of a geothermal system which should be accessible by drilling to about 2000 ft depth. It is also evident that there is a strong volcanic hazard to be evaluated in considering any development on the south side of Mt. Spurr. This hazardous situation may require angle drilling of production wells from safer areas and placement of power generation facilities at a considerable distance from hazardous areas.

  17. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource assessment program, Fiscal Year 1979. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N.

    1980-10-01

    The results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from 1 October 1978 to 30 June 1980 are summarized. The results of the efforts to extend the inventory of geothermal energy resources in New Mexico to low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications are given. These efforts focused on compiling basic geothermal data and new hydrology and temperature gradient data throughout New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and for preparation of New Mexico low-temperature geothermal resources maps. The results of geothermal reservoir confirmation studies are presented. (MHR)

  18. Relationships between geology and geothermal gradients in Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Stavnes, S.A.; Steeples, D.W.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    Bottom hole temperature values from existing oil and gas wells and thermal logging data from geothermal wells are used to determine the factors responsible for geographic variation in the subsurface temperature distribution in Kansas. Geothermal gradient data range from 25/sup 0/C/km to 55/sup 0/C/km in the upper 300 m. The geologic factors proposed to explain this variation are: (1) topography of the crystalline basement surface; (2) variation in rates of heat production in the crystalline basement; (3) variation in thermal conductivity in the sedimentary section; and (4) possible convection upward and eastward from the Denver-Julesberg Basin. (MJF)

  19. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.; Shevenell, L., Garside, L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  20. State-coupled low temperature geothermal resource assessment program, fiscal year 1982. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, Larry

    1983-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of low-temperature geothermal energy resource assessment efforts in New Mexico during the period from June 15, 1981 through September 30, 1983, under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contract DE-AS07-78ID01717). The report is divided into four chapters which correspond to the tasks delineated in the contract. Chapter 5 is a brief summary of the tasks performed under this contract during the period October 1, 1978, through June 30, 1983. This work extends the knowledge of low-temperature geothermal reservoirs with the potential for direct heating applications in New Mexico. The research effort focused on compiling basic geothermal data throughout selected areas in New Mexico in a format suitable for direct transfer to the US Geological Survey for inclusion in the GEOTHERM data file and to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for use with New Mexico geothermal resources maps.

  1. State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, M. Lee; Richard, Stephen M.

    2015-03-13

    The State Geological Survey Contributions to the National Geothermal Data System project is built on the work of the project managed by Boise State University to design and build the National Geothermal Data System, by deploying it nationwide and populating it with data principally from State Geological Surveys through collaboration with the Association of American State Geologists (AASG). This project subsequently incorporated the results of the design-build and other DOE-funded projects in support of the NGDS. The NGDS (www.geothermaldata.org) provides free open access to millions of data records, images, maps, and reports, sharing relevant geoscience, production, and land use data in 30+ categories to propel geothermal development and production in the U.S. NGDS currently serves information gathered from hundreds of the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored development and research projects and geologic data feeds from 60+ data providers throughout all 50 states. These data are relevant to geothermal energy exploration and development, but also have broad applicability in other areas including natural resources (e.g., energy, minerals, water), natural hazards, and land use and management.

  2. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  3. Evaluation and targeting of geothermal energy resources in the southeastern United States. Final report, May 1, 1976-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Costain, J.K.; Glover, L. III

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the geothermal program have been to develop and apply geological and geophysical targeting procedures for the discovery of low-temperature geothermal resources related to heat-producing granite. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers comprising the report. (ACR)

  4. Tapping the earth's geothermal resources: Hydrothermal today, magma tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1986-12-17

    The paper discusses geothermal resources, what it is, where it is, and how to extract energy from it. The materials research activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory related to geothermal energy extraction are discussed. These include high-temperature, light-weight polymer cements, elastomers, biochemical waste processing techniques, and non-metallic heat exchanger tubing. The economics of geothermal energy is also discussed. (ACR)

  5. Renewable energy: energy from geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    The geothermal resources of Florida are poor in most parts of the state, but offer potential in one or two areas. Groundwater heat pumps are efficient and presently abundant water resources exist in most Florida areas, but widespread use of these units could affect Florida's groundwater supplies if reinjection wells are not required. The effect of large numbers of wells on an aquifer in small geographic areas has not been adequately assessed. Data on groundwater heat pump energy use for Florida climatic conditions are needed as is information on the number of units currently operating.

  6. Low-temperature geothermal resources of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, J.E.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents information on the location, physical characteristics, and water chemistry of low-temperature geothermal resources in Washington. The database includes 941 thermal (>20C or 68F) wells, 34 thermal springs, lakes, and fumaroles, and 238 chemical analyses. Most thermal springs occur in the Cascade Range, and many are associated with stratovolcanoes. In contrast, 97 percent of thermal wells are located in the Columbia Basin of southeastern Washington. Some 83.5 percent are located in Adams, Benton, Franklin, Grant, Walla Walla, and Yakima Counties. Yakima County, with 259 thermal wells, has the most. Thermal wells do not seem to owe their origin to local sources of heat, such as cooling magma in the Earth`s upper crust, but to moderate to deep circulation of ground water in extensive aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group and interflow sedimentary deposits, under the influence of a moderately elevated (41C/km) average geothermal gradient.

  7. Geothermal-resource verification for Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, P.R. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes the various types of geothermal energy reviews some legal uncertainties of the resource and then describes a methodology to evaluate geothermal resources for applications to US Air Force bases. Estimates suggest that exploration costs will be $50,000 to $300,000, which, if favorable, would lead to drilling a $500,000 exploration well. Successful identification and development of a geothermal resource could provide all base, fixed system needs with an inexpensive, renewable energy source.

  8. Geologic remote sensing for geothermal exploration: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; van Ruitenbeek, Frank; van der Werff, Harald; de Wijkerslooth, Charlotte; Wechsler, Carolina

    2014-12-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review of the potential for remote sensing in exploring for geothermal resources. Temperature gradients in the earth crust are typically 25-30 °C per kilometer depth, however in active volcanic areas situated in subduction or rift zones gradients of up to 150 °C per kilometer depth can be reached. In such volcanic areas, meteoric water in permeable and porous rocks is heated and hot water is trapped to form a geothermal reservoir. At the Earth's surface hot springs and fumaroles are evidence of hot geothermal water. In low enthalpy systems the heat can be used for heating/cooling and drying while in high enthalpy systems energy is generated using hot water or steam. In this paper we review the potential of remote sensing in the exploration for geothermal resources. We embark from the traditional suite of geophysical and geochemical prospecting techniques to arrive at parameters at the Earth surface that can be measured by earth observing satellites. Next, we summarize direct and indirect detection of geothermal potential using alteration mineralogy, temperature anomalies and heat fluxes, geobotanical anomalies and Earth surface deformation. A section of this paper is dedicated to published remote sensing studies illustrating the principles of mapping: surface deformation, gaseous emissions, mineral mapping, heat flux measurements, temperature mapping and geobotany. In a case study from the La Pacana caldera (Chili) geothermal field we illustrate the cross cutting relationships between various surface manifestations of geothermal reservoirs and how remotely sensed indicators can contribute to exploration. We conclude that although remote sensing of geothermal systems has not reached full maturity, there is great potential for integrating these surface measurements in a exploration framework. A number of recommendations for future research result from our analysis of geothermal systems and the present contributions of remote sensing to

  9. Geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hinckley, B.S.; Heasler, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    A general discussion of how geothermal resources occur; a discussion of the temperatures, distribution, and possible applications of geothermal resources in Wyoming and a general description of the State's thermal setting; and a discussion of the methods used in assessing the geothermal resources are presented. The discussion of the geothermal resources of the Laramie, Hanna, and Shirley Basins includes material on heat flow and conductive gradients, stratigraphy and hydrology, structure and water movement, measured temperatures and gradients, areas of anomalous gradient (including discussion of the warm spring systems at Alcova and Saratoga), temperatures of the Cloverly Formation, and summary and conclusions. 23 references, 9 figures, 5 tables. (MHR)

  10. Geologic and hydrologic research on the Moana geothermal system, Washoe County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The Moana geothermal area is the largest single low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource in the State of Nevada presently employed for direct-use applications. Approximately 150 individual wells, representing a total estimated investment of $5 to $7 million, are presently used to provide heat ahd hot water to more than 130 private residences, several churches and two large motels. Although most of the wells are constructed to meet the heating needs of individual homes, a large-scale district space heating system, designed to supply heat to 60 houses from a single well, is now being developed. Usable temperatures range from 50 to 99/sup 0/C (120 to 210/sup 0/F); well depths range from 60 to 400 m (100 to 1300 ft). The number of new wells coming on-line in Moana is two to three per month. Development of the resource has been largely unregulated and questions dealing with reported reservoir temperature and water level declines, loss of artesian flow, and fluid disposal have recently surfaced. In October 1982, a geologic and hydrologic research program began that was designed to provide detailed geothermal reservoir data to present or prospective developers. The program combines geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys of the Moana resource area with a drilling program for 5 monitor/observation wells. Data from this program are supplied directly to developers as well as state and local government agencies to provide for prudent resource development. This paper summarizes the program elements and describes the present status.

  11. Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric (GRRM) Developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Technologies Office

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.

    2015-09-02

    This paper reviews a methodology being developed for reporting geothermal resources and project progress. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of evaluating the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow the GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress and the public. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to develop the relevant geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by the GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for evaluating and reporting on GTO funding according to resource grade (geological, technical and socio-economic) and project progress. This methodology would allow GTO to target funding, measure impact by monitoring the progression of projects, or assess geological potential of targeted areas for development.

  12. Effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area, Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. Water Resources Investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the National Park Service, Argonne National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory was initiated in 1988 to determine the effects of potential geothermal development in the Corwin Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA), Montana, on the thermal features of Yellowstone National Park. The study addressed three principal issues: (1) the sources of thermal water in the hot springs at Mammoth, La Duke, and Bear Creek; (2) the degree of subsurface connection between these areas; and (3) the effects of geothermal development in the Corwin Springs KGRA on the Park's thermal features. The authors investigations included, but were not limited to, geologic mapping, electrical geophysical surveys, chemical sampling and analyses of waters and rocks, determinations of the rates of discharge of various thermal springs, and hydrologic tracer tests.

  13. Measuring Impact of U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Funding: Considerations for Development of a Geothermal Resource Reporting Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Katherine R.; Wall, Anna M.; Dobson, Patrick F.; Bennett, Mitchell; Segneri, Brittany

    2015-04-25

    This paper reviews existing methodologies and reporting codes used to describe extracted energy resources such as coal and oil and describes a comparable proposed methodology to describe geothermal resources. The goal is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) with a consistent and comprehensible means of assessing the impacts of its funding programs. This framework will allow for GTO to assess the effectiveness of research, development, and deployment (RD&D) funding, prioritize funding requests, and demonstrate the value of RD&D programs to the U.S. Congress. Standards and reporting codes used in other countries and energy sectors provide guidance to inform development of a geothermal methodology, but industry feedback and our analysis suggest that the existing models have drawbacks that should be addressed. In order to formulate a comprehensive metric for use by GTO, we analyzed existing resource assessments and reporting methodologies for the geothermal, mining, and oil and gas industries, and we sought input from industry, investors, academia, national labs, and other government agencies. Using this background research as a guide, we describe a methodology for assessing and reporting on GTO funding according to resource knowledge and resource grade (or quality). This methodology would allow GTO to target funding or measure impact by progression of projects or geological potential for development.

  14. Towards solving the conflict between geothermal resource uses

    SciTech Connect

    Intemann, P.R.

    1983-10-01

    The development of a geothermal resource for energy is often seriously hindered by conflict with the alternative use of the same geothermal resource for recreation. Incompatibility between the development of geothermal energy and the enjoyment of surficial thermal features has constrained development in Japan, New Zealand, Europe, and the United States. Four approaches to the resolution of this problem have been identified. They are (1) research, (2) new technology, (3) design, and (4) marketing.

  15. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    SciTech Connect

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  16. Usage of ensemble geothermal models to consider geological uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühaak, Wolfram; Steiner, Sarah; Welsch, Bastian; Sass, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    The usage of geothermal energy for instance by borehole heat exchangers (BHE) is a promising concept for a sustainable supply of heat for buildings. BHE are closed pipe systems, in which a fluid is circulating. Heat from the surrounding rocks is transferred to the fluid purely by conduction. The fluid carries the heat to the surface, where it can be utilized. Larger arrays of BHE require typically previous numerical models. Motivations are the design of the system (number and depth of the required BHE) but also regulatory reasons. Especially such regulatory operating permissions often require maximum realistic models. Although such realistic models are possible in many cases with today's codes and computer resources, they are often expensive in terms of time and effort. A particular problem is the knowledge about the accuracy of the achieved results. An issue, which is often neglected while dealing with highly complex models, is the quantification of parameter uncertainties as a consequence of the natural heterogeneity of the geological subsurface. Experience has shown, that these heterogeneities can lead to wrong forecasts. But also variations in the technical realization and especially of the operational parameters (which are mainly a consequence of the regional climate) can lead to strong variations in the simulation results. Instead of one very detailed single forecast model, it should be considered, to model numerous more simple models. By varying parameters, the presumed subsurface uncertainties, but also the uncertainties in the presumed operational parameters can be reflected. Finally not only one single result should be reported, but instead the range of possible solutions and their respective probabilities. In meteorology such an approach is well known as ensemble-modeling. The concept is demonstrated at a real world data set and discussed.

  17. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The United States uses tremendous amounts of geologic energy resources. In 2004 alone, the United States consumed more than 7.4 billion barrels of oil, 21.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion short tons of coal. Forecasts indicate the Nation's need for energy resources will continue to grow, raising several questions: How much domestic and foreign petroleum resources are available to meet the growing energy demands of the Nation and world? Does the United States have coal deposits of sufficient quantity and quality to meet demand over the next century? What other geologic energy resources can be added to the U.S. energy mix? How do the occurrence and use of energy resources affect environmental quality and human health? Unbiased information from robust scientific studies is needed for sound energy policy and resource management decisions addressing these issues. The U.S. Geological Survey Energy Resources Program provides impartial, scientifically robust information to advance the understanding of geologically based energy resources including: petroleum (oil, natural gas, natural gas liquids), coal, gas hydrates, geothermal resources, oil shale, oil sands, uranium, and heavy oil and natural bitumen. This information can be used to contribute to plans for a secure energy future and to facilitate evaluation and responsible use of resources.

  18. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  19. Exploring for Geothermal Resources with Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of the subsurface is known to be a crucial parameter for the characterization of geothermal settings. Geothermal systems, composed by a system of faults and/or fractures filled with conducting geothermal fluids and altered rocks, are ideal targets for electromagnetic (EM) methods, which have become the industry standard for exploration of geothermal systems. This review paper presents an update of the state-of-the-art geothermal exploration using EM methods. Several examples of high-enthalpy geothermal systems as well as non-volcanic systems are presented showing the successful application of EM for geothermal exploration but at the same time highlighting the importance of the development of conceptual models in order to avoid falling into interpretation pitfalls. The integration of independent data is key in order to obtain a better understanding of the geothermal system as a whole, which is the ultimate goal of exploration.

  20. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  1. Nevada low-temperaure geothermal resource assessment: 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    Data compilation for the low-temperature program is being done by State Teams in two western states. Final products of the study include: a geothermal database, in hardcopy and as digital data (diskette) listing information on all known low- and moderate- temperature springs and wells in Nevada; a 1:1,000,000-scale map displaying these geothermal localities, and a bibliography of references on Nevada geothermal resources.

  2. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado Field, South Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1993-09-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. With the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity.

  3. Consolidation of geologic studies of geopressured-geothermal resources in Texas: Barrier-bar tidal-channel reservoir facies architecture, Jackson Group, Prado field, South Texas; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Choh, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sandstone reservoirs in the Jackson barrier/strandplain play are characterized by low recovery efficiencies and thus contain a large hydrocarbon resource target potentially amenable to advanced recovery techniques. Prado field, Jim Hogg County, South Texas, has produced over 23 million bbl of oil and over 32 million mcf gas from combination structural-stratigraphic traps in the Eocene lower Jackson Group. Hydrocarbon entrapment at Prado field is a result of anticlinal nosing by differential compaction and updip pinch-out of barrier bar sandstone. Relative base-level lowering resulted in forced regression that established lower Jackson shoreline sandstones in a relatively distal location in central Jim Hogg County. Reservoir sand bodies at Prado field comprise complex assemblages of barrier-bar, tidal-inlet fill, back-barrier bar, and shoreface environments. Subsequent progradation built the barrier-bar system seaward 1 to 2 mi. Within the barrier-bar system, favorable targets for hydrocarbon reexploration are concentrated in tidal-inlet facies because they possess the greatest degree of depositional heterogeneity. The purpose of this report is (1) to describe and analyze the sand-body architecture, depositional facies variations, and structure of Prado field, (2) to determine controls on distribution of hydrocarbons pertinent to reexploration for bypassed hydrocarbons, (3) to describe reservoir models at Prado field, and (4) to develop new data affecting the suitability of Jackson oil fields as possible candidates for thermally enhanced recovery of medium to heavy oil.

  4. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    DOE PAGES

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; ...

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power frommore » the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.« less

  5. Integrating CO₂ storage with geothermal resources for dispatchable renewable electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, Thomas A.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Edmunds, Thomas A.; Saar, Martin O.; Randolph, Jimmy B.

    2014-12-31

    We present an approach that uses the huge fluid and thermal storage capacity of the subsurface, together with geologic CO₂ storage, to harvest, store, and dispatch energy from subsurface (geothermal) and surface (solar, nuclear, fossil) thermal resources, as well as energy from electrical grids. Captured CO₂ is injected into saline aquifers to store pressure, generate artesian flow of brine, and provide an additional working fluid for efficient heat extraction and power conversion. Concentric rings of injection and production wells are used to create a hydraulic divide to store pressure, CO₂, and thermal energy. Such storage can take excess power from the grid and excess/waste thermal energy, and dispatch that energy when it is demanded, enabling increased penetration of variable renewables. Stored CO₂ functions as a cushion gas to provide enormous pressure-storage capacity and displaces large quantities of brine, which can be desalinated and/or treated for a variety of beneficial uses.

  6. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  7. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  8. Characterization of the geothermal resource at Lackland AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.

    1983-06-01

    The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.

  9. Geothermal resource assessment of Waunita Hot Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    This assessment includes the project report; the geothermal prospect reconnaissance evaluation and recommendations; interpretation of water sample analyses; a hydrogeochemical comparison of the Waunita Hot Springs, Hortense, Castle Rock, and Anderson Hot Springs; geothermal resistivity resource evaluation survey, the geophysical environment; temperature, heat flow maps, and temperature gradient holes; and soil mercury investigations.

  10. Representative well models for eight geothermal-resource areas

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.C.; Lin, Y.T.; Livesay, B.J.

    1983-02-01

    Representative well models have been constructed for eight major geothermal-resource areas. The models define representative times and costs associated with the individual operations that can be expected during drilling and completion of geothermal wells. The models were made for and have been used to evaluate the impacts of potential new technologies. The nature, construction, and validation of the models are presented.

  11. Inventory of geothermal resources in Nebraska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D.; Eversoll, D.A.

    1983-06-30

    The goal of the State Coupled Resource Assessment Program is to identify and evaluate geothermal resources in the state, particularly low-temperature potential. Eight tasks were identified and documented in this report as follows: bottom-hole temperature survey, heat flow and temperature gradient survey, data translation studies, gravity data, substate regions, information dissemination, state geothermal map, and reports. The project had three major products: (1) a map, Geothermal Resources of Nebraska; (2) a significant amount of thermal data collected and documented within the state; and (3) a series of publications, presentations and meetings (documented as an Appendix).

  12. Geophysical characterization of the Carson Lake, Nevada geothermal resource

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.; Benoit, D.; Desormier, B.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature-gradient studies have identified a shallow temperature anomaly on the eastern margin of Carson Lake that exceeds 21 km{sup 2} (8 mi{sup 2}) in size. Deeper drilling here and on the nearby Fallon Naval Air Station has confirmed the presence of a moderate-to high-temperature geothermal system at depth. No natural surface thermal manifestations are present in the sands and silts of this part of the southern Carson Sink, but one shallow artesian thermal well is present. Public domain gravity and aeromagnetic data have been reprocessed and interpreted. When integrated with geologic mapping these provide a structural setting for the resource area. Self-potential (SP) surveys completed in the spring of 1992 and 1993 identified ten well-defined anomalies of limited extent within the area of the shallow thermal anomaly. Several of these anomalies occur near interpreted structures and structural intersections and may indicate upflow zones of thermal fluids to the near subsurface. Deep drilling is needed to prove the location and economic potential of the moderate-temperature geothermal reservoir.

  13. Geological and geothermal investigation of the lower Wind River valley, southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, D.A.; Korosec, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley is presented with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource. The lower Wind River drainage consists primarily of the Ohanapecosh Formation, an Oligocene unit that is recognized across the entire southern Washington Cascade Range. The formation is at least 300 m thick in the Wind River valley area. It consists largely of volcaniclastic sediments, with minor massive pyroclastic flows, volcanic breccias and lava flows. Low grade zeolite facies metamorphism during the Miocene led to formation of hydrothermal minerals in Ohanapecosh strata. Metamorphism probably occurred at less than 180{sup 0}C.

  14. Geothermal Development and Resource Management in the Yakima Valley : A Guidebook for Local Governments.

    SciTech Connect

    Creager, Kurt

    1984-03-01

    The guidebook defines the barriers to geothermal energy development at all levels of government and proposes ways to overcome these various barriers. In recognition that wholesale development of the region's geothermal resources could create a series of environmental problems and possible conflicts between groundwater users, resource management options are identified as possible ways to ensure the quality and quantity of the resource for future generations. It is important for local governments to get beyond the discussion of the merits of geothermal energy and take positive actions to develop or to encourage the development of the resource. To this end, several sources of technical and financial assistance are described. These sources of assistance can enable local governments and others to take action should they choose to do so. Even though the Yakima Valley is the setting for the analysis of local issues that could hamper geothermal development, this guidebook could be used by any locale with geothermal energy resources. The guidebook is not a scientific manual, but rather a policy document written especially for local government staff and officials who do not have technical backgrounds in geology or hydrology.

  15. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) R&D Program: US Geothermal Resources Review and Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Entingh, Dan; McLarty, Lynn

    2000-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to lay the groundwork for an emerging process to assess U.S. geothermal resources that might be suitable for development as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Interviews of leading geothermists indicate that doing that will be intertwined with updating assessments of U.S. higher-quality hydrothermal resources and reviewing methods for discovering ''hidden'' hydrothermal and EGS resources. The report reviews the history and status of assessment of high-temperature geothermal resources in the United States. Hydrothermal, Enhanced, and Hot Dry Rock resources are addressed. Geopressured geothermal resources are not. There are three main uses of geothermal resource assessments: (1) They inform industry and other interest parties of reasonable estimates of the amounts and likely locations of known and prospective geothermal resources. This provides a basis for private-sector decisions whether or not to enter the geothermal energy business at all, and for where to look for useful resources. (2) They inform government agencies (Federal, State, local) of the same kinds of information. This can inform strategic decisions, such as whether to continue to invest in creating and stimulating a geothermal industry--e.g., through research or financial incentives. And it informs certain agencies, e.g., Department of Interior, about what kinds of tactical operations might be required to support such activities as exploration and leasing. (3) They help the experts who are performing the assessment(s) to clarify their procedures and data, and in turn, provide the other two kinds of users with a more accurate interpretation of what the resulting estimates mean. The process of conducting this assessment brings a spotlight to bear on what has been accomplished in the domain of detecting and understanding reservoirs, in the period since the last major assessment was conducted.

  16. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Full realization of the potential of what might be considered “low-grade” geothermal resources will require that we examine many more uses for the heat than traditional electricity generation. To demonstrate that geothermal energy truly has the potential to be a national energy source we will be designing, assessing, and evaluating innovative uses for geothermal-produced water such as hybrid biomass-geothermal cogeneration of electricity and district heating and efficiency improvements to the use of cellulosic biomass in addition to utilization of geothermal in district heating for community redevelopment projects. The objectives of this project were: 1) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the integration and utilization potential of low-temperature geothermal sources. Innovative uses of low-enthalpy geothermal water were designed and examined for their ability to offset fossil fuels and decrease CO2 emissions. 2) To perform process optimizations and economic analyses of processes that can utilize low-temperature geothermal fluids. These processes included electricity generation using biomass and district heating systems. 3) To scale up and generalize the results of three case study locations to develop a regionalized model of the utilization of low-temperature geothermal resources. A national-level, GIS-based, low-temperature geothermal resource supply model was developed and used to develop a series of national supply curves. We performed an in-depth analysis of the low-temperature geothermal resources that dominate the eastern half of the United States. The final products of this study include 17 publications, an updated version of the cost estimation software GEOPHIRES, and direct-use supply curves for low-temperature utilization of geothermal resources. The supply curves for direct use geothermal include utilization from known hydrothermal, undiscovered hydrothermal, and near-hydrothermal EGS resources and presented these results at the Stanford

  17. Shallow Geothermal Admissibility Maps: a Methodology to Achieve a Sustainable Development of Shallow Geothermal Energy with Regards to Groundwater Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréthaut, D.; Parriaux, A.; Tacher, L.

    2009-04-01

    Implantation and use of shallow geothermal systems may have environmental impacts. Traditionally, risks are divided into 2 categories: direct and indirect. Direct risks are linked with the leakage of the circulating fluid (usually water with anti-freeze) of ground source heat pumps into the underground which may be a source of contamination. Indirect risks are linked with the borehole itself and the operation of the systems which can modify the groundwater flow, change groundwater temperature and chemistry, create bypasses from the surfaces to the aquifers or between two aquifers. Groundwater source heat pumps (GWSHP) may provoke indirect risks, while ground source heat pumps (GSHP) may provoke both direct and indirect risks. To minimize those environmental risks, the implantation of shallow geothermal systems must be regulated. In 2007, more than 7000 GSHP have been installed in Switzerland, which represents 1.5 Mio drilled meters. In the canton of Vaud, each shallow geothermal project has to be approved by the Department of the Environment. Approximately 1500 demands have been treated during 2007, about 15 times more than in 1990. Mapping shallow geothermal systems implantation restrictions due to environmental constrains permits: 1) to optimize the management and planning of the systems, 2) to minimize their impact on groundwater resources and 3) to facilitate administrative procedures for treating implantation demands. Such maps are called admissibility maps. Here, a methodology to elaborate them is presented and tested. Interactions between shallow geothermal energy and groundwater resources have been investigated. Admissibility criteria are proposed and structured into a flow chart which provides a decision making tool for shallow geothermal systems implantation. This approach has been applied to three areas of West Switzerland ranging from 2 to 6 km2. For each area, a geological investigation has been realized and complementary territorial information (e

  18. Geology and geothermal potential of Alid volcanic center, Eritrea, Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clynne, Michael A.; Duffield, Wendell A.; Fournier, Robert O.; Giorgis, Leake W.; Janik, Cathy J.; Kahsai, Gabreab; Lowenstern, Jacob; Mariam, Kidane W.; Smith, James G.; Tesfai, Theoderos; ,

    1996-01-01

    Alid volcanic center, a 700-meter-tall mountain in Eritrea, northeast Africa, straddles the axis of an active crustal-spreading center called the Danakil Depression. Boiling-temperature fumaroles are common on Alid, and their gas compositions indicate a reservoir temperature of at least 250 ??C. The history of volcanism and the high reservoir temperature indicated by the Alid fumarole gases suggest that a geothermal resource of electrical grade lies beneath the mountain. Though drilling is needed to determine subsurface conditions, the process of dome formation and the ongoing crustal spreading can create and maintain fracture permeability in the hydrothermal system that feeds the Alid fumaroles.

  19. Geologic and hydrologic research on the Moana geothermal system, Washoe County, Nevada. Final report October 1, 1982-December 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Combined geologic, geophysical, geochemical, and drilling exploration surveys were used to assess the Moana geothermal resource in Washoe County, Nevada, and to determine its relationship with nearby Steamboat Hot Springs. Moana is the largest single moderate-temperature resource in Nevada that supports geothermal space heating applications. Results show that the general geology and structure for the two systems is similar, but important differences exist with respect to reservoir rocks. Gravity data delineated the contact between important volcanic and sedimentary rocks in Moana, but contour trends did not correlate well with mapped faults. Fluid geochemistry data show major differences in bulk chemical composition, stable-light isotope ratios, and radiocarbon ages for Moana and Steamboat geothermal waters. Water level measurements in observation wells in Moana show simultaneous increasing and decreasing values in different sections of the geothermal area. Temperature-depth profiles changed little during the six-month monitoring period. Direct use of the resource is increasing and longer-lasting, more efficient down-hole heat exchangers are replacing previous equipment that was prone to scaling and corrosion. A computer program that calculates heat output for state-of-the-art heat exchangers is described. Recommendations for continued monitoring, heat exchanger design, and fluid reinjection studies are included. Data are available to government agencies responsible for regulation as well as local residents and potential developers to ensure prudent resource utilization.

  20. Preliminary direct heat geothermal resource assessment of the Tennessee Valley region

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary appraisal of the direct heat geothermal energy resources of the Tennessee Valley region has been completed. This region includes Kentucky, Tennessee and parts of adjacent states. Intermediate and deep aquifers were selected for study. Basement and Top-of-Knox structure and temperature maps were compiled from oil and gas well data on file at various state geological survey offices. Results of this study indicate that the New Madrid seismic zone is the only area within the region that possesses potential for direct heat utilization. In other areas geothermal energy is either too deep for economical extraction or it will not be able to compete with other local energy resources. The only anomalously high temperature well outside the New Madrid seismic zone was located in the Rome Trough and near the central part of the eastern Kentucky coal basin. Geothermal energy in that region would face strong competition from coal, oil and natural gas.

  1. Geothermal investigations in Idaho: Geothermal resource analysis in Twin Falls County, Idaho:

    SciTech Connect

    Street, L.V.; DeTar, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Increased utilization of the geothermal resource in the Twin Falls - Banbury area of southern Idaho has resulted in noticeable declines in the artesian head of the system. In order to determine the nature of the declines, a network of wells was identified for monitoring shut-in pressures and temperatures. In addition, a compilation of data and reconnaissance of the areal geology was undertaken in order to better understand the geologic framework and its relationship to the occurrence of the thermal waters in the system. The results of the monitoring indicate that while water temperatures have remained constant, the system shows a gradual overall decline in artesian pressure superimposed on fluctuations caused by seasonal use of the system. Well testing and the similarity of hydrographs resulting from well monitoring throughout the area suggest that there are no major hydrologic barriers to thermal water movement in the system and that wells are affected by increases and decreases in utilization of nearby wells. 46 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Assessment of Geothermal Data Resources and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-09-01

    This paper is a review of Geothermal Technologies Program activities and archives related to data collection and analysis. It includes an assessment of the current state of geothermal data, future program and stakeholder data needs, existence of and access to critical data, and high-level direction and prioritization of next steps to meet the Program’s data needs.

  3. The Preston Geothermal Resources; Renewed Interest in a Known Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Thomas R.; Worthing, Wade; Cannon, Cody; Palmer, Carl; Neupane, Ghanashyam; McLing, Travis L; Mattson, Earl; Dobson, Patric; Conrad, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Preston Geothermal prospect is located in northern Cache Valley approximately 8 kilometers north of the city of Preston, in southeast Idaho. The Cache Valley is a structural graben of the northern portion of the Basin and Range Province, just south of the border with the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). This is a known geothermal resource area (KGRA) that was evaluated in the 1970's by the State of Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR) and by exploratory wells drilled by Sunedco Energy Development. The resource is poorly defined but current interpretations suggest that it is associated with the Cache Valley structural graben. Thermal waters moving upward along steeply dipping northwest trending basin and range faults emanate in numerous hot springs in the area. Springs reach temperatures as hot as 84° C. Traditional geothermometry models estimated reservoir temperatures of approximately 125° C in the 1970’s study. In January of 2014, interest was renewed in the areas when a water well drilled to 79 m (260 ft) yielded a bottom hole temperature of 104° C (217° F). The well was sampled in June of 2014 to investigate the chemical composition of the water for modeling geothermometry reservoir temperature. Traditional magnesium corrected Na-K-Ca geothermometry estimates this new well to be tapping water from a thermal reservoir of 227° C (440° F). Even without the application of improved predictive methods, the results indicate much higher temperatures present at much shallower depths than previously thought. This new data provides strong support for further investigation and sampling of wells and springs in the Northern Cache Valley, proposed for the summer of 2015. The results of the water will be analyzed utilizing a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry (MEG) tool called Reservoir Temperature Estimate (RTEst) to obtain an improved estimate of the reservoir temperature. The new data suggest that other KGRAs and overlooked areas may need to be

  4. The U.S.Geological Survey Energy Resources Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2010-01-01

    Energy resources are an essential component of modern society. Adequate, reliable, and affordable energy supplies obtained using environmentally sustainable practices underpin economic prosperity, environmental quality and human health, and political stability. National and global demands for all forms of energy are forecast to increase significantly over the next several decades. Throughout its history, our Nation has faced important, often controversial, decisions regarding the competing uses of public lands, the supply of energy to sustain development and enable growth, and environmental stewardship. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) provides information to address these challenges by supporting scientific investigations of energy resources, such as research on the geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of oil, gas, coal, heavy oil and natural bitumen, oil shale, uranium, and geothermal resources, emerging resources such as gas hydrates, and research on the effects associated with energy resource occurrence, production, and (or) utilization. The results from these investigations provide impartial, robust scientific information about energy resources and support the U.S. Department of the Interior's (DOI's) mission of protecting and responsibly managing the Nation's natural resources. Primary consumers of ERP information and products include the DOI land- and resource-management Bureaus; other Federal, State, and local agencies; the U.S. Congress and the Administration; nongovernmental organizations; the energy industry; academia; international organizations; and the general public.

  5. Geothermal resource potential of Cascade volcanic arc

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-08-01

    The central and southern cascade volcanic arc has the following features that suggest a high potential for geothermal resources: (1) extensive Quaternary volcanism with some silicic to intermediate volcanoes, (2) hundreds of square kilometers with regional background heat flow in excess of 100 mW/m/sup 2/, (3) shallow (4-9 km) calculated depth to Curie point in the same areas that have heat flow in excess of 100 mW/m/sup 2/, (4) a thick pile of volcanic rock with moderate to low thermal conductivity, (5) hot springs with minimum reservoir temperatures of 174/sup 0/-186/sup 0/C (from the anhydrite geothermometer of Mariner, 1985), and (6) fault zones for fracture permeability. These features are the result of interactions between the North American plate (NAP), the Pacific plate (PP), and the subducted Gorda, Juan de Fuca, and Explorer plates (GJEP). Interactions between the NAP and the PP produce north-south compression and east-west extension, causing extensive development of north-south normal faults and partial melting episodes in upper mantle. Northeast-southwest convergence between the NAP and the GJEP produce subduction-related magmas and crustal deformation from northeast-southwest compression. NAP-GJEP interactions dominate in the northern part of the arc, whereas NAP-PP and NAP-GJEP interactions have combined in the central and southern part of the arc to produce rates of magmatism and heat flow higher than in the north.

  6. GIS Regional Spatial Data from the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy: Geochemical, Geodesic, Geologic, Geophysical, Geothermal, and Groundwater Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, part of the University of Nevada, Reno, conducts research towards the establishment of geothermal energy as an economically viable energy source within the Great Basin. The Center specializes in collecting and synthesizing geologic, geochemical, geodetic, geophysical, and tectonic data, and using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to view and analyze this data and to produce favorability maps of geothermal potential. The center also makes its collections of spatial data available for direct download to the public. Data are in Lambert Conformable Conic Projection.

  7. Expanding Geothermal Resource Utilization through Directed Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Wendy

    2015-06-29

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE or the Center) was established at the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) in May 2000 to promote research and utilization of geothermal resources. The Center received funding through this grant to promote increased geothermal development in the Great Basin, with most of the funding used for peerreviewed research. Funding to the Center and work under the contract were initiated in March 2002, with supplemental funding in subsequent years. The Center monitored the research projects that were competitively awarded in a series of proposal calls between 2002 and 2007. Peer-reviewed research promoted identification and utilization of geothermal resources in Nevada. Projects used geology, geochemistry, geophysics, remote sensing, and the synthesis of multi-disciplinary information to produce new models of geothermal systems in the Western U.S. and worldwide. Funds were also used to support graduate student research and training. Part of the grant was used to support public outreach activities, including webpages, online maps and data resources, and informational workshops for stakeholders.

