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Sample records for geothermal site departamento

  1. San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, Honduras, Central America: Geological field report

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, M.J.; Eppler, D.; Heiken, G.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1987-06-01

    The San Ignacio (La Tembladera) geothermal site is located on the north side of the Siria Valley, Departamento de Francisco Morazan, near the village of Barrosa. Hot springs are located along a northwest-trending fault scarp at the edge of the valley and along north-trending faults that cross the scarp. The rocks in the area are primarily Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, overlain by patches of Tertiary Padre Miguel Group tuffs and alluvial deposits. Movement probably occurred along several faults during latest Tertiary and possibly early Quaternary times. Four spring areas were mapped. Area 1, the largest, is associated with a sinter mound and consists of 40 spring groups. About half of the springs, aligned along a north-south trend, are boiling. Area 2 is a small sinter mound with several seeps. Area 3 consists of a group of hot and boiling springs aligned along a north-trending fault. The springs rise through fractured schists and a thin cover of alluvium. Area 4 is located at the intersection of several faults and includes one of the largest boiling springs in the area.

  2. Geology of the platanares geothermal site, Departamento de Copan, Honduras, Central America. Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Eppler, D.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Ramos, N.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-05-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  3. Recommendations report for the platanares geothermal site, Department of Copan, Honduras. Reporte de recomendaciones para el sitio geotermico de platanares, Departamento de Copan, Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    A geothermal assessment of six previously identified sites in Honduras has been conducted by a team comprised of staff from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the US Geological Survey, and the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica. The application of both reconnaissance and detailed scale techniques lead to the selection of Platanares in the Department of Copan as the highest potential site. Additional work resulted in the completion of a prefeasibility study at Platanares. We present here a tabulation of the work completed and short summaries of the results from these technical studies. We also present a brief model of the geothermal system and recommendations for additional feasibility work. Both English and Spanish versions of this report are provided in the same document. 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Geology of the Azacualpa geothermal site, Departamento de Comayagua Honduras, Central America: Field report. Geologia del area geotermica de Azacualpa Departamento de Comayagua, Honduras, America Central: Informe de camps

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Baldridge, S.; Perry, F.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Finch, R.

    1987-03-01

    Thermal waters at the Azacualpa geothermal site are surfacing along fractures in the Atima Formation associated with the main north-south-trending Zacapa fault and the subordinate north-south-trending splays of the main fault. Permeability appears to be related to these fractures rather than to formation permeability in either the limestones of the Atima Formation or the Valle de Angeles Group red beds. Attitudes of lower Valle de Angeles Group red beds do not vary appreciably with distance away from the Zacapa fault, suggesting that the system is not behaving like a listric normal fault at depth. The ''Jaitique structure,'' as conjectured by R. Fakundiny (1985), does not appear to have any manifestation at the surface in terms of structures that can be seen or measured in the bedrock. Its existence is considered unlikely at the present time. Calorimetry calculations indicate that the thermal anomaly at the Azacualpa site is producing approx.4.4 thermal megawatts.

  5. Geology of the platanares geothermal area, Departamento de Copan, Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.; Duffield, W.; Musgrave, J.; Wohletz, K.; Priest, S.; Aldrich, J.; Flores, W.; Ritchie, A.; Goff, F.; Eppler, D.; Escobar, C.

    1991-01-01

    Platanares is located 16 km west of Santa Rosa de Copan, Honduras, along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente. The thermal manifestations are along faults in tuffs, tuffaceous sedimentary rocks, and lavas of the Padre Miguel Group. These tuffs are silicified near the faults, are fractured, and may provide the fracture permeability necessary for the hydrothermal system. Tuffs are overlain by a wedge of terrace gravels up to 60 m thick. Quaternary conglomerates of the Quebrada del Agua Caliente are cemented by silica sinter. The Platanares area contains numerous faults, all of which appear to be extensional. There are four groups of faults (N80/sup 0/E to N70/sup 0/W, N30/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/W, N40/sup 0/ to 65/sup 0/E, and N00/sup 0/ to 05/sup 0/W). All hot springs at this site are located along faults that trend mostly northwest and north. Twenty-eight spring groups were described over an area of 0.2 km/sup 2/; half were boiling. Based on surface temperatures and flow rates, between 0.7 and 1.0 MW thermal energy is estimated for the area. The increased temperature of the stream flowing through the thermal area indicates that several megawatts of thermal energy are being added to the stream. We recommend that a dipole-dipole resistivity line be run along the Quebrada del Agua Caliente to identify zones of fracture permeability associated with buried faults and hot water reservoirs within those fault zones. A thermal gradient corehole should be drilled at Platanares to test temperatures, lithologies, and permeability of the hydrothermal system.

  6. NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    This document highlights the NREL Geothermal Policymakers' Guidebooks Web site, including the five steps to effective geothermal policy development for geothermal electricity generation and geothermal heating and cooling technologies.

  7. Geology of the Pavana geothermal area, Departamento de Choluteca, Honduras, Central America: Field report

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.B.; Heiken, G.; Wohletz, K.; Flores, W.; Paredes, J.R.; Duffield, W.A.

    1987-09-01

    The Pavana geothermal area is located in southern Honduras near the Gulf of Fonseca. This region is underlain by late Tertiary volcanic rocks. Within ranges near the geothermal manifestations, the rock sequences is characterized by intermediate to mafic laharic breccias and lavas overlain by silicic tuffs and lavas, which are in turn overlain by intermediate to mafic breccias, lavas, and tuffs. The nearest Quaternary volcanoes are about 40 km to the southwest, where the chain of active Central American volcanoes crosses the mouth of the Gulf of Fonseca. Structure of the Pavana area is dominated by generally northwest-trending, southwest-dipping normal faults. This structure is topographically expressed as northwest-trending escarpments that bound blocks of bedrock separated by asymmetric valleys that contain thin alluvial deposits. Thermal waters apparently issue from normal faults and are interpreted as having been heated during deep circulation along fault zones within a regional environment of elevated heat flow. Natural outflow from the main thermal area is about 3000 l/min of 60/sup 0/C water. Geothermometry of the thermal waters suggests a reservoir base temperature of about 150/sup 0/C.

  8. Evaluation of potential geopressure geothermal test sites in southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bassiouni, Z.

    1980-04-01

    Six geopressured-geothermal prospects in southern Louisiana were studied in detail to assess their potential use as test sites for the production of geopressure-geothermal energy. Each of the six sites contains substantial quantities of energy. Three of these prospects, Grand Lake, Lake Theriot, and Bayou Hebert, appear to be suitable for a test site. A summary of the findings is presented.

  9. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  10. New geochemical investigations in Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites (Honduras)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberi, Franco; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Cioni, Roberto; Lelli, Matteo; Menichini, Matia; Ranaldi, Massimo; Ricci, Tullio; Tarchini, Luca

    2013-05-01

    Platanares and Azacualpa geothermal sites of Honduras are located in an inner part of the Caribbean Plate far from the active volcanic front of Central America. Here geology indicates that there are not the conditions for the occurrence of shallow magmatic heat sources for high-enthalpy geothermal resources. Geothermal perspectives are related to the possibility of a deep circulation of meteoric water along faults and the storage of the heated fluid in fractured permeable reservoirs. Geochemical geothermometers indicate a temperature for the deeper part of the geothermal reservoir close to 200 °C for Platanares and of 150-170 °C for Azacualpa. Calcite scaling, with subordinate silica deposition has to be expected in both sites. CO2 soil flux investigations have been carried out in both areas and reveal the presence of positive anomalies likely corresponding to the presence at depth of fractured degassing geothermal reservoirs. Compared with the geothermal areas of Central Italy whose reservoirs are hosted in carbonate rocks, e.g. Latera (Chiodini et al., 2007), the CO2 soil flux measured in Honduras is significantly lower (mean of 17 g/m2day at Platanares and of 163 g/m2day at Azacualpa) probably because of the dominant silicate nature of the deep reservoirs.

  11. Reconnaissance geothermal resource assessment of 40 sites in California

    SciTech Connect

    Leivas, E.; Martin, R.C.; Higgins, C.T.; Bezore, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Results are set forth for a continuing reconnaissance-level assessment of promising geothermal sites scattered through California. The studies involve acquisition of new data based upon field observations, compilation of data from published and unpublished sources, and evaluation of the data to identify areas suitable for more intensive area-specific studies. Forty sites were chosen for reporting on the basis of their relative potential for development as a significant resource. The name and location of each site is given, and after a brief synopsis, the geothermal features, chemistry, geology, and history of the site are reported. Three sites are recommended for more detailed study on the basis of potential for use by a large number of consumers, large volume of water, and the likelihood that the resource underlies a large area. (LEW)

  12. Ornithological Survey of the Proposed Geothermal Well Site No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey, Jack

    1990-08-16

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS 1983) and the State of Hawaii (DLNR 1986) have listed as endangered six forest bird species for the Island of Hawaii. Two of these birds, the O'u (Psittirostra psittacea) and the Hawaiian hawk (Buteo solitarius) may be present within the Geothermal resource sub-zone (Scott et al. 1986). Thus, their presence could impact future development within the resource area. This report presents the results of a bird survey conducted August 11 and 12, 1990 in the sub-zone in and around the proposed well site and pad for True/Mid Pacific Geothermal Well No.2.

  13. 43 CFR 3273.13 - What lands are not available for geothermal site licenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geothermal site licenses? 3273.13 Section 3273.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING How To Apply for a Site License § 3273.13 What lands are not available for geothermal...

  14. 43 CFR 3273.13 - What lands are not available for geothermal site licenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... geothermal site licenses? 3273.13 Section 3273.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING How To Apply for a Site License § 3273.13 What lands are not available for geothermal...

  15. 43 CFR 3273.13 - What lands are not available for geothermal site licenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... geothermal site licenses? 3273.13 Section 3273.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING How To Apply for a Site License § 3273.13 What lands are not available for geothermal...

  16. 43 CFR 3273.13 - What lands are not available for geothermal site licenses?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... geothermal site licenses? 3273.13 Section 3273.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING How To Apply for a Site License § 3273.13 What lands are not available for geothermal...

  17. Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  18. Results of geothermal gradient core hole TCB-1, Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.I.; Chipera, S.; Counce, D.; Gardner, J.; Goff, S.; Goff, F.; Heiken, G.; Laughlin, A.W.; Musgrave, J.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. ); Aycinena, S.; Martinelli, L. ); Castaneda, O.; Revolorio, M.; Roldan, A. . Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion); D

    1992-02-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro volcano geothermal site in Guatemala indicated that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, hydrothermal alteration, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro volcano Complex, 300 km south of a 300-m-diameter phreatic crater, Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2,910 years. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 250--300{degrees}C. The temperature versus depth curve from TCB-1 does not show isothermal conditions and the calculated thermal gradients from 500--800 m is 230{degrees}C/km. Bottom hole temperature is 238{degrees}C. Calculated heat flow values are nearly 9 heat flow units (HFU). The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for containing a commercial geothermal resource.

  19. Tables of co-located geothermal-resource sites and BLM Wilderness Study Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, D.; Dorscher, M.

    1982-11-01

    Matched pairs of known geothermal wells and springs with BLM proposed Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) were identified by inspection of WSA and Geothermal resource maps for the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming. A total of 3952 matches, for geothermal sites within 25 miles of a WSA, were identified. Of these, only 71 (1.8%) of the geothermal sites are within one mile of a WSA, and only an additional 100 (2.5%) are within one to three miles. Approximately three-fourths of the matches are at distances greater than ten miles. Only 12 of the geothermal sites within one mile of a WSA have surface temperatures reported above 50/sup 0/C. It thus appears that the geothermal potential of WSAs overall is minimal, but that evaluation of geothermal resources should be considered in more detail for some areas prior to their designation as Wilderness.

  20. Hydrogeochemical investigation of six geothermal sites in Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Truesdell, A.H.; Grigsby, C.O.; Janik, C.J.; Shevenell, L.A.; Paredes, J.R.; Gutierrez, J.W.; Trujillo, Jr.; Counce, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    We conducted detailed hydrogeochemical investigations at six geothermal sites in western Honduras: Azacualpa, El Olivar, Pavana, Platanares, Sambo Creek, and San Ignacio. None of the sites is associated with Quaternary silicic volcanism, although El Olivar lies adjacent to a small Quaternary basalt field and Pavana is part of a belt of hot spring activity parallel to and 35 km east of the Central American volcanic arc. None of the sites contains acid-sulfate waters indicative of vapor-dominated conditions. Thermal fluids are characterized by pH between 7 and 10, Cl<125 mg/l, HCO/sub 3/>Cl, SO/sub 4/greater than or equal toCl, Bless than or equal to17 mg/l, Liless than or equal to4 mg/l, and Asless than or equal to1.25 mg/l. Stable isotope analyses of the water show that recharge to the geothermal systems generally occurs from areas of higher elevation adjacent to the sites. Tritium contents of apparently undiluted thermal fluids range from 0 to 0.4 T.U., indicating residence times of fluids in the systems of more than 500 y. Various geochemical indicators show that mixing of hot and cold end-member fluids occurs in the system at Platanares and, to a lesser degree, in the systems at San Ignacio and Azacualpa. No mixing is apparent in the fluids discharging at Pavana, Sambo Creek, or El Olivar. Boiling is the dominant process responsible for subtle geochemical variations at Azacualpa and, possibly, San Ignacio. Our best estimates of subsurface reservoir temperatures are 225/sup 0/C at Platanares, 190/sup 0/C at San Ignacio, 185/sup 0/C at Azacualpa, 155/sup 0/C at Sambo Creek, 150/sup 0/C at Pavana, and 120/sup 0/C at El Olivar. The estimated power output of the three hottest sites is 45 thermal megawatts at Platanares, 14 thermal megawatts at San Ignacio, and 13 thermal megawatts at Azacualpa.

  1. Compound hybrid geothermal-fossil power plants - Thermodynamic analyses and site-specific applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipippo, R.; Kestin, J.; Avelar, E. M.; Khalifa, H. E.

    1980-02-01

    In this paper, we extend the analysis of hybrid fossil-geothermal power plants to compound systems which combine the features of the two previously analyzed hybrid plants, the geothermal preheat and the fossil superheat systems. Compound systems of the one- and two-stage type are considered. A complete summary of formulae to assess the performance of the plants is included for completeness. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, compound hybrid plants are superior to individual all-geothermal and all-fossil plants, and have certain advantages over basic geothermal-preheat and fossil-superheat hybrid plants. The flexibility of compound hybrid systems is illustrated by showing how such plants might be used at several geothermal sites in the western United States.

  2. Silica Extraction at the Mammoth Lakes Geothermal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bourcier, W; Ralph, W; Johnson, M; Bruton, C; Gutierrez, P

    2006-06-07

    The purpose of this project is to develop a cost-effective method to extract marketable silica (SiO{sub 2}) from fluids at the Mammoth Lakes, California geothermal power plant. Marketable silica provides an additional revenue source for the geothermal power industry and therefore lowers the costs of geothermal power production. The use of this type of ''solution mining'' to extract resources from geothermal fluids eliminates the need for acquiring these resources through energy intensive and environmentally damaging mining technologies. We have demonstrated that both precipitated and colloidal silica can be produced from the geothermal fluids at Mammoth Lakes by first concentrating the silica to over 600 ppm using reverse osmosis (RO). The RO permeate can be used in evaporative cooling at the plant; the RO concentrate is used for silica and potentially other (Li, Cs, Rb) resource extraction. Preliminary results suggest that silica recovery at Mammoth Lakes could reduce the cost of geothermal electricity production by 1.0 cents/kWh.

  3. Subsidence measurements around geopressured-geothermal test sites in southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, D.B.

    1988-02-01

    First-order elevation surveys of benchmark networks established around geopressured-geothermal test sites in southwestern Louisiana have been conducted before, during, and after testing to determine the potential for growth fault activation and compactional subsidence due to depressurization of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. Subsidence increased to the south along the line from Lafayette, Louisiana, to the Parcperdue test site as expected as this line descends the flank of the Iberian structural axis. Subsidence varied for benchmarks around the site and by yearly rate although the yearly pattern was consistent. During the period from 1980 to 1982, the benchmarks on the site may have subsided more than other benchmarks due to compaction of soils by drilling and testing equipment. Motion rates for benchmarks around the Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal test site south of Lake Charles, Louisiana, were highly variable during the period from 1980 to 1984 and were less variable from 1984 to 1986. These rates and patterns of motion may reflect the instability of the Sweet Lake salt dome located south of the prospect but do not correlate with the subsidence expected from geopressured-geothermal development. Relevelings of the benchmark network around the Gladys McCall geopressured-geothermal test site on the coast illustrate generally decreasing subsidence from west to east and slight variations among benchmark motions. The greatest subsidence occurred along the well access road and at the well site from 1981 to 1984 coincident with well-site preparation and drilling.

  4. Subsidence measurements around geopressured-geothermal test sites in southwestern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    First-order elevation surveys of benchmark networks established around geopressured-geothermal test sites in southwestern Louisiana have been conducted before, during, and after testing to determine the potential for growth fault activation and compactional subsidence due to depressurization of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs. Subsidence increased to the south along the line from Lafayette, Louisiana, to the Parcperdue test site as expected as this line descends the flank of the Iberian structural axis. Subsidence varied for benchmarks around the site and by yearly rate although the yearly pattern was consistent. During the period from 1980 to 1982, the benchmarks on the site may have subsided more than other benchmarks due to compaction of soils by drilling and testing equipment. Motion rates for benchmarks around the Sweet Lake geopressured-geothermal test site south of Lake Charles, Louisiana, were highly variable during the period from 1980 to 1984 and were less variable from 1984 to 1986. These rates and patterns of motion may reflect the instability of Sweet Lake salt dome located south of the prospect but do not correlate with the subsidence expected from geopressured-geothermal development. Relevelings of the benchmark network around the Gladys McCall geopressured-geomthermal test site on the coast illustrate generally decreasing subsidence from west to east and slight variations among benchmark motions. The greatest subsidence occurred along the well access road and the well site from 1981 to 1984 coincident with well-site preparation and drilling.

  5. New geothermal site identification and qualification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This study identifies remaining undeveloped geothermal resources in California and western Nevada, and it estimates the development costs of each. It has relied on public-domain information and such additional data as geothermal developers have chosen to make available. Reserve estimation has been performed by volumetric analysis with a probabilistic approach to uncertain input parameters. Incremental geothermal reserves in the California/Nevada study area have a minimum value of 2,800 grosss MW and a most-likely value of 4,300 gross MW. For the state of California alone, these values are 2,000 and 3,000 gross MW, respectively. These estimates may be conservative to the extent that they do not take into account resources about which little or no public-domain information is available. The average capital cost of incremental generation capacity is estimated to average $3,100/kW for the California/Nevada study area, and $2,950/kW for the state of California alone. These cost estimates include exploration, confirmation drilling, development drilling, plant construction, and transmission-line costs. For the purposes of this study, a capital cost of $2,400/kW is considered competitive with other renewable resources. The amount of incremental geothermal capacity available at or below $2,400/kW is about 1,700 gross MW for the California/Nevada study area, and the same amount (within 50-MW rounding) for the state of California alone. The capital cost estimates are only approximate, because each developer would bring its own experience, bias, and opportunities to the development process. Nonetheless, the overall costs per project estimated in this study are believed to be reasonable.

  6. Seismic Characterization of the Blue Mountain Geothermal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, D. C.; Matzel, E.; Cladouhos, T. T.

    2016-12-01

    In geothermal areas, seismic mapping is a key tool used to infer the subsurface fracture geometry. Traditional earthquake detection (e.g. STA/LTA) and location techniques are often employed to identify microearthquakes. However, most commonly used algorithms may miss events if the seismic signal of an earthquake is small relative to the background noise level or if a microearthquake occurs within the coda of a larger event. Advanced earthquake detection techniques can be applied in these regions to identify these missed events. For this application, known larger events are used as templates to identify nearby smaller events. Here we investigate the seismic activity within the Blue Mountain Geothermal Power Plant located in Humboldt County, Nevada between December 2015 to May 2016. We compare the effectiveness of direct spatial-temporal cross-correlation templates with Matched Field Processing (MFP) derived templates and compare these results with earthquake detection results from a traditional STA/LTA algorithm. Preliminary results show significant clustering of microearthquakes, most probably influenced by plant operations. The significant increase in data availability that advanced earthquake detection methods can provide improves the statistical analyses of induced seismicity sequences, reveal critical information about the ongoing evolution of the subsurface reservoir, and better informs the construction of models for hazard assessments. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  7. Reconnaissance of hydrologic monitoring sites and preliminary monitoring plan for the Vale, Oregon, geothermal area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Caldwell, Rodney R.

    1996-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is working with private industry to develop a geothermal demonstration project in the Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. Hydrologic monitoring in the area is planned in order to evaluate any impacts from the proposed development. The hydrology in and around the Vale KGRA is not well known. Additionally, little is known about the targeted geothermal reservoir and the nature of its connection to the shallow ground-water system. Given this uncertainty, a variety of features were selected to ensure adequate monitoring coverage. Wells and springs in and around the geothermal area were evaluated, and 19 were selected as potential monitoring sites. In selecting wells and springs for monitoring, particular emphasis was placed on those with a known or probable connection with the geothermal system because they would most likely be the first to show any effects from development. The selected features include thermal wells in the hot-spring area near the town of Vale and a hot spring south of the KGRA. Several warm wells (70 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit) near the KGRA were also selected because it is likely that the water produced from these wells includes a component of geothermal water. In order to identify any effects of development, it is necessary to have an understanding of natural and man-caused variations and trends prior to development. A quarterly measurement schedule is proposed to help characterize these variations and trends. It is anticipated that the proposed monitoring plan will be modified as exploration and development proceed and more is learned about the geothermal system.

  8. Fluidized-bed potato waste drying experiments at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, L.T.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1980-06-01

    A fluidized-bed dryer was built and operated at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho to test the feasibility of using low-temperature (145/sup 0/C or lower) geothermal fluids as an energy source for drying operations. The dryer performed successfully on two potato industry waste products that had a solid content of 5 to 13%. The dried product was removed as a sand-like granular material or as fines with a flour-like texture. Test results, observations, and design recommendations are presented. Also presented is an economic evaluation for commercial-scale drying plants using either geothermal low-temperature water or oil as a heat source.

  9. Environmental monitoring at designed geopressured-geothermal well sites, Louisiana and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Groat, C.; Stevenson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The research objectives of this report are to: implement and maintain the ongoing environmental monitoring program around DOE geopressured-geothermal test well in Louisiana and Texas; analyze and interpret collected data for evidence of subsidence and induced microearthquakes which may be brought about by geopressured-geothermal well testing and development; continue geological-geophysical studies of the Hulin and Gladys McCall sites incorporating new seismic data; continue review of previously identified and tested geopressured-geothermal prospects in Louisiana to determine if any link exists between such reservoirs and the existence of free gas in commercial or subcommercial quantities; and initiate review of geology, co-location and properties of geopressured brines with medium and heavy oil reservoirs in Louisiana utilizing existing maps, databases, reports, and journal articles.

  10. Environmental monitoring at designed geopressured-geothermal well sites, Louisiana and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The research objectives of this report are to: implement and maintain the ongoing environmental monitoring program around DOE geopressured-geothermal test wells in Louisiana and Texas; analyze and interpret collected data for evidence of subsidence and induced microearthquakes which may be brought about by geopressured-geothermal well testing and development; continue geological-geophysical studies of the Hulin and Gladys McCall sites incorporating new seismic data; continue review of previously identified and tested geopressured-geothermal prospects in Louisiana to determine if any link exists between such reservoirs and the existence of free gas in commercial or subcommercial quantities; and initiate review of geology, co-location and properties of geopressured brines with medium and heavy oil reservoirs in Louisiana utilizing existing maps, databases, reports, and journal articles. 2 figs.

  11. Structure, stratigraphy, and tectonics of the Dixie Valley geothermal site, Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Plank, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Tens of millions of dollars have been spent drilling high-temperature wells within or in the vicinity of the Dixie Valley geothermal reservoir which have ultimately proven to be unproductive. Because the potential exists for further development of the field(s), it is important to assess the details of rock geometry and type on both sides of the range front fault which seems to delineate in some fashion the geothermal reservoir. There exists a large body of industry surface and subsurface geological and geophysical data in the area of the geothermal site. Exploration and production to date have proven at least one large geothermal field to exist in Dixie Valley, and there remains the potential for others to be found in parts of the valley which have seen little or no deep drilling to date. However, a number of wells with temperatures high enough for power generation have been unsuccessful in penetrating the fractures required for production. These wells occur both between other successful production or injection wells and outside the boundaries of the known reservoir. From the relatively large number of these dry wells and dry legs it is readily apparent that an improved knowledge and understanding of the details of the local geology should be obtained before additional drilling is undertaken. The geology is complex and most new wells continue to add to the apparent complexity. A new strategy for enhancing the resolution of the geothermal reservoir involves the detailed mapping of the footwall of the range front fault, exposed along the east face of the Stillwater Range, in order to infer the structure of the slip face of the hanging wall. After detailed maps and structural models are well established and projected beneath the geothermal site, seismic reflection data will be reprocessed in support of the hypothesized subsurface architecture.

  12. Internal Technical Report, 1981 Annual Report, An Analysis of the Response of the Raft River Geothermal Site Monitor Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Thurow, T.L.; Large, R.M.; Allman, D.W.; Tullis, J.A.; Skiba, P.A.

    1982-04-01

    A groundwater monitoring program has been established on the Raft River Geothermal Site since 1978. The objective of this program is to document possible impacts that may be caused by geothermal production and injection on the shallow aquifers used for culinary and irrigation purposes. This annual progress report summarizes data from 12 monitor wells during 1981. These data are compared with long-term trends and are correlated with seasonal patterns, irrigation water use and geothermal production and testing. These results provide a basis for predicting long-term impacts of sustained geothermal production and testing. To date, there has been no effect on the water quality of the shallow aquifers.

  13. Summary and results of the comprehensive environmental monitoring program at the INEL's Raft River geothermal site

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, R.A.; Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Program was designed to demonstrate that moderate temperature (approx. 150/sup 0/C) geothermal fluids could be used to generate electricity and provide an alternate energy source for direct-use applications. The environmental program was initiated soon after drilling began. The major elements of the monitoring program were continued during the construction and experimental testing of the 5-MW(e) power plant. The monitoring studies established pre-development baseline conditions of and assessed changes in the physical, biological, and human environment. The Physical Environmental Monitoring Program collected baseline data on geology, subsidence, seismicity, meteorology and air quality. The Biological Environmental Monitoring Program collected baseline data on the flora and fauna of the terrestrial ecosystem, studied raptor disturbances, and surveyed the aquatic communities of the Raft River. The Human Environmental Monitoring Program surveyed historic and archaeological sites, considered the socioeconomic environment, and documented incidences of fluorosis in the Raft River Valley. In addition to the environmental monitoring programs, research on biological direct applications using geothermal water was conducted at Raft River. Areas of research included biomass production of wetland and tree species, aquaculture, agricultural irrigation, and the use of wetlands as a treatment or pretreatment system for geothermal effluents.

  14. Geodetic monitoring strategy at the geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen (Upper Rhine Graben, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimlich, Christine; Masson, Frédéric; Gourmelen, Noël

    2014-05-01

    The European Cenozoic rift system, and in particular the Upper Rhine Graben offers a high potential of deep geothermal energy due to the well known geothermal anomaly and to the number of subsurface temperature data from oil exploration in the Upper Rhine Graben. One example is the Soultz-sous-Forêts Enhance Geothermal System (EGS) located in the French part of the Upper Rhine Graben. The Soultz-sous-Forêts EGS started in 1987 as a deep geothermal research site. The wells are drilled in naturally fractured and altered granites from 3200 to 5260 m depth located in the vicinity of quasi North-South faults. It is the first EGS site connected to the electric network, its electric production capacity is of 1.5MWe. A second EGS site, ECOGI, is in development near the village of Rittershoffen located at 7 km from Soultz-sous-Forêts. The objective of ECOGI is to produce 24MWth energy for an industrial use with a doublet configuration of wells at depths around 2500 and 3000 meters. Both EGS sites benefit of the natural circulation of geothermal water. Some challenges in geothermal power plant are to understand the long-term behavior of the geothermal system and the induced seismicity. In the Soultz-sous-Forêts plant, borehole measures give evidences of aseismic slip (Bailleux et al., 2013). And previous geodetic monitoring studies of other deep geothermal plants show subsidence and horizontal displacements due to geothermal exploitation (e.g. Massonnet et al., 1997; Nishijima et al., 2005; Fialko and Simons, 2000). The ability of geodesy tools to provide information about dynamic behaviour and the change in the local stress field around the geothermal site make them a suitable method to meet these challenges. Therefore, we establish a long-term geodetic monitoring system of the two geothermal sites. This work presents the monitoring strategy and the preliminary results. We install a network of continuous GNSS and INSAR data are in acquisition. Our aim is to monitor

  15. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  16. So close, so different: geothermal flux shapes divergent soil microbial communities at neighbouring sites.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, A L; Tagliavia, M; D'Alessandro, W; Franzetti, A; Parello, F; Quatrini, P

    2016-03-01

    This study is focused on the (micro)biogeochemical features of two close geothermal sites (FAV1 and FAV2), both selected at the main exhalative area of Pantelleria Island, Italy. A previous biogeochemical survey revealed high CH4 consumption and the presence of a diverse community of methanotrophs at FAV2 site, whereas the close site FAV1 was apparently devoid of methanotrophs and recorded no CH4 consumption. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to describe the bacterial and archaeal communities which have been linked to the physicochemical conditions and the geothermal sources of energy available at the two sites. Both sites are dominated by Bacteria and host a negligible component of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea (phylum Thaumarchaeota). The FAV2 bacterial community is characterized by an extraordinary diversity of methanotrophs, with 40% of the sequences assigned to Methylocaldum, Methylobacter (Gammaproteobacteria) and Bejerickia (Alphaproteobacteria); conversely, a community of thermo-acidophilic chemolithotrophs (Acidithiobacillus, Nitrosococcus) or putative chemolithotrophs (Ktedonobacter) dominates the FAV1 community, in the absence of methanotrophs. Since physical andchemical factors of FAV1, such as temperature and pH, cannot be considered limiting for methanotrophy, it is hypothesized that the main limiting factor for methanotrophs could be high NH4(+) concentration. At the same time, abundant availability of NH4(+) and other high energy electron donors and acceptors determined by the hydrothermal flux in this site create more energetically favourable conditions for chemolithotrophs that outcompete methanotrophs in non-nitrogen-limited soils. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Preliminary results of geothermal desalting operations at the East Mesa test site Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suemoto, S. H.; Mathias, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has erected at its Geothermal Resource Development site two experimental test vehicles for the purpose of desalting hot fluids of geothermal origin. Both plants have as a feed source geothermal well Mesa 6-1 drilled to a total depth of 8,030 feet and having a bottom hole temperature of 400 F. Formation fluid collected at the surface contained 24,800 mg/1 total dissolved solids. The dissolved solids consist mainly of sodium chloride. A multistage distillation (3-stage) plant has been operated intermittently for one year with no operational problems. Functioning at steady-state conditions with a liquid feed rate of 70 g/m and a temperature of 221 F, the final brine blowdown temperature was 169 F. Product water was produced at a rate of about 2 g/m; average total dissolved solids content of the product was 170 mg/1. A product quality of 27.5 mg/1 at a pH of 9.5 was produced from the first stage.

  18. Contractor for geopressured-geothermal sites: Final contract report, Volume 1, fiscal years 1986--1990 (5 years), testing of wells through October 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    Field tests and studies were conducted to determine the production behavior of geopressured-geothermal reservoirs and their potential as future energy sources. Results are presented for Gladys McCall Site, Pleasant Bayou Site, and Hulin Site.

  19. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California as a site for continental scientific drilling. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    The Salton Trough, where seafloor spreading systems of the East Pacific Rise transition into the San Andreas transform fault system, is the site of such continental rifting and basin formation today. The largest thermal anomaly in the trough, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), is of interest to both thermal regimes and mineral resources investigators. At this site, temperatures >350/sup 0/C and metal-rich brines with 250,000 mg/L TDS have been encountered at <2 km depth. Republic Geothermal Inc. will drill a new well to 3.7 km in the SSGF early in 1983; we propose add-on experiments in it. If funded, we will obtain selective water and core samples and a large-diameter casing installed to 3.7 km will permit later deepening. In Phase 2, the well would be continuously cored to 5.5 km and be available for scientific studies until July 1985. The deepened well would encounter hydrothermal regimes of temperature and pressure never before sampled.

  20. Petrologic considerations for hot dry rock geothermal site selection in the Clear Lake Region, California

    SciTech Connect

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F. ); Hearn, B.C. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    The Clear Lake area is well known for anomalous heat flow, thermal springs, hydrothermal mineral deposits, and Quaternary volcanism. These factors, along with the apparent lack of a large reservoir of geothermal fluid north of Collayomi fault make the Clear Lake area an attractive target for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. Petrologic considerations provide some constraints on site selection for HDR development. Spatial and temporal trends in volcanism in the Coast Ranges indicate that magmatism has migrated to the north with time, paralleling passage of the Mendocino triple junction and propagation of the San Andreas fault. Volcanism in the region may have resulted from upwelling of hot asthenosphere along the southern margin of the subducted segment of the Gorda plate. Spatial and temporal trends of volcanism within the Clear Lake volcanic field are similar to larger-scale trends of Neogene volcanism in the Cost Ranges. Volcanism (especially for silicic compositions) shows a general migration to the north over the {approximately}2 Ma history of the field, with the youngest two silicic centers located at Mt. Konocti and Borax Lake. The Mt. Konocti system (active from {approximately} 0.6 to 0.3 Ma) was large and long-lived, whereas the Borax Lake system is much smaller but younger (0.09 Ma). Remnants of silicic magma bodies under Mt. Konocti may be in the latter stages of cooling, whereas a magma body centered under Borax Lake may be in the early stages of development. The existence of an upper crustal silicic magma body of under Borax Lake has yet to be demonstrated by passive geophysics, however, subsurface temperatures in the area as high (> 200{degrees}C at 2000 m) as those beneath the Mt. Konocti area. Based on petrologic considerations alone, the Mt. Konocti-Borax Lake area appears to be the most logical choice for HDR geothermal development in the region.

  1. National Geothermal Data System: Case Studies on Exploration and Development of Potential Geothermal Sites Through Distributed Data Sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Allison, Lee; Richard, Steve; Caudill-Daugherty, Christy; Patten, Kim

    2014-09-29

    The NGDS released version 1 of the system on April 30, 2014 using the US Geoscience Information Network (USGIN) as its data integration platform. NGDS supports the 2013 Open Data Policy, and as such, the launch was featured at the 2014 Energy Datapalooza. Currently, the NGDS features a comprehensive user interface for searching and accessing nearly 41,000 documents and more than 9 million data points shared by scores of data providers across the U.S. The NGDS supports distributed data sharing, permitting the data owners to maintain the raw data that is made available to the consumer. Researchers and industry have been utilizing the NGDS as a mechanism for promoting geothermal development across the country, from hydrothermal to ground source heat pump applications. Case studies in geothermal research and exploration from across the country are highlighted.

  2. Laboratory determination of mechanical properties of rocks from the Parcperdue geopressured/geothermal site

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, K.P.; Borschel, T.F.; Holland, M.T.; Schatz, J.F.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The deformational behavior and fluid flow characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 Test Well at the Parcperdue Geopressured/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocites (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Tests consisting of several hydrostatic and triaxial loading phases and pore pressure reduction were designed to provide measurements to be used for calculating several of the above mentioned parameters in a single test. Pore volume changes were measured during some phases of the tests.

  3. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    SciTech Connect

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  4. 2-D Magnetotellurics at the geothermal site at Soultz-sous-Forêts: Resistivity distribution to about 3000 m depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiermann, Johannes; Schill, Eva

    2010-07-01

    With the aim of investigating the possibilities of magnetotelluric methods for the exploration of potential Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) sites in the Upper Rhine valley, a 2-D magnetotelluric (MT) survey has been carried out on a 13 km long profile across the thermal anomaly in the area of the geothermal power plant of Soultz-sous-Forêts in the winter 2007/08. Despite strong artificial noise, processing using remote referencing and Sutarno phase consistent smoothing revealed significant results from 10 out of 16 sites. Indication for 1-D structures was found in the shortest periods, 2-D effects in the periods up to 40 s, and 3-D effects in the long period range. Since 3-D effects were found in the longer periods, 2-D inversion was carried out for periods smaller than 40 s. The results of the inversion are consistent with the geology of the geothermal site and distinguish well the sediments from the granitic basement including the structures given by the faults. A conductive anomaly with a resistivity of about 3 Ωm has been found at a depth down to 2000 m in the area of the Soultz and Kutzenhausen faults, which is attributed to geothermal processes.

  5. Final report for the geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells: DOE Pleasant Bayou test site, Brazoria County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.; Seigel, Ben H.

    1994-03-13

    For a variety of reasons, thousands of oil and gas wells have been abandoned in the Gulf Coast Region of the United States. Many of these wells penetrated geopressured zones whose resource potential for power generation was undervalued or ignored. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geopressured-Geothermal Research Program was chartered to improve geothermal technology to the point where electricity could be commercially produced from a substantial number of geopressured resource sites. This research program focused on relatively narrow technical issues that are unique to geopressured resources such as the ability to predict reservoir production capacity based on preliminary flow tests. Three well sites were selected for the research program. These are the Willis Hulin and Gladys McCall sites in Louisiana, and the Pleasant Bayou site in Texas. The final phase of this research project consists of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and site restoration.

  6. In-situ test site at the International Geothermal Centre Bochum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracke, Rolf; Wittig, Volker; Güldenhaupt, Jonas; Duda, Mandy; Stöckhert, Ferdinand; Bussmann, Gregor; Tünte, Henry; Saenger, Erik H.; Eicker, Timm; Löer, Katrin; Schäfers, Klaus; Macit, Osman; Jagert, Felix

    2017-04-01

    The in-situ test site at the International Geothermal Centre (GZB) is located on the campus of the Bochum University of Applied Sciences. The area represents a 10.000 m2 drill site with existing research, observation and production wells and allows further drill tests and drilling down to depths of 5.000 m - also in conjunction with the approved authorized 50 km2 mining area "Future Energies" and the GZB's own mobile dual drive drilling rig Bo.Rex capable of drilling down to depths of 1000 m. The site allows for a comprehensive characterization of the subsurface underneath the university's campus in terms of a case study in Bochum pursuing the objective to provide an in-situ test field to researchers from geosciences and other disciplines. The local geology comprises folded and fractured carboniferous sediments including sandstones, siltstones, claystones and coal seams with low matrix permeabilies. Currently, one research well, 29 production wells, and seven monitoring wells are available. The research well reaching to a depth of about 500 m with an open-hole section between 450 m and 500 m has been fully cored down to 200 m, selected sections were additionally cored down to 450 m. Production wells with depths of up to 200 m are equipped with borehole heat exchangers providing heating and cooling for the GZB and a new lecture building. Monitoring wells vary in depth and reach down to 200 m. The majority of wells were comprehensively characterized using the GZB's borehole geophysical logging system with deviation, caliper, gamma ray and acoustic imaging, but also full waveform sonic, flowmeter and electrical conductivity. Cuttings were collected, documented and partly stored. The in-situ test site will be complemented by a seismic and hydrogeological observatory comprising borehole seismometers at depths of up to 200 m. The seismic network will ensure permanent observation of natural and potential anthropogenic seismicity. Additionally, drilling activities

  7. Numerical modeling of geothermal heat pump system: evaluation of site specific groundwater thermal impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedron, Roberto; Sottani, Andrea; Vettorello, Luca

    2014-05-01

    A pilot plant using a geothermal open-loop heat pump system has been realized in the city of Vicenza (Northern Italy), in order to meet the heating and cooling needs of the main monumental building in the historical center, the Palladian Basilica. The low enthalpy geothermal system consists of a pumping well and a reinjection well, both intercepting the same confined aquifer; three other monitoring wells have been drilled and then provided with water level and temperature dataloggers. After about 1 year and a half of activity, during a starting experimental period of three years, we have now the opportunity to analyze long term groundwater temperature data series and to evaluate the numerical modeling reliability about thermal impact prediction. The initial model, based on MODFLOW and SHEMAT finite difference codes, has been calibrated using pumping tests and other field investigations data, obtaining a valid and reliable groundwater flow simulation. But thermal parameters, such as thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, didn't have a site specific direct estimation and therefore they have been assigned to model cells referring to bibliographic standards, usually derived from laboratory tests and barely representing real aquifer properties. Anyway preliminary heat transport results have been compared with observed temperature trends, showing an efficient representation of the thermal plume extension and shape. The ante operam simulation could not consider heat pump real utilization, that happened to be relevantly different from the expected project values; so the first numerical model could not properly simulate the groundwater temperature evolution. Consequently a second model has been implemented, in order to calibrate the mathematical simulation with monitored groundwater temperature datasets, trying to achieve higher levels of reliability in heat transport phenomena interpretation. This second step analysis focuses on aquifer thermal parameters

  8. Characterization of true-branching cyanobacteria from geothermal sites and hot springs of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Karin; Scholz, Ingeborg; Serrano, Aurelio; Morales, Saylen; Uribe-Lorio, Lorena; Mora, Marielos; Sittenfeld, Ana; Weckesser, Jürgen; Hess, Wolfgang R

    2008-02-01

    Costa Rica is at the centre of the Mesoamerican biodiversity hotspot. Little is known about cyanobacteria from this region so far. Here, four isolates of the order Stigonematales (section V) were characterized in a polyphasic approach. All strains were isolated from geothermal sites and hot springs of Costa Rica. However, one of them, identified as Westiellopsis sp. Ar73, did not grow at more than 40 degrees C. Based on its identical 16S rRNA to several previously isolated Westiellopsis sp. and Fischerella muscicola strains, a ubiquitous distribution throughout tropical and subtropical regions can be implied. In contrast, the isolates MV9, MV11 and RV14 grew well up to 50-55 degrees C. Based on morphologic, ultrastructural, molecular and physiologic data, MV9, MV11 and RV14 were identified to belong to the genus Fischerella. Two distinct intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) types, with or without tRNA genes, were detected for all Stigonematales analysed here, indicating ITS polymorphism as a characteristic feature of heterocystous cyanobacteria. In phylogenetic trees, these Fischerella spp. formed a new and distinct clade within the wider lineage of thermophilic Fischerella (Mastigocladus cf. laminosus), which might represent a geographic lineage. Thus, geographic isolation may be an underestimated aspect of microbial evolution. The strains presented here are suitable as new models to study this group of cyanobacteria.