  8. Using Geothermal Play Types as an Analogue for Estimating Potential Resource Size

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, Rachel; Young, Katherine

    2015-09-02

    Blind geothermal systems are becoming increasingly common as more geothermal fields are developed. Geothermal development is known to have high risk in the early stages of a project development because reservoir characteristics are relatively unknown until wells are drilled. Play types (or occurrence models) categorize potential geothermal fields into groups based on geologic characteristics. To aid in lowering exploration risk, these groups' reservoir characteristics can be used as analogues in new site exploration. The play type schemes used in this paper were Moeck and Beardsmore play types (Moeck et al. 2014) and Brophy occurrence models (Brophy et al. 2011). Operating geothermal fields throughout the world were classified based on their associated play type, and then reservoir characteristics data were catalogued. The distributions of these characteristics were plotted in histograms to develop probability density functions for each individual characteristic. The probability density functions can be used as input analogues in Monte Carlo estimations of resource potential for similar play types in early exploration phases. A spreadsheet model was created to estimate resource potential in undeveloped fields. The user can choose to input their own values for each reservoir characteristic or choose to use the probability distribution functions provided from the selected play type. This paper also addresses the United States Geological Survey's 1978 and 2008 assessment of geothermal resources by comparing their estimated values to reported values from post-site development. Information from the collected data was used in the comparison for thirty developed sites in the United States. No significant trends or suggestions for methodologies could be made by the comparison.

  9. Using Facilities And Potential Of Geothermal Resources In The Canakkale Province - NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Acar Deniz, Zahide

    2016-04-01

    Turkey, due to its geological location, has a rich potential in point of geothermal resources. Çanakkale province is located northwestern (NW) part of Turkey and it has important geothermal fields in terms of geothermal energy potential. Geothermal resources reach to the surface both effects of past volcanic activity and extensions of fault zones associated with complex tectonic systems in the region. The aim of this study is to summarize hydrogeochemical characteristics, using facilities and potential of hot springs and spas located in the Çanakkale province. There are 13 geothermal fields in the region and the surface temperatures of hot springs are ranging between 28 centigrade degree and 175 centigrade degree. Hydrogeochemical compositions of thermal water display variable chemical compositions. Na, Ca, SO4, HCO3 and Cl are the dominant ions in these waters. Thermal waters of Tuzla and Kestanbol geothermal fields which is located the near coastal area can be noted NaCl type. Because these two geothermal waters have high TDS values, scaling problems are seen around the hot springs and pipelines. Geothermal waters in the province are meteoric origin according to oxygen-18, deuterium and tritium isotopes data. Long underground residence times of these waters and its temperatures have caused both more water - rock interaction and low tritium values. Geothermal energy is utilized in many areas in Turkey today. It is generally used for space heating, balneotherapy and electricity generation. Explorations of geothermal resources and investments in geothermal energy sector have risen rapidly in the recent years particularly in western Turkey. High-temperature geothermal fields are generally located in this region related to the Aegean Graben System and the North Anotalian Fault Zone. All geothermal power plants in Turkey are located in this region. Considering the Çanakkale province, most geothermal fields are suitable for multipurpose usage but many of them have

  10. Tracer tests in geothermal resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axelsson, G.

    2013-05-01

    Geothermal reinjection involves injecting energy-depleted fluid back into geothermal systems, providing an effective mode of waste-water disposal as well as supplementary fluid recharge. Cooling of production boreholes is one of the main disadvantages associated with reinjection, however. Tracer testing is an important tool for reinjection studies because tracer tests actually have a predictive power since tracer transport is orders of magnitude faster than cold-front advancement around reinjection boreholes. A simple and efficient method of tracer test interpretation, assuming specific flow channels connecting reinjection and production boreholes, is available. It simulates tracer return profiles and estimates properties of the flow channels, which are consequently used for predicting the production borehole cooling. Numerous examples are available worldwide on the successful application of tracer tests in geothermal management, many involving the application of this interpretation technique. Tracer tests are also used for general subsurface hydrological studies in geothermal systems and for flow rate measurements in two-phase geothermal pipelines. The tracers most commonly used in geothermal applications are fluorescent dyes, chemical substances and radioactive isotopes. New temperature-resistant tracers have also been introduced and high-tech tracers are being considered.

  11. Geothermal Research Program of the US Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Guffanti, M.

    1981-01-01

    The beginning of the Geothermal Research Program, its organization, objectives, fiscal history, accomplishments, and present emphasis. The projects of the Geothermal Research Program are presented along with a list of references.

  12. Discovery and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field: a case history. Bulletin 97

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, W.R.; Hiner, J.E.; Forest, R.T.

    1982-09-01

    A case history of the exploration, development (through 1980), and geology of the Desert Peak geothermal field is presented. Sections on geochemistry, geophysics, and temperature-gradient drilling are included.

  13. Estimating the Prospectivity of Geothermal Resources Using the Concept of Hydrogeologic Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Blackwell, David; Harp, Dylan; Karra, Satish; Kelley, Richard; Kelley, Shari; Middleton, Richard; Person, Mark; Sutula, Glenn; Witcher, James

    2016-04-01

    In this Geothermal Play Fairways Analysis project we sought to develop new ways to analyze geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data to reduce the risk and increase the prospects of successful geothermal exploration and development. We collected, organized, and analyzed data from southwest New Mexico in the context of an integrated framework that combines the data for various signatures of a geothermal resource into a cohesive analysis of the presence of heat, fluid, and permeability. We incorporated data on structural characteristics (earthquakes, geophysical logs, fault location and age, basement depth), topographic and water table elevations, conservative ion concentrations, and thermal information (heat flow, bottom hole temperature, discharge temperature, and basement heat generation). These data were combined to create maps that indicate structural analysis, slope, geothermometry, and heat. We also mapped discharge areas (to constrain elevations where groundwater may be discharged through modern thermal springs or paleo-thermal springs) and subcrops: possible erosionally- or structurally-controlled breaches in regional-scale aquitards that form the basis of our hydrogeologic windows concept. These two maps were particularly useful in identifying known geothermal systems and narrowing the search for unknown geothermal prospects. We further refined the "prospectivity" of the areas within the subcrops and discharge areas by developing and applying a new method for spatial association analysis to data on known and inferred faults, earthquakes, geochemical thermometers, and heat flow. This new methodology determines the relationships of the location and magnitudes of observations of these data with known geothermal sites. The results of each of the six spatial association analyses were weighted between 0 and 1 and summed to produce a prospectivity score between 0 and 6, with 6 indicating highest geothermal potential. The mean value of prospectivity for all

  14. Direct utilization of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in agribusiness

    SciTech Connect

    Zeller, T.J.; Grams, W.H.; Howard, S.M.

    1980-09-01

    A demonstration project of the direct utilization of geothermal energy in a South Dakota agribusiness was undertaken. Off-the-shelf hardware was used in demonstrating that the technology was available today to develop geothermal energy resources. An existing artesian well into the Madison Formation having an energy resource of 67/sup 0/C and a flow rate of 655 liters per minute was developed into an energy for grain drying and space heating. The Diamond Ring Ranch structures and the wellhead are 2500 meters apart at the farthest point and the distribution of the highly corrosive, moderate temperature resource presented several unique problems. With the completion of the construction and the operation of the system through the first heating season, the direct utilization of geothermal resources is proving economically feasible and environmentally compatible. Compatible with the ranch operations.

  15. Evaluation of Sensitivity and Robustness of Geothermal Resource Parameters Using Detailed and Approximate Stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whealton, C.; Jordan, T. E.; Frone, Z. S.; Smith, J. D.; Horowitz, F. G.; Stedinger, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate assessment of the spatial variation of geothermal heat is key to distinguishing among locations for geothermal project development. Resource assessment over large areas can be accelerated by using existing subsurface data collected for other purposes, such as petroleum industry bottom-hole temperature (BHT) datasets. BHT data are notoriously noisy but in many sedimentary basins their abundance offsets the potential low quality of an individual BHT measurement. Analysis requires description of conductivity stratigraphy, which for thousands of wells with BHT values is daunting. For regional assessment, a streamlined method is to approximate the thickness and conductivity of each formation using a set of standard columns rescaled to the sediment thickness at a location. Surface heat flow and related geothermal resource metrics are estimated from these and additional parameters. This study uses Monte Carlo techniques to compare the accuracy and precision of thermal predictions at single locations by the streamlined approach to well-specific conductivity stratigraphy. For 77 wells distributed across the Appalachian Basin of NY, PA, and WV, local geological experts made available detailed information on unit thicknesses . For the streamlined method we used the Correlation of Stratigraphic Units of North America (COSUNA) columns. For both data sets, we described thermal conductivity of the strata using generic values or values from the geologically similar Anadarko Basin. The well-specific surface heat flow and temperature-at-depth were evaluated using a one-dimensional conductive heat flow model. This research addresses the sensitivity of the estimated geothermal output to the model inputs (BHT, thermal conductivity) and the robustness of the approximate stratigraphic column assumptions when estimating the geothermal output. This research was conducted as part of the Dept. of Energy Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis program.

  16. Water Resource Assessment of Geothermal Resources and Water Use in Geopressured Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. E.; Harto, C. B.; Troppe, W. A.

    2011-09-01

    This technical report from Argonne National Laboratory presents an assessment of fresh water demand for future growth in utility-scale geothermal power generation and an analysis of fresh water use in low-temperature geopressured geothermal power generation systems.

  17. Geothermal Resource Evaluation at Naval Air Station Fallon, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    present below or near the Desert Peak area. Heat flow outside the Desert Peak area is near the average for the Basin and Range physiographic province...Geothermal Resource. Heat Flow . Lithology Log. Observation Hole.3 " ,’ Thermal Gradient, Reservoir Characteristics. !9 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if...11 FOH-2 Thermal Gradient and Heat Flow ................................... 12 Discussion and a Possible Resource

  18. Mineral Resources, Geological Structure and Landform Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    Significant results are presented of ERTS-1 investigations of landform surveys, mineral resources, and geological structures. The report covers four areas: (1) mapping investigations; (2) dynamic surface processes and landforms; (3) structural elements; and (4) mineral deposits.

  19. Stratabound geothermal resources in North Dakota and South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnold, W.D. Jr.

    1991-08-01

    Analysis of all geothermal aquifers in North Dakota and South Dakota indicates an accessible resource base of approximately 21.25 exajoules (10{sup 18} J = 1 exajoule, 10{sup 18} J{approximately}10{sup 15} Btu=1 quad) in North Dakota and approximately 12.25 exajoules in South Dakota. Resource temperatures range from 40{degree}C at depths of about 700 m to 150{degree}C at 4500 m. This resource assessment increases the identified accessible resource base by 31% over the previous assessments. These results imply that the total stratabound geothermal resource in conduction-dominated systems in the United States is two-to-three times greater than some current estimates. The large increase in the identified accessible resource base is primarily due to inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the resource assessment and secondarily due to the expanded data base compiled in this study. These factors were interdependent in that the extensive data base provided the means for inclusion of all potential geothermal aquifers in the analysis. Previous assessments included only well-known aquifer systems and were limited by the amount of available data. 40 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Prospects and problems of development of geothermal resources of Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Boguslavskii, E.I.

    1995-12-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of geothermal energy source development in the Russian Federation. It estimates the geothermal reserves in each area of the Federation and presents the data in terms of tons of conventional fuels. Across the region, the average specific density exceeds 2,000,000 tons of conventional fuel per cubic kilometer. In the administrative regions of central Russia, the geothermal reserves are estimated to range from 160 years to 4200 years. The economic feasibility of developing these resources in the administrative regions is also explored, and it is concluded that the geothermal heat source is a source of hot water that is far superior to the conventional electric boiler-house source.

  1. Relationship of geological and geothermal field properties: Midcontinent area, USA, an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forster, A.; Merriam, D.F.; Brower, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative approaches to data analysis in the last decade have become important in basin modeling and mineral-resource estimation. The interrelation of geological, geophysical, geochemical, and geohydrological variables is important in adjusting a model to a real-world situation. Revealing the interdependences of variables can contribute in understanding the processes interacting in sedimentary basins. It is reasonably simple to compare spatial data of the same type but more difficult if different properties are involved. Statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis or principal components analysis, or some algebraic approaches can be used to ascertain the relations of standardized spatial data. In this example, structural configuration on five different stratigraphic horizons, one total sediment thickness map, and four maps of geothermal data were copared. As expected, the structural maps are highly related because all had undergone about the same deformation with differing degrees of intensity. The temperature gradients derived (1) from shallow borehole logging measurements under equilibrium conditions with the surrounding rock, and (2) from non-equilibrium bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) from deeper depths are mainly independent of each other. This was expected and confirmed also for the two temperature maps at 1000 ft which were constructed using both types of gradient values. Thus, it is evident that the use of a 2-point (BHT and surface temperature) straightline calculation of a mean temperature gradient gives different information about the geothermal regime than using gradients from temperatures logged under equilibrium conditions. Nevertheless, it is useful to determine to what a degree the larger dataset of nonequilibrium temperatures could reflect quantitative relationships to geologic conditions. Comparing all maps of geothermal information vs. the structural and the sediment thickness maps, it was determined that all correlations are moderately

  2. Use of a Geothermal-Solar Hybrid Power Plant to Mitigate Declines in Geothermal Resource Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2014-09-01

    Many, if not all, geothermal resources are subject to decreasing productivity manifested in the form of decreasing brine temperature, flow rate, or both during the life span of the associated power generation project. The impacts of resource productivity decline on power plant performance can be significant; a reduction in heat input to a power plant not only decreases the thermal energy available for conversion to electrical power, but also adversely impacts the power plant conversion efficiency. The reduction in power generation is directly correlated to a reduction in revenues from power sales. Further, projects with Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) contracts in place may be subject to significant economic penalties if power generation falls below the default level specified. A potential solution to restoring the performance of a power plant operating from a declining productivity geothermal resource involves the use of solar thermal energy to restore the thermal input to the geothermal power plant. There are numerous technical merits associated with a renewable geothermal-solar hybrid plant in which the two heat sources share a common power block. The geo-solar hybrid plant could provide a better match to typical electrical power demand profiles than a stand-alone geothermal plant. The hybrid plant could also eliminate the stand-alone concentrated solar power plant thermal storage requirement for operation during times of low or no solar insolation. This paper identifies hybrid plant configurations and economic conditions for which solar thermal retrofit of a geothermal power plant could improve project economics. The net present value of the concentrated solar thermal retrofit of an air-cooled binary geothermal plant is presented as functions of both solar collector array cost and electricity sales price.

  3. Geology and Geothermal Potential North of Wells, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, Paul W.

    1982-11-01

    The geology north of Wells, Nevada is dominated by approximately 2150 m of Tertiary lacustrine siltstones and conglomerates. The sediments are cut by a high-angle, range-bounding fault and several associated step faults. Hydrothermal alteration and silicification are associated with the high-angle faults. Two ages of Quaternary sediments locally overlie the Tertiary sediments. Lithologic and well log analyses define numerous potential aquifers in the Tertiary sediments. The shallowest of these aquifers is overlain by a tuffaceous siltstone which appears to act as an aquitard for hot water moving through the aquifers. Three possible subsurface hydrologic models can be constructed to explain the spatial relationships of the thermal water near Wells. Cost-effective steps taken to expedite geothermal development in the area might include deepening of an existing domestic well in the city of Wells to at least 180 m in order to penetrate the tuffaceous siltstone aquitard, running borehole logs for all existing wells, and conducting a shallow temperature-probe survey in the Tertiary sediments north of Wells.

  4. Geothermal resources of the Green River Basin, Wyoming, including thermal data for the Wyoming portion of the Thrust Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, S.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Green River basin were investigated. Oil-well bottom-hole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data have been interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. Basic thermal data, which includes the background thermal gradient and the highest recorded temperature and corresponding depth is tabulated. It was concluded that large areas are underlain by water at temperatures greater than 120/sup 0/F. Although much of this water is too deep to be economically tapped solely for geothermal use, oil and gas wells presently provide access to this significant geothermal resource. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist. These areas - many revealed by hot springs - represent geothermal systems which might presently be developed economically. 34 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs. (ACR)

  5. Investigations of Very High Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in Iceland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is investigating the economic feasibility of producing electricity from supercritical geothermal reservoirs. Earlier modeling indicates that the power output of a geothermal well producing from a supercritical reservoir could potentially be an order of magnitude greater than that from a conventional hot geothermal reservoir, at the same volumetric flow rate. However, even in areas with an unusually high geothermal gradient, for normal hydrostatic pressure gradients reaching supercritical temperatures and pressures will require drilling to depths >4 km. In 2009 the IDDP attempted to drill the first deep supercritical well, IDDP-01, in the caldera of the Krafla volcano, in NE Iceland. However drilling had to be terminated at only 2.1 km depth when ~900°C rhyolite magma flowed into the well. Our studies indicate that this magma formed by partial melting of hydrothermally altered basalts within the Krafla caldera. Although this well was too shallow to reach supercritical pressures, it is highly productive, and is estimated to be capable of generating up to 36 MWe from the high-pressure, superheated steam produced from the upper contact zone of the intrusion. With a well-head temperature of ~440°C, it is at present apparently the hottest producing geothermal well in the world. A pilot plant is investigating the optimal utilization of this magmatically heated resource. A special issue of the journal Geothermics with 16 papers reporting on the IDDP-01 is in preparation. However, in order to continue the search for supercritical geothermal resources, planning is underway to drill a 4.5 km deep well at Reykjanes in SW Iceland in 2013-14. Although drilling deeper towards the heat source of this already developed high-temperature geothermal field will be more expensive, if a supercritical resource is found, this cost increase should be offset by the considerable increase in the power output and lifetime of the Reykjanes geothermal

  6. Direct heat utilization of geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1996-08-01

    Direct or non-electric utilization of geothermal energy refers to the immediate use of the heat energy rather than to its conversion to some other form such as electrical energy. The primary forms of direct use include swimming, bathing and balneology (therapeutic use), space heating and cooling including district heating, agriculture (mainly greenhouse heating and some animal husbandry), aquaculture (mainly fish pond and raceway heating), industrial processes, and heat pumps (for both heating and cooling). In general, the geothermal fluid temperatures required for direct heat use are lower than those for economic electric power generation. Most direct use applications use geothermal fluids in the low-to-moderate temperature range between 50{degrees} and 150{degrees}C, and in general, the reservoir can be exploited by conventional water well drilling equipment. Low-temperature systems are also more widespread than high-temperature systems (above 150{degrees}C), so they are more likely to be located near potential users. In the US, for example, of the 1,350 known or identified geothermal systems, 5% are above 150{degrees}C, and 85% are below 90{degrees}C (Muffler, 1979). In fact, almost every country in the world has some low-temperature systems; while, only a few have accessible high-temperature systems.

  7. Natural resource economic implications of geothermal area use

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, d'E Charles

    1993-01-28

    Large-scale use of geothermal energy is likely to result in depletion of natural resources that support both biodiversity and other human uses. Most of the problems could be averted with competent planning and adherence to agreed conditions, but they commonly develop because they are not perceived to be directly geothermal in origin and hence are not taken into account adequately. Some of the implications of such issues are discussed below, with particular reference to countries where all or most resources are held under traditional principals of custom ownership.

  8. Geothermal resources of Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal

    SciTech Connect

    Duffield, W.A.; Muffler, L.J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Geothermal studies were carried out on the island of Sao Miguel, Azores to characterize the nature of the resource, to estimate its magnitude, and to identify target areas toward which exploration and developmental drilling might be directed. The main geothermal resource areas are Furnas, Agua de Pau, and Sete Cidades, three Quaternary silicic volcanic centers characterized by summit calderas beneath which magmatic heat sources provide thermal energy to overlying hydrothermal convection systems. For each of the systems, the studies have defined the size of the system, the subsurface temperature, the thermodynamic state of fluid in the system, the chemical composition of the fluid, and permeable parts of the system. 8 figs. (ACR)

  9. Three-Dimensional Geologic Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Mayhew, Brett; Faulds, James E

    2012-09-30

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to geothermal circulation is crucial in order to both mitigate the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to identify blind geothermal systems (no surface expression). Astor Pass, Nevada, one such blind geothermal system, lies near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present at Astor Pass. Previous studies identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of northwest-striking dextral and north-northwest-striking normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting significantly higher maximum temperatures. Additional data, including reprocessed 2D seismic data and petrologic analysis of well cuttings, were integrated with existing and reinterpreted geologic maps and cross-sections to aid construction of a 3D geologic model. This comprehensive 3D integration of multiple data sets allows characterization of the structural setting of the Astor Pass blind geothermal system at a level of detail beyond what independent data interpretation can provide. Our analysis indicates that the blind geothermal system is controlled by two north- to northwest-plunging fault intersections.

  10. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  11. Turkey's High Temperature Geothermal Energy Resources and Electricity Production Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgin, Ö.

    2012-04-01

    Turkey is in the first 7 countries in the world in terms of potential and applications. Geothermal energy which is an alternative energy resource has advantages such as low-cost, clean, safe and natural resource. Geothermal energy is defined as hot water and steam which is formed by heat that accumulated in various depths of the Earth's crust; with more than 20oC temperature and which contain more than fused minerals, various salts and gases than normal underground and ground water. It is divided into three groups as low, medium and high temperature. High-temperature fluid is used in electricity generation, low and medium temperature fluids are used in greenhouses, houses, airport runways, animal farms and places such as swimming pools heating. In this study high temperature geothermal fields in Turkey which is suitable for electricity production, properties and electricity production potential was investigated.

  12. 43 CFR 3210.16 - How must I prevent drainage of geothermal resources from my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I prevent drainage of geothermal... RESOURCE LEASING Additional Lease Information § 3210.16 How must I prevent drainage of geothermal resources from my lease? You must prevent the drainage of geothermal resources from your lease by...

  13. Geothermal resources in the northwestern border

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1982-10-01

    The Valley of Mexicali, located in one of the rifting zones of the world, has been assessed to contain a potential of between 850 and 1700 MW of electric capacity with present technology. Cerro Prieto, one of the areas in the valley, has a present operating capacity of 180 MW. Two more plants with a capacity of 220 MW each are being built for operation in 1983 and 1984 respectively. Aside from the electricity producing application of geothermal fluids, a process has been developed for the production of potassium chloride by evaporating the brine in a solar pond and further crystallizing the residues. Some processes are also being developed to use the hot water in hydroponics, aqua culture, etc. Collaboration with bordering bodies involved in geothermal energy has been very fruitful for the exchange of technical information. Agreements have been signed with San Diego Gas and Electric Company and Southern California Edison for the export of a total capacity of 275 MW.

  14. Geothermal brines and sludges: a new resource

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.; Lian, H.; Miltenberger, R.P.

    1996-10-01

    Development of cost efficient biochemical processes for the treatment of geothermal brines and sludges is the main thrust of a major R&D effort at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This effort has led to the design of an environmentally acceptable, technically and economically feasible new technology which converts geothermal wastes into products with significant commercial potential. These include valuable metals recovery with a metal extraction and recovery efficiency of better then 80% over short periods of time (5-25 hours). The new technology also yields valuable salts, such as potassium chloride and generates high quality pigment free silica. The basic technology is versatile and can, with slight modifications, be used in the treatment of hypersaline as well as low salinity brines and sludges. Concurrently traces of toxic metals, including radium are removed to levels which are within regulatory limits. The current status of the new biochemical technology will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Water Efficient Energy Production for Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    GTO

    2015-06-01

    Water consumption in geothermal energy development occurs at several stages along the life cycle of the plant, during construction of the wells, piping, and plant; during hydroshearing and testing of the reservoir (for EGS); and during operation of the plant. These stages are highlighted in the illustration above. For more information about actual water use during these stages, please see the back of this sheet..

  16. GEOTHERM Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeAngelo, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Geothermal Resource Potential at the UTTR

    SciTech Connect

    Richard P. Smith, PhD., PG; Robert P. Breckenridge, PhD.; Thomas R. Wood, PhD.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the current state of geologic knowledge concerning potential high-temperature geothermal development on the lands controlled by Hill Air Force Base (HAFB) at the Utah Testing and Training Range (UTTR) and the lands encompassed by the Dugway Proving Grounds (Dugway). This report is based on currently available published and publically available information. Most of the information presented here is purely geologic in nature. Therefore, the logistical issues (such as military exclusion areas, proximity to electrical infrastructure, and access) are additional considerations that are being addressed in a separate report that will be issued to HAFB by the SES corporation.

  18. Geothermal Energy: Resource and Utilization. A Teaching Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Van Thanh

    The search for new energy resources as alternatives to fossil fuels have generated new interest in the heat of the earth itself. New geothermal areas with a variety of characteristics are being explored, as are new ways of extracting work from naturally heated steam and hot water. Some of this effort is discussed in this three-part module. Five…

  19. Geology and geothermal potential of the tecuamburro volcano area, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Heiken, G.H.; Wohletz, K.H.; Maassen, L.W.; Dengo, G.; McKee, E.H.; Castaneda, O.

    1992-01-01

    Tecuamburro, an andesitic stratovolcano in southeastern Guatemala, is within the chain of active volcanoes of Central America. Though Tecuamburro has no record of historic eruptions, radiocarbon ages indicate that eruption of this and three other adjacent volcanoes occurred within the past 38,300 years. The youngest eruption produced a dacite dome. Moreover, powerful steam explosions formed a 250 m wide crater about 2900 years ago near the base of this dome. The phreatic crater contains a pH-3 thermal lake. Fumaroles are common along the lake shore, and several other fumaroles are located nearby. Neutral-chloride hot springs are at lower elevations a few kilometers away. All thermal manifestations are within an area of about 400 km2 roughly centered on Tecuamburro Volcano. Thermal implications of the volume, age, and composition of the post-38.3 ka volcanic rocks suggest that magma, or recently solidified hot plutons, or both are in the crust beneath these lavas. Chemical geothermometry carried out by other workers suggests that a hydrothermal-convection system is centered over this crustal heat source. Maximum temperatures of about 300??C are calculated for samples collected in the area of youngest volcanism, whereas samples from outlying thermal manifestations yield calculated temperatures <- 165??C. An 808 m deep drill hole completed in 1990 to partly test the geothermal model developed from surface studies attained a maximum temperature of almost 240??C. Thus, the possibility of a commercial-grade hydrothermal resource in the area seems high. ?? 1992.

  20. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  1. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  2. Expanded resource base - the key to future geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.; Beeland, Gene V.

    1994-01-20

    According to analyses by the Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), geothermal electric power capacity could nearly quadruple over the next 20 years, and there is a tremendous potential for growth in the direct uses of geothermal energy. However, for a high rate of development to occur in either of these applications, the identified resource base must be expanded. To this end, the Department is supporting R&D efforts to 1) share with industry the costs and risks of evaluating promising new resource prospects with power potential; 2) reduce the costs of exploration to enhance industry’s cost-competitive posture; and 3) assess the location and characteristics of low-temperature resources. This paper describes DOE’s new cost-shared industry-coupled exploratory drilling program to be initiated with a solicitation by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, field manager of DOE’s reservoir technology activities. Proposals will be requested for drilling either core holes or full-size wells on prospects from which some information had already been gathered, such as surface geophysics or shallow heat flow. The paper also discusses the status of the project designed to demonstrate whether a geothermal reservoir can be identified and adequately evaluated to meet investment requirements with slimholes rather than the much more costly production-size wells. Results to date of testing at the Far West 24 MWe plant site at Steam Boat Hills, Nevada, are reported, and plans for related technology development to make slimhole exploration accessible even to small developers are described. In addition, the paper describes the components of a Low-Temperature Assessment Program and its objectives and identifies the state resource assessment teams. It is concluded that the successful execution of each of these projects will help to ensure a secure future for geothermal energy in this country, thus enhancing the environment wherever geothermal energy

  3. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  4. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  5. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  6. 43 CFR 3275.13 - How must the facility operator measure the geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... geothermal resources? 3275.13 Section 3275.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL... geothermal resources? The facility operator must: (a) Measure all production, injection and utilization...

  7. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  8. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  9. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What will BLM do if I waste geothermal...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.20 What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?...

  10. Assessment of the geothermal resources of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Tien, Phan Cu; Schochert, D.; Quy, Hoang Huu

    1997-12-31

    More than 125 thermal springs, with temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C have been identified and catalogued by the General Department of Geology of Vietnam. Subsurface data are limited and fewer than 10 areas have been identified, on the basis of chemical geothermometers, as capable of supporting electric power production. Six sites in south-central Vietnam have recently been selected for exploration to determine their development potential for electrical power generation. Selected criteria included surface features, chemical geothermometers, proximity to regional faults trends, and regional requirements for electric power. Site visits were conducted to a total of eight areas in south central Vietnam where collateral economic developments suggest the need for a local, reliable source of electricity. Physical and visual information on geothermal springs and wells in Vietnam was compared to Nevada`s geothermal resources. Surface geothermal manifestations in Vietnam appear remarkably similar to those in Nevada. Outcrops adjacent to the geothermal areas indicate that Mesozoic-age granites are the most likely basement rocks. Quaternary basalts mapped throughout the study area may be responsible for the thermal anomaly. Initial exploration efforts will focus on three of the six sites, which together may be able to produce 40 to 60 MWe. A cooperative research program with selected Vietnamese governmental agencies includes geologic mapping, surface geophysical and geochemical surveys, and a graduated schedule of drilling programs, ranging in depth from 100 to 1,000 m. Results will be used to define a detailed, deep drilling and testing program at the three prime sites. Development of geothermal power in this region will boost local economic recovery and add stability to the national electric grid.

  11. Final Environmental Planning Technical Report. Geologic Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Assumed Mitigations 3-2 3.3 Level of Impact Definitions 3-3 3.3.1 Geologic Hazards 3-3 3.3.2 Energy and Mineral Resources - Aggregate Resources 3-4...potential level of impact (negligible, low, moderate, anid high) for both short-term and long-term impacts. Beneficial effects are also discussed...have not reached damaging levels during historical times and known faults are not associated with tectonic plate boundaries. Seismicity does not

  12. Assessment of geothermal resources at Newcastle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackett, Robert E.; Shubat, Michael A.; Chapman, David S.; Forster, Craig B.; Schlinger, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Integrated geology, geophysics, and geochemistry studies in the Newcastle area of southwest Utah are used to develop a conceptual geologic model of a blind, moderate-temperature hydrothermal system. Studies using 12 existing and 12 new, thermal gradient test holes, in addition to geologic mapping, gravity surveys, and other investigations have helped define the thermal regime. Preliminary results indicate that the up-flow region is located near the west-facing escarpment of an adjacent mountain range, probably related to the bounding range-front fault. Chemical geothermometers suggest equilibration temperatures ranging from 140??C to 170??C. The highest temperature recorded in the system is 130??C from an exploration well drilled by the Unocal Corporation.

  13. Final Scientific / Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Exploration Program, Truckhaven Area, Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Layman Energy Associates, Inc.

    2006-08-15

    With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Layman Energy Associates, Inc. (LEA) has completed a program of geothermal exploration at the Truckhaven area in Imperial County, California. The exploratory work conducted by LEA included the following activities: compilation of public domain resource data (wells, seismic data, geologic maps); detailed field geologic mapping at the project site; acquisition and interpretation of remote sensing imagery such as aerial and satellite photographs; acquisition, quality control and interpretation of gravity data; and acquisition, quality control and interpretation of resistivity data using state of the art magnetotelluric (MT) methods. The results of this exploratory program have allowed LEA to develop a structural and hydrologic interpretation of the Truckhaven geothermal resource which can be used to guide subsequent exploratory drilling and resource development. Of primary significance, is the identification of an 8 kilometer-long, WNW-trending zone of low resistivity associated with geothermal activity in nearby wells. The long axis of this low resistivity zone is inferred to mark a zone of faulting which likely provides the primary control on the distribution of geothermal resources in the Truckhaven area. Abundant cross-faults cutting the main WNW-trending zone in its western half may indicate elevated fracture permeability in this region, possibly associated with thermal upwelling and higher resource temperatures. Regional groundwater flow is inferred to push thermal fluids from west to east along the trend of the main low resistivity zone, with resource temperatures likely declining from west to east away from the inferred upwelling zone. Resistivity mapping and well data have also shown that within the WNW-trending low resistivity zone, the thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary section above granite basement ranges from 1,900–2,600 meters. Well data indicates the lower part of this

  14. Coupling Magnetotellurics and Hydrothermal Modeling to Further Understand Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folsom, M.; Pepin, J.; Kelley, S.; Person, M. A.; Blom, L.; Love, D.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of the groundwater flow patterns associated with geothermal resources is critical to sustainable resource management and to discovering blind geothermal systems. Magnetotellurics (MT), which provides subsurface electrical conductivity information to substantial depths, has the ability to image geothermal reservoir features, such as conductive clay caps and hot, saline groundwater circulating within geothermal systems. We have used MT data along with 2D hydrothermal modeling, constrained by temperature, salinity and carbon-14 data, to explore possible deep groundwater circulation scenarios near the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, in the Rio Grande Rift, central New Mexico. The area is underlain by a 100 to 150-m thick molten sill emplaced approximately 19 km below the surface. This sill is referred to locally as the Socorro Magma Body (SMB). Previous studies by Mailloux et al. (1999) and Pepin et al. (2015) suggest that the crystalline basement rocks in this region of the Rio Grande Rift can be significantly fractured to depths of 4-8 km and have permeabilities as high as 10-14 to 10-12 m2. The combination of high permeability conditions and the presence of the SMB makes this particular region a promising candidate for discovering a blind geothermal system at depth. We constructed a 2D hydrothermal model that traverses a 64-km zone of active uplift that is associated with the SMB. We also completed a 12-km long, 9-station MT transect across a portion of this profile, where land access was permitted and electromagnetic noise was minimal. Preliminary results suggest a deep convection-dominated system is a possibility, although further analysis of the MT data is necessary and ongoing. We hypothesize that using hydrothermal modeling in conjunction with MT surveys may prove to be an effective approach to discovering and managing deep regional hydrothermal resources.

  15. Ethiopian Geothermal Resources Inferred from Electromagnetic (AMT/MT, TEM) Data and Seismic Noise Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, N. J.; Whaler, K. A.; Johnson, N.; Baptie, B.; Lemma, Y.; Desissa, M.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Keir, D.; Fisseha, S.; Dawes, G.; Hautot, S.

    2012-12-01

    In Ethiopia, modern energy (hydroelectricity and foreign petroleum) is expensive and unpredictable, yet energy access is key to sustainable development. Active volcanoes and hot springs located in the slow-spreading rift zone of the Afar Depression suggest an abundant geothermal energy resource; however, before this energy can be utilized subsurface geophysical analysis is needed to study the geothermal system, its potential and identify drilling targets. The aim of this project is to use geophysical data (audio-magnetotelluric (AMT), magnetotelluric (MT), transient-electromagnetic (TEM) and passive seismic data), recently recorded in the Northern Tendaho Graben of Afar, Ethiopia, to constrain geothermal system parameters (i.e. geology, temperature, fluid properties, etc.). Recovery of these parameters enables the understanding of reservoir heat flow, geothermal energy potential, economic viability and development of an optimal drilling strategy. The AMT/MT data were recorded at 28 sites along two parallel profiles oriented perpendicular to regional geologic strike. Two-dimensional joint inversion of the TE and TM modes from all sites identifies two very strong conducting layers (~1 Ohm-m), at <500 m and 5-10 km, separated by a more resistive layer (~50 Ohm-m). This model is strongly correlated with borehole information. The deeper high conductivity anomaly shallows toward the center of the profile, at the location of highest recorded fluid temperature from early drilling operations. MT impedance tensor decomposition, phase tensor analysis and induction vector calculations, as well as forward modelling of the inversion results are mutually consistent. Two-dimensional surface wave tomography results from seismic noise interferometry add another layer of geophysical information to this interdisciplinary study, complementing the AMT/MT survey. This project was funded by the US-UK Fulbright Commission and the University of Edinburgh, and benefited from strong

  16. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Lara; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system.

  17. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Lara De; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system

  18. Mineral and geothermal resource potential of Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake roadless areas Plumas, Shasta, and Tehama Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Clynne, M.A.; Cook, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of geological, geochemical, and geophysical surveys in Wild Cattle Mountain and Heart Lake Roadless Areas indicate no potential for metallic or non-metallic mineral resources in the areas and no potential for coal or petroleum energy resources. However, Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and part of Heart Lake Roadless Area lie in Lassen Known Geothermal Resources Area, and much of the rest of Heart Lake Roadless Area is subject to non-competitive geothermal lease applications. Both areas are adjacent to Lassen Volcanic National Park, which contains extensive areas of fumaroles, hot springs, and hydrothermally altered rock; voluminous silicic volcanism occurred here during late Pleistocene and Holocene time. Geochemical data and geological interpretation indicate that the thermal manifestations in the Park and at Morgan and Growler Hot Springs (immediately west of Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area) are part of the same large geothermal system. Consequently, substantial geothermal resources are likely to be discovered in Wild Cattle Mountain Roadless Area and cannot be ruled out for Heart Lake Roadless Area.

  19. National forecast for geothermal resource exploration and development with techniques for policy analysis and resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Shimamoto, G.T.; Amundsen, C.B.; Blair, P.D.; Finan, W.F.; Smith, M.R.; Edeistein, R.H.

    1982-03-31

    The backgrund, structure and use of modern forecasting methods for estimating the future development of geothermal energy in the United States are documented. The forecasting instrument may be divided into two sequential submodels. The first predicts the timing and quality of future geothermal resource discoveries from an underlying resource base. This resource base represents an expansion of the widely-publicized USGS Circular 790. The second submodel forecasts the rate and extent of utilization of geothermal resource discoveries. It is based on the joint investment behavior of resource developers and potential users as statistically determined from extensive industry interviews. It is concluded that geothermal resource development, especially for electric power development, will play an increasingly significant role in meeting US energy demands over the next 2 decades. Depending on the extent of R and D achievements in related areas of geosciences and technology, expected geothermal power development will reach between 7700 and 17300 Mwe by the year 2000. This represents between 8 and 18% of the expected electric energy demand (GWh) in western and northwestern states.

  20. A brief description of geological and geophysical exploration of the Marysville geothermal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Brott, C. A.; Goforth, T. T.; Holdaway, M. J.; Morgan, P.; Petefish, D.; Rape, T.; Steele, J. L.; Spafford, R. E.; Waibel, A. F.

    1974-01-01

    Extensive geological and geophysical surveys were carried out at the Marysville geothermal area during 1973 and 1974. The area has high heat flow (up to microcalories per square centimeter-second, a negative gravity anomaly, high electrical resistivity, low seismic ground noise, and nearby microseismic activity. Significant magnetic and infrared anomalies are not associated with the geothermal area. The geothermal anomaly occupies the axial portion of a dome in Precambrian sedimentary rocks intruded by Cretaceous and Cenozoic granitic rocks. The results from a 2.4-km-deep test well indicate that the cause of the geothermal anomaly is hydrothermal convection in a Cenozoic intrusive. A maximum temperature of 95 C was measured at a depth of 500 m in the test well.

  1. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal... electricity, then the royalty on the geothermal resources is the gross proceeds accruing to you from the...

  2. Analysis of Geologic Parameters on the Performance of CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) Systems in a Multi-Layered Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garapati, N.; Randolph, J.; Saar, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    CO2-Plume Geothermal (CPG) involves injection of CO2 as a working fluid to extract heat from naturally high permeable sedimentary basins. The injected CO2 forms a large subsurface CO2 plume that absorbs heat from the geothermal reservoir and eventually buoyantly rises to the surface. The heat density of sedimentary basins is typically relatively low.However, this drawback is likely counteracted by the large accessible volume of natural reservoirs compared to artificial, hydrofractured, and thus small-scale, reservoirs. Furthermore, supercritical CO2has a large mobility (inverse kinematic viscosity) and expansibility compared to water resulting in the formation of a strong thermosiphon which eliminates the need for parasitic pumping power requirements and significantly increasing electricity production efficiency. Simultaneously, the life span of the geothermal power plant can be increased by operating the CPG system such that it depletes the geothermal reservoir heat slowly. Because the produced CO2 is reinjected into the ground with the main CO2 sequestration stream coming from a CO2 emitter, all of the CO2 is ultimately geologically sequestered resulting in a CO2 sequestering geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Conventional geothermal process requires pumping of huge amount of water for the propagation of the fractures in the reservoir, but CPG process eliminates this requirement and conserves water resources. Here, we present results for performance of a CPG system as a function of various geologic properties of multilayered systemsincludingpermeability anisotropy, rock thermal conductivity, geothermal gradient, reservoir depth and initial native brine salinity as well as spacing between the injection and production wells. The model consists of a 50 m thick, radially symmetric grid with a semi-analytic heat exchange and no fluid flow at the top and bottom boundaries and no fluid and heat flow at the lateral boundaries. We design Plackett

  3. Low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada: area specific studies, Pumpernickel Valley, Carlin and Moana. Final report June 1, 1981-July 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bell, E.J.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical and geochemical surveys were used in conjunction with temperature gradient hole drilling to assess the geothermal resources in Pumpernickel Valley and Carlin, Nevada. This program is based on a statewide assessment of geothermal resources that was completed in 1979. The exploration techniques are based on previous federally-funded assessment programs that were completed in six other areas in Nevada and include: literature search and compilation of existing data, geologic reconnaissance, chemical sampling of thermal and non-thermal fluids, interpretation of satellite imagery, interpretation of low-sun angle aerial photographs, two-meter depth temperature probe survey, gravity survey, seismic survey, soil-mercury survey, and temperature gradient drilling.

  4. Geothermal resources and energy complex use in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svalova, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geothermal energy use is the perspective way to clean sustainable development of the world. Russia has rich high and low temperature geothermal resources and makes good steps in their use. In Russia the geothermal resources are used predominantly for heat supply both heating of several cities and settlements on Northern Caucasus and Kamchatka with a total number of the population 500000. Besides in some regions of country the deep heat is used for greenhouses of common area 465000 m2. Most active the hydrothermal resources are used in Krasnodar territory, Dagestan and on Kamchatka. The approximately half of extracted resources is applied for heat supply of habitation and industrial puttings, third - to a heating of greenhouses, and about 13 % - for industrial processes. Besides the thermal waters are used approximately on 150 health resorts and 40 factories on bottling mineral water. The most perspective direction of usage of low temperature geothermal resources is the use of heat pumps. This way is optimal for many regions of Russia - in its European part, on Ural and others. The electricity is generated by some geothermal power plants (GeoPP) only in the Kamchatka Peninsula and Kuril Islands. At present three stations work in Kamchatka: Pauzhetka GeoPP (11MW e installed capacity) and two Severo-Mutnovka GeoPP ( 12 and 50 MWe). Moreover, another GeoPP of 100 MVe is now under preparation in the same place. Two small GeoPP are in operation in Kuril's Kunashir Isl, and Iturup Isl, with installed capacity of 2,б MWe and 6 MWe respectively. There are two possible uses of geothermal resources depending on structure and properties of thermal waters: heat/power and mineral extraction. The heat/power direction is preferable for low mineralized waters when valuable components in industrial concentration are absent, and the general mineralization does not interfere with normal operation of system. When high potential geothermal waters are characterized by the high

  5. Geological and geothermal 3D modelling of the Vienna Basin, Austria - pilot area of the project TRANSENERGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyer, S.; Bottig, M.; Zekiri, F.; Fuchsluger, M.; Götzl, G.; Schubert, G.; Brüstle, A.

    2012-04-01

    of Austria) and a Dirichlet BC at the topography with an altitude corrected surface temperature. The scenario modelling is carried out using FEFLOW for assessment of geothermal resource quantification in respect to natural recharge phenomena. Building the geological model and simulating different study areas with varying properties for temperature, flow rates etc. will help to understand the basińs dynamics and the comprising geothermal potential.

  6. 43 CFR 3210.16 - How must I prevent drainage of geothermal resources from my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I prevent drainage of geothermal... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Additional Lease Information § 3210.16 How must I prevent drainage of geothermal...

  7. 43 CFR 3210.16 - How must I prevent drainage of geothermal resources from my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How must I prevent drainage of geothermal... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Additional Lease Information § 3210.16 How must I prevent drainage of geothermal...

  8. 43 CFR 3210.16 - How must I prevent drainage of geothermal resources from my lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must I prevent drainage of geothermal... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Additional Lease Information § 3210.16 How must I prevent drainage of geothermal...

  9. Geological, isothermal, and isobaric 3-D model construction in early stage of geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, M. P.; Suryantini; Catigtig, D.; Regandara, R.; Asnin, S. N.; Pratama, A. B.

    2016-09-01

    Construction of geology, thermal anomaly and pressure distribution of a geothermal system in the early stage of exploration where data is limited is described using a 3-D software, Leapfrog Geothermal. The geological 3-D model was developed from a topographic map (derived from DEM data), geological map and literature studies reported in an early geological survey. The isothermal 3-D model was constructed using reservoir temperature estimation from geothermometry calculated from chemical analyses on surface manifestations, available shallow gradient temperature hole data and the normal gradient temperature (3°C/100m) for a nonthermal area. The isobaric 3-D model was built using hydrostatic pressure where the hydrostatic pressure is determined by the product of the fluid density, acceleration due to gravity, and depth. Fluid density is given by saturated liquid density as a function of temperature. There are some constraints on the modelling result such as (1) within the predicted reservoir, the geothermal gradient is not constant but continues to increase, thus, creating an anomalously high temperature at depth, and (2) the lithology model is made by interpolating and extrapolating cross-sections whereas usually only two to three geology sections were available for this study. Hence, the modeller must understand the geology. An additional cross section was developed by the modeller which may not be as suitable as the geologist constructed sections. The results of this study can be combined with geophysical data such as gravity, geomagnetic, micro-tremor and resistivity data. The combination of geological, geochemical, isothermal, isobaric and geophysical data could be used in (1) estimating the geometry and size of the geothermal reservoir, (2) predicting the depth of top reservoir, and (3) creating well prognosis for exploration and production wells.

  10. Geologic Map and GIS Data for the Tuscarora Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Tuscarora—ESRI Geodatabase (ArcGeology v1.3): - Contains all the geologic map data, including faults, contacts, folds, unit polygons, and attitudes of strata and faults. - List of stratigraphic units and stratigraphic correlation diagram. - Detailed unit descriptions of stratigraphic units. - Five cross‐sections. - Locations of production, injection, and monitor wells. - 3D model constructed with EarthVision using geologic map data, cross‐sections, drill‐hole data, and geophysics (model not in the ESRI geodatabase).

  11. Geologic and Mineral Resource Map of Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doebrich, Jeff L.; Wahl, Ronald R.; With Contributions by Ludington, Stephen D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Orris, Greta J.; Bliss, James D.; Wasy, Abdul; Younusi, Mohammad O.

    2006-01-01

    Data Summary The geologic and mineral resource information shown on this map is derived from digitization of the original data from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977) and Abdullah and others (1977). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults as presented in Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977); however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. Labeling of map units has not been attempted where they are small or narrow, in order to maintain legibility and to preserve the map's utility in illustrating regional geologic and structural relations. Users are encouraged to refer to the series of USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) 1:250,000-scale geologic quadrangle maps of Afghanistan that are being released concurrently as open-file reports. The classification of mineral deposit types is based on the authors' interpretation of existing descriptive information (Abdullah and others, 1977; Bowersox and Chamberlin, 1995; Orris and Bliss, 2002) and on limited field investigations by the authors. Deposit-type nomenclature used for nonfuel minerals is modified from published USGS deposit-model classifications, as compiled in Stoeser and Heran (2000). New petroleum localities are based on research of archival data by the authors. The shaded-relief base is derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) data having 85-meter resolution. Gaps in the original SRTM DEM dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). The marginal extent of geologic units corresponds to the position of the international boundary as defined by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977), and the international boundary as shown on this map was acquired from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af) in

  12. Geology of the Colado Geothermal Area, Pershing County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Bullett, M.J.

    1980-07-01

    The Colado geothermal area in south-central Pershing County, Nevada is defined by hot water wells in alluvium just west of the West Humboldt Range. Geothermal gradient holes have encountered temperatures up to 113.5/sup 0/C at a depth of 76 m (250 ft) with a gradient reversal in the alluvium below this depth. The West Humboldt Range consists mainly of Triassic to Jurassic slaty shale to quartzite of the Auld Lang Syne Group. Carbonate rocks of the Jurassic Lovelock Formation have been thrust over pelitic rocks on the south end of the area. Erosional remnants of Tertiary tuffs and sediments overlay the metasediments in the West Humboldt Range. The principal structures are high-angle faults striking north-northwest, northeast and north-south. The horst-to-graben transition along the range front consists of several step faults trending irregularly north. The structural pattern in the west edge of the range probably continues to the west under the Quaterary alluvium where the source of the hot water is located. Thermal waters probably rise along a major fault intersection in the Mesozoic rocks then spread out in an aquifer in the alluvium. Several thrust faults are exposed south of Coal Canyon, and a structural break in the Mesozoic rock exists under the canyon. Several low-angle faults are present north of Coal Canyon but their effect, if any, on the geothermal occurrence is not known.

  13. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  14. Geothermal Water Use: Life Cycle Water Consumption, Water Resource Assessment, and Water Policy Framework

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-06-10

    This report examines life cycle water consumption for various geothermal technologies to better understand factors that affect water consumption across the life cycle (e.g., power plant cooling, belowground fluid losses) and to assess the potential water challenges that future geothermal power generation projects may face. Previous reports in this series quantified the life cycle freshwater requirements of geothermal power-generating systems, explored operational and environmental concerns related to the geochemical composition of geothermal fluids, and assessed future water demand by geothermal power plants according to growth projections for the industry. This report seeks to extend those analyses by including EGS flash, both as part of the life cycle analysis and water resource assessment. A regional water resource assessment based upon the life cycle results is also presented. Finally, the legal framework of water with respect to geothermal resources in the states with active geothermal development is also analyzed.

  15. Constraints to leasing and development of federal resources: OCS oil and gas and geothermal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Chapter I identifies possible technological, economic, and environmental constraints to geothermal resource development. Chapter II discusses constraints relative to outer continental shelf and geothermal resources. General leasing information for each resource is detailed. Chapter III summarizes the major studies relating to development constraints. 37 refs. (PSB)

  16. Geologic Map and GIS Data for the Wabuska Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hinz, Nick

    2013-09-30

    Wabuska—ESRI geodatabase (ArcGeology v1.3): - Contains all the geologic map data, including faults, contacts, folds, veins, dikes, unit polygons, and attitudes of strata. - List of stratigraphic units and stratigraphic correlation diagram. - One cross‐section.

  17. Update to Enhanced Geothermal System Resource Potential Estimate: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, Chad

    2016-10-01

    The deep EGS electricity generation resource potential estimate maintained by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was updated using the most recent temperature-at-depth maps available from the Southern Methodist University Geothermal Laboratory. The previous study dates back to 2011 and was developed using the original temperature-at-depth maps showcased in the 2006 MIT Future of Geothermal Energy report. The methodology used to update the deep EGS resource potential is the same as in the previous study and is summarized in the paper. The updated deep EGS resource potential estimate was calculated for depths between 3 and 7 km and is binned in 25 degrees C increments. The updated deep EGS electricity generation resource potential estimate is 4,349 GWe. A comparison of the estimates from the previous and updated studies shows a net increase of 117 GWe in the 3-7 km depth range, due mainly to increases in the underlying temperature-at-depth estimates from the updated maps.

  18. Auxiliary Heating of Geothermally Preheated Water or CO2 - A Potential Solution for Low- to Moderate-Temperature Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, X.; Garapati, N.; Adams, B. M.; Randolph, J.; Kuehn, T. H.; Saar, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we compare over a range of parameters the net power and efficiencies of hybrid geothermal power plants that use brine or CO2 as the subsurface working fluid, that are then heated further with a secondary energy source that is unspecified here. Parameters varied include the subsurface working fluid (brine vs. CO2), geothermal reservoir depth (2.5-4.5 km), and turbine inlet temperature (200-600°C) after auxiliary heating. The hybrid power plant is numerically modeled using an iterative coupling approach of TOUGH2-ECO2N/ECO2H (Pruess, 2004) for simulation of the subsurface reservoir and Engineering Equation Solver for well bore fluid flow and surface power plant performance. We find that hybrid power plants that are CO2-based (subsurface) systems have higher thermal efficiencies than the brine based systems at low turbine inlet temperatures. Specifically, our results indicate that geothermal hybrid plants that are CO2-based are more efficient than brine-based systems when the contribution of the geothermal resource energy is higher than 48%.

  19. Geothermal resources of the northern gulf of Mexico basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Published geothermal gradient maps for the northern Gulf of Mexico basin indicate little or no potential for the development of geothermal resources. Results of deep drilling, from 4000 to 7000 meters or more, during the past decade however, define very sharp increases in geothermal gradient which are associated with the occurrence of abnormally high interstitial fluid pressure (geopressure). Bounded by regional growth faults along the landward margin of the Gulf Basin, the geopressured zone extends some 1300 km from the Rio Grande (at the boundary between the United States and Mexico) to the mouth of the Mississippi river. Gulfward, it extends to an unknown distance across the Continental Shelf. Within geopressured deposits, geothermal gradients range upwards to 100 ??C/km, being greatest within and immediately below the depth interval in which the maximum pressure gradient change occurs. The 120 ??C isogeotherm ranges from about 2500 to 5000 m below sea level, and conforms in a general way with depth of occurrence of the top of the geopressured zone. Measured geostatic ratios range upward to 0.97; the maximum observed temperature is 273 ??C, at a depth of 5859 m. Dehydration of montmorillonite, which comprises 60 to 80 percent of clay deposited in the northern Gulf Basin during the Neogene, occurs at depths where temperature exceeds about 80 ??C, and is generally complete at depths where temperature exceeds 120 ??C. This process converts intracrystalline and bound water to free pore water, the volume produced being roughly equivalent to half the volume of montmorillonite so altered. Produced water is fresh, and has low viscosity and density. Sand-bed aquifers of deltaic, longshore, or marine origin form excellent avenues for drainage of geopressured deposits by wells, each of which may yield 10,000 m3 or more of superheated water per day from reservoirs having pressures up to 1000 bars at depths greater than 5000 m. ?? 1971.

  20. The Tiwi geothermal reservoir: Geology, geochemistry, and response to production

    SciTech Connect

    Hoagland, J.R.; Bodell, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The Tiwi geothermal field is located on the Bicol Peninsula of Southern Luzon in the Philippines. The field is associated with the extinct Quaternary stratovolcano Mt. Malinao, one of a chain of volcanos formed as a result of crustal subduction along the Philippine Trench to the east. The geothermal reservoir is contained within a sequence of interlayered andesite flows and pyroclastic deposits that unconformably overlie a basement complex of marine sediments, metamorphic, and intrusive rocks. In its initial state, the Tiwi reservoir was an overpressured liquid-filled system containing near-neutral sodium chloride water at temperatures exceeding 260{degree}C. The reservoir is partially sealed at its top and sides by hydrothermal argillic alteration products and calcite deposition. Isolated portions of the reservoir contain a corrosive acid chloride-sulfate water associated with a distinctive advanced argillic mineral assemblage. Withdrawal of fluid for electricity generation has caused widespread boiling in the reservoir and the formation of steam zones. The resultant solids deposition in wellbores and near-wellbore formation has been mitigated by a combination of mechanical and chemical well stimulation. Mass withdrawal from the reservoir has also caused invasion of cold groundwater into the reservoir through former fluid outflow channels. During 1983-1987, several wells were flooded with cold water and ceased flowing. In response, PGI moved development drilling west to largely unaffected areas and undertook recompletion and stimulation programs. These programs effectively halted the decline in generation by 1988.

  1. Geology and petroleum resources of northwestern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A.; Klemme, H.D.

    1986-05-01

    The main onshore basins of northwestern Africa are (1) basins in the Atlas folded geosynclinal belt adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, (2) the Tindouf, Bechar, and Reggane basins of western Algeria and southern Morocco, and (3) the Taoudeni basin of Mauritania and Mali. Coastal basins are (1) the Essaouria basin of southwestern Morocco, (2) the Tarfaya basin of Western Sahara, (3) the Senegal basin of Senegal and western Mauritania, (4) the Sierra Leone-Liberia basin, and (5) the Ivory Coast basin. The petroleum geology and resource potential of these basins is detailed.

  2. Mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lattman, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    The use of ERTS-1 imagery for mineral resources, geologic structure, and landform surveys is discussed. Four categories of ERTS imagery application are defined and explained. The types of information obtained by the various multispectral band scanners are analyzed. Samples of land use maps and tectoning and metallogenic models are developed. It is stated that the most striking features visible on ERTS imagery are regional lineaments, or linear patterns in the topography, which reflect major fracture zones extending upward from the basement of the earth.

  3. Geothermal resource assessment of the New England states

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    With the exception of Sand Springs in Williamstown, Massachusetts, there are no identifiable hydrothermal geothermal resources in the New England region. The radioactive plutons of the White Mountains of New Hampshire do not, apparently, contain sufficient stored heat to make them a feasible target for an induced hydrothermal system such as exists at Fenton Hill near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The only potential source of low grade heat is the large volume of ground water contained within the unconsolidated sediments related to the Pleistocene glaciation of the region. During the course of the survey an unusual and unexplained thermal anomaly was discovered in St. Johnsbury, Vermont, which is described.

  4. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume I.

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    The objective was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, and legal and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of sites to allow the making of creditable forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. A total of 1265 potential geothermal resource sites were identified from existing literature. Site selection was based upon the presence of thermal and mineral springs or wells and/or areas of recent volcanic activity and high heat flow. 250 sites were selected for detailed analysis. A methodology to rank the sites by energy potential, degree of developability, and cost of energy was developed. Resource developability was ranked by a method based on a weighted variable evaluation of resource favorability. Sites were ranked using an integration of values determined through the cost and developability analysis. 75 figs., 63 tabs.

  5. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  6. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented.

  7. Three-Dimensional Geologic Characterization of a Great Basin Geothermal System: Astor Pass, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Mayhew, Brett; Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E

    2013-09-30

    The Great Basin, western USA, exhibits anomalously high heat flow (~75±5 mWm-2) and active faulting and extension, resulting in ~430 known geothermal systems. Recent studies have shown that steeply dipping normal faults in transtensional pull-aparts are a common structural control of these Great Basin geothermal systems. The Astor Pass blind (no surface expression) geothermal system, Nevada, lies along the boundary between the Basin and Range to the east and the Walker Lane to the west. Across this boundary, strain is transferred from dextral shear in the Walker Lane to west-northwest directed extension in the Basin and Range, resulting in a transtensional setting consisting of both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults and northerly striking normal faults. Previous studies indicate that Astor Pass was controlled by the intersection of a northwest-striking dextral normal fault and north-northwest striking normal-dextral fault bounding the western side of the Terraced Hills. Drilling (to ~1200 m) has revealed fluid temperatures of ~94°C, confirming a blind geothermal system. Expanding upon previous work and employing interpretation of 2D seismic reflection data, additional detailed geologic mapping, and well cuttings analysis, a 3-dimensional geologic model of the Astor Pass geothermal system was constructed. The 3D model indicates a complex interaction/intersection area of three discrete fault zones: a northwest-striking dextral-normal fault, a north-northwest-striking normal-dextral fault, and a north-striking west-dipping normal fault. These two discrete, critically-stressed intersection areas plunge moderately to steeply to the NW-NNW and probably act as conduits for upwelling geothermal fluids.

  8. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California. Part of the third year report, 1980-81, of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for Reservoir Assessment and Confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bezore, S.P.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.

    1981-08-01

    Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs; South San Bernardino; and Harlem Hot Springs - in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the south San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142/sup 0/C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the south San Bernardino geothermal area was 56/sup 0/C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area was 49.5/sup 0/C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well. The geophysical and geological surveys delineated fault traces in association with all three of the designated geothermal areas.

  9. Reconnaissance of geothermal resources of Los Angeles County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal waters produced from large oil fields are currently the most important geothermal resources in Los Angeles County. Otherwise, the County does not appear to have any large, near-surface geothermal resources. The oil fields produce thermal water because of both the moderate depths of production and normal to above-normal geothermal gradients. Gradients are about 3.0-3.5/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Ventura Basin and range from that up to about 5.5-6.0/sup 0/C/100 meters in the Los Angeles Basin. The hottest fields in the County are west of the Newport-Inglewood Structural Zone. The Los Angeles Basin has substantially more potential for uses of heat from oil fields than does the Ventura Basin because of its large fields and dense urban development. Produced fluid temperatures there range from ambient air to boiling, but most are in the 100-150/sup 0/F range. Daily water production ranges from only a few barrels at some fields to over a million barrels at Wilmington Oil Field; nearly all fields produce less than 50,000 barrels/day. Water salinity generally ranges from about 15,000-35,000 mg/liter NaCl. Fields with the most promise as sources of heat for outside applications are Wilmington, Torrance, Venice Beach, and Lawndale. The centralized treatment facilities are the most favorable sites for extraction of heat within the oil fields. Because of the poor water quality heat exchangers will likely be required rather than direct circulation of the field water to users. The best sites for applications are commercial-industrial areas and possibly institutional structures occupied by large numbers of people.

  10. Geology of the Beowawe geothermal system, Eureka and Lander Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Struhsacker, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    A geologic study is described undertaken to evaluate the nature of structural and stratigraphic controls within the Beowawe geothermal system, Eureka and Lander Counties, Nevada. This study includes geologic mapping at a scale of 1:24,000 and lithologic logs of deep Chevron wells. Two major normal fault systems control the configuration of the Beowawe geothermal system. Active hot springs and sinter deposits lie along the Malpais Fault zone at the base of the Malpais Rim. The Malpais Rim is one of several east-northeast-striking, fault-bounded cuestas in north central Nevada. A steeply inclined scarp slope faces northwest towards Whirlwind Valley. The general inclination of the volcanic rocks on the Malpais dip slope is 5/sup 0/ to 10/sup 0/ southeast.

  11. An Estimate of Shallow, Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mullane, Michelle; Gleason, Michael; McCabe, Kevin; Mooney, Meghan; Reber, Timothy; Young, Katherine R.

    2016-10-01

    Low-temperature geothermal resources in the United States potentially hold an enormous quantity of thermal energy, useful for direct use in residential, commercial and industrial applications such as space and water heating, greenhouse warming, pool heating, aquaculture, and low-temperature manufacturing processes. Several studies published over the past 40 years have provided assessments of the resource potential for multiple types of low-temperature geothermal systems (e.g. hydrothermal convection, hydrothermal conduction, and enhanced geothermal systems) with varying temperature ranges and depths. This paper provides a summary and additional analysis of these assessments of shallow (= 3 km), low-temperature (30-150 degrees C) geothermal resources in the United States, suitable for use in direct-use applications. This analysis considers six types of geothermal systems, spanning both hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). We outline the primary data sources and quantitative parameters used to describe resources in each of these categories, and present summary statistics of the total resources available. In sum, we find that low-temperature hydrothermal resources and EGS resources contain approximately 8 million and 800 million TWh of heat-in-place, respectively. In future work, these resource potential estimates will be used for modeling of the technical and market potential for direct-use geothermal applications for the U.S. Department of Energy's Geothermal Vision Study.

  12. Long-term predictions of minewater geothermal systems heat resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harcout-Menou, Virginie; de ridder, fjo; laenen, ben; ferket, helga

    2014-05-01

    Abandoned underground mines usually flood due to the natural rise of the water table. In most cases the process is relatively slow giving the mine water time to equilibrate thermally with the the surrounding rock massif. Typical mine water temperature is too low to be used for direct heating, but is well suited to be combined with heat pumps. For example, heat extracted from the mine can be used during winter for space heating, while the process could be reversed during summer to provide space cooling. Altough not yet widely spread, the use of low temperature geothermal energy from abandoned mines has already been implemented in the Netherlands, Spain, USA, Germany and the UK. Reliable reservoir modelling is crucial to predict how geothermal minewater systems will react to predefined exploitation schemes and to define the energy potential and development strategy of a large-scale geothermal - cold/heat storage mine water systems. However, most numerical reservoir modelling software are developed for typical environments, such as porous media (a.o. many codes developed for petroleum reservoirs or groundwater formations) and cannot be applied to mine systems. Indeed, mines are atypical environments that encompass different types of flow, namely porous media flow, fracture flow and open pipe flow usually described with different modelling codes. Ideally, 3D models accounting for the subsurface geometry, geology, hydrogeology, thermal aspects and flooding history of the mine as well as long-term effects of heat extraction should be used. A new modelling approach is proposed here to predict the long-term behaviour of Minewater geothermal systems in a reactive and reliable manner. The simulation method integrates concepts for heat and mass transport through various media (e.g., back-filled areas, fractured rock, fault zones). As a base, the standard software EPANET2 (Rossman 1999; 2000) was used. Additional equations for describing heat flow through the mine (both

  13. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Evaluation of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell Area, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Widness, Scott

    1983-11-01

    The study area is located in portions of Adams, Grant, Lincoln, and Franklin counties of eastern Washington. The area is representative of a complex stratigraphic and geohydrologic system within the basalt flows of the Columbia River Basalt Group. The regional piezometric surface and stratigraphic units dip towards the southwest. Fluid temperature data were collected by three different agencies. The Geological Engineering Section (WSU) at Washington State University, runs a continuous fluid temperature (FT) log as part of a complete suite of geophysical logs. The US Geological Survey (USGS) runs a continuous fluid FT log in conjunction with caliper and natural-gamma logs. Southern Methodist University (SMU) and the Washington State Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Earth Resources (DNR), have cooperated in gathering FT data. The DNR-SMU data were collected by taking temperature measurements at 5 m intervals. Bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) and bottom-hole depths (BHD) of selected wells in the study area are given in table 2. Some of the BHT data in table 2 may vary from those previously reported by WSU. These discrepancies are the result of changes in the calibration method of the FT tool. A technique developed by Giggane (1982) was used to determine the geothermal gradients within the area. A least squares linear regression analysis of the relationship between the BHT and BHD was used to determine the geothermal gradient of a given well data group (WDG). Well data groups were selected on the premises of geographic proximity, position within the regional groundwater flow system, land slope azimuth, and land slope dip. Some data points have been excluded from the linear regression analysis on the basis of factors such as duplicate logging of the same hole, down-hole flow, holes not logged to total depth, and questionable FT tool responses.

  14. Geologic Map and Cross Sections of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    Geologic map data in shapefile format that includes faults, unit contacts, unit polygons, attitudes of strata and faults, and surficial geothermal features. 5 cross‐sections in Adobe Illustrator format. Comprehensive catalogue of drill‐hole data in spreadsheet, shapefile, and Geosoft database formats. Includes XYZ locations of well heads, year drilled, type of well, operator, total depths, well path data (deviations), lithology logs, and temperature data. 3D model constructed with EarthVision using geologic map data, cross‐sections, drill‐hole data, and geophysics.

  15. Cooperative efforts by industry and government to develop geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The Federal government's current plans for participation in the geothermal field appear to affect four major areas of interest: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) resources utilization projects, (3) advanced research and technology, and (4) environmental, legal, and institutional research. Private industry is also actively involved in these same areas of interest. Because of lack of coordination and communication between the private and public sector, it appears that there will be considerable duplication of effort, and, in some cases, serious conflict. It is also likely that this lack of coordination and communication may result in lack of effort in some key areas. Close coordination and communication between government and industry may resolve some of the major problems that are clearly evident.

  16. Estimate of Geothermal Energy Resource in Major U.S. Sedimentary Basins (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Porro, C.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    This study estimates the magnitude of geothermal energy from fifteen major known US sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties are known. This reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin as well as a relative assessment of geologic risk elements for each play. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by Muffler (USGS). Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient Information were gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data was insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission websites. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size and temperature distribution, and to qualitatively assess reservoir productivity.

  17. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  18. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  19. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  20. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  1. 43 CFR 3275.18 - May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... associated with geothermal resource production? 3275.18 Section 3275.18 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Conducting Utilization Operations § 3275.18 May BLM require me to test for byproducts associated with geothermal resource production? You must conduct any tests...

  2. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  3. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  4. 43 CFR 3211.19 - What is the royalty rate on byproducts derived from geothermal resources produced from or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... derived from geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? 3211.19 Section 3211.19..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease? (a) For leases issued on or after August...

  5. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  6. Combined geophysical, geochemical and geological investigations of geothermal reservoir characteristics in Lower Saxony, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahne, B.; Thomas, R.

    2012-04-01

    The North German basin provides a significant geothermal potential, although temperature gradients are moderate. However, deep drilling up to several thousand meters is required to reach temperatures high enough for efficient generation of geothermal heat and electric power. In these depths we have not much information yet about relevant physical properties like porosity or permeability of the rock formations. Therefore the costs of developing a geothermal reservoir and the risk of missing the optimum drilling location are high. The collaborative research association "Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling" (gebo) unites several universities and research institutes in Lower Saxony, Germany. It aims at a significant increase of economic efficiency by introducing innovative technology and high tech materials resisting temperatures up to 200 °C in the drilling process. Furthermore, a better understanding of the geothermal reservoir is essential. gebo is structured into four main fields: Drilling Technology, Materials, Technical Systems and Geosystem. Here, we show the combined work of the Geosystem group, which focuses on the exploration of geological fault zones as a potential geothermal reservoir as well as on modeling the stress field, heat transport, coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes, geochemical interactions and prediction of the long-term behavior of the reservoir. First results include combined seismic and geoelectric images of the Leinetalgraben fault system, a comparison of seismic images from P- and S-wave measurements, mechanical properties of North German rocks from field and laboratory measurements as well as from drill cores, seismological characterization of stimulated reservoirs, a thermodynamic "gebo" database for modeling hydrogeochemical processes in North German formation waters with high salinity and at high temperatures, stress models for specific sites in northern Germany, and modeling results of permeability and heat transport

  7. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a DOE-funded distributed network of databases and data sites. Much of the risk of geothermal energy development is associated with exploring for, confirming and characterizing the available geothermal resources. The overriding purpose of the NGDS is to help mitigate this up-front risk by serving as a central gateway for geothermal and relevant related data as well as a link to distributed data sources. Assessing and categorizing the nation's geothermal resources and consolidating all geothermal data through a publicly accessible data system will support research, stimulate public interest, promote market acceptance and investment, and, in turn, the growth of the geothermal industry. Major participants in the NGDS to date include universities, laboratories, the Arizona Geological Survey and Association of American State Geologists (Arizona Geological Survey, lead), the Geothermal Resources Council, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Geothermal Energy Association is collaborating with the NGDS to insure that it meets the needs of the geothermal industry.

  8. Geological Character and Mineral Resources of South Central Lake Erie.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    AD-A123 085 GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERAND MINERAL RESOURCES OF SOUTH 1/ CENTRAL LAKE ERIE(U) COASTAL ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENT ER FORT E LVOIR VA S d...CHART NATMOAL BUREAU Of STANDARDS-1963-A 1.1 lilt. AR MR 82-9 Geological Character and Mineral Resources of South Central Lake Erie by S. Jeff ress...GEOLOGICAL CHARACTER AND MINERAL RESOURCES Miscellaneous Report OF SOUTH CENTRAL LAKE ERIE 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORI’.) S. CONTRACT

  9. 30 CFR 1206.356 - How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... use facility in place of the geothermal resource. That amount of thermal energy (in Btu) displaced by... geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes? 1206.356 Section 1206.356 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... Geothermal Resources § 1206.356 How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use...

  10. 30 CFR 1206.356 - How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... used by the direct use facility in place of the geothermal resource. That amount of thermal energy (in... geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes? 1206.356 Section 1206.356 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.356 How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.356 - How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... use facility in place of the geothermal resource. That amount of thermal energy (in Btu) displaced by... geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes? 1206.356 Section 1206.356 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... Geothermal Resources § 1206.356 How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.356 - How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... use facility in place of the geothermal resource. That amount of thermal energy (in Btu) displaced by... geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes? 1206.356 Section 1206.356 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF... Geothermal Resources § 1206.356 How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use...

  13. Geophysical, geochemical, and geological investigations of the Dunes geothermal system, Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elders, W. A.; Combs, J.; Coplen, T. B.; Kolesar, P.; Bird, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Dunes anomaly is a water-dominated geothermal system in the alluvium of the Salton Trough, lacking any surface expression. It was discovered by shallow-temperature gradient measurements. A 612-meter-deep test well encountered several temperature-gradient reversals, with a maximum of 105 C at 114 meters. The program involves surface geophysics, including electrical, gravity, and seismic methods, down-hole geophysics and petrophysics of core samples, isotopic and chemical studies of water samples, and petrological and geochemical studies of the cores and cuttings. The aim is (1) to determine the source and temperature history of the brines, (2) to understand the interaction between the brines and rocks, and (3) to determine the areal extent, nature, origin, and history of the geothermal system. These studies are designed to provide better definition of exploration targets for hidden geothermal anomalies and to contribute to improved techniques of exploration and resource assessment.