  9. Recovery of high-value metals from geothermal sites by biosorption and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Han, Yin-Lung; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-05-01

    Generation of geothermal energy is associated with a significant amount of geothermal fluids, which may be abundant in high-value metals, such as lithium, cesium, rubidium, and other precious and rare earth metals. The recovery of high-value metals from geothermal fluids would thus have both economic and environmental benefits. The conventional technologies applied to achieve this are mostly physicochemical, which may be energy intensive, pose the risk of secondary pollution whilst being inefficient in recovering metals from dilute solutions. Biological methods, based on biosorption or bioaccumulation, have recently emerged as alternative approaches, as they are more environmentally friendly, cost effective, and suitable for treating wastewater with dilute metal contents. This article provides a comprehensive review of the related biological technologies used to recover the high-value metals present in geothermal fluids as well as critical discussion on the key issues that are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of those methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Environmental monitoring at designed geopressured-geothermal well sites, Louisiana and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document covers the activities of monitoring environmental aspects at designated geothermal wells in Texas and Louisiana during the second quarter of 1990 by the Louisiana Geological Survey, Louisiana State University under contract with US DOE. 1 fig. (FSD)

  11. Characterizing Microseismicity at the Newberry Volcano Geothermal Site using PageRank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano, within the Deschutes National Forest in Oregon, has been designated as a candidate site for the Department of Energy's Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) program. This site was stimulated using high-pressure fluid injection during the fall of 2012, which generated several hundred microseismic events. Exploring the spatial and temporal development of microseismicity is key to understanding how subsurface stimulation modifies stress, fractures rock, and increases permeability. We analyze Newberry seismicity using both surface and borehole seismometers from the AltaRock and LLNL seismic networks. For our analysis we adapt PageRank, Google's initial search algorithm, to evaluate microseismicity during the 2012 stimulation. PageRank is a measure of connectivity, where higher ranking represents highly connected windows. In seismic applications connectivity is measured by the cross correlation of 2 time windows recorded on a common seismic station and channel. Aguiar and Beroza (2014) used PageRank based on cross correlation to detect low-frequency earthquakes, which are highly repetitive but difficult to detect. We expand on this application by using PageRank to define signal-correlation topology for micro-earthquakes, including the identification of signals that are connected to the largest number of other signals. We then use this information to create signal families and compare PageRank families to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. Studying signal PageRank will potentially allow us to efficiently group earthquakes with similar physical characteristics, such as focal mechanisms and stress drop. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether changes in the state of stress and/or changes in the generation of subsurface fracture networks can be detected using PageRank topology. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under

  12. Identification of extracellular enzyme producing thermophilic bacilli from Balcova (Agamemnon) geothermal site by ITS rDNA RFLP.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, E; Gunes, H; Harsa, S; Yenidunya, A F

    2004-01-01

    Molecular characterization of extracellular enzyme producing thermophilic bacilli from Balcova geothermal site. Three types of geothermal samples were collected: mud, re-injection water, and samples from uncontrolled hydrothermal vents. Isolates grown at 55 degrees C in culture media prepared in sterilized re-injection water, were screened for extracellular enzyme activity by using eight different substrates: casein, carboxymethylcellulose, pectin, polygalacturonic acid (PGA), soluble starch, Tween 20 and 80, and xylan. In total, 109 thermoaerophilic isolates were selected. All of the isolates could hydrolyse Tween 20 (100%) but not Tween 80. Soluble starch was hydrolysed by 96%, casein by 55%, xylan and carboxymethylcellulose by 9%, and pectin and PGA by 2% of the isolates. The isolates were grouped into 14 different homology groups by the restriction pattern analysis of 16S-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA RFLP. Each of the RFLP groups was also studied by 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analysis. Plasmid DNA profiles revealed that 15 of the isolated strains contained small plasmid DNA molecules ranging in size from 12 000 to 35 000 bp. Combined analysis of 16S-ITS rDNA RFLP and 16S rRNA gene partial sequence results indicated the presence of novel or existing species of Anoxybacillus (nine species) and Geobacillus (three species). In this study 16S-ITS rDNA RFLP was applied for the first time to differentiate thermophilic bacilli. It was also the first study on thermophilic bacilli of Balcova geothermal site.

  13. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A number of new ideas for geothermal power development and use have been proposed or initiated. British engineers have proposed using North Sea oil rigs as geothermal power stations. These stations would use the low temperature heat from the water that now occupies the former oil reservoirs to generate electricity. NASA recently retrofitted its engine test facility to enable it to use warm water from an underground aquifer as source water in a heat pump. A major policy guideline regarding electricity is issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) every two years. This year, CEC appears to be revising its method for determining the total societal cost of various electricity supply options. The change may impact geothermal energy usage in a positive way. Virtually untapped geothermal resources in Preston, Idaho will be utilized for warm water catfish farming. Stockton State College in New Jersey will be the site of one of the nation's largest geothermal projects when it is completed in 1993. It is designed to satisfy the college's energy requirements at an estimated cost savings of $300,000 per year. Aquaculture projects using thermal springs are under consideration in Utah and Washington State. Utah may be the site of an alligator farm and Washington State is being considered for raising golden tilapia, a food fish.

  14. Microseismic Event Grouping Based on PageRank Linkage at the Newberry Volcano Geothermal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, A. C.; Myers, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Newberry Volcano DOE FORGE site in Central Oregon has been stimulated two times using high-pressure fluid injection to study the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology. Several hundred microseismic events were generated during the first stimulation in the fall of 2012. Initial locations of this microseismicity do not show well defined subsurface structure in part because event location uncertainties are large (Foulger and Julian, 2013). We focus on this stimulation to explore the spatial and temporal development of microseismicity, which is key to understanding how subsurface stimulation modifies stress, fractures rock, and increases permeability. We use PageRank, Google's initial search algorithm, to determine connectivity within the events (Aguiar and Beroza, 2014) and assess signal-correlation topology for the micro-earthquakes. We then use this information to create signal families and compare these to the spatial and temporal proximity of associated earthquakes. We relocate events within families (identified by PageRank linkage) using the Bayesloc approach (Myers et al., 2007). Preliminary relocations show tight spatial clustering of event families as well as evidence of events relocating to a different cluster than originally reported. We also find that signal similarity (linkage) at several stations, not just one or two, is needed in order to determine that events are in close proximity to one another. We show that indirect linkage of signals using PageRank is a reliable way to increase the number of events that are confidently determined to be similar to one another, which may lead to efficient and effective grouping of earthquakes with similar physical characteristics, such as focal mechanisms and stress drop. Our ultimate goal is to determine whether changes in the state of stress and/or changes in the generation of subsurface fracture networks can be detected using PageRank topology as well as aid in the event relocation to obtain more accurate

  15. COMPARISON OF THREE TRACER TESTS AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D Mattson; Mitchell Plummer; Carl Palmer; Larry Hull; Samantha Miller; Randy Nye

    2011-02-01

    Three conservative tracer tests have been conducted through the Bridge Fault fracture zone at the Raft River Geothermal (RRG) site. All three tests were conducted between injection well RRG-5 and production wells RRG-1 (790 m distance) and RRG-4 (740 m distance). The injection well is used during the summer months to provide pressure support to the production wells. The first test was conducted in 2008 using 136 kg of fluorescein tracer. Two additional tracers were injected in 2010. The first 2010 tracer injected was 100 kg fluorescein disodium hydrate salt on June, 21. The second tracer (100 kg 2,6-naphthalene disulfonic acid sodium salt) was injected one month later on July 21. Sampling of the two productions wells is still being performed to obtain the tail end of the second 2010 tracer test. Tracer concentrations were measured using HPLC with a fluorescence detector. Results for the 2008 test, suggest 80% tracer recover at the two production wells. Of the tracer recovered, 85% of tracer mass was recovered in well RRG-4 indicating a greater flow pathway connection between injection well and RRG-4 than RRG-1. Fluorescein tracer results appear to be similar between the 2008 and 2010 tests for well RRG-4 with peak concentrations arriving approximately 20 days after injection despite the differences between the injection rates for the two tests (~950 gpm to 475 gpm) between the 2008 and 2010. The two 2010 tracer tests will be compared to determine if the results support the hypothesis that rock contraction along the flow pathway due to the 55 oC cooler water injection alters the flow through the ~140 oC reservoir.

  16. Time-dependent permeability anisotropy at the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heap, M. J.; Griffiths, L.; Wang, F.; Daval, D.; Gilg, H. A.; Baud, P.; Genter, A.; Schmittbuhl, J.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid circulation in geothermal reservoirs depends on the density, geometry, and hydraulic properties of fractures. The Soultz-sous-Forêts site located in the Upper Rhine Graben in Alsace, France, consists of a granitic reservoir overlain by a 1.4 km-thick sedimentary succession. Core analysis and borehole wall imagery collected from reconnaissance well EPS1 (2230 m depth) revealed an extensive fracture network throughout the granite and overlying sediments, including both open fractures and fractures filled through mineral precipitation (primarily quartz, barite, calcite, and galena). Here we present an experimental study that aims to quantify the impact of healed or partially-healed fractures on permeability anisotropy in the Triassic Buntsandstein sandstone (1000-1400 m). We targeted borehole samples that best represent the variability of these fractures. Forty cylindrical core samples (40 mm length and 20 mm diameter) were prepared such that they contain fractures either parallel or perpendicular to their axis. We also prepared samples of the intact host rock. Porosity and permeability were measured for each core, and thin sections were made to characterise the nature of the fractures and the precipitated minerals. The low permeability of the host rock (10-15 to 10-17 m2) can be explained by prevalent pore-filling clays. We found that fractures may present a conduit for or a barrier to flow, depending on the extent of healing and the nature of the filling. Crystal precipitation models, using borehole fluid composition and temperature data from Soultz, provide a timescale for crack healing. Our modelling shows that fractures that once represented effective conduits for flow may heal rapidly (on the order of months) and switch from providing conduits for flow to presenting barriers to flow, modifying the permeability anisotropy within these units. These data are important for understanding fluid flow and heat transfer within the reservoir.

  17. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  18. Reflectance spectral analyses for the assessment of environmental pollution in the geothermal site of Mt. Amiata (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzo, Ciro; Salvini, Riccardo; Guastaldi, Enrico; Nicolardi, Valentina; Protano, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    We studied the environmental impact of geothermal activities in the Mt. Amiata area, using on-site spectral analyses of various ecological components. Analytical techniques were based on the study of the “red-edge”, which represents the spectral feature of the reflectance spectra defined between red and infrared wavelengths (λ) within the range 670-780 nm. Since in the study area the geothermal exploitation causes the drifting of contaminants such as Hg, Sb, S, B, As and H2S (hydrogen sulfide) from power plants, the spectral response of vegetation and lichens depends on their distance from the power stations, and also on the exposed surface, material type and other physical parameters. In the present research, the spectral radiance of targets was measured in the field using an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD) Field-Spec™FR portable radiometer. Spectral measurements were made on vegetation and lichen samples located near to and far from geothermal areas and potential pollution sources (e.g., power plants), with the aim of spatially defining their environmental impact. Observations for vegetation and lichens showed correlation with laboratory chemical analyses when these organisms were under stress conditions. The evaluation of relationships was carried out using several statistical approaches, which allowed to identify methods for identifying contamination indicators for plants and lichens in polluted areas. Results show that the adopted spectral indices are sensitive to environmental pollution and their responses spatialstatically correlated to chemical and ecophysiological analyses within a notable distance.

  19. Geothermal handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1976-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management offered over 400,000 hectares (one million acres) for geothermal exploration and development in 1975, and figure is expected to double this year. The Energy Research and Development Administration hopes for 10-15,000 megawatts of geothermal energy by 1985, which would require, leasing over 16.3 million hectares (37 million acres) of land, at least half of which is federal land. Since there is an 8 to 8-1/2 year time laf between initial exploration and full field development, there would have to be a ten-fold increase in the amount of federal land leased within the next three years. Seventy percent of geothermal potential, 22.3 million hectares (55 million acres), is on federal lands in the west. The implication for the Service are enormous and the problems immediate. Geothermal resource are so widespread they are found to some extent in most biomes and ecosystems in the western United States. In most cases exploitation and production of geothermal resources can be made compatible with fish and wildlife management without damage, if probable impacts are clearly understood and provided for before damage has unwittingly been allowed to occur. Planning for site suitability and concern with specific operating techniques are crucial factors. There will be opportunities for enhancement: during exploration and testing many shallow groundwater bodies may be penetrated which might be developed for wildlife use. Construction equipment and materials needed for enhancement projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote projects will be available in areas heretofore considered remote by land managers. A comprehensive knowledge of geothermal development is necessary to avoid dangers and seize opportunities. This handbook is intended to serve as a working tool in the field. It anticipated where geothermal resource development will occur in the western United States in the near future. A set of environmental assessment procedures are

  20. Soil as natural heat resource for very shallow geothermal application: laboratory and test site updates from ITER Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Sipio, Eloisa; Bertermann, David

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays renewable energy resources for heating/cooling residential and tertiary buildings and agricultural greenhouses are becoming increasingly important. In this framework, a possible, natural and valid alternative for thermal energy supply is represented by soils. In fact, since 1980 soils have been studied and used also as heat reservoir in geothermal applications, acting as a heat source (in winter) or sink (in summer) coupled mainly with heat pumps. Therefore, the knowledge of soil thermal properties and of heat and mass transfer in the soils plays an important role in modeling the performance, reliability and environmental impact in the short and long term of engineering applications. However, the soil thermal behavior varies with soil physical characteristics such as soil texture and water content. The available data are often scattered and incomplete for geothermal applications, especially very shallow geothermal systems (up to 10 m depths), so it is worthy of interest a better comprehension of how the different soil typologies (i.e. sand, loamy sand...) affect and are affected by the heat transfer exchange with very shallow geothermal installations (i.e. horizontal collector systems and special forms). Taking into consideration these premises, the ITER Project (Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers, http://iter-geo.eu/), funded by European Union, is here presented. An overview of physical-thermal properties variations under different moisture and load conditions for different mixtures of natural material is shown, based on laboratory and field test data. The test site, located in Eltersdorf, near Erlangen (Germany), consists of 5 trenches, filled in each with a different material, where 5 helix have been installed in an horizontal way instead of the traditional vertical option.

  1. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P.; Thornburg, Jon A.; He, Ruiqing

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  2. Siting and drilling recommendations for a geothermal exploration well, Wendel-Amedee KGRA, Lassen County, California

    SciTech Connect

    McNitt, J.R.; Wilde, W.R.

    1980-12-01

    All available exploration data relevant to the GeoProducts leasehold in the Wendel-Amedee KGRA are reviewed and interpreted. On the basis of this interpretation, locations and procedures are recommended for drilling geothermal production wells capable of supplying fluid at a temperature of 250/sup 0/F or greater. The following are covered: stratigraphy and geological history, geologic structure, geochemistry, geophysics, temperature-gradient data, and fluid quality. (MHR)

  3. Velocity structures of Geothermal sites: A comparative study between different tomography techniques on the EGS-Soultz-sous-Forêts Site (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo', M. C.; Dorbath, C.

    2009-12-01

    One major goal of monitoring seismicity accompanying hydraulic fracturing of a reservoir is to recover the seismic velocity field in and around the geothermal site. In many cases the seismicity induced by the hydraulic stimulations allows us to roughly describe the velocity anomalies close to the hypocentral location, but only during the time period of the stimulation. Several studies have shown that the 4D (time dependent) seismic tomographies are very useful to illustrate and study the temporal variation of the seismic velocities conditioned by injected fluids. Nevertheless in geothermal fields local earthquake tomography (LET) is often inadequate to study the seismic velocities during the inter-injection periods, due to the lack of seismicity. In July 2000 an injection test that lasted 15 days performed at the Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) site of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France) produced about 7200 micro-earthquakes with Duration Magnitude ranging from -0.9 to 2.5. the earthquakes were located by down hole and surface seismic stations. We present here a comparison between three tomographic studies, 1) the “traditional” seismic tomography of Cuneot et al., 2008, 2) a Double Difference tomography using the TomoDD code of Zhang and Thurber (2003) and, 3) the models obtained by applying the Weighted Average Model method (WAM, Calo’ et al., 2009). the velocity models were obtained using the same dataset recorded during the stimulation. The WAM technique produces a more reliable reconstruction of the structures around and above the cluster of earthquakes, as demonstrated by the distribution of the velocity standard deviations. Although the velocity distributions obtained by the three tomographic approaches are qualitatively similar, the WAM results correlate better with independent data such the fracturing directions measured in the down-holes, the location of the clustered seimsicity) than those of the traditional and DD tomographies. To overcome the

  4. Microbiology and geochemistry of hydrocarbon-rich sediments erupted from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Martin; Straten, Nontje; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheeder, Georg; Blumenberg, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island. Since then it has been producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of offshore microbial colonies that commonly thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done for onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of heavier liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface. While the source of the methane at Lusi is clear (Mazzini et al., 2012), the origin of the seeping oil, either form the deep mature Eocene Ngimbang (type II kerogen) or from the less mature Pleistocene Upper Kalibeng Fm. (type III kerogen), is still discussed. In the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126) we analysed an oil film and found that carbon preference indices among n-alkanes, sterane and hopane isomers (C29-steranes: 20S/(20S+20R) and α,β-C32 Hopanes (S/(S+R), respectively) are indicative of a low thermal maturity of the oil source rock (~0.5 to 0.6 % vitrinite reflectance equivalents = early oil window maturity). Furthermore, sterane distributions, the pristane to phytane ratio and a relatively high oleanane index, which is an indication of an angiosperm input, demonstrate a strong terrestrial component in the organic matter. Together, hydrocarbons suggest that the source of the oil film is predominantly terrestrial organic matter. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type III organic matter source and are therefore suggestive of a mostly Pleistocene Upper Kalibeng Fm. origin. We also conducted a sampling campaign at the Lusi site collecting samples of fresh mud close to the erupting crater

  5. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    An introduction to geothermal energy is provided in this discussion of: (1) how a geothermal reservoir works; (2) how to find geothermal energy; (3) where it is located; (4) electric power generation using geothermal energy; (5) use of geothermal energy as a direct source of heat; (6) geopressured reservoirs; (7) environmental effects; (8)…

  6. Potential of ambient noise techniques to monitor reservoir dynamics at the St. Gallen geothermal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obermann, A.; Larose, E. F.; Wiemer, S.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade two large geothermal energy projects were launched in Switzerland (Basel 2006, St Gallen 2013). Both of them were stopped after the occurrence of strongly felt earthquakes (Ml3.4 and 3.5, respectively). This illustrates that one of the key challenges for the use of deep geothermal energy remains to control the risk of inducing felt and potentially hazardous seismic events during the development and operation of an underground heat exchangers. Current monitoring techniques of induced seismicity, e.g. traffic light systems, attempt to forecast seismic hazard during and after stimulation based on observed seismicity and hydraulic data. A limitation of these techniques is their focus on seismic processes. We demonstrate the potential of ambient seismic noise correlation techniques to monitor aseismic reservoir dynamics related to the 2013 geothermal project in St. Gallen. In St. Gallen, reservoir characterization tests lead to an unexpected leakage of methane gas into the well. Well-head pressure rose rapidly and operators decided to prevent a possible well blow-out with counter-pressure. The result was an immediate increase of induced seismicity with a maximum event of Ml3.5. While the reservoir characterization was not accompanied by any significant induced seismicity that could have given an indication for the ongoing processes in the reservoir, ambient noise cross-correlations reveal a significant aseismic perturbation in the system that can be clearly linked to the stimulation tests. These additional constraints may help to better understand reservoir dynamics. We also discuss the future role of noise correlation based techniques for monitoring/mitigation purposes.

  7. Recovery Act. Direct Confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado Using Remote Sensing and On-Site Exploration, Testing, and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Paul; Skeehan, Kirsten; Smith, Jerome; Mink, Roy; Geohydro, Mink

    2016-02-16

    Report on the confirmation of Commercial Geothermal Resources in Colorado describing the on site testing and analysis to confirm remote sensing identified potential resources. A series of thermal gradient wells were drilled in the Pagosa Springs region and the data collected is analyzed within.

  8. Geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells, DOE Gladys McCall test site, Cameron Parish, Louisiana and DOE Willis Hulin test site, Vermillion Parish, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana--the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal System Potential for Sites on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Robert K Podgorney; Thomas R. Wood; Travis L McLing; Gregory Mines; Mitchell A Plummer; Michael McCurry; Ahmad Ghassemi; John Welhan; Joseph Moore; Jerry Fairley; Rachel Wood

    2013-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle and represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America (Blackwell and Richards, 2004). This makes the Snake River Plain (SRP) one of the most under-developed and potentially highest producing geothermal districts in the United States. Elevated heat flow is typically highest along the margins of the topographic SRP and lowest along the axis of the plain, where thermal gradients are suppressed by the Snake River aquifer. Beneath this aquifer, however, thermal gradients rise again and may tap even higher heat flows associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas into the mid-crustal sill complex (e.g., Blackwell, 1989).

  10. Subsurface Geology of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Site

    SciTech Connect

    Levey, Schon S.

    2010-12-01

    The Precambrian rock penetrated by wells EE-2A and -3A belongs to one or more granitic to granodioritic plutons. The plutonic rock contains two major xenolith zones of amphibolite, locally surrounded by fine-grained mafic rock of hybrid igneous origin. The granodiorite is cut by numerous leucogranite dikes that diminish in abundance with depth. The most prominent structural feature is the main breccia zone, in which the rock is highly fractured and moderately altered. This zone is at least 75 m thick and is of uncertain but near-horizontal orientation. Fracture abundance decreases with increasing depth below the main breccia zone, and fractures tend to be associated with leucogranite dikes. This association suggests that at least some of the fractures making up the geothermal reservoir are of Precambrian age or have long-range orientations controlled by the presence of Precambrian-age granitic dikes.

  11. Radar imagery interpretation to provide information about several geothermal sites in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-17

    The Republic of the Philippines is intensely interested in the identification, development, and conservation of natural resources. In keeping with this, the Government of the Philippines has recently completed a nation-wide sedimentary basin evaluation program to assess hydrocarbon potential and assist in future exploration activities. This program of collection and interpretation of the radar imagery was designed to augment and complement the existing data base. The primary objective of the project was to further the goals of international energy development by aiding the Republic of the Philippines in the assessment of potential geothermal and petroleum prospects within the areas imaged. Secondary goals were to assist the Republic of the Philippines in utilizing state-of-the-art radar remote sensing technology for resource exploration, and to train key Philippines scientists in the use of imaging radar data. 7 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Survey of Potential Geothermal Exploration Sites at Newberry Volcano Deschutes County, Oregon.

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, George R.; Vogt, Beverly F.; Black, Gerald L.

    1983-01-01

    The study summarizes the current data, generates some new data, and recommends further steps which should be taken to investigate the electrical power production potential of Newberry volcano. The objective was to concentrate on data from the developable flanks of the volcano. All previous data on the geology, hydrology, and geophysics were summarized. A soil-mercury survey focused on the flanks of the volcano was conducted. Samples from 1000 km/sup 2/ of the volcano were analyzed for mercury content. All this information was utilized to evaluate (1) the likelihood of future discovery of electrical-quality geothermal fluids on the flanks, and (2) the most cost-effective means of improving the quality of available power generation estimates for the volcano. 37 figures.

  13. Navy Geothermal Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Domestic geothermal resources with the potential for decreasing fossil fuel use and energy cost exist at a significant number of Navy facilities. The Geothermal Plan is part of the Navy Energy R and D Program that will evaluate Navy sites and provide a technical, economic, and environmental base for subsequent resource use. One purpose of the program will be to provide for the transition of R and D funded exploratory efforts into the resource development phase. Individual Navy geothermal site projects are described as well as the organizational structure and Navy decision network. 2 figs.

  14. High frequency Receiver Functions in the Dublin Basin: application to a potential geothermal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licciardi, Andrea; Piana Agostinetti, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The Dublin Basin (DB) is a Carboniferous sedimentary basin located in the eastern part of Ireland, SW of Dublin. In the last years, the SW margin of the basin has been the object of interest for geothermal exploration, which led to the acquisition of two reflection seismic lines and the drilling of two ~ 1.4 km deep boreholes, from which a temperature of 130° C at ~4 km depth has been estimated. This deep geothermal potential of the DB is strictly related to SW basin-bounding Blackrock-Newcastle Fault (BNF) and the associated fault system. This fault runs in a NW-SE direction and separates the Carboniferous deposits that fill the basin from the Lower Paleozoic basement rocks which constitute the SW margin. In the framework of the SIM-CRUST project, four broadband seismic stations equipped with a Guralp CMG-6TD sensor have been deployed across the southwestern margin of the basin between July and August 2013, with an inter-station distance of about 1km. This closely spaced array has been designed to cross the BNF almost perpendicular. The main aim of this work is to recover the seismic stratigraphy of the shallow crust (0-8 km depth range) and determine the geometry of the BNF, by making use of the teleseismic Receiver Function (RF) method. This technique has been classically applied in seismology to image deep Earth's structure, but recent works have shown that it can also be used to retrieve information on the shallow part of the crust, just by increasing the frequency content in the analyzed RFs with little or no modifications to the preexisting analysis codes. We calculated a set of RFs for each station, progressively increasing the frequency from 0.5 up to 10 Hz. This is expected to dramatically increase the vertical resolution in the case of a good S/N ratio in the RFs. By stacking different RFs from a large set of epicentral distance and backazimuth incoherent signals are ruled out and true conversion are enhanced. Preliminary results show the presence of

  15. Hydraulic Fracturing In Situ Stress Estimations in a Potential Geothermal Site, Seokmo Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chandong; Jo, Yeonguk; Oh, Yangkyun; Lee, Tae Jong; Kim, Kwang-Yeom

    2014-09-01

    We conducted hydraulic fracturing (HF) in situ stress measurements in Seokmo Island, South Korea, to understand the stress state necessary to characterize a potential geothermal reservoir. The minimum horizontal principal stress was determined from shut-in pressures. In order to calculate the maximum horizontal principal stress ( S Hmax) using the classical Hubbert-Willis equation, we carried out hollow cylinder tensile strength tests and Brazilian tests in recovered cores at depths of HF tests. Both tests show a strong pressure rate dependency in tensile strengths, from which we derived a general empirical equation that can be used to convert laboratory determined tensile strength to that suitable for in situ. The determined stress regime (reverse-faulting) and S Hmax direction (ENE-WSW) at depths below ~300 m agrees with the first order tectonic stress. However the stress direction above ~300 m (NE-SW) appears to be interfered by topography effect due to a nearby ridge. The state of stress in Seokmo Island is in frictional equilibrium constrained by optimally oriented natural fractures and faults. However, a severe fluctuation in determined S Hmax values suggests that natural fractures with different frictional coefficients seem to control stress condition quite locally, such that S Hmax is relatively low at depths where natural fractures with low frictional coefficients are abundant, while S Hmax is relatively high at depths where natural fractures with low frictional coefficients are scarce.

  16. Isolation and characterisation of mineral-oxidising "Acidibacillus" spp. from mine sites and geothermal environments in different global locations.

    PubMed

    Holanda, Roseanne; Hedrich, Sabrina; Ňancucheo, Ivan; Oliveira, Guilherme; Grail, Barry M; Johnson, D Barrie

    2016-09-01

    Eight strains of acidophilic bacteria, isolated from mine-impacted and geothermal sites from different parts of the world, were shown to form a distinct clade (proposed genus "Acidibacillus") within the phylum Firmicutes, well separated from the acidophilic genera Sulfobacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Two of the strains (both isolated from sites in Yellowstone National Park, USA) were moderate thermophiles that oxidised both ferrous iron and elemental sulphur, while the other six were mesophiles that also oxidised ferrous iron, but not sulphur. All eight isolates reduced ferric iron to varying degrees. The two groups shared <95% similarity of their 16S rRNA genes and were therefore considered to be distinct species: "Acidibacillus sulfuroxidans" (moderately thermophilic isolates) and "Acidibacillus ferrooxidans" (mesophilic isolates). Both species were obligate heterotrophs; none of the eight strains grew in the absence of organic carbon. "Acidibacillus" spp. were generally highly tolerant of elevated concentrations of cationic transition metals, though "A. sulfuroxidans" strains were more sensitive to some (e.g. nickel and zinc) than those of "A. ferrooxidans". Initial annotation of the genomes of two strains of "A. ferrooxidans" revealed the presence of genes (cbbL) involved in the RuBisCO pathway for CO2 assimilation and iron oxidation (rus), though with relatively low sequence identities.

  17. Geothermal progress monitor. Progress report No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A state-by-state review of major geothermal-development activities during 1982 is presented. It also inlcudes a summary of recent drilling and exploration efforts and the results of the 1982 leasing program. Two complementary sections feature an update of geothermal direct-use applications and a site-by-site summary of US geothermal electric-power development.

  18. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: legislative and institutional program, cities program, geothermal applications utilization technology, integrated alcohol/feedlot/geothermal operation, geothermal energy in the mining industry, geothermal space heating and cooling, identification of a suitable industry for a remote geothermal site, irrigation pumping, coal-fired/geothermal-assisted power plants, area development plans, and outreach. (MHR)

  19. Geothermal-energy files in computer storage: sites, cities, and industries

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, P.L.

    1981-12-01

    The site, city, and industrial files are described. The data presented are from the hydrothermal site file containing about three thousand records which describe some of the principal physical features of hydrothermal resources in the United States. Data elements include: latitude, longitude, township, range, section, surface temperature, subsurface temperature, the field potential, and well depth for commercialization. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Geothermal Pipeline is a progress and development update from the Geothermal Progress Monitor and includes brief descriptions of various geothermal projects around the world. The following topics are covered: The retirement of Geo-Heat Center Director Paul Lienau, announcement of two upcoming geothermal meetings, and a proposed geothermal power plant project in the Medicine Lake/Glass Mountain area of California. Also included is an article about the Bonneville Power Administration`s settlements with two California companies who had agreed to build geothermal power plants on the federal agency`s behalf, geothermal space heating projects and use of geothermal energy for raising red crayfish in Oregon, and some updates on geothermal projects in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, and China.

  1. Novel thermo-acidophilic bacteria isolated from geothermal sites in Yellowstone National Park: physiological and phylogenetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D Barrie; Okibe, Naoko; Roberto, Francisco F

    2003-07-01

    Moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria were isolated from geothermal (30-83 degrees C) acidic (pH 2.7-3.7) sites in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature maxima and pH minima of the isolates ranged from 50 to 65 degrees C, and pH 1.0-1.9. Eight of the bacteria were able to catalyze the dissimilatory oxidation of ferrous iron, and eleven could reduce ferric iron to ferrous iron in anaerobic cultures. Several of the isolates could also oxidize tetrathionate. Six of the iron-oxidizing isolates, and one obligate heterotroph, were low G+C gram-positive bacteria ( Firmicutes). The former included three Sulfobacillus-like isolates (two closely related to a previously isolated Yellowstone strain, and the third to a mesophilic bacterium isolated from Montserrat), while the other three appeared to belong to a different genus. The other two iron-oxidizers were an Actinobacterium (related to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans) and a Methylobacterium-like isolate (a genus within the alpha -Proteobacteria that has not previously been found to contain either iron-oxidizers or acidophiles). The other three (heterotrophic) isolates were also alpha-Proteobacteria and appeared be a novel thermophilic Acidisphaera sp. An ARDREA protocol was developed to discriminate between the iron-oxidizing isolates. Digestion of amplified rRNA genes with two restriction enzymes ( SnaBI and BsaAI) separated these bacteria into five distinct groups; this result was confirmed by analysis of sequenced rRNA genes.

  2. Geothermal modelling of faulted metamorphic crystalline crust: a new model of the Continental Deep Drilling Site KTB (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalaiová, Eva; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Marquart, Gabriele; Vogt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    mainly occurring within the two fault zones. Thus, our model confirms the previous finding that diffusive heat transport is the dominant process at the KTB site. Fitting the observed temperature-depth profile requires a correction for palaeoclimate of about 4 K at 1 km depth. Modelled and observed temperature data fit well within 0.2 °C bounds. Whereas thermal conditions are suitable for geothermal energy production, hydraulic conditions are unfavourable without engineered stimulation.

  3. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  4. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Marshall J.

    1979-01-01

    During 1978, exploration for geothermal energy continued at the same moderately low level of the past few years in most countries. The U.S. is the only country where the development of geothermal energy depends on private industry. (BB)

  5. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Harman, G.; Pitsenbarger, J.

    1996-02-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production.

  6. Fusion of Terra-MODIS and Landsat TM data for geothermal sites investigation in Jiangsu Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shengbo

    2006-01-01

    Geothermal resources are generally confined to areas of the Earth's crust where heat flow higher than in surrounding areas heats the water contained in permeable rocks (reservoirs) at depth. It is becoming one of attractive solutions for clean and sustainable energy future for the world. The geothermal fields commonly occurs at the boundaries of plates, and only occasionally in the middle of a plate. The study area, Jiangsu Province, as an example, located in the east of China, is a potential area of geothermal energy. In this study, Landsat thematic Mapper (TM) data were georeferenced to position spatially the geothermal energy in the study area. Multi-spectral infrared data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra platform were georeferenced to Landsat TM images. Based on the Wien Displacement Law, these infrared data indicate the surface emitted radiance under the same atmospheric condition, and stand for surface bright temperature respectively. Thus, different surface bright temperature data from Terra-MODIS band 20 or band 31 (R), together with Landsat TM band 4 (G) and band 3 (B) separately, were made up false color composite images (RGB) to generate the distribution maps of surface bright temperatures. Combing with geologic environment and geophysical anomalies, the potential area of geothermal energy with different geo-temperature were mapped respectively. Specially, one geothermal spot in Qinhu Lake Scenery Area in Taizhou city was validated by drilling, and its groundwater temperature is up to some 51°.

  7. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  8. Geothermal systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohl, C.

    1978-01-01

    Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

  9. Idaho Geothermal Commercialization Program. Idaho geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, G.D.; Esposito, L.; Montgomery, M.

    1980-03-01

    The following topics are covered: geothermal resources in Idaho, market assessment, community needs assessment, geothermal leasing procedures for private lands, Idaho state geothermal leasing procedures - state lands, federal geothermal leasing procedures - federal lands, environmental and regulatory processes, local government regulations, geothermal exploration, geothermal drilling, government funding, private funding, state and federal government assistance programs, and geothermal legislation. (MHR)

  10. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  11. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bufe, Charles Glenn

    1983-01-01

    Major activities, programs, and conferences in geothermal energy during 1982 are highlighted. These include first comprehensive national assessment of U.S. low-temperature geothermal resources (conducted by U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Energy), map production by U.S. Geological Survey, geothermal plant production, and others. (JN)

  12. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Geothermal Power Generation at the Lakeview Uranium Mill Site in Lakeview, Oregon. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hillesheim, M.; Mosey, G.

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Lakeview Uranium Mill site in Lakeview, Oregon, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The EPA contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to provide technical assistance for the project. The purpose of this report is to describe an assessment of the site for possible development of a geothermal power generation facility and to estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts for the facility. In addition, the report recommends development pathways that could assist in the implementation of a geothermal power system at the site.

  13. Novel Thermo-Acidophilic Bacteria Isolated from Geothermal Sites in Yellowstone National Park: Physiological and Phylogenetic Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    D. B. Johnson; N. Okibe; F. F. Roberto

    2003-07-01

    Moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria were isolated from geothermal (30–83 °C) acidic (pH 2.7– 3.7) sites in Yellowstone National Park. The temperature maxima and pH minima of the isolates ranged from 50 to 65 °C, and pH 1.0–1.9. Eight of the bacteria were able to catalyze the dissimilatory oxidation of ferrous iron, and eleven could reduce ferric iron to ferrous iron in anaerobic cultures. Several of the isolates could also oxidize tetrathionate. Six of the iron-oxidizing isolates, and one obligate heterotroph, were low G+C gram-positive bacteria (Firmicutes). The former included three Sulfobacillus-like isolates (two closely related to a previously isolated Yellowstone strain, and the third to a mesophilic bacterium isolated from Montserrat), while the other three appeared to belong to a different genus. The other two iron-oxidizers were an Actinobacterium (related to Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans) and a Methylobacterium-like isolate (a genus within the a-Proteobacteria that has not previously been found to contain either iron-oxidizers or acidophiles). The other three (heterotrophic) isolates were also a-Proteobacteria and appeared be a novel thermophilic Acidisphaera sp. An ARDREA protocol was developed to discriminate between the iron-oxidizing isolates. Digestion of amplified rRNA genes with two restriction enzymes (SnaBI and BsaAI) separated these bacteria into five distinct groups; this result was confirmed by analysis of sequenced rRNA genes.

  14. National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a DOE-funded distributed network of databases and data sites. Much of the risk of geothermal energy development is associated with exploring for, confirming and characterizing the available geothermal resources. The overriding purpose of the NGDS is to help mitigate this up-front risk by serving as a central gateway for geothermal and relevant related data as well as a link to distributed data sources. Assessing and categorizing the nation's geothermal resources and consolidating all geothermal data through a publicly accessible data system will support research, stimulate public interest, promote market acceptance and investment, and, in turn, the growth of the geothermal industry. Major participants in the NGDS to date include universities, laboratories, the Arizona Geological Survey and Association of American State Geologists (Arizona Geological Survey, lead), the Geothermal Resources Council, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The Geothermal Energy Association is collaborating with the NGDS to insure that it meets the needs of the geothermal industry.

  15. Prognostic simulation of reinjection-research project geothermal site Neustadt-Glewe/Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Poppei, J.

    1995-03-01

    For the first time after political and economical changes in Germany a hydrothermal site was put into operation in December 1994. Due to prevailing conditions extraordinary in Central Europe (reservoir temperature 99{degrees}C; 220 g/l salinity) the project Neustadt-Glewe is supported by a comprehensive research program. The wells concerned (a doublet with an internal distance of 1.400 m) open the porous sandstone aquifer with an average thickness of about 53 m in a depth of 2.240m. One point of interest was the pressure and temperature behavior over a period of 10 years considering the fluid viscosity changes due to variable injection temperature. For means of reservoir simulation and prognosing the injection behavior and simulator code TOUGH2 was used.

  16. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-B: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Design well program; LaFourche Crossing; MG-T/DOE Amoco Fee No. 1 (Sweet Lake); Environmental monitoring at Sweet Lake; Air quality; Water quality; Microseismic monitoring; Subsidence; Dow/DOE L.R. Sweezy No. 1 well; Reservoir testing; Environmental monitoring at Parcperdue; Air monitoring; Water runoff; Groundwater; Microseismic events; Subsidence; Environmental consideration at site; Gladys McCall No. 1 well; Test results of Gladys McCall; Hydrocarbons in production gas and brine; Environmental monitoring at the Gladys McCall site; Pleasant Bayou No. 2 well; Pleasant Bayou hybrid power system; Environmental monitoring at Pleasant Bayou; and Plug abandonment and well site restoration of three geopressured-geothermal test sites. 197 figs., 64 tabs.

  17. Geothermal Energy Summary

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Renner

    2007-08-01

    -traditional geothermal development is increasing. A comprehensive new MIT-led study of the potential for geothermal energy within the United States predicts that mining the huge amounts of stored thermal energy in the Earth’s crust not associated with hydrothermal systems, could supply a substantial portion of U.S. electricity with minimal environmental impact (Tester, et al., 2006, available at http://geothermal.inl.gov). There is also renewed interest in geothermal production from other non-traditional sources such as the overpressured zones in the Gulf Coast and warm water co-produced with oil and gas. Ormat Technologies, Inc., a major geothermal company, recently acquired geothermal leases in the offshore overpressured zone of Texas. Ormat and the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center recently announced plans to jointly produce geothermal power from co-produced water from the Teapot Dome oilfield (Casper Star-Tribune, March 2, 2007). RMOTC estimates that 300 KWe capacity is available from the 40,000 BWPD of 88°C water associated with oil production from the Tensleep Sandstone (Milliken, 2007). The U. S. Department of Energy is seeking industry partners to develop electrical generation at other operating oil and gas fields (for more information see: https://e-center.doe.gov/iips/faopor.nsf/UNID/50D3734745055A73852572CA006665B1?OpenDocument). Several web sites offer periodically updated information related to the geothermal industry and th

  18. The Philippines geothermal success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsic, R. J.

    1980-09-01

    Geothermal electrical plants currently in operation in the Philippines are presented. Following a brief review of the geographical and energy situation of the nation, attention is given to the first 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi Geothermal Electric Plant, which commenced operation in January 1979, the portable 3,000-kE Leyte Geothermal Pilot Plant, which commenced operation in July, 1977 as the first geothermal power plant in the country, the Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, the first 55,000-kW unit of which began operation in May, 1979 and the second 55,000-kW unit of the Tiwi plant, which came into service in June, 1979, thus making the Philippines the fourth largest producer of geothermal electricity in the world. Factors favoring the use of geothermal plants in developing nations are pointed out, including low capital costs, no foreign exchange costs for fuel, small units, and little environmental impact, and the start-up of two more plants, the second 55,000-kW unit at Mak-Ban in September 1979 and the third Tiwi unit in January 1980, are noted. It is predicted that in 1981, when the Philippines is expected to become the largest user of geothermal energy from hot-water fields, it will have a total capacity of 552 MW from the Mak-Ban, Tiwi and Leyte sites. Further areas with geothermal potential are also pointed out.

  19. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Quarterly topical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following: the legislative and institutional program, cities program, outreach, the integrated alcohol/feedlot/geothermal operation, geothermal energy in the mining industry, geothermal space heating and cooling, identification of a suitable industry for a remote geothermal site, irrigation pumping, coal-fired/geothermal-assisted power plants, and area development plans. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal resources assessed in Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of the Platanares geothermal site is part of a joint Honduras (Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica)/US (Los Alamos National Laboratory and US Geological Survey) assessment of the nationwide geothermal resource potential of Honduras. Platanares was selected as one of the initial sites for detailed study on the basis of previous geothermal reconnaissance work. The results of the geologic studies indicate that Platarnares' potential for development as an electrical power source is extremely good. This preliminary conclusion must be substantiated and refined through additional studies. Geophysical investigations are needed to further define the subsurface geology and fracture system. Several wells should be drilled to a depth of several hundred meters to measure thermal gradients. This will allow the calculation of the geothermal potential of the Platanares site and will indicate whether further development of the site is warranted.

  1. Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.C.; Pichiarella, L.S.; Kane, L.S.; Henline, D.M.

    1995-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past two months.