  14. Transportation study for the Geysers Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    Potential cumulative impacts on the transportation system are assessed and recommendations are made as to options for handling future transportation development. The area is served by state highways, county roads, and an internal network of private roads. Access into the area is limited, and the roads must handle a variety of traffic including an unusually high percentage of heavy trucks transporting construction equipment and materials, hazardous chemicals, and toxic wastes. In conducting the transportation study public documents on geothermal power plant developments were researched and field trips to inspect the transportation facilities were made. People who have a special interest in the transportation system were also interviewed. In addition, traffic, accident, and road data were analyzed. Traffic forecasts based on projected geothermal resource develpoment were made. All access roads are of substandard design and efficient in structural adequacy. With projected traffic at 40% above the current level for most of the next six years, it is expected that cumulative impacts will cause accelerated degradation of the existing roads.

  15. The xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock``) energy resource of the United States: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Nunz, G.J.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents revised estimates, based upon the most current geothermal gradient data, of the xerolithic geothermal (``hot dry rock`` or HDR) energy resources of the United States. State-by-state tabular listings are provided of the HDR energy resource base, the accessible resource base, and the potentially useful resource base. The latter further subdivided into components with potential for electricity generation, process heat, and space heat. Comparisons are made with present estimates of fossil fuel reserves. A full-sized geothermal gradient contour map is provided as a supplement in a pocket inside the back cover of the report.

  16. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Geological hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Reed, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The US Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice withdrawing its Notice of Intent to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent US Geological Survey (USGS) publications and USGS open-file reports related to this project. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis).

  17. A Survey of Geologic Resources. Chapter 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonson, Jennifer; Rickman, Doug

    2012-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the resources available from the Moon itself: regolith, geologically concentrated materials, and lunar physical features that will enable habitation and generation of power on the surface. This chapter briefly covers the formation of the Moon and thus the formation of the crust of the Moon, as well as the evolution of the regolith. The characteristics of the regolith are provided in some detail, including its mineralogy and lithology. The location of high concentrations of specific minerals or rocks is noted. Other ideal locations for in situ resource utilization technology and lunar habitation are presented. This chapter is intended to be a brief review of current knowledge, and to serve as a foundational source for further study. Each concept presented here has a wealth of literature associated with it; the reader is therefore directed to that literature with each discussion. With great interest in possible manned lunar landings and continued study of the Moon by multiple satellites, the available information changes regularly.

  18. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  19. Geophysical survey, Paso Robles geothermal area, California, part of the resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas in California

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1980-11-10

    Some general background information concerning the geology and geothermal occurrences in the Southern Coast Ranges is included, as well as the more detailed information dealing with the Paso Robles area proper. Results for two geophysical methods that have been used in the area: the ground magnetic and gravity surveys, are discussed and interpreted.

  20. Geophysical studies of the Crump Geyser known geothermal resource area, Oregon, in 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plouff, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical studies in support of the resource appraisal of the Crump Geyser Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA). This area was designated as a KGRA by the USGS, and this designation became effective on December 24, 1970. The land classification standards for a KGRA were established by the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-581). Federal lands so classified required competitive leasing for the development of geothermal resources. The author presented an administrative report of USGS geophysical studies entitled 'Geophysical background of the Crump Geyser area, Oregon, KGRA' to a USGS resource committee on June 17, 1975. This report, which essentially was a description of geophysical data and a preliminary interpretation without discussion of resource appraisal, is in Appendix 1. Reduction of sheets or plates in the original administrative report to page-size figures, which are listed and appended to the back of the text in Appendix 1, did not seem to significantly degrade legibility. Bold print in the text indicates where minor changes were made. A colored page-size index and tectonic map, which also show regional geology not shown in figure 2, was substituted for original figure 1. Detailed descriptions for the geologic units referenced in the text and shown on figures 1 and 2 were separately defined by Walker and Repenning (1965) and presumably were discussed in other reports to the committee. Heavy dashed lines on figures 1 and 2 indicate the approximate KGRA boundary. One of the principal results of the geophysical studies was to obtain a gravity map (Appendix 1, fig. 10; Plouff, and Conradi, 1975, pl. 9), which reflects the fault-bounded steepness of the west edge of sediments and locates the maximum thickness of valley sediments at about 10 kilometers south of Crump Geyser. Based on the indicated regional-gravity profile and density-contrast assumptions for the two-dimensional profile, the maximum

  1. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  2. The NSF/RANN FY 1975 program for geothermal resources research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The specific goal of the NSF geothermal program is the rapid development by industry of the nation's geothermal resources that can be demonstrated to be commercially, environmentally and socially acceptable as alternate energy sources. NSF, as the lead agency for the federal geothermal energy research program, is expediting a program which encompasses the objectives necessary for significant utilization. These include: acceleration of exploration and assessment methods to identify commercial geothermal resources; development of innovative and improved technology to achieve economic feasibility; evaluation of policy options to resolve environmental, legal, and institutional problems; and support of experimental research facilities for each type of geothermal resource. Specific projects in each of these four objective areas are part of the NSF program for fiscal year 1975.

  3. Market study for direct utilization of geothermal resources by selected sectors of economy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    A comprehensive analysis is presented of industrial markets potential for direct use of geothermal energy by a total of six industry sectors: food and kindred products; tobacco manufactures; textile mill products; lumber and wood products (except furniture); chemicals and allied products; and leather and leather products. A brief statement is presented regarding sectors of the economy and major manufacturing processes which can readily utilize direct geothermal energy. Previous studies on plant location determinants are summarized and appropriate empirical data provided on plant locations. Location determinants and potential for direct use of geothermal resources are presented. The data was gathered through interviews with 30 senior executives in the six sectors of economy selected for study. Probable locations of plants in geothermal resource areas and recommendations for geothermal resource marketing are presented. Appendix A presents factors which impact on industry location decisions. Appendix B presents industry executives interviewed during the course of this study. (MHR)

  4. Proceedings of the Conference on Research for the Development of Geothermal Energy Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The proceedings of a conference on the development of geothermal energy resources are presented. The purpose of the conference was to acquaint potential user groups with the Federal and National Science Foundation geothermal programs and the method by which the users and other interested members can participate in the program. Among the subjects discussed are: (1) resources exploration and assessment, (2) environmental, legal, and institutional research, (3) resource utilization projects, and (4) advanced research and technology.

  5. Environmental impact of geopressure - geothermal cogeneration facility on wetland resources and socioeconomic characteristics in Louisiana Gulf Coast region. Final report, October 10, 1983-September 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Smalley, A.M.; Saleh, F.M.S.; Fontenot, M.

    1984-08-01

    Baseline data relevant to air quality are presented. The following are also included: geology and resource assessment, design well prospects in southwestern Louisiana, water quality monitoring, chemical analysis subsidence, microseismicity, geopressure-geothermal subsidence modeling, models of compaction and subsidence, sampling handling and preparation, brine chemistry, wetland resources, socioeconomic characteristics, impacts on wetlands, salinity, toxic metals, non-metal toxicants, temperature, subsidence, and socioeconomic impacts. (MHR)

  6. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (<60 mW m-2) characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  7. Direct application of West Coast geothermal resources in a wet-corn-milling plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    The engineering and economic feasibility of using the geothermal resources in East Mesa, California, in a new corn processing plant is evaluated. Institutional barriers were also identified and evaluated. Several alternative plant designs which used geothermal energy were developed. A capital cost estimate and rate of return type of economic analysis were performed to evaluate each alternative. (MHR)

  8. Accelerated Geothermal Resource Development in the Great Basin Through Enhanced Public Awareness and Outreach to Shareholders.

    SciTech Connect

    Taranik, James V.; Oppliger, Gary; Sawatsky, Don

    2002-04-10

    The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy conducted work encompassing two main tasks. We (1) produced a web-based, stakeholder geothermal information system for Nevada geothermal data relevant to assessing and developing geothermal resources, and (2) we held informational stakeholder workshops (both as part of GeoPowering the West Initiative). The objective of this grant was to conduct workshops and fund database and web development activities. This grant funds salaries for web and database developers and part of the administrative assistant who helps to coordinate and organize workshops, and maintain selected databases.

  9. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle–ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10−16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability–depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350–500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic–plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no ‘jump’ in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2–6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  10. Potentially exploitable supercritical geothermal resources in the ductile crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Noriaki; Numakura, Tatsuya; Sakaguchi, Kiyotoshi; Saishu, Hanae; Okamoto, Atsushi; Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) drastically reduces permeability implies that potentially exploitable geothermal resources (permeability >10-16 m2) consisting of supercritical water could occur only in rocks with unusually high transition temperatures such as basalt. However, tensile fracturing is possible even in ductile rocks, and some permeability-depth relations proposed for the continental crust show no drastic permeability reduction at the BDT. Here we present experimental results suggesting that the BDT is not the first-order control on rock permeability, and that potentially exploitable resources may occur in rocks with much lower BDT temperatures, such as the granitic rocks that comprise the bulk of the continental crust. We find that permeability behaviour for fractured granite samples at 350-500 °C under effective confining stress is characterized by a transition from a weakly stress-dependent and reversible behaviour to a strongly stress-dependent and irreversible behaviour at a specific, temperature-dependent effective confining stress level. This transition is induced by onset of plastic normal deformation of the fracture surface (elastic-plastic transition) and, importantly, causes no `jump' in the permeability. Empirical equations for this permeability behaviour suggest that potentially exploitable resources exceeding 450 °C may form at depths of 2-6 km even in the nominally ductile crust.

  11. 30 CFR 206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal... Geothermal Resources § 206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? If you sell geothermal resources produced from Class I, II, or...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal... Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Geothermal Resources § 1206.355 How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? If you sell geothermal resources...

  13. ADVANCES IN HYDROGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS FOR THE DISCOVERY OF NEW GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN THE GREAT BASIN, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Stuart F; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Dobson, Patrick

    2013-05-20

    This report summarizes the results of Phase I work for a go/no go decision on Phase II funding. In the first objective, we assessed the extent to which fluid-mineral equilibria controlled deep water compositions in geothermal systems across the Great Basin. Six systems were evaluated: Beowawe; Desert Peak; Dixie Valley; Mammoth; Raft River; Roosevelt. These represent a geographic spread of geothermal resources, in different geological settings and with a wide range of fluid compositions. The results were used for calibration/reformulation of chemical geothermometers that reflect the reservoir temperatures in producing reservoirs. In the second objective, we developed a reactive -transport model of the Desert Peak hydrothermal system to evaluate the processes that affect reservoir fluid geochemistry and its effect on solute geothermometry. This included testing geothermometry on “reacted” thermal water originating from different lithologies and from near-surface locations where the temperature is known from the simulation. The integrated multi-component geothermometer (GeoT, relying on computed mineral saturation indices) was tested against the model results and also on the systems studied in the first objective.

  14. Three-dimensional Q -1 model of the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Chi-Yuh; Ward, Ronald W.

    1980-05-01

    Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976. Subsequently, they deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the center of the anomaly. The seismograms of 44 events recorded by the telemetered array and nine events by the Centipede array were analyzed using the reduced spectral ratio technique to determine the differential attenuation factor δt* for the events recorded with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The δt* variation observed across the Coso Hot Springs KGRA were small (<0.2 s). A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the δt* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or `lossy' near surface lithology. No zones of significantly high attenuation occur between 5- and 12- km depth. Between the depth of 12-20 km a thick zone of high attenuation (Q <50) exists, offset toward the east from the surface anomaly.

  15. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  16. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  17. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  18. 43 CFR 3251.12 - What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations? 3251.12 Section 3251.12 Public Lands... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.12 What action will BLM take on my Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal...

  19. Geothermal direct heat program: roundup technical conference proceedings. Volume II. Bibliography of publications. State-coupled geothermal resource assessment program

    SciTech Connect

    Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    Lists of publications are presented for the Geothermal Resource Assessment Program for the Utah Earth Science Laboratory and the following states: Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Texas, Utah, and Washington.

  20. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  1. Geothermal resource analysis in Twin Falls County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.J.; Castelin, P.M.

    1990-10-01

    Thermal water is prevalent throughout central Twin Falls County. Most wells and springs that occur in the area produce thermal water from fractures in the Idavada Volcanics. However, in an area east of Hollister, thermal water issues from fractures in the Paleozoic rocks. In an attempt to explain the hydrothermal relationship between these two reservoir rocks, one composite model for the entire geothermal system in the area is proposed. As with other conceptual models of the system, available geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were used to develop the model. The chemistry of the thermal water appears to be strongly governed by the chemical composition of the rocks that it comes in contact with and the length of time that it is exposed to them. The shorter flow paths to the south appear to occur entirely within the Paleozoic rocks, according to the calcium bicarbonate chemistry of the thermal water. As the flow paths become progressively longer toward the north, the thermal waters apparently encounter the silicic volcanics during their ascent. The chemistries of the thermal waters gradually equilibrate to the new host rock conditions and lose their Paleozoic signatures as exposure time increases. Ultimately, the chemistry of the thermal water changes to a sodium bicarbonate type.

  2. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in volcanic settings.

  3. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Approach for Establishing Geothermal Play Fairways and Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin Region, Western USA: A Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Shevenell, Lisa A.; Siler, Drew L.; dePolo, Craig M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corne; Oppliger, G.; Wannamaker, P.; Queen, John H.; Visser, Charles

    2015-09-02

    We have undertaken an integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical study of a broad 240-km-wide, 400-km-long transect stretching from west-central to eastern Nevada in the Great Basin region of the western USA. The main goal of this study is to produce a comprehensive geothermal potential map that incorporates up to 11 parameters and identifies geothermal play fairways that represent potential blind or hidden geothermal systems. Our new geothermal potential map incorporates: 1) heat flow; 2) geochemistry from springs and wells; 3) structural setting; 4) recency of faulting; 5) slip rates on Quaternary faults; 6) regional strain rate; 7) slip and dilation tendency on Quaternary faults; 8) seismologic data; 9) gravity data; 10) magnetotelluric data (where available); and 11) seismic reflection data (primarily from the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins). The transect is respectively anchored on its western and eastern ends by regional 3D modeling of the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins, which will provide more detailed geothermal potential maps of these two promising areas. To date, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets have been assembled into an ArcGIS platform and combined into a preliminary predictive geothermal play fairway model using various statistical techniques. The fairway model consists of the following components, each of which are represented in grid-cell format in ArcGIS and combined using specified weights and mathematical operators: 1) structural component of permeability; 2) regional-scale component of permeability; 3) combined permeability, and 4) heat source model. The preliminary model demonstrates that the multiple data sets can be successfully combined into a comprehensive favorability map. An initial evaluation using known geothermal systems as benchmarks to test interpretations indicates that the preliminary modeling has done a good job assigning relative ranks of geothermal potential. However, a major challenge is defining

  4. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Geological Hazards (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on geologic hazards during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed Regis. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed Regis. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated This report presents a review of current information on geologic hazards in the Hawaiian Islands. Interrelationships among these hazards are discussed. Probabilities of occurrence of given geologic hazards are provided in various regions where sufficient geologic or historical data are available. Most of the information contained herein is compiled from recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) publications and open-file reports. This report describes the natural geologic hazards present in the area and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts. Geologic hazards originate both onshore and offshore. Onshore geologic hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, surface rupture, landslides, uplift, and subsidence occur mainly on the southern third of the island of Hawaii (hereinafter referred to as Hawaii). Offshore geologic hazards are more widely distributed throughout the Hawaiian Islands. Examples of offshore geologic hazards are submarine landslides, turbidity currents, and seismic sea waves (tsunamis). First, overviews of volcanic and earthquake activity, and details of offshore geologic hazards is provided for the Hawaiian Islands. Then, a more detailed discussion of onshore geologic hazards is presented with special emphasis on the southern third of Hawaii and the east rift

  5. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  6. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  7. Geologic and preliminary reservoir data on the Los Humeros Geothermal System, Puebla, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ferriz, H.

    1982-01-01

    Exploratory drilling has confirmed the existence of a geothermal system in the Los Humeros volcanic center, located 180 km east of Mexico City. Volcanic activity in the area began with the eruption of andesites, followed by two major caldera-forming pyroclastic eruptions. The younger Los Potreros caldera is nested inside the older Los Humeros caldera. At later stages, basaltic andesite, dacite, and olivine basalt lavas erupted along the ring-fracture zones of both calderas. Geologic interpretation of structural, geophysical, and drilling data suggests that: (1) the water-dominated geothermal reservoir is hosted by the earliest andesitic volcanic pile, is bounded by the ring-fracture zone of the Los Potreros caldera, and is capped by the products of the oldest caldera-forming eruption; (2) permeability within the andesitic pile is provided by faults and fractures related to intracaldera uplift; (3) the geothermal system has potential for a large influx of meteoric water through portions of the ring-fracture zones of both calderas; and (4) volcanic centers with similar magmatic and structural conditions can be found in the eastern Cascades, USA.

  8. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  9. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Source Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Harto, C. B.; Schroeder, J. N.; Horner, R. M.; Patton, T. L.; Durham, L. A.; Murphy, D. J.; Clark, C. E.

    2014-10-01

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel–based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  10. Water Use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS): Geology of U.S. Stimulation Projects, Water Costs, and Alternative Water Use Policies

    DOE Data Explorer

    Schroeder, Jenna N.

    2014-12-16

    According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), geothermal energy generation in the United States is projected to more than triple by 2040 (EIA 2013). This addition, which translates to more than 5 GW of generation capacity, is anticipated because of technological advances and an increase in available sources through the continued development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs) and low-temperature resources (EIA 2013). Studies have shown that air emissions, water consumption, and land use for geothermal electricity generation have less of an impact than traditional fossil fuel?based electricity generation; however, the long-term sustainability of geothermal power plants can be affected by insufficient replacement of aboveground or belowground operational fluid losses resulting from normal operations (Schroeder et al. 2014). Thus, access to water is therefore critical for increased deployment of EGS technologies and, therefore, growth of the geothermal sector. This paper examines water issues relating to EGS development from a variety of perspectives. It starts by exploring the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects. It then examines the relative costs of different potential traditional and alternative water sources for EGS. Finally it summarizes specific state policies relevant to the use of alternative water sources for EGS, and finally explores the relationship between EGS site geology, stimulation protocols, and below ground water loss, which is one of the largest drivers of water consumption for EGS projects.

  11. Distribution of high-temperature (>150 °C) geothermal resources in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, John H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2002-01-01

    California contains, by far, the greatest geothermal generating capacity in the United States, and with the possible exception of Alaska, the greatest potential for the development of additional resources. California has nearly 2/3 of the US geothermal electrical installed capacity of over 3,000 MW. Depending on assumptions regarding reservoir characteristics and future market conditions, additional resources of between 2,000 and 10,000 MWe might be developed (see e.g., Muffler, 1979).

  12. Geothermal energy and the land resource: conflicts and constraints in The Geysers-Calistoga KGRA

    SciTech Connect

    O'Banion, K.; Hall, C.

    1980-07-14

    This study of potential land-related impacts of geothermal power development in The Geysers region focuses on Lake County because it has most of the undeveloped resource and the least regulatory capability. First, the land resource is characterized in terms of its ecological, hydrological, agricultural, and recreational value; intrinsic natural hazards; and the adequacy of roads and utility systems. Based on those factors, the potential land-use conflicts and constraints that geothermal development may encounter in the region are identified and the availability and relative suitability of land for such development is determined. A brief review of laws and powers germane to geothermal land-use regulation is included.

  13. Geothermal resources of Kyushu, southwest Japan with special focus on the Kuju volcanic region

    SciTech Connect

    Ehara, S.

    1995-12-31

    Tectonic and geothermal backgrounds of Kyushu Island, are described to understand the thermal regime of Kuju volcano. A model for the geothermal system beneath Kuju volcano is presented based on thermal, isotopic and structural data. Based on the model, the geothermal resources beneath Kuju volcano are classified into five categories and are estimated by a volume method. The volcano energy stored beneath Kuju volcano is one of very promising potential resources in Japan. It would seem more reasonable to develop technologies to utilize volcano energy step by step.

  14. Geological interpretation of self-potential data from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, R.F.; Fitterman, D.V.

    1980-02-01

    A source mechanism based on concepts of irreversible thermodynamics and consisting of heat or fluid flow along a north-south trending zone of faulting is proposed for the self-potential anomaly measured over the Cerro Prieto geothermal reservoir. The source region is represented by a vertical plane of that separates regions of differing streaming potential or thermoelectric coupling coefficients. The coupling coefficient contrast could be caused by vertical offset of rock units along faults. The depth to the top of the source plane is about 1.3 km, its vertical extent is about 11 km, and its length along strike is about 10 km. Geological, geophysical, and mineralogical evidence supports the existence of an important north-south geological trend roughly corresponding in location to the proposed self-potential source plane.

  15. Framework for the assessment of interaction between CO2 geological storage and other sedimentary basin resources.

    PubMed

    Michael, K; Whittaker, S; Varma, S; Bekele, E; Langhi, L; Hodgkinson, J; Harris, B

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary basins around the world considered suitable for carbon storage usually contain other natural resources such as petroleum, coal, geothermal energy and groundwater. Storing carbon dioxide in geological formations in the basins adds to the competition for access to the subsurface and the use of pore space where other resource-based industries also operate. Managing potential impacts that industrial-scale injection of carbon dioxide may have on other resource development must be focused to prevent potential conflicts and enhance synergies where possible. Such a sustainable coexistence of various resource developments can be accomplished by implementing a Framework for Basin Resource Management strategy (FBRM). The FBRM strategy utilizes the concept of an Area of Review (AOR) for guiding development and regulation of CO2 geological storage projects and for assessing their potential impact on other resources. The AOR is determined by the expected physical distribution of the CO2 plume in the subsurface and the modelled extent of reservoir pressure increase resulting from the injection of the CO2. This information is used to define the region to be characterised and monitored for a CO2 injection project. The geological characterisation and risk- and performance-based monitoring will be most comprehensive within the region of the reservoir containing the carbon dioxide plume and should consider geological features and wells continuously above the plume through to its surface projection; this region defines where increases in reservoir pressure will be greatest and where potential for unplanned migration of carbon dioxide is highest. Beyond the expanse of the carbon dioxide plume, geological characterisation and monitoring should focus only on identified features that could be a potential migration conduit for either formation water or carbon dioxide.

  16. Mineral resources, geological structures, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Since March 1973 there has been a shift in ERTS results in geology from the initial show-and-tell stage to a period in which scientific studies predominated, and now to an emphasis on effective applications having economic benefits and clearcut relevance to national needs. Many years will be spent on geological tasks resulting from ERTS alone; reconnaissance mapping in inaccessible regions, map revisions, regional or synoptic analysis of crustal fractures, assessment of dynamic surficial processes, systematic search for mineral wealth, use of sophisticated enhancement techniques, recognition of potential geologic hazards, and many more applications that still need to be defined.

  17. Using micro-seismicity and seismic velocities to map subsurface geologic and hydrologic structure within the Coso geothermal field, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaven, Joern Ole; Hickman, Stephen H.; Davatzes, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs derive their capacity for fluid and heat transport in large part from faults and fractures. Micro-seismicity generated on such faults and fractures can be used to map larger fault structures as well as secondary fractures that add access to hot rock, fluid storage and recharge capacity necessary to have a sustainable geothermal resource. Additionally, inversion of seismic velocities from micro-seismicity permits imaging of regions subject to the combined effects of fracture density, fluid pressure and steam content, among other factors. We relocate 14 years of seismicity (1996-2009) in the Coso geothermal field using differential travel times and simultaneously invert for seismic velocities to improve our knowledge of the subsurface geologic and hydrologic structure. We utilize over 60,000 micro-seismic events using waveform cross-correlation to augment to expansive catalog of P- and S-wave differential travel times recorded at Coso. We further carry out rigorous uncertainty estimation and find that our results are precise to within 10s of meters of relative location error. We find that relocated micro-seismicity outlines prominent, through-going faults in the reservoir in some cases. We also find that a significant portion of seismicity remains diffuse and does not cluster into more sharply defined major structures. The seismic velocity structure reveals heterogeneous distributions of compressional (Vp) and shear (Vs) wave speed, with Vp generally lower in the main field when compared to the east flank and Vs varying more significantly in the shallow portions of the reservoir. The Vp/Vs ratio appears to outline the two main compartments of the reservoir at depths of -0.5 to 1.5 km (relative to sea-level), with a ridge of relatively high Vp/Vs separating the main field from the east flank. In the deeper portion of the reservoir this ridge is less prominent. Our results indicate that high-precision relocations of micro-seismicity can provide

  18. Geothermal energy in the western United States and Hawaii: Resources and projected electricity generation supplies. [Contains glossary and address list of geothermal project developers and owners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Geothermal energy comes from the internal heat of the Earth, and has been continuously exploited for the production of electricity in the United States since 1960. Currently, geothermal power is one of the ready-to-use baseload electricity generating technologies that is competing in the western United States with fossil fuel, nuclear and hydroelectric generation technologies to provide utilities and their customers with a reliable and economic source of electric power. Furthermore, the development of domestic geothermal resources, as an alternative to fossil fuel combustion technologies, has a number of associated environmental benefits. This report serves two functions. First, it provides a description of geothermal technology and a progress report on the commercial status of geothermal electric power generation. Second, it addresses the question of how much electricity might be competitively produced from the geothermal resource base. 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  19. Final Technical Report; Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definitioni (GRED) Program-Phases I, II, and III for the Animas Valley, NM Geothermal Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Cunniff, Roy A.; Bowers, Roger L.

    2005-08-01

    This report contains a detailed summary of a methodical and comprehensive assessment of the potential of the Animas Valley, New Mexico geothermal resource leasehold owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. Work described herein was completed under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC04-00AL66977, Geothermal Resource Evaluation and Definition (GRED) Program, and the work covers the time span from June 2001 through June 2004. Included in this new report are detailed results from the GRED Program, including: geophysical and geochemical surveys, reflection seismic surveys, aeromagnetic surveys, gravity and electrical resistivity surveys, soil thermal ion and soil carbon dioxide flux surveys, four temperature gradient holes, and one deep exploratory well.

  20. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  1. Prediction and discovery of new geothermal resources in the Great Basin: Multiple evidence of a large undiscovered resource base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Raines, G.L.; Zehner, R.E.; Shevenell, L.; Williams, C.F.

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal potential maps by themselves cannot directly be used to estimate undiscovered resources. To address the undiscovered resource base in the Great Basin, a new and relatively quantitative methodology is presented. The methodology involves three steps, the first being the construction of a data-driven probabilistic model of the location of known geothermal systems using weights of evidence. The second step is the construction of a degree-of-exploration model. This degree-of-exploration model uses expert judgment in a fuzzy logic context to estimate how well each spot in the state has been explored, using as constraints digital maps of the depth to the water table, presence of the carbonate aquifer, and the location, depth, and type of drill-holes. Finally, the exploration model and the data-driven occurrence model are combined together quantitatively using area-weighted modifications to the weights-of-evidence equations. Using this methodology in the state of Nevada, the number of undiscovered geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures ???100??C is estimated at 157, which is 3.2 times greater than the 69 known systems. Currently, nine of the 69 known systems are producing electricity. If it is conservatively assumed that an additional nine for a total of 18 of the known systems will eventually produce electricity, then the model predicts 59 known and undiscovered geothermal systems are capable of producing electricity under current economic conditions in the state, a figure that is more than six times higher than the current number. Many additional geothermal systems could potentially become economic under improved economic conditions or with improved methods of reservoir stimulation (Enhanced Geothermal Systems).This large predicted geothermal resource base appears corroborated by recent grass-roots geothermal discoveries in the state of Nevada. At least two and possibly three newly recognized geothermal systems with estimated reservoir temperatures

  2. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  3. Assessment of geothermal resources of the United States, 1975

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Williams, David L.

    1975-01-01

    This assessment of geothermal resources of the United States consists of two major parts: (1) estimates of total heat in the ground to a depth of 10 km and (2) estimates of the part of this total heat that is recoverable with present technology, regardless of price. No attempt has been made to consider most aspects of the legal, environmental, and institutional limitations in exploiting these resouces. In general, the average heat content of rocks is considerably higher in the Western United States than in the East. This also helps to explain why the most favorable hydrothermal convection systems and the hot young igneous systems occur in the West. Resources of the most attractive identified convection systems (excluding national parks) with predicted reservoir temperatures above 150 deg C have an estimated electrical production potential of about 8,000 megawatt century, or about 26,000 megawatt for 30 years. Assumptions in this conversion are: (1) one-half of the volume of the heat reservoirs is porous and permeable, (2) one-half of the heat of the porous, permeable parts is recoverable in fluids at the wellheads, and (3) the conversion efficiency of heat in wellhead fluids to electricity ranges from about 8 to 20 percent , depending on temperature and kind of fluid (hot water or steam). The estimated overall efficiency of conversion of heat in the ground to electrical energy generally ranges from less than 2 to 5 percent, depending on type of system and reservoir temperature. (See also W77-07477) (Woodard-USGS)

  4. Institutional and environmental problems in geothermal resource development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslan, F.; Gordon, T. J.; Deitch, L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of regulatory and institutional impediments to the development of geothermal energy exist. None of these seem likely to prevent the development of this energy source, but in the aggregate they will pace its growth as certainly as the technological issues. The issues are associated with the encouragement of exploration and development, assuring a market for geothermal steam or hot water, and accomplishing the required research and development in a timely manner. The development of geothermal energy in the United States at a high level is apt to cause both favorable and unfavorable, though manageable, impacts in eight major areas, which are discussed.

  5. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  6. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90 degrees C) geothermal systems in the United States; reference data for U.S. Geological Survey Circular 892

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  7. Course An Introduction to Geothermal Resources - Well Completion Production Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ascuaga, John; Garrett, B.D.

    1987-10-01

    A course to introduce geothermal energy held in Sparks, Nevada on October 1987. Topics included well draining and well computation production equipment. There is much technical detail and some cost detail. [DJE-2005

  8. Process applications for geothermal energy resources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mikic, B.B.; Meal, H.C.; Packer, M.B.; Guillamon-Duch, H.

    1981-08-01

    The principal goal of the program was to demonstrate economical and technical suitability of geothermal energy as a source of industrial process heat through a cooperative program with industrial firms. To accomplish that: a critical literature survey in the field was performed; a workshop with the paper and pulp industry representatives was organized; and four parallel methods dealing with technical and economical details of geothermal energy use as a source of industrial process heat were developed.

  9. Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  10. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, J. D.; Lepman, S. R.; Leung, K. N.; Phillips, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described as well as the structure of the database.

  11. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  12. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  14. 30 CFR 206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 206.352 Section 206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.352 - How do I calculate the royalty due on geothermal resources used for commercial production or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... geothermal resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? 1206.352 Section 1206.352... resources used for commercial production or generation of electricity? (a) If you sold geothermal resources produced from a Class I, II, or III lease at arm's length that the purchaser uses to generate...

  16. Recent exploration and development of geothermal energy resources in the Escalante desert region, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackett, Robert E.; Ross, Howard P.

    1994-01-01

    Development of geothermal resources in southwest Utah's Sevier thermal area continued in the early 1990s with expansion of existing power-generation facilities. Completion of the Bud L. Bonnett geothermal power plant at the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area brought total power generation capacity of the facility to 13.5 MWe (gross). At Cove Fort-Sulphurdate, recent declines in steam pressures within the shallow, vapor-dominated part of the resource prompted field developers to complete additional geothermal supply wells into the deeper, liquid-dominated portion of the resource. At Roosevelt Hot Springs near Milford, Intermountain Geothermal Company completed an additional supply well for Utah Power and Light Company's single-flash, Blundell plant. with the increased geothermal fluid supply from the new well, the Blundell plant now produces about 26 MWe (gross). The authors conducted several geothermal resource studies in undeveloped thermal areas in southwest Utah. Previous studies at Newcastle revealed a well-defined, self-potential minimum coincident with the intersection of major faults and the center of the heatflow anomaly. A detailed self-potential survey at Wood's Ranch, an area in northwest Iron County where thermal water was encountered in shallow wells, revealed a large (5,900 ?? 2,950 feet [1,800 ?? 900 m]) northeast-oriented self-potential anomaly which possibly results from the flow of shallow thermal fluid. Chemical geothermometry applied to Wood's Ranch water samples suggest reservoir temperatures between 230 and 248??F (110 and 120??C). At the Thermo Hot Springs geothermal area near Minersville, detailed self-potential surveys have also revealed an interesting 100 mV negative anomaly possibly related to the upward flow of hydrothermal fluid.

  17. Analysis of requirements for accelerating the development of geothermal energy resources in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fredrickson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Various resource data are presented showing that geothermal energy has the potential of satisfying a singificant part of California's increasing energy needs. General factors slowing the development of geothermal energy in California are discussed and required actions to accelerate its progress are presented. Finally, scenarios for developing the most promising prospects in the state directed at timely on-line power are given. Specific actions required to realize each of these individual scenarios are identified.

  18. National Geothermal Academy. Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin, Vol. 31 No. 2 (Complete Bulletin). A Quarterly Progress and Development Report on the Direct Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya; Maddi, Phillip

    2012-08-01

    The National Geothermal Academy (NGA) is an intensive 8-week overview of the different aspects involved in developing a geothermal project, hosted at University of Nevada, Reno. The class of 2012 was the second graduating class from the academy and included 21 students from nine states, as well as Saudi Arabia, Dominica, India, Trinidad, Mexico. The class consisted of people from a wide range of scholastic abilities from students pursuing a Bachelor’s or Master’s degrees, to entrepreneurs and professionals looking to improve their knowledge in the geothermal field. Students earned 6 credits, either undergraduate or graduate, in engineering or geology. Overall, the students of the NGA, although having diverse backgrounds in engineering, geology, finance, and other sciences, came together with a common passion to learn more about geothermal.

  19. The Gabbs Valley, Nevada, geothermal prospect: Exploring for a potential blind geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J.; Bell, J. W.; Calvin, W. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Gabbs Valley prospect in west-central Nevada is a potential blind geothermal resource system. Possible structural controls on this system were investigated using high-resolution LiDAR, low sun-angle aerial (LSA) photography, exploratory fault trenching and a shallow temperature survey. Active Holocene faults have previously been identified at 37 geothermal systems with indication of temperatures greater than 100° C in the western Nevada region. Active fault controls in Gabbs Valley include both Holocene and historical structures. Two historical earthquakes occurring in 1932 and 1954 have overlapping surface rupture patterns in Gabbs Valley. Three active fault systems identified through LSA and LiDAR mapping have characteristics of Basin and Range normal faulting and Walker Lane oblique dextral faulting. The East Monte Cristo Mountains fault zone is an 8.5 km long continuous NNE striking, discrete fault with roughly 0.5 m right-normal historic motion and 3 m vertical Quaternary separation. The Phillips Wash fault zone is an 8.2 km long distributed fault system striking NE to N, with Quaternary fault scarps of 1-3 m vertical separation and a 500 m wide graben adjacent to the Cobble Cuesta anticline. This fault displays ponded drainages, an offset terrace riser and right stepping en echelon fault patterns suggestive of left lateral offset, and fault trenching exposed non-matching stratigraphy typical of a significant component of lateral offset. The unnamed faults of Gabbs Valley are a 10.6 km long system of normal faults striking NNE and Quaternary scarps are up to 4 m high. These normal faults largely do not have historic surface rupture, but a small segment of 1932 rupture has been identified. A shallow (2 m deep) temperature survey of 80 points covering roughly 65 square kilometers was completed. Data were collected over approximately 2 months, and continual base station temperature measurements were used to seasonally correct temperature measurements. A 2

  20. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an evaluation of the technically accessible storage resource (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) for 36 sedimentary basins in the onshore areas and State waters of the United States. The TASR is an estimate of the geologic storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage and is based on current geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. By using a geology-based probabilistic assessment methodology, the USGS assessment team members obtained a mean estimate of approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt) of subsurface CO2 storage capacity that is technically accessible below onshore areas and State waters; this amount is more than 500 times the 2011 annual U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions of 5.5 Gt (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2012, http://www.eia.gov/environment/emissions/carbon/). In 2007, the Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directed the U.S. Geological Survey to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for CO2 in consultation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Energy, and State geological surveys. The USGS developed a methodology to estimate storage resource potential in geologic formations in the United States (Burruss and others, 2009, USGS Open-File Report (OFR) 2009–1035; Brennan and others, 2010, USGS OFR 2010–1127; Blondes, Brennan, and others, 2013, USGS OFR 2013–1055). In 2012, the USGS completed the assessment, and the results are summarized in this Fact Sheet and are provided in more detail in companion reports (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a,b; see related reports at right). The goal of this project was to conduct an initial assessment of storage capacity on a regional basis, and results are not intended for use in the evaluation of specific sites for potential CO2 storage. The national

  1. Alpine 1/Federal: Temperature gradients, geothermal potential, and geology. Final report, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.; Hahman, W.R.; Swanberg, C.A.

    1994-06-01

    The Alpine 1/Federal drilling project provided valuable new; information on the geology of the region. Except for drilling into Precambrian rocks, the objectives of the project were accomplished. sufficient temperature and heat-flow information were obtained to assess the near-term HDR geothermal potential of the eastern White Mountains region. Therefore, the primary mission of the project was successful. The HDR potential for near-term electrical power production is not economic. Potential for HDR direct-use space heating is marginal at best and should realistically be considered uneconomic. The Alpine 1/Federal hole should be deepened to Precambrian basement to provide definitive subsurface geological information for this region. Deeper drilling will determine Precambrian lithology and assess if older Paleozoic rock units are present. The hole may be deepened with a BQ drill string. Depth to Precambrian is likely to be between 800 and 2,000 feet below the current 4,505 feet total depth. The failure to reach Precambrian basement due to a previously unknown and unmapped major structural offset highlights the need for detailed surface geological mapping in this poorly understood region.

  2. Coupling geophysical investigation with hydrothermal modeling to constrain the enthalpy classification of a potential geothermal resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. T.; Karakhanian, A.; Connor, C. B.; Connor, L.; Hughes, J. D.; Malservisi, R.; Wetmore, P.

    2015-06-01

    An appreciable challenge in volcanology and geothermal resource development is to understand the relationships between volcanic systems and low-enthalpy geothermal resources. The enthalpy of an undeveloped geothermal resource in the Karckar region of Armenia is investigated by coupling geophysical and hydrothermal modeling. The results of 3-dimensional inversion of gravity data provide key inputs into a hydrothermal circulation model of the system and associated hot springs, which is used to evaluate possible geothermal system configurations. Hydraulic and thermal properties are specified using maximum a priori estimates. Limited constraints provided by temperature data collected from an existing down-gradient borehole indicate that the geothermal system can most likely be classified as low-enthalpy and liquid dominated. We find the heat source for the system is likely cooling quartz monzonite intrusions in the shallow subsurface and that meteoric recharge in the pull-apart basin circulates to depth, rises along basin-bounding faults and discharges at the hot springs. While other combinations of subsurface properties and geothermal system configurations may fit the temperature distribution equally well, we demonstrate that the low-enthalpy system is reasonably explained based largely on interpretation of surface geophysical data and relatively simple models.

  3. Coupling geophysical investigation with hydrothermal modeling to constrain the enthalpy classification of a potential geothermal resource.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Jeremy T.; Karakhanian, Arkadi; Connor, Chuck; Connor, Laura; Hughes, Joseph D.; Malservisi, Rocco; Wetmore, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An appreciable challenge in volcanology and geothermal resource development is to understand the relationships between volcanic systems and low-enthalpy geothermal resources. The enthalpy of an undeveloped geothermal resource in the Karckar region of Armenia is investigated by coupling geophysical and hydrothermal modeling. The results of 3-dimensional inversion of gravity data provide key inputs into a hydrothermal circulation model of the system and associated hot springs, which is used to evaluate possible geothermal system configurations. Hydraulic and thermal properties are specified using maximum a priori estimates. Limited constraints provided by temperature data collected from an existing down-gradient borehole indicate that the geothermal system can most likely be classified as low-enthalpy and liquid dominated. We find the heat source for the system is likely cooling quartz monzonite intrusions in the shallow subsurface and that meteoric recharge in the pull-apart basin circulates to depth, rises along basin-bounding faults and discharges at the hot springs. While other combinations of subsurface properties and geothermal system configurations may fit the temperature distribution equally well, we demonstrate that the low-enthalpy system is reasonably explained based largely on interpretation of surface geophysical data and relatively simple models.

  4. State-coupled low-temperature geothermal-resource-assessment program, Fiscal Year 1980. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.; Starkey, A.; Trentman, N.

    1981-08-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic-refraction, and seismic-reflection profiles across the Las Alturas Geothermal Anomaly, New Mexico, are presented. Studies in the Socorro area include the following: seismic measurements of the tertiary fill in the Rio Grande Depression west of Socorro, geothermal data availability for computer simulation in the Socorro Peak KGRA, and ground water circulation in the Socorro Geothermal Area. Regional geothermal exploration in the Truth or Consequences Area includes: geological mapping of the Mud Springs Mountains, hydrogeology of the thermal aquifer, and electrical-resistivity investigation of the geothermal potential. Other studies included are: geothermal exploration with electrical methods near Vado, Chamberino, and Mesquite; a heat-flow study of Dona Ana County; preliminary heat-flow assessment of Southeast Luna County; active fault analysis and radiometric dating of young basalts in southern New Mexico; and evaluation of the geothermal potential of the San Juan Basin in northwestern New Mexico.

  5. A Geological and Geophysical Study of the Geothermal Energy Potential of Pilgrim Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B.

    1980-01-01

    The Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located about 75 km north of Nome, was the subject of an intensive, reconnaissance-level geophysical and geological study during a 90-day period in the summer of 1979. The thermal springs are located in a northeast-oriented, oval area of thawed ground approximately 1.5 km{sup 2} in size, bordered on the north by the Pilgrim River. A second, much smaller, thermal anomaly was discovered about 3 km northeast of the main thawed area. Continuous permafrost in the surrounding region is on the order of 100 m thick. Present surface thermal spring discharge is {approx} 4.2 x 10{sup -3} m{sup 3} s{sup -1} (67 gallons/minute) of alkali-chloride-type water at a temperature of 81 C. The reason for its high salinity is not yet understood because of conflicting evidence for seawater vs. other possible water sources. Preliminary Na-K-Ca geothermometry suggests deep reservoir temperatures approaching 150 C, but interpretation of these results is difficult because of their dependence on an unknown water mixing history. Based on these estimates, and present surface and drill hole water temperatures, Pilgrim Springs would be classified as an intermediate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal system.

  6. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Geothermal Resource Potential within the Pyramid Lake Paiute Reservation Phase III Report

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, Donna

    2013-12-01

    This project integrated state-of-the-art exploration technologies with a geologic framework and reservoir modeling to ultimately determine the efficacy of future geothermal production within the PLPT reservation. The information gained during this study should help the PLPT to make informed decisions regarding construction of a geothermal power plant. Additional benefits included the transfer of new technologies and geothermal data to the geothermal industry and it created and/or preserved nearly three dozen jobs accordance with the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. A variety of tasks were conducted to achieve the above stated objectives. The following are the tasks completed within the project: 1. Permitting 2. Shallow temperature survey 3. Seismic data collection and analysis 4. Fracture stress analysis 5. Phase I reporting Permitting 7. Shallow temperature survey 8. Seismic data collection and analysis 9. Fracture stress analysis 10. Phase I reporting 11. Drilling two new wells 12. Borehole geophysics 13. Phase II reporting 14. Well testing and geochemical analysis 15. Three-dimensional geologic model 16. Three-dimensional reservoir analysis 17. Reservation wide geothermal potential analysis 18. Phase III reporting Phase I consisted of tasks 1 – 5, Phase II tasks 6 – 8, and Phase III tasks 9 – 13. This report details the results of Phase III tasks. Reports are available for Phase I, and II as separate documents.

  7. Geothermal resource base of the world: a revision of the Electric Power Research Institute's estimate

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Gambill, D.T.

    1981-04-01

    Review of the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) method for calculating the geothermal resource base of a country shows that modifications are needed for several of the assumptions used in the calculation. These modifications include: (1) separating geothermal belts into volcanic types with a geothermal gradient of 50{sup 0}C/km and complex types in which 80% of the area has a temperature gradient of 30{sup 0}C/km and 20% has a gradient of 45{sup 0}C/km, (2) using the actual mean annual temperature of a country rather than an assumed 15{sup 0}C average ambient temperature, and (3) making separate calculations for the resource stored in water/brine and that stored in rock. Comparison of this method (Revised EPRI) for calculating a geothermal resource base with other resource base estimates made from a heat flow map of Europe indicates that the technique yields reasonable values. The calculated geothermal resource bases, stored in water and rock to a depth of 5 km, for each country in the world are given. Approximately five times as much energy is stored in rock as is stored in water.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey water resources Internet tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2013-11-07

    The U.S. Geological Fact Sheet (USGS) provides a wealth of information on hydrologic data, maps, graphs, and other resources for your State.Sources of water resources information are listed below.WaterWatchWaterQualityWatchGroundwater WatchWaterNowWaterAlertUSGS Flood Inundation MapperNational Water Information System (NWIS)StreamStatsNational Water Quality Assessment (NAWOA)

  9. Geothermal resources and conflicting concerns in the Alvord Valley, Oregon: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Wassinger, C.E.; Koza, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The geothermal resource potential of the Alvord Valley is among the highest in Oregon. However, environmental concerns, litigation, and administrative requirements have delayed exploration for and development of this resource. Present estimates indicate that deep exploratory drilling may not take place on Federal lands in the Alvord Valley until 1982.

  10. Expanding geothermal resource utilization through directed research, education, and public outreach: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, Wendy

    2016-03-18

    The University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) conducts research and outreach activities that will lead to increased utilization of geothermal resources in the western US. The Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy (GBCGE) is working in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to energy supply in the western US. Task 1 involves conducting geoscience and engineering research and developing technology to improve the assessment, exploration, and stimulation of geothermal resources. Subtask projects were selected based on peer review of proposals submitted to the GBCGE from Nevada System of High Education (NSHE) institutions for short project development and seed awards intended to develop background and establish viability of approaches for future activities. Task 2 includes project management and organization of workshops periodically requested by DOE and others to satisfy other mission goals of the GBCGE and the DOE geothermal program. GBCGE supports interaction with national and international geothermal organizations, with brochures, presentations, and materials describing GBCGE accomplishments and current research. We continue to maintain and develop an internet-based information system that makes geothermal data and information available to industry, government, and academic stakeholders for exploration and development of geothermal resources. This award also partially supported post-doctoral scholar Drew Siler and research scientist Betsy Littlefield Pace whose effort is included under developing future research projects. Task 2 also focuses on education and outreach through a competitive graduate fellowship program. The budget is for two-year stipends for three graduate students to work collaboratively with GBCGE faculty on Master’s or PhD degrees in geoscience and engineering fields. This grant supported three MS students in full for two years toward the degree and

  11. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed the national assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources. Its data and results are reported in three publications: the assessment data publication (this report), the assessment results publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013a, USGS Circular 1386), and the assessment summary publication (U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources Assessment Team, 2013b, USGS Fact Sheet 2013–3020). This data publication supports the results publication and contains (1) individual storage assessment unit (SAU) input data forms with all input parameters and details on the allocation of the SAU surface land area by State and general land-ownership category; (2) figures representing the distribution of all storage classes for each SAU; (3) a table containing most input data and assessment result values for each SAU; and (4) a pairwise correlation matrix specifying geological and methodological dependencies between SAUs that are needed for aggregation of results.

  12. Geology Structure Identification based on Polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) Data and Field Based Observation at Ciwidey Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, R. A.; Saepuloh, A.; Suryantini

    2016-09-01

    Geological structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanic field due to the classical problem at tropical region such as intensive erosion, dense vegetation covers, and rough terrain. The problem hampers the field observation especially for geological structures mapping. In order to overcome the problems, an active remote sensing technology based on Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data was used in this study. The longer wavelength of microwave than optical region caused the SAR layer penetration higher than optics. The Ciwidey Geothermal Field, Indonesia was selected as study area because of the existence of surface manifestations with lack information about the control of geological structures to the geothermal system. Visual interpretation based on composite polarization modes was applied to identify geological structures at study area. The color composite Red-Green-Blue for HV-HH-VV polarizations provided highest texture and structural features among the other composite combination. The Linear Features Density (LFD) map was also used to interpret the fractures zones. The calculated LFD showed high anomaly about 3.6 km/km2 with two strike directions NW-SE and NE-SW. Interestingly, the surface geothermal manifestation agreed with the low anomaly of LFD. The geological structures consisted of ten faults were successfully detected and mapped. The faults type mainly are oblique-slip with strike directions NE-SW and NW-SE.

  13. Environmental overview for the development of geothermal resources in the State of New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, M.; Starkey, A.H.; Dick-Peddie, W.A.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview of the present day geothermal applications for hydrothermal electrical generation and direct heat use and their environmental implications is provided. Technologies and environmental impacts are considered at all points on the pathway of development resource exploration; well field, plant and transmission line construction; and plant operation. The technologies for electrical generation-direct, dry steam conversion; separated steam conversion; single-flash conversion, separated-steam/single-flash conversion and binary cycle conversion and the technologies for direct heat use - direct use of geothermal waters, surface heat exhanger, down-the hole heat exchanger and heat pump are described. A summary of the geothermal technologies planned or in operation within New Mexico geothermal areas is provided. A review of regulations that affect geothermal development and its related environmental impact in New Mexico is presented. The regulatory pathway, both state and federal, of geothermal exploration after the securing of appropriate leases, development, and construction and implementation of a geothermal facility are described. Six categories (Geophysical, Water, Air, Noise, Biota and Socioeconomics) were selected for environmental assessment. The data available is described.

  14. The geothermal resource in Dominica : from the class room to the fieldwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivia, Urity

    2014-05-01

    In Martinique and more generally in the Caribbean area, the Global warming is not only a topic you can read about in a scientific article but a true issue in the everyday life of the inhabitants. Many effects of the increase of the sea level or the erosion can be observed in the environment. For example, beaches are being destroyed, frightening buildings built on the seafront. This is not only an environmental issue but a touristic and economical one. By the way it is a problem to give a new home to these inhabitants who are now losing their houses. So, with their limited territory and their economy depending on tourism, the islands of the Lesser Antilles have a big challenge which is to find some solutions to minimize the effects of the Global warming on their populations. Anyway, anthropic activities and particularly the using of fossil fuels are named to be responsible for a big part of the climate changes. Knowing this allows us to understand that the Caribbean countries have to develop renewable energies. Guadeloupe and Dominica are two good examples of these islands, where the politicians have already decided to use sustainable energies. They use geothermal energy and hydroelectricity to provide to the families' needs. In this way, the Dominican government, with finances from The European Union, Guadeloupe and Martinique decided to explore the geothermal resource in the island and to build a plant in the area of Roseau Valley. Therefore the students and I, we have decided to study the geology of Dominica in order to find the origin of the geothermal resource and to get more information about the geothermal power plant project. Furthermore, we wanted to understand how this resource is used by the locals and to determine the impact of the presence of the future plant in the chosen sites. In the poster to come, I have chosen to introduce the "journey in Dominica" and the fieldwork that I have realized with my students of upper sixth form. The poster will focus

  15. Mineral resources, geological structure, and landform surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, N. M.

    1974-01-01

    Diagnostic ERTS imagery has been used to pinpoint surface conditions associated with known mining districts. These include enhancements which depict hitherto unrecognized surface alteration and allow analysis of ore-controlling fractures distribution in a regional context. ERTS has likewise provided observational data containing previously unrecognized surface anomalies in large oil-producing basins which correlate closely with known oil fields. These observational data offer promise of providing new and powerful techniques for oil exploration, especially if further work using more sophisticated enhancement-processing proves capable of emphasizing the anomalies. ERTS is showing a better-than-anticipated potential for producing accurate small-scale (large-area) geologic maps, often containing details that were previously not recorded on similar regional maps. The maps produced from ERTS imagery can be prepared more effectively than previously possible, mainly because of the synoptic, multispectral, and repetitive character of ERTS data. ERTS has also provided extensive information on possible geologic hazards. Many new fractures have been identified in several regions of the Pacific Coast seismic belt that have histories of recent earthquakes. This has obvious implications for engineering projects such as dams, aqueducts, and transportation routes. In the mid-continent area, ERTS data have been used to predict zones of rooffall danger in a working coal mine from newly discovered lineations (probably fractures) used as indicators of hazards.

  16. Tracing Biosignature Preservation of Geothermally Silicified Microbial Textures into the Geological Record.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kathleen A; Lynne, Bridget Y; Handley, Kim M; Jordan, Sacha; Farmer, Jack D; Guido, Diego M; Foucher, Frédéric; Turner, Susan; Perry, Randall S

    2015-10-01

    New Zealand and Argentine (Late Jurassic-Recent) siliceous hot-spring deposits (sinter) reveal preservation pathways of environmentally controlled, microbe-dominated sedimentary facies over geological time scales. Texturally distinctive, laminated to thinly layered, dense and vertically oriented, microtubular "palisade" fabric is common in low-temperature (<40°C) sinter-apron terraces. In modern hot springs, the dark green to brown, sheathed, photosynthetic cyanobacterium Calothrix spp. (family Rivulariaceae) constructs felted palisade mats in shallow terrace(tte) pools actively accreting opaline silica. The resulting stacked layers of silicified coarse filaments-a stromatolite-are highly porous and readily modified by postdepositional environmental perturbations, secondary silica infill, and diagenetic silica phase mineral transformations (opal-A to quartz). Fossil preservation quality is affected by relative timing of silicification, and later environmental and geological events. A systematic approach was used to characterize palisade fabric in sinters of different ages to refine tools for recognizing biosignatures in extreme environments and to track their long-term preservation pathways into the geological record. Molecular techniques, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectrometry, X-ray powder diffraction, petrography, and lipid biomarker analyses were applied. Results indicate that microbial communities vary at the micron scale and that early and rapid silicification is paramount to long-term preservation, especially where minimal postdepositional disturbance follows fossilization. Overall, it appears that the most robust biomarkers of fossil microbial activity in hot-spring deposits are their characteristic macro- and microtextures and laser micro-Raman identified carbon. Studies of Phanerozoic geothermal deposits with mineralized microbial components are relevant analogs for Precambrian geobiology because early life is commonly preserved as microbial

  17. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 7: Nonreplenishable natural resources: Minerals, fossil fuels and geothermal energy sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of remotely-sensed information to the mineral, fossil fuel, and geothermal energy extraction industry is investigated. Public and private cost savings are documented in geologic mapping activities. Benefits and capabilities accruing to the ERS system are assessed. It is shown that remote sensing aids in resource extraction, as well as the monitoring of several dynamic phenomena, including disturbed lands, reclamation, erosion, glaciation, and volcanic and seismic activity.

  18. Application analysis of Monte Carlo to estimate the capacity of geothermal resources in Lawu Mount

    SciTech Connect

    Supriyadi; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Munandar, Arif

    2014-03-24

    Monte Carlo analysis has been applied in calculation of geothermal resource capacity based on volumetric method issued by Standar Nasional Indonesia (SNI). A deterministic formula is converted into a stochastic formula to take into account the nature of uncertainties in input parameters. The method yields a range of potential power probability stored beneath Lawu Mount geothermal area. For 10,000 iterations, the capacity of geothermal resources is in the range of 139.30-218.24 MWe with the most likely value is 177.77 MWe. The risk of resource capacity above 196.19 MWe is less than 10%. The power density of the prospect area covering 17 km{sup 2} is 9.41 MWe/km{sup 2} with probability 80%.

  19. A hybrid geothermal energy conversion technology: Auxiliary heating of geothermally preheated water or CO2 - a potential solution for low-temperature resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Martin; Garapati, Nagasree; Adams, Benjamin; Randolph, Jimmy; Kuehn, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Safe, sustainable, and economic development of deep geothermal resources, particularly in less favourable regions, often requires employment of unconventional geothermal energy extraction and utilization methods. Often "unconventional geothermal methods" is synonymously and solely used as meaning enhanced geothermal systems, where the permeability of hot, dry rock with naturally low permeability at greater depths (4-6 km), is enhanced. Here we present an alternative unconventional geothermal energy utilization approach that uses low-temperature regions that are shallower, thereby drastically reducing drilling costs. While not a pure geothermal energy system, this hybrid approach may enable utilization of geothermal energy in many regions worldwide that can otherwise not be used for geothermal electricity generation, thereby increasing the global geothermal resource base. Moreover, in some realizations of this hybrid approach that generate carbon dioxide (CO2), the technology may be combined with carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) and CO2-based geothermal energy utilization, resulting in a high-efficiency (hybrid) geothermal power plant with a negative carbon footprint. Typically, low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resources are more effectively used for direct heat energy applications. However, due to high thermal losses during transport, direct use requires that the heat resource is located near the user. Alternatively, we show here that if such a low-temperature geothermal resource is combined with an additional or secondary energy resource, the power production is increased compared to the sum from two separate (geothermal and secondary fuel) power plants (DiPippo et al. 1978) and the thermal losses are minimized because the thermal energy is utilized where it is produced. Since Adams et al. (2015) found that using CO2 as a subsurface working fluid produces more net power than brine at low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource conditions, we

  20. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 3: Applied and direct uses, resource feasibility, economics

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal hybrid cycle power plant: design, testing, and operation summary; Feasibility of hydraulic energy recovery from geopressured-geothermal resources: economic analysis of the Pelton turbine; Brine production as an exploration tool for water drive gas reservoirs; Study of supercritical Rankine cycles; Application of the geopressured-geothermal resource to pyrolytic conversion or decomposition/detoxification processes; Conclusions on wet air oxidation, pyrolytic conversion, decomposition/detoxification process; Co-location of medium to heavy oil reservoirs with geopressured-geothermal resources and the feasibility of oil recovery using geopressured-geothermal fluids; Economic analysis; Application of geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses; Industrial consortium for the utilization of the geopressured-geothermal resource; Power generation; Industrial desalination, gas use and sales, pollutant removal, thermal EOR, sulfur frasching, oil and natural gas pipelining, coal desulfurization and preparation, lumber and concrete products kilning; Agriculture and aquaculture applications; Paper and cane sugar industries; Chemical processing; Environmental considerations for geopressured-geothermal development. 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Papers Presented - Geothermal Resources Council 1980 Annual Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This report contains preprints of papers pertaining to geothermal energy development in the Eastern United States written by members of the Center for Metropolitan Planning and Research (Metro Center) and by the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) both of The Johns Hopkins University.

  2. Electromagnetic soundings for geothermal resources in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1985-03-01

    An electromagnetic (EM) sounding survey was performed over a region encompassing the Dixie Valley geothermal field to map the subsurface resistivity in the geothermal field and the surrounding area. The EM survey, consisting of 19 frequency-domain depth soundings made with the LBL EM-60 system, was undertaken to explore a narrow region adjacent to the Stillwater Range to a depth of 2 to 3 km. Lithologic and well log resistivity information from well 66-21 show that for EM interpretation the section can be reduced to a three-layer model consisting of moderately resistive alluvial sediments, low resistivity lacustrine sediments, and high resistivity Tertiary volcanics and older rocks. This three layer model was used as a starting point in interpreting EM sounding data. Variations in resistivity and thickness provided structural information and clues to the accumulation of geothermal fluids. The interpreted soundings reveal a 1 to 1.5-km-deep low-resistivity zone spatially associated with the geothermal field. The shallow depth suggests that the zone detected is either fluid leakage or hydrothermal alteration, rather than high-temperature reservoir fluids. The position of the low-resistivity zone also conforms to changes in depth to the high resistivity basal layer, suggesting that faulting is a control on the location of productive intervals. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  3. 43 CFR 3251.11 - What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations application? 3251.11 Section 3251.11..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.11 What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct...

  4. 43 CFR 3251.11 - What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations application? 3251.11 Section 3251.11..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.11 What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct...

  5. 43 CFR 3251.11 - What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations application? 3251.11 Section 3251.11..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.11 What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct...

  6. 43 CFR 3251.11 - What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Intent to Conduct Geothermal Resource Exploration Operations application? 3251.11 Section 3251.11..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Exploration Operations: Getting BLM Approval § 3251.11 What information is in a complete Notice of Intent to Conduct...

  7. Geopressured geothermal resource of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast: a technology characterization and environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Usibelli, A.; Deibler, P.; Sathaye, J.

    1980-12-01

    Two aspects of the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal resource: (1) the technological requirements for well drilling, completion, and energy conversion, and, (2) the environmental impacts of resource exploitation are examined. The information comes from the literature on geopressured geothermal research and from interviews and discussions with experts. The technology characterization section emphasizes those areas in which uncertainty exists and in which further research and development is needed. The environmental assessment section discusses all anticipated environmental impacts and focuses on the two largest potential problems: (a) subsidence and (b) brine disposal.

  8. HIGH-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN HYDROTHERMAL CONVECTION SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1983-01-01

    The calculation of high-temperature geothermal resources ( greater than 150 degree C) in the United States has been done by estimating the temperature, area, and thickness of each identified system. These data, along with a general model for recoverability of geothermal energy and a calculation that takes account of the conversion of thermal energy to electricity, yielded an estimate of 23,000 MW//e for 30 years. The undiscovered component was estimated based on multipliers of the identified resource as either 72,000 or 127,000 MW//e for 30 years depending on the model chosen for the distribution of undiscovered energy as a function of temperature.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES IN HYDROTHERMAL CONVECTION SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1984-01-01

    The amount of thermal energy in high-temperature geothermal systems (>150 degree C) in the United States has been calculated by estimating the temperature, area, and thickness of each identified system. These data, along with a general model for recoverability of geothermal energy and a calculation that takes account of the conversion of thermal energy to electricity, yield a resource estimate of 23,000 MWe for 30 years. The undiscovered component was estimated based on multipliers of the identified resource as either 72,000 or 127,000 MWe for 30 years depending on the model chosen for the distribution of undiscovered energy as a function of temperature.

  10. Geologic studies of deep natural gas resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T. S.; Kuuskraa, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the USGS estimated a mean resource of 114 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered technically recoverable natural gas in plays deeper than 15,000 feet/4,572 meters in onshore regions of the United States. This volume summarizes major conclusions of ongoing work. Chapters A and B address the areal extent of drilling and distribution of deep basins in the U.S. Chapter C summarizes distribution of deep sedimentary basins and potential for deep gas in the former Soviet Union. Chapters D and E are geochemical papers addressing source-rock issues and deep gas generation. Chapter F develops a probabilistic method for subdividing gas resources into depth slices, and chapter G analyzes the relative uncertainty of estimates of deep gas in plays in the Gulf Coast Region. Chapter H evaluates the mechanism of hydrogenation of deep, high-rank spent kerogen by water, with subsequent generation of methane-rich HC gas.

  11. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  12. Heat flow and hot dry rock geothermal resources of the Clearlake Region, northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal anomaly is an area of high heat flow in northern California. The anomaly is caused by abnormally high heat flows generated by asthenospheric uplift and basaltic magmatic underplating at a slabless window created by passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The Clear Lake volcanic field is underlain by magmatic igneous bodies in the form of a stack of sill-form intrusions with silicic bodies generally at the top and basic magmas at the bottom. The tabular shape and wide areal extent of the heat sources results in linear temperature gradients and near-horizontal isotherms in a broad region at the center of the geothermal anomaly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) portion of The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal field is that part of the geothermal anomaly that is external to the steamfield, bounded by geothermal gradients of 167 mW/m2 (4 heat flow units-hfu) and 335 mW/m2 (8 hfu). The HDR resources, to a depth of 5 km, were estimated by piece-wise linear summation based on a sketch map of the heat flow. Approximately, the geothermal {open_quotes}accessible resource base{close_quotes} (Qa) is 1.68E+21 J; the {open_quotes}HDR resource base{close_quotes} (Qha) is 1.39E+21 J; and the {open_quotes}HDR power production resource{close_quotes} (Qhp) is 1.01E+21 J. The HDR power production resource (Qhp) is equivalent to 2.78E+ 11 Mwht (megawatt hours thermal), or 1.72E+11 bbls of oil.

  13. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: methodology implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blondes, Madalyn S.; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Buursink, Marc L.; Warwick, Peter D.; Cahan, Steven M.; Corum, Margo D.; Cook, Troy A.; Craddock, William H.; DeVera, Christina A.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Drew, Lawrence J.; Freeman, P.A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Slucher, Ernie R.; Varela, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    In response to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). Storage of CO2 in subsurface saline formations is one important method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and curb global climate change. This report provides updates and implementation details of the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1127/) and describes the probabilistic model used to calculate potential storage resources in subsurface saline formations.

  14. National assessment of geologic carbon dioxide storage resources: results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of the technically accessible storage resources (TASR) for carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations underlying the onshore and State waters area of the United States. The formations assessed are at least 3,000 feet (914 meters) below the ground surface. The TASR is an estimate of the CO2 storage resource that may be available for CO2 injection and storage that is based on present-day geologic and hydrologic knowledge of the subsurface and current engineering practices. Individual storage assessment units (SAUs) for 36 basins were defined on the basis of geologic and hydrologic characteristics outlined in the assessment methodology of Brennan and others (2010, USGS Open-File Report 2010–1127) and the subsequent methodology modification and implementation documentation of Blondes, Brennan, and others (2013, USGS Open-File Report 2013–1055). The mean national TASR is approximately 3,000 metric gigatons (Gt). The estimate of the TASR includes buoyant trapping storage resources (BSR), where CO2 can be trapped in structural or stratigraphic closures, and residual trapping storage resources, where CO2 can be held in place by capillary pore pressures in areas outside of buoyant traps. The mean total national BSR is 44 Gt. The residual storage resource consists of three injectivity classes based on reservoir permeability: residual trapping class 1 storage resource (R1SR) represents storage in rocks with permeability greater than 1 darcy (D); residual trapping class 2 storage resource (R2SR) represents storage in rocks with moderate permeability, defined as permeability between 1 millidarcy (mD) and 1 D; and residual trapping class 3 storage resource (R3SR) represents storage in rocks with low permeability, defined as permeability less than 1 mD. The mean national storage resources for rocks in residual trapping classes 1, 2, and 3 are 140 Gt, 2,700 Gt, and 130 Gt, respectively. The known recovery

  15. Multiple data sets converge on a geologic structural model for Glass Buttes, Oregon geothermal prospect, Patrick Walsh, et al, 2010 American Geophysical Union Poster Session

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ezra Zemach

    2010-01-01

    Multiple data sets converge on a geologic structural model for Glass Buttes, Oregon geothermal prospect, Patrick Walsh, Brigette Martini, Chet Lide, Darrick Boschmann, John DIlles, Andrew Meigs, 2010 Ormat Nevada, Zonge Geophysical, Oregon State University American Geophysical Union, Poster Session

  16. Multiple data sets converge on a geologic structural model for Glass Buttes, Oregon geothermal prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, P.; Martini, B.; Lide, C.; Boschmann, D.; Dilles, J. H.; Meigs, A.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic field work is being combined with multiple remote sensing and geophysical tools to model fault structure at the Glass Buttes geothermal prospect in central Oregon. Glass Buttes are a Pliocene volcanic center that sits near the junction of the Abert Rim and Brothers Fault Zones. West-northwest-striking faults, which typify the Brothers Fault Zone, bound Glass Buttes. Individual faults and fault intersections are anticipated to provide permeability for utility scale geothermal development in central Oregon. Existing temperature data reveal a maximum of 90° C measured at 600 m, with ~160° C/km bottom hole temperature gradient. High temperature surface alteration, abundant WNW-oriented faulting, and reported drilling mud losses indicate likely commercial temperatures and fracture-controlled permeability at depth. LiDAR, hyperspectral mineral mapping, and field mapping constrain near-surface structure and volcanic contacts; aeromagnetic data constrain surface to intermediate (<1000 m) structure; and gravity data constrain deeper structure (surface-2000 m). Data sets agree reasonably well in some areas, although gravity data reflect a few deep-seated faults more than the densely faulted surface structure. On the east side of the prospect, these interpreted faults trend ENE, nearly perpendicular to observed surface structures. To the north of Glass Buttes, a curvilinear gravity high and topographic low indicate that Glass Buttes sits on the southern end of a previously unidentified buried caldera or graben. Interpretation of subsurface and gravity data do not uniquely distinguish between these alternative interpretations. Exploratory drilling will target intersections of surface faults with deeper gravity-defined features.

  17. Siberian Platform: Geology and Natural Bitumen Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, Richard F.; Freeman, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Summary: The Siberian platform is located between the Yenisey River on the west and the Lena River on the south and east. The Siberian platform is vast in size and inhospitable in its climate. This report is concerned principally with the setting, formation, and potential volumes of natural bitumen. In this report the volumes of maltha and asphalt referred to in the Russian literature are combined to represent natural bitumen. The generation of hydrocarbons and formation of hydrocarbon accumulations are discussed. The sedimentary basins of the Platform are described in terms of the Klemme basin classification system and the conditions controlling formation of natural bitumen. Estimates of in-place bitumen resources are reviewed and evaluated. If the bitumen volume estimate is confined to parts of identified deposits where field observations have verified rock and bitumen grades values, the bitumen resource amounts to about 62 billion barrels of oil in-place. However, estimates of an order of magnitude larger can be obtained if additional speculative and unverified rock volumes and grade measures are included.

  18. Integrated exploration for low-temperature geothermal resources in the Honey Lake Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, U.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated exploration study is presented to locate low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the Honey Lake area of northern California. Regional studies to locate the geothermal resources included gravity, infra-red, water-temperature, and water-quality analyses. Five anomalies were mapped from resistivity surveys. Additional study of three anomalies by temperature-gradient and seismic methods was undertaken to define structure and potential of the geothermal resource. The gravity data show a graben structure in the area. Seismic reflection data indicate faults associated with surface-resistivity and temperature-gradient data. The data support the interpretation that the shallow reservoirs are replenished along the fault zones by deeply circulating heated meteoric waters. -Author

  19. Recoverable Resource Estimate of Identified Onshore Geopressured Geothermal Energy in Texas and Louisiana (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2012-04-01

    Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are characterized by high temperatures and high pressures with correspondingly large quantities of dissolved methane. Due to these characteristics, the reservoirs provide two sources of energy: chemical energy from the recovered methane, and thermal energy from the recovered fluid at temperatures high enough to operate a binary power plant for electricity production. Formations with the greatest potential for recoverable energy are located in the gulf coastal region of Texas and Louisiana where significantly overpressured and hot formations are abundant. This study estimates the total recoverable onshore geopressured geothermal resource for identified sites in Texas and Louisiana. In this study a geopressured geothermal resource is defined as a brine reservoir with fluid temperature greater than 212 degrees F and a pressure gradient greater than 0.7 psi/ft.

  20. Integrated exploration for low-temperature geothermal resources in the Honey Lake basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Schimschal, U. )

    1991-02-01

    An integrated exploration study is presented to locate low-temperature geothermal reservoirs in the Honey Lake area of northern California. Regional studies to locate the geothermal resources included gravity, infrared, water-temperature, and water-quality analyses. Five anomalies were mapped from resistivity surveys. Additional study of three anomalies by temperature-gradient and seismic methods was undertaken to define structure and potential of the geothermal resource. The gravity data show a graben structure in the area. Seismic reflection data, indicate faults associated with surface-resistivity and temperature-gradient data. The data support the interpretation that the shallow reservoirs are replenished along the fault zones by deeply circulating heated meteoric waters.

  1. 30 CFR 206.356 - How do I calculate royalty or fees due on geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the geothermal resource. That amount of thermal energy (in Btu) displaced by the geothermal... geothermal resources I use for direct use purposes? 206.356 Section 206.356 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION...

  2. Geothermal energy resources of wadi Al-Lith, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashin, A.; Chandrasekharam, D.; Al Arifi, N.; Al Bassam, A.; Varun, C.

    2014-09-01

    The entire western Arabian shield is the domain of both hydrothermal and enhanced geothermal systems associated with volcanic centres (Harrats) and high heat generating granites. The most prominent sites of hydrothermal systems are located around Al-Lith and Jizan. The hydrothermal system in Al Lith is controlled by high heat generating (∼11 μW/m3) post orogenic granites. The high heat flow value of >80 mW/m2 across Al-Lith coast is due to such granite intrusives, presence of dike swarms that intrude into the granites as well as position of Moho at shallow level. Although the thermal waters are chloride rich, Red Sea involvement is not observed. Long residence time and water rock interaction with granites are the main processes responsible for chloride enrichment in the thermal waters. Oxygen isotope shift indicates presence of high temperature geothermal system in the area. The tritium values indicate that the circulating waters are >75 years old.

  3. Seismic methods for resource exploration in enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gritto, Roland; Majer, Ernest L.