  2. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemzer, Marilyn; Page, Deborah

    This curriculum unit describes geothermal energy in the context of the world's energy needs. It addresses renewable and nonrenewable energy sources with an in-depth study of geothermal energy--its geology, its history, and its many uses. Included are integrated activities involving science, as well as math, social studies, and language arts.…

  3. In Situ Stress Measurements Using Hydraulic Fracturing Method in a Potential Geothermal Site, Seokmo Island, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Y.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    We conduct hydraulic fracturing tests in a 400 m deep test hole at a potential granitic geothermal site in Seokmo Island, South Korea, and analyze the magnitude of maximum horizontal principal stress (SHmax) on the basis of Hubbert and Willis (1957) classical formula given in terms of tensile strength as an important parameter. Since the accuracy of tensile strength for the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing test data is directly related to the accuracy of SHmax, it is essential to investigate the reliability and suitability of laboratory tensile strength (T) measurements for an appropriate data interpretation in hydraulic fracturing tests. We conduct two different types of tensile strength tests (hollow cylinder tests and Brazilian tests) using various loading (or pressurization) rates (R) to find tensile strengths appropriate for the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing test results. Laboratory experimental data show that tensile strength depends significantly on loading rate and size, yielding some generalized T-log(R) as well as T-size relations, from which we estimate T values suitable for hydraulic fracturing in situ tests. SHmax directions estimated from hydraulic fracture azimuths are NE-SW (at depths <300m) and ENE-WSW (at >300m). The deeper stress direction is consistent with that of tectonic stress from earthquake focal mechanisms and borehole breakouts. The shallow stress direction appears to be interfered by topography effect due to a nearby ridge. The estimated Shmin and SHmax magnitudes down to 400 m depths are higher than vertical stress, indicating a reverse faulting favored stress regime. There is a marked fluctuation in SHmax with depth. Interestingly, some SHmax are close to the stress constrained by fractures/faults with fractional coefficient (μ) equal to 1.0, and some close to that constrained by μ=0.6. We interpret that a possible source responsible for the observed fluctuation in SHmax is due to stress release by shear slip along

  4. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    Small businesses are the cornerstone of the American economy. Over 22 million small businesses account for approximately 99% of employers, employ about half of the private sector workforce, and are responsible for about two-thirds of net new jobs. Many small businesses fared better than the Fortune 500 in 2001. Non-farm proprietors income rose 2.4% in 2001 while corporate profits declined 7.2%. Yet not all is rosy for small businesses, particularly new ones. One-third close within two years of opening. From 1989 to 1992, almost half closed within four years; only 39.5% were still open after six years. Why do some new businesses thrive and some fail? What helps a new business succeed? Industry knowledge, business and financial planning, and good management. Small geothermal businesses are no different. Low- and medium-temperature geothermal resources exist throughout the western United States, the majority not yet tapped. A recent survey of ten western states identified more than 9,000 thermal wells and springs, over 900 low- to moderate-temperature geothermal resource areas, and hundreds of direct-use sites. Many opportunities exist for geothermal entrepreneurs to develop many of these sites into thriving small businesses. The ''Geothermal Small Business Workbook'' (''Workbook'') was written to give geothermal entrepreneurs, small businesses, and developers the tools they need to understand geothermal applications--both direct use and small-scale power generation--and to write a business and financing plan. The Workbook will: Provide background, market, and regulatory data for direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; Refer you to several sources of useful information including owners of existing geothermal businesses, trade associations, and other organizations; Break down the complicated and sometimes tedious process of writing a business plan into five easy steps; Lead you--the geothermal entrepreneur, small company, or

  5. Geothermal heating

    SciTech Connect

    Aureille, M.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the viability of geothermal heating projects in energy and economic terms and to provide nomograms from which an initial estimate may be made without having to use data-processing facilities. The effect of flow rate and temperature of the geothermal water on drilling and on the network, and the effect of climate on the type of housing are considered.

  6. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2017-07-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is the thermal energy stored in the underground, including any contained fluid, which is available for extraction and conversion into energy products. Electricity generation, which nowadays produces 73.7 TWh (12.7 GW of capacity) worldwide, usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100 °C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Produced geothermal heat in the world accounts to 164.6 TWh, with a capacity of 70.9 GW. Geothermal technology, which has focused for decades on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  7. Field tests of a vertical-fluted-tube condenser in the prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    A vertical-fluted-tube condenser was designed, fabricated, and tested with isobutane as the shell-side working fluid in a binary prototype power plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site. After shakedown and contamination removal operations were completed, the four-pass water-cooled unit (with 102 outside-fluted Admiralty tubes) achieved performance predictions while operating with the plant surface evaporator on-line. A sample comparison shows that use of this enhanced condenser concept offers the potential for a reduction of about 65% from the size suggested by corresponding designs using conventional horizontal-smooth-tube concepts. Subsequent substitution of a direct-contact evaporator for the surface evaporator brought drastic reductions in system performance, the apparent consequence of high concentrations of noncondensible gases introduced by the brine/working-fluid interaction.

  8. Geothermal resources of California sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Grubb, F.V.; Galanis, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 Department of Energy (DOE) Strategic Plan for geothermal energy calls for expanding the geothermal resource base of the United States to 40,000 MW of electric power generating potential. This will require advances in technologies for exploiting unconventional geothermal resources, including Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal. An investigation of thermal conditions in California sedimentary basins through new temperature and heat flow measurements reveals significant geothermal potential in some areas. In many of the basins, the combined cooling effects of recent tectonic and sedimentary processes result in relatively low (<60 mW/m2) heat flow and geothermal gradients. For example, temperatures in the upper 3 km of San Joaquin, Sacramento and Ventura basins are typically less than 125??C and do not reach 200??c by 5 km. By contrast, in the Cuyama, Santa Maria and western Los Angeles basins, heat flow exceeds 80 mW/m2 and temperatures near or above 200??C occur at 4 to 5 km depth, which represents thermal conditions equivalent to or hotter than those encountered at the Soultz EGS geothermal site in Europe. Although the extractable geothermal energy contained in these basins is not large relative to the major California producing geothermal fields at The Geysers or Salton Sea, the collocation in the Los Angeles basin of a substantial petroleum extraction infrastructure and a major metropolitan area may make it attractive for eventual geothermal development as EGS technology matures.

  9. "Assistance to States on Geothermal Energy"

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Sikkema; Jennifer DeCesaro

    2006-07-10

    . The briefs addressed: Benefits of Geothermal Energy Common Questions about Geothermal Energy Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Energy and Economic Development Geothermal Energy: Technologies and Costs Location of Geothermal Resources Geothermal Policy Options for States Guidelines for Siting Geothermal Power Plants and Electricity Transmission Lines

  10. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Yuma County Area Development Plan evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 90/sup 0/C (194/sup 0/F), and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate (90/sup 0/C to 150/sup 0/C, 194/sup 0/F to 300/sup 0/F) temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated, although one resource area is located near Yuma, Arizona. One resource site is inferred to contain a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2 percent per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without advese affect on agriculture. Six firms were found in Yuma County which may be able to utilize geothermal energy for process heat needs. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. Geothermal energy utilization projections suggest that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  11. Geothermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, A.

    2015-08-01

    Geothermal technologies use renewable energy resources to generate electricity and direct use of heat while producing very low levels of greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions. Geothermal energy is stored in rocks and in fluids circulating in the underground. Electricity generation usually requires geothermal resources temperatures of over 100°C. For heating, geothermal resources spanning a wider range of temperatures can be used in applications such as space and district heating (and cooling, with proper technology), spa and swimming pool heating, greenhouse and soil heating, aquaculture pond heating, industrial process heating and snow melting. Geothermal technology, which has focused so far on extracting naturally heated steam or hot water from natural hydrothermal reservoirs, is developing to more advanced techniques to exploit the heat also where underground fluids are scarce and to use the Earth as a potential energy battery, by storing heat. The success of the research will enable energy recovery and utilization from a much larger fraction of the accessible thermal energy in the Earth's crust.

  12. Combining Satellite and Ground-Based Radar Interferometry Data to Measure Surface Deformation Associated with EGS Pumping Activities at Newberry Crater, OR Geothermal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, P.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Schultz, A.; Rose, K.; Urquhart, S.

    2013-12-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX) satellite data are combined with data collected using a ground-based real aperture radar interferometer (GAMMA Remote Sensing AG Portable Radar Interferometer-2, GPRI2) to remotely image surface deformation arising from enhanced geothermal system (EGS) pumping activity at the geothermal site located off the western flank of Newberry Crater, OR. Due to the heavily forested area impeding the utility of interferometric measurements at X-band (TSX) and Ku-band (GPRI2) wavelengths, 100 aluminum radar corner reflectors (CRs) were fabricated and installed in pairs approximately 5-8 meters above the ground in 50 large trees for optimal visibility and wind stability. One CR in each pair was aimed up at the ascending orbit track look direction for TSX, and the other was simultaneously aimed at the descending orbit track look direction for TSX and to Paulina Peak 6 km to the southwest for line-of-sight to the GPRI2 antenna position. The combination of 11-day repeat orbit acquisitions from a near vertical look direction from TSX with on-demand (up to daily) acquisitions from a near horizontal look direction from the GPRI2 instrument allows for full 3D displacement vector determination for each target imaged. Standard and point-target processing techniques are used to maximize the utility of the data collected and the transient nature of the pumping activities and resulting surface deformation signals demand this high level of spatial-temporal sampling. Preliminary data quality and deformation signal results will be presented and put in context with well-log data such as pressure, volume and flow rate, as well as data from microseismic array, MT, and gravity surveys.

  13. Geothermal Information Dissemination and Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Ted J. Clutter

    2005-02-18

    physical library's citations is available through keyword search on the GRC web site (www.geothermal.org). The GRC maintains one employee to catalog donated libraries, thus increasing the number of available citations. Document collection is ongoing, with regular database additions. Continuing development of the GRC On-Line Library includes: 1) data entry and development of keywords for additional citations; 2) filing library publications; 3) maintaining and enhancing the website; 4) purchase of publications and geothermal articles; and 5) maintenance of computer and other equipment. Page hits were 243,000 per month in November 2003.

  14. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, M. L.; Cheung, P. K.; Luza, K. V.; Harrison, W. E.

    1981-10-01

    In September 1980, the Oklahoma Geological Survey began a program to assess the geothermal potential of the state. The program, thus far, consists of: the preparation of a detailed geothermal-gradient map of Oklahoma at a scale of 1:500,000; and site-specific investigations of gradient and subsurface conditions in areas that appear to have geothermal potential. Two areas where recent mapping showed the high gradients (2.10F/100 feet) were selected for detailed study. These areas are in Haskell and Pittsburgh Counties. Volume was estimated as was deliverability of formation water potentially available from several sandstone units for geothermal applications. The Spiro and Cromwell sands were chosen for the Pittsburgh anomaly.

  15. Advances in geothermal energy use

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkis, I.B.; Eltez, M.

    1996-10-01

    One of the earliest examples of large scale use of the geothermal energy is the district heating system in Boise, Idaho. Established in 1892, this system now serves 266 customers--mostly residential. Today, excluding heat pumps, there are about 300 sites in America where geothermal energy is currently used in various applications; including district heating, absorption cooling and refrigeration, industrial processes, aquaculture, horticulture, and snow melting/freeze protection. Among these, 18 geothermal district heating systems are operating with 677 GBtu (714 TJ) total annual heat output. Geothermal activity was first generated in Italy, in 1904, with a 10 kWe capacity. Now, commercial power plants are in service using vapor-dominated and liquid-dominated plants with a world-wide installed capacity of 6 GWe. This paper looks at a hybrid cycle/integrated district HVAC system.

  16. Navy Geothermal Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    the geothermal portion of the R&D program are those that require attention because of operational expansion and mission-related problems such as...RESOURCE/ PROBLEM MAJOR CLAIMA.. ’ ASSESSMENT - ACTIVITY, CONSULTED , I"" C NI E U R&D J EGTORD OA RECOMMENDSI I NNO FURTHER CONSIDERATION zz7 MILITARY...disposal problems and environmental concerns. Resource Confirmation The exploration methods discussed under the sections titled "Preliminary Site Survey

  17. Puna Geothermal Venture Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This document provides the basis for the Hydrologic Monitoring Program (HMP) for the Puna Geothermal Venture. The HMP is complementary to two additional environmental compliance monitoring programs also being submitted by Puma Geothermal Venture (PGV) for their proposed activities at the site. The other two programs are the Meteorology and Air Quality Monitoring Program (MAQMP) and the Noise Monitoring Program (NMP), being submitted concurrently.

  18. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  19. Geothermal Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are the origin and nature of geothermal energy. Included is the history of its development as an energy source, technological considerations affecting its development as an energy source, its environmental effects, economic considerations, and future prospects of development in this field. Basic system diagrams of the operation of a…

  20. Potential sources of hydrocarbons and their microbial degradation in sediments from the deep geothermal Lusi site, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, Martin; Mazzini, Adriano; Scheeder, Georg; Blumenberg, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The Lusi eruption represents one of the largest ongoing sedimentary hosted geothermal systems, which started in 2006 following an earthquake on Java Island. Since then it has been continuously producing hot and hydrocarbon rich mud from a central crater with peaks reaching 180.000 m3 per day. Numerous investigations focused on the study of microbial communities which thrive at offshore methane and oil seeps and mud volcanoes, however very little has been done on onshore seeping structures. Lusi represents a unique opportunity to complete a comprehensive study of onshore microbial communities fed by the seepage of CH4 as well as of liquid hydrocarbons originating from one or more km below the surface. While the source of the methane at Lusi is unambiuous, the origin of the seeping oil is still discussed. Both, source and maturity estimates from biomarkers, are in favor of a type II/III organic matter source. Likely the oils were formed from the studied black shales (deeper Ngimbang Fm.) which contained a Type III component in the Type II predominated organic matter. In all samples large numbers of active microorganisms were present. Rates for aerobic methane oxidation were high, as was the potential of the microbial communities to degrade different hydrocarbons. The data suggests a transition of microbial populations from an anaerobic, hydrocarbon-driven metabolism in fresher samples from center or from small seeps to more generalistic, aerobic microbial communities in older, more consolidated sediments. Ongoing microbial activity in crater sediment samples under high temperatures (80-95C) indicate a deep origin of the involved microorganisms. First results of molecular analyses of the microbial community compositions confirm the above findings. This study represents an initial step to better understand onshore seepage systems and provides an ideal analogue for comparison with the better investigated offshore structures.

  1. Geothermal Technologies Program: Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    Geothermal Technologies Program Utah fact sheet describes the geothermal areas and use in Utah, focusing on power generation as well as direct use, including geothermally heated greenhouses, swimming pools, and therapeutic baths.

  2. Geothermal tomorrow 2008

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    Contributors from the Geothermal Technologies Program and the geothermal community highlight the current status and activities of the Program and the development of the global resource of geothermal energy.

  3. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-01-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  4. Geothermal probabilistic cost study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orren, L. H.; Ziman, G. M.; Jones, S. C.; Lee, T. K.; Noll, R.; Wilde, L.; Sadanand, V.

    1981-08-01

    A tool is presented to quantify the risks of geothermal projects, the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPCM). The GPCM model was used to evaluate a geothermal reservoir for a binary-cycle electric plant at Heber, California. Three institutional aspects of the geothermal risk which can shift the risk among different agents was analyzed. The leasing of geothermal land, contracting between the producer and the user of the geothermal heat, and insurance against faulty performance were examined.

  5. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  6. Double-couple and Moment Tensor Solutions of the Induced Seismicity related to the Stimulation Phase of the Enhanced Geothermal Site in Basel, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, P.; Oye, V.; Kuehn, D. K.; Cesca, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present the results of moment tensor (MT) inversion of 19 microseismic events with ML > 2, associated with the enhanced geothermal reservoir stimulation operation at Basel, Switzerland (starting 2 December, 2006). We use the software package 'Kiwi' from University of Hamburg, Germany, and adopt a three-step procedure to retrieve point solution parameters based on the waveform fit. The inversion is performed to displacement spectra and time series seismograms in the first and second step, respectively. After the first two steps, we obtain focal solutions of these 19 events assuming a double couple (DC) source model. Our results agree with the focal mechanisms from a previous study, based on the projections of first-motion polarities. Compared to the previous study using first-motion polarities, our solutions are achieved with the data from less than 10 stations. In the last step, MT components of each event are solved using the best DC solution as the initial model input. The isotropic components of MT solutions of some events are not negligible, which might be due to volume changes (crack open and close) caused by the fluid injection. The tempo-spatial patterns of isotropic components of MT solutions can be used for the inference of the co- and post-simulation process in the Basel site. We also plan to systematically analyze the amplitude ratio of P and S waves to verify the existence of 'tensile earthquake' during the stimulation.

  7. Heating the New Mexico Tech Campus with geothermal energy. Final report, July 1, 1978-October 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    LeFebre, V.; Miller, A.

    1980-01-01

    An area between the base of Socorro Peak and the New Mexico Tech Campus (located in central New Mexico) has been proposed as a site for geothermal exploratory drilling. The existing site environment is summarized, a program for site monitoring is proposed, impacts of geothermal production and reinjection are listed, and problems associated with geothermal development are examined. The most critical environmental impact is the increased seismic activity that may be associated with geothermal fluid migration resulting from geothermal production and reinjection.

  8. Geologic, geophysical, and geochemical aspects of site-specific studies of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource of southern Louisiana. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The report consists of four sections dealing with progress in evaluating geologic, geochemical, and geophysical aspects of geopressured-geothermal energy resources in Louisiana. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual sections. (ACR)

  9. The first geothermal power generation project by Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong Lee, Tae; Song, Yoonho; Yoon, Woon-Sang

    2013-04-01

    Though Korea does not have high-enthalpy geothermal resources from volcanic sources, it still has huge amount of geothermal resources at depth; i.e. technical geothermal potential of 19.6 GWe within 6.5 km deep by enhanced geothermal system (EGS) technologies. The first proof of concept project for geothermal power generation by EGS has started in Pohang, Korea in Dec. 2010. The project aims to develop a pilot geothermal power plant of 1 MW or more of installed capacity from a doublet EGS system in 5 years. This work summarizes our two years efforts including geological/geophysical surveys, site selection, civil engineering, permission for drilling, setting up the drill rig, and setting up the micro-seismic network and monitoring. At the end of Dec. 2012, drilling reached down to 2,250 m deep. Results of borehole investigation will be also discussed about.

  10. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  11. Geothermal energy and the production of electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varet, J.

    Geothermal production of electricity, about 2,500 MW throughout the world, is considered. The types of geothermal resources are reviewed. A geothermal field can be used for the production of electricity only if the layer, a porous and permeable stock located at depths of 500 and 1500 m, is carried by a magmatic source at high temperatures. Prospecting and development of high energy geothermal energy are discussed, including feasibility studies and the construction of electric power stations. Once the existence of a field is determined, exploitation can begin, consisting of drilling, steam collecting and purifying, and the construction of turboalternator power plants. An example, the Bouillante-Guadeloupe geothermal power station, is presented. Production sites across the globe are reviewed, and electrical energy costs are discussed.

  12. Geothermal Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-15

    intervals of 30 km. Reykjanes , Krysuvik, and Hengill . > have base temperatures of 280.220 and 260^ respectively. Hengill, the largest, has an area of 70...and 32 MW of electric power is planned. Reykjanes has had seven holes drilled to a maximum depth of 1,750 m. These wells vield brine with...0.001-0. 01 < 4 Cu 0. 00 0.001-0. 01 Zn 0. 00 0.005 Pb 0. 00 0.004 Fig. 28, The composition of the geothermal brine at Reykjanes compared with

  13. Geothermal development plan: Yuma County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The potential for utilizing geothermal energy was evaluated. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 900C (1940F) were identified, and in addition, two areas are inferred to contain geothermal resources with intermediate temperature potential. The resource areas are isolated. One resource site contains a hot dry rock resource. Anticipated population growth in the county is expected to be 2% per year over the next 40 years. The primary employment sector is agriculture, though some light industry is located in the county. Water supplies are found to be adequate to support future growth without adverse affect on agriculture. In addition, several agricultural processors were found, concentrated in citrus processing and livestock raising. It is suggested that by the year 2000, geothermal energy may economically provide the energy equivalent of 53,000 barrels of oil per year to the industrial sector if developed privately. Geothermal utilization projections increase to 132,000 barrels of oil per year by 2000 if a municipal utility developed the resource.

  14. Site Specific Probabilistic Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis for Surrounding Communities of The Geysers Geothermal Development Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miah, M.; Hutchings, L. J.; Savy, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a probabilistic seismic hazard and risk analysis from induced and tectonic earthquakes for a 50 km radius area centered on The Geysers, California and for the next ten years. We calculate hazard with both a conventional and physics-based approach. We estimate site specific hazard. We convert hazard to risk of nuisance and damage to structures per year and map the risk. For the conventional PSHA we assume the past ten years is indicative of hazard for the next ten years from M<4.5 earthquakes. Larger earthquakes are added from evaluation of b-values. For the physics-based appraoch, we utilize computations (Heidbach and Altmann, 2013) to calculate pressure as a function of position throughout The Geysers for the next 10 years. We then use another geo-mechanical modeling code (Bachmann et al., 2012) to calculate the number of earthquakes that will occur. We identify amplification factors for specific sites within each geologic unit from recordings of noise. Then, we interpolate within each geologic unit in finely gridded points. All grid points within a unit are weighted by distance from each data collection point. The entire process is repeated for all of the other types of geologic units until the entire area is gridded and assigned a hazard value for every grid points. We found that nuisance and damage risks calculated by both conventional and physics-based approaches provided almost identical results. This is very surprising since they were calculated by completely independent means. The conventional approach used the actual catalog of the past ten years of earthquakes to estimate the hazard for the next ten year. While the physics-based approach used geotechnical modeling to calculate the catalog for the next ten years. Similarly, for the conventional PSHA, we utilized attenuation relations from past earthquakes recorded at the Geysers to translate the ground motion from the source to the site. While for the physics-based approach we calculated ground

  15. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  16. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Carol L.; Whittier, Jack; Witcher, James C.; Schoenmackers, Rudi

    1990-08-01

    An economic evaluation of three low-temperature geothermal sites in New Mexico were performed. A hypothetical geothermal system was designed to supply sufficient energy to satisfy thermal loads for one, four, ten, and fifteen acre commercial greenhouses. Geothermal sites were evaluated to identify the important infrastructure requirements. Capital and operating costs were estimated. Annual levelized costs were calculated for the provision of hot water and fresh water for each site. Geothermal costs were compared with annual levelized costs for a natural gas system to supply the equivalent thermal load. Calculated results indicate that geothermal systems may be competitive with natural gas for larger installations. It is not economically attractive to develop a small geothermal system because the initial capital costs are not recovered with reduced operating costs, relative to natural gas.

  17. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  18. Washington: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Basescu, N.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  19. Alaska: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Justus, D.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  20. Oregon: a guide to geothermal energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Justus, D.; Basescu, N.; Bloomquist, R.G.; Higbee, C.; Simpson, S.

    1980-06-01

    A brief overview is given of the geological characteristics of each region of the state as they relate to potential geothermal development. Those exploration methods which can lead to the siting of a deep exploration well are described. Requirements and techniques needed for drilling deeper higher temperature exploration and production wells are presented. Electrical generation, direct utilization, and indirect utilization are reviewed. Economic factors of direct use projects are presented. A general guide to the regulatory framework affecting geothermal energy development is provided. The general steps necessary to gain access to explore, develop, distribute, and use geothermal resources are outlined. (MHR)

  1. Delineation of fractures, foliation, and groundwater of the bedrock at a geothermal feasibility site on Roosevelt Island, New York County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumm, Frederick; Chu, Anthony; Como, Michael D.; Noll, Michael L.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to investigate the hydrogeology of the crystalline bedrock in three boreholes on Roosevelt Island, New York County, New York. Cornell University was evaluating the feasibility of using geothermal energy for a future campus at the site. The borehole-logging techniques were used to delineate bedrock fractures, foliation, and groundwater-flow zones of the Fordham Gneiss in test boreholes at the site. Three fracture populations dominated by small (0.04 in or less) fractures were delineated in the three boreholes. A sub-horizontal population with low to moderate dipping fractures, a northeast dipping population with moderate to high angle fractures, and a small northwest dipping high angle fracture population. One large southwest dipping transmissive fracture underlies the entire study area with a mean dip azimuth of 235º southwest and a dip angle of 31º (N325ºW 31ºSW). The mean foliation dip azimuth was 296º northwest with a mean dip angle of 73º (N26ºE 73ºNW). Groundwater appears to flow through a network of fractures dominated by a large fracture underlying the site that is affected by tidal variations from the nearby East River. The total number of fractures penetrated by each borehole was 95, 63, and 68, with fracture indices of 0.26, 0.20, and 0.20 in GT-1 (NY292), GT-2 (NY293), and GT-3 (NY294), respectively. Aquifer test data indicate the specific capacity of boreholes GT-1 (NY292), GT-2 (NY293), and GT-3 (NY294) was 1.9, 1.5, and 3.7 gal/min/ft, respectively. The large contribution of flow from the leaking casing in borehole GT-3 (NY294) caused the doubling in specific capacity compared to boreholes GT-1 (NY292) and GT-2 (NY293). The transmissivities of the large fracture intersected by the three boreholes tested (GT-1, GT-2, and GT-3), calculated from aquifer-test analyses of time-drawdown data and flowmeter differencing, were 133, 124, and 65 feet squared per day (ft2/d), respectively. Gringarten

  2. INEL geothermal environmental program. 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, L.S.; Thurow, T.L.; Martinez, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    An overview of continuing environmental research and monitoring programs conducted at the Raft River Geothermal Site is provided. The monitoring programs are designed to collect data on the physical, biological and human environments of the development area. Primary research during 1980 emphasized completing baseline studies on terrestrial fauna, establishing an air quality monitoring network, investigating potential sources of fluoride in the Raft River Valley, and studying water level changes in the shallow monitor wells in response to development of the geothermal resource.

  3. Handbook of Best Practices for Geothermal Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John Travis; Blankenship, Douglas A.

    2012-02-01

    This Handbook is a description of the complex process that comprises drilling a geothermal well. The focus of the detailed Chapters covering various aspects of the process (casing design, cementing, logging and instrumentation, etc) is on techniques and hardware that have proven successful in geothermal reservoirs around the world. The Handbook will eventually be linked to the GIA web site, with the hope and expectation that it can be continually updated as new methods are demonstrated or proven.

  4. Geothermal publications list for Geopowering the West States

    SciTech Connect

    2004-12-01

    A list of geothermal publications is provided for each of the states under the ''GeoPowering the West'' program. They are provided to assist the various states in developing their geothermal resources for direct-use and electric power applications. Each state publication list includes the following: (1) General papers on various direct-uses and electric power generation available from the Geo-Heat Center either by mail or on-line at: http://geoheat.oit.edu. (2) General Geo-Heat Center Quarterly Bulletin articles related to various geothermal uses--also available either by mail or on-line; (3) Publications from other web sites such as: Geothermal-Biz.com; NREL, EGI, GEO and others ; and (4) Geothermal Resources Council citations, which are available from their web site: www.geothermal.org.

  5. Feasibility of using geothermal effluents for waterfowl wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    This project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using geothermal effluents for developing and maintaining waterfowl wetlands. Information in the document pertains to a seven State area the West where geothermal resources have development potential. Information is included on physiochemical characteristics of geothermal effluents; known effects of constituents in the water on a wetland ecosystem and water quality criteria for maintaining a viable wetland; potential of sites for wetland development and disposal of effluent water from geothermal facilities; methods of disposal of effluents, including advantages of each method and associated costs; legal and institutional constraints which could affect geothermal wetland development; potential problems associated with depletion of geothermal resources and subsidence of wetland areas; potential interference (adverse and beneficial) of wetlands with ground water; special considerations for wetlands requirements including size, flows, and potential water usage; and final conclusions and recommendations for suitable sites for developing demonstration wetlands.

  6. Geothermal Technologies Program: Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-02-01

    This fact sheets provides a summary of geothermal potential, issues, and current development in Washington State. This fact sheet was developed as part of DOE's GeoPowering the West initiative, part of the Geothermal Technologies Program.

  7. GEOTHERM Data Set

    DOE Data Explorer

    DeAngelo, Jacob

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Imperial County geothermal development. Quarterly report, April 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning; and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. Field inspections will cover the four new wells drilled by Magma at the Salton Sea in preparation for 28 MW power plant, the progress at Sperry at East Mesa, and the two on-line power plants in East Mesa and North Brawley. Evaluation of cooperative efforts will cover the Geothermal Subsidence Detection Network Resurvey, Master EIR for the Salton Sea and the Annual Imperial County Geothermal meeting. The status of Geothermal development throughout the County will cover existing proposed facilities. The summary of the Geothermal meeting (Appendix A) will also provide the status of several projects. Geothermal Planning addresses the EIR Notice of Exemption from CEQA, progress on the Master EIR for the Salton Sea, and the EIR for Phillips Petroleum for 6 exploratory wells in the Truckhaven area. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the Department of Energy Region IX meeting hosted by Imperial County, the Annual Imperial County Geothermal meeting, Class II-1 geothermal hazardous waste disposal siting study, and Imperial County Geothermal Direct Heat Study.

  9. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  10. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  11. South Dakota geothermal handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are described. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resource are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized. (MHR)

  12. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Philip; Polsky, Yarom; Anovitz, Lawrence

    2013-03-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or "engineered" within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  13. Neutron imaging for geothermal energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Polsky, Yarom

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal systems extract heat energy from the interior of the earth using a working fluid, typically water. Three components are required for a commercially viable geothermal system: heat, fluid, and permeability. Current commercial electricity production using geothermal energy occurs where the three main components exist naturally. These are called hydrothermal systems. In the US, there is an estimated 30 GW of base load electrical power potential for hydrothermal sites. Next generation geothermal systems, named Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), have an estimated potential of 4500 GW. EGSs lack in-situ fluid, permeability or both. As such, the heat exchange system must be developed or engineered within the rock. The envisioned method for producing permeability in the EGS reservoir is hydraulic fracturing, which is rarely practiced in the geothermal industry, and not well understood for the rocks typically present in geothermal reservoirs. High costs associated with trial and error learning in the field have led to an effort to characterize fluid flow and fracturing mechanisms in the laboratory to better understand how to design and manage EGS reservoirs. Neutron radiography has been investigated for potential use in this characterization. An environmental chamber has been developed that is suitable for reproduction of EGS pressures and temperatures and has been tested for both flow and precipitations studies with success for air/liquid interface imaging and 3D reconstruction of precipitation within the core.

  14. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  15. Hawaii geothermal project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamins, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Hawaii's Geothermal Project is investigating the occurrence of geothermal resources in the archipelago, initially on the Island of Hawaii. The state's interest in geothermal development is keen, since it is almost totally dependent on imported oil for energy. Geothermal development in Hawaii may require greater participation by the public sector than has been true in California. The initial exploration has been financed by the national, state, and county governments. Maximization of net benefits may call for multiple use of geothermal resources; the extraction of by-products and the application of treated effluents to agricultural and aquacultural uses.

  16. Mono County geothermal activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lyster, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Three geothermal projects have been proposed or are underway in Mono County, California. The Mammoth/Chance geothermal development project plans to construct a 10-MW geothermal binary power plant which will include 8 production and 3 injection wells. Pacific Lighting Energy Systems is also planning a 10-MW binary power plant consisting of 5 geothermal wells and up to 4 injection wells. A geothermal research project near Mammoth Lakes has spudded a well to provide a way to periodically measure temperature gradient, pressure, and chemistry of the thermal waters and to investigate the space-heating potential of the area in the vicinity of Mammoth Lakes. All three projects are briefly described.

  17. Geothermal monitor report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part 2 of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  18. 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal assessment program, Colorada

    SciTech Connect

    Cappa, J.A.; Hemborg, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous assessments of Colorado`s low-temperature geothermal resources were completed by the Colorado Geological Survey in 1920 and in the mid- to late-1970s. The purpose of the 1992--1993 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment is to update the earlier physical, geochemical, and utilization data and compile computerized databases of the location, chemistry, and general information of the low-temperature geothermal resources in Colorado. The main sources of the data included published data from the Colorado Geological Survey, the US Geological Survey WATSTOR database, and the files of the State Division of Water Resources. The staff of the Colorado Geological Survey in 1992 and 1993 visited most of the known geothermal sources that were recorded as having temperatures greater than 30{degrees}C. Physical measurements of the conductivity, pH, temperature, flow rate, and notes on the current geothermal source utilization were taken. Ten new geochemical analyses were completed on selected geothermal sites. The results of the compilation and field investigations are compiled into the four enclosed Quattro Pro 4 databases. For the purposes of this report a geothermal area is defined as a broad area, usually less than 3 sq mi in size, that may have several wells or springs. A geothermal site is an individual well or spring within a geothermal area. The 1992-1993 assessment reports that there are 93 geothermal areas in the Colorado, up from the 56 reported in 1978; there are 157 geothermal sites up from the 125 reported in 1978; and a total of 382 geochemical analyses are compiled, up from the 236 reported in 1978. Six geothermal areas are recommended for further investigation: Trimble Hot Springs, Orvis Hot Springs, an area southeast of Pagosa Springs, the eastern San Luis Valley, Rico and Dunton area, and Cottonwood Hot Springs.

  19. Can faults become barriers for deep fluid circulation? Insights from high-resolution seismic VSP tomography at the Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calò, Marco; Dorbath, Catherine; Lubrano Lavadera, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) surveys are generally used for modelling converted phases of the seismic body waves propagating in the medium allowing the detection of waves interpreted as reflections on steeply dipping reflecting structures such as faults, abrupt lateral changes of lithology, and fractures. At the Enhanced Geothermal System geothermal field of Soultz-sous-Forêts the analysis of data recorded during a VSP experiment allowed describing the presence of at least two structures near the wells. Here we show how seismic tomography method can be applied to the VSP data to reconstruct the 3-D shape of structures in the volume surrounding the geothermal wells. The three-dimensional P wave velocity model obtained shows positive velocity anomalies associated with the main faults observed by the VSP analysis and negative anomalies in the regions affected by massive hydraulic stimulations performed in the past. This pattern can be explained as a different response of the rock volume to the fluid injections where regions marked by relative pre-existing high permeability were less affected by the hydraulic stimulations. This difference in permeability produced regions that could work as barriers for fluid diffusion through the reservoir. Comparisons of our high resolved model with the location of the induced seismicity and with another model obtained using seismic noise correlation give evidence of the presence of these structures and may explain the poor connection between the wells GPK4 and GPK2-GPK3 system.

  20. Small geothermal electric systems for remote powering

    SciTech Connect

    Entingh, Daniel J.; Easwaran, Eyob.; McLarty, Lynn

    1994-08-08

    This report describes conditions and costs at which quite small (100 to 1,000 kilowatt) geothermal systems could be used for off-grid powering at remote locations. This is a first step in a larger process of determining locations and conditions at which markets for such systems could be developed. The results suggest that small geothermal systems offer substantial economic and environmental advantages for powering off-grid towns and villages. Geothermal power is most likely to be economic if the system size is 300 kW or greater, down to reservoir temperatures of 100{degree}C. For system sizes smaller than 300 kW, the economics can be favorable if the reservoir temperature is about 120{degree}C or above. Important markets include sites remote from grids in many developing and developed countries. Estimates of geothermal resources in many developing countries are shown.

  1. California: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM. Part A

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    This GEOTHERM sample file contains 1535 records for California. Three computer-generated indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. 7 refs. (ACR)

  2. Geothermal development in Alaska: an engineering and geologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Economides, M.J.; Arce, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    In spite of the vast geothermal potential within the state of Alaska, the economic feasibility is tenuous. Of the five sites examined in this paper, only Tenakee and Summer Bay have even marginal attractiveness for direct utilization. The geothermal reservoirs located at Copper Valley and Makushin Volcano may be feasible for power generation in the near and intermediate future. To make geothermal development feasible, an increase in the population/industrial base would be required, or a consolidation of the present power users. In general, the economic prospects of geothermal power development in Alaska are not attractive at this time, with the exception of Unalaska Island.

  3. Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanloz, R.; Stone, H.

    2013-12-31

    DOE, through the Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, requested this study, identifying a focus on: i) assessment of technologies and approaches for subsurface imaging and characterization so as to be able to validate EGS opportunities, and ii) assessment of approaches toward creating sites for EGS, including science and engineering to enhance permeability and increase the recovery factor. Two days of briefings provided in-depth discussion of a wide range of themes and challenges in EGS, and represented perspectives from industry, government laboratories and university researchers. JASON also contacted colleagues from universities, government labs and industry in further conversations to learn the state of the field and potential technologies relevant to EGS.

  4. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  5. The Impact of Taxation on the Development of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffen, Michael; Baker, James

    1992-09-01

    This contractor report reviews past and current tax mechanisms for the development and operation of geothermal power facilities. A 50 MW binary plant is featured as the case study. The report demonstrates that tax credits with windows of availability of greater than one year are essential to allow enough time for siting and design of geothermal power systems. (DJE 2005)

  6. Data from geothermal wells near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Drillers' logs, temperature logs, and water quality analyses from geothermal tests made at 11 sites near Oasis, lower Coachella Valley, California, are presented. The wells were drilled in 1978 under contract to the US Geological Survey as part of an appraisal of geothermal resources in the lower Coachella Valley.

  7. Reference book on geothermal direct use

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

  8. Recent geothermal investigations in Honduras: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    William Laughlin, A.; Goff, Sue J.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1985, the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the U.S. Geological Survey have worked with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica of Honduras to perform a geothermal assessment of six areas in Honduras. A combination of reconnaissance and detailed techniques was used to eliminate from consideration the sites of lower potential. Detailed geophysical investigations were performed at two high-potential sites and three geothermal gradient coreholes were drilled at the highest potential site, Platanares. High-temperature fluids were encountered in two of these coreholes, while one hole was non-flowing. Evaluation of all the data collected suggests that there are two levels to the geothermal reservoir at Platanares. A shallow (< 700 m) level contains 160-165°C fluids while a deeper (> 1.2 km) reservoir at a temperature of 225° is indicated by fluid geothermometers.

  9. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L

    2014-04-15

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth's biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this "geothermal glacial refugia" hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species.

  10. Geothermal activity helps life survive glacial cycles

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Terauds, Aleks; Smellie, John; Convey, Peter; Chown, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has played a critical role in the evolution and structure of Earth’s biodiversity. Geothermal activity, which can maintain ice-free terrain in glaciated regions, provides a tantalizing solution to the question of how diverse life can survive glaciations. No comprehensive assessment of this “geothermal glacial refugia” hypothesis has yet been undertaken, but Antarctica provides a unique setting for doing so. The continent has experienced repeated glaciations that most models indicate blanketed the continent in ice, yet many Antarctic species appear to have evolved in almost total isolation for millions of years, and hence must have persisted in situ throughout. How could terrestrial species have survived extreme glaciation events on the continent? Under a hypothesis of geothermal glacial refugia and subsequent recolonization of nongeothermal regions, we would expect to find greater contemporary diversity close to geothermal sites than in nongeothermal regions, and significant nestedness by distance of this diversity. We used spatial modeling approaches and the most comprehensive, validated terrestrial biodiversity dataset yet created for Antarctica to assess spatial patterns of diversity on the continent. Models clearly support our hypothesis, indicating that geothermally active regions have played a key role in structuring biodiversity patterns in Antarctica. These results provide critical insights into the evolutionary importance of geothermal refugia and the history of Antarctic species. PMID:24616489

  11. The geothermal power organization

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, K.L.

    1997-12-31

    The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.

  12. Models of Geothermal Brine Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Moller Weare; John H. Weare

    2002-03-29

    Many significant expenses encountered by the geothermal energy industry are related to chemical effects. When the composition, temperature of pressure of the fluids in the geological formation are changed, during reservoir evolution, well production, energy extraction or injection processes, the fluids that were originally at equilibrium with the formation minerals come to a new equilibrium composition, temperature and pressure. As a result, solid material can be precipitated, dissolved gases released and/or heat lost. Most geothermal energy operations experience these phenomena. For some resources, they create only minor problems. For others, they can have serious results, such as major scaling or corrosion of wells and plant equipment, reservoir permeability losses and toxic gas emission, that can significantly increase the costs of energy production and sometimes lead to site abandonment. In future operations that exploit deep heat sources and low permeability reservoirs, new chemical problems involving very high T, P rock/water interactions and unknown injection effects will arise.

  13. Modeling of geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Pruess, K.; Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    During the last decade the use of numerical modeling for geothermal resource evaluation has grown significantly, and new modeling approaches have been developed. In this paper we present a summary of the present status in numerical modeling of geothermal systems, emphasizing recent developments. Different modeling approaches are described and their applicability discussed. The various modeling tasks, including natural-state, exploitation, injection, multi-component and subsidence modeling, are illustrated with geothermal field examples. 99 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Geothermal Today - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Energy Program Highlights Partnering with Industry A New Power Source for Nevada Drilling Research Finding Geothermal Resources Small-Scale Geothermal Power Plants The Heat Beneath Your Feet R&D 100 Award Program in Review Milestones January 2000 The U.S. Department of Energy GeoPowering the West initiative was launched. February 2000 Grants totaling $4.8 million were awarded in six western states, primarily for development of reservoir exploration, character

  15. Geothermal Today - 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-05-01

    U.S. Department of Energy 1999 Geothermal Energy Program Highlights The Hot Facts Getting into Hot Water Turning Waste water into Clean Energy Producing Even Cleaner Power Drilling Faster and Cheaper Program in Review 1999: The Year in Review JanuaryCal Energy announced sale of Coso geothermal power plants at China Lake, California, to Caithness Energy, for $277 million. U.S. Export-Import Bank completed a $50 million refinancing of the Leyte Geothermal Optimization Project in the Philippines. F

  16. Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal program summary report compilation. Volume 2-A: Resource description, program history, wells tested, university and company based research, site restoration

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.; Maciasz, G.; Harder, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy established a geopressured-geothermal energy program in the mid 1970`s as one response to America`s need to develop alternate energy resources in view of the increasing dependence on imported fossil fuel energy. This program continued for 17 years and approximately two hundred million dollars were expended for various types of research and well testing to thoroughly investigate this alternative energy source. This volume describes the following studies: Geopressured-geothermal resource description; Resource origin and sediment type; Gulf Coast resource extent; Resource estimates; Project history; Authorizing legislation; Program objectives; Perceived constraints; Program activities and structure; Well testing; Program management; Program cost summary; Funding history; Resource characterization; Wells of opportunity; Edna Delcambre No. 1 well; Edna Delcambre well recompletion; Fairfax Foster Sutter No. 2 well; Beulah Simon No. 2 well; P.E. Girouard No. 1 well; Prairie Canal No. 1 well; Crown Zellerbach No. 2 well; Alice C. Plantation No. 2 well; Tenneco Fee N No. 1 well; Pauline Kraft No. 1 well; Saldana well No. 2; G.M. Koelemay well No. 1; Willis Hulin No. 1 well; Investigations of other wells of opportunity; Clovis A. Kennedy No. 1 well; Watkins-Miller No. 1 well; Lucien J. Richard et al No. 1 well; and the C and K-Frank A. Godchaux, III, well No. 1.

  17. Prioritizing High-Temperature Geothermal Resources in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blackett, R.E.; Brill, T.C.; Sowards, G.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Utah Geological Survey and the Utah Energy Office recently released geothermal resource information for Utah as a "digital atlas." We are now expanding this project to include economic analyses of selected geothermal sites and previously unavailable resource information. The enhancements to the digital atlas will include new resource, demographic, regulatory, economic, and other information to allow analyses of economic factors for comparing and ranking geothermal resource sites in Utah for potential electric power development. New resource information includes temperature gradient and fluid chemistry data, which was previously proprietary. Economic analyses are based upon a project evaluation model to assess capital and operating expenses for a variety of geothermal powerplant configuration scenarios. A review of legal and institutional issues regarding geothermal development coupled with water development will also be included.