    2002-06-12

    A finite-difference modeling study of seismic wave propagation was conducted to determine how to best investigate subsurface faults and fracture zones in geothermal areas. The numerical model was created based on results from a previous seismic reflection experiment. A suite of fault models was investigated including blind faults and faults with surface expressions. The seismic data suggest that blind faults can be detected by a sudden attenuation of seismic wave amplitudes, as long the fault is located below the receiver array. Additionally, a conversion from P- to S-waves indicates the reflection and refraction of the P-waves while propagating across the fault. The drop in amplitudes and the excitation of S-waves can be used to estimate the location of the fault at depth. The accuracy of the numerical modeling depends on the availability of a priori in situ information (velocity and density) from borehole experiments in the geothermal area.

  4. A groundwater convection model for Rio Grande rift geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Harder, V.; Daggett, P. H.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    It has been proposed that forced convection, driven by normal groundwater flow through the interconnected basins of the Rio Grande rift is the primary source mechanism for the numerous geothermal anomalies along the rift. A test of this concept using an analytical model indicates that significant forced convection must occur in the basins even if permeabilities are as low as 50-200 millidarcies at a depth of 2 km. Where groundwater flow is constricted at the discharge areas of the basins forced convection can locally increase the gradient to a level where free convection also occurs, generating surface heat flow anomalies 5-15 times background. A compilation of groundwater data for the rift basins shows a strong correlation between constrictions in groundwater flow and hot springs and geothermal anomalies, giving strong circumstantial support to the convection model.

  5. Geothermal and heavy-oil resources in Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Seni, S.J.; Walter, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    In a five-county area of South Texas, geopressured-geothermal reservoirs in the Paleocene-Eocene Wilcox Group lie below medium- to heavy-oil reservoirs in the Eocene Jackson Group. This fortuitous association suggests the use of geothermal fluids for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). Geothermal fairways are formed where thick deltaic sandstones are compartmentalized by growth faults. Wilcox geothermal reservoirs in South Texas are present at depths of 11,000 to 15,000 ft (3,350 to 4,570 m) in laterally continuous sandstones 100 to 200 ft (30 to 60 m) thick. Permeability is generally low (typically 1 md), porosity ranges from 12 to 24 percent, and temperature exceeds 250{degrees}F (121{degrees}C). Reservoirs containing medium (20{degrees} to 25{degrees} API gravity) to heavy (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) oil are concentrated along the Texas Coastal Plain in the Jackson-Yegua Barrier/Strandplain (Mirando Trend), Cap Rock, and Piercement Salt Dome plays and in the East Texas Basin in Woodbine Fluvial/Deltaic Strandplain and Paluxy Fault Line plays. Injection of hot, moderately fresh to saline brines will improve oil recovery by lowering viscosity and decreasing residual oil saturation. Smectite clay matrix could swell and clog pore throats if injected waters have low salinity. The high temperature of injected fluids will collapse some of the interlayer clays, thus increasing porosity and permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity resulting from facies variation and diagenesis must be considered when siting production and injection wells within the heavy-oil reservoir. The ability of abandoned gas wells to produce sufficient volumes of hot water over the long term will also affect the economics of TEOR.

  6. Life Cycle Water Consumption and Water Resource Assessment for Utility-Scale Geothermal Systems: An In-Depth Analysis of Historical and Forthcoming EGS Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Corrie E.; Harto, Christopher B.; Schroeder, Jenna N.; Martino, Louis E.; Horner, Robert M.

    2013-11-05

    minimizing fresh water consumption throughout the life cycle of geothermal power development. The large resource base for EGSs represents a major opportunity for the geothermal industry; however, depending upon geology, these systems can require large quantities of makeup water due to belowground reservoir losses. Identifying potential sources of compatible degraded or low-quality water for use for makeup injection for EGS and flash systems represents an important opportunity to reduce the impacts of geothermal development on fresh water resources. The importance of identifying alternative water sources for geothermal systems is heightened by the fact that a large fraction of the geothermal resource is located in areas already experiencing water stress. Chapter 7 is a glossary of the technical terms used in the report, and Chapters 8 and 9 provide references and a bibliography, respectively.

  7. Investigation of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources in the Sonoma Valley Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.; Chapman, Rodger H.; Chase, Gordon W.; Bezore, Stephen P.; Majmundar, Hasu H.

    1983-01-01

    The Sonoma Valley area contains low-temperature geothermal resources (20 C {le} T {le} 90 C) having the potential for useful development. Sonoma Valley residents, local governments and institutions, private developers, and manufacturers may be able to utilize the geothermal resources as an alternate energy source. Historically, there have been at least six geothermal spring areas developed in the Sonoma Valley. Four of these (Boyes Hot Springs, Fetter's Hot Springs, Agua Caliente Springs, and the Sonoma State Hospital warm spring) lie on a linear trend extending northwestward from the City of Sonoma. Detailed geophysical surveys delineated a major fault trace along the east side of the Sonoma Valley in association with the historic geothermal areas. Other fault traces were also delineated revealing a general northwest-trending structural faulting fabric underlying the valley. Water wells located near the ''east side'' fault have relatively high boron concentrations. Geochemical evidence may suggest the ''east side'' fault presents a barrier to lateral fluid migration but is a conduit for ascending fluids. Fifteen of the twenty-nine geothermal wells or springs located from literature research or field surveys are located along or east of this major fault in a 10 km (6.2 miles) long, narrow zone. The highest recorded water temperature in the valley appears to be 62.7 C (145 F) at 137.2 meters (450 feet) in a well at Boyes Hot Springs. This is consistent with the geothermal reservoir temperature range of 52-77 C (126-171 F) indicated by geothermometry calculations performed on data from wells in the area. Interpretation of data indicates a low-temperature geothermal fluid upwelling or ''plume'', along the ''east side'' fault with subsequent migration into permeable aquifers predominantly within volcanic strata. It is quite likely other geothermal fluid ''plumes'' in association with faulting are present within the Sonoma Valley area. A 5.8 km{sup 2} geothermal zone

  8. Geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. K.; Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Rowan, L. C.; Short, N. M.

    1975-01-01

    Papers from private industry reporting applications of remote sensing to oil and gas exploration were presented. Digitally processed LANDSAT images were successfully employed in several geologic interpretations. A growing interest in digital image processing among the geologic user community was shown. The papers covered a wide geographic range and a wide technical and application range. Topics included: (1) oil and gas exploration, by use of radar and multisensor studies as well as by use of LANDSAT imagery or LANDSAT digital data, (2) mineral exploration, by mapping from LANDSAT and Skylab imagery and by LANDSAT digital processing, (3) geothermal energy studies with Skylab imagery, (4) environmental and engineering geology, by use of radar or LANDSAT and Skylab imagery, (5) regional mapping and interpretation, and digital and spectral methods.

  9. 43 CFR 3275.20 - What will BLM do if I waste geothermal resources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will determine the amount of any resources you have lost through waste. If you did not take all reasonable precautions to prevent waste, we will require you to pay compensation based on the value of the...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL...

  10. Investigations into early rift development and geothermal resources in the Pyramid Lake fault zone, Western Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Eisses, A.; Kell, A.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Karlin, R.; Baskin, R.; Louie, J.; Pullammanappallil, S.

    2016-08-01

    A. K. Eisses, A. M. Kell, G. Kent, N. W. Driscoll, R. E. Karlin, R. L. Baskin, J. N. Louie, S. Pullammanappallil, 2010, Investigations into early rift development and geothermal resources in the Pyramid Lake fault zone, Western Nevada: Abstract T33C-2278 presented at 2010 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 13-17 Dec.

  11. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  12. Mineral resources versus geologic diversity in small areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, J. C.; Smith, C. M.

    1992-06-01

    There is a simple linear relationship between geologic diversity ( = the number of rock types — 1) and the mineral-resource diversity ( = the number of commodities produced — 1) which may be used to predict the number of commodities produced from a given number of geologic rock types in a region. In addition it is shown that the geologic and mineral-resource diversities are related positively to size (expressed as log A km 2) of sampling unit. It is of some interest to determine whether these relationships hold for sample units the size of counties. 182 counties from six states, Maine (16), New Hamshire (10), Vermont (14), Pennsylvania (67), Nevada (17), and California (58) are used to investigate these relationships. The regression of geologic diversity ( sg - 1) on size (log A) is positive, linear, and about r2 = 41.0% determining. Similarly, the regression of mineral-resource diversity ( sm - 1) on size (log A) is positive, linear, and r2 = 39.6% determining. The regression of mineral resource on geologic diversity also is similarly linear and positive with r2 = 54% determining. The regression of geologic diversity on size for a larger global population ( n = 413; where sample units are countries and states) is similar to that for the 182 counties with r2 = 48% determining. Evidently, the relationships hold for sample units the size of counties with a similar slope but a smaller intercept. It then is shown that for sample units the size of states and countries (i.e. log A from 3.0 to 6.5) the intercept is about 12. In other words, given a sample unit the size of states or countries with a geologic diversity of zero, the region is geologically homogeneous, one would expect it to produce some 12 commodities; on the other hand if the sample unit is the size of counties with the same value of zero for geologic diversity, then it would likely produce from 3 to 5 commodities.

  13. Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment for Membrane Distillation Desalination in the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Akar, Sertac; Turchi, Craig

    2016-10-01

    Substantial drought and declines in potable groundwater in the United States over the last decade has increased the demand for fresh water. Desalination of saline water such as brackish surface or groundwater, seawater, brines co-produced from oil and gas operations, industrial wastewater, blow-down water from power plant cooling towers, and agriculture drainage water can reduce the volume of water that requires disposal while providing a source of high-quality fresh water for industrial or commercial use. Membrane distillation (MD) is a developing technology that uses low-temperature thermal energy for desalination. Geothermal heat can be an ideal thermal-energy source for MD desalination technology, with a target range of $1/m3 to $2/m3 for desalinated water depending on the cost of heat. Three different cases were analyzed to estimate levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for integration of MD desalination technology with low-grade geothermal heat: (1) residual heat from injection brine at a geothermal power plant, (2) heat from existing underutilized low-temperature wells, and (3) drilling new wells for low-temperature resources. The Central and Western United States have important low-temperature (<90 degrees C) geothermal resource potential with wide geographic distribution, but these resources are highly underutilized because they are inefficient for power production. According to the USGS, there are 1,075 identified low temperature hydrothermal systems, 55 low temperature sedimentary systems and 248 identified medium to high temperature geothermal systems in the United States. The estimated total beneficial heat potential from identified low temperature hydrothermal geothermal systems and residual beneficial heat from medium to high temperature systems is estimated as 36,300 MWth, which could theoretically produce 1.4 to 7 million m3/day of potable water, depending on desalination efficiency.

  14. A Cost-efficient Well Construction for Deep Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, F.; Overmeyer, L.

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 70 % of the budget of a geothermal project is spent for the construction of the wells. Therefore, the aim of the Geothermal Energy and High Performance Drilling Research Program (gebo) is to reduce the costs for the production of power through geothermal energy. To minimize these drilling costs the drilling time and the time needed for the deployment of the casing have to be decreased as possible. The basic concept herein is to decrease the well diameter by creating a monobore well. Essential in accomplishing this is a special type of casing, structured from the folded tubulars for expandable casing applications featuring clover-like cross sections, expandable to a cylindrical form, when the casing is at its downhole position. This enables to increase the drilling speed and leads to less completion work. The handling of these special tubulars with conventional manipulators is rather unfeasible. Handling machines must generally be in position to grip, lift and place objects. Therefore, a Casing-Running-Tool (CRT) was modeled in such way as to be insertable from the upper end and grab the complex shape of the folded tubulars from the inside. This tool form provides minimum space requirements while at the same time allowing the tool to descend into the well. Furthermore, it is essential that the tool can hold onto the whole casing construction whereas no plastic deformation occurs on the casing at the tool-tubular contact area. Therefore, it was selected that force applied on the gripping surface be weight dependent. FEM simulations were conducted to depict the stress distribution on a casing section measuring 500 m and illustrate the critical length the gripper has to feature as to avoid plastic deformation. This handling device being the critical component for an automated handling process of these tubular, helps to improve the overall casing process efficiency by further decreasing the time needed for the well construction. Integration into commercial

  15. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Garry J.; Birkby, Jeff

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  16. Evaluation of the St. Lucia geothermal resource: macroeconomic models

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, A.E.; Trocki, L.K.; Yeamans, M.K.; Kolstad, C.D.

    1984-08-01

    A macroeconometric model describing the St. Lucian economy was developed using 1970 to 1982 economic data. Results of macroeconometric forecasts for the period 1983 through 1985 show an increase in gross domestic product (GDP) for 1983 and 1984 with a decline in 1985. The rate of population growth is expected to exceed GDP growth so that a small decline in per capita GDP will occur. We forecast that garment exports will increase, providing needed employment and foreign exchange. To obtain a longer-term but more general outlook on St. Lucia's economy, and to evaluate the benefit of geothermal energy development, we applied a nonlinear programming model. The model maximizes discounted cumulative consumption.

  17. The Role of Cost Shared R&D in the Development of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-16

    This U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Program Review starts with two interesting pieces on industries outlook about market conditions. Dr. Allan Jelacics introductory talk includes the statistics on the impacts of the Industry Coupled Drilling Program (late-1970's) on geothermal power projects in Nevada and Utah (about 140 MWe of power stimulated). Most of the papers in these Proceedings are in a technical report format, with results. Sessions included: Exploration, The Geysers, Reservoir Engineering, Drilling, Energy Conversion (including demonstration of a BiPhase Turbine Separator), Energy Partnerships (including the Lake County effluent pipeline to The Geysers), and Technology Transfer (Biochemical processing of brines, modeling of chemistry, HDR, the OIT low-temperature assessment of collocation of resources with population, and geothermal heat pumps). There were no industry reviews at this meeting.

  18. Prospects of development of highly mineralized high-temperature resources of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Ramazanov, A. Sh.; Kasparova, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    The promising nature of integrated processing of high-temperature geothermal brines of the Tarumovskoye geothermal field is shown. Thermal energy of a geothermal brine can be converted to the electric power at a binary geothermal power plant (GPP) based on low-boiling working substance. The thermodynamic Rankine cycles are considered which are implemented in the GPP secondary loop at different evaporation temperatures of the working substance―isobutane. Among them, the most efficient cycle from the standpoint of attaining a maximum power is the supercritical one which is close to the so-called triangular cycle with an evaporation pressure of p e = 5.0 MPa. The used low-temperature brine is supplied from the GPP to a chemical plant, where main chemical components (lithium carbonate, burnt magnesia, calcium carbonate, and sodium chloride) are extracted from it according to the developed technology of comprehensive utilization of geothermal brines of chloride-sodium type. The waste water is delivered to the geotechnological complex and other consumers. For producing valuable inorganic materials, the electric power generated at the GPP is used. Owing to this, the total self-sufficiency of production and independence from external conditions is achieved. The advantages of the proposed geotechnological complex are the full utilization of the heat potential and the extraction of main chemical components of multiparameter geothermal resources. In this case, there is no need for reverse pumping, which eliminates the significant capital costs for building injection wells and a pumping station and the operating costs for their service. A characteristic of the modern state of the field and estimated figures of the integrated processing of high-temperature brines of well no. 6 are given, from which it follows that the proposed technology has a high efficiency. The comprehensive development of the field resources will make it possible to improve the economic structure of the

  19. Characterization of mudstone, clayey rock and argillite towards stabilisation of boreholes by developing new drilling strategies for geothermal resources exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaus, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Röckel, Th.; Hecht, Ch.; Herold, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, relating to the BMU Project „ borehole stabilisation as an important factor for the utilization of deep geothermal resources" (Project No. 0327594), sediment rocks with comparable lithology to the pelite beds of the Upper Rhine zone were investigated by a number of geomechanical tests. The investigation will provide detailed information on the geomechanical behaviour (brittle and ductile deformation) of clay stone formations in order to find out critical reasons for the instability of boreholes at a depth of about 2000 m. The main aspect of the study is to develop improved technical options in order to increase borehole stability. Many geothermal energy projects started near the Upper Rhine Rift in order to produce electricity, as the geothermal gradient rises there to about 150° C at 3 - 4 km depth. For these enhanced geothermal systems it is necessary to drill deep boreholes to install geothermal heat exchangers, so that the injected cold water conducts the high temperature of the rocks (Hot Dry Rock-Technology). The drillings have to be intersected through different rock layers that are influenced by varying regional stress fields respective to their depth. Between depths of 1500 to 2000 m within the Upper Rhine zone some of the drilled boreholes were in some parts very unstable, especially in formations where mud- and clay stones were dominant, as well as in interbedded strata with sandstones. As the maximum load capacity of these clays is very low and due to their ductile as well as brittle deformation behaviour, borehole convergence and borehole breakouts are detected. These changes were also caused by deep injection of drilling fluid into the rock formation, increasing the pore pressure there, so that hydraulic tension cracks were induced (hydraulic fracturing). This occurred mainly during drilling and it is the reason why there is an imminent risk of the stability of geothermal boreholes in geological formations composed of mudstones, clay

  20. Three-dimensional Q/sup -1/ model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Ward, R.W.

    1980-05-10

    Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976. Subsequently, they deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the center of anomaly. The seismograms of 44 events recorded by the telemetered array and nine events by the Centipede array were analyzed using the reduced spectral ratio technique to determine the differential attenuation factordeltat* for the events recorded with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The deltat* variation observed across the Coso Hot Springs KGRA were small (<0.2 s). A three-dimensional generalized linear inversion of the deltat* observations was performed using a three-layer model. A shallow zone of high attenuation exists within the upper 5 km in a region bounded by Coso Hot Springs, Devils Kitchen, and Sugarloaf Mountain probably corresponding to a shallow vapor liquid mixture or 'lossy' near surface lithology. No zones of significantly high attenuation occur between 5- and 12-km depth. Between the depth of 12--20 km a thick zone of high attenuation (Q<50) exists, offset toward the east from the surface anomaly.

  1. 43 CFR 3211.18 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees, Rent, Direct Use Fees, and Royalties § 3211.18 What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are...

  2. 43 CFR 3211.17 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are used for commercial generation...

  3. 43 CFR 3211.18 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees, Rent, Direct Use Fees, and Royalties § 3211.18 What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are...

  4. 43 CFR 3211.17 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are used for commercial generation...

  5. 43 CFR 3211.17 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are used for commercial generation...

  6. 43 CFR 3211.18 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees, Rent, Direct Use Fees, and Royalties § 3211.18 What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are...

  7. 43 CFR 3211.17 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal... OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING... geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are used for commercial generation...

  8. 43 CFR 3211.18 - What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What is the royalty rate on geothermal...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Filing and Processing Fees, Rent, Direct Use Fees, and Royalties § 3211.18 What is the royalty rate on geothermal resources produced from or attributable to my lease that are...

  9. Geothermometric evaluation of geothermal resources in southeastern Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupane, G.; Mattson, E. D.; McLing, T. L.; Palmer, C. D.; Smith, R. W.; Wood, T. R.; Podgorney, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Southeastern Idaho exhibits numerous warm springs, warm water from shallow wells, and hot water from oil and gas test wells that indicate a potential for geothermal development in the area. We have estimated reservoir temperatures from chemical composition of thermal waters in southeastern Idaho using an inverse geochemical modeling technique (Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that calculates the temperature at which multiple minerals are simultaneously at equilibrium while explicitly accounting for the possible loss of volatile constituents (e.g., CO2), boiling and/or water mixing. The temperature estimates in the region varied from moderately warm (59 °C) to over 175 °C. Specifically, hot springs near Preston, Idaho, resulted in the highest reservoir temperature estimates in the region.

  10. Preliminary assessment of the geologic setting, hydrology, and geochemistry of the Hueco Tanks geothermal area, Texas and New Mexico. Geological Circular 81-1

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C.D.; Gluck, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    The Hueco Tanks geothermal area contains five known but now inactive hot wells (50/sup 0/ to 71/sup 0/C). The area trends north-south along the east side of Tularosa-Hueco Bolson astride the Texas-New Mexico border approximately 40 km northeast of El Paso. Because of its proximity to El Paso, geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area could be a significant resource. Hueco Bolson is an asymmetric graben. Greatest displacement along boundary faults is on the west side adjacent to the Franklin Mountains. Faults, probably with less displacement, also form an irregular boundary on the east side of the bolson. Several probable faults may allow the rise of thermal waters from depth. Ground water in the central part of Hueco Bolson flows southward to the Rio Grande. However, four of the five hot wells occur in a ground-water trough along the eastern margin of the bolson. The trough may be bounded by one of the postulated faults serving as a barrier to ground-water flow. Data on permeability of potential reservoir rocks, including basin fill and fractured bedrock, suggest that they may be sufficiently permeable for development of geothermal water. The concentration of dissolved solids in the geothermal waters varies from 1100 to at least 12,500 mg/L, but most waters show high concentrations. They are Na-Cl-(SO/sub 4/) waters similar in composition to nonthermal waters in basin fill. The composition probably results from contact with evaporite deposits either in basin fill or in Paleozoic bedrock. Shallow reservoirs reach maximum temperatures of about 80/sup 0/ to 110/sup 0/C. Available data are too limited to evaluate adequately the resource potential of geothermal water in the Hueco Tanks area.

  11. Airborne Geophysical Surveys Illuminate the Geologic and Hydrothermal Framework of the Pilgrim Springs Geothermal Area, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhee, D. K.; Glen, J. M.; Bedrosian, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    An airborne magnetic and frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Pilgrim Springs geothermal area, located on the Seward Peninsula in west-central Alaska, delineates key structures controlling hydrothermal fluid flow. Hot springs, nearby thawed regions, and high lake temperatures are indicative of high heat flow in the region that is thought to be related to recent volcanism. By providing a region-wide geologic and geophysical framework, this work will provide informed decisions regarding drill-site planning and further our understanding of geothermal systems in active extensional basins. Helicopter magnetic and EM data were acquired using a Fugro RESOLVE system equipped with a high sensitivity cesium magnetometer and a multi-coil, multi-frequency EM system sensitive to the frequency range of 400-140,000 Hz. The survey was flown ~40 m above ground along flight lines spaced 0.2-0.4 km apart. Various derivative and filtering methods, including maximum horizontal gradient of the pseudogravity transformation of the magnetic data, are used to locate faults, contacts, and structural domains. A dominant northwest trending anomaly pattern characterizes the northeastern portion of the survey area between Pilgrim Springs and Hen and Chickens Mountain and may reflect basement structures. The area south of the springs, however, is dominantly characterized by east-west trending, range-front-parallel anomalies likely caused by late Cenozoic structures associated with the north-south extension that formed the basin. Regionally, the springs are characterized by a magnetic high punctuated by several east-west trending magnetic lows, the most prominent occurring directly over the springs. The lows may result from demagnetization of magnetic material along range-front parallel features that dissect the basin. We inverted in-phase and quadrature EM data along each profile using the laterally-constrained inversion of Auken et al. (2005). Data were inverted for 20-layer

  12. The US Geological Survey's national coal resource assessment: The results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Kirschbaum, M.A.; Warwick, P.D.; Flores, R.M.; Affolter, R.H.; Hatch, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the State geological surveys of many coal-bearing States recently completed a new assessment of the top producing coal beds and coal zones in five major producing coal regions the Appalachian Basin, Gulf Coast, Illinois Basin, Colorado Plateau, and Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains. The assessments, which focused on both coal quality and quantity, utilized geographic information system technology and large databases. Over 1,600,000 million short tons of coal remain in over 60 coal beds and coal zones that were assessed. Given current economic, environmental, and technological restrictions, the majority of US coal production will occur in that portion of the assessed coal resource that is lowest in sulfur content. These resources are concentrated in parts of the central Appalachian Basin, Colorado Plateau, and the Northern Rocky Mountains. ?? Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development plans. (5) Formulation and

  14. Seasat satellite investigation of the structure of western Nebraska and its application to the evaluation of geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Seasat synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite imagery was used to interpret the structural framework and, indirectly, the geothermal potential of an area in western Nebraska. Lineaments were mapped from the imagery and then compared to known structure. It was found that Seasat does record surface manifestations of subtle basement structures, particularly faulting. Furthermore, four areas with geothermal potential were delineated using Seasat and other data. It is stressed that more subsurface geology and geophysical data are needed before a final evaluation of the geothermal potential can be made. Seasat imagery is a useful reconnaissance exploration tool in the interpretation of regional structure within areas of little topographic relief.

  15. Resource Evaluation and Development Plans for a 120 MW Geothermal Power Plant on Milos Island, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Economides, M.J.; Ehlig-Economides, C.A.; Speliotis, G.; Vrouzi, F.

    1983-12-15

    Five deep wells have been drilled on the Island of Milos, Greece, identifying a high-temperature, high-enthalpy geothermal reservoir. The thermodynamic properties of the fluid, and the estimated porosity and presumed thickness of the formation suggest a fluid and heat storage capacity that could support a 60 MWe power plant for 85 years or a 120 MWe for half that time. The existing five wells can deliver 180 t/h of steam at 10 bar abs pressure, capable of generating a maximum electric power output of slightly less than 20 MWe. This paper describes the geology, the drilling and the well testing results pertaining to the five wells, and discusses the reservoir potential for a 60 MWe geothermal power plant.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey circum-arctic resource appraisal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    Among the greatest uncertainties in future energy supply is the amount of oil and gas yet to be found in the Arctic. Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey has assessed the area north of the Arctic Circle. The Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) consists of three parts: (1) Mapping the sedimentary sequences of the Arctic (Grantz and others 2009), (2) Geologically based estimation of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum (Gautier and others 2009, discussed in this presentation) and (3) Economic appraisal of the cost of delivering the undiscovered resources to major markets (also reported at this conference by White and others). We estimate that about 30% of the world's undiscovered gas and about 13% of the world's undiscovered oil may be present in the Arctic, mostly offshore under less than 500m of water. Billion BOE-plus accumulations of gas and oil are predicted at a 50% probability in the Kara Sea, Barents Sea, offshore East and West Greenland, Canada, and Alaska. On a BOE basis, undiscovered natural gas is three times more abundant than oil in the Arctic and is concentrated in Russian territory. Oil resources, while critically important to the interests of Arctic countries, are probably not sufficient to significantly shift the current geographic patterns of world oil production. Copyright 2011, Offshore Technology Conference.

  17. Characterization of deep geothermal energy resources using Electro-Magnetic methods, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Sian; Harcout-Menou, Virginie; De Ridder, Fjo; Claessens, Bert; Laenen, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary basins in Northwest Europe have significant potential for low to medium enthalpy, deep geothermal energy resources. These resources are currently assessed using standard exploration techniques (seismic investigations followed by drilling of a borehole). This has enabled identification of geothermal resources but such techniques are extremely costly. The high cost of exploration remains one of the main barriers to geothermal project development due to the lack of capital in the geothermal industry. We will test the possibility of using the Electro-Magnetic (EM) methods to aid identification of geothermal resources in conjunction with more traditional exploration methods. An EM campaign could cost a third of a seismic campaign and is also often a passive technology, resulting in smaller environmental impacts than seismic surveys or drilling. EM methods image changes in the resistivity of the earth's sub-surface using natural or induced frequency dependant variations of electric and magnetic fields. Changes in resistivity can be interpreted as representing different subsurface properties including changes in rock type, chemistry, temperature and/or hydraulic transmissivity. While EM techniques have proven to be useful in geothermal exploration in high enthalpy areas in the last 2-3 years only a handful of studies assess their applicability in low enthalpy sedimentary basins. Challenges include identifying which sub-surface features cause changes in electrical resistivity as low enthalpy reservoirs are unlikely to exhibit the hydrothermally altered clay layer above the geothermal aquifer that is typical for high enthalpy reservoirs. Yet a principal challenge is likely to be the high levels of industrialisation in the areas of interest. Infrastructure such as train tracks and power cables can create a high level of background noise that can obfuscate the relevant signal. We present our plans for an EM campaign in the Flemish region of Belgium. Field

  18. Geothermal potential of Ascension Island, south Atlantic. Phase I. Preliminary examination

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Neilson, D.L.; Ramsthaler, J.H.; Shane, M.K.

    1982-09-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the potential for an economic geothermal resource at Ascension Island was completed. It is concluded that there is a high potential for the presence of a geothermal resource under the Island. A conceptual plant has been designed assuming the resource potential located near Gannet Hill is developed. A 7% discounted payback of 5.9 years was calculated for the baseline geothermal plant. Geothermal development can be easily integrated into the Ascension Island power system in that a selection of small, portable, skid mounted, turn key power geothermal generating systems are commercially available. Geologic findings and plant analysis are summarized.

  19. A CO2-Silica Geothermometer for Low Temperature Geothermal Resource Assessment, with Application to Resources in the Safford Basin, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, James C.; Stone, Claudia

    1983-11-01

    Geothermics is the study of the earth's heat energy, it's affect on subsurface temperature distribution, it's physical and chemical sources, and it's role in dynamic geologic processes. The term, geothermometry, is applied to the determination of equilibrium temperatures of natural chemical systems, including rock, mineral, and liquid phases. An assemblage of minerals or a chemical system whose phase composition is a function of temperature and pressure can be used as a geothermometer. Thus a geothermometer is useful to determine the formation temperature of rock or the last equilibrium temperature of a flowing aqueous solution such as ground water and hydrothermal fluids.

  20. Geothermal Resource Area 5, Churchill, Douglas, Lyon and Storey Counties area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Within this four county area there are many known geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70 to over 350{sup 0}F. Thirteen of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation. Various potential uses of the energy found were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These factors were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation; space heating; recreation; industrial process heat; and agriculture.

  1. Evaluation of the production potential of the Crystal Hot Springs geothermal resource, north central Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, C.K.; Owen, L.B.

    1981-01-01

    Results of an artesian flow test of a 1000 foot deep well (USP/TH-1) are reported. The testing program was designed to provide necessary data for estimating the long-term production potential of the geothermal resource. Based on results of a 72 hour flow test, it was concluded that the state-owned portion of the Crystal Hot Springs resource is potentially capable of supplying sufficient energy to provide space and hot water heating for the minimum security portion of the Utah State Prison. However, development of the resource will have to be carefully managed to prevent premature depletion of the reservoir.

  2. New geologic and mineral resource maps, Circum-Pacific Region

    SciTech Connect

    Gryc, G.; Iki, T.R.; Mills, F.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Seven new maps of the Circum-Pacific Region will be available in 1990 and an additional seven color proofs are to be exhibited at the Fifth Circum-Pacific Conference in Honolulu. The printed maps include the Antarctic Geologic Map, the Base, Geographic, and Geodynamic Maps of the recently added Arctic region, a Southwest Quadrant Tectonic Map, and a map with typical geologic cross sections depicting the Andean-Subandean basins of South America, all at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The seventh, the Natural Hazards Map of the Pacific Basin, at a scale of 1:17,000,000, includes information on geologic hazards such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, and historical faulting as well as other natural hazards such as cyclonic storms (frequency and tracks), sea ice, icing of superstructures, wave heights, and tsunamis. Maps in proof stage include energy and resource maps of the Northwest, Southwest, and Southeast Quadrants of the Circum-Pacific region, and the new Geologic Map of the Arctic region, all at a scale of 1:10,000,000. The Circum-Pacific Map Project was initiated in 1973 by the Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral Resources. Overall supervision and production of the maps is by the US Geological Survey, and distribution is by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists. A sixth region, the Arctic, was added in 1988, and two new themes, natural hazards and typical cross sections of petroleum basins, were added recently to the existing eight basic map themes. The Circum-Pacific Map Project will have produced 40 maps by the time of the Conference, and 20 more maps are in various stages of compilation and production.

  3. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  4. Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard

    1982-01-01

    In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.

  5. Classification of CO2 Geologic Storage: Resource and Capacity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Finley, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The use of the term capacity to describe possible geologic storage implies a realistic or likely volume of CO2 to be sequestered. Poor data quantity and quality may lead to very high uncertainty in the storage estimate. Use of the term "storage resource" alleviates the implied certainty of the term "storage capacity". This is especially important to non- scientists (e.g. policy makers) because "capacity" is commonly used to describe the very specific and more certain quantities such as volume of a gas tank or a hotel's overnight guest limit. Resource is a term used in the classification of oil and gas accumulations to infer lesser certainty in the commercial production of oil and gas. Likewise for CO2 sequestration, a suspected porous and permeable zone can be classified as a resource, but capacity can only be estimated after a well is drilled into the formation and a relatively higher degree of economic and regulatory certainty is established. Storage capacity estimates are lower risk or higher certainty compared to storage resource estimates. In the oil and gas industry, prospective resource and contingent resource are used for estimates with less data and certainty. Oil and gas reserves are classified as Proved and Unproved, and by analogy, capacity can be classified similarly. The highest degree of certainty for an oil or gas accumulation is Proved, Developed Producing (PDP) Reserves. For CO2 sequestration this could be Proved Developed Injecting (PDI) Capacity. A geologic sequestration storage classification system is developed by analogy to that used by the oil and gas industry. When a CO2 sequestration industry emerges, storage resource and capacity estimates will be considered a company asset and consequently regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission. Additionally, storage accounting and auditing protocols will be required to confirm projected storage estimates and assignment of credits from actual injection. An example illustrates the use of

  6. Engineering Sedimentary Geothermal Resources for Large-Scale Dispatchable Renewable Electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas; Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Hao, Yue; Saar, Martin; Randolph, Jimmy

    2014-05-01

    Mitigating climate change requires substantial penetration of renewable energy and economically viable options for CO2 capture and storage (CCS). We present an approach using CO2 and N2 in sedimentary basin geothermal resources that (1) generates baseload and dispatchable power, (2) efficiently stores large amounts of energy, and (3) enables seasonal storage of solar energy, all which (5) increase the value of CO2 and render CCS commercially viable. Unlike the variability of solar and wind resources, geothermal heat is a constant source of renewable energy. Using CO2 as a supplemental geothermal working fluid, in addition to brine, reduces the parasitic load necessary to recirculate fluids. Adding N2 is beneficial because it is cheaper, will not react with materials and subsurface formations, and enables bulk energy storage. The high coefficients of thermal expansion of CO2 and N2 (a) augment reservoir pressure, (b) generate artesian flow at the production wells, and (c) produce self-convecting thermosiphons that directly convert reservoir heat to mechanical energy for fluid recirculation. Stored pressure drives fluid production and responds faster than conventional brine-based geothermal systems. Our design uses concentric rings of horizontal wells to create a hydraulic divide that stores supplemental fluids and pressure. Production and injection wells are controlled to schedule power delivery and time-shift the parasitic power necessary to separate N2 from air and compress it for injection. The parasitic load can be scheduled during minimum power demand or when there is excess electricity from wind or solar. Net power output can nearly equal gross power output during peak demand, and energy storage is almost 100% efficient because it is achieved by the time-shift. Further, per-well production rates can take advantage of the large productivity of horizontal wells, with greater leveraging of well costs, which often constitute a major portion of capital costs for

  7. Data from geothermal wells near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Drillers' logs, temperature logs, and water quality analyses from geothermal tests made at 11 sites near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California, are presented. The wells were drilled in 1978 under contract to the US Geological Survey as part of an appraisal of geothermal resources in the lower Coachella Valley.

  8. World Energy Resources program U. S. Geological Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01

    In 1973, with the OPEC embargo, the US was jarred into the world of insecure energy supplies - a harsh reality considering that throughout much of our history we had sufficient domestic supplies of oil and gas to meet all of our requirements. The US Government's response in 1973 was to assess domestic oil and gas potential, which was found to be substantial but nonetheless short of long-term requirements. Born of the need to become more certain about foreign as well has domestic resources, and working in conjunction with the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program of the US Department of Energy, the US Geological Survey undertook a program to develop a technical understanding of the reserves and undiscovered recoverable resources of petroleum in every basin in the world with petroleum potential. The World Energy Resources Program prepared an assessment of ultimate resources of crude oil for the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) in 1983, and a revision and update (including nature gas, crude oil, extra heavy oil, and tar sands) are planned for WPC in 1987. This poster session attempts to engender awareness of our scenario of world ultimate petroleum occurrence and to show some elements of the geology that guided our thinking.