  18. Geothermal development attitudes surveyed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The State of Hawaii has conducted several surveys on public opinion towards the development of geothermal energy. The latest poll was designed to: measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development for electrical power supplied to Island of Hawaii residents only; measure public opinion in the County of Hawaii relevant to geothermal development of electricity to be exported for use on Oahu; and identify barriers to, and opportunities for energy conservation programs, including geothermal development. In general, the residents of the County of Hawaii favor some form of geothermal development. Issues on geothermal development of concern to the public were similar to those mentioned in the 1982 study. Basically, the issues amount to a trade-off between the economic advantages and the environmental problems of geothermal development. The strong points in favor of development include a perceived need for more energy, a strong preference for alternate energy forms over petroleum, perceived benefits for the local economy and the employment rates, and the possibility that development may reduce or contain utility bills. On the other hand, it appears that geothermal development will cause health problems for those who live near the wells, be hazardous to flora and fauna in the Puna area, and create noise and odor above tolerable levels. These are oversimplified statements of the reasons behind both support and opposition for geothermal development.

  19. Geothermal Life Cycle Calculator

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-11

    This calculator is a handy tool for interested parties to estimate two key life cycle metrics, fossil energy consumption (Etot) and greenhouse gas emission (ghgtot) ratios, for geothermal electric power production. It is based solely on data developed by Argonne National Laboratory for DOE’s Geothermal Technologies office. The calculator permits the user to explore the impact of a range of key geothermal power production parameters, including plant capacity, lifetime, capacity factor, geothermal technology, well numbers and depths, field exploration, and others on the two metrics just mentioned. Estimates of variations in the results are also available to the user.

  20. GEOTHERM user guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swanson, James R.

    1977-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a computerized geothermal resources file developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The file contains data on geothermal fields, wells, and chemical analyses from the United states and international sources. The General Information Processing System (GIPSY) in the IBM 370/155 computer is used to store and retrieve data. The GIPSY retrieval program contains simple commands which can be used to search the file, select a narrowly defined subset, sort the records, and output the data in a variety of forms. Eight commands are listed and explained so that the GEOTHERM file can be accessed directly by geologists. No programming experience is necessary to retrieve data from the file.

  1. Geothermal energy program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-12-01

    The mission of the Geothermal Energy Program is to develop the science and technology necessary for tapping our nation's tremendous heat energy sources contained within the Earth. Geothermal energy is a domestic energy source that can produce clean, reliable, cost-effective heat and electricity for our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy - the heat of the Earth - is one of our nation's most abundant energy resources. In fact, geothermal energy represents nearly 40 percent of the total U.S. energy resource base and already provides an important contribution to our nation's energy needs. Geothermal energy systems can provide clean, reliable, cost-effective energy for our nation's industries, businesses, and homes in the form of heat and electricity. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Energy Program sponsors research aimed at developing the science and technology necessary for utilizing this resource more fully. Geothermal energy originates from the Earth's interior. The hottest fluids and rocks at accessible depths are associated with recent volcanic activity in the western states. In some places, heat comes to the surface as natural hot water or steam, which have been used since prehistoric times for cooking and bathing. Today, wells convey the heat from deep in the Earth to electric generators, factories, farms, and homes. The competitiveness of power generation with lower quality hydrothermal fluids, geopressured brines, hot dry rock, and magma (the four types of geothermal energy), still depends on the technical advancements sought by DOE's Geothermal Energy Program.

  2. Great Western Malting Company geothermal project, Pocatello, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, N.T.; McGeen, M.A.; Corlett, D.F.; Urmston, R.

    1981-12-23

    The Great Western Malting Company recently constructed a barley malting facility in Pocatello, Idaho, designed to produce 6.0 million bushels per year of brewing malt. This facility uses natural gas to supply the energy for germination and kilning processes. The escalating cost of natural gas has prompted the company to look at alternate and more economical sources of energy. Trans Energy Systems has investigated the viabiity of using geothermal energy at the new barley processing plant. Preliminary investigations show that a geothermal resource probably exists, and payback on the installation of a system to utilize the resource will occur in under 2 years. The Great Western Malting plant site has geological characteristics which are similar to areas where productive geothermal wells have been established. Geological investigations indicate that resource water temperatures will be in the 150 to 200/sup 0/F range. Geothermal energy of this quality will supply 30 to 98% of the heating requirements currently supplied by natural gas for this malting plant. Trans Energy Systems has analyzed several systems of utilizing the geothermal resource at the Great Western barley malting facility. These systems included: direct use of geothermal water; geothermal energy heating process water through an intermediary heat exchanger; coal or gas boosted geothermal systems; and heat pump boosted geothermal system. The analysis examined the steps that are required to process the grain.

  3. Hydrodynamic/kinetic reactions in liquid dominated geothermal systems: Hydroscale Test Program, Mercer 2 well site South Brawley, California (Tests No. 15--20). Final report, 27 October 1980--6 February 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Nesewich, J.P.; Gracey, C.M.

    1982-04-01

    The Aerojet Energy Conversion Company, under contract to the Los Alamos National Laboratory, US Department of Energy, has constructed and tested a mobile geothermal well-site test unit at the Mercer 2 well in South Brawley, California (Imperial Valley). The equipment controlled, monitored, and recorded all process conditions of single- and dual-flash power cycles. Single- and two-phase flashed brine effluents were flowed through piping component test sections to provide hydrodynamic/kinetic data for scale formation. The unit operated at flowrates in excess of 200 gpm and is designed to accommodate flowrates up to 300 gpm. Primary scale formations encountered were those of Pbs, Fe{sub 2} (OH){sub 3}Cl (iron hydroxychloride), iron chlorides, and non-crystalline forms Of SiO{sub 2}. The formation of iron hydroxychloride was due to the unusually high concentration of iron in the wellhead brine (5000 mg/1).

  4. Geopressured-geothermal well activities in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    John, C.J.

    1992-10-01

    Since September 1978, microseismic networks have operated continuously around US Department of Energy (DOE) geopressured-geothermal well sites to monitor any microearthquake activity in the well vicinity. Microseismic monitoring is necessary before flow testing at a well site to establish the level of local background seismicity. Once flow testing has begun, well development may affect ground elevations and/or may activate growth faults, which are characteristic of the coastal region of southern Louisiana and southeastern Texas where these geopressured-geothermal wells are located. The microseismic networks are designed to detest small-scale local earthquakes indicative of such fault activation. Even after flow testing has ceased, monitoring continues to assess any microearthquake activity delayed by the time dependence of stress migration within the earth. Current monitoring shows no microseismicity in the geopressured-geothermal prospect areas before, during, or after flow testing.

  5. Environmental control technology (ECT) for geothermal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, G.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives of the environmental control technology (ECT) program are to develop research priorities, research new and alternative technologies and to improve economics and performance of ECT systems. The Interagency Geothermal Coordinating Council, Environmental Control Panel developed priorities and obtained industry input during 1980. H/sub 2/S controls, injection monitoring, solid waste characterization and control and subsidence were reviewed as high priority while noise controls were considered low priority. Since geothermal technology is still developing there is a need to continue researching new and alternative ECT. Often ECT systems must be designed for site specific applications and need modification for use of other sites. Most of the US geothermal experience is found at the Geysers, California where H/sub 2/S abatement is required. Various systems have been tested with mixed results. The bottom line is that the economics and performance of H/sub 2/S abatement systems are less than desirable.

  6. Geothermal energy for greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Jacky Friedman

    2009-01-01

    Geothermal energy is heat (thermal) derived from the earth (geo). The heat flows along a geothermal gradient from the center of the earth to the surface. Most of the heat arrives at the surface of the earth at temperatures too low for much use. However, plate tectonics ensure that some of the heat is concentrated at temperatures and depths favorable for its commercial...

  7. Benefits of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    One of the principal benefits of geothermal power plants is that they provide baseload power. Baseload power plants provide power all or most of the time and contrast with peaker plants which turn on or off as demand rises, or peaks, throughout the day. Geothermal plants contrast with other renewable energy resources like wind and solar energy that generate power intermittently.

  8. Geothermal energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service are reviewed. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research.

  9. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  10. Volcanology and geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.; Heiken, G.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this book is to demonstrate how volcanological concepts can be applied to the evaluation and exploration of geothermal energy resources. In regard to the geothermal content of the book, some of the information comes from the first-hand experience gained during the authors' exploration work in Middle America and with the Los Alamos Hot Dry Rock program. Other cases discussed come from classic geothermal systems in many regions and settings. The book begins with a summary of recent practical advances in volcanology, and then moves on to describe the considerable importance of pyroclastic rocks as a took to evaluate geothermal systems, including an in-depth treatment of hydrovolcanism. Following chapters deal with surface manifestations of geothermal systems, and systems associated with calderas, silicic lava domes, and basaltic volcanoes. The last chapter is on geothermal systems in maturing composite volcanoes. The Appendices include a broad overview of field methods in volcanic regions, volcanic rock classifications and properties, thermodynamic properties of water vapor (steam tables), and the use of cuttings in geothermal well logs. A two-dimensional heat flow code used for estimating geothermal resources is also given. The book makes two significant contributions: first, in its treatment of eruption dynamics, focusing on quantitative and theoretical analysis of volcanic processes, and second, in its comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of hydrovolcanism, including fuel-coolant interactions and hydrofracturing.

  11. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document reviews Geothermal Energy Technology and the steps necessary to place it into service. Specific topics covered are: four types of geothermal resources; putting the resource to work; power generation; FY 1989 accomplishments; hard rock penetration; conversion technology; and geopressured brine research. 16 figs. (FSD)

  12. Geothermal energy: a brief assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.; Blackett, R.; Foley, D.

    1982-07-01

    This document includes discussions about geothermal energy, its applications, and how it is found and developed. It identifies known geothermal resources located in Western's power marketing area, and covers the use of geothermal energy for both electric power generation and direct applications. Economic, institutional, environmental, and other factors are discussed, and the benefits of the geothermal energy resource are described.

  13. Geothermal energy in Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Ragnarsson, A.

    1996-11-01

    The annual primary energy supply in Iceland, which has a population of 268,000, is 98,000 TJ (T = 10{sup 12}) or 366 GJ per capita, which is among the highest in the world. Geothermal energy provides about 48.8% of the total, hydropower 17.2%, oil 31.5% and coal 2.5%. The main use of geothermal energy is for space heating. About 85% of all houses are heated with geothermal energy; the rest are heated mainly by electricity. So far, geothermal resources have only, to a limited extent, been used for electric power generation, because of the availability of relatively cheap hydropower resources. Of the total electricity production of 5,000 GWh in 1995, only 288 GWh or 5.8% came from geothermal energy, 94% from hydro and 0.2% from fuels.

  14. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Hawthorne, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-04

    Site characteristics pertinent to the geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal reservoir is characterized on the basis of available information. The probable drilling depth to the reservoir, anticipated water production rates, water quality, and resource temperature are indicated. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the near future at Hawthorne are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, and legal and regulatory aspects. The various steps that are necessary to accomplish the construction of the geothermal district heating system are described.

  15. Preliminary plan for the development of geothermal energy in the town of Gabbs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-09

    Characteristics of the site significant to the prospect for geothermal development are described, including: physiography, demography, economy, and the goals and objectives of the citizens as they relate to geothermal development. The geothermal resource evaluation is described, including the depth to reservoir, production rates of existing water wells, water quality, and the resource temperature. Uses of the energy that seem appropriate to the situation both now and in the foreseeable future at Gabbs are described. The essential institutional requirements for geothermal energy development are discussed, including the financial, environmental, legal, and regulatory requirements. The main resource, engineering and institutional considerations involved in a geothermal district heating system for Gabbs are summarized.

  16. Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill

    SciTech Connect

    W. C. Maurer

    2000-05-01

    Approximately 50% of the cost of a new geothermal power plant is in the wells that must be drilled. Compared to the majority of oil and gas wells, geothermal wells are more difficult and costly to drill for several reasons. First, most U.S. geothermal resources consist of hot, hard crystalline rock formations which drill much slower than the relatively soft sedimentary formations associated with most oil and gas production. Second, high downhole temperatures can greatly shorten equipment life or preclude the use of some technologies altogether. Third, producing viable levels of electricity from geothermal fields requires the use of large diameter bores and a high degree of fluid communication, both of which increase drilling and completion costs. Optimizing fluid communication often requires creation of a directional well to intersect the best and largest number of fracture capable of producing hot geothermal fluids. Moineau motor stators made with elastomers cannot operate at geothermal temperatures, so they are limited to the upper portion of the hole. To overcome these limitations, Maurer Engineering Inc. (MEI) has developed a turbodrill that does not use elastomers and therefore can operate at geothermal temperatures. This new turbodrill uses a special gear assembly to reduce the output speed, thus allowing a larger range of bit types, especially tri-cone roller bits, which are the bits of choice for drilling hard crystalline formations. The Advanced Geothermal Turbodrill (AGT) represents a significant improvement for drilling geothermal wells and has the potential to significantly reduce drilling costs while increasing production, thereby making geothermal energy less expensive and better able to compete with fossil fuels. The final field test of the AGT will prepare the tool for successful commercialization.

  17. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1980-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  18. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G.

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  19. Relative Contributions of Geothermal Pumping and Long-Term Earthquake Rate to Seismicity at California Geothermal Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiser, D. A.; Jackson, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    In a tectonically active area, a definitive discrimination between geothermally-induced and tectonic earthquakes is difficult to achieve. We focus our study on California's 11 major geothermal fields: Amedee, Brawley, Casa Diablo, Coso, East Mesa, The Geysers, Heber, Litchfield, Salton Sea, Susanville, and Wendel. The Geysers geothermal field is the world's largest geothermal energy producer. California's Department of Oil Gas and Geothermal Resources provides field-wide monthly injection and production volumes for each of these sites, which allows us to study the relationship between geothermal pumping activities and seismicity. Since many of the geothermal fields began injecting and producing before nearby seismic stations were installed, we use smoothed seismicity since 1932 from the ANSS catalog as a proxy for tectonic earthquake rate. We examine both geothermal pumping and long-term earthquake rate as factors that may control earthquake rate. Rather than focusing only on the largest earthquake, which is essentially a random occurrence in time, we examine how M≥4 earthquake rate density (probability per unit area, time, and magnitude) varies for each field. We estimate relative contributions to the observed earthquake rate of M≥4 from both a long-term earthquake rate (Kagan and Jackson, 2010) and pumping activity. For each geothermal field, respective earthquake catalogs (NCEDC and SCSN) are complete above at least M3 during the test period (which we tailor to each site). We test the hypothesis that the observed earthquake rate at a geothermal site during the test period is a linear combination of the long-term seismicity and pumping rates. We use a grid search to determine the confidence interval of the weighting parameters.

  20. Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    The Ahuachapan geothermal power plant has been the subject of several recent reports and papers (1-7). This article is a condensation of the author's earlier writings (5-7), and incorporates new information on the geothermal activities in El Salvador obtained recently through a telephone conversation with Ing. R. Caceres of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) who has been engaged in the design and engineering of the newest unit at Ahuachapan. El Salvador is the first of the Central American countries to construct and operate a geothermal electric generating station. Exploration began in the mid-1960's at the geothermal field near Ahuachapan in western El Salvador. The first power unit, a separated-steam or so-called ''single-flash'' plant, was started up in June 1975, and was followed a year later by an identical unit. In July 1980, the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) will complete the installation of a third unit, a dual-pressure (or ''double-flash'') unit rated at 35 MW. The full Ahuachapan plant will then constitute about 20% of the total installed electric generating capacity of the country. During 1977, the first two units generated nearly one-third of all the electricity produced in El Salvador. C.E.L. is actively pursuing several other promising sites for additional geothermal plants. There is the possibility that eventually geothermal energy will contribute about 450 MW of electric generating capacity. In any event it appears that by 1985 El Salvador should be able to meet its domestic needs for electricity by means of its indigenous geothermal and hydroelectric power plants, thus eliminating any dependence on imported petroleum for power generation.

  1. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Innovative Design of New Geothermal Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Geyer, John D.; Sifford, B. Alexander III

    1989-07-01

    This very significant and useful report assessed state-of-the-art geothermal technologies. The findings presented in this report are the result of site visits and interviews with plant owners and operators, representatives of major financial institutions, utilities involved with geothermal power purchases and/or wheeling. Information so obtained was supported by literature research and data supplied by engineering firms who have been involved with designing and/or construction of a majority of the plants visited. The interviews were conducted by representatives of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Washington State Energy Office, and the Oregon Department of Energy during the period 1986-1989. [DJE-2005

  3. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 4. Impact of geothermal resource development in Hawaii (including air and water quality)

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The environmental consequences of natural processes in a volcanic-fumerolic region and of geothermal resource development are presented. These include acute ecological effects, toxic gas emissions during non-eruptive periods, the HGP-A geothermal well as a site-specific model, and the geothermal resources potential of Hawaii. (MHR)

  4. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  5. Boise Geothermal Aquifer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report is the final product of a detailed review and quantitative evaluation of existing data for the Boise Front Geothermal Aquifer. Upon review of the many publications, and raw data for the Boise geothermal aquifer, it became clear that adequate data only exists for analysis of current and proposed development within a limited area. This region extends approximately 1.5 miles southeast of the State Capitol to 0.5 mile northwest. Though there are geothermal wells located along the Boise Front outside of this area, the lack of production and water level data preclude any detailed discussions and analysis of their relationship to the central resource. As a result, discussion will concentrate on major users such as the Capitol Mall (CM) Boise Geothermal LTD. (BGL), Veterans Administration (VA) and Boise Warm Springs Water District (BWSWD). The objectives of this study are: Define the inter-relationship of the existing wells and/or portions of the geothermal aquifer; evaluate the effects of current and proposed development on the geothermal aquifer; estimate longevity of the geothermal resource; and make recommendations for an on-going monitoring program. 44 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Recency of Faulting and Neotechtonic Framework in the Dixie Valley Geothermal Field and Other Geothermal Fields of the Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Wesnousky; S. John Caskey; John W. Bell

    2003-02-20

    We studied the role that earthquake faults play in redistributing stresses within in the earths crust near geothermal fields. The geographic foci of our study were the sites of geothermal plants in Dixie Valley, Beowawe, and Bradys Hot Springs, Nevada. Our initial results show that the past history of earthquakes has redistributed stresses at these 3 sites in a manner to open and maintain fluid pathways critical for geothermal development. The approach developed here during our pilot study provides an inexpensive approach to (1) better define the best locations to site geothermal wells within known geothermal fields and (2) to define the location of yet discovered geothermal fields which are not manifest at the surface by active geothermal springs. More specifically, our investigation shows that induced stress concentrations at the endpoints of normal fault ruptures appear to promote favorable conditions for hydrothermal activity in two ways. We conclude that an understanding of the spatial distribution of active faults and the past history of earthquakes on those faults be incorporated as a standard tool in geothermal exploration and in the siting of future boreholes in existing geothermal fields.

  7. Realizing the geothermal electricity potential—water use and consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar Mishra, Gouri; Glassley, William E.; Yeh, Sonia

    2011-07-01

    Electricity from geothermal resources has the potential to supply a significant portion of US baseload electricity. We estimate the water requirements of geothermal electricity and the impact of potential scaling up of such electricity on water demand in various western states with rich geothermal resources but stressed water resources. Freshwater, degraded water, and geothermal fluid requirements are estimated explicitly. In general, geothermal electricity has higher water intensity (l kWh - 1) than thermoelectric or solar thermal electricity. Water intensity decreases with increase in resource enthalpy, and freshwater gets substituted by degraded water at higher resource temperatures. Electricity from enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) could displace 8-100% of thermoelectricity generated in most western states. Such displacement would increase stress on water resources if re-circulating evaporative cooling, the dominant cooling system in the thermoelectric sector, is adopted. Adoption of dry cooling, which accounts for 78% of geothermal capacity today, will limit changes in state-wide freshwater abstraction, but increase degraded water requirements. We suggest a research and development focus to develop advanced energy conversion and cooling technologies that reduce water use without imposing energy and consequent financial penalties. Policies should incentivize the development of higher enthalpy resources, and support identification of non-traditional degraded water sources and optimized siting of geothermal plants.

  8. The Geothermal Potential, Current and Opportunity in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Located in the west Pacific Rim of Fire, Taiwan possesses rich geothermal resources due to volcanic activities and rapid uplifting of plate collision. Based on available data prior to 1980, Taiwan may have about 1 GWe of potential shallow geothermal energy, which is less than 3% of the national gross power generation. A 3-Mw pilot power plant, therefore, was constructed in 1981 and terminated in 1993 in the Chingshui geothermal field of Ilan, northeastern Taiwan. Recently, one of the National Science & Technology Program (NSTP) projects has been conducting research and reevaluating the island-wide deep geothermal energy. Four hot potential sites have been recognized. They are: (1) Tatun Volcano Group of northern Taiwan; (2) I-Lan Plain of NE Taiwan; (3) Lu-Shan area of Central Taiwan; and (4) Hua-Tung area of eastern Taiwan. We found that the geothermal resource in Taiwan may be as high as 160 GWe, with 33.6 GWe of exploitable geothermal energy. There are no any commercial geothermal power plants until now in Taiwan, although the potential is great. However, geothermal energy has been listed as one of major tasks of National Energy Program, Phase II (NEP-II) in Taiwan. We will conduct more detailed geothermal energy surveys on some proposed hot sites and to construct an EGS pilot geothermal plant with 1 MWe capability in a few years. Currently, there are three nuclear power plants, named No. 1, 2 & 3, in operations, which produce 16.5% gross generation of electricity and one (No. 4) is under construction, but is stopped and sealed now in Taiwan. Furthermore, the life-span of 40-year operation for those three power plants will be close-at hand and retire in 2018-2019, 2021-2023 and 2024-2025, respectively. Therefore, to find alternative energy sources, especially on the clean, renewable and sustainable ones for generating electricity are emergent and important for Taiwan's government in next few years. Among various energy sources, geothermal energy can be as base

  9. Geothermal aquaculture in Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, S.

    1987-06-01

    Work in geothermal aquaculture and vertically integrated agriculture is undertaken by Washoe Aquaculture Limited, Gourmet Prawnz Inc., General Managing Partners. This approach to agriculture is researched at the integrated Prototype Aquaculture Facility (IPAF) at Hobo Hot Springs, Nevada. The principal objective at the IPAF is to use geothermal aquifers to commercially raise food, plants, and ornamental fish. At the IPAF, the feasibility of geothermal aquaculture has been demonstrated. The company has implemented many demonstration projects, including the cultivation of freshwater prawns, native baitfish, exotic tropical species, and commercially important aquatic plants.

  10. NANA Geothermal Assessment Program Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Hermanson

    2010-06-22

    In 2008, NANA Regional Corporation (NRC) assessed geothermal energy potential in the NANA region for both heat and/or electricity production. The Geothermal Assessment Project (GAP) was a systematic process that looked at community resources and the community's capacity and desire to develop these resources. In October 2007, the US Department of Energy's Tribal Energy Program awarded grant DE-FG36-07GO17075 to NRC for the GAP studies. Two moderately remote sites in the NANA region were judged to have the most potential for geothermal development: (1) Granite Mountain, about 40 miles south of Buckland, and (2) the Division Hot Springs area in the Purcell Mountains, about 40 miles south of Shungnak and Kobuk. Data were collected on-site at Granite Mountain Hot Springs in September 2009, and at Division Hot Springs in April 2010. Although both target geothermal areas could be further investigated with a variety of exploration techniques such as a remote sensing study, a soil geochemical study, or ground-based geophysical surveys, it was recommended that on-site or direct heat use development options are more attractive at this time, rather than investigations aimed more at electric power generation.

  11. FINAL REPORT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY PHASE II ANIMAS VALLEY, NEW MEXICO

    SciTech Connect

    Roy A.Cunniff; Roger L. Bowers

    2003-12-29

    Final Technical Report covering siting, permitting, and drilling two geothermal temperature gradient holes. This report provides a summary of geotechnical and geophysical data that led to the siting, drilling, and completion of 2 temperature gradient holes in the geothermal anomaly at Lightning Dock Known Geothermal Resource Area in the Animas Valley of New Mexico. Included in this report is a summary of institutional factors and data defining the well drilling process and acquiring drilling permits. Data covering the results of the drilling and temperature logging of these two holes are provided. The two gradient holes were sited on federal geothermal leases owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. and both holes were drilled into lakebed sediments some distance from the intense shallow geothermal anomaly located in the eastern half of Section 7, Township 25 South, Range 19 West.

  12. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    , -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley fault, and suggests that the main plume is controlled, at least in part, by flow from this fault system. The temperature data also defines the geothermal resource with gradients >100oC/km, which covers an area a minimum of 8 km2. Structural blocks, down dropped with respect to the Pumpernickel Valley fault, may define an immediate reservoir. The geothermal system almost certainly continues beyond the recently drilled holes and might be open to the east and south, whereas the heat source responsible for the temperatures associated with this plume has not been intersected and must be at a depth greater than 920 meters (depth of the deepest well – Magma well). The geological and structural setting and other characteristics of the Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area are markedly similar to the portions of the nearby Dixie Valley geothermal field. These similarities include, among others, the numerous, unexposed en echelon faults and large-scale pull-apart structure, which in Dixie Valley may host part of the geothermal field. The Pumpernickel Valley project area, for the majority of which Nevada Geothermal Power Company has geothermal rights, represents a geothermal site with a potential for the discovery of a relatively high temperature reservoir suitable for electric power production. Among locations not previously identified as having high geothermal potential, Pumpernickel Valley has been ranked as one of four sites with the highest potential for electrical power production in Nevada (Shevenell and Garside, 2003). Richards and Blackwell (2002) estimated the total heat loss and the preliminary production capacity for the

  13. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  14. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  15. Validation of Multicomponent Equilibrium Geothermometry at Four Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanashyam Neupane; Jeffrey S Baum; Earl D Mattson; Gregory L Mines; Carl D Palmer; Robert W Smith

    2001-01-01

    This paper evaluates our ability to predict geothermal reservoir temperatures using water compositions measured from surface hot springs or shallow subsurface wells at four geothermal sites prior to the startup of geothermal energy production using RTEst, a multicomponent equilibrium geothermometer we have developed and are testing. The estimated reservoir temperatures of these thermal expressions are compared to measured bottom-hole temperatures of production wells at Raft River, ID; Neal Hot Springs, OR; Roosevelt Hot Springs, UT; and Steamboat Springs, NV geothermal sites. In general, temperatures of the producing reservoir estimated from the composition of water from surface expressions/shallow wells using RTEst are similar to the measured bottom-hole temperatures. For example, estimates for the Neal Hot Springs system are within ±10 ºC of the production temperatures. However, some caution must be exercised in evaluating RTEst predictions. Estimated temperature for a shallow Raft River well (Frazier well) is found to be slightly lower (ca. 15 ºC) than the bottom-hole temperatures from the geothermal plant production wells. For the Raft River system, local geology and fluid mixing model indicate that the fluid source for this shallow well may not have originated from the production reservoir. Similarly, RTEst results for Roosevelt Hot springs and Steamboat Springs geothermal areas were found consistent with the reservoir temperatures obtained from deep wells. These results suggest that the RTEst could be a valuable tool for estimating temperatures and evaluation geothermal resources.

  16. Geothermal materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the most pressing problems constraining the development of geothermal energy is the lack of satisfactory component and system reliability. This is due to the unavailability, on a commercial scale, of cost-effective materials that can function in a wide range of geothermal environments and to the unavailability of a comprehensive body of directly relevant test data or materials selection experience. Suitable materials are needed for service in geothermal wells and in process plant equipment. For both situations, this requires materials that can withstand high-temperature, highly-corrosive, and scale-forming geothermal fluids. In addition to requiring a high degree of chemical and thermal resistance, the downhole environment places demands on the physical/mechanical properties of materials for components utilized in well drilling, completion, pumping, and logging. Technical and managerial assistance provided by Brookhaven in the program for studying these materials problems is described.

  17. Geothermal Energy: Current abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Ringe, A.C.

    1988-02-01

    This bulletin announces the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. (ACR)

  18. Geothermal Orientation Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1984-07-01

    This is a useful overview of the Department of Energy's outlook on geothermal energy development in the U.S. as of late 1983. For example, Exhibit 4 shows how electric utility planners' estimates of likely amounts of geothermal power on line for 1990 and 2000 first increased and then declined over time as they were surveyed in 1977 through 1983 (date are from the EPRI Survey). Additions to direct heat uses in 1979 through 1981 are in Exhibit 7. A Table (not numbered) at the back of the report "Historical Development of Geothermal Power ..." shows world installed geothermal capacity by nation at decadal intervals from 1950 to 1980, and the first year of power production for each country. (DJE 2005)

  19. Imperial County geothermal development semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The current geothermal progress in Imperial County is reported. Three areas are reported: Geothermal Administration, Geothermal Planning, and other Geothermal Activities. Geothermal Administration addresses the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project (IVEP) transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of Geothermal field inspections. In addition, the cooperative efforts between industry and the County; Master EIR for the Salton Sea KGRA and the resurveying of the subsidence detection network are covered. Geothermal Planning addresses a Board of Supervisor action on the Union Oil Geothermal Production Permit for 16 wells in the Salton Sea KGRA and a permit for Southern California Edison 10 megawatts power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA. Planning Commission action covers: Amendment of Magma Power's 49 megawatts Geothermal Production Permit to 28 megawatt power plant and relocation of the plant and wells within the Salton Sea KGRA; Exploration permit to Occidental Geothermal for four exploratory wells in East Brawley; Geothermal Production Permit to Southern California Edison to operate a 10 megawatt power plant in the Salton Sea KGRA; and Geothermal production permit to Union Oil for 16 production-injection wells in the Salton Sea KGRA. Lastly, EIR exemptions to CEQA were granted to Chevron for 70 shallow temperature observation holes and Union for fifteen. Other Geothermal Activity addresses the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmorland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA.

  20. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  1. Geothermal reservoir simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, J. W., Jr.; Faust, C.; Pinder, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The prediction of long-term geothermal reservoir performance and the environmental impact of exploiting this resource are two important problems associated with the utilization of geothermal energy for power production. Our research effort addresses these problems through numerical simulation. Computer codes based on the solution of partial-differential equations using finite-element techniques are being prepared to simulate multiphase energy transport, energy transport in fractured porous reservoirs, well bore phenomena, and subsidence.

  2. Geothermal reservoir technology

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.J.

    1985-09-01

    A status report on Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Reservoir Technology projects under DOE's Hydrothermal Research Subprogram is presented. During FY 1985 significant accomplishments were made in developing and evaluating methods for (1) describing geothermal systems and processes; (2) predicting reservoir changes; (3) mapping faults and fractures; and (4) field data analysis. In addition, LBL assisted DOE in establishing the research needs of the geothermal industry in the area of Reservoir Technology. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Geothermal irrigation pump

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, H.B.

    1982-04-20

    A deep well pumping apparatus utilizing a geothermal source of energy is disposed within or above a stratum having a cool irrigating fluid, and an associated heat exchange unit is disposed within a stratum having the geothermal source. An organic working fluid is conveyed under pressure through the heat exchange unit and applied as a gas to a turbine assembly operatively coupled to the pump. The spent working fluid and cool irrigation fluid are then conveyed to the surface.

  4. Geothermal utilization at Castle Oaks Subdivision, Castle Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.E.; Goering, S.W.

    1982-04-01

    Designs of geothermal systems for using warm water from four aquifers of the Denver Basin are presented. Advantages of using heat pumps with the geothermal resource are discussed. Two design cases-one with separate heat load and heat pump, and the other with the heat pump and heat load located at the well site-are evaluated in terms of pump costs, operating costs, and payback periods. The 20-year delivered energy costs for the two geothermal systems would be slightly less than those for natural gas ($5.64 to $6.42 versus $6.70 per million Btu).

  5. Geothermal utilization at Castle Oaks subdivision, Castle Rock, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garing, K. L.; Coury, G. E.; Goering, S. W.

    1982-04-01

    Designs of geothermal systems for using warm water from four aquifers of the Denver Basin are presented. Advantages of using heat pumps with the geothermal resource are discussed. Two design cases, one with separate heat load and heat pump, and the other with the heat pump and heat load located at the well site are evaluated in terms of pump costs, operating costs, and payback periods. The 20 year delivered energy costs for the two geothermal systems would be slightly less than those for natural gas ($5.64 to $6.42 versus $6.70 per million Btu).

  6. Analysis of Low-Temperature Utilization of Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brian

    2015-06-30

    Geothermal Workshop. We also have incorporated our wellbore model into TOUGH2-EGS and began coding TOUGH2-EGS with the wellbore model into GEOPHIRES as a reservoir thermal drawdown option. Additionally, case studies for the WVU and Cornell campuses were performed to assess the potential for district heating and cooling at these two eastern U.S. sites.

  7. Development of Genetic Occurrence Models for Geothermal Prospecting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Monastero, F. C.; Combs, J.

    2007-12-01

    Exploration for utility-grade geothermal resources has mostly relied on identifying obvious surface manifestations of possible geothermal activity, e.g., locating and working near steaming ground or hot springs. This approach has lead to the development of over 130 resources worldwide, but geothermal exploration done in this manner is akin to locating hydrocarbon plays by searching for oil seeps. Confining exploration to areas with such features will clearly not discover a blind resource, that is, one that does not have surface expression. Blind resources, however, constitute the vast majority of hydrocarbon plays; this may be the case for geothermal resources as well. We propose a geothermal exploration strategy for finding blind systems that is based on an understanding of the geologic processes that transfer heat from the mantle to the upper crust and foster the conditions for hydrothermal circulation or enhanced geothermal exploration. The strategy employs a genetically based screening protocol to assess potential geothermal sites. The approach starts at the plate boundary scale and progressively focuses in on the scale of a producing electrical-grade field. Any active margin or hot spot is a potential location for geothermal resources. Although Quaternary igneous activity provides a clear indication of active advection of hot material into the upper crust, it is not sufficient to guarantee a potential utility-grade resource. Active faulting and/or evidence of high strain rates appear to be the critical features associated with areas of utility-grade geothermal potential. This is because deformation on its own can advect sufficient heat into the upper crust to create conditions favorable for geothermal exploitation. In addition, active deformation is required to demonstrate that open pathways for circulation of geothermal fluids are present and/or can be maintained. The last step in the screening protocol is to identify any evidence of geothermal activity

  8. The National Geothermal Collaborative, EERE-Geothermal Program, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jody Erikson

    2006-05-26

    Summary of the work conducted by the National Geothermal Collaborative (a consensus organization) to identify impediments to geothermal development and catalyze events and dialogues among stakeholders to over those impediments.

  9. Geothermal Frontier: Penetrate a boundary between hydrothermal convection and heat conduction zones to create 'Beyond Brittle Geothermal Reservoir'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, N.; Asanuma, H.; Sakaguchi, K.; Okamoto, A.; Hirano, N.; Watanabe, N.; Kizaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    EGS has been highlightened as a most promising method of geothermal development recently because of applicability to sites which have been considered to be unsuitable for geothermal development. Meanwhile, some critical problems have been experimentally identified, such as low recovery of injected water, difficulties to establish universal design/development methodology, and occurrence of large induced seismicity. Future geothermal target is supercritical and superheated geothermal fluids in and around ductile rock bodies under high temperatures. Ductile regime which is estimated beyond brittle zone is target region for future geothermal development due to high enthalpy fluids and relatively weak water-rock interaction. It is very difficult to determine exact depth of Brittle-Ductile boundary due to strong dependence of temperature (geotherm) and strain rate, however, ductile zone is considered to be developed above 400C and below 3 km in geothermal fields in Tohoku District. Hydrothermal experiments associated with additional advanced technology will be conducting to understand ';Beyond brittle World' and to develop deeper and hotter geothermal reservoir. We propose a new concept of the engineered geothermal development where reservoirs are created in ductile basement, expecting the following advantages: (a)simpler design and control the reservoir, (b)nearly full recovery of injected water, (c)sustainable production, (d)cost reduction by development of relatively shallower ductile zone in compression tectonic zones, (e)large quantity of energy extraction from widely distributed ductile zones, (f)establishment of universal and conceptual design/development methodology, and (g) suppression of felt earthquakes from/around the reservoirs. In ductile regime, Mesh-like fracture cloud has great potential for heat extraction between injection and production wells in spite of single and simple mega-fracture. Based on field observation and high performance hydrothermal

  10. National Geothermal Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A. F.; Cuyler, D.; Snyder, W. S.; Allison, M. L.; Blackwell, D. D.; Williams, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Geothermal Data System is to design, build, implement, deploy and populate a national, sustainable, distributed, interoperable network of data and service (application) providers. These providers will develop, collect, serve, and maintain geothermal-relevant data that operates as an integral component of NGDS. As a result the geothermal industry, the public, and policy makers will have access to consistent and reliable data, which in turn, reduces the amount of staff time devoted to finding, retrieving, integrating, and verifying information. With easier access to information, the high cost and risk of geothermal power projects (especially exploration drilling) is reduced. Five separate NGDS projects provide the data support, acquisition, and access to cyber infrastructure necessary to reduce cost and risk of the nation's geothermal energy strategy and US DOE program goals focused on the production and utilization of geothermal energy. The U.S DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Geothermal Technologies Program is developing the knowledge and data foundation necessary for discovery and development of large-scale energy production while the Buildings Technology Program is focused on other practical applications such as direct use and residential/commercial ground source heat pumps. The NGDS provides expanded reference and resource data for research and development activities (a subset of the US DOE goals) and includes data from across all fifty states and the nation's leading academic geothermal centers. Thus, the project incorporates not only high-temperature potential but also moderate and low-temperature locations incorporating US DOE's goal of adding more geothermal electricity to the grid. The program, through its development of data integration cyberinfrastructure, will help lead to innovative exploration technologies through increased data availability on geothermal energy capacity. Finally

  11. Geothermal resources and reserves in Indonesia: an updated revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, A.

    2015-02-01

    More than 300 high- to low-enthalpy geothermal sources have been identified throughout Indonesia. From the early 1980s until the late 1990s, the geothermal potential for power production in Indonesia was estimated to be about 20 000 MWe. The most recent estimate exceeds 29 000 MWe derived from the 300 sites (Geological Agency, December 2013). This resource estimate has been obtained by adding all of the estimated geothermal potential resources and reserves classified as "speculative", "hypothetical", "possible", "probable", and "proven" from all sites where such information is available. However, this approach to estimating the geothermal potential is flawed because it includes double counting of some reserve estimates as resource estimates, thus giving an inflated figure for the total national geothermal potential. This paper describes an updated revision of the geothermal resource estimate in Indonesia using a more realistic methodology. The methodology proposes that the preliminary "Speculative Resource" category should cover the full potential of a geothermal area and form the base reference figure for the resource of the area. Further investigation of this resource may improve the level of confidence of the category of reserves but will not necessarily increase the figure of the "preliminary resource estimate" as a whole, unless the result of the investigation is higher. A previous paper (Fauzi, 2013a, b) redefined and revised the geothermal resource estimate for Indonesia. The methodology, adopted from Fauzi (2013a, b), will be fully described in this paper. As a result of using the revised methodology, the potential geothermal resources and reserves for Indonesia are estimated to be about 24 000 MWe, some 5000 MWe less than the 2013 national estimate.

  12. Geothermal Direct-Heat Utilization Assistance - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. W. Lund

    1999-07-14

    The Geo-Heat Center provided (1) direct-use technical assistance, (2) research, and (3) information dissemination on geothermal energy over an 8 1/2 year period. The center published a quarterly bulletin, developed a web site and maintained a technical library. Staff members made 145 oral presentations, published 170 technical papers, completed 28 applied research projects, and gave 108 tours of local geothermal installations to 500 persons.

  13. Colorado geothermal commercialization program: community development of geothermal energy in Pagosa Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.

    1980-01-01

    A district heating system for the Pagosa Springs central business district is in the planning stage. A detailed analysis of the project is presented. It comprises area and site specific studies and describes in detail the recent, current, anticipated, and postulated geothermal development activities. (MHR)

  14. Geothermal resource area 9: Nye County. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource area 9 encompasses all of Nye County, Nevada. Within this area there are many different known geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/ to over 265/sup 0/ F. Fifteen of the more major sites have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. Various potential uses of the energy found at each of the resource sites discussed in this Area Development Plan were determined after evaluating the area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities, and comparing those with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 15 geothermal sites considered in this Area Development Plan are summarized.

  15. Geothermal energy: 1992 program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Geothermal energy is described in general terms with drawings illustrating the technology. A map of known and potential geothermal resources in the US is included. The 1992 program activities are described briefly. (MHR)

  16. Geothermal resources of Utah, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This map shows heat flow, Known Geothermal Resources Areas, thermal springs and wells, and areas of low-temperature geothermal waters. Also shown are Indian reservations, military reservation, national or state forests, and parks, wildlife refuges, wilderness areas, etc. (MHR)

  17. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  18. Accelerating Geothermal Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    Geothermal research at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is advancing geothermal technologies to increase renewable power production. Continuous and not dependent on weather, the geothermal resource has the potential to jump to more than 500 gigawatts in electricity production, which is equivalent to roughly half of the current U.S. capacity. Enhanced geothermal systems have a broad regional distribution in the United States, allowing the potential for development in many locations across the country.

  19. South Dakota Geothermal Energy Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    The sources of geothermal fluids in South Dakota are described and some of the problems that exist in utilization and materials selection are detailed. Methods of heat extraction and the environmental concerns that accompany geothermal fluid development are briefly described. Governmental rules, regulations and legislation are explained. The time and steps necessary to bring about the development of the geothermal resources are explained in detail. Some of the federal incentives that encourage the use of geothermal energy are summarized.

  20. The Pawsey Supercomputer geothermal cooling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Horowitz, F.; Western Australian Geothermal Centre Of Excellence, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Australian Government has funded the Pawsey supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia, providing computational infrastructure intended to support the future operations of the Australian Square Kilometre Array radiotelescope and to boost next-generation computational geosciences in Australia. Supplementary funds have been directed to the development of a geothermal exploration well to research the potential for direct heat use applications at the Pawsey Centre site. Cooling the Pawsey supercomputer may be achieved by geothermal heat exchange rather than by conventional electrical power cooling, thus reducing the carbon footprint of the Pawsey Centre and demonstrating an innovative green technology that is widely applicable in industry and urban centres across the world. The exploration well is scheduled to be completed in 2013, with drilling due to commence in the third quarter of 2011. One year is allocated to finalizing the design of the exploration, monitoring and research well. Success in the geothermal exploration and research program will result in an industrial-scale geothermal cooling facility at the Pawsey Centre, and will provide a world-class student training environment in geothermal energy systems. A similar system is partially funded and in advanced planning to provide base-load air-conditioning for the main campus of the University of Western Australia. Both systems are expected to draw ~80-95 degrees C water from aquifers lying between 2000 and 3000 meters depth from naturally permeable rocks of the Perth sedimentary basin. The geothermal water will be run through absorption chilling devices, which only require heat (as opposed to mechanical work) to power a chilled water stream adequate to meet the cooling requirements. Once the heat has been removed from the geothermal water, licensing issues require the water to be re-injected back into the aquifer system. These systems are intended to demonstrate the feasibility of powering large-scale air

  1. Geothermal Energy - An Emerging Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John R.

    1987-01-20

    Address on the Department of Energy's overall energy policy, the role of alternative energy sources within the policy framework, and expectations for geothermal energy. Commendation of the industry's decision to pursue the longer-term field effort while demand for geothermal energy is low, and thus prepare for a substantial geothermal contribution to the nation's energy security.

  2. Geothermal: Energy for development - The World Bank and geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsmeier, W.

    1986-01-01

    The World Bank views geothermal energy as one of a variety of natural resources which can be developed to supply the energy needs of a country. Since the World Bank Group finances projects in developing countries. This paper discusses geothermal energy only in that context. Geothermal power is generated in nine developing countries today, which represent nearly 40% of worldwide geothermal generating capacity. The World Bank has helped finance geothermal investments in six of these countries-the Phillippines, Mexico, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Indonesia and Kenya.

  3. Geothermal Reservoir Dynamics - TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Xu, Tianfu; Shan, Chao; Zhang, Yingqi; Wu,Yu-Shu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Rutqvist, Jonny; Zhang,Guoxiang; Kennedy, Mack

    2005-03-15

    This project has been active for several years and has focused on developing, enhancing and applying mathematical modeling capabilities for fractured geothermal systems. The emphasis of our work has recently shifted towards enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and hot dry rock (HDR), and FY05 is the first year that the DOE-AOP actually lists this project under Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Our overall purpose is to develop new engineering tools and a better understanding of the coupling between fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions, and rock-mechanical deformation, to demonstrate new EGS technology through field applications, and to make technical information and computer programs available for field applications. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Improve fundamental understanding and engineering methods for geothermal systems, primarily focusing on EGS and HDR systems and on critical issues in geothermal systems that are difficult to produce. (2) Improve techniques for characterizing reservoir conditions and processes through new modeling and monitoring techniques based on ''active'' tracers and coupled processes. (3) Improve techniques for targeting injection towards specific engineering objectives, including maintaining and controlling injectivity, controlling non-condensable and corrosive gases, avoiding scale formation, and optimizing energy recovery. Seek opportunities for field testing and applying new technologies, and work with industrial partners and other research organizations.

  4. Enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    McLarty, L.; Grabowski, P.

    1998-07-01

    A vast amount of geothermal energy is stored in the upper portion of the earth's crust; this energy is accessible with current drilling technology. The US Geological Survey has estimated that in the US, the heat energy stored in the upper 10 kilometers of the earth's crust is over 33 {times} 10{sup 24} Joules. Only a small fraction of this energy could conceivably be extracted. However, just one tenth of one percent of this energy is sufficient to provide the US with all its current level of non-transportation energy needs for over 500 years. Current technology is being used widely to extract geothermal energy in areas where subterranean water contacted hot rock formations, became heated, and was trapped by an impermeable layer in the earth's crust, forming a geothermal hydrothermal reservoir. The water serves as a medium to transport the heat to the surface through a conventional well similar to an oil well. Unfortunately, hydrothermal reservoirs are not widespread and represent only a minuscule portion of the geothermal energy that is accessible with current technology. Scientists and engineers in the US, Europe, Japan, and Australia, are developing systems that extract heat from the earth where there is insufficient permeability or water in the rock formation to transport the heat to the surface. Such systems are referred to as Enhanced Geothermal Systems.

  5. Advanced geothermal technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetten, J. T.; Murphy, H. D.; Hanold, R. J.; Myers, C. W.; Dunn, J. C.

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the U.S. Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico was producing 10 MW thermal, and still climbing, proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction was demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive.

  6. Geothermal Power Plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    Nine small experimental geothermal power plants are now operating at six sites in the People's Republic of China. These range in capacity from 50 kW to 3MW, and include plants of the flash-steam and binary type. All except two units utilize geofluids at temperatures lower than 100 C. The working fluids for the binary plants include normal- and iso-butane, ethyl chloride, and Freon. The first geothermal plant came on-line in 1970, the most recent ones in 1979. Figure 1 shows the location of the plants. Major cities are also shown for reference. Table 1 contains a listing of the plants and some pertinent characteristics. The total installed capacity is 5,186 kW, of which 4,386 kW is from flash-steam units. In the report, they given an example of the results of exploratory surveys, and show system diagrams, technical specifications, and test results for several of the power plants.

  7. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  8. Southern New Mexico low temperature geothermal resource economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, C.L.; Whittier, J.; Witcher, J.C.; Schoenmackers, R.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents an overview of geothermal resource development for three-low temperature (i.e, <200{degree}F) sites in southern New Mexico: the Lower Animas Valley, the Las Cruces East Mesa, and Truth or Consequences. This report is intended to provide potential geothermal developers with detailed information on each site for planning and decision making purposes. Included in the overview for each site is both a full site characterization and an economic analysis of development costs associated with the construction and operation of both geothermal and fresh water systems at each of the three locations. The economic analysis focuses on providing utility services to a commercial greenhouse because greenhouse operations are among the most likely candidates for use of the resource base. 9 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  10. Geothermal steam condensate reinjection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chasteen, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Geothermal electric generating plants which use condensing turbines and generate and excess of condensed steam which must be disposed of are discussed. At the Geysers, California, the largest geothermal development in the world, this steam condensate has been reinjected into the steam reservoir since 1968. A total of 3,150,000,000 gallons of steam condensate has been reinjected since that time with no noticeable effect on the adjacent producing wells. Currently, 3,700,000 gallons/day from 412 MW of installed capacity are being injected into 5 wells. Reinjection has also proven to be a satisfactory method of disposing of geothermal condensate a Imperial Valley, California, and at the Valles Caldera, New Mexico.

  11. Geothermal waste treatment biotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1991-05-01

    Technical feasibility of a biotechnology based on biochemical reactions for detoxification of geothermal brines has been demonstrated. Laboratory-scale studies have shown that the emerging biotechnology is versatile and is applicable to a variety of geothermal sludges and materials with similar geochemical properties. Materials suitable for treatment are those which may contain few or many metals in concentrations exceeding those allowed by regulatory agencies. Comparison of several possible types of bioreactors and processes have led to the conclusion that a number of variables have to be considered in the design and development of a biochemical plant for the detoxification of geothermal type sludges. These include reactor size, effects of agitation, mixed cultures, state of the biomass, pH and dissolved oxygen, concentration of residual sludge, residence time, and temperature. Under optimum conditions, high rates of metal removal can be achieved. Some recent studies, dealing with the process variables and their optimization, will be discussed. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Geothermal reservoir engineering research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, H. J., Jr.; Kruger, P.; Brigham, W. E.; London, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    The Stanford University research program on the study of stimulation and reservoir engineering of geothermal resources commenced as an interdisciplinary program in September, 1972. The broad objectives of this program have been: (1) the development of experimental and computational data to evaluate the optimum performance of fracture-stimulated geothermal reservoirs; (2) the development of a geothermal reservoir model to evaluate important thermophysical, hydrodynamic, and chemical parameters based on fluid-energy-volume balances as part of standard reservoir engineering practice; and (3) the construction of a laboratory model of an explosion-produced chimney to obtain experimental data on the processes of in-place boiling, moving flash fronts, and two-phase flow in porous and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs.

  13. Geothermal materials development activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-06-01

    This ongoing R&D program is a part of the Core Research Category of the Department of Energy/Geothermal Division initiative to accelerate the utilization of geothermal resources. High risk materials problems that if successfully solved will result in significant reductions in well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs, are emphasized. The project has already developed several advanced materials systems that are being used by the geothermal industry and by Northeastern Electric, Gas and Steam Utilities. Specific topics currently being addressed include lightweight C0{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive scale and corrosion resistant liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, elastomer-metal bonding systems, and corrosion mitigation at the Geysers. Efforts to enhance the transfer of the technologies developed in these activities to other sectors of the economy are also underway.

  14. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  15. Geothermal energy program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division (GTD) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is charged with the lead federal role in the research and development (R D) of technologies that will assist industry in economically exploiting the nation's vast geothermal resources. The GTD R D Program represents a comprehensive, balanced approach to establishing all forms of geothermal energy as significant contributors to the nation's energy supply. It is structured both to maintain momentum in the growth of the existing hydrothermal industry and to develop long-term options offering the greatest promise for practical applications. This volume, Volume 2, contains a detailed compilation of each GTD-funded R D activity performed by national laboratories or under contract to industrial, academic, and nonprofit research institutions.

  16. Computers in geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinger, F.E.

    1984-10-01

    This article describes a data base and file management system for the IBM/PC, and gives a general idea of how the Power Base (PB) system might be applied to the running of a typical geothermal business. Requirements for running PB are a monitor, at least 256K, and two double-sided disk drives or a single drive and a hard disk. The relational data base created by PB is organized in filing card type records that are composed of fields. When a file is created, it can be designed according to a company's specific requirements and can allow changes in the layout at any time. Geothermal businesses can use this software package for shipping and client invoice tracking, most billing functions, inventory calculations and mailing data bases. Geothermal project planners might find PB's project tracking aspect useful.

  17. Advanced geothermal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Murphy, H.D.; Hanold, R.J.; Myers, C.W.; Dunn, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Research and development in advanced technologies for geothermal energy production continue to increase the energy production options for the Nation. The high-risk investment over the past few years by the US Department of Energy in geopressured, hot dry rock, and magma energy resources is producing new means to lower production costs and to take advantage of these resources. The Nation has far larger and more regionally extensive geothermal resources than heretofore realized. At the end of a short 30-day closed-loop flow test, the manmade hot dry rock reservoir at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, was producing 10 MW thermal - and still climbing - proving the technical feasibility of this new technology. The scientific feasibility of magma energy extraction has been demonstrated, and new field tests to evaluate this technology are planned. Analysis and field tests confirm the viability of geopressured-geothermal energy and the prospect that many dry-hole or depleted petroleum wells can be turned into producing geopressured-geothermal wells. Technological advances achieved through hot dry rock, magma, geopressured, and other geothermal research are making these resources and conventional hydrothermal resources more competitive. Noteworthy among these technological advances are techniques in computer simulation of geothermal reservoirs, new means for well stimulation, new high-temperature logging tools and packers, new hard-rock penetration techniques, and new methods for mapping fracture flow paths across large underground areas in reservoirs. In addition, many of these same technological advances can be applied by the petroleum industry to help lower production costs in domestic oil and gas fields. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Market penetration analysis for direct heat geothermal energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.J.; Nelson, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    This study is concerned with the estimation of the National geothermal market potential and penetration in direct heat applications for residences and certain industry segments. An important aspect of this study is that the analysis considers both known and anticipated goethermal resources. This allows for an estimation of the longer-range potential for geothermal applications. Thus the approach and results of this study provide new insights and valuable information not obtained from more limited, site-specific types of analyses. Estimates made in this study track geothermal market potential and projected penetration from the present to the year 2020. Private sector commercialization of geothermal energy over this period requires assistance in the identification of markets and market sizes, potential users, and appropriate technical applications.

  19. The Geyser Bight geothermal area, Umnak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J. ); Nye, C.J. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK . Geophysical Inst.); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs in Alaska, and is the only site in the state with geysers. Heat for the geothermal system is derived from crustal magma associated with Mt. Recheshnoi volcano. Successive injections of magma have probably heated the crust to near its minimum melting point and produced the only high-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites in the oceanic part of the Aleutian arc. At least two hydrothermal reservoirs are postulated to underlie the geothermal area and have temperatures of 165 and 200 C, respectively, as estimated by geothermometry. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometers suggest a deeper reservoir with a temperature of 265 C. The thermal spring waters have relatively low concentrations of Cl (600 ppm) but are rich in B (60 ppm) and As (6 ppm). The As/Cl ratio is among the highest reported for geothermal waters. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  1. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  2. Geothermal Energy; (USA)

    SciTech Connect

    Raridon, M.H.; Hicks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal Energy (GET) announces on a bimonthly basis the current worldwide information available on the technologies required for economic recovery of geothermal energy and its use as direct heat or for electric power production. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal article, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past two months. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements.

  3. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  4. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Freeman, J.

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the U.S. DOE's Geothermal Technology Program's (GTP's) involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including geothermal heat pumps (GHPs). The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  5. Multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Ing. Ulvi Arslan, Univ., ., Dr. _., Prof.; Heiko Huber, Dipl.-Ing.

    2010-05-01

    KEYWORDS Geothermal sciences, geothermics, research, theory and application, numerical calculation, geothermal modeling, Technical University Darmstadt, Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi) INTRODUCTION In times of global warming renewable, green energies are getting more and more important. The development of application of geothermal energy as a part of renewable energies in Germany is a multidisciplinary process of fast growing research and improvements. Geothermal energy is the energy, which is stored below earth's surface. The word geothermal derives from the Greek words geo (earth) and thermos (heat), so geothermal is a synonym to earth heat. Geothermal energy is one of the auspicious renewable energies. In average the temperature increases 3°C every 100 m of depth, which is termed as geothermal gradient. Therefore 99 percent of our planet is hotter than 1.000°C, while 99 percent of that last percent is even hotter than 100°C. Already in a depth of about 1 kilometer temperatures of 35 - 40°C can be achieved. While other renewable energies arise less or more from the sun, geothermal energy sources its heat from the earth's interior, which is caused mostly by radioactive decay of persistent isotopes. This means a possibility of a base-loadable form of energy supply. Especially efficient is the use of deep geothermal energy of high-enthalpie reservoirs, which means a high energy potential in low depths. In Germany no high-enthalpie reservoirs are given. To use the given low-enthalpie potential and to generate geothermal power efficiently inventions and improvements need to be performed. An important part of geothermal progresses is performed by universities with multidisciplinary research of geothermal modeling. Especially in deep geothermal systems numerical calculations are essential for a correct dimensioning of the geothermal system. Therefore German universities and state aided organizations are developing numerical programs for a detailed use of

  6. Human Resources in Geothermal Development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B.

    1995-01-01

    Some 80 countries are potentially interested in geothermal energy development, and about 50 have quantifiable geothermal utilization at present. Electricity is produced from geothermal in 21 countries (total 38 TWh/a) and direct application is recorded in 35 countries (34 TWh/a). Geothermal electricity production is equally common in industrialized and developing countries, but plays a more important role in the developing countries. Apart from China, direct use is mainly in the industrialized countries and Central and East Europe. There is a surplus of trained geothermal manpower in many industrialized countries. Most of the developing countries as well as Central and East Europe countries still lack trained manpower. The Philippines (PNOC) have demonstrated how a nation can build up a strong geothermal workforce in an exemplary way. Data from Iceland shows how the geothermal manpower needs of a country gradually change from the exploration and field development to monitoring and operations.

  7. Geothermal energy survey and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This is an FY-1990 Annual Report on 'geothermal energy survey and technology' by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). First, concerning geothermal resources exploration project in which surveys have been executed throughout Japan since 1980, outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992 are summarized. As for surveys for promoting development of geothermal energy, surveys in 8 areas conducted for three years from 1988 to 1990 as well as future plans are also described. Then, the verification investigation for geothermal survey technologies, which has been executed since 1980 for the purpose of establishing geothermal survey technologies to promote the development of geothermal resources in Japan, is introduced with outlines of surveys in 1990 and objectives for FY-1992. Furthermore, development conditions of power generation technologies utilizing geothermal energy such as binary-cycle power generation and hot dry rock power generation are described.

  8. Conductive thermal modeling of Wyoming geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    A summary of techniques used by the Wyoming Geothermal Resource Assessment Group in defining low-temperature hydrothermal resource areas is presented. Emphasis is placed on thermal modeling techniques appropriate to Wyoming's geologic setting. Thermal parameters discussed include oil-well bottom hole temperatures, heat flow, thermal conductivity, and measured temperature-depth profiles. Examples of the use of these techniques are from the regional study of the Bighorn Basin and two site specific studies within the Basin.

  9. The Idea of an Innovated Concept of the Košice Geothermal Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujanská, Alena; Böszörményi, László

    2015-11-01

    Slovakia has very limited amounts of fossil resources. However, it has a relatively high potential of geothermal energy which use is far below its possibilities. The most abundant geothermal resource, not only in Slovakia but throughout the central Europe, is Košice basin. Since the publication of the first ideas about the ambitious goal to exploit the geothermal potential of this site, 20 years has passed and three geothermal wells has been made but without any progress. In the article the authors present the idea of a fundamental change in the approach to improve the energy and economic efficiency of the project.

  10. Utilization of geothermal energy in the mining and processing of tungsten ore. 2nd quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.V.; Willens, C.A.; Walter, K.M.; Carrico, R.L.; Lowe, G.D.; Lacy, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    The completed geochemical analysis of groundwater in the Pine Creek area for evaluation of the geothermal potential of this location is presented. Also included is an environmental constraints analysis of Pine Creek noting any potential environmental problems if a geothermal system was developed onsite. Design of a geothermal system is discussed for site-specific applications and is discussed in detail with equipment recommendations and material specifications. A preliminary financial, economic, and institutional assessment of geothermal system located totally on Union Carbide property at Pine Creek is included. (MHR)

  11. Geothermal development. Semi-annual report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    Three areas are reported: geothermal administration, geothermal planning, and other geothermal activities. Administration covers the status of the Imperial Valley Environmental Project transfer, update of the Geothermal Resource Center, and findings of the geothermal field inspections. Planning addresses Board of Supervisor actions, Planning Commission actions, notice of exemptions, and the master Environmental Impact Report for Salton Sea. The other activity includes the County Direct Heat Development study; the solicitation for district heating and cooling proposals; the new Geothermal Class II-1 disposal site; the DOE Region IX meeting in Tucson; and USGA designating a new KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, the Westmoreland KGRA, and revising the southern border of the Salton Sea KGRA. (MHR)

  12. Modern geothermal power: GeoPP with geothermal steam turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The first part of the review presents information on the scale and specific features of geothermal energy development in various countries. The classification of geothermal power plant (GeoPP) process flow diagrams by a phase state of the primary heat source (a geothermal fluid), thermodynamic cycle, and applicable turbines is proposed. Features of geothermal plants using methods of flashing and steam separation in the process loop and a flowsheet and thermodynamic process of a geothermal fluid heat-to-power conversion in a GeoPP of the most widespread type using a double-flash separation are considered. It is shown that, for combined cycle power units, the specific power-to-consumption geothermal fluid ratio is 20-25% higher than that for traditional single-loop GeoPP. Information about basic chemical components and their concentration range for geothermal fluids of various formations around the world is presented. Three historic stages of improving geothermal energy technologies are determined, such as development of high-temperature geothermal resources (dry, superheated steam) and application of a two-phase wet-steam geothermal fluid in GeoPP power units with one or two expansion pressures and development of binary cycle GeoPPs. A current trend of more active use of binary power plants in GeoPP technological processes is noted. Design features of GeoPP's steam turbines and steam separating devices, determined by the use of low-potential geothermal saturated steam as a working medium, which is characterized by corrosion aggressiveness and a tendency to form deposits, are considered. Most promising Russian geothermal energy projects are determined. A list of today's most advanced geothermal turbine performance technologies is presented. By an example of a 25 MW steam turbine design, made by JSC Kaluga Turbine Works, advantages of the internal moisture separation with a special turbine-separator stage are shown.

  13. Groundwater Monitoring and Engineered Geothermal Systems: The Newberry EGS Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasso, K.; Cladouhos, T. T.; Garrison, G.

    2013-12-01

    Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) represent the next generation of geothermal energy development. Stimulation of multiple zones within a single geothermal reservoir could significantly reduce the cost of geothermal energy production. Newberry Volcano in central Oregon represents an ideal location for EGS research and development. As such, the goals of the Newberry EGS Demonstration, operated by AltaRock Energy, Inc., include stimulation of a multiple-zone EGS reservoir, testing of single-well tracers and a demonstration of EGS reservoir viability through flow-back and circulation tests. A shallow, local aquifer supplied the approximately 41,630 m3 (11 million gals) of water used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, a deep geothermal well on the western flank of Newberry Volcano. Protection of the local aquifer is of primary importance to both the Newberry EGS Demonstration and the public. As part of the Demonstration, AltaRock Energy, Inc. has developed and implemented a groundwater monitoring plan to characterize the geochemistry of the local aquifer before, during and after stimulation. Background geochemical conditions were established prior to stimulation of NWG 55-29, which was completed in 2012. Nine sites were chosen for groundwater monitoring. These include the water supply well used during stimulation of NWG 55-29, three monitoring wells, three domestic water wells and two hot seeps located in the Newberry Caldera. Together, these nine monitoring sites represent up-, down- and cross-gradient locations. Groundwater samples are analyzed for 25 chemical constituents, stable isotopes, and geothermal tracers used during stimulation. In addition, water level data is collected at three monitoring sites in order to better characterize the effects of stimulation on the shallow aquifer. To date, no significant geochemical changes and no geothermal tracers have been detected in groundwater samples from these monitoring sites. The Newberry EGS Demonstration groundwater

  14. Applied geology as key in modern geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I. S.

    2012-12-01

    The renewed interest in geothermal energy resources arises from two major reasons: I) The recent development in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) technologies produces tangible pilot projects of future heat and power generation from low-enthalpy resources extending the worldwide geothermal potential, and (II) the political-social request for renewable energy to reduce climate gas emission. This new interest is tied with the question for economic risks and potential of individual geothermal resource types involving feasibility studies and utilization concepts to economically develop geothermal systems. From this perspective it is important to note that a geothermal system is part of a geologic system where geologic factors such as facies, faults, fractures, stress field, diagenesis, rock mechanics, fluid chemistry and geochemistry control key parameters as high porosity and high permeability domains, fluid flow, lateral and vertical temperature gradient, and overall reservoir behavior during injection and production. A site specific appropriate field development should therefore be based on a profound understanding of the geologic controls of a geothermal system involving a suite of modern exploration techniques. Applied geology is the key in this modern concept of geothermal exploration where geology is not only descriptive but also quantitative including 3D geological modeling and parametrisation. From different parts of the world various geothermal systems in both high and low enthalpy environments are described examined with individual exploration strategies. The first example from Western U.S.A. shows how structural geology, 3D geological modeling and surface geochemistry are combined to evidence permeability anisotropy controlled by faults. Another example from Indonesia demonstrates how secondary faults control the subsurface geochemistry and fluid flow in a geothermal system at the Sumatra mega shear zone. More examples from EGS resources in Alberta

  15. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  16. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  17. Geothermal Systems for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  18. Energy 101: Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-27

    See how we can generate clean, renewable energy from hot water sources deep beneath the Earth's surface. The video highlights the basic principles at work in geothermal energy production, and illustrates three different ways the Earth's heat can be converted into electricity.

  19. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  20. Reinjection into geothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Stefansson, V.

    1987-08-01

    Reinjection of geothermal wastewater is practiced as a means of disposal and for reservoir pressure support. Various aspects of reinjection are discussed, both in terms of theoretical studies as well as specific field examples. The discussion focuses on the major effects of reinjection, including pressure maintenance and chemical and thermal effects. (ACR)

  1. Geothermal industry assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    An assessment of the geothermal industry is presented, focusing on industry structure, corporate activities and strategies, and detailed analysis of the technological, economic, financial, and institutional issues important to government policy formulation. The study is based principally on confidential interviews with executives of 75 companies active in the field. (MHR)

  2. OIT geothermal system improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-08-01

    Three geothermal wells drilled during the original campus construction vary from 396 m (1,300 ft) to 550 m (1,800 ft). These wells supply all of the heating and part of the cooling needs of the 11-building, 62,200 m{sup 2} (670,000 ft{sup 2}) campus. The combined capacity of the well pumps is 62 L/s(980 gpm) of 89{degrees}C (192{degrees}F) geothermal fluids. Swimming pool and domestic hot water heating impose a small but nearly constant year-round flow requirement. In addition to heating, a portion of the campus is also cooled using the geothermal resource. This is accomplished through the use of an absorption chiller. The chiller, which operates on the same principle as a gas refrigerator, requires a flow of 38 L/s (600 gpm) of geothermal fluid and produces 541 kW (154 tons) of cooling capacity (Rafferty, 1989). The annual operating costs for the system is about $35,000 including maintenance salary, equipment replacement and cost of pumping. This amounts to about $0.05 per square foot per year.

  3. Geothermal Systems for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinse, David H.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an award-winning school heating and cooling system in which two energy-efficient technologies, variable-flow pumping and geothermal heat pumps, were combined. The basic system schematic and annual energy use and cost savings statistics are provided. (GR)

  4. Geothermal Grows Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  5. Estimation of the geothermal potential of the Caldara di Manziana site in the Mts Sabatini Volcanic District (Central Italy) by integrating geochemical data and 3D-GIS modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranaldi, Massimo; Lelli, Matteo; Tarchini, Luca; Carapezza, Maria Luisa; Patera, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    High-enthalpy geothermal fields of Central Italy are hosted in deeply fractured carbonate reservoirs occurring in thermally anomalous and seismically active zones. However, the Mts. Sabatini volcanic district, located north of Rome, has an interesting deep temperatures (T), but it is characterized by low to very low seismicity and permeability in the reservoir rocks (mostly because of hydrothermal self-sealing processes). Low PCO2 facilitates the complete sealing of the reservoir fractures, preventing hot fluids rising and, determining a low CO2 flux at the surface. Conversely, high CO2 flux generally reflects a high pressure of CO2, suggesting that an active geothermal reservoir is present at depth. In Mts. Sabatini district, the Caldara of Manziana (CM) is the only zone characterized by a very high CO2 flux (188 tons/day) from a surface of 0.15 km2) considering both the diffuse and viscous CO2 emission. This suggests the likely presence of an actively degassing geothermal reservoir at depth. Emitted gas is dominated by CO2 (>97 vol.%). Triangular irregular networks (TINs) have been used to represent the morphology of the bottom of the surficial volcanic deposits, the thickness of the impervious formation and the top of the geothermal reservoir. The TINs, integrated by T-gradient and deep well data, allowed to estimate the depth and the temperature of the top of the geothermal reservoir, respectively to ~-1000 m from the surface and to ~130°C. These estimations are fairly in agreement with those obtained by gas chemistry (818geothermal potential has been estimated to 48÷68 MW, which would represent ~30% to ~40% of the total thermal power estimated at regional scale for the Manziana geothermal system. Our results, suggest that the W-SW sector of Bracciano lake is the most thermally anomalous zone of the area. Geothermometers and the GIS model indicated a temperature range between

  6. A Regional Geothermal Assessment of the Rio Grande Rift: All Data Are Not Created Equal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; D'Alfonso, D.; Hardwick, C.; Hollingshaus, B.; Kordy, M. A.; Shurtleff, R.; Smith, K.; Smith, S.

    2011-12-01

    In response to growing interest in geothermal energy, the University of Utah enrolled 22 geoscience and engineering students in a fall semester 2010 course "Geothermal Systems for Geoscientists." Seven of those students continued in a spring semester seminar, sponsored by NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), to create a case study on the geothermal potential of the Rio Grande Rift. The assessment, grounded in informatics, began with a complete inventory of all printed and web resources for the region. ArcMAP was used to create a suitable base map and, through extensive data mining, to spatially correlate relevant demographic, infrastructure, and geothermal datasets. Of the more than 40 spatial data overlays available, we determined the following data to be most useful in making a geothermal assessment: (1) heat flow measurements, (2) geochemistry of spring and well waters, (3) geologic mapping focused on young volcanics and intrusives, and (4) regional and local hydrology. Infrastructure (power plant, power line, population centers, and highway locations) became important only after the geothermal resource was identified. We identified four potential geothermal reservoir sites, two of which were chosen for detailed reservoir quantification and geothermal development plans. Thermal energy in each reservoir was calculated and compared to results computed with the software package GEOFRAT. The Mt. Princeton site is considered as an example of a high temperature reservoir suitable for binary plant power generation. The power potential for a 30-year use is estimated to be 8.5 MWelectric. The second system is more appropriate for direct heat application. Land-use regulations limit access for geothermal development of the Valles Caldera system to an extensive low temperature reservoir in Jemez Springs estimated at 1.1 GWthermal. In developing geothermal case studies, this student driven project has demonstrated the importance of both (a) using geothermal science

  7. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  8. Evaluation of geothermal energy in Arizona. Arizona geothermal planning/commercialization team. Quarterly topical progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Mancini, F.; Goldstone, L.A.; Malysa, L.

    1980-06-30

    Progress is reported on the following: geothermal prospect identification, area development plans, site specific development analysis, time phased project plans, institutional analysis, hydrothermal commercialization baseline report, and the public outreach program. (MHR)

  9. Colorado geothermal commercialization program. Geothermal energy opportunities at four Colorado towns: Durango, Glenwood Springs, Idaho Springs, Ouray

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Zimmerman, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of four prospective geothermal development sites in Colorado was analyzed and hypothetical plans prepared for their development. Several broad areas were investigated for each site. The first area of investigation was the site itself: its geographic, population, economic, energy demand characteristics and the attitudes of its residents relative to geothermal development potential. Secondly, the resource potential was described, to the extent it was known, along with information concerning any exploration or development that has been conducted. The third item investigated was the process required for development. There are financial, institutional, environmental, technological and economic criteria for development that must be known in order to realistically gauge the possible development. Using that information, the next concern, the geothermal energy potential, was then addressed. Planned, proposed and potential development are all described, along with a possible schedule for that development. An assessment of the development opportunities and constraints are included. Technical methodologies are described in the Appendix. (MHR)

  10. Assessment of geothermal resources of Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Koenig, B.A.; Bruce, J.

    1980-03-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources of Caliente, Nevada was made to provide information on resource characteristics and to site 2 (two) 500 ft (152 m) test wells to confirm the resource. The strategy used in the resource assessment employed a logical sequence of work elements that included 1) baseline data collection, 2) field investigations, 3) laboratory analyses and 4) data interpretation and synthesis. Airphoto interpretation indicated that a series of normal faults produced a stepped arrangement in the canyon walls on the west side of Meadow Valley Wash north of downtown Caiente. This area coincides with the area of known geothermal occurrences. Temperature measurements in existing wells indicate a rapid cooling of the geothermal waters as they mix with cold groundwater flows in Meadow Valley Wash. Soil mercury analyses range from 15 ppB to as high as 120 ppB. Trends in soil mercury content may indicate the presence of buried faults. Temperature measured in 2-meter deep auger holes indicated temperatures as high as 40/sup 0/C in an area north of the Lincoln County Medical Facility. Interpretation of chemical analyses, both major and minor, of waters collected from wells and streams in the area failed to conclusively show any mechanisms for the mixing of thermal and nonthermal waters. The selection of sites for the 2 (two) 500 ft (152 m) reservoir confirmation wells was made using the results of temperature surveys, geologic structure and historic observations.

  11. Industrial application of geothermal energy in southeast Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batdorf, J. A.; McClain, D. W.; Gross, M.; Simmons, G. M.

    1980-02-01

    The main industries in Southeastern Idaho are phosphorus/ phosphate production and potato processing. Most of the energy required in the phosphate industries is electrical and therefore not replaceable by direct application of geothermal energy. The main area for direct use of geothermal energy in the phosphate industry is for drying of the ore at the mine site; however, most of this is energy now supplied by waste heat from the calcining process. There exists a large need for a dedicated supply of electrical energy to these industries and the possibility of using geothermal energy to generate electricity for these areas should be investigated. The potato processing industry uses most of its energy to provide process steam for drying and cooking. Geothermal energy can potentially replace most of these energy requirements provided a high energy source temperature can be located. A 200 F geothermal source could supply about 40% of the industry's needs. A 400 F geothermal source could supply nearly 90% of the industry's needs.

  12. Geothermal development plan: Maricopa county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Maricopa county is the area of Arizona receiving top priority since it contains over half of the state's population. The county is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic region in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Several approaches were taken to match potential users to geothermal resources. One approach involved matching some of the largest facilities in the county to nearby geothermal resources. Other approaches involved identifying industrial processes whose heat requirements are less than the average assessed geothermal reservoir temperature of 110/sup 0/C (230/sup 0/F). Since many of the industries are located on or near geothermal resources, geothermal energy potentially could be adapted to many industrial processes.

  13. Geodetic Study of Ground Instability at Active Geothermal Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, M. H.; Bawner, E.; Nanis, H.; Alotaibi, M.; Suwihli, S.

    2016-12-01

    Active geothermal systems may cause substantial crustal deformation that can damage the precious infrastructure and increase the frequency and magnitude of earthquakes in the surrounding region. Geothermal production practices commonly contribute to surface motions triggered by natural tectonic and volcanic forces at active geothermal fields and may intensify their significance over years. Hence, routine monitoring of active geothermal sites is required to evaluate the impact of production activities and assess associated ground instabilities. Knowledge of the reservoir geometry, compaction, and response to production behaviors will aid in identifying ideal locations for new production and recharge wells to advance the performance of such a reservoir. This study investigates active geothermal processes and recent seismic events and their impacts on crustal deformation at the Raft River Geothermal Power Plant (RGP) in southeastern Idaho and at the Coso Geothermal (CG) field in eastern California. Contemporary geodetic observations from Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) imply a rapid rate of ground subsidence ( 7 cm/yr) across the Raft River Valley with a local anomaly of ample uplift (3 cm/yr) near RGP. The measured rate of deflation at CG is 3.1 cm/yr throughout a large area ( 55 sq km) that is directly correlating with the extent of active geothermal production. These rapid rates of ground deformation indicate considerable depressurization of the two reservoirs. Volumetric analysis and modeling are currently underway to characterize the two reservoirs and to infer their deformation source parameters. Understanding the hydrothermal-geomechanical response of the reservoirs to fluid production and injection is crucial for their management and development.

  14. Geothermal-resource survey of the Tennessee Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Treat, N.L.

    1982-08-01

    An overview appraisal of the geothermal resources in the Tennessee Valley Region revealed geothermal resources of potential usefulness in two of 13 subregions: the New Madrid Seismic Zone and the central segment of the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. The appraisal was based on geologic features of the region (hot springs, groundwater aquifers, and structure) and temperature data for oil and gas wells and shallow water wells. Site-specific exploration for economic appraisal was not carried out. The geothermal gradient for each of the subregions was established by linear regression of all of the bottom-hole temperature data for the oil and gas wells. A routine statistical procedure identified all unusually warm wells within each subregion, and their locations were plotted. Hot spots in a subregion were identified by localized clustering of such wells in numbers exceeding statistical expectations based on the intensity of drilling activity. Of the two areas most likely for extraction of geothermal energy, the New Madrid Seismic Zone has a high geothermal gradient at shallow depths (less than 500 meters). However, the higher gradient does not continue at greater depth since convective circulation is the probable cause of the higher-than-normal groundwater temperatures. Although a high geothermal gradient does persist at depth in the central segment of the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain, engineering problems are likely to hinder the current economic use of geothermal energy in this subregion. The extraction of geothermal resources in the 11 other subregions is not considered to be feasible at present because (1) the heat source is too deep, or (2) there are no suitable aquifers.

  15. Geothermal development plan: Yuma county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    One hot spring and 33 wells drilled in the county discharge water at temperatures sufficient for direct-use geothermal applications such as process heat and space heating and cooling. Currently, one industry within the county has been identified which may be able to use geothermal energy for its process heat requirements. Also, a computer simulation model was used to predict geothermal energy on line as a function of time under both private and city-owned utility development of the resource.

  16. Geothermal Development Plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Pima County is located entirely within the Basin and Range physiographic province in which geothermal resources are known to occur. Continued growth as indicated by such factors as population growth, employment and income will require large amounts of energy. It is believed that geothermal energy could provide some of the energy that will be needed. Potential users of geothermal energy within the county are identified.

  17. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A.; McAtee, Richard E.

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  18. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  19. Direct application of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Reistad, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    An overall treatment of direct geothermal applications is presented with an emphasis on the above-ground engineering. The types of geothermal resources and their general extent in the US are described. The potential market that may be served with geothermal energy is considered briefly. The evaluation considerations, special design aspects, and application approaches for geothermal energy use in each of the applications are considered. The present applications in the US are summarized and a bibliography of recent studies and applications is provided. (MHR)

  20. Geothermal development plan: Pinal county

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Wells drilled in the county provide evidence of geothermal energy sufficient for process heat and space heating and cooling applications. Annual energy consumption was estimated for industries whose process heat requirements are less than 105/sup 0/C (221/sup 0/F). This information was then used to model the introduction of geothermal energy into the process heat market. Also, agriculture and agribusiness industries were identified. Many of these are located on or near a geothermal resource and might be able to utilize geothermal energy in their operations.

  1. NATIONAL GEOTHERMAL DATA SYSTEM (NGDS) GEOTHERMAL DATA DOMAIN: ASSESSMENT OF GEOTHERMAL COMMUNITY DATA NEEDS

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Blackwell, David; Chickering, Cathy; Boyd, Toni; Horne, Roland; MacKenzie, Matthew; Moore, Joseph; Nickull, Duane; Richard, Stephen; Shevenell, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    To satisfy the critical need for geothermal data to ad- vance geothermal energy as a viable renewable ener- gy contender, the U.S. Department of Energy is in- vesting in the development of the National Geother- mal Data System (NGDS). This paper outlines efforts among geothermal data providers nationwide to sup- ply cutting edge geo-informatics. NGDS geothermal data acquisition, delivery, and methodology are dis- cussed. In particular, this paper addresses the various types of data required to effectively assess geother- mal energy potential and why simple links to existing data are insufficient. To create a platform for ready access by all geothermal stakeholders, the NGDS in- cludes a work plan that addresses data assets and re- sources of interest to users, a survey of data provid- ers, data content models, and how data will be ex- changed and promoted, as well as lessons learned within the geothermal community.

  2. Resource investigation of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal areas in San Bernardino, California

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, Leslie G.

    1982-07-01

    The California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) selected the San Bernardino area for detailed geothermal resource investigation because the area was known to contain promising geothermal resource sites, the area contained a large population center, and the City of San Bernardino had expressed serious interest in developing the area's geothermal resource. Ninety-seven geothermal wells and springs were identified and plotted on a compiled geologic map of the 40-square-mile study area. These wells and springs were concentrated in three distinguishable resource areas: Arrowhead Hot Springs, South San Bernardino, and Harlem Hot Springs--in each of which detailed geophysical, geochemical, and geological surveys were conducted. The Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area lies just north of the City of San Bernardino in the San Bernardino Mountains astride a shear zone (offshoot of the San Andreas fault) in pre-Cambrian gneiss and schist. The Harlem Hot Springs geothermal area, on the east side of the City, and the South San Bernardino geothermal area, on the south side, have geothermal reservoirs in Quaternary alluvial material which overlies a moderately deep sedimentary basin bound on the southwest by the San Jacinto fault (a ground water barrier). Geothermometry calculations suggest that the Arrowhead Hot Springs geothermal area, with a maximum reservoir temperature of 142 C, may have the highest maximum reservoir temperature of the three geothermal areas. The maximum temperature recorded by CDMG in the South San Bernardino geothermal area was 56 C from an artesian well, while the maximum temperature recorded in the Harlem Hot Springs geothermal areas was 49.5 C at 174 meters (570 feet) in an abandoned water well.

  3. Geothermal materials development

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level 1 and 2 Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results transferred to industry. In FY 1990, the R D efforts were focused on reducing well drilling and completion costs and on mitigating corrosion in well casing. Activities on lost circulation control materials, CO{sub 2}- resistant lightweight cements, and thermally conductive corrosion and scale-resistant protective liner systems have reached the final development stages, and cost-shared field tests are planned for the FY 1991--1992 time frame. Technology transfer efforts on high temperature elastomers for use in drilling tools are continuing under Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO) sponsorship.

  4. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  5. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Doug; Leggett, Jim

    2013-07-29

    The Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager project has a goal to develop a wireline ultrasonic imager that is capable of operating in temperatures up to 300°C (572°F) and depths up to 10 km (32,808 ft). This will address one of the critical needs in any EGS development of understanding the hydraulic flow paths in the reservoir. The ultrasonic imaging is well known in the oil and gas industry as one of the best methods for fracture evaluation; providing both high resolution and complete azimuthal coverage of the borehole. This enables fracture detection and characterization, both natural and induced, providing information as to their location, dip direction and dip magnitude. All of these factors are critical to fully understand the fracture system to enable the optimization of the thermal drainage through injectors and producers in a geothermal resource.

  6. Geothermal Progress Monitor 12

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-01

    Some of the more interesting articles in this GPM are: DOE supporting research on problems at The Geysers; Long-term flow test of Hot Dry Rock system (at Fenton Hill, NM) to begin in Fiscal Year 1992; Significant milestones reached in prediction of behavior of injected fluids; Geopressured power generation experiment yields good results. A number of industry-oriented events and successes are reported, and in that regard it is noteworthy that this report comes near the end of the most active decade of geothermal power development in the U.S. There is a table of all operating U.S. geothermal power projects. The bibliography of research reports at the end of this GPM is useful. (DJE 2005)

  7. Hawaii's geothermal program

    SciTech Connect

    Zorpette, G.

    1992-02-01

    This paper reports that in a forest on the island of Hawaii, legal and regulatory activity has postponed the start-up of a small new power plant and imperilled the design and construction of several facilities like it. The same old story Hardly. The power plants at stake are not nuclear or coal- or even oil-fired, but geothermal, widely considered one of the more environmentally benign ways of generating electricity. In a further twist, the opposition is coming not only from the usual citizens; and environmental groups, but also from worshippers of a native good and, it has been alleged, growers of marijuana, a lucrative local crop. The clash occurs just as geothermal power sources have finally proven commercially viable, experts say, adding that technological advances and industry trends in the United States and elsewhere seem to factor great expansion in its use.

  8. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C L; Bearden, Mark D; Horner, Jacob A; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B Peter

    2015-12-01

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  9. Geothermally Coupled Well-Based Compressed Air Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Casie L.; Bearden, Mark D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Cabe, James E.; Appriou, Delphine; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-12-20

    Previous work by McGrail et al. (2013, 2015) has evaluated the possibility of pairing compressed air energy storage with geothermal resources in lieu of a fossil-fired power generation component, and suggests that such applications may be cost competitive where geology is favorable to siting both the geothermal and CAES components of such a system. Those studies also note that the collocation of subsurface resources that meet both sets of requirements are difficult to find in areas that also offer infrastructure and near- to mid-term market demand for energy storage. This study examines a novel application for the compressed air storage portion of the project by evaluating the potential to store compressed air in disused wells by amending well casings to serve as subsurface pressure vessels. Because the wells themselves would function in lieu of a geologic storage reservoir for the CAES element of the project, siting could focus on locations with suitable geothermal resources, as long as there was also existing wellfield infrastructure that could be repurposed for air storage. Existing wellfields abound in the United States, and with current low energy prices, many recently productive fields are now shut in. Should energy prices remain stagnant, these idle fields will be prime candidates for decommissioning unless they can be transitioned to other uses, such as redevelopment for energy storage. In addition to the nation’s ubiquitous oil and gas fields, geothermal fields, because of their phased production lifetimes, also may offer many abandoned wellbores that could be used for other purposes, often near currently productive geothermal resources. These existing fields offer an opportunity to decrease exploration and development uncertainty by leveraging data developed during prior field characterization, drilling, and production. They may also offer lower-cost deployment options for hybrid geothermal systems via redevelopment of existing well-field infrastructure

  10. Federal Interagency Geothermal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Arlene; Prencipe, Loretta; Todaro, Richard M.; Cuyler, David; Eide, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    This collaborative document describes the roles and responsibilities of key Federal agencies in the development of geothermal technologies including the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), including the U.S. Forest Service; the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI), including the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Bureau of Land Management (BLM); the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  11. Colorado Geothermal Commercialization Program

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, F.C.