  9. Loss of Shallow Geothermal Resources in Urban Environment Due to the Absence of Thermal Management Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, A.; Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Sánchez-Navarro, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Shallow geothermal energy resources are of interest worldwide for the development of strategies against climate change. The current regulative framework for the sustainable implementation of the technologies exploiting this resources is facing several barriers. In the case of groundwater heat pumps, the thermal interference between exploitations may be endangering their feasibility in urban environments. Uncertainty in prediction of the sustainability of shallow geothermal energy development in urban groundwater bodies stems from the absence of a scientific-based legal regulatory framework which protects stakeholders from thermal interferences between existent exploitations systems. The present work consists of a numerical study aimed at understanding and predicting the thermal interference between groundwater heat pumps where several induced heat plumes in an urban ground water body coalesce, thus generating a heat island effect. A transient groundwater flow and heat transport model was developed to reproduce complex high-resolution data obtained from local monitoring specifically designed to control the aquifer respond to geothermal exploitation. The model aims to reproduce the groundwater flow and heat transport processes in a shallow alluvial aquifer exploited by 27 groundwater heat pumps and influenced by a river-aquifer relationship dominated by flood events mainly occurring in winter when the surface temperature is between 3 and 10 ºC. The results from the simulations have quantified the time-space thermal interference between exploitation systems and the consequences of river-aquifer thermal exchange. The results obtained showed the complexity of thermal management of the aquifer due to the transient activity of exploitations over space and time. With the actual exploitation regime of shallow geothermal resources in the investigated area the model predicts a temperature rising tendency in the production wells until 2019 which can compromise the coefficient

  10. Potential for a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resource Near Mackay, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, Bruce S.; Capuano, Regina M.

    1984-10-01

    Four water samples were collected from springs in the Mackay, Idaho area to investigate the potential for a direct-heat geothermal resource. The maximum measured temperature was 22 C for a spring south of Mackay. Calculation of the mineral equilibrium relationships in the calcium-bicarbonate water samples indicates that these samples equilibrated with the carbonate reservoir rocks. The temperatures of equilibration suggest that the subsurface temperatures of these water samples are probably no higher than measured surface temperatures.

  11. Electric power generation using geothermal brine resources for a proof of concept facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankin, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory systems study of a geothermal proof-of-concept facility is being conducted. This study is the initial phase (Phase 0) of a project to establish the technical and economic feasibility of using hot brine resources for electric power production and other industrial applications. Phase 0 includes the conceptual design of an experimental test-bed facility and a 10-MWe power generating facility.

  12. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  13. The first geothermal power generation project by Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong Lee, Tae; Song, Yoonho; Yoon, Woon-Sang

    2013-04-01

    Though Korea does not have high-enthalpy geothermal resources from volcanic sources, it still has huge amount of geothermal resources at depth; i.e. technical geothermal potential of 19.6 GWe within 6.5 km deep by enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technologies. The first proof of concept project for geothermal power generation by EGS has started in Pohang, Korea in Dec. 2010. The project aims to develop a pilot geothermal power plant of 1 MW or more of installed capacity from a doublet EGS system in 5 years. This work summarizes our two years efforts including geological/geophysical surveys, site selection, civil engineering, permission for drilling, setting up the drill rig, and setting up the micro-seismic network and monitoring. At the end of Dec. 2012, drilling reached down to 2,250 m deep. Results of borehole investigation will be also discussed about.

  14. Hydrochemical characterization of a mine water geothermal energy resource in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Loredo, C; Ordóñez, A; Garcia-Ordiales, E; Álvarez, R; Roqueñi, N; Cienfuegos, P; Peña, A; Burnside, N M

    2017-01-15

    Abandoned and flooded mine networks provide underground reservoirs of mine water that can be used as a renewable geothermal energy source. A complete hydrochemical characterization of mine water is required to optimally design the geothermal installation, understand the hydraulic behavior of the water in the reservoir and prevent undesired effects such as pipe clogging via mineral precipitation. Water pumped from the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir (Asturias, NW Spain), which is currently exploited for geothermal use, has been studied and compared to water from a separate, nearby mountain mine and a river that receives mine water discharge and partially infiltrates into the mine workings. Although the hydrochemistry was altered during the flooding process, the deep mine waters are currently near neutral, net alkaline, high metal waters of Na-HCO3 type. Isotopic values suggest that mine waters are closely related to modern meteoric water, and likely correspond to rapid infiltration. Suspended and dissolved solids, and particularly iron content, of mine water results in some scaling and partial clogging of heat exchangers, but water temperature is stable (22°C) and increases with depth, so, considering the available flow (>100Ls(-1)), the Barredo-Figaredo mining reservoir represents a sustainable, long-term resource for geothermal use.

  15. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-deWys, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  16. Industrial Consortium for the Utilization of the Geopressured-Geothermal Resource. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Negus-deWys, J.

    1990-03-01

    The Geopressured-Geothermal Program, now in its fifteenth year, is entering the transition period to commercial use. The industry cost-shared proposals to the consortium, represented in the presentations included in these proceedings, attest to the interest developing in the industrial community in utilizing the geopressured-geothermal resource. Sixty-five participants attended these sessions, two-thirds of whom represented industry. The areas represented by cost-shared proposals include (1) thermal enhanced oil recovery, (2) direct process use of thermal energy, e.g., aquaculture and agriculture, (3) conversion of thermal energy to electricity, (4) environment related technologies, e.g., use of supercritical processes, and (5) operational proposals, e.g., a field manual for scale inhibitors. It is hoped that from this array of potential use projects, some will persist and be successful in proving the viability of using the geopressured-geothermal resource. Such industrial use of an alternative and relatively clean energy resource will benefit our nation and its people.

  17. Subsurface geology and potential for geopressured-geothermal energy in the Turtle Bayou field-Kent Bayou field area, Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.R.

    1982-09-01

    A 216 square mile area approximately 65 miles southwest of New Orleans, Louisiana, has been geologically evaluated to determine its potential for geopressured-geothermal energy production. The structural and stratigraphic analyses were made with emphasis upon the Early and Middle Miocene age sediments which lie close to and within the geopressured section. Three geopressured sands, the Robulus (43) sand, Cibicides opima sand, and Cristellaria (I) sand, are evaluated for their potential of producing geothermal energy. Two of these sands, the Robulus (43) sand and the Cibicides opima sand, meet several of the United States Department of Energy's suggested minimum requirements for a prospective geopressured-geothermal energy reservoir.

  18. On the magma chamber characteristics as inferred from surface geology and geochemistry: examples from Mexican geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.

    1985-12-01

    A procedure is described which enables us to obtain estimates of some physical and chemical characteristics of sub-surface magma chambers. This is applied to three geothermal areas of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB) in central Mexico. The approximate volumes estimated for the underlying chemically and thermally zoned magma chambers are: 1500 km 3 for Los Humeros, 600 km 3 for La Primavera, and 400 km 3 for Los Azufres. These estimates will have to be modified as more geological-geochemical data become available.

  19. 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal assessment program, Colorada

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, J.A.; Hemborg, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous assessments of Colorado`s low-temperature geothermal resources were completed by the Colorado Geological Survey in 1920 and in the mid- to late-1970s. The purpose of the 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment is to update the earlier physical, geochemical, and utilization data and compile computerized databases of the location, chemistry, and general information of the low-temperature geothermal resources in Colorado. The main sources of the data included published data from the Colorado Geological Survey, the US Geological Survey WATSTOR database, and the files of the State Division of Water Resources. The staff of the Colorado Geological Survey in 1992 and 1993 visited most of the known geothermal sources that were recorded as having temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C. Physical measurements of the conductivity, pH, temperature, flow rate, and notes on the current geothermal source utilization were taken. Ten new geochemical analyses were completed on selected geothermal sites. The results of the compilation and field investigations are compiled into the four enclosed Quattro Pro 4 databases. For the purposes of this report a geothermal area is defined as a broad area, usually less than 3 sq mi in size, that may have several wells or springs. A geothermal site is an individual well or spring within a geothermal area. The 1992-1993 assessment reports that there are 93 geothermal areas in the Colorado, up from the 56 reported in 1978; there are 157 geothermal sites up from the 125 reported in 1978; and a total of 382 geochemical analyses are compiled, up from the 236 reported in 1978. Six geothermal areas are recommended for further investigation: Trimble Hot Springs, Orvis Hot Springs, an area southeast of Pagosa Springs, the eastern San Luis Valley, Rico and Dunton area, and Cottonwood Hot Springs.

  20. Assessment of the petroleum, coal and geothermal resources of the economic community of West African States (ECOWAS) Region

    SciTech Connect

    Mattick, Robert E.; Spencer, Frank D.; Zihlman, Frederick N.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 85 percent of the land area of the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) region is covered by basement rocks (igneous and highly metamorphosed rocks) or relatively thin layers of Paleozoic, Upper Precambrian, and Continental Intercalaire sedimentary rocks. These areas have little or no petroleum potential. The ECOWAS region can be divided into 13 sedimentary basins on the basis of analysis of the geologic framework of Africa. These 13 basins can be further grouped into 8 categories on the basis of similarities in stratigraphy, geologic history, and probable hydrocarbon potential. The author has attempted to summarize the petroleum potential within the geologic framework of the region. The coal discoveries can be summarized as follows: the Carboniferous section in the Niger Basin; the Paleocene-Maestrichtian, Maestrichtian, and Eocene sections in the Niger Delta and Benin; the Maestrichtian section in the Senegal Basin; and the Pleistocene section in Sierra Leone. The only proved commercial deposits are the Paleocene-Maestrichtian and Maestrichtian subbituminous coal beds of the Niger Delta. Some of the lignite deposits of the Niger Delta and Senegal Basin, however, may be exploitable in the future. Published literature contains limited data on heat-flow values in the ECOWAS region. It is inferred, however, from the few values available and the regional geology that the development of geothermal resources, in general, would be uneconomical. Exceptions may include a geopressured zone in the Niger Delta and areas of recent tectonic activity in the Benue Trough and Cameroon. Development of the latter areas under present economic conditions is not feasible.

  1. The efieldbook program: A teaching resource for geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacas Peña, José Manuel; Chamoso, José M.; Urones, Carmen

    2011-04-01

    The eFieldBook program is a geology teaching tool with high didactic potential that guides a student's work in the field using multimedia and other resources. This program allows the collection of geo-referenced geological information as well as its storage and transmission, if necessary, as soon as it is collected. The data can be collected as in traditional field notebooks or on maps and photographs. The information can be used as soon as it is collected and can be exported to other programs such as Word, Excel, Georient or statistical packages. eFieldBook safely stores and backs up user information by sending any data collected to a selected Internet target at regular time intervals.

  2. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  3. AASG State Geothermal Data Repository for the National Geothermal Data System.

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    This Drupal metadata and documents capture and management system is a repository, used for maintenance of metadata which describe resources contributed to the AASG State Geothermal Data System. The repository also provides an archive for files that are not hosted by the agency contributing the resource. Data from all 50 state geological surveys is represented here, and is contributed in turn to the National Geothermal Data System.

  4. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  5. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Black, G.L.; Parker, D.S.; Sifford, A.; Simpson, S.J.; Street, L.V.

    1985-06-01

    In 1983, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted for an evaluation and ranking of all geothermal resource sites in the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington which have a potential for electrical generation and/or electrical offset through direct utilization of the resource. The objective of this program was to consolidate and evaluate all geologic, environmental, legal, and institutional information in existing records and files, and to apply a uniform methodology to the evaluation and ranking of all known geothermal sites. This data base would enhance the making of credible forecasts of the supply of geothermal energy which could be available in the region over a 20 year planning horizon. The four states, working together under a cooperative agreement, identified a total of 1,265 potential geothermal sites. The 1,265 sites were screened to eliminate those with little or no chance of providing either electrical generation and/or electrical offset. Two hundred and forty-five of the original 1,265 sites were determined to warrant further study. The Four-State team proceeded to develop a methodology which would rank the sites based upon an estimate of development potential and cost. Development potential was estimated through the use of weighted variables selected to approximate the attributes which a geothermal firm might consider in its selection of a site for exploration and possible development. Resource; engineering; and legal, institutional, and environmental factors were considered. Cost estimates for electrical generation and direct utilization sites were made using the computer programs CENTPLANT, WELLHEAD, and HEATPLAN. Finally, the sites were ranked utilizing a technique which allowed for the integration of development and cost information. On the basis of the developability index, 78 high temperature sites and 120 direct utilization sites were identified as having ''good'' or ''average'' potential for development and should be studied in

  6. Regional Geophysical Reconnaissance for Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources in NE Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poureslami Ardakani, E.; Schmitt, D.; Bown, T.; Chan, J.; Idowu, S.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.; van der Baan, M.; Bauer, K.; Moeck, I.; Pussak, M.; Weides, S.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), a major initial goal is to undertake a critical study of the potential for Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) as a source of thermal energy in northern Alberta. The geology of this area consists to first order as westward thickening wedge of Cretaceous siliclastics overlying Devonian carbonates and evaporites all of which lies upon the metamorphic Canadian Shield craton. Generally, the north eastern of Alberta is characterized by low geothermal gradients (near 20 mK/m) and temperatures; and deep drilling to as much as 4-5 km into the craton will be necessary to obtain requisite conditions (i.e. 80-100 C water at the source). Consequently, at this early stage it is important to search for zones with the greatest potential; and in the context of EGS this can mean finding greater fracture permeability through pre-existing faults and joint systems. State of stress information is also being considered as this will be an important constraint on fluid flow in such fractured systems. Current studies are integrating reprocessed legacy industrial and LITHOPROBE seismic reflection profiles, high-resolution aeromagnetic and gravity surveys, and existing borehole and core data are used to develop regional geophysical and geological models of Northern Alberta. Particular areas will focus on structural and tectonic linkages between the sedimentary basin and the underlying craton that are possibly related to, for example, Devonian reef complexes, extensive karsting, or evaporite collapse.

  7. Methodology of determining the uncertainty in the accessible geothermal resource base of identified hydrothermal convection systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nathenson, Manuel

    1978-01-01

    In order to quantify the uncertainty of estimates of the geothermal resource base in identified hydrothermal convection systems, a methodology is presented for combining estimates with uncertainties for temperature, area, and thickness of a geothermal reservoir into an estimate of the stored energy with uncertainty. Probability density functions for temperature, area, and thickness are assumed to be triangular in form. In order to calculate the probability distribution function for the stored energy in a single system or in many systems, a computer program for aggregating the input distribution functions using the Monte-Carlo method has been developed. To calculate the probability distribution of stored energy in a single system, an analytical expression is also obtained that is useful for calibrating the Monte Carlo approximation. For the probability distributions of stored energy in a single and in many systems, the central limit approximation is shown to give results ranging from good to poor.

  8. Potential effects of the Hawaii geothermal project on ground-water resources on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides data and information on the quantity and quality of ground-water resources in and adjacent to proposed geothermal development areas on the Island of Hawaii Geothermal project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. Data presented for about 31 wells and 8 springs describe the chemical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. On the basis of this information, potential effects of this geothermal development on drawdown of ground-water levels and contamination of ground-water resources are discussed. Significant differences in ground-water levels and in the salinity and temperature of ground water within the study area appear to be related to mixing of waters from different sources and varying degrees of ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. Near Pahoa and to the east, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the relatively modest requirements for fresh water to support geothermal development in that part of the east rift zone would result in minimal effects on ground-water levels in and adjacent to the rift. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying fresh water at rates sufficient to support geothermal operations. Water would have to be transported to such developments from supply systems located outside the rift or farther downrift. Contaminant migration resulting from well accidents could be rapid because of relatively high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of observation wells needs to be continued throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project to enable the early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids.

  9. Potential effects of the Hawaii Geothermal Project on ground-water resources on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sorey, M.L.; Colvard, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990, the State of Hawaii proposed the Hawaii Geothermal Project for the development of as much as 500 MW of electric power from the geothermal system in the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano. This report uses data from 31 wells and 8 springs to describe the properties of the ground-water system in and adjacent to the East Rift Zone. Potential effects of this project on ground-water resources are also discussed. Data show differences in ground-water chemistry and heads within the study area that appear to be related to mixing of waters of different origins and ground-water impoundment by volcanic dikes. East of Pahoa, the ground-water system within the rift is highly transmissive and receives abundant recharge from precipitation; therefore, the pumping of freshwater to support geothermal development in that part of the rift zone would have a minimal effect on ground-water levels. To the southwest of Pahoa, dike impoundment reduces the transmissivity of the ground-water system to such an extent that wells might not be capable of supplying sufficient fresh water to support geothermal operations. Contamination of ground-water resources by accidental release of geothermal fluids into shallow aquifers is possible because of corrosive conditions in the geothermal wells, potential well blowouts, and high ground-water velocities in parts of the region. Hydrologic monitoring of water level, temperature, and chemistry in observation wells should continue throughout development of geothermal resources for the Hawaii Geothermal Project for early detection of leakage and migration of geothermal fluids within the groundwater system.

  10. The U.S. Geological Survey National Helium Resource Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, S. T.; East, J. A., II

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation directing the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to complete a national assessment of subsurface helium gas resources. As part of this assessment, the USGS has constructed a database of helium concentration from compositional analyses of produced gas. Though most data of this data is non-proprietary, helium data have been taken from both public and proprietary sources, with a majority taken from the USGS geochemical database (http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/GeochemistryLaboratories/GeochemistryLaboratories-GeochemistryDatabase.aspx#4413382-introduction) and from the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) natural gas database. Altogether, there are over 16,000 analyses of natural gas composition compiled. In order to complete the assessment, it was necessary to correlate the well data with geologic reservoir data so that the helium concentrations could be compared with the reservoir and field-level gas production, in place gas volumes, and gas recovery factors. The well data from the compiled database were initially cross-referenced with the proprietary IHS Inc. well database, where possible. The results of that effort were then cross-referenced with three additional databases: the proprietary NRG Associates database of significant oil and gas fields of the United States, the non-proprietary U.S. Department of Energy's gas information system (GASIS), and an internal BLM reservoir and field database. These field and reservoir databases provide the data needed to estimate the in-place helium resources for fields with economic concentrations of helium. In order for helium production to be economic, the gas produced from geologic reservoirs must be greater than 0.3 mole percent (mol%), or in the case of liquefied natural gas processing, greater than 0.04 mol%. The field and reservoir specific estimates of total gas in place volumes, gas recovery factors, and helium concentrations, can be used as inputs for a

  11. Low-temperature geothermal resource and stratigraphy of portions of Yakima County, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Biggane, J.

    1982-07-30

    The low-temperature geothermal resource of portions of Yakima County, south-central Washington, is defined by several least squares linear regression analyses of bottom-hole temperature and depth data. Intra-borehole flow prevents the use of borehole temperature gradients for geothermal resource assessment. Bottom-hole temperature and depth data were separated into fourteen well data groups based on geographic proximity, land slope azimuth, and position within the regional ground-water flow system. The regression analyses of these well data groups indicate that the projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient range from 10.6 to 14.0/sup 0/C and from 24.9 to 52.2/sup 0/C/km, respectively. The depth to the 20/sup 0/C isotherm ranges from 142 to 346m. The average projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient are approximately 11.3/sup 0/C and 43.0/sup 0/C/km, respectively. The average depth to the 20/sup 0/C isoterm is approximately 202m. The projected land-surface temperature appears to decrease and the depth to the 20/sup 0/C isotherm appears to increase as the land-surface elevation of the well dat group increases. Stratigraphic correlation diagrams developed from borehole geophysical and lithologic logs are given for localities within the lower Yakima, Black Rock, Moxee, Ahtanum, Cowiche, and Naches valleys. These correlation diagrams are combined with their respective borehole temperatue logs and well data group predicted temperature curves to assess the validity of the regression analyses and to determine aquifer locations, temperatures, and directions of intra-borehole flow.

  12. Hawaii Geothermal Project annotated bibliography: Biological resources of the geothermal subzones, the transmission corridors and the Puna District, Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    Task 1 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project Interagency Agreement between the Fish and Wildlife Service and the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge National Laboratory (DOE) includes an annotated bibliography of published and unpublished documents that cover biological issues related to the lowland rain forest in Puna, adjacent areas, transmission corridors, and in the proposed Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP). The 51 documents reviewed in this report cover the main body of biological information for these projects. The full table of contents and bibliography for each document is included along with two copies (as requested in the Interagency Agreement) of the biological sections of each document. The documents are reviewed in five main categories: (1) geothermal subzones (29 documents); (2) transmission cable routes (8 documents); (3) commercial satellite launching facility (Spaceport; 1 document); (4) manganese nodule processing facility (2 documents); (5) water resource development (1 document); and (6) ecosystem stability and introduced species (11 documents).

  13. The interplay of non-static permeability and fluid flow as a self-organizing pre-requisite for supercritical geothermal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Heat transport in the Upper Crust is governed by thermal conduction mainly through the solid rock mass and by heat advection with fluids flowing through the pore space. The average system-scale permeability of the rock has a major influence on which of these processes dominates, eventually governing the temperature-profile of natural geothermal systems as an expression of the convecting fluid's specific enthalpy [1,2]. Fluids in high-enthalpy systems typically have specific enthalpies near 1.2-1.5 MJ/kg. Supercritical systems, such as the one tapped at the IDDP-1 well at Krafla, Iceland, may reach enthalpies in the order of 3 MJ/kg [3]. Given that geothermal up-flow is normally considered to represent isenthalpic convection this difference is too large for supercritical resources simply being the feeder zones of high-enthalpy systems. Rather, a hydrologic divide is required that at least partially separates the two regimes from each other. Here, we present new insights into these processes from our recent numerical simulations of magmatic-hydrothermal systems where such a hydrologic divide proved to be crucial to provide a mechanism for metal enrichment to economic grades explaining the formation of porphyry-copper ore shells [4]. The model considers dynamic permeability feedbacks mimicking hydraulic fracturing and the transition from brittle to ductile rock behavior in a geologically reasonable way. Ascending volatiles, expelled from a cooling upper crustal magma chamber, establish a hot fluid plume under near-lithostatic pressures that is surrounded and cooled by convection of colder meteoric fluids. The physical principles, flow rates and permeability and depth ranges of these simulations are identical or comparable to conventional natural and enhanced geothermal systems [5], but temperatures are considerably higher - such as in supercritical geothermal systems. The intimate interplay of dynamic permeability responses to temperature and pressure conditions

  14. Governmental policies of the County of Lassen toward the utilization of geothermal resources

    SciTech Connect

    Totten, M.A.

    1981-05-01

    The interim geothermal policy adopted is presented. The environmental impacts of the Honey Lake hybrid geothermal power plant are discussed. A partial listing of the governmental organizations which must have input into geothermal decisions is given.

  15. GEOLOGIC AND GEOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF THE MEAGER CREEK GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.N.; Adams, M.C.; Stauder, J.J.

    1985-01-22

    Meager Creek is perhaps the most intensely explored geothermal system occurring in the Cascade and Garibaldi Volcanic Belts. This paper describes the results of new lithologic, petrographic, X-ray, isotopic, and geochemical investigations of core and cuttings from the Meager Creek wells. The data demonstrate that alteration related to the present geothermal system is superimposed on basement rocks which were metamorphosed and intruded by dioritic stocks prior to the onset of volcanism. The geothermal alteration developed mainly after emplacement of hypabyssal dikes associated with Meager Mountain volcanism and is characterized by mineral assemblages consisting primarily of sheet silicates, quartz, carbonate, hematite, iron oxides, pyrite, and minor epidote, potassium feldspar, actinolite and biotite. Permeabilities within the upper portions of the reservoir are low, reflecting filling of the fracture systems by carbonate. Petrographic observations suggest that sealing of the fractures accompanied hydrothermal brecciation and boiling of the fluids.

  16. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan. Final report, May 1, 1995--November 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Combs, J.; Pritchett, J.W.

    1997-07-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. This comprehensive report describes the work accomplished during FY 1993-1996. A brief review of the geological and geophysical surveys at the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is presented (Section 2). Chemical data, consisting of analyses of steam and water from Sumikawa wells, are described and interpreted to indicate compositions and temperatures of reservoir fluids (Section 3). The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures (Section 4). Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter (Section 5). New interpretations of pressure transient data from several wells are discussed (Section 6). The available data have been synthesized to formulate a conceptual model for the Sumikawa Geothermal Field (Section 7).

  17. Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

  18. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  19. Heat flow, radioactivity, gravity, and geothermal resources in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.

    1981-12-01

    The surface heat flow values in the Sierra Madre-Medicine Bow-Laramie Mountains region are in the range 0.6 to 1.5 HFU. When the heat from local bedrock radioactivity is considered, the reduced flux in these mountains is low to normal (0.6 to 1.2 HFU). These data and the low to normal gradients (10 to 25/sup 0/C/km) in the studied drill holes strongly suggest that the resource potential of the Southern Rockies in Wyoming is low. The geothermal resource potential of the sedimentary basins in Wyoming that border these mountains also appears to be low because preliminary estimates for the flux in these areas are less than or equal to 1.5 HFU and the average gradients in analyzed drill holes are generally less than or equal to 30/sup 0/C/km. In contrast to southern Wyoming, the high surface and reduced heat flows strongly suggest that the Park areas and other parts of the Southern Rockies in northern Colorado are potentially valuable geothermal resource areas. The narrow northerly borders (less than or equal to 50 km) of these positive anomalies suggest that some of the resources could be shallow, as does the evidence for regional igneous and tectonic activity in the late Cenozoic. The small number of combined heat flow and radioactivity stations precludes detailed site-specific evaluations in these regions, but a few generalizations are made.

  20. Rotation-Enabled 7-Degree of Freedom Seismometer for Geothermal Resource Development. Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, Bob; Laughlin, Darren

    2013-10-29

    Under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant, A-Tech Corporation d.b.a. Applied Technology Associates (ATA), seeks to develop a seven-degree-of-freedom (7-DOF) seismic measurement tool for high-temperature geothermal applications. The Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer includes a conventional tri-axial accelerometer, a conventional pressure sensor or hydrophone, and a tri-axial rotational sensor. The rotational sensing capability is novel, based upon ATA's innovative research in rotational sensing technologies. The geothermal industry requires tools for high-precision seismic monitoring of crack formation associated with Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) stimulation activity. Currently, microseismic monitoring is conducted by deploying many seismic tools at different depth levels along a 'string' within drilled observation wells. Costs per string can be hundreds of thousands of dollars. Processing data from the spatial arrays of linear seismometers allows back-projection of seismic wave states. In contrast, a Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer would simultaneously measure p-wave velocity, s-wave velocity, and incident seismic wave direction all from a single point measurement. In addition, the Rotational-Enabled 7-DOF Seismometer will, by its nature, separate p- and s-waves into different data streams, simplifying signal processing and facilitating analysis of seismic source signatures and geological characterization. By adding measurements of three additional degrees-of-freedom at each level and leveraging the information from this new seismic observable, it is likely that an equally accurate picture of subsurface seismic activity could be garnered with fewer levels per hole. The key cost savings would come from better siting of the well due to increased information content and a decrease in the number of confirmation wells drilled, also due to the increase in information per well. Improved seismic tools may also increase knowledge, understanding, and confidence

  1. 3D Extended Logging for Geothermal Resources: Field Trials with the Geo-Bilt System

    SciTech Connect

    Mallan, R; Wilt, M; Kirkendall, B; Kasameyer, P

    2002-05-29

    Geo-BILT (Geothermal Borehole Induction Logging Tool) is an extended induction logging tool designed for 3D resistivity imaging around a single borehole. The tool was developed for deployment in high temperature geothermal wells under a joint program funded by the California Energy Commission, Electromagnetic Instruments (EMI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. EM1 was responsible for tool design and manufacture, and numerical modeling efforts were being addressed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) and other contractors. The field deployment was done by EM1 and LLNL. The tool operates at frequencies from 2 to 42 kHz, and its design features a series of three-component magnetic sensors offset at 2 and 5 meters from a three-component magnetic source. The combined package makes it possible to do 3D resistivity imaging, deep into the formation, from a single well. The manufacture and testing of the tool was completed in spring of 2001, and the initial deployment of Geo-BILT occurred in May 2001 at the Lost Hills oil field in southern California at leases operated by Chevron USA. This site was chosen for the initial field test because of the favorable geological conditions and the availability of a number of wells suitable for tool deployment. The second deployment occurred in April 2002 at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, operated by Caithness Power LLC, in central Nevada. This constituted the first test in a high temperature environment. The Chevron site features a fiberglass-cased observation well in the vicinity of a water injector. The injected water, which is used for pressure maintenance and for secondary sweep of the heavy oil formation, has a much lower resistivity than the oil bearing formation. This, in addition to the non-uniform flow of this water, creates a 3D resistivity structure, which is analogous to conditions produced from flowing fractures adjacent to geothermal boreholes. Therefore, it is an excellent site for testing the 3D capability of

  2. Case studies for utilizing groundwater-source and low-enthalpy geothermal resources in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shin, J.; Lee, K.-K.; Lee, T. J.

    2012-04-01

    As one of the top 10 oil-consuming countries in the world, Korea recently has had a great interest in extending the ways to utilize renewable energy. In this regard, geothermal energy resource is attracting more concerns from both of the government and the research field. Korea has neither active volcanic sites nor areas with abnormally higher heat flow. In spite of these natural conditions, many efforts have been exerted to utilize geothermal energy. Here, we introduce two case studies of using groundwater-source geothermal energy with relatively low-enthalpy: One is a riverbank filtration facility, which has been using some of its riverbank filtrate water for the indoor air-conditioning. The other is the first EGS plant planning site, where a few fault-related artesian wells reaching 70C were discovered lately. Numerical simulations to predict the temperature evolution of the two sites, which is dominated by several hydrogeologic factors, were carried out and compared. Simulation of temperature profile of riverbank filtrate water using HydroGeoSphere shows that the primary factor in determining filtrate water temperature is the pumping rate. It also shows that maintaining the facility operation with present pumping rate for the next 30 years will not cause any significant change of water temperature. However, following the new plan of the facility to install additional 37 wells with 6 times higher pumping rate than the current rate might cause about 2C decrease in filtrate water temperature in 10 years after the extension. Simulation for the temperature evolution in a faulted geothermal reservoir in EGS planning site under the supposed injection-extraction operating conditions were carried out using TOUGH2. A MINC model including a hydraulic discontinuity, which reflected the analysis from several geophysical explorations, was generated. Temperature distribution calculated from the simulation shows a rise of relatively hot geothermal water along the fault plane

  3. Up-to-date state and prospects for the development of geothermal resources of the North Caucasus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhasov, A. B.; Alkhasova, D. A.

    2014-06-01

    The modern state of production and use of geothermal resources of the region is evaluated and the low efficiency of their development is shown. Promising developmental technologies of hydrogeothermal resources of various energy potentials with attachment to concrete geothermal deposits are presented. Technologies on the complex development of hydrogeothermal resources with the use of water for drinking or industrial water supply, the thermal potential for various energy needs, and the extraction of the gas and mineral components dissolved in water are highly efficient technologies, which make it possible to solve important environmental, economical, and social problems of the region.

  4. Tracer test analysis of the Klamath Falls geothermal resource: a comparison of models

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.E.

    1984-06-01

    Two tracer tests on doublet systems in a fractured geothermal system were carried out in Klamath Falls, Oregon. The purpose of the tests were to obtain data which would lead to information about the reservoir and to test the applicability of current tracer flow models. The results show rapid breakthrough times and indicate fracture flow with vigorous mixing of injector fluid before production of same. This leads to the idea that thermal breakthrough is not directly related to tracer breakthrough in the Klamath Union doublet system. There has been no long-term enthalpy loss from exploiting the resource for 40 years. In order to reduce the data, models were developed to analyze the results. Along with a porous media flow model two mathematical models developed to analyze fractured geothermal systems are used to help decipher the various tracer return curves. The flow of tracers in doublet systems was investigated. A mathematical description is used for tracer flow through fractures as a function of time and various nonlinear parameters which can be found using a curve fitting technique. This allows the reservoir to be qualitatively defined. These models fit the data well, but point to the fact that future improvement needs to be considered for a clearer and more quantitative understanding of fractured geothermal systems. 22 refs., 32 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues that link the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO) was established in 1978 in order to preserve and protect traditional native Hawaiian culture and cultural sites. The park is the site of an ancient Hawaiian settlement, occupies 469 ha and is considered a locale of considerable cultural and historical

  6. Carbon-dioxide plume geothermal (CPG) systems, an alternative engineered geothermal system (EGS) that does not require hydrofracturing: Comparison with traditional EGS regarding geologic reservoir heat energy extraction and potential for inducing seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randolph, J. B.; Saar, M. O.

    2010-12-01

    Traditional enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS) typically require hydrofracturing of rock with low natural permeability, which may induce seismicity, leading to significant socio-political resistance. In contrast, the approach described here does not rely on hydrofracturing or similar permeability-enhancing technologies but, rather, utilizes existing high-permeability and high-porosity geologic reservoirs that are overlain by a low-permeability caprock. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is pumped into such reservoirs, where it forms a CO2 plume that largely displaces native formation fluid and is heated by the natural in-situ heat and background geothermal heat flux. A portion of the heated CO2 is piped to the surface to power generators and/or to provide heat for direct use before being returned to the subsurface. Non-recoverable CO2 in the subsurface is geologically sequestered, serving as a CO2 sink that mitigates anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. Furthermore, the amount of CO2 sequestered in such a CO2-plume geothermal (CPG) system is much larger than in more traditional fracture-dominated CO2-based EGS approaches. Here, we compare the geothermal heat energy extraction potential between CPG and traditional water- or CO2-based EGS approaches. Thereafter, we contrast the risk of induced seismicity associated with hydrofracturing in traditional EGS versus that of technologies that require only the fluid injection and production component of geothermal system operations, such as CPG, but minimal-to-no reservoir stimulation. While additional research is required, numerical simulation results at present suggest CPG systems would be viable geothermal energy sources for electric power production for decades, potentially even in regions with low geothermal temperatures and heat flow rates. In addition, CPG systems are expected to significantly reduce the risk of inducing seismicity compared to traditional EGS.

  7. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  8. The Efficacy and Potential of Renewable Energy from Carbon Dioxide that is Sequestered in Sedimentary Basin Geothermal Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielicki, J. M.; Adams, B. M.; Choi, H.; Saar, M. O.; Taff, S. J.; Jamiyansuren, B.; Buscheck, T. A.; Ogland-Hand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mitigating climate change requires increasing the amount of electricity that is generated from renewable energy technologies and while simultaneously reducing the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is emitted to the atmosphere from present energy and industrial facilities. We investigated the efficacy of generating electricity using renewable geothermal heat that is extracted by CO2 that is sequestered in sedimentary basins. To determine the efficacy of CO2-Geothermal power production in the United States, we conducted a geospatial resource assessment of the combination of subsurface CO2 storage capacity and heat flow in sedimentary basins and developed an integrated systems model that combines reservoir modeling with power plant modeling and economic costs. The geospatial resource assessment estimates the potential resource base for CO2-Geothermal power plants, and the integrated systems model estimates the physical (e.g., net power) and economic (e.g., levelized cost of electricity, capital cost) performance of an individual CO2-Geothermal power plant for a range of reservoir characteristics (permeability, depth, geothermal temperature gradient). Using coupled inverted five-spot injection patterns that are common in CO2-enhanced oil recovery operations, we determined the well pattern size that best leveraged physical and economic economies of scale for the integrated system. Our results indicate that CO2-Geothermal plants can be cost-effectively deployed in a much larger region of the United States than typical approaches to geothermal electricity production. These cost-effective CO2-Geothermal electricity facilities can also be capacity-competitive with many existing baseload and renewable energy technologies over a range of reservoir parameters. For example, our results suggest that, given the right combination of reservoir parameters, LCOEs can be as low as $25/MWh and capacities can be as high as a few hundred MW.

  9. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  10. Geospatial resources for the geologic community: The USGS National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witt, Emitt C.

    2015-01-01

    Geospatial data are a key component of investigating, interpreting, and communicating the geological sciences. Locating geospatial data can be time-consuming, which detracts from time spent on a study because these data are not obviously placed in central locations or are served from many disparate databases. The National Map of the US Geological Survey is a publicly available resource for accessing the geospatial base map data needs of the geological community from a central location. The National Map data are available through a viewer and download platform providing access to eight primary data themes, plus the US Topo and scanned historical topographic maps. The eight themes are elevation, orthoimagery, hydrography, geographic names, boundaries, transportation, structures, and land cover, and they are being offered for download as predefined tiles in formats supported by leading geographic information system software. Data tiles are periodically refreshed to capture the most current content and are an efficient method for disseminating and receiving geospatial information. Elevation data, for example, are offered as a download from the National Map as 1° × 1° tiles for the 10- and 30- m products and as 15′ × 15′ tiles for the higher-resolution 3-m product. Vector data sets with smaller file sizes are offered at several tile sizes and formats. Partial tiles are not a download option—any prestaged data that intersect the requesting bounding box will be, in their entirety, part of the download order. While there are many options for accessing geospatial data via the Web, the National Map represents authoritative sources of data that are documented and can be referenced for citation and inclusion in scientific publications. Therefore, National Map products and services should be part of a geologist’s first stop for geospatial information and data.