    1980-04-01

    Chaffee County, located in central Colorado, has immense potential for geothermal development. This report has been prepared to assist residents and developers in and outside the area to develop the hydrothermal resources of the county. Data has been collected and interpreted from numerous sources in order to introduce a general description of the area, estimate energy requirements, describe the resources and postulate a development plan. Electric power generation and direct heat application potential for the region are described.

  12. Geothermal resources of Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Metesh, J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology has updated its inventory of low and moderate temperature resources for the state and has assisted the Oregon Institute of Technology - GeoHeat Center and the University of Utah Research Institute in prioritizing and collocating important geothermal resource areas. The database compiled for this assessment contains information on location, flow, water chemistry, and estimated reservoir temperatures for 267 geothermal well and springs in Montana. For this assessment, the minimum temperature for low-temperature resource is defined as 10{degree} C above the mean annual air temperature at the surface. The maximum temperature for a moderate-temperature resource is defined as greater than 50{degree} C. Approximately 12% of the wells and springs in the database have temperatures above 50{degree} C, 17% are between 30{degree} and 50{degree} C, 29% are between 20{degree} and 30{degree}C, and 42% are between 10{degree} and 20{degree} C. Low and moderate temperature wells and springs can be found in nearly all areas of Montana, but most are in the western third of the state. Information sources for the current database include the MBMG Ground Water Information Center, the USGS statewide database, the USGS GEOTHERM database, and new information collected as part of this program. Five areas of Montana were identified for consideration in future investigations of geothermal development. The areas identified are those near Bozeman, Ennis, Butte, Boulder, and Camas Prairie. These areas were chosen based on the potential of the resource and its proximity to population centers.

  13. Stanford Geothermal Program

    SciTech Connect

    R. Horn

    1999-06-30

    Reliable measurement of steam-water relative permeability functions is of great importance for geothermal reservoir performance simulation. Despite their importance, these functions are poorly known due to the lack of fundamental understanding of steam-water flows, and the difficulty of making direct measurements. The Stanford Geothermal Program has used an X-ray CT (Computer Tomography) scanner to obtain accurate saturation profiles by direct measurement. During the last five years, the authors have carried out experiments with nitrogen-water flow and with steam-water flow, and examined the effects of heat transfer and phase change by comparing these sets of results. In porous rocks, it was found that the steam-water relative permeabilities follow Corey type relationships similar to those in nitrogen-water flow, but that the irreducible gas phase saturation is smaller for steam than for nitrogen. The irreducible saturations represent substantial fractions of the recoverable energy in place yet are hard to determine in the field. Understanding the typical magnitude of irreducible saturations will lead to a much clearer forecast of geothermal field performance. In fracture flow, indirect measurements suggested that the relative permeabilities follow a linear (or ''X-curve'') behavior - but there is still considerable uncertainty in the knowledge of this behavior.

  14. UWC geothermal resource exploration

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A program was developed to explore the strength of the geothermal and hot dry rock (HDR) resource at the Montezuma Hot Springs at the United World College (UWC). The purpose of the UWC {number_sign}1 well is to obtain hydrologic, geologic, and temperature information for ongoing geothermal evaluation of the Montezuma Hot Springs area. If sufficient fluids are encountered, the hole will be cased with a 4 1/2 inch production casing and re-permitted as a geothermal low-temperature well. If no fluid is encountered, the well will be abandoned per Oil Conservation Division regulation. The objectives of the exploration are to evaluate the resource potential to provide space heating for the entire campus of the United World College, determine the effect of a well on the Hot Springs outflow, accurately measure the UWC heating loads versus time, evaluate the potential to support local thermal industry development, assess the feasibility of HDR development, and create an educational program from the collection of data derived from the research effort.

  15. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  16. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, J. D.; Rapport, A.

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request.

  17. Geotherm: the U.S. geological survey geothermal information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bliss, J.D.; Rapport, A.

    1983-01-01

    GEOTHERM is a comprehensive system of public databases and software used to store, locate, and evaluate information on the geology, geochemistry, and hydrology of geothermal systems. Three main databases address the general characteristics of geothermal wells and fields, and the chemical properties of geothermal fluids; the last database is currently the most active. System tasks are divided into four areas: (1) data acquisition and entry, involving data entry via word processors and magnetic tape; (2) quality assurance, including the criteria and standards handbook and front-end data-screening programs; (3) operation, involving database backups and information extraction; and (4) user assistance, preparation of such items as application programs, and a quarterly newsletter. The principal task of GEOTHERM is to provide information and research support for the conduct of national geothermal-resource assessments. The principal users of GEOTHERM are those involved with the Geothermal Research Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Information in the system is available to the public on request. ?? 1983.

  18. Tracing Injection Fluids in Engineered Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, P. E.; Leecaster, K.; Mella, M.; Ayling, B.; Bartl, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    The reinjection of produced fluids is crucial to the effective management of geothermal reservoirs, since it provides a mechanism for maintaining reservoir pressures while allowing for the disposal of a toxic byproduct. Tracers are essential to the proper location of injection wells since they are the only known tool for reliably characterizing the flow patterns of recirculated fluids. If injection wells are placed too close to production wells, then reinjected fluids do not have sufficient residence time to extract heat from the reservoir and premature thermal breakthrough results. If injection wells are placed too far away, then the reservoir risks unacceptable pressure loss. Several thermally stable compounds from a family of very detectable fluorescent organic compounds (the naphthalene sulfonates) were characterized and found to be effective for use as geothermal tracers. Through batch-autoclave reactions, their Arrhenius pseudo-first-order decay-rate constants were determined. An analytical method was developed that allows for the laboratory determination of concentrations in the low parts-per-trillion range. Field experiments in numerous geothermal reservoirs throughout the world have confirmed the laboratory findings. Whereas conservative tracers such as the naphthalene sulfonates are effective tools for indicating interwell flow patterns and for measuring reservoir pore volumes, 'reactive' tracers can be used to constrain fracture surface area, which is the effective area for heat extraction. This is especially important for engineered geothermal system (EGS) wells, since reactive tracers can be used to measure fracture surface area immediately after drilling and while the well stimulation equipment is still on site. The reactive properties of these tracers that can be exploited to constrain fracture surface area are reversible sorption, contrasting diffusivity, and thermal decay. Laboratory batch- and flow-reactor experiments in combination with numerical

  19. Preliminary geothermal investigations at Manley Hot Springs, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    East, J.

    1982-04-01

    Manley Hot Springs is one of several hot springs which form a belt extending from the Seward Peninsula to east-central Alaska. All of the hot springs are low-temperature, water-dominated geothermal systems, having formed as the result of circulation of meteoric water along deepseated fractures near or within granitic intrusives. Shallow, thermally disturbed ground at Manley Hot Springs constitutes an area of 1.2 km by 0.6 km along the lower slopes of Bean Ridge on the north side of the Tanana Valley. This area includes 32 springs and seeps and one warm (29.1/sup 0/C) well. The hottest springs range in temperature from 61/sup 0/ to 47/sup 0/C and are presently utilized for space heating and irrigation. This study was designed to characterize the geothermal system present at Manley Hot Springs and delineate likely sites for geothermal drilling. Several surveys were conducted over a grid system which included shallow ground temperature, helium soil gas, mercury soil and resistivity surveys. In addition, a reconnaissance ground temperature survey and water chemistry sampling program was undertaken. The preliminary results, including some preliminary water chemistry, show that shallow hydrothermal activity can be delineated by many of the surveys. Three localities are targeted as likely geothermal well sites, and a model is proposed for the geothermal system at Manley Hot Springs.

  20. Arsenic Speciation in Geothermal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, N. S.; Stefansson, A.; Sigfusson, B.

    2011-12-01

    Various arsenic species have been observed or inferred in geothermal waters in recent years, in particular thio- and oxyanions. However their exact stoechiometry and their oxidation state has been subjected to a sustained debate over the last decade. Most of the As species seen in geothermal waters are unstable under laboratory conditions, thus it is crucial that appropriate sampling and analytical techniques are used in order to minimise post-sampling changes. The goals of this study were to determine how many As species can be seen in geothermal systems and how geochemical parameters control the number and relative abundance of the species. Furthermore, we tested the stability of the As-S compounds after sampling, in particular whether the traditionally used flash-freezing method quantitatively preserves the species. Samples were collected from wells at the Hellisheidi Power Plant and from natural hot springs in the Geysir Geothermal Area in SW Iceland. The samples were analysed on-site immediately after sampling by first separating the various As species by Ion Chromatography followed by quantification by Hydride-Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometer (HG-AFS). Preliminary results show that analysis of the samples immediately after sampling is crucial, as sample storage and flash-freezing/thawing appear to modify the As speciation. Using the retention times of the analytes through the chromatographic column, a minimum of seven As species were observed. Two of the species are oxides of AsIII and AsV, based on the comparison of their retention times with standards. The other five species have yet to be unequivocally identified, but based on prior studies it is assumed that at least some of them are thioarsenic species with various S:O ratios, with longer retention times for increasing S:O. Clear differences can be seen between samples from Hellisheidi and Geysir. In the case of the oxyanions, only AsIII is present at Hellisheidi whereas both oxidation states

  1. Washington Play Fairway Analysis Geothermal GIS Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Corina Forson

    2015-12-15

    This file contains file geodatabases of the Mount St. Helens seismic zone (MSHSZ), Wind River valley (WRV) and Mount Baker (MB) geothermal play-fairway sites in the Washington Cascades. The geodatabases include input data (feature classes) and output rasters (generated from modeling and interpolation) from the geothermal play-fairway in Washington State, USA. These data were gathered and modeled to provide an estimate of the heat and permeability potential within the play-fairways based on: mapped volcanic vents, hot springs and fumaroles, geothermometry, intrusive rocks, temperature-gradient wells, slip tendency, dilation tendency, displacement, displacement gradient, max coulomb shear stress, sigma 3, maximum shear strain rate, and dilational strain rate at 200m and 3 km depth. In addition this file contains layer files for each of the output rasters. For details on the areas of interest please see the 'WA_State_Play_Fairway_Phase_1_Technical_Report' in the download package. This submission also includes a file with the geothermal favorability of the Washington Cascade Range based off of an earlier statewide assessment. Additionally, within this file there are the maximum shear and dilational strain rate rasters for all of Washington State.

  2. Cost Contributors to Geothermal Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nathwani, Jay; Mines, Greg

    2011-07-01

    The US Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Office (DOE-GTO) has developed the tool Geothermal Electricity Technologies Evaluation Model (GETEM) to assess the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of power produced from geothermal resources. Recently modifications to GETEM allow the DOE-GTO to better assess how different factors impact the generation costs, including initial project risk, time required to complete a development, and development size. The model characterizes the costs associated with project risk by including the costs to evaluate and drill those sites that are considered but not developed for commercial power generation, as well as to assign higher costs to finance those activities having more risk. This paper discusses how the important parameters impact the magnitude project costs for different project scenarios. The cost distributions presented include capital cost recovery for the exploration, confirmation, well field completion and power plant construction, as well as the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. The paper will present these cost distributions for both EGS and hydrothermal resources.

  3. Middlesex Community College Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Jessie; Spaziani, Gina

    2013-03-29

    The purpose of the project was to install a geothermal system in the trustees house on the Bedford campus of Middlesex Community College. In partnership with the environmental science faculty, learning activities for environmental science courses were developed to explain geothermal energy and more specifically the newly installed system to Middlesex students. A real-time monitoring system highlights the energy use and generation.

  4. Silica extraction from geothermal water

    DOEpatents

    Bourcier, William L; Bruton, Carol J

    2014-09-23

    A method of producing silica from geothermal fluid containing low concentration of the silica of less than 275 ppm includes the steps of treating the geothermal fluid containing the silica by reverse osmosis treatment thereby producing a concentrated fluid containing the silica, seasoning the concentrated fluid thereby producing a slurry having precipitated colloids containing the silica, and separating the silica from the slurry.

  5. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  6. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  7. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  8. Energy 101: Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An energy-efficient heating and cooling alternative, the geothermal heat pump system moves heat from the ground to a building (or from a building to the ground) through a series of flexible pipe "loops" containing water. This edition of Energy 101 explores the benefits Geothermal and the science behind how it all comes together.

  9. Geothermal energy research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Fridleifsson, I.B. ); Freeston, D.H. . Geothermal Inst.)

    1994-04-01

    Today, electricity is generated from geothermal energy in 21 countries. The installed capacity is nearly 6300 MW-electric. Four developing countries (El Salvador 18%, Kenya 11%, Nicaragua 18% and Philippines 21%) produce over 10% of their total electricity from geothermal. Electric generation cost is commonly around 4 US cents/kWh. Direct utilization of geothermal water is known in about 40 countries, thereof 14 countries have each an installed capacity of over 100 MW-thermal. A worldwide survey shows that the total investments in geothermal energy between 1973 and 1992 amounted to approximately 22 billion US$. During the two decades, 30 countries invested each over 20 million US$, 12 countries over 200 million US$, and 5 countries over 1 billion US$. During the first decade, 1973--1982, public funding amounted to 4.6 billion US$ and private funding to 3 billion US$. During the second decade, 1983--1992, public funding amounted to 6.6 billion US$ and private funding to 7.7 billion US$. The relative economic viability of geothermal energy will improve significantly if and when a pollution tax is endorsed on power production using fossil fuels. Geothermal exploration and exploitation requires skills from many scientific and engineering disciplines. International geothermal training centers are operated in Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, and New Zealand. The International Geothermal Association was founded in 1988 and has over 2,000 members in all parts of the world.

  10. The Future of Geothermal Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kubik, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

  11. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1981-06-15

    The focus is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 150/sup 0/C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of noncondensing gases such as hydrogen sulfide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. It is shown that hydrogen sulfide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odor annoyances among members of the exposed public - some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 parts per million by volume. A risk assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. The risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic is also assessed. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry are summarized briefly.

  12. Geothermal Energy: Prospects and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, William W.

    1973-01-01

    An examination of geothermal energy as a means of increasing the United States power resources with minimal pollution problems. Developed and planned geothermal-electric power installations around the world, capacities, installation dates, etc., are reviewed. Environmental impact, problems, etc. are discussed. (LK)

  13. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  14. Materials for Geothermal Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1992-03-24

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved. Laboratory testing of BNL-developed phosphate modified calcium aluminate cements confirmed their hydrolytic stability in 300 C brine and their resistance to chemical attack by CO{sub 2}. Specimens were found to be >20 times more resistant to carbonation than Class H cement and twice as resistant as unmodified calcium aluminate cements. Testing of thermally conductive polymer cements as potential corrosion resistant liner materials for use in heat exchanger applications was continued. Field test were conducted in flowing hypersaline brine and the results indicated scale deposition rates lower than those on a high alloy steel. Additional tests for bottoming cycle heat exchange use are planned for FY 1992. Progress was also made with chemical systems for lost circulation control. If materials placement is to be performed by pumping through an open drillpipe or through a drillable straddle packer, a bentonite-ammonium polyphosphate-borax-magnesium oxide formulation, containing fibers or particulates when large fissures are encountered, can be used. This system was ready for demonstration in FY 1991, but a suitable test site did not become available. Optimization of this and three other formulations for use with other Sandia National Laboratories

  15. World Geothermal Congress WGC-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2016-08-01

    This article discusses materials and results of the World Geothermal Congress that was held in Melbourne (Australia) from April 19 to April 25, 2015. Information on the extent and technological features of utilization of geothermal resources for heat supply and power production, as well as in other economic areas, is given. A stable growth in the capacity and number of geothermal power systems that is determined by ecological cleanliness, economic efficiency, and the highest (among renewable energy sources) indicators of installed capacity utilization is shown. It was noted that combined schemes of geothermal power plants (GPPs), such as turbine units of different type (binary units, units with one or two separation pressures, etc.), have become more frequently used to increase the efficiency of utilization of geothermal heat carrier. Actual data determining room heating systems with the total worldwide capacity of nearly 50000 MW thermal (MWt) as the most currently significant segment of consumption of geothermal waters are given. In addition, geothermal resources are also utilized in soil pumps, balneological and sports basins, greenhouse complexes, and other manufactures. It was noted that geological studies were carried out in more than 40 countries, with the development of methods of simulation of tanks for the existing and new geothermal fields. Trends of development and the role of geothermal power engineering in the energy supply of many countries are shown. It was shown that prospects for the development of geothermal power generation are significantly associated with utilization of low-temperature geothermal sources in binary power generating units, as well as with the increase in installed capacity of operating geothermal power plants (GPPs) without drilling additional wells, i.e., by using waste geothermal heat carrier in binary-cycle or combined-cycle power plants. The article provides data on a pilot binary power unit at Pauzhetka GPP and on a

  16. Geothermal Direct Heat Applications Program Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-25

    Because of the undefined risk in the development and use of geothermal energy as a thermal energy source, the Department of Energy Division of Geothermal Energy solicited competitive proposals for field experiments in the direct use of geothermal energy. Twenty-two proposals were selected for cost-shared funding with one additional project co-funded by the State of New Mexico. As expected, the critical parameter was developing a viable resource. So far, of the twenty resources drilled, fourteen have proved to be useful resources. These are: Boise, Idaho; Elko heating Company in Nevada; Pagosa Springs, Colorado; Philip School, Philip, South Dakota; St. Mary's Hospital, Pierre, South Dakota; Utah Roses near Salt Lake City; Utah State Prison, Utah; Warm Springs State Hospital, Montana; T-H-S Hospital, Marlin, Texas; Aquafarms International in the Cochella Valley, California; Klamath County YMCA and Klamath Falls in Oregon; Susanville, California and Monroe, utah. Monroe's 164 F and 600 gpm peak flow was inadequate for the planned project, but is expected to be used in a private development. Three wells encountered a resource insufficient for an economical project. These were Madison County at Rexburg, Idaho; Ore-Ida Foods at Ontario, Oregon and Holly Sugar at Brawley, California. Three projects have yet to confirm their resource. The Navarro College well in Corsicana, Texas is being tested; the Reno, Moana, Nevada well is being drilled and the El Centro, California well is scheduled to be drilled in January 1982. The agribusiness project at Kelly Hot Springs was terminated because a significant archeological find was encountered at the proposed site. The Diamond Ring Ranch in South Dakota, and the additional project, Carrie Tingley Hospital in Truth or Consequences, New Mexico both used existing wells. The projects that encountered viable resources have proceeded to design, construct, and in the most advanced projects, to operate geothermal systems for district

  17. Geothermal resource evaluation of the Yuma area

    SciTech Connect

    Poluianov, E.W.; Mancini, F.P.

    1985-11-29

    This report presents an evaluation of the geothermal potential of the Yuma, Arizona area. A description of the study area and the Salton Trough area is followed by a geothermal analysis of the area, a discussion of the economics of geothermal exploration and exploitation, and recommendations for further testing. It was concluded economic considerations do not favor geothermal development at this time. (ACR)

  18. Geopressured geothermal bibliography (Geopressure Thesaurus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.R.; Sepehrnoori, K.

    1981-08-01

    This thesaurus of terminology associated with the geopressured geothermal energy field has been developed as a part of the Geopressured Geothermal Information System data base. A thesaurus is a compilation of terms displaying synonymous, hierarchical, and other relationships between terms. These terms, which are called descriptors, constitute the special language of the information retrieval system, the system vocabulary. The Thesaurus' role in the Geopressured Geothermal Information System is to provide a controlled vocabulary of sufficient specificity for subject indexing and retrieval of documents in the geopressured geothermal energy field. The thesauri most closely related to the Geopressure Thesaurus in coverage are the DOE Energy Information Data Base Subject Thesaurus and the Geothermal Thesaurus being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The Geopressure Thesaurus differs from these thesauri in two respects: (1) specificity of the vocabulary or subject scope and (2) display format.

  19. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Treis, Tania

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  20. 2008 Geothermal Technologies Market Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Cross

    2009-07-01

    This report describes market-wide trends for the geothermal industry throughout 2008 and the beginning of 2009. It begins with an overview of the GTP’s involvement with the geothermal industry and recent investment trends for electric generation technologies. The report next describes the current state of geothermal power generation and activity within the United States, costs associated with development, financing trends, an analysis of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and a look at the current policy environment. The report also highlights trends regarding direct use of geothermal energy, including GHPs.† The final sections of the report focus on international perspectives, employment and economic benefits from geothermal energy development, and potential incentives in pending national legislation.

  1. Geothermal resource data base: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Witcher, J.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides a compilation of geothermal well and spring information in Arizona up to 1993. This report and data base are a part of a larger congressionally-funded national effort to encourage and assist geothermal direct-use. In 1991, the US Department of Energy, Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) began a Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources and Technology Transfer Program. Phase 1 of this program includes updating the inventory of wells and springs of ten western states and placing these data into a digital format that is universally accessible to the PC. The Oregon Institute of Technology GeoHeat Center (OIT) administers the program and the University of Utah Earth Sciences and Resources Institute (ESRI) provides technical direction. In recent years, the primary growth in geothermal use in Arizona has occurred in aquaculture. Other uses include minor space heating and supply of warm mineral waters for health spas.

  2. Geothermal reconnaissance of northeastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbani, F. )

    1989-01-01

    About 60% of Venezuela has been covered by a reconnaissance geothermal survey that includes geologic and water geochemical studies. The information is stored in a computerized data bank that holds data from 361 geothermal localities. The subsurface reservoir temperatures of the geothermal systems have been estimated using chemical geothermometry and mixing models and in many cases conceptual geothermal modes have been postulated. Preliminary assessments of the northeastern Venezuelan geothermal systems indicate that the most promising system is Las Minas near El Pilar in the state of Sucre, with an estimated deep reservoir temperature of 200-220{sup 0}C. Further studies are intended to evaluate its potential for electricity generation. Based on present data, other medium and low temperature systems in Venezuela appear useful for direct applications.

  3. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90{sup 0}C) geothermal systems in the United States: reference data for US Geological Survey Circular 892

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-12-15

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  4. Selected data for low-temperature (less than 90 degrees C) geothermal systems in the United States; reference data for U.S. Geological Survey Circular 892

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, R.H.; Brook, C.A.; Sorey, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Supporting data are presented for the 1982 low-temperature geothermal resource assessment of the United States. Data are presented for 2072 geothermal sites which are representative of 1168 low-temperature geothermal systems identified in 26 States. The low-temperature geothermal systems consist of 978 isolated hydrothermal-convection systems, 148 delineated-area hydrothermal-convection systems, and 42 delineated-area conduction-dominated systems. The basic data and estimates of reservoir conditions are presented for each geothermal system, and energy estimates are given for the accessible resource base, resource, and beneficial heat for each isolated system.

  5. Assessment of the Geothermal Potential Within the BPA Marketing Area.

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, John W.; Allen, Eliot D.

    1980-07-01

    The potential of geothermal energy is estimated that can be used for direct heat applications and electrical power generation within the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) marketing area. The BPA marketing area includes three principal states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and portions of California, Montana, Wyoming, Nevada, and Utah bordering on these three states. This area covers approximately 384,000 square miles and has an estimated population of 6,760,000. The total electrical geothermal potential within this marketing area is 4077 MW/sub e/ from hydrothermal resources and 16,000 MW/sub e/ from igneous systems, whereas the total thermal (wellhead) potential is 16.15 x 10/sup 15/ Btu/y. Approximately 200 geothermal resource sites were initially identified within the BPA marketing area. This number was then reduced to about 100 sites thought to be the most promising for development by the year 2000. These 100 sites, due to load area overlap, were grouped into 53 composite sites; 21-3/4 within BPA preference customer areas and 31-1/4 within nonpreference customer areas. The geothermal resource potential was then estimated for high-temperature (> 302/sup 0/F = 150/sup 0/C), intermediate-temperature (194 to 302/sup 0/F = 90 to 150/sup 0/C), and low-temperature (< 194/sup 0/F = 90/sup 0/C) resources.

  6. Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    Geothermal Energy Program Office of Geothermal and Wind Technologies Geothermal Heat Pumps are Scoring High Marks Geothermal heat pumps, one of the clean energy technology stars Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) are one of the most cost-effective heating, cooling, and water heating systems available for both residential and commercial buildings. GHPs extract heat from the ground during the heating season and discharge waste heat to the ground during the cooling season. The U.S. Environmental Protecti

  7. Geothermal development plan: Graham-Greenlee counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal potential in Graham and Greenlee counties both of which contain significant quantities of geothermal energy that could be used for industrial, agricultural or residential use, is described. Projections are made of geothermal heat on line under both private and city-owned utility development. Potential users of geothermal energy, however, are limited since this area is sparsely populated and lacks an industrial base. Only a couple of industries were identified which could use geothermal energy for their process heat needs.

  8. Geothermal Technologies Program Blue Ribbon Panel Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-06-17

    The Geothermal Technologies Program assembled a geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel on March 22-23, 2011 in Albuquerque, New Mexico for a guided discussion on the future of geothermal energy in the United States and the role of the DOE Program. The Geothermal Blue Ribbon Panel Report captures the discussions and recommendations of the experts. An addendum is available here: http://www.eere.energy.gov/geothermal/pdfs/gtp_blue_ribbon_panel_report_addendum10-2011.pdf

  9. Proceedings of the 11th business reporting conference of the NEDO Geothermal Subcommittee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masahiro, Korata

    1991-10-01

    The geothermal energy department at The New Energy and Industrial Technology Overall Development Organization carries out the following activities: a systematic identification of geothermal resource distribution all over Japan; discussions on selection of promising areas together with the criteria for exploration methods by volcanic thermal type; development of integrated analytic methods applied with high-level information processing technologies; site surveys on effectiveness of various physical exploration technologies; and surveys on environmental influence associated with developments. Developments under way on geothermal power generation systems include the following: development of an identification test for simplified medium-to-small size geothermal generation systems at the Kirishima area; and a 10 MW class plant for unused hydrothermal water resources. These developments were made with respect to utilizing geothermal energy possessed by high-temperature rocks, artificial reservoir bed formation by means of the hydraulic fracturing method, evaluation of reservoir bed characteristics by means of well excavation, and circulating heat extraction tests.

  10. Data from geothermal test wells near Mount Hood, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robison, J.H.; Forcella, L.S.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    1981-01-01

    This report includes well specifications, drillers ' logs, and temperature logs of geothermal test wells drilled at 7 sites near Mt. Hood, Oreg. The wells were drilled in 1979 and 1980 under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, was part of an interagency effort to determine the geothermal potential of Mt. Hood. The agencies involved were, U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Forest Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. (USGS)

  11. New geothermal power plants in Azores and Kenya

    SciTech Connect

    Tahara, M.

    1981-10-01

    Two geothermal power plants were recently completed. One is 3 MW unit in Azores and another is 15 MW unit in Kenya. Both plants have very simple construction. For Azores, a packaged portable turbine generator is adopted to save the cost and installation term. 15 MW Olkaria plant which is adopted single flash cycle has produced first electricity by the geothermal energy in Africa. This turbine generator has been installed on a steel foundation. Special site conditions have been taken into consideration and both plants are successfully running with certification of the suitable design concept.

  12. Geothermal corehole drilling and operations, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.; Rufenacht, H.D.; Laughlin, A.W.; Adams, A.; Planner, H.; Ramos, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two slim exploration coreholes to depths of 650 m and 428 m, respectively, have been completed at the Platanares geothermal site, Honduras, Central America. A third corehole is now being drilled. These boreholes have provided information on the stratigraphy, temperature variation with depth, nature and compositions of fluids, fracturing, permeability, and hydrothermal alterations associated with the geothermal reservoir. Eruptions of hot water occurred during the drilling of both the first and third boreholes. Recovery of >98% core has been obtained even under difficult superheated conditions.

  13. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  14. Resource assessment of low- and moderate-temperature geothermal waters in Calistoga, Napa County, California. Report of the second year, 1979 to 1980 of the US Department of Energy-California State-Coupled Program for reservoir assessment and confirmation

    SciTech Connect

    Youngs, L.G.; Bacon, C.F.; Chapman, R.H.; Chase, G.W.; Higgins, C.T.; Majmundar, H.H.; Taylor, G.C.

    1980-11-10

    Statewide assessment studies included updating and completing the USGS GEOTHERM File for California and compiling all data needed for a California Geothermal Resources Map. Site specific assessment studies included a program to assess the geothermal resource at Calistoga, Napa County, California. The Calistoga effort was comprised of a series of studies involving different disciplines, including geologic, hydrologic, geochemical and geophysical studies.

  15. Beowawe Geothermal Area evaluation program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Iovenitti, J. L

    1981-03-01

    Several exploration programs were conducted at the Beowawe Geothermal Prospect, Lander and Eureka County, Nevada. Part I, consisting of a shallow temperature hole program, a mercury soil sampling survey, and a self-potential survey were conducted in order to select the optimum site for an exploratory well. Part II consisted of drilling a 5927-foot exploratory well, running geophysical logs, conducting a drill stem test (2937-3208 feet), and a short-term (3-day) flow test (1655-2188 feet). All basic data collected is summarized.

  16. Small geothermal binary plants in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Diaz, M.

    1996-12-31

    In Mexico, Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE Federal Commission of Electricity) has identified several low enthalpy sites related with thermal water, at shallow depths. Some of those geothermal prospects are located far from the electrical national grid. In some cases, the population solve their electricity needs by internal combustion engines with very high operating costs. CFE has started a project oriented to use the energy contained in the thermal waters with off-grid binary plants. The two first projects are in the state of Chihuahua at the north of the country: San Antonio El Bravo and Maguarichic. At both places CFE will install a 300 kW, unattended binary power units.

  17. Overview of Reclamation's geothermal program in Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulcher, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is presently involved in a unique Geothermal Resource Development Program in Imperial Valley, California. The main purpose of the investigations is to determine the feasibility of providing a source of fresh water through desalting geothermal fluids stored in the aquifers underlying the valley. Significant progress in this research and development stage to date includes extensive geophysical investigations and the drilling of five geothermal wells on the Mesa anomaly. Four of the wells are for production and monitoring the anomaly, and one will be used for reinjection of waste brines from the desalting units. Two desalting units, a multistage flash unit and a vertical tube evaporator unit, have been erected at the East Mesa test site. The units have been operated on shakedown and continuous runs and have produced substantial quantities of high-quality water.

  18. Geothermal-resource survey of the Tennessee Valley Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, W. P.; Treat, N. L.

    1982-08-01

    An overview appraisal of the geothermal resources in the Tennessee Valley Region revealed geothermal resources of potential usefulness in two of 13 subregions: the New Madrid Seismic Zone and the central segment of the Northern Gulf Coastal Plain. The appraisal was based on geologic features of the region (hot springs, groundwater aquifers, and structure) and temperature data for oil and gas wells and shallow water wells. Site specific exploration for economic appraisal was not carried out. The geothermal gradient for each of the subregions was established by linear regression of all of the bottom hole temperature data for the oil and gas wells. A routine statistical procedure identified all unusually warm wells within each subregion, and their locations were plotted. Hot spots in a subregion were identified by localized clustering of such wells in numbers exceeding statistical expectations based on the intensity of drilling activity. Of the two areas most likely for extraction of geothermal energy, the New Madrid Seismic Zone has a high geothermal gradient at shallow depths (less than 500 meters).

  19. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Icerman, L.

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  20. Hawaii basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in geotherm

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-07-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 34 records for Hawaii. The high average ambient air temperature found on the Hawaiian Islands required fluid samples to have a temperature of at least 30/sup 0/C to be included. A computer-generated index is found in appendices A of this report. The index give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Hawaii. The index is found in appendix A (p. is sorted by county and by the name of the source. Also given are well number (when appropriate), site type (spring, well, fumarole), latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). In conducting a search of Appendix A, site names are quite useful for locating springs or wells for which a specific name is commonly used, but sites which do not have specific names are more difficult to locate.

  1. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  2. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. The study identified four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 100{sup 0}C (212{sup 0}F), and in addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 147{sup 0}F (297{sup 0}F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tucson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraint to projected growth. The study also includes a regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption and energy prices. A major section of the report is aimed at identifying potential geothermal users in Pima County and providing projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization. The study identifies 115 firms in 32 industrial classes that have some potential for geothermal use. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  3. Geothermal development plan: Pima County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    The Pima County Area Development evaluated the county-wide market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. Four potential geothermal resource areas with temperatures less than 1000 C (2120 F) were identified. In addition, one area is identified as having a temperature of 1470 F (2970 F). Geothermal resources are found to occur in Tecson where average population growth rates of two to three percent per year are expected over the next 40 years. Rapid growth in the manufacturing sector and the existence of major copper mines provide opportunities for the direct utilization of geothermal energy. However, available water supplies are identified as a major constraing to projected growth. A regional energy analysis, future predictions for energy consumption, and energy prices are given. Potential geothermal users in Pima County are identified and projections of maximum economic geothermal utilization are given. One hundred fifteen firms in 32 industrial classes have some potential for geothermal use are identified. In addition, 26 agribusiness firms were found in the county.

  4. A new classification scheme for deep geothermal systems based on geologic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeck, I.

    2012-04-01

    A key element in the characterization, assessment and development of geothermal energy systems is the resource classification. Throughout the past 30 years many classifications and definitions were published mainly based on temperature and thermodynamic properties. In the past classification systems, temperature has been the essential measure of the quality of the resource and geothermal systems have been divided into three different temperature (or enthalpy) classes: low-temperature, moderate-temperature and high-temperature. There are, however, no uniform temperature ranges for these classes. It is still a key requirement of a geothermal classification that resource assessment provides logical and consistent frameworks simplified enough to communicate important aspects of geothermal energy potential to both non-experts and general public. One possible solution may be to avoid classifying geothermal resources by temperature and simply state the range of temperatures at the individual site. Due to technological development, in particular in EGS (Enhanced Geothermal Systems or Engineered Geothermal Systems; both terms are considered synonymously in this thesis) technology, currently there are more geothermal systems potentially economic than 30 years ago. An alternative possibility is to classify geothermal energy systems by their geologic setting. Understanding and characterizing the geologic controls on geothermal systems has been an ongoing focus on different scales from plate tectonics to local tectonics/structural geology. In fact, the geologic setting has a fundamental influence on the potential temperature, on the fluid composition, the reservoir characteristics and whether the system is a predominantly convective or conductive system. The key element in this new classification for geothermal systems is the recognition that a geothermal system is part of a geological system. The structural geological and plate tectonic setting has a fundamental influence on

  5. Sustainability assessment of geothermal exploitation by numerical modelling: the example of high temperature Mofete geothermal field at Campi Flegrei caldera (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, Stefano; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Tramelli, Anna; Troise, Claudia; Somma, Renato; De Natale, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    The active volcanic area of Campi Flegrei caldera has been the site of many geothermal investigations, since the early XX century. This caldera is characterised by high heat flow, with maximum value > 150 mWm-2, geothermal gradients larger than 200°Ckm-1 and diffuse magmatic gases discharge at the surface. These features encouraged an extensive campaign for geothermal investigation, started in 1939, with many drillings performed at Campanian volcanoes (Campi Flegrei and Ischia) and later at Vesuvius. Several wells aimed to the exploitation of high enthalpy geothermal energy, were drilled in the Campi Flegrei caldera, down to a maximum depth of ~3 km involving mainly two sites (Mofete and S.Vito geothermal fields) located in western and northern sector of caldera respectively. The most interesting site for geothermal exploitation was the Mofete zone, where a number of 4 productive wells were drilled and tested to produce electrical power. Based on data inferred from the productive tests it was established a potential electrical extractable power from Mofete field of at least 10MWe. More recently an empirical evaluation of the whole geothermal potential of the caldera provides a value of more than 1 GWe. The results of AGIP-ENEL exploration at Campi Flegrei highlighted the feasibility of geothermal exploitation. Here, we show for the first time the results of numerical simulations (TOUGH2 code ®) of fluids extraction and reinjection from the Mofete geothermal field, in order to produce at least 5MWe from zero emission power plant (Organic Rankine Cycle type). The simulation is aimed to understand the perturbation of the geothermal reservoir in terms of temperature, pressure change, and possible related seismicity, after different simulated time of exploitation. The modeling is mainly constrained by the data derived from geothermal exploration and productive tests performed since 1979 by AGIP-ENEL Companies. A general assessment of the maximum potential magnitude

  6. Development of polymer concrete liners and coatings for use in geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.P.; Reams, W.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1993-09-01

    The results of a research and field testing program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy to develop polymer concrete (PC) liners and coatings for use in geothermal applications are presented. Whenever possible, carbon steel is used in geothermal facilities for components such as piping, well casings, and containment vessels. However carbon steel is subject to severe corrosion when exposed to some geothermal fluids and brines, leading to the use, in some cases, of very expensive high alloy steels. Results of laboratory tests done in simulated geothermal environments (pH 2 hydrochloric acid steam at 200{degree}C) have shown that PC materials can be used as liners and coatings to protect carbon steel surfaces from corrosion. In situ field testing of 8-in. (203-mm) inside diameter (ID) by 12-in. (305-mm) long spool sections and 12in. ID (305-mm) wellhead tee sections in operational geothermal facilities is currently being done to verify the laboratory test data. Economic studies have shown that the capital cost of the vessels and piping in a typical geothermal facility can be significantly reduced through the use of protective PC linings and coatings. As a result PC lined components are currently being used commercially at two geothermal sites.

  7. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  8. Geothermal hot water system

    SciTech Connect

    Dittell, E.W.

    1983-05-10

    Geothermal hot water system including a hot water tank and a warm water tank which are heated independently of each other by a close loop freon system. The closed loop freon system includes a main condenser which heats water for the warm water tank and a super-heated condenser which heats water for the hot water tank, and where the freon passes through a water evaporator which is heated by water such as from a well or other suitable source. The water evaporator in the closed loop freon system passes the water through but no environmental change to the water. An electrical circuit including aquastats in the warm water tank connected therethrough controls operation of the closed loop freon system including respective pumps on the super-heated condenser and main condenser for pumping water. Pumps pump water through the main condenser for the warm tank and through the super-heated condenser for the hot tank. The system provides for energy conservation in that the head pressure of the compressor is kept in the lower operating ranges as determined by the discharge flow of the main condenser which varies by the head pressure and temperature flow control which varies by temperature. The geothermal hot water system uses a least amount of energy in heating the water in the hot tank as well as the warm tank.

  9. What is an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS)? Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2012-09-14

    This Geothermal Technologies Office fact sheet explains how engineered geothermal reservoirs called Enhanced Geothermal Systems are used to produce energy from geothermal resources that are otherwise not economical due to a lack of fluid and/or permeability.

  10. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  11. Geothermal Energy Production With Innovative Methods Of Geothermal Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, Allen; Darlow, Rick; Sanchez, Angel; Pierce, Michael; Sellers, Blake

    2014-12-19

    The ThermalDrive™ Power System (“TDPS”) offers one of the most exciting technological advances in the geothermal power generation industry in the last 30 years. Using innovations in subsurface heat recovery methods, revolutionary advances in downhole pumping technology and a distributed approach to surface power production, GeoTek Energy, LLC’s TDPS offers an opportunity to change the geothermal power industry dynamics.

  12. Geothermal Data from the National Geothermal Data System (NGDS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a distributed data system providing access to information resources related to geothermal energy from a network of data providers. Data are contributed by academic researchers, private industry, and state and federal agencies. Built on a scalable and open platform through the U.S. Geoscience Information Network (USGIN), NGDS respects data provenance while promoting shared resources.Since NGDS is built using a set of open protocols and standards, relying on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and International Organization for Standardization (ISO), members of the community may access the data in a variety of proprietary and open-source applications and software. In addition, developers can add functionality to the system by creating new applications based on the open protocols and standards of the NGDS. The NGDS, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Program, is intended to provide access to all types of geothermal data to enable geothermal analysis and widespread public use in an effort to reduce the risk of geothermal energy development [copied from http://www.geothermaldata.org/page/about]. See the long list of data contributors at http://geothermaldata.org/page/data-types-and-contributors#data-contributors.

  13. Structural controls of the Tuscarora geothermal field, Elko County, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dering, G.; Faulds, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Tuscarora is an amagmatic geothermal system located ~90 km northwest of Elko, Nevada, in the northern part of the Basin and Range province ~15 km southeast of the Snake River Plain. Detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis, and well data have been integrated to identify the structural controls of the Tuscarora geothermal system. The structural framework of the geothermal field is defined by NNW- to NNE-striking normal faults that are approximately orthogonal to the present extension direction. Boiling springs, fumaroles, and siliceous sinter emanate from a single NNE-striking, west-dipping normal fault. Normal faults west of these hydrothermal features mostly dip steeply east, whereas normal faults east of the springs primarily dip west. Thus, the springs, fumaroles, and sinter straddle a zone of interaction between fault sets that dip toward each other, classified as a strike-parallel anticlinal accommodation zone. Faults within the geothermal area are mostly discontinuous along strike with offsets of tens to hundreds of meters, whereas the adjacent range-bounding fault systems of the Bull Run and Independence Mountains accommodate several kilometers of displacement. The geothermal field lies within a broad step over between the southward terminating west-dipping Bull Run fault zone and the northward terminating west-dipping Independence Mountains fault zone. Neither of these major fault zones is known to host high temperature geothermal systems. The accommodation zone lies within the broad step over and contains both east-dipping antithetic and west-dipping synthetic faults. Accommodation zones are relatively common structural components of extended terranes that transfer strain between oppositely dipping fault sets via a network of subsidiary normal faults. This study has identified the hinge zone of an anticlinal accommodation zone as the site most conducive to fluid up-flow. The recognition of this specific portion of an accommodation zone as a favorable

  14. Direct utilization of geothermal energy in western South Dakota agribusiness. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, S.M.

    1983-09-01

    This project involved the direct utilization of geothermal energy for (1) space heating of farm and ranch buildings, (2) drying grain, and (3) providing warm stock water during the winter. The site for this demonstration project was the Diamond Ring Ranch north of Midland, South Dakota. Geothermal water flowing from an existing well into the Madison Aquifer was used to heat four homes, a shop, a hospital barn for cattle, and air for a barn and grain dryer. This site is centrally located in the western region of South Dakota where geothermal water is available from the Madison Aquifer. The first year of the project involved the design of the heating systems and its construction while the following years were for operation, testing, demonstrating, and monitoring the system. Required modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating modifications and improvements were made during this period. Operating experience showed that such application of geothermal resources is feasible and can result in substantial fuel savings. Economic analyses under a variety of assumptions generally gave payback periods of less than ten years. Numerous technical recommendations are made. The most significant being the necessity of passive protection from freezing of remote geothermal systems subject to winter shut downs caused by power or equipment failure. The primary institutional recommendation is to incorporate a use for the geothermal water such as irrigation or stock watering into agribusiness-related geothermal development.

  15. Geothermal energy abstract sets. Special report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, C.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography contains annotated citations in the following areas: (1) case histories; (2) drilling; (3) reservoir engineering; (4) injection; (5) geothermal well logging; (6) environmental considerations in geothermal development; (7) geothermal well production; (8) geothermal materials; (9) electric power production; (10) direct utilization of geothermal energy; (11) economics of geothermal energy; and (12) legal, regulatory and institutional aspects. (ACR)

  16. Engineered Geothermal System Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, Susan

    2014-06-19

    In June 2009, AltaRock Energy began field work on a project supported by the U.S. Department of Energy entitled “Use of Multiple Stimulations to Improve Economics of Engineered Geothermal Systems in Shallow High Temperature Intrusives.” The goal of the project was to develop an Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) in the portion of The Geysers geothermal field operated by the Northern California Power Agency (NCPA). The project encountered several problems while deepening Well E-7 which culminated in the suspension of field activities in September 2009. Some of the problems encountered are particular to The Geysers area, while others might be encountered in any geothermal field, and they might be avoided in future operations.

  17. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  18. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, L. H.

    1985-12-03

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight monoor copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  19. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  20. Geothermal Program Review IV: proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The research and development program of DOE's Geothermal Technology Division is reviewed in separate presentations according to program area. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  1. Hawaii geothermal resource assessment: 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Cox, M.; Kavahikaua, J.P.; Lienert, B.R.; Mattice, M.

    1982-10-01

    The Geothermal Resource Assessment Program of the Hawaii Institute of Geophysics has conducted a series of geochemical and geophysical surveys throughout the State of Hawaii since February 1978. The results compiled during this study have been used to prepare a map of potential geothermal resource areas throughout the state. Approximately thirteen separate locations on three islands have been studied in detail. Of these, four areas are known to have direct evidence of a geothermal anomaly (Kilauea East Rift Zone, Kilauea Southwest Rift Zone, Kawaihae, and Olowalu-Ukumehame) and three others are strongly suspected of having at least a low-temperature resource (Hualalai west flank, Haleakala Southwest Rift, and Lualualei Valley). In the remainder of the areas surveyed, the data obtained either were contradictory or gave no evidence of a geothermal resource.

  2. Repeat Measurements of Seismic Noise at the Waiotapu Geothermal Area, North Island, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteford, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The amplitudes of seismic ground noise were remeasured at 66 sites in the Waiotapu and Reporoa geothermal areas in 1995 to determine whether amplitudes had changed since the first survey in 1970. In both 1995 and 1970 high levels of seismic noise occurred in two localities, one at Waiotapu and one at Reporoa. The elevated levels of seismic noise at most sites are thought to be caused by surface or near-surface geothermal activity. At seven sites in the Waiotapu area seismic noise levels were almost the same in 1995 as in 1970, indicating no change in the intensity of the source of the geothermal seismic noise. At most other sites the 1995 seismic noise levels were different to those measured in 1970, although at sites with high levels of seismic noise the differences were usually less than at sites with low levels of seismic noise.

  3. Geothermal power generation in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  4. The Marysville, Montana Geothermal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcspadden, W. R.; Stewart, D. H.; Kuwada, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Drilling the first geothermal well in Montana presented many challenges, not only in securing materials and planning strategies for drilling the wildcat well but also in addressing the environmental, legal, and institutional issues raised by the request for permission to explore a resource which lacked legal definition. The Marysville Geothermal Project was to investigate a dry hot rock heat anomaly. The well was drilled to a total depth of 6790 feet and many fractured water bearing zones were encountered below 1800 feet.

  5. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development plans. (5) Formulation and

  6. Computerized international geothermal information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, S.L.; Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.

    1980-03-01

    The computerized international geothermal energy information system is reviewed. The review covers establishment of the Italy - United States linked data centers by the NATO Committee on Challenges of Modern Society, through a bilateral agreement, and up to the present time. The result of the information exchange project is given as the bibliographic and numerical data available from the data centers. Recommendations for the exchange of computerized geothermal information at the international level are discussed.

  7. Optimizing Sustainable Geothermal Heat Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Iti; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Buscheck, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Geothermal heat, though renewable, can be depleted over time if the rate of heat extraction exceeds the natural rate of renewal. As such, the sustainability of a geothermal resource is typically viewed as preserving the energy of the reservoir by weighing heat extraction against renewability. But heat that is extracted from a geothermal reservoir is used to provide a service to society and an economic gain to the provider of that service. For heat extraction used for market commodities, sustainability entails balancing the rate at which the reservoir temperature renews with the rate at which heat is extracted and converted into economic profit. We present a model for managing geothermal resources that combines simulations of geothermal reservoir performance with natural resource economics in order to develop optimal heat mining strategies. Similar optimal control approaches have been developed for managing other renewable resources, like fisheries and forests. We used the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) model to simulate the performance of a sedimentary geothermal reservoir under a variety of geologic and operational situations. The results of NUFT are integrated into the optimization model to determine the extraction path over time that maximizes the net present profit given the performance of the geothermal resource. Results suggest that the discount rate that is used to calculate the net present value of economic gain is a major determinant of the optimal extraction path, particularly for shallower and cooler reservoirs, where the regeneration of energy due to the natural geothermal heat flux is a smaller percentage of the amount of energy that is extracted from the reservoir.

  8. Geothermal resource assessment in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.E.; Luza, K.V.; Prater, M.L.; Cheung, P.K.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-07-01

    The procedures and methods used to develop a geothermal gradient map of Oklahoma are discussed. Two areas, Haskell and Pittsburg Counties, in the Arkoma Basin, are discussed in detail. Three sandstone units, the Spiro, Cromwell, and Hartshorne were selected as potential low-temperature geothermal water sources. The average temperature ranged from 103/sup 0/F at Hartshorne to 158/sup 0/F at Cromwell. (MJF)

  9. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  10. Summary of geothermal exploration activity in the state of Washington from 1978 to 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Korosec, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the course of conducting the statewide reconnaissance study of Washington's potential geothermal resources, several specific areas and broader regions have been identified as targets which warrant a more concentrated effort. Over the past three years, the program has continued to identify new sites, but has concentrated on better defining the resource potential of the best areas. The locations of these geothermal areas are shown, and the level of progress for each area is shown, expressed as a percentage of completion for the various exploration tasks. Descriptions of the geothermal target areas are presented.

  11. Environmental assessment of the proposed nonelectric application of geothermal resources at Desert Hot Springs, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents an environmental analysis performed in evaluating various proposed geothermal demonstration projects at Desert Hot Springs. These are categorized in two ways: (1) indirect, or (2) direct uses. Among the former are greenhouses, industrial complexes, and car washes. The latter include aquaculture, a cascaded agribusiness system, and a mobile home park. Major categories of environmental impact covered are: (1) site, (2) construction of projects, and (3) the use of the geothermal source. Attention is also given to the disposal of the geothermal fluid after use. Finally, it is concluded that there are no major problems forseen for each project, and future objectives are discussed.

  12. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing

  13. Geothermal Resources Assessment in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    The Hawaii Geothermal Resources Assessment Program was initiated in 1978. The preliminary phase of this effort identified 20 Potential Geothermal Resource Areas (PGRA's) using available geological, geochemical and geophysical data. The second phase of the Assessment Program undertook a series of field studies, utilizing a variety of geothermal exploration techniques, in an effort to confirm the presence of thermal anomalies in the identified PGRA's and, if confirmed, to more completely characterize them. A total of 15 PGRA's on four of the five major islands in the Hawaiian chain were subject to at least a preliminary field analysis. The remaining five were not considered to have sufficient resource potential to warrant study under the personnel and budget constraints of the program. The island of Kauai was not studied during the current phase of investigation. Geothermal field studies were not considered to be warranted due to the absence of significant geochemical or geophysical indications of a geothermal resource. The great age of volcanism on this island would further suggest that should a thermal resource be present, it would be of low temperature. The geothermal field studies conducted on Oahu focused on the caldera complexes of the two volcanic systems which form the island: Waianae volcano and Koolau volcano. The results of these studies and the interpreted probability for a resource are presented.

  14. Geothermal innovative technologies catalog

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.

    1988-09-01

    The technology items in this report were selected on the basis of technological readiness and applicability to current technology transfer thrusts. The items include technologies that are considered to be within 2 to 3 years of being transferred. While the catalog does not profess to be entirely complete, it does represent an initial attempt at archiving innovative geothermal technologies with ample room for additions as they occur. The catalog itself is divided into five major functional areas: Exploration; Drilling, Well Completion, and Reservoir Production; Materials and Brine Chemistry; Direct Use; and Economics. Within these major divisions are sub-categories identifying specific types of technological advances: Hardware; Software; Data Base; Process/Procedure; Test Facility; and Handbook.

  15. Geothermal development in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, K. L.; Creelman, R. A.; Buckingham, N. W.; Harrington, H. J.

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 sq m, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  16. Geothermal development in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, K.L.; Creelman, R.A.; Buckingham, N.W.; Harrington, H.J. |

    1995-03-01

    In Australia, natural hot springs and hot artesian bores have been developed for recreational and therapeutic purposes. A district heating system at Portland, in the Otway Basin of western Victoria, has provided uninterrupted service for 12 Sears without significant problems, is servicing a building area of 18 990 m{sup 2}, and has prospects of expansion to manufacturing uses. A geothermal well has provided hot water for paper manufacture at Traralgon, in the Gippsland Basin of eastern Victoria. Power production from hot water aquifers was tested at Mulka in South Australia, and is undergoing a four-year production trial at Birdsville in Queensland. An important Hot Dry Rock resource has been confirmed in the Cooper Basin. It has been proposed to build an HDR experimental facility to test power production from deep conductive resources in the Sydney Basin near Muswellbrook.

  17. Geothermal energy geopressure subprogram

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    The proposed action will consist of drilling one geopressured-geothermal resource fluid well for intermittent production testing over the first year of the test. During the next two years, long-term testing of 40,000 BPD will be flowed. A number of scenarios may be implemented, but it is felt that the total fluid production will approximate 50 million barrels. The test well will be drilled with a 22 cm (8.75 in.) borehole to a total depth of approximately 5185 m (17,000 ft). Up to four disposal wells will provide disposal of the fluid from the designated 40,000 BPD test rate. The following are included in this assessment: the existing environment; probable environmental impacts-direct and indirect; probable cumulative and long-term environmental impacts; accidents; coordination with federal, state, regional, and local agencies; and alternative actions. (MHR)

  18. Geothermal Play-Fairway Analysis of the Tatun Volcano Group, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Ru; Song, Sheng-Rong

    2017-04-01

    Geothermal energy is a sustainable and low-emission energy resource. It has the advantage of low-cost and withstanding nature hazards. Taiwan is located on the western Ring of Fire and characteristic of widespread hot spring and high surface heat flows, especially on the north of Taiwan. Many previous studies reveal that the Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) has great potential to develop the geothermal energy. However, investment in geothermal development has inherent risk and how to reduce the exploration risk is the most important. The exploration risk can be lowered by using the play-fairway analysis (PFA) that integrates existing data representing the composite risk segments in the region in order to define the exploration strategy. As a result, this study has adapted this logic for geothermal exploration in TVG. There are two necessary factors in geothermal energy, heat and permeability. They are the composite risk segments for geothermal play-fairway analysis. This study analyzes existing geologic, geophysical and geochemical data to construct the heat and permeability potential models. Heat potential model is based on temperature gradient, temperature of hot spring, proximity to hot spring, hydrothermal alteration zones, helium isotope ratios, and magnetics. Permeability potential model is based on fault zone, minor fault, and micro-earthquake activities. Then, these two potential models are weighted by using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and combined to rank geothermal favorability. Uncertainty model is occurred by the quality of data and spatial accuracy of data. The goal is to combine the potential model with the uncertainty model as a risk map to find the best drilling site for geothermal exploration in TVG. Integrated results indicate where geothermal potential is the highest and provide the best information for those who want to develop the geothermal exploration in TVG.

  19. Absence of Remote Triggering in Geothermal Fields Due to Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, S.; Zhang, Q.; Lin, G.

    2014-12-01

    Operational geothermal fields typically have high seismicity rates, which could be caused by both tectonic and anthropogenic activities. Due to the high background seismicity and possible interaction between fluid and seismic waves, geothermal areas have been recognized to be susceptible to large remote earthquakes. However, whether human activity (geothermal production) affects remote earthquake triggering by changing the stress state is unclear. Here we choose two geothermal fields, Coso and Salton Sea in southern California, to study the spatiotemporal distributions of the triggered earthquakes following the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes. These two geothermal fields have been in operation since 1980s with comparable net capacity, and have long-term geothermal fluid loss. By analyzing the regional catalog recorded by the Southern California Seismic Network, we find that these two operational geothermal areas remain unaffected by the remote mainshocks, whereas the surrounding areas show vigorous triggered responses. We interpret this phenomenon as a result of human activity, which presumably has brought the stress state away from failure by reducing pore pressure. To further understand how much the human activity can affect the stress state, we also conduct a systematic study on Long Valley Caldera in northern California as a comparison site. Long Valley Caldera hosts an active geothermal field with net capacity about one sixth of that in Coso or Salton Sea geothermal field, and the extraction volume is not constantly larger than the injection. We will show comparisons of the triggered response in Long Valley with the two geothermal fields in southern California.

  20. Utah State Prison Space Heating with Geothermal Heat - Resource Assessment Report Crystal Hot Springs Geothermal Area

    SciTech Connect

    1981-12-01

    Reported herein is a summary of work conducted under the Resource Assessment Program-Task 2, for the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project at Crystal Hot Springs, Draper, Utah. Assessment of the geothermal resource in and around the Utah State Prison property began in october of 1979 with an aeromagnetic and gravity survey. These tasks were designed to provide detailed subsurface structural information in the vicinity of the thermal springs so that an informed decision as to the locations of test and production holes could be made. The geophysical reconnaissance program provided the structural details needed to focus the test drilling program on the most promising production targets available to the State Prison. The subsequent drilling and well testing program was conducted to provide information to aid fin the siting and design of a production well and preliminary design activities. As part of the resource assessment portion of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Project, a program for periodic geophysical monitoring of the Crystal Hot Springs resource was developed. The program was designed to enable determination of baseline thermal, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics in the vicinity of Crystal Hot Springs prior to production and to provide a history of these characteristics during resource development.

  1. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.; Shevenell, L., Garside, L.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  2. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  3. Energy Return On Investment of Engineered Geothermal Systems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Mansure, Chip

    2012-01-01

    The project provides an updated Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Results incorporate Argonne National Laboratory's Life Cycle Assessment and base case assumptions consistent with other projects in the Analysis subprogram. EROI is a ratio of the energy delivered to the consumer to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility. EROI is important in assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Currently EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out-of-date, of uncertain methodology, or presented online with little supporting documentation. This data set is a collection of files documenting data used to calculate the Energy Return On Investment (EROI) of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and erratum to publications prior to the final report. Final report is available from the OSTI web site (http://www.osti.gov/geothermal/). Data in this collections includes the well designs used, input parameters for GETEM, a discussion of the energy needed to haul materials to the drill site, the baseline mud program, and a summary of the energy needed to drill each of the well designs. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Whereas efficiency is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy extracted from the reservoir.

  4. Common Scientific Challenges in Carbon Sequestration and Geothermal Energy Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBonte, A.; Groat, C. G.; Schwartz, L.

    2011-12-01

    In June of 2010, DOE convened a Carbon Sequestration- Geothermal Energy--Science Joint Workshop composed of academic, industry, and government experts. Participants were charged with looking beyond needs unique to either geothermal energy or carbon storage to identify common research needs. The expectation is greater collaboration in the identified common research areas will accelerate understanding of scientific processes critical to scaling up Carbon Sequestration and Geothermal Energy Systems. The major topic areas of the workshop include: Assessment and Characterization, to aide preliminary screening for prospective sites at the regional scale and subsurface characterization to assess feasibility at the site scale, Reservoir Sustainability, such as understanding evolution of pore and fracture structure to determine storage or production capacity and integrity of the reservoir over its intended lifetime, Modeling, a key element to conceptualizing, predicting, and managing the effects of reservoir processes over a wide variety of temporal and spatial scales when subjected to perturbations, Monitoring, requiring improvements to sensors, and data collection and interpretation methods to track changes in the reservoir and seal properties, and Performance Assessment, as a critical component to both optimize economic aspects and minimize health and environmental risks of a project. Workshop outcomes detailing research to enable scale-up of both carbon sequestration and geothermal energy applications will be presented.

  5. Geothermal systems: Principles and case histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybach, L.; Muffler, L. J. P.

    The classification of geothermal systems is considered along with the geophysical and geochemical signatures of geothermal systems, aspects of conductive heat transfer and regional heat flow, and geothermal anomalies and their plate tectonic framework. An investigation of convective heat and mass transfer in hydrothermal systems is conducted, taking into account the mathematical modelling of hydrothermal systems, aspects of idealized convective heat and mass transport, plausible models of geothermal reservoirs, and preproduction models of hydrothermal systems. Attention is given to the prospecting for geothermal resources, the application of water geochemistry to geothermal exploration and reservoir engineering, heat extraction from geothermal reservoirs, questions of geothermal resource assessment, and environmental aspects of geothermal energy development. A description is presented of a number of case histories, taking into account the low enthalpy geothermal resource of the Pannonian Basin in Hungary, the Krafla geothermal field in Northeast Iceland, the geothermal system of the Jemez Mountains in New Mexico, and extraction-reinjection at the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador.

  6. Arsenic in volcanic geothermal fluids of Latin America.

    PubMed

    López, Dina L; Bundschuh, Jochen; Birkle, Peter; Armienta, Maria Aurora; Cumbal, Luis; Sracek, Ondra; Cornejo, Lorena; Ormachea, Mauricio

    2012-07-01

    Numerous volcanoes, hot springs, fumaroles, and geothermal wells occur in the Pacific region of Latin America. These systems are characterized by high As concentrations and other typical geothermal elements such as Li and B. This paper presents a review of the available data on As concentrations in geothermal systems and their surficial discharges and As data on volcanic gases of Latin America. Data for geothermal systems in Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Chile are presented. Two sources of As can be recognized in the investigated sites: Arsenic partitioned into volcanic gases and emitted in plumes and fumaroles, and arsenic in rocks of volcanic edifices that are leached by groundwaters enriched in volcanic gases. Water containing the most elevated concentrations of As are mature Na-Cl fluids with relatively low sulfate content and As concentrations reaching up to 73.6 mg L⁻¹ (Los Humeros geothermal field in Mexico), but more commonly ranging from a few mg L⁻¹ to tens of mg L⁻¹. Fluids derived from Na-Cl enriched waters formed through evaporation and condensation at shallower depths have As levels of only a few μg L⁻¹. Mixing of Na-Cl waters with shallower meteoric waters results in low to intermediate As concentrations (up to a few mg L⁻¹). After the waters are discharged at the ground surface, As(III) oxidizes to As(V) and attenuation of As concentration can occur due to sorption and co-precipitation processes with iron minerals and organic matter present in sediments. Understanding the mechanisms of As enrichment in geothermal waters and their fate upon mixing with shallower groundwater and surface waters is important for the protection of water resources in Latin America. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Geothermal GIS coverage of the Great Basin, USA: Defining regional controls and favorable exploration terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Sawatzky, D.L.; Oppliger, G.L.; Minor, T.B.; Raines, G.L.; Shevenell, L.; Blewitt, G.; Louie, J.N.

    2003-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) of geothermal resources, built last year for the state of Nevada, is being expanded to cover the Great Basin, USA. Data from that GIS is being made available to industry, other researchers, and the public via a web site at the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Reno, Nevada. That web site features a search engine, supports ArcExplorer?? for on-line map construction, and provides downloadable data layers in several formats. Though data collection continues, preliminary analysis has begun. Contour maps of geothermal temperatures, constructed using geothermometer temperatures calculated from a Great Basin geochemical database compiled by the Geo-Heat Center, reveal distinctive trends and patterns. As expected, magmatic-type and extensional-type geothermal systems have profoundly different associations, with magmatic-type systems following major tectonic boundaries, and extensional-type systems associating with regionally high heat flow, thin crust, active faulting, and high extensional strain rates. As described by earlier researchers, including Rowen and Wetlaufer (1981) and Koenig and McNitt (1983), high-temperature (> 100??C) geothermal systems appear to follow regional northeast trends, most conspicuously including the Humboldt structural zone in Nevada, the "Black Rock-Alvord Desert" trend in Oregon and Nevada, and the "Newcastle-Roosevelt" trend in Utah and Nevada. Weights-of-evidence analyses confirm a preference of high-temperature geothermal systems for young northeast-trending faults, but the distribution of geothermal systems correlates even better with high rates of crustal extension, as measured from global positioning system (GPS) stations in Nevada. A predictive map of geothermal potential based only on areas of high extensional strain rates and high heat flux does an excellent job of regionally predicting the location of most known geothermal systems in Nevada, and may prove useful in identifying blind

  8. Detection and Characterization of Natural and Induced Fractures for the Development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Toksoz, M. Nafi

    2013-04-06

    The objective of this 3-year project is to use various geophysical methods for reservoir and fracture characterization. The targeted field is the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field in Utah operated by ENEL North America (ENA). Our effort has been focused on 1) understanding the regional and local geological settings around the geothermal field; 2) collecting and assembling various geophysical data sets including heat flow, gravity, magnetotelluric (MT) and seismic surface and body wave data; 3) installing the local temporary seismic network around the geothermal site; 4) imaging the regional and local seismic velocity structure around the geothermal field using seismic travel time tomography; and (5) determining the fracture direction using the shear-wave splitting analysis and focal mechanism analysis. Various geophysical data sets indicate that beneath the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale Geothermal Field, there is a strong anomaly of low seismic velocity, low gravity, high heat flow and high electrical conductivity. These suggest that there is a heat source in the crust beneath the geothermal field. The high-temperature body is on average 150 °C – 200 °C hotter than the surrounding rock. The local seismic velocity and attenuation tomography gives a detailed velocity and attenuation model around the geothermal site, which shows that the major geothermal development target is a high velocity body near surface, composed mainly of monzonite. The major fracture direction points to NNE. The detailed velocity model along with the fracture direction will be helpful for guiding the geothermal development in the Cove Fort area.

  9. Geothermal -- The Energy Under Our Feet: Geothermal Resource Estimates for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Green, B. D.; Nix, R. G.

    2006-11-01

    On May 16, 2006, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado hosted a geothermal resources workshop with experts from the geothermal community. The purpose of the workshop was to re-examine domestic geothermal resource estimates. The participating experts were organized into five working groups based on their primary area of expertise in the following types of geothermal resource or application: (1) Hydrothermal, (2) Deep Geothermal Systems, (3) Direct Use, (4) Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs), and (5) Co-Produced and Geopressured. The workshop found that the domestic geothermal resource is very large, with significant benefits.

  10. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  11. Imperial County geothermal development annual meeting: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    All phases of current geothermal development in Imperial County are discussed and future plans for development are reviewed. Topics covered include: Heber status update, Heber binary project, direct geothermal use for high-fructose corn sweetener production, update on county planning activities, Brawley and Salton Sea facility status, status of Imperial County projects, status of South Brawley Prospect 1983, Niland geothermal energy program, recent and pending changes in federal procedures/organizations, plant indicators of geothermal fluid on East Mesa, state lands activities in Imperial County, environmental interests in Imperial County, offshore exploration, strategic metals in geothermal fluids rebuilding of East Mesa Power Plant, direct use geothermal potential for Calipatria industrial Park, the Audubon Society case, status report of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, East Brawley Prospect, and precision gravity survey at Heber and Cerro Prieto geothermal fields. (MHR)

  12. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  13. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  14. Outstanding issues for new geothermal resource assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.F.; Reed, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A critical question for the future energy policy of the United States is the extent to which geothermal resources can contribute to an ever-increasing demand for electricity. Electric power production from geothermal sources exceeds that from wind and solar combined, yet the installed capacity falls far short of the geothermal resource base characterized in past assessments, even though the estimated size of the resource in six assessments completed in the past 35 years varies by thousands of Megawatts-electrical (MWe). The U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working closely with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Geothermal Research Program and other geothermal organizations on a three-year effort to produce an updated assessment of available geothermal resources. The new assessment will introduce significant changes in the models for geothermal energy recovery factors, estimates of reservoir permeability, limits to temperatures and depths for electric power production, and include the potential impact of evolving Enhanced (or Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology.

  15. Fifteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Fifteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 23--25, 1990. Major topics included: DOE's geothermal research and development program, well testing, field studies, geosciences, geysers, reinjection, tracers, geochemistry, and modeling.

  16. An Evaluation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Jelacic, Allan; Fortuna, Raymond; LaSala, Raymond; Nathwani, Jay; Nix, Gerald; Visser, Charles; Green, Bruce; Renner, Joel; Blankenship, Douglas; Kennedy, Mack; Bruton, Carol

    2008-04-01

    This 2008 document presents the results of an eight-month study by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its support staff at the national laboratories concerning the technological requirements to commercialize a new geothermal technology, Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS).

  17. Geothermal Energy: Evaluation of a Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockemuehl, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    This article suggests the use of geothermal energy for producing electricity, using as an example the development at Wairakei, New Zealand. Other geothermal areas are identified, and economic and environmental co sts of additional development are explored. (Author/AV)

  18. Choosing a Geothermal as an HVAC System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lensenbigler, John D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting and installing geothermal water source heat pumps for new residence halls at Johnson Bible College in Knoxville, Tennessee, including choosing the type of geothermal design, contractors, and interior equipment, and cost and payback. (EV)

  19. Exploring for Geothermal Resources with Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of the subsurface is known to be a crucial parameter for the characterization of geothermal settings. Geothermal systems, composed by a system of faults and/or fractures filled with conducting geothermal fluids and altered rocks, are ideal targets for electromagnetic (EM) methods, which have become the industry standard for exploration of geothermal systems. This review paper presents an update of the state-of-the-art geothermal exploration using EM methods. Several examples of high-enthalpy geothermal systems as well as non-volcanic systems are presented showing the successful application of EM for geothermal exploration but at the same time highlighting the importance of the development of conceptual models in order to avoid falling into interpretation pitfalls. The integration of independent data is key in order to obtain a better understanding of the geothermal system as a whole, which is the ultimate goal of exploration.

  20. Modern geothermal power: Binary cycle geothermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.

    2017-04-01

    In the second part of the review of modern geothermal power plant technologies and equipment, a role, a usage scale, and features of application of binary cycle plants in the geothermal economy are considered. Data on the use of low-boiling fluids, their impact on thermal parameters and performance of geothermal binary power units are presented. A retrospective of the use of various low-boiling fluids in industrial binary power units in the world since 1965 is shown. It is noted that the current generating capacity of binary power units running on hydrocarbons is equal to approximately 82.7% of the total installed capacity of all the binary power units in the world. At the same time over the past 5 years, the total installed capacity of geothermal binary power units in 25 countries increased by more than 50%, reaching nearly 1800 MW (hereinafter electric power is indicated), by 2015. A vast majority of the existing binary power plants recovers heat of geothermal fluid in the range of 100-200°C. Binary cycle power plants have an average unit capacity of 6.3 MW, 30.4 MW at single-flash power plants, 37.4 MW at double-flash plants, and 45.4 MW at power plants working on superheated steam. The largest binary cycle geothermal power plants (GeoPP) with an installed capacity of over 60 MW are in operation in the United States and the Philippines. In most cases, binary plants are involved in the production process together with a steam cycle. Requirements to the fluid ensuring safety, reliability, and efficiency of binary power plants using heat of geothermal fluid are determined, and differences and features of their technological processes are shown. Application of binary cycle plants in the technological process of combined GeoPPs makes it possible to recover geothermal fluid more efficiently. Features and advantages of binary cycle plants using multiple fluids, including a Kalina Cycle, are analyzed. Technical characteristics of binary cycle plants produced by various

  1. Geothermal resource assessment in Honduras: How we got to Platanares

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, A.W.; Frank, J.A.; Flores, W.

    1988-01-01

    The initial phase of a geothermal resource assessment of Honduras is essentially complete. Reconnaissance scale geological and geochemical investigations were performed at six previously identified sites to determine relative potentials for electricity generation or direct heat use. Two of the six sites were eliminated because of low potential for the production of electricity and detailed geological and geochemical work was concentrated at the remaining four sites. After an evaluation of new data, two sites (Platanares and San Ignacio) were selected for detailed geophysical surveys and one (Platanares) for gradient drilling. Very encouraging results were obtained from the drilling and it is apparent that a feasibility phase investigation is warranted at Platanares.

  2. Recovery Act: Geothermal Data Aggregation: Submission of Information into the National Geothermal Data System, Final Report DOE Project DE-EE0002852 June 24, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, David D.; Chickering Pace, Cathy; Richards, Maria C.

    2014-06-24

    The National Geothermal Data System (NGDS) is a Department of Energy funded effort to create a single cataloged source for a variety of geothermal information through a distributed network of databases made available via web services. The NGDS will help identify regions suitable for potential development and further scientific data collection and analysis of geothermal resources as a source for clean, renewable energy. A key NGDS repository or ‘node’ is located at Southern Methodist University developed by a consortium made up of: • SMU Geothermal Laboratory • Siemens Corporate Technology, a division of Siemens Corporation • Bureau of Economic Geology at the University of Texas at Austin • Cornell Energy Institute, Cornell University • Geothermal Resources Council • MLKay Technologies • Texas Tech University • University of North Dakota. The focus of resources and research encompass the United States with particular emphasis on the Gulf Coast (on and off shore), the Great Plains, and the Eastern U.S. The data collection includes the thermal, geological and geophysical characteristics of these area resources. Types of data include, but are not limited to, temperature, heat flow, thermal conductivity, radiogenic heat production, porosity, permeability, geological structure, core geophysical logs, well tests, estimated reservoir volume, in situ stress, oil and gas well fluid chemistry, oil and gas well information, and conventional and enhanced geothermal system related resources. Libraries of publications and reports are combined into a unified, accessible, catalog with links for downloading non-copyrighted items. Field notes, individual temperature logs, site maps and related resources are included to increase data collection knowledge. Additional research based on legacy data to improve quality increases our understanding of the local and regional geology and geothermal characteristics. The software to enable the integration, analysis, and

  3. Hot dry rock geothermal prospects, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.E.; Laughlin, A.W.; Aldrich, J.

    1981-01-01

    The hot dry rock (HDR) site selection and resource evaluation team has been assessing roughly 24 sites within the USA as candidates for development of a second HDR geothermal system. Potential sites examined fall broadly into three categories according to the nature of their thermal anomalies: (1) Quaternary magmahydrothermal (volcanic or igneous) systems such as The Geysers-Clear Lake region, California; (2) regional thermal anomalies of tectonic origin such as the Basin and Range Province of the Southwest; and (3) pre-Quaternary plutonic and metamorphic complexes such as the Conway Granite, New Hampshire. Although sites with both electrical generation and direct use potential have been considered, efforts were concentrated on electrical sites. Criteria for a successful HDR electrical generation site utilizing current technology require temperatures greater than or equal to 200/sup 0/C, depths less than or equal to 5/km, and impermeable reservoir rocks. Sites with these characteristics only exist in the western USA. The significance of other criteria such as environmental issues, water rights, public visability, and pre-existing power networks have not yet been evaluated.

  4. Quantitative Risk Assessment for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, T. S.; McKenna, S. A.; Hadgu, T.; Kalinina, E.

    2011-12-01

    This study uses a quantitative risk-assessment approach to place the uncertainty associated with enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) development into meaningful context and to identify points of attack that can reduce risk the most. Using the integrated geothermal assessment tool, GT-Mod, we calculate the complimentary cumulative distribution function of the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) that results from uncertainty in a variety of geologic and economic input parameter values. EGS is a developing technology that taps deep (2-10km) geologic heat sources for energy production by "enhancing" non-permeable hot rock through hydraulic stimulation. Despite the promise of EGS, uncertainties in predicting the physical end economic performance of a site has hindered its development. To address this, we apply a quantitative risk-assessment approach that calculates risk as the sum of the consequence, C, multiplied by the range of the probability, ΔP, over all estimations of a given exceedance probability, n, over time, t. The consequence here is defined as the deviation from the best estimate LCOE, which is calculated using the 'best-guess' input parameter values. The analysis assumes a realistic but fictitious EGS site with uncertainties in the exploration success rate, the sub-surface thermal gradient, the reservoir fracture pattern, and the power plant performance. Uncertainty in the exploration, construction, O&M, and drilling costs are also included. The depth to the resource is calculated from the thermal gradient and a target resource temperature of 225 °C. Thermal performance is simulated using the Gringarten analytical solution. The mass flow rate is set to produce 30 MWe of power for the given conditions and is adjusted over time to maintain that rate over the plant lifetime of 30 years. Simulations are conducted using GT-Mod, which dynamically links the physical systems of a geothermal site to simulate, as an integrated, multi-system component, the

  5. Geothermal Heat Pumps for Federal Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-08-01

    OFFICE OF GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES Geothermal Heat Pumps for Federal Buildings The U.S. Government spends approximately $8 billion annually on its energy needs. To reduce energy use in Federal buildings, President Bill Clinton issued Executive Order 13123 in June 1999, which calls for a 35% reduction in Federal energy use from 1985 levels by 2010. Geothermal heat pumps--when installed in virtually any type of building--can help accomplish this goal with energy savings of up to 40%. Geothermal he.

  6. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 356 records for Wyoming. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Wyoming. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  7. Soil mercury levels in the area surrounding the Cerro Prieto geothermal complex, MEXICO.

    PubMed

    Pastrana-Corral, M A; Wakida, F T; García-Flores, E; Rodriguez-Mendivil, D D; Quiñonez-Plaza, A; Piñon-Colin, T D J

    2016-08-01

    Even though geothermal energy is a renewable energy source that is seen as cost-effective and environmentally friendly, emissions from geothermal plants can impact air, soil, and water in the vicinity of geothermal power plants. The Cerro Prieto geothermal complex is located 30 km southeast of the city of Mexicali in the Mexican state of Baja California. Its installed electricity generation capacity is 720 MW, being the largest geothermal complex in Mexico. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the emissions generated by the geothermal complex have increased the soil mercury concentration in the surrounding areas. Fifty-four surface soil samples were collected from the perimeter up to an approximate distance of 7660 m from the complex. Additionally, four soil depth profiles were performed in the vicinity of the complex. Mercury concentration in 69 % of the samples was higher than the mercury concentration found at the baseline sites. The mercury concentration ranged from 0.01 to 0.26 mg/kg. Our results show that the activities of the geothermal complex have led to an accumulation of mercury in the soil of the surrounding area. More studies are needed to determine the risk to human health and the ecosystems in the study area.

  8. Basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM: Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 314 records for Arizona. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Arizona. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  9. Colorado: basic data for thermal springs and wells as recorded in GEOTHERM

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    GEOTHERM sample file contains 225 records for Colorado. Three computer-generated indexes are found in appendices A, B, and C of this report. The indexes give one line summaries of each GEOTHERM record describing the chemistry of geothermal springs and wells in the sample file for Colorado. Each index is sorted by different variables to assist the user in locating geothermal records describing specific sites. Appendix A is sorted by the county name and the name of the source. Also given are latitude, longitude (both use decimal minutes), township, range, section, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix B is sorted by county, township, range, and section. Also given are name of source, GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). Appendix C is first sorted into one-degree blocks by latitude, and longitude, and then by name of source. Adjacent one-degree blocks which are published as a 1:250,000 map are combined under the appropriate map name. Also given are GEOTHERM record identifier, and temperature (/sup 0/C). A bibliography is given in Appendix D.

  10. Economic Decision Making Model for Geothermal Sludge Disposal alternatives (EDM-GSD): Version 1. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The Economic Decision Making Model for Geothermal Sludge Disposal Alternatives-Version 1.0'' (EDM-GSD 1.0) is a microcomputer-based dynamic model developed to assist in determining the benefits and costs of various geothermal solid waste treatment procedures. It is intended for use by geothermal managers in dealing with geothermal waste and treatment process issues as a means to assist in overcoming the technical and economic barriers to expanded geothermal energy utilization. The model is based on a 50MW flash plant. However, it is designed to provide the user with sufficient flexibility when inputing data to analyze all types of geothermal plants. Default values for economic and technical parameters can be overridden by the user through the input of specific data. In addition, data can be changed for any year of an analysis to account for desired changes in input parameters such as costs and distance to disposal sites. The results of the model will allow the user to: Determine current geothermal plant disposal costs; Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of alternative treatment techniques; and Evaluate the economic effects of changes in disposal regulations.

  11. Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Honjas, Bill

    2016-08-01

    J. N. Louie, Pullammanappallil, S., and Honjas, W., 2011, Advanced seismic imaging for geothermal development: Proceedings of the New Zealand Geothermal Workshop 2011, Nov. 21-23, Auckland, paper 32, 7 pp. Preprint available at http://crack.seismo.unr.edu/geothermal/Louie-NZGW11.pdf

  12. Geothermal Energy Development annual report 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This report is an exerpt from Earth Sciences Division Annual Report 1979 (LBL-10686). Progress in thirty-four research projects is reported including the following area: geothermal exploration technology, geothermal energy conversion technology, reservoir engineering, and geothermal environmental research. Separate entries were prepared for each project. (MHR)

  13. Geothermal energy for Hawaii: a prospectus

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, W.W.S.; Iacofano, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of geothermal development is provided for contributors and participants in the process: developers, the financial community, consultants, government officials, and the people of Hawaii. Geothermal energy is described along with the issues, programs, and initiatives examined to date. Hawaii's future options are explored. Included in appendices are: a technical glossary, legislation and regulations, a geothermal directory, and an annotated bibliography. (MHR)

  14. Strategic plan for the geothermal energy program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Geothermal energy (natural heat in the Earth`s crust) represents a truly enormous amount of energy. The heat content of domestic geothermal resources is estimated to be 70,000,000 quads, equivalent to a 750,000-year supply of energy for the entire Nation at current rates of consumption. World geothermal resources (exclusive of resources under the oceans) may be as much as 20 times larger than those of the US. While industry has focused on hydrothermal resources (those containing hot water and/or steam), the long-term future of geothermal energy lies in developing technology to enable use of the full range of geothermal resources. In the foreseeable future, heat may be extracted directly from very hot rocks or from molten rocks, if suitable technology can be developed. The US Department of Energy`s Office of Geothermal Technologies (OGT) endorses a vision of the future in which geothermal energy will be the preferred alternative to polluting energy sources. The mission of the Program is to work in partnership with US industry to establish geothermal energy as a sustainable, environmentally sound, economically competitive contributor to the US and world energy supply. In executing its mission and achieving its long-term vision for geothermal energy, the Program has identified five strategic goals: electric power generation; direct use applications and geothermal heat pumps; international geothermal development; science and technology; and future geothermal resources. This report discusses the objectives of these five goals.

  15. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  16. China starts tapping rich geothermal resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang, D.

    1980-09-01

    Attention is given to the electric and power installation running on geothermal energy at Yangbajain, Tibet. Other geothermal projects in Tibet, the Yunnan Province and the North China Plain are also outlined. Applications of geothermal energy are described, including the heating of homes and factories, spinning, weaving, paper-making and the making of wine.

  17. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  18. Advancements in 3D Structural Analysis of Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett; McNamara, David

    2013-06-23

    . Analysis of fault intersection density indicates that the highest density of structurally controlled permeability within the field lies in a narrow (10-to-10s of m) zone plunging moderately (~35°) to the NNW beneath Pleistocene tufa deposits. This zone of increased fracture density, which we interpret as the primary upflow zone, is controlled by the intersection of N-to-NNW striking normal faults and a WNW striking dextral fault zone and represents the most promising target for future drilling. Construction of a 3D geologic model involves integration of a variety of data into an internally consistent framework. A robust model allows for spatial comparison between the various types of data (structural, stratigraphic, geophysical, temperature, etc.) that are commonly used independently to site geothermal wells. Furthermore, highly detailed 3D geologic models provide the basis for additional quantitative analysis, including 3D fault slip and dilation tendency analysis and the precise location of structurally controlled permeability pathways. These analyses provide detailed information relating to the internal dynamics of geothermal systems and can mitigate the costs and risks of geothermal exploration and development by contributing to better well targeting and more accurate evaluations of resource potential.

  19. Arsenic speciation in natural sulfidic geothermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Nicole S.; Stefánsson, Andri; Sigfússon, Bergur

    2014-10-01

    The speciation of arsenic in natural sulfidic geothermal waters was studied using chemical analyses and thermodynamic aqueous speciation calculations. Samples were collected in three geothermal systems in Iceland, having contrasting H2S concentrations in the reservoir (high vs. low). The sampled waters contained 7-116 ppb As and <0.01-77.6 ppm H2S with pH of 8.56-9.60. The analytical setup used for the determination of arsenic species (Ion Chromatography-Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry, IC-HG-AFS) was field-deployed and the samples analyzed within ∼5 min of sampling in order to prevent changes upon storage, which were shown to be considerable regardless of the sample storage method used. Nine aqueous arsenic species were detected, among others arsenite (HnAsIIIO3n-3), thioarsenite (HnAsIIIS3n-3), arsenate (HnAsVO4n-3), monothioarsenate (HnAsVSO3n-3), dithioarsenate (HnAsVS2O2n-3), trithioarsenate (HnAsVS3O n - 3) and tetrathioarsenate (HnAsVS4n-3). The results of the measured aqueous arsenic speciation in the natural geothermal waters and comparison with thermodynamic calculations reveal that the predominant factors determining the species distribution are sulfide concentration and pH. In alkaline waters with low sulfide concentrations the predominant species are AsIII oxyanions. This can be seen in samples from a liquid-only well, tapping water that is H2S-poor and free of oxygen. At intermediate sulfide concentration AsIII and AsV thio species become important and predominate at high sulfide concentration, as seen in two-phase well waters, which have high H2S concentrations in the reservoir. Upon oxidation, for instance due to mixing of the reservoir fluid with oxygenated water upon ascent to the surface, AsV oxyanions form, as well as AsV thio complexes if the sulfide concentration is intermediate to high. This oxidation process can be seen in samples from hot springs in the Geysir geothermal area. While the thermodynamic modeling allows

  20. Geothermal Systems of the Yellowstone Caldera Field Trip Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Duncan; Neilson, Dennis L.; Nichols, Clayton R.