  11. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    Data pertaining to wells and thermal aquifers and data interpretation methods are presented. Findings from a program of field measurements of water temperatures (mainly in South-Central Texas) and an assessment of hydrologic properties of three Cretaceous aquifers (in North-Central Texas) are included. Landsat lineaments and their pertinance to the localization of low-temperature geothermal resources are emphasized. Lineament data were compared to structural and stratigraphic features along the Balcones/Ouachita trend in Central Texas to test for correlations. (MHR)

  12. Enhancement of existing geothermal resource utilization by cascading to intensive aquaculture

    SciTech Connect

    Zachritz, W.H., II; Polka, R.; Schoenmackers

    1996-04-01

    A demonstration high rate aquaculture production system utilizing a cascaded geothermal resource was designed, constructed and operated to fulfill the objectives of this project. Analysis of the energy and water balances for the system indicated that the addition of an Aquaculture Facility expanded the use of the existing resource. This expanded use in no way affected the up- stream processes. Analysis of the system`s energy and water requirements indicated that the present resource was under-utilized and could be expanded. Energy requirements appeared more limiting than water use, but the existing system could be expanded to a culture volume of 72,000 gal. This system would have a potential production capacity of 93,600 lb/yr with a potential market value of $280,00/yr. Based on the results of this study, the heat remaining in the geothermal fluid from one square foot of operating greenhouse is sufficient to support six gallons of culture water for a high density aquaculture facility. Thus, the over 1.5M ft{sup 2} of existing greenhouse space in New Mexico, has the potential to create an aquaculture industry of nearly 9M gal. This translates to an annual production potential of 11.7M lb with a market value of $35.lM.

  13. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.

  14. Geology and mineral and energy resources, Roswell Resource Area, New Mexico; an interactive computer presentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tidball, Ronald R.; Bartsch-Winkler, S. B.

    1995-01-01

    This Compact Disc-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM) contains a program illustrating the geology and mineral and energy resources of the Roswell Resource Area, an administrative unit of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management in east-central New Mexico. The program enables the user to access information on the geology, geochemistry, geophysics, mining history, metallic and industrial mineral commodities, hydrocarbons, and assessments of the area. The program was created with the display software, SuperCard, version 1.5, by Aldus. The program will run only on a Macintosh personal computer. This CD-ROM was produced in accordance with Macintosh HFS standards. The program was developed on a Macintosh II-series computer with system 7.0.1. The program is a compiled, executable form that is nonproprietary and does not require the presence of the SuperCard software.

  15. Direct utilization of geothermal energy resources in food processing. Final report, May 17, 1978-May 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1982-05-01

    In early 1978 financial assistance was granted for a project to utilize geothermal energy at Ore-Ida Foods, Inc.'s food processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Specifically, the project included exploring, testing, and developing the potential geothermal resource; retrofitting the existing gas/oil-fired steam system; utilizing the geothermal resource for food processing, space heating, and hot potable water; and injecting the spent geothermal water back into a disposal well. Based on preliminary investigations which indicated the presence of a local geothermal resource, drilling began in August 1979. Although the anticipated resource temperature of 380/sup 0/F was reached at total well depth (10,054 feet), adequate flow to meet processing requirements could not be obtained. Subsequent well testing and stimulation techniques also failed to produce the necessary flow, and the project was eventually abandoned. However, throughout the duration of the project, all activities were carefully monitored and recorded to ensure the program's value for future evaluation. This report presents a culmination of data collected during the Ore-Ida project.

  16. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in Paso Robles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Campion, L.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Youngs, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Ninety-eight geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted, and a geologic map and cross sections were compiled. Detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The geological and geophysical work delineated the basement highs and trough-like depressions that can exercise control on the occurrence of the thermal waters. The Rinconada fault was also evident. Cross sections drawn from oil well logs show the sediments conforming against these basement highs and filling the depressions. It is along the locations where the sediments meet the basement highs that three natural warm springs in the area occur. Deep circulation of meteoric waters along faults seems to be a reasonable source for the warm water. The Santa Margarita, Pancho Rico, and Paso Robles Formations would be the first permeable zones that abut the faults through which water would enter. Temperatures and interpretation of well logs indicate the warmest aquifer at the base of the Paso Robles Formation. Warm water may be entering higher up in the section, but mixing with water from cooler zones seems to be evident. Geothermometry indicates reservoir temperatures could be as high as 91/sup 0/C (196/sup 0/F).

  17. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  18. Discovery of a concealed geothermal resource in the Alturas Basin, and its implications for further exploration in northeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Bohm, B.; Juncal, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    In 1988 a so far unknown geothermal resource was drilled into under the City of Alturas in northeastern California. A fracture was tapped below 2300 feet, in cemented fine-grained tuffs and mudflows, producing 182{degrees}F water. The well has been used since 1990 to heat the local high school. A second well was drilled in 1991, producing about 250 gpm 182{degrees}F water from a fracture below 1893 ft. Well productivities and artesian pressures are variable, depending on distance from a major fault zone and local hydrologic regime. It appears as if the wells produce from deep reaching fractures in a caprock, that may conceal a 300 to 400{degrees}F resource between 4000 and 6000 feet depth. The results have important implications for geothermal exploration in northeastern California, i.e. just because there are no surface manifestations in a basin, it does not necessarily mean there is no geothermal resource at depth.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the geothermal resource potential of the Yuma area, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1981-01-01

    The Yuma area has had a long and complex tectonic history. The most southwesterly corner of the area presently comprises a small segment of the Salton Trough, a deep sediment-filled structural depression. Known geothermal anomalies in the Salton Trough make the Yuma area a favorable exploration target even though spreading-center heat sources are not expected to occur there. Geological and geophysical investigations reveal that the area is made up of low, rugged northwest-trending mountains separated by deep sediment-filled basins. Relief is a result of both erosional and structural activity. Northwest-trending en-echelon faults bound the range fronts and the basins, and have created several horst blocks (basement highs) that crop out at or near the surface. The Algodonnes fault is inferred to represent the northeast margin of the Salton Trough and apparently an inactive extension of the San Andreas fault system. Extensive well-pumping and applications of irrigation waters in recent years have created an unnatural state of flux in the hydrologic regime in the Yuma area. Gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies trend strongly northwest through the region as do lineaments derived from Landsat and Skylab photos. Electrical resistivity values in the Bouse Formation are exceptionally low, about 3 ohn-m. Heat flow appears to be normal for the Basin and Range province. Ground-water temperatures indicate zones of rising warm water, with one such warm anomaly confirmed by sparse geothermal-gradient data.

  20. Geological exploration of Angola from Sumbe to Namibe: A review at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, Pierre; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Geological exploration of the Angola Coast (from Sumbe to Namibe) from pioneer's first geological descriptions and mining inventory to the most recent publications supported by the oil industry. We focus our attention on the following periods: 1875-1890 (Paul Choffat's work, mainly), 1910-1949 (first maps at country scale), 1949-1974 (detailed mapping of the Kwanza-Namibe coastal series), 1975-2000, with the editing of the last version of the Angola geological map at 1:1 million scale and the progressive completion of previous works. Since 2000, there is a renewal in geological fieldwork publications on the area mainly due to the work of university teams. This review paper thus stands at the frontier between geology, natural resources and the history of geology. It shows how geological knowledge has progressed in time, fueled by economic and scientific reasons.

  1. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  2. CO/sub 2/-silica geothermometer for low temperature geothermal resource assessment, with application to resources in the Safford Basin, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.; Stone, C.

    1983-11-01

    This study investigates silica-water reactions in low-temperature geothermal water in areas near Safford, southeastern Arizona, and derives a pCO2 correction for conductive silica geothermometers. Use and limitations of the technique are also discussed. Data collection, interpretation approach, and basic geochemistry, as it applies to this study, are outlined. In addition, the geology, thermal regime, geohydrology, and gross geochemistry of the Safford area are reviewed. Finally, geothermal potential, as indicated by this study and previous studies is discussed.

  3. Geological control on the reservoir characteristics of Olkaria West Geothermal Field, Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Omenda, Peter A.

    1994-01-20

    The reservoir of the West Olkaria Geothermal Field is hosted within tuffs and the reservoir fluid is characterized by higher concentrations of reservoir CO{sub 2} (10,000-100,000 mg/kg) but lower chloride concentrations of about 200 mg/kg than the East and North East Fields. The West Field is in the outflow and main recharge area of the Olkaria geothermal system. Permeability is generally low in the West Field and its distribution is strongly controlled by the structures. Fault zones show higher permeability with wells drilled within the structures havin larger total mass outputs. However, N-S and NW-SE faults are mainly channels for cold water downflow into the reservoir. Well feeder zones occur mostly at lava-tuff contacts; within fractured lava flows and at the contacts of intrusives and host rocks.

  4. Water information bulletin No. 30, part 13: geothermal investigations in Idaho. Preliminary geologic reconnaissance of the geothermal occurrences of the Wood River Drainage Area

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.E.; Bideganeta, K.; Mitchell, J.C.

    1985-04-01

    Pre-tertiary sediments of the Milligen and Wood River Formations consisting primarily of argillite, quartzite, shale and dolomite are, for the most part, exposed throughout the area and are cut locally by outliers of the Idaho Batholith. At some locations, Tertiary-age Challis Volcanics overlay these formations. Structurally the area is complex with major folding and faulting visible in many exposures. Many of the stream drainages appear to be fault controlled. Hydrologic studies indicate hot spring occurrences are related to major structural trends, as rock permeabilities are generally low. Geochemical studies using stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen indicate the thermal water in the Wood River region to be depleted by about 10 0/00 in D and by 1 to 2 0/00 in /sup 18/0 relative to cold water. This suggests the water could be meteoric water that fell during the late Pleistocene. The geological data, as well as the chemical data, indicate the geothermal waters are heated at depth, and subsequently migrate along permeable structural zones. In almost all cases the chemical data suggest slightly different thermal histories and recharge areas for the water issuing from the hot springs. Sustained use of the thermal water at any of the identified springs is probably limited to flow rates approximating the existing spring discharge. 28 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  6. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  7. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  8. Geology and geothermal origin of Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat Oil Fields, Railroad Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B. ); Goff, F. ); Ross, J.R. ); Bortz, L.C. ); Bereskin, S.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Eastern Nevada's Grant Canyon and Bacon Flat oil fields show strong evidence of formation in a still-active, moderate-temperature geothermal system. Modern manifestations of this system include unusually elevated oil-reservoir temperature at shallow depth, 116-122[degrees]C at 1.1-1.6 km, and dilute Na-HCO[sub 3]Cl thermal waters directly associated with hot oil. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that these thermal waters are meteoric in origin, but were probably recharged prior to the Holocene (before 10 ka). The waters apparently ascended to oil-reservoir elevations after deep heating in response to the normal regional thermal gradient; there is no evidence for a modern magmatic heat source. The beginning of oil-reservoir evolution at both fields is recorded by late-stage, fracture-filling quartz in the vuggy, brecciated, Paleozoic dolostone reservoir rocks. Oil and aqueous solutions were trapped as fluid inclusions in the quartz at temperatures comparable to those now prevailing in the reservoirs. Present day and fluid-inclusion temperatures define essentially coincident isothermal profiles through and beneath the oil-reservoir interval, a phenomenon consistent with near-constant convective heat transfer since inception of the geothermal system. Some basin and range oil fields have arisen as valuable byproducts of actively circulating geothermal systems and blending this concept into current exploration stratigies could hasten discovery of the 100 mbbl fields many geologists believe remain to be found in this region. 100 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of the geothermal resource in the area of Albuquerque, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Jiracek, G.R.; Swanberg, C.A.; Morgan, P.; Parker, M.D.

    1983-07-01

    Factors indicating a potential geothermal resource near Albuquerque are: (1) nearby volcanoes active as recently as 120,000 years ago, (2) gravity interpretation indicating a potential reservoir averaging 1.5 km thickness, (3) high heat flow near the city, (4) warm waters (>30/sup 0/C) in municipal wells, (5) recent seismicity indicating active faulting, thereby, allowing the possibility of deep hydrothermal circulation, (6) high shallow (<30 m) temperature gradients (>100/sup 0/C/km) discovered in our drillholes, (7) deeper (<500 m) gradients from water wells exceeding 80/sup 0/C/km, and (8) chemical analyses of 88 groundwater samples yielding estimated base reservoir temperatures as high as 190/sup 0/C. An area of elevated shallow temperature gradients (less than or equal to 140/sup 0/C/km) was discovered a few kilometers west of Albuquerque by our 69 hole drilling program. Resistivity, magnetic, and gravity measurements combined with computer modeling suggests that heated ground water is forced closer to the surface here by flow over a buried ridge. A well drilled nearby yielded the highest recorded temperature in the Albuquerque area at its maximum depth (32.8/sup 0/C at 364 m). The deep gradient is 35/sup 0/C/km. An oil test well close by reported large volumes of water at 1 km; therefore, the possibility of a low temperature (>50/sup 0/C) geothermal resource exists west of Albuquerque at less than 1 km depth.

  10. Cheap-GSHPs, an European project aiming cost-reducing innovations for shallow geothermal installations. - Geological data reinterpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertermann, David; Müller, Johannes; Galgaro, Antonio; Cultrera, Matteo; Bernardi, Adriana; Di Sipio, Eloisa

    2016-04-01

    The success and widespread diffusion of new sustainable technologies are always strictly related to their affordability. Nowadays the energy price fluctuations and the economic crisis are jeopardizing the development and diffusion of renewable technologies and sources. With the aim of both reduce the overall costs of shallow geothermal systems and improve their installation safety, an European project has took place recently, under the Horizon 2020 EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation. The acronym of this project is Cheap-GSHPs, meaning "cheap and efficient application of reliable ground source heat exchangers and pumps"; the CHEAP-GSHPs project involves 17 partners among 9 European countries such Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Romania, Spain, Switzerland. In order to achieve the planned targets, an holistic approach is adopted, where all involved elements that take part of shallow geothermal activities are here integrated. In order to reduce the drilling specific costs and for a solid planning basis the INSPIRE-conformal ESDAC data set PAR-MAT-DOM ("parent material dominant") was analysed and reinterpreted regarding the opportunities for cost reductions. Different ESDAC classification codes were analysed lithologically and sedimentologically in order to receive the most suitable drilling technique within different formations. Together with drilling companies this geological data set was translated into a geotechnical map which allows drilling companies the usage of the most efficient drilling within a certain type of underground. The scale of the created map is 1: 100,000 for all over Europe. This leads to cost reductions for the final consumers. Further there will be the definition of different heat conductivity classes based on the reinterpreted PAR-MAT-DOM data set which will provide underground information. These values will be reached by sampling data all over Europe and literature data. The samples will be measured by several

  11. Geologic Map and GID Data for the Salt Wells Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hinz, Nick

    2011-10-31

    Salt Wells—ESRI Geodatabase (ArcGeology v1.3): - Contains all the geologic map data, including faults, contacts, folds, dikes, unit polygons, and attitudes of strata and faults. - List of stratigraphic units and stratigraphic correlation diagram. - Locations of 40Ar/39Ar samples.

  12. Geothermal resource, engineering and economic feasibility study for the City of Ouray, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-07-31

    A geothermal energy feasibility study has been performed for the City of Ouray, Colorado, to determine the potential economic development opportunities to the City. The resource assessment indicates the resource to be associated with the Ouray fault zone, the Leadville limestone formation, the high thermal gradient in the area of the San Juan mountains, and the recharge from precipitation in the adjacent mountains. Four engineering designs of alternative sizes, costs, applications, and years of start-up have been defined to offer the City a range of development scales. Life cycle cost analyses have been conducted for cases of both public and private ownership. All systems are found to be feasible on both economic and technical grounds. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Gas-turbine-topped hybrid power plants for the utilization of geopressured geothermal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalifa, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of the performance and economics of a novel hybrid energy conversion system that would efficiently utilize the methane, hydraulic and thermal energy produced by geopressured-geothermal resources. The novel system comprises a methane-fueled gas turbine whose waste heat is used to superheat the vapor generated from the geopressured brine in an otherwise-conventional double-flash power plant. The analysis indicates that, compared to a conventional double-flash system, the hybrid system can generate nearly 44 percent more work from the thermal energy of the brine, in addition to the outputs of the gas and hydraulic turbines. Conservative preliminary economic estimates indicate that the unit installed cost of the hybrid plant would be about 25 percent lower than that of a conventional system constructed at the same geopressured resource site.

  14. Geothermal energy resources of Navy/Marine Corps installations on the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edsall, D. W.

    1980-03-01

    The search for alternative energy sources is of great importance to the U.S. Navy. Preliminary examination of data from the literature, bottom hole temperatures from existing deep wells, and heat flow measurements in wells drilled at selected sites as part of a current research program sponsored by the Department of Energy have demonstrated that low temperature waters (-212 F or 100 C) may be available at moderate depths in the major sedimentary basins along the Atlantic and east Gulf Coastal Plain. Although the possible geothermal energy resources present here are not sufficient for electrical power generation, they appear adequate for space heating and cooling. The Navy should take a leading role in planning and executing exploratory drilling and resource evaluation programs, especially at the following installations, all of which are major energy users: Norfolk, Portsmouth, and Virginia Beach, Virginia; Charleston, South Carolina; and Pensacola, Milton, and Panama City, Florida.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of six geologic provinces of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered conventional petroleum resources in six geologic provinces of China at 14.9 billion barrels of oil, 87.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  16. Development of a geothermal resource in a fractured volcanic formation: Case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, S.K.; Pritchett, J.W.; Stevens, J.L.; Luu, L.; Combs, J.

    1996-11-01

    The principal purpose of this case study of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is to document and to evaluate the use of drilling logs, surface and downhole geophysical measurements, chemical analyses, and pressure transient data for the assessment of a high temperature volcanic geothermal field. The work accomplished during Year 1 of this ongoing program is described in the present report. A brief overview of the Sumikawa Geothermal Field is given. The drilling information and downhole pressure, temperature, and spinner surveys are used to determine feedzone locations, pressures and temperatures. Available injection and production data from both slim holes and large-diameter wells are analyzed to evaluate injectivity/productivity indices and to investigate the variation of discharge rate with borehole diameter. Finally, plans for future work are outlined.

  17. Bibliography of U.S. Geological Survey water-resources reports for Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dragos, Stefanie L.; Conroy, Loretta S.

    1987-01-01

    This bibliography contains a complete listing to December 31, 1986, of reports relating to the water resources of Utah prepared by personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey. Discussions of the related subjects of geology, hydrology, and chemical quality of the water are included in many of the reports. The reports were, for the most part, prepared by personnel assigned to the Water Resources Division, Utah District, in cooperation with State, other Federal, and local agencies. A few reports were prepared under contract with the Geological Survey or in cooperation with the geological Survey. A few were compiled under direct funds to the U.S. Geological Survey.

  18. PBL, Hands-On/ Digital resources in Geology, (Teaching/ Learning)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Rosa; Santos, Cátia; Carvalho, Sara

    2015-04-01

    The present study reports the elaboration, application and evaluation of a problem-based learning (PBL) program that aims to evaluate the effectiveness in students learning the Rock Cycle theme. Prior research on both PBL and Rock Cycle was conducted within the context of science education so as to elaborate and construct the intervention program. Findings from these studies indicated both the PBL methodology and Rock Cycle as helpful for teachers and students. PBL methodology has been adopted in this study since it is logically incorporated in a constructivism philosophy application and it was expected that this approach would assist students towards achieving a specific set of competencies. PBL is a student-centered method based on the principle of using problems as the starting point for the acquisition of new knowledge. Problems are based on complex real-world situations. All information needed to solve the problem is initially not given. Students will identify, find, and use appropriate resources to complete the exercise. They work permanently in small groups, developing self-directed activities and increasing participation in discussions. Teacher based guidance allows students to be fully engaged in knowledge building. That way, the learning process is active, integrated, cumulative, and connected. Theme "Rock Cycle" was introduced using a problematic situation, which outlined the geological processes highlighted in "Foz do Douro" the next coastline of the school where the study was developed. The questions proposed by the students were solved, using strategies that involved the use of hands-on activities and virtual labs in Geology. The systematization of the selected theme was performed in a field excursion, implemented according to the organizational model of Nir Orion, to The "Foz do Douro" metamorphic complex. In the evaluation of the learning process, data were obtained on students' development of knowledge and competencies through the application of

  19. Low-temperature geothermal resource and stratigraphy of portions of Yakima County, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Biggane, J.

    1982-07-30

    The low-temperature geothermal resource of portions of Yakima County, south-central Washington, is defined by several least squares linear regression analyses of bottom-hole temperature and depth data. Bottom-hole temperature and depth data were separated into fourteen well data groups based on geographic proximity, land slope azimuth, and position within the regional ground-water flow system. The depths of these wells range from over 50m to almost 600m. The regression analyses of these well data groups indicate that the projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient range from 10.6 to 14.0/sup 0/C and from 24.9 to 52.2/sup 0/C/km, respectively. Stratigraphic correlation diagrams developed from borehole geophysical and lithologic logs are given for localities within the lower Yakima, Black Rock, Moxee, Ahtanum, Cowiche, and Naches valleys. These correlation diagrams are combined with their respective borehole temperature logs and well data group predicted temperature curves to assess the validity of the regression analyses and to determine aquifer locations, temperatures, and directions of intra-borehole flow. A regression analysis of data from wells of south-central Washington with bottom-hole depths of over 700m to almost 3km suggests that the projected land-surface temperature and geothermal gradient of this depth interval are 21.8/sup 0/C and 31.3/sup 0/C/km, respectively. The depth to the 100/sup 0/C isotherm is approximately 2513m.

  20. Geologic Map of the Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area - GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-03-31

    Neal Hot Springs—ESRI Geodatabase (ArcGeology v1.3): - Contains all the geologic map data, including faults, contacts, folds, unit polygons, and attitudes of strata and faults. - List of stratigraphic units and stratigraphic correlation diagram. - Three cross‐sections. - Locations of production, injection, and exploration wells. - Locations of 40Ar/39Ar samples. - Location of XRF geochemical samples. - 3D model constructed with EarthVision using geologic map data, cross‐sections, drill‐hole data, and geophysics (model not in the ESRI geodatabase).

  1. A Geologic, Hyrologic and Geochemical Model of the Serrazzano Zone of the Larderello Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Calorie, C.; Celati, R.; D'Amore, F.; Squarci, P.; Truesdell, A.

    1980-12-16

    The large number of nonproductive wells lying along the northern and western margins of the Larderello field have indicated some boundaries of the productive area but have also prevented us, so far, from fully understanding the pheiomena controlling the behavior of the geothermal system in these areas. In 1980 ENEL re-opened some wells that had been shut-in immediately after drilling, thus offering us the possibility to complete the geochemical picture by means of numerous samplings of steam, gas and water in both productive and nonproductive wells. Some recent physical parameters measured in nonproductive and abandoned wells also helped in further defining the hydrogeological and thermal situation.

  2. Geology and thermal regime, geothermal test USA No. 11-36, Grass Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Walter R.; Koenig, James B.

    1980-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of drilling of an 8,565 foot geothermal test near Leach Hot Springs, Pershing County, Nevada, by Sunoco Energy Development Company. USA No.11-36 is located 500 feet south and 500 feet east of the northwest corner of Section 36, T. 32 N., R. 38 E (Mount Diablo Meridian), elevation 4,573 feet. It was drilled between May 15 and July 2, 1980. USA No.11-36 was deemed unsuccessful, having encountered no temperature higher than 270 F and no significant permeability, and was plugged and abandoned without testing prior to releasing the rig.

  3. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserve base in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Luppens, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated in-place resources of 1.07 trillion short tons of coal in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. Of that total, with a maximum stripping ratio of 10:1, recoverable coal was 162 billion tons. The estimate of economically recoverable resources was 25 billion tons.

  4. Uranium resource assessment by the Geological Survey; methodology and plan to update the national resource base

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finch, Warren Irvin; McCammon, Richard B.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the Memorandum of Understanding {MOU) of September 20, 1984, between the U.S. Geological Survey of the U.S. Department of Interior and the Energy Information Administration {EIA) of the U.S. Department of Energy {DOE), the U.S. Geological Survey began to make estimates of the undiscovered uranium endowment of selected areas of the United States in 1985. A modified NURE {National Uranium Resource Evaluation) method will be used in place of the standard NURE method of the DOE that was used for the national assessment reported in October 1980. The modified method, here named the 'deposit-size-frequency' {DSF) method, is presented for the first time, and calculations by the two methods are compared using an illustrative example based on preliminary estimates for the first area to be evaluated under the MOU. The results demonstrate that the estimate of the endowment using the DSF method is significantly larger and more uncertain than the estimate obtained by the NURE method. We believe that the DSF method produces a more realistic estimate because the principal factor estimated in the endowment equation is disaggregated into more parts and is more closely tied to specific geologic knowledge than by the NURE method. The DSF method consists of modifying the standard NURE estimation equation, U=AxFxTxG, by replacing the factors FxT by a single factor that represents the tonnage for the total number of deposits in all size classes. Use of the DSF method requires that the size frequency of deposits in a known or control area has been established and that the relation of the size-frequency distribution of deposits to probable controlling geologic factors has been determined. Using these relations, the principal scientist {PS) first estimates the number and range of size classes and then, for each size class, estimates the lower limit, most likely value, and upper limit of the numbers of deposits in the favorable area. Once these probable estimates have been refined

  5. Seasonal and geothermal production variations in concentrations of He and CO2 in soil gases, Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinkle, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    To increase understanding of natural variations in soil gas concentrations, CO2, He, O2 and N2 were measured in soil gases collected regularly for several months from four sites at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resource Area, Utah. Soil temperature, air temperature, per cent relative humidity, barometric pressure and amounts of rain and snowfall were also monitored to determine the effect of meteorological parameters on concentrations of the measured gases. Considerable seasonal variation existed in concentrations of CO2 and He. The parameters that most affected the soil-gas concentrations were soil and air temperatures. Moisture from rain and snow probably affected the soil-gas concentrations also. However, annual variations in meteorological parameters did not appear to affect measurements of anomalous concentrations in samples collected within a time period of a few days. Production from some of the geothermal wells probably affected the soil-gas concentrations. ?? 1990.

  6. Geologic framework and hot dry rock geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area, Yuma County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Gutmann, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    The Castle Dome Mountains and surrounding ranges constitute a voluminous pile of silicic volcanic rocks within the Basin and Range province of southwestern Arizona. Previously reported as Cretaceous and Quaternary in age, these volcanics all are of late Oligocene to early Miocene age as indicated by five new K-Ar dates. Reconnaissance field studies indicate that the volcanic section locally has undergone large rotations that contrast with the usual structural style of the Basin and Range and resemble the thin-skinned rotational tectonics documented for earlier, mid-Tertiary extensional deformation in ranges to the north and northeast. Significant geothermal potential of the Castle Dome area is suggested by a shallow depth to the Curie isotherm and by the apparent presence of a good electrical conductor at anomalously shallow depth in the crust. Warm wells exist in the area and Shearer (1979) reported a geothermal gradient of about 70/sup 0/C/km in a dry well near the center of the gravity low. Radiogenic heat production in the silicic batholith inferred above constitutes a reasonable candidate for a shallow regional heat source.

  7. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  8. Geopressured Geothermal Resource and Recoverable Energy Estimate for the Wilcox and Frio Formations, Texas (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, A.; Augustine, C.

    2011-10-01

    An estimate of the total and recoverable geopressured geothermal resource of the fairways in the Wilcox and Frio formations is made using the current data available. The flow rate of water and methane for wells located in the geopressured geothermal fairways is simulated over a 20-year period utilizing the TOUGH2 Reservoir Simulator and research data. The model incorporates relative permeability, capillary pressure, rock compressibility, and leakage from the bounding shale layers. The simulations show that permeability, porosity, pressure, sandstone thickness, well spacing, and gas saturation in the sandstone have a significant impact on the percent of energy recovered. The results also predict lower average well production flow rates and a significantly higher production of natural gas relative to water than in previous studies done from 1975 to 1980. Previous studies underestimate the amount of methane produced with hot brine. Based on the work completed in this study, multiphase flow processes and reservoir boundary conditions greatly influence the total quantity of the fluid produced as well as the ratio of gas and water in the produced fluid.

  9. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  10. Geothermal resource assessment for the state of Texas: status of progress, November 1980. Final report. Appendices E through H

    SciTech Connect

    Woodruff, C.M. Jr.; Caran, S.C.; Gever, C.; Henry, C.D.; Macpherson, G.L.; McBride, M.W.

    1982-03-01

    These appendices include: a folio of maps showing lineaments perceived across the state; an index and critique of the Landsat images used in perceiving the lineaments; a selected bibliography on lineaments; and a discussion of area-specific assessments of geothermal resources near military bases in Bexar, Travis, and Val Verde Counties. (MHR)

  11. Assessment of the geothermal resources of Carson-Eagle valleys and Big Smoky Valley, Nevada. First annual report, May 1, 1979-May 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Two geothermal investigations were completed in three Nevada locations. The regions studied were selected from areas outlined as having direct utilization potential (Trexler and others, 1979) and included the Carson-Eagle Valley, Bis Smoky Valley and Caliente. Studies were organized around the completion of a group of tasks in each area. These tasks included: geologic reconnaissance, gravity surveys, aerial photography, fluid sampling and analysis, shallow depth temperature probe surveys, soil mercury surveys, shallow electrical resistivity measurements, and temperature gradient hole drilling. Goals of the project were to provide regional information about the nature and extent of the resources and to offer a critical evaluation of the techniques employed. Results from the work in the Carson-Eagle Valley and Big Smoky Valley are presented. (MHR)

  12. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.355 - How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty due on geothermal resources I sell at arm's length to a purchaser for direct use? 1206.355 Section 1206.355 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  15. Geological Results from Drilling in the Poihipi (Western) Sector of the Wairakei Geothermal Field, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Bogie, I.; Lawless, J.V.; MacKenzie, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Four wells drilled into the Poihipi Sector on the Western margin of the Wairakei geothermal field have found a similar lithostratigraphy to that encountered in wells previously drilled in the general area. Young pumice breccias overly the Huka Falls Formation, with the latter containing intercalations of the Rautehuia Breccia. This in turn overlies ignimbrites and tuffaceous sediments of the Waiora Formation, which contains flows of Haparangi Rhyolite. This sequence is cut by steeply dipping normal faults which strike to the northeast and for the most part dip towards the northwest. Hydrothermal alteration is virtually limited to the Waiora and Haparangi units where a sequence of interlayered illite-smectite and illite clays are found along with chlorite, quartz, pyrite and calcite. There is a minor occurrence of zeolites. Despite large changes in the area's hydrology in response to exploitation, changes in alteration are limited to a comparatively deep occurrence of kaolinite and minor overprinting of epidote by illitic clay.

  16. Subsurface Geology of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Site

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, Schon S.

    2010-12-01

    The Precambrian rock penetrated by wells EE-2A and -3A belongs to one or more granitic to granodioritic plutons. The plutonic rock contains two major xenolith zones of amphibolite, locally surrounded by fine-grained mafic rock of hybrid igneous origin. The granodiorite is cut by numerous leucogranite dikes that diminish in abundance with depth. The most prominent structural feature is the main breccia zone, in which the rock is highly fractured and moderately altered. This zone is at least 75 m thick and is of uncertain but near-horizontal orientation. Fracture abundance decreases with increasing depth below the main breccia zone, and fractures tend to be associated with leucogranite dikes. This association suggests that at least some of the fractures making up the geothermal reservoir are of Precambrian age or have long-range orientations controlled by the presence of Precambrian-age granitic dikes.

  17. Backgrounder: Geothermal resource production, steam gathering, and power generation at Salton Sea Unit 3, Calipatria, California

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    The 10,000-kilowatt Salton Sea Unit 1 power plant was designed to demonstrate that electrical power generation, using the highly saline brines from the Salton Sea geothermal reservoir, was technically and economically feasible. Unit 1, owned by Earth Energy, a Unocal subsidiary, began operating in 1982, initiating an intensive testing program which established the design criteria necessary to construct the larger 47,500-kilowatt Unit 3 power plant, unit 3 contains many of the proprietary or patented technological innovations developed during this program. Design, construction and start-up of the Unit 3 power generating facility began in December, 1986, and was completed in 26 months. By the end of 1988, the brine handling system was in full operation, and the turbine had been tested at design speed. Desert Power Company, a Unocal subsidiary, owns the power generating facility. Unocal owns the brine resource production facility. Power is transmitted by the Imperial Irrigation District to Southern California Edison Company.

  18. Development of concepts for the management of shallow geothermal resources in urban areas - Experience gained from the Basel and Zaragoza case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gil, Alejandro; Epting, Jannis; Mueller, Matthias H.; Huggenberger, Peter; Vázquez-Suñé, Enric

    2015-04-01

    In urban areas the shallow subsurface often is used as a heat resource (shallow geothermal energy), i.e. for the installation and operation of a broad variety of geothermal systems. Increasingly, groundwater is used as a low-cost heat sink, e.g. for building acclimatization. Together with other shallow geothermal exploitation systems significantly increased groundwater temperatures have been observed in many urban areas (urban heat island effect). The experience obtained from two selected case study cities in Basel (CH) and Zaragoza (ES) has allowed developing concepts and methods for the management of thermal resources in urban areas. Both case study cities already have a comprehensive monitoring network operating (hydraulics and temperature) as well as calibrated high-resolution numerical groundwater flow and heat-transport models. The existing datasets and models have allowed to compile and compare the different hydraulic and thermal boundary conditions for both groundwater bodies, including: (1) River boundaries (River Rhine and Ebro), (2) Regional hydraulic and thermal settings, (3) Interaction with the atmosphere under consideration of urbanization and (4) Anthropogenic quantitative and thermal groundwater use. The potential natural states of the considered groundwater bodies also have been investigated for different urban settings and varying processes concerning groundwater flow and thermal regimes. Moreover, concepts for the management of thermal resources in urban areas and the transferability of the applied methods to other urban areas are discussed. The methods used provide an appropriate selection of parameters (spatiotemporal resolution) that have to be measured for representative interpretations of groundwater flow and thermal regimes of specific groundwater bodies. From the experience acquired from the case studies it is shown that understanding the variable influences of the specific geological and hydrogeological as well as hydraulic and thermal

  19. Geothermal-resource assessment of the Steamboat-Routt Hot Springs area, Colorado. Resources Series 22

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, R.H.; Zacharakis, T.G.; Ringrose, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of the Steamboat Springs region in northwest Colorado was initiated and carried out in 1980 and 1981. The goal of this program was to delineate the geological features controlling the occurrence of the thermal waters (temperatures in excess of 68/sup 0/F (20/sup 0/C)) in this area at Steamboat Springs and 8 miles (12.8 km) north at Routt Hot Springs. Thermal waters from Heart Spring, the only developed thermal water source in the study area, are used in the municipal swimming pool in Steamboat Springs. The assessment program was a fully integrated program consisting of: dipole-dipole, Audio-magnetotelluric, telluric, self potential and gravity geophysical surveys, soil mercury and soil helium geochemical surveys; shallow temperature measurements; and prepartion of geological maps. The investigation showed that all the thermal springs appear to be fault controlled. Based on the chemical composition of the thermal waters it appears that Heart Spring in Steamboat Springs is hydrologically related to the Routt Hot Springs. This relationship was further confirmed when it was reported that thermal waters were encountered during the construction of the new high school in Strawberry Park on the north side of Steamboat Springs. In addition, residents stated that Strawberry Park appears to be warmer than the surrounding country side. Geological mapping has determined that a major fault extends from the Routt Hot Springs area into Strawberry Park.

  20. Hot dry rock geothermal energy -- a renewable energy resource that is ready for development now

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.; Myers, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, is a very large and well-distributed resource of nonpolluting, and essentially renewable, energy that is available globally. Its use could help mitigate climatic change and reduce acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nations's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and several other countries. On a national scale we can begin to develop this new source, using it directly for power generation or for direct-heat applications, or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fuel power plants. In the HDR concept, which has been demonstrated in the field in two different applications and flow- tested for periods up to one year, heat is recovered from the earth by pressurized water in a closed-loop circulation system. As a consequence, minimal effluents are released to the atmosphere, and no wastes are produced. This paper describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source.