    1980-09-08

    Geothermal studies are proceedings on two fronts in the West Yellowstone area. High-temperature resources for the generation of electricity are being sought in the Island Park area, and lower temperatures resources for direct applications, primarily space heating, are being explored for near the town of West Yellowstone. Potential electric geothermal development in the Island Park area has been the subject of widespread publicity over fears of damage to thermal features in Yellowstone Park. At the time of writing this guide, companies have applied for geothermal leases in the Island Park area, but these leases have not yet been granted by the US Forest Service. The Senate is now discussing a bill that would regulate geothermal development in Island Park; outcome of this debate will determine the course of action on the lease applications. The Island Park area was the site of two cycles of caldera activity, with major eruptions at 2.0 and 1.2 million years ago. The US Geological Survey estimates that 16,850 x 10{sup 18} joules of energy may remain in the system. Geothermal resources suitable for direct applications are being sought in the West Yellowstone vicinity by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology, under funding from the US Department of Energy. West Yellowstone has a mean annual temperature of 1-2 C. Research thus far suggests that basement rocks in the vicinity are at a depth of about 600 m and are probably similar to the rocks exposed north of Hebgen Lake, where Precambrian, Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks have been mapped. A few sites with anomalously warm water have been identified near the town. Work is continuing on this project.

  1. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants and a cold storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawi, Mashal; Lerm, Stephanie; Vieth, Andrea; Vetter, Alexandra; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Seibt, Andrea; Wolfgramm, Markus; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy. In the scope of the research project 'AquiScreen' we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was analyzed by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Sequencing of dominant bands of fingerprints from different sites and the subsequent comparison on public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants covering a temperature range from 45° to 120° C microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that -in addition to abiotic factors- microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components we identified SRB by specific analyses of dissimilatoric sulfite reductase genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and examined precipitation products like iron sulfides are indicating that microorganisms play an important role for the understanding of processes in engineered

  2. Geothermal systems in volcanic arcs: Volcanic characteristics and surface manifestations as indicators of geothermal potential and favorability worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelling, P.; Shevenell, L.; Hinz, N.; Coolbaugh, M.; Melosh, G.; Cumming, W.

    2016-09-01

    This paper brings a global perspective to volcanic arc geothermal assessments by evaluating trends and correlations of volcanic characteristic and surface manifestation data from world power production sites in subduction zone volcanic settings. The focus of the work was to evaluate volcanic centers individually and as a group in these arcs by correlating various geologic characteristics with known potential to host electricity grade geothermal systems at the volcanic centers. A database was developed that describes key geologic factors expected to be indicative of productive geothermal systems in a global training set, which includes all 74 subduction zone volcanic centers world-wide with current or proven power production capability. Importantly, this data set only contains data from subduction zone volcanoes and contains no negative cases, limiting the populations of any statistical groups. Regardless, this is the most robust geothermal benchmark training set for magmatic-heated systems to date that has been made public. The work reported here is part of a larger project that included data collection, evaluation, correlations and weightings, fairway and favorability modeling and mapping, prediction of blind systems, and uncertainty analysis to estimate errors associated with model predictions. This first paper describes volcano characteristics, compositions and eruption ages and trends along with surface manifestation observations and temperatures as they relate to known power producing systems. Our findings show a strong correlation between the presence and size of active flank fumarole areas and installed power production. Additionally, the majority of volcanic characteristics, including long-held anecdotal correlations related to magmatic composition or size, have limited to no correlation with power production potential. Notable exceptions are correlations between greater power yield from geothermal systems associated with older (Pleistocene) caldera systems

  3. Geopressured-geothermal development and coastal subsidence in Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Elevation changes at the Parcperdue geopressured-geothermal test site in southwestern Louisiana range from 0.8 to 0.16 in/y (+2 to -4 mm/y) and reflect natural base-line movements associated with salt dome growth and the compaction of thick, recent sediments. Natural variation is the primary cause of greater movement at the nearby Rockefeller Refuge geopressured-geothermal test site where base-line movement rates range from -0.43 to -0.55 in/y (-12 to -14 mm/y). Holocene sediments in the coastal marshlands at Rockefeller Refuge are more susceptible to compactional subsidence than upland Pleistocene formations at Parcperdue. Anomalous subsidence at both test sites coincided with site preparation and well drilling and may have been related to loading of surficial soils by the weight of drilling equipment. Elevation changes monitored after drilling and during formation testing were consistent with base-line subsidence rates, indicating that loading was temporary. Anomalous base-line subsidence rates coinciding with areas of historical fluid withdrawal indicate that these effects may outweigh the effects of present geopressured-geothermal development.

  4. Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard

    2012-02-01

    Title: Topographic and Air-Photo Lineaments in Various Locations Related to Geothermal Exploration in Colorado Tags: Colorado, lineaments, air-photo, geothermal Summary: These line shapefiles trace apparent topographic and air-photo lineaments in various counties in Colorado. It was made in order to identify possible fault and fracture systems that might be conduits for geothermal fluids, as part of a DOE reconnaissance geothermal exploration program. Description: Geothermal fluids commonly utilize fault and fractures in competent rocks as conduits for fluid flow. Geothermal exploration involves finding areas of high near-surface temperature gradients, along with a suitable “plumbing system” that can provide the necessary permeability. Geothermal power plants can sometimes be built where temperature and flow rates are high. This line shapefile is an attempt to use desktop GIS to delineate possible faults and fracture orientations and locations in highly prospective areas prior to an initial site visit. Geochemical sampling and geologic mapping could then be centered around these possible faults and fractures. To do this, georeferenced topographic maps and aerial photographs were utilized in an existing GIS, using ESRI ArcMap 10.0 software. The USA_Topo_Maps and World_Imagery map layers were chosen from the GIS Server at server.arcgisonline.com, using a UTM Zone 13 NAD27 projection. This line shapefile was then constructed over that which appeared to be through-going structural lineaments in both the aerial photographs and topographic layers, taking care to avoid manmade features such as roads, fence lines, and utility right-of-ways. Still, it is unknown what actual features these lineaments, if they exist, represent. Although the shapefiles are arranged by county, not all areas within any county have been examined for lineaments. Work was focused on either satellite thermal infrared anomalies, known hot springs or wells, or other evidence of geothermal systems

  5. The Impact of Changes in Water Availability on Geothermal Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassley, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The conventional geothermal electrical generation capacity potential in the United States is estimated to be as high as 90 GW (USGS, 2008). If Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are included, the estimated capacity soars beyond 800 GW. Current generation capacity in the U.S. is approximately 1,000 GW. With a capacity factor close to 0.9, these numbers suggest that geothermal energy has the potential to be the primary provider of electrical energy in the United States. Realizing that potential is important, since geothermal energy is renewable, has low to no emissions, involves no fuel cycle, has one of the lowest spatial footprints per MW, has one of the lowest levelized costs of energy and the highest energy returned on energy invested values. However, access to water is an important prerequisite for geothermal power generation. It is required in drilling, heat transfer and power production. For EGS applications, water is also needed for stimulation. Much of the water currently utilized in these geothermal applications is groundwater. The impact of climate change on geothermal power generation will be expressed primarily through water availability. The details of potential water change impacts on power generation in existing and future geothermal sites will be presented in three case studies. It will be shown that strategies for mitigating groundwater losses are available, and include: use of degraded water in geothermal systems; use of captured CO2 for heat transfer; expanded use of dry cooling; improved resolution of subsurface permeability mapping; improved efficiencies in power generation; and expanded access to high enthalpy resources. Achieving these benefits will require aggressive research programs. Developing model hybrid technologies that combine geothermal-solar-biomass-wind-small hydro should be part of this research effort. Coupling geothermal resource exploration and mapping with detailed analysis of groundwater resources (recharge sites; climate

  6. Colorado Potential Geothermal Pathways

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Colorado PRS Cool Fairways Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the weakened basement rocks. Isostatic gravity was utilized to identify structural basin areas, characterized by gravity low values reflecting weakened basement rocks. Together interpreted regional fault zones and basin outlines define geothermal "exploration fairways", where the potential exists for deep, superheated fluid flow in the absence of Pliocene or younger volcanic units Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4544698.569273 m Left: 144918.141004 m Right: 763728.391299 m Bottom: 4094070.397932 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  7. Models for geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelides, E.E.

    1980-06-01

    The problem of two-phase flow pressure loss is examined in order to give an answer to the problem of determination of the wellhead conditions. For this purpose two models have been developed, the first based on the pattern structure of the flow and the second on the mixing length theory. The void fraction correlations and the transition conditions are presented in the first model as a means of estimating the pressure loss. Heat losses, and the effect of impurities are examined in detail. An expression for the critical flow conditions is also derived. The model is used to predict the available power at the wellhead under various conditions and an answer to the problem of well pumping is given. For the second model an outline of the mixing length theory and the boundary layer coordinates is given; a density distribution in the geothermal well is assumed and the equations for the pressure loss are derived by means of the entropy production function. Finally a comparison of the two models is made and their predictive power is tested against known well data. A brief comparison with the Denver Research Institute is also made.

  8. Thermodynamics of geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, P.S.Z.

    1981-03-01

    A model to predict the thermodynamic properties of geothermal brines, based on a minimum amount of experimental data on a few key systems, is tested. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride, taken from the literature, are represented by a parametric equation over the range 0 to 300{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 1 kbar. Density measurements at 20 bar needed to complete the volumetric description also are presented. The pressure dependence of activity and thermal properties, derived from the volumetric equation, can be used to complete an equation of state for sodium chloride solutions. A flow calorimeter, used to obtain heat capacity data at high temperatures and pressures, is described. Heat capacity measurements, from 30 to 200{sup 0}C and 1 bar to 200 bar, are used to derive values for the activity coefficient and other thermodynamic properties of sodium sulfate solutions as a function of temperature. Literature data on the solubility of gypsum in mixed electrolyte solutions have been used to evaluate model parameters for calculating gypsum solubility in seawater and natural brines. Predictions of strontium and barium sulfate solubility in seawater also are given.

  9. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, M.P. . Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi . Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  10. Lassen geothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.; Nehring, N.L.; Truesdell, A.H.; Janik, C.J.; Clynne, M.A.; Thompson, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Lassen geothermal system consists of a central vapor-dominated reservoir underlain by hot water that discharges peripherally at lower elevations. The major thermal upflow at Bumpass Hell (elevation 2500 m) displays numerour superheated fumaroles, one of which in 1976 was 159/sup 0/C. Gas geothermometers from the fumarole areas and water geothermometers from boiling Cl-bearing waters at Morgan Hot Springs (elevation 1530 m; 8 km south of Bumpass Hell) and from 176/sup 0/C waters in a well 12 km southeast of Bumpass Hell both indicate 230 to 240/sup 0/C for the deep thermal water. With increasing distance from Bumpass Hell, gases are progressively depleted in H/sub 2/S relative to CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/, owing to oxidation of H/sub 2/S to pyrite, sulfur, and sulfates and to dilution with atmospheric N/sub 2/. H/sub 2/O/gas ratios and degree of superheat of fumaroles can be explained by mixing of steam of maximum enthalpy (2804 J g/sup -1/) with near-surface water and with the condensate layer overlying the vapor-dominated reservoir.

  11. Poroelastic response of geothermal reservoirs during hydraulic stimulation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquey, Antoine; Urpi, Luca; Cacace, Mauro; Blöcher, Guido; Zimmermann, Günter; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) are engineered reservoirs developed to extract heat from low permeability and low porosity geological formations. Cyclic hydraulic stimulation treatments are used in such a context to create hydraulic fractures, minimizing the fluid injected volume (recently proposed as a mitigation strategy for induced seismicity) to gain access to the target formation fluids, drain the geothermal fluid and therefore increase the overall productivity of the geothermal reservoir. During these operations, successive cycles of injection of high flow rates are conducted to decrease the effective minimum principal stress, and therefore the tensile strength of the material, developing a hydraulic fracture. Opening of these newly developed fractures induces an additional deformation of the reservoir rocks. In this study, the poroelastic response resulting from induced deformation during cyclic hydraulic stimulation treatment of a well is investigated using hydromechanical coupling between pore pressure variations and solid rock deformation. The effects of this poroelastic response on the hydromechanical state of a reservoir is illustrated by means of field measurements of a cyclic hydraulic stimulation treatment conducted at the Groß Schönebeck geothermal research site in August 2007. This study points out that a nonlinear pore pressure response arises within the reservoir rocks due to the deformation generated by the stimulation treatment. It is shown here that the 3D poroelastic response of the reservoir leads to an unexpected quasi-instantaneous pore pressure increase in a neighbor monitoring well located approximatively 475 m away from the stimulated well at reservoir depth.

  12. East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

    1984-11-28

    Barber-Nichols has completed the design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below ground test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility to attract the largest number of potential users. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

  13. East Mesa geothermal pump test facility (EMPTF). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, R.G.; Roberts, G.K.

    1984-11-28

    The design, fabrication and installation of a geothermal pump test facility (EMPFT) at the DOE geothermal site at East Mesa, California which is capable of testing 70 to 750 horsepower downwell pumps in a controlled geothermal environment were completed. The facility consists of a skid-mounted brine control module, a 160 foot below test well section, a hydraulic turbine for power recovery, a gantry-mounted hoist for pump handling and a 3-phase, 480 VAC, 1200 amp power supply to handle pump electric requirements. Geothermal brine is supplied to the EMPTF from one of the facility wells at East Mesa. The EMPTF is designed with a great amount of flexibility. The 20-inch diameter test well can accommodate a wide variety of pumps. The controls are interactive and can be adjusted to obtain a full complement of pump operation data, or set to maintain constant conditions to allow long-term testing with a minimum of operator support. The hydraulic turbine allows the EMPTF user to recover approximately 46% of the input pump power to help defray the operating cost of the unit. The hoist is provided for material handling and pump servicing and reduces the equipment that the user must supply for pump installation, inspection and removal.

  14. Exploration geothermal gradient drilling, Platanares, Honduras, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Laughlin, A.W.; Ruefenacht, H.D.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.; Ramos, N.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a review and summary of the core drilling operations component of the Honduras Geothermal Resource Development Project at the Platanares geothermal prospect in Honduras, Central America. Three intermediate depth (428 to 679 m) coreholes are the first continuously cored geothermal exploration boreholes in Honduras. These coring operations are part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) effort funded by the Agency for International Development (AID) and implemented by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) in cooperation with the Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). This report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy, thermal gradient, and flow test data of the boreholes. The primary objectives of this coring effort were (1) to obtain quantitative information on the temperature distribution as a function of depth, (2) to recover fluids associated with the geothermal reservoir, (3) to recover 75% or better core from the subsurface rock units, and (4) to drill into the subsurface rock as deeply as possible in order to get information on potential reservoir rocks, fracture density, permeabilities, and alteration histories of the rock units beneath the site. The three exploration coreholes drilled to depths of 650, 428 and 679 m, respectively, encountered several hot water entries. Coring operations and associated testing began in mid-October 1986 and were completed at the end of June 1987.

  15. Imperial County geothermal development. Summary report, 1979-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The progress of geothermal development during the past three years, county activities in support of geothermal development, and current challenges and future needs of the geothermal industry and the county are summarized. Exploration activities have resulted in the identification and definition of three additional Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRAs) during the grant period: the Westmorland KGRA, the East Brawley KGRA, both in 1980, and the South Brawley KGRA in 1982. Exploration is continuing in other areas of the county as well. Three 10 megawatt power plants have begun operations during the grant period: the Magma East Mesa 10 Megawatt Binary Power Plant, the Union/Southern California Edison 10 Megawatt Flash Power Plant in Brawley, both beginning operations in 1980, and the Union/Southern California Edison 10 Megawatt Flash Power Plant at the Salton Sea, initiating operations in 1982. Three commercial power plants are scheduled to begin construction during late 1982 or early 1983. Groundbreaking for the Heber Binary Project is scheduled for November 1982. Site work has already begun for the Heber Flash Power Plant. The Magma 28 megawatt power plant at the Salton Sea is to begin construction in early 1983. Two commercial power plants are in planning stages. (MHR)

  16. Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala: exploration geothermal gradient drilling and results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.; Janik, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Results of geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical field studies conducted in 1988 and 1989 at the Tecuamburro geothermal site, Guatemala, indicate that there is a substantial shallow heat source beneath the area of youngest volcanism. Gases from acid-sulfate springs near Laguna Ixpaco consistently yield maximum estimated subsurface temperatures of 300??C. To obtain information on subsurface temperatures and temperature gradients, stratigraphy, fracturing, hydrothermal alteration, and hydrothermal fluids, a geothermal gradient core hole (TCB-1) was drilled to 808 m low on the northern flank of the Tecuamburro Volcano complex. The hole is located 300 m south of a 300m-diameter phreatic crater. Laguna Ixpaco, dated at 2910 years. TCB-1 temperature logs do not indicate isothermal conditions at depth and the calculated thermal gradient from 500-800 m is 230??C/km. Bottom hole temperature is close to 240??C. Calculated heat flow values are around 350-400 mW/m2. Fluid-inclusion and secondary-alteration studies indicate that veins and secondary minerals were formed at temperatures equal to or slightly less than present temperatures; thus, the Tecuamburro geothermal system may still be heating up. The integration of results from the TCB-1 gradient core hole with results from field studies provides strong evidence that the Tecuamburro area holds great promise for geothermal resource development. ?? 1992.

  17. Environmental problems and geothermal permitting

    SciTech Connect

    Windrem, P.F.; Marr, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of geothermal development, the attendant environmental hazards, and the jurisdictions of the various government agencies. Most examples of environmental hazards are drawn from the electric-power production in the geysers of northern California. The major enviromental effects of geothermal development are observed on air quality (including noise), land (including soil erosion, seismic activity and subsidence, wildlife habitat, and visual quality), and water quality. Ownership determines which agencies have jurisdiction, with the preparation of an environmental impact statement at the heart of the federal regulatory process and an environmental-impact report required at the state level. Environmental rules also cover power-plant construction and geothermal field abandonment. 58 references.

  18. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Alternative Geothermal Power Production Scenarios

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sullivan, John

    2014-03-14

    The information given in this file pertains to Argonne LCAs of the plant cycle stage for a set of ten new geothermal scenario pairs, each comprised of a reference and improved case. These analyses were conducted to compare environmental performances among the scenarios and cases. The types of plants evaluated are hydrothermal binary and flash and Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) binary and flash plants. Each scenario pair was developed by the LCOE group using GETEM as a way to identify plant operational and resource combinations that could reduce geothermal power plant LCOE values. Based on the specified plant and well field characteristics (plant type, capacity, capacity factor and lifetime, and well numbers and depths) for each case of each pair, Argonne generated a corresponding set of material to power ratios (MPRs) and greenhouse gas and fossil energy ratios.

  20. Geothermometer calculations for geothermal assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, M.J.; Mariner, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Geothermal exploration programs have relied on the calculation of geothermometers from hot spring chemistry as an early estimation of geothermal reservoir temperatures. Calibration of the geothermometers has evolved from experimental determinations of mineral solubility as a function of temperature to calibration from analyses of water chemistry from known depths and temperatures in thermal wells. Most of the geothermometers were calibrated from analyses of sodium-chloride type waters, and the application of some geothermometers should be restricted to waters of the chemical types that were used in their calibration. Chemical analyses must be determined to be reliable before they are used to calculate geothermometers. The USGS Geothermal Resource Assessment will rely on the silica geothermometer developed by Giggenbach that approximates the transition between chalcedony at 20??C and quartz at 200??C. Above 200??C, the assessment will rely on the quartz geothermometer. In addition, the assessment will also rely on the potassium-magnesium geothermometer.

  1. Hydro-mechanical modelling of induced seismicity during the deep geothermal project in St. Gallen, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbinden, Dominik; Rinaldi, Antonio Pio; Kraft, Toni; Diehl, Tobias; Wiemer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The St. Gallen deep geothermal project in 2013 was the second geothermal project in Switzerland with the objective of power production after the Enhanced Geothermal System in Basel in 2006. In St. Gallen, the seismic risk was expected to be smaller than in Basel, since the hydrothermal resource was an aquifer at a depth of about 4 km, not expected to require permeability enhancement and associated hydroshearing of the rock. However, after an injectivity test and two acid stimulations, unexpected gas release from an unidentified source forced the operators to inject drilling mud into the well to fight the gas kick. Subsequently, several seismic events were induced, the largest one having a local magnitude of 3.5, which was distinctly felt by the nearby living population. Even though the induced seismicity could not be handled properly, the community still strongly supported the geothermal project. The project was however halted because the target formation was not as permeable as required to deliver sufficient power. Still, controlling induced seismicity during deep geothermal projects is a key factor to successfully operate future geothermal projects. Hence, it is crucial to understand the physical relations of fluid injection, pressure and stress response at reservoir depth as well as associated induced seismicity. To date, these processes are yet not fully understood. In this study, we aim at developing a hydro-mechanical model reproducing the main features of the induced seismic sequence at the St. Gallen geothermal site. Here, we present the conceptual model and preliminary results accounting for hydraulic and mechanical parameters from the geothermal well, geological information from a seismic survey conducted in the St. Gallen region, and actual fluid injection rates from the injectivity tests. In a future step, we are going to use this model to simulate the physical interaction of injected fluid, gas release, hydraulic response of the rock, and induced

  2. Geothermal Progress Monitor: Report No. 14

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This issue of the Geothermal Progress Monitor, the 14th since its inception in 1980, highlights the anticipated rapid growth in the use of geothermal heat pumps and documents the continued growth in the use of geothermal energy for power generation, both in this country and abroad. In countries with a relatively large demand for new generation capacity, geothermal, if available, is being called on as a preferable alternative to the use of domestic or imported oil. On the other hand, in this country where current demand for new capacity is less, geothermal energy is commonly being put to use in small power generation units operating on the hot water resource.

  3. The geothermal fields of the Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaroh, Don; Okoth, William

    1994-09-01

    From the standpoint of geothermal energy, Kenya's resources are due to the presence of the Kenya rift which is part of the East African rift system. Geological, geophysical and geothermal studies indicate that Neogene volcanic activity has led to the presence of near surface heat generating sources. Geothermal fields of the Kenya rift occur in two types of environments. The main geothermal fields are associated with Quaternary volcanoes. The second type is associated with fissures that are related to active fault zones. In either case, these fields are dissected by numerous rift faults that give rise to a number of geothermal springs and fumaroles.

  4. Geothermal progress monitor report No. 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Geothermal Progress Monitor Report No. 6 presents a state-by-state summary of the status of geothermal leasing, exploration, and development in major physiographic regions where geothermal resource potential has been identified. Recent state-specific activities are reported at the end of each state status report, while recent activities of a more general nature are summarized briefly in Part II of the report. A list of recent publications of potential interest to the geothermal community and a directory of contributors to the geothermal progress monitoring system are also included.

  5. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  6. Geothermal well-field and power-plant investment-decision analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, T.A.V.; Amundsen, C.B.; Edelstein, R.H.; Blair, P.D.

    1981-05-31

    Investment decisions pertaining to hydrothermal well fields and electric power plants are analyzed. Geothermal investment decision models were developed which, when coupled to a site-specific stochastic cash flow model, estimate the conditional probability of a positive decision to invest in the development of geothermal resource areas. Quantitative decision models have been developed for each major category of investor currently involved in the hydrothermal projects. These categories include: large, diversified energy resource corporations; independently operating resource firms; investor-owned electric utilities; municipal electric utilities; state-run resource agencies; and private third-party power plant investors. The geothermal cash flow, the investment decision analysis, and an example of model application for assessing the likely development of geothermal resource areas are described. The sensitivity of this investment behavior to federal incentives and research goals is also analyzed and discussed.

  7. Geothermal technology transfer for direct heat applications: Final report, 1983--1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a geothermal technology transfer program, performed by Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, used to aid in the development of geothermal energy for direct heat applications. It provides a summary of 88 technical assistance projects performed in 10 states for space heating, district heating, green-houses, aquaculture, industrial processing, small scale binary electric power generation and heat pump applications. It describes an inventory compiled for over 100 direct heat projects that contains information on project site, resource and engineering data. An overview of information services is provided to users of the program which includes; advisory, referrals, literature distribution, geothermal technology library, quarterly Bulletin, training programs, presentations and tours, and reporting of activities for the USDOE Geothermal Progress Monitor.

  8. Characterization of the geothermal resource at Lackland AFB, San Antonio, Texas. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawford, T.W.; Malone, C.R.; Allman, D.W.; Zeisloft, J.; Foley, D.

    1983-06-01

    The geothermal resource under Lackland Air Force Base (AFB), San Antonio, Texas was studied. It is the conclusion of the investigators that a geothermal well drilled at the site recommended by this study has a high probability of delivering geothermal fluids in sufficient quantity and at adequate temperatures to support a projected space and domestic hot water heating system. An exploratory production well location is recommended in the southwest sector of the base, based upon geologic conditions and the availability of sufficient open space to support the drilling operation. It is projected that a production well drilled at the recommended location would produce geothermal fluid of 130 to 145/sup 0/F at a rate of approximately 1000 gpm with reasonable fluid drawdowns. The Environmental Assessment for the drilling portion of the project has been completed, and no irreversible or irretrievable impacts are anticipated as a result of this drilling program. The permitting process is proceeding smoothly.

  9. Geothermal activities in Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Whetten, J.T.; Hanold, R.J.

    1985-09-11

    The Agency for International Development is funding a new program in energy and minerals for Central America. Geothermal energy is an important component. A country-wide geothermal assessment has started in Honduras, and other assessment activities are in progress or planned for Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Panama. Instrumentation for well logging has been provided to Costa Rica, and a self-contained logging truck will be made available for use throughout Central America. An important objective of this program is to involve the private sector in resource development. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Semiannual progress report for the Idaho Geothermal Program, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ihrig, R.R.

    1980-07-01

    Progress is reported for the Idaho Geothermal program between October 1, 1979 and March 31, 1980. Progress on the 5-MW Pilot Power Plant at the Raft River Geothermal Test Site is summarized including construction, steady-state and transient analyses by computer modeling, the geothermal water treatment program, and additional experimental and theoretical work on direct contact heat exchangers. Asbestos-cement pipe failures in the geothermal fluid supply and injection system are also summarized. The successful automatic control-mode testing of the Prototype Power Plant is reported. A continuing direct applications experiment in aquaculture is outlined, and a proposal to study various ramifications of irrigating agricultural and range lands with spent geothermal fluid is described briefly. Also outlined is the second experimental hydraulic fracture treatment of a geothermal well at Raft River as part of the National Well Stimulation Program. The improvements to the Raft River site facilities are described, and progress in providing technical information and assistance in the Outreach, or User Assistance program presented. Also presented is a new DOE program, the User Coupled Confirmation Drilling Program, which is intended to reduce the financial risk of hydrothermal reservoir exploration by the private sector. Progress reports are also included on DOE's Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Program demonstration projects and Program Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) Program study projects.

  11. Mexican geothermal development and the future

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, J.M.E.V.

    1998-10-01

    Geothermics in Mexico started in 1954, by drilling the first geothermal well in Pathe, State of Hidalgo, which reached a depth of 237 meters. In 1959 electrical generation from geothermal origin began, with an installed capacity of 3.5 MW. From 1959 to 1994 Mexico increased its installed capacity to 753 MW, by developing three geothermal fields: Cerro Prieto, Los Azufres, and Los Humeros. Currently, 177 wells produce steam at a rate of 36 tons per hour (t/h) each. Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE, Federal Commission of Electricity) has planned to increase the geothermal-electric installed capacity through construction and installation of several projects. Repowering of operating units and development of new geothermal zones will also allow Mexican geothermal growth.

  12. Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project--initial report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shervais, J.W.; Nielson, D.; Lachmar, T.; Christiansen, E.H.; Morgan, L.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Delahunty, C.; Schmitt, D.R.; Liberty, L.M.; Blackwell, D.D.; Glen, J.M.; Kessler, J.A.; Potter, K.E.; Jean, M.M.; Sant, C.J.; Freeman, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. The primary goal of this project is to evaluate geothermal potential in three distinct settings: (1) Kimama site: inferred high sub-aquifer geothermal gradient associated with the intrusion of mafic magmas, (2) Kimberly site: a valley-margin setting where surface heat flow may be driven by the up-flow of hot fluids along buried caldera ringfault complexes, and (3) Mountain Home site: a more traditional fault-bounded basin with thick sedimentary cover. The Kimama hole, on the axial volcanic zone, penetrated 1912 m of basalt with minor intercalated sediment; no rhyolite basement was encountered. Temperatures are isothermal through the aquifer (to 960 m), then rise steeply on a super-conductive gradient to an estimated bottom hole temperature of ~98°C. The Kimberly hole is on the inferred margin of a buried rhyolite eruptive center, penetrated rhyolite with intercalated basalt and sediment to a TD of 1958 m. Temperatures are isothermal at 55-60°C below 400 m, suggesting an immense passive geothermal resource. The Mountain Home hole is located above the margin of a buried gravity high in the western SRP. It penetrates a thick section of basalt and lacustrine sediment overlying altered basalt flows, hyaloclastites, and volcanic sediments, with a TD of 1821 m. Artesian flow of geothermal water from 1745 m depth documents a power-grade resource that is now being explored in more detail. In-depth studies continue at all three sites, complemented by high-resolution gravity, magnetic, and seismic surveys, and by downhole geophysical logging.

  13. Geothermal Program Review XII: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the President's Climate Change Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-31

    Geothermal Program Review XII, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of US Department of Energy, was held April 25--28, 1994, in San Francisco, California. This annual conference is designed to promote effective technology transfer by bringing together DOE-sponsored researchers; utility representatives; geothermal energy developers; suppliers of geothermal goods and services; representatives from federal, state, and local agencies; and others with an interest in geothermal energy. In-depth reviews of the latest technological advancements and research results are presented during the conference with emphasis on those topics considered to have the greatest potential to impact the near-term commercial development of geothermal energy.

  14. Wine Valley Inn: A mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. Geothermal-energy-system conceptual design and economic feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the engineering and economic feasibility for utilizing geothermal energy for air conditioning and service water heating at the Wine Valley Inn, a mineral water spa in Calistoga, California. The study evaluates heating, ventilating, air conditioning and water heating systems suitable for direct heat geothermal application. Due to the excellent geothermal temperatures available at this site, the mechanics and economics of a geothermally powered chilled water cooling system are evaluated. The Wine Valley Inn has the resource potential to have one of the few totally geothermal powered air conditioning and water heating systems in the world. This total concept is completely developed. A water plan was prepared to determine the quantity of water required for fresh water well development based on the special requirements of the project. An economic evaluation of the system is included to justify the added capital investment needed to build the geothermally powered mineral spa. Energy payback calculations are presented. A thermal cascade system is proposed to direct the geothermal water through the energy system to first power the chiller, then the space heating system, domestic hot water, the two spas and finally to heat the swimming pool. The Energy Management strategy required to automatically control this cascade process using industrial quality micro-processor equipment is described. Energy Management controls are selected to keep equipment sizing at a minimum, pump only the amount of geothermal water needed and be self balancing.

  15. Comparison of airborne and spaceborne TIR data for studying volcanic geothermal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. G.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping and quantifying the surface expression of geothermal heat flux in volcanic geothermal areas is important for establishing baseline thermal activity to better detect and understand any future changes that may be related to hydrothermal or volcanic processes, or human activities. Volcanic geothermal areas are often too large and inaccessible for only field-based thermal monitoring, so thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing tools are also used. High resolution (sub-meter) airborne TIR imagery can be used for detailed, quantitative analyses of small, subtle geothermal features. Airborne data acquisitions have the advantage of being able to be acquired under ideal conditions (e.g., predawn, cloud-free), but the disadvantage of high costs - thus precluding high-frequency monitoring. Satellite-based TIR data from the Landsat 8 platform are freely available and can be acquired regularly for change detection, but are acquired with coarser spatial resolution (e.g., 100-m pixels), and thus are not as sensitive to subtle thermal characteristics. Two geothermal areas with clear, nighttime TIR data from nearly concurrent (within days) airborne and spaceborne instruments were investigated: Norris Geyser Basin in Yellowstone National Park, WY; and the Casa Diablo geothermal field, near Mammoth Lakes, CA. At Norris Geyser Basin, the area covered by high-resolution airborne TIR imagery is almost entirely geothermally heated ground, with hundreds of fumaroles, hot springs, and thermal drainages - although some non-geothermal background is exposed. With the coarser resolution Landsat 8 data, there are thermal variations within the smaller area covered by the airborne data, but the entire area appears to be thermally anomalous with respect to the non-geothermal background outside the basin. In the geothermal field around the Casa Diablo geothermal site, there are numerous, small areas of geothermal heating that are clearly distinguishable above the background by the high

  16. Oregon Trail Mushrooms geothermal loan guaranty application, Malheur County, Oregon: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The action assessed is the guaranty of a loan by the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Office of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to finance the construction and operation of a mushroom-growing facility that will use geothermal (hot) water for process and space heat. The project consists of two separate facilities: a growing facility located just outside of the eastern limit of the city of Vale, Oregon (Malheur County, Oregon) and a composting facility located about 6.4 km (4 miles) southwest of the city limits (also in Malheur County, Oregon). Five test wells have been drilled into the geothermal resource at the growing site. Either well No. 4 or well No. 5 will serve as a production well. All geothermal fluids will be reinjected into the geothermal aquifer, so either well No. 3 will be used for this purpose, wells Nos. 1 and 2 will be deepened, or a new well will be drilled on the site. A cold-water well will be drilled at the growing site, and another will be drilled at the composting site. The environmental effects of the proposed project are not expected to be significant.

  17. In-situ grown silica sinters in Icelandic geothermal areas.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Dominique J; Stefánsson, Andri; Benning, Liane G

    2008-12-01

    Field in-situ sinter growth studies have been carried out in five geochemically very different Icelandic geothermal areas with the aim to quantify the effects of water chemistry, (e.g. silica content (250 to 695 p.p.m. SiO(2)), salinity (meteoric to seawater), pH (7.5 to 10)), temperature (42-96 degrees C) and microbial abundance (prevalence, density) on the growth rates, textures and structures of sinters forming within and around geothermal waters. At each location, sinter growth was monitored over time periods between 30 min and 25 months using glass slides that acted as precipitation substrates from which sinter growth rates were derived. In geothermal areas like Svartsengi and Reykjanes, subaqueous sinters developed rapidly with growth rates of 10 and 304 kg year(-1 )m(-2), respectively, and this was attributed primarily to the near neutral pH, high salinity and medium to high silica content within these geothermal waters. The porous and homogeneous precipitates that formed at these sites were dominated by aggregates of amorphous silica and they contained few if any microorganisms. At Hveragerdi and Geysir, the geothermal waters were characterized by slightly alkaline pH, low salinity and moderate silica contents, resulting in substantially lower rates of sinter growth (0.2-1.4 kg year(-1 )m(-2)). At these sites sinter formation was restricted to the vicinity of the air-water interface (AWI) where evaporation and condensation processes predominated, with sinter textures being governed by the formation of dense and heterogeneous crusts with well-defined spicules and silica terraces. In contrast, the subaqueous sinters at these sites were characterized by extensive biofilms, which, with time, became fully silicified and thus well preserved within the sinter edifices. Finally, at Krafla, the geothermal waters exhibited high sinter growth rates (19.5 kg year(-1 )m(-2)) despite being considerably undersaturated with respect to amorphous silica. However, the bulk of

  18. Parcperdue Geopressure -- Geothermal Project: Appendix E

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezy, L.R.

    1981-10-05

    The mechanical and transport properties and characteristics of rock samples obtained from DOW-DOE L.R. SWEEZY NO. 1 TEST WELL at the Parcperdue Geopressure/Geothermal Site have been investigated in the laboratory. Elastic moduli, compressibility, uniaxial compaction coefficient, strength, creep parameters, permeability, acoustic velocities (all at reservoir conditions) and changes in these quantities induced by simulated reservoir production have been obtained from tests on several sandstone and shale samples from different depths. Most important results are that the compaction coefficients are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those generally accepted for the reservoir sand in the Gulf Coast area and that the creep behavior is significant. Geologic characterization includes lithological description, SEM micrographs and mercury intrusion tests to obtain pore distributions. Petrographic analysis shows that approximately half of the total sand interval has excellent reservoir potential and that most of the effective porosity in the Cib Jeff Sand is formed by secondary porosity development.

  19. Geology of the Olkaria Geothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Ogoso-Odongo, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Up to now development of the resource in Olkaria geothermal field, Kenya, has been based on fragmental information that is inconclusive in most respects. Development has been concentrated in an area of 4 km/sup 2/ at most, with well to well spacing of less than 300 m. The move now is to understand the greater Olkaria field by siting exploratory wells in different parts of the area considered of reasonable potential. To correlate the data available from the different parts of the field, the geology of the area, as a base for the composite field model, is discussed and shown to have major controls over fluid movements in the area and other features.

  20. Preliminary geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.

    1981-10-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm spring systems are potential geothermal resources in West Virginia. A temperature gradient map based on 800 BHT for WV shows that variation of temperature gradients trend NE parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in the eastcentral WV and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome trough. Results of groundwater geochemistry indicate that the warm springs circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat flow data in WV varies from about .89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increases towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the State and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  1. Assessment of New Approaches in Geothermal Exploration Decision Making: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Akar, S.; Young, K. R.

    2015-02-01

    Geothermal exploration projects have significant amount of risk associated with uncertainties encountered in the discovery of the geothermal resource. Understanding when and how to proceed in an exploration program, and when to walk away from a site, are two of the largest challenges for increased geothermal deployment. Current methodologies for exploration decision making is left to subjective by subjective expert opinion which can be incorrectly biased by expertise (e.g. geochemistry, geophysics), geographic location of focus, and the assumed conceptual model. The aim of this project is to develop a methodology for more objective geothermal exploration decision making at a given location, including go-no-go decision points to help developers and investors decide when to give up on a location. In this scope, two different approaches are investigated: 1) value of information analysis (VOIA) which is used for evaluating and quantifying the value of a data before they are purchased, and 2) enthalpy-based exploration targeting based on reservoir size, temperature gradient estimates, and internal rate of return (IRR). The first approach, VOIA, aims to identify the value of a particular data when making decisions with an uncertain outcome. This approach targets the pre-drilling phase of exploration. These estimated VOIs are highly affected by the size of the project and still have a high degree of subjectivity in assignment of probabilities. The second approach, exploration targeting, is focused on decision making during the drilling phase. It starts with a basic geothermal project definition that includes target and minimum required production capacity and initial budgeting for exploration phases. Then, it uses average temperature gradient, reservoir temperature estimates, and production capacity to define targets and go/no-go limits. The decision analysis in this approach is based on achieving a minimum IRR at each phase of the project. This second approach was

  2. Municipal geothermal heat utilization plan for Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-31

    A study has been made of the engineering and economic feasibility of utilizing the geothermal resource underlying Glenwood Springs Colorado, to heat a group of public buildings. The results have shown that the use of geothermal heat is indeed feasible when compared to the cost of natural gas. The proposed system is composed of a wellhead plate heat exchanger which feeds a closed distribution loop of treated water circulated to the buildings which form the load. The base case system was designed to supply twice the demand created by the seven public buildings in order to take advantage of some economies of scale. To increase the utilization factor of the available geothermal energy, a peaking boiler which burns natural gas is recommended. Disposal of the cooled brine would be via underground injection. Considerable study was done to examine the impact of reduced operating temperature on the existing heating systems. Several options to minimize this problem were identified. Economic analyses were completed to determine the present values of heat from the geothermal system and from the present natural gas over a 30 year projected system life. For the base case savings of over $1 million were shown. Sensitivities of the economics to capital cost, operating cost, system size and other parameters were calculated. For all reasonable assumptions, the geothermal system was cheaper. Financing alternatives were also examined. An extensive survey of all existing data on the geology of the study has led to the prediction of resource parameters. The wellhead temperature of produced fluid is suspected to lie between 140 and 180/sup 0/F (60 and 82/sup 0/C). Flowrates may be as high as 1000 gpm (3800 liters per minute) from a reservoir formation that is 300 ft (90 m) thick beginning about 500 ft (150 m) below the suggested drill site in the proposed Two Rivers Park.

  3. Expanded resource base - the key to future geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, John E.; Beeland, Gene V.

    1994-01-20

    According to analyses by the Department of Energy’s Energy Information Administration (EIA), geothermal electric power capacity could nearly quadruple over the next 20 years, and there is a tremendous potential for growth in the direct uses of geothermal energy. However, for a high rate of development to occur in either of these applications, the identified resource base must be expanded. To this end, the Department is supporting R&D efforts to 1) share with industry the costs and risks of evaluating promising new resource prospects with power potential; 2) reduce the costs of exploration to enhance industry’s cost-competitive posture; and 3) assess the location and characteristics of low-temperature resources. This paper describes DOE’s new cost-shared industry-coupled exploratory drilling program to be initiated with a solicitation by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, field manager of DOE’s reservoir technology activities. Proposals will be requested for drilling either core holes or full-size wells on prospects from which some information had already been gathered, such as surface geophysics or shallow heat flow. The paper also discusses the status of the project designed to demonstrate whether a geothermal reservoir can be identified and adequately evaluated to meet investment requirements with slimholes rather than the much more costly production-size wells. Results to date of testing at the Far West 24 MWe plant site at Steam Boat Hills, Nevada, are reported, and plans for related technology development to make slimhole exploration accessible even to small developers are described. In addition, the paper describes the components of a Low-Temperature Assessment Program and its objectives and identifies the state resource assessment teams. It is concluded that the successful execution of each of these projects will help to ensure a secure future for geothermal energy in this country, thus enhancing the environment wherever geothermal energy

  4. Numerical modeling of regional stress distributions for geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, Theophile; Peter-Borie, Mariane; Gentier, Sylvie; Blaisonneau, Arnold

    2017-04-01

    Any high-enthalpy unconventional geothermal projectcan be jeopardized by the uncertainty on the presence of the geothermal resource at depth. Indeed, for the majority of such projects the geothermal resource is deeply seated and, with the drilling costs increasing accordingly, must be located as precisely as possible to increase the chance of their economic viability. In order to reduce the "geological risk", i.e., the chance to poorly locate the geothermal resource, a maximum amount of information must be gathered prior to any drilling of exploration and/or operational well. Cross-interpretation from multiple disciplines (e.g., geophysics, hydrology, geomechanics …) should improve locating the geothermal resource and so the position of exploration wells ; this is the objective of the European project IMAGE (grant agreement No. 608553), under which the work presented here was carried out. As far as geomechanics is concerned, in situ stresses can have a great impact on the presence of a geothermal resource since they condition both the regime within the rock mass, and the state of the major fault zones (and hence, the possible flow paths). In this work, we propose a geomechanical model to assess the stress distribution at the regional scale (characteristic length of 100 kilometers). Since they have a substantial impact on the stress distributions and on the possible creation of regional flow paths, the major fault zones are explicitly taken into account. The Distinct Element Method is used, where the medium is modeled as fully deformable blocks representing the rock mass interacting through mechanically active joints depicting the fault zones. The first step of the study is to build the model geometry based on geological and geophysical evidences. Geophysical and structural geology results help positioning the major fault zones in the first place. Then, outcrop observations, structural models and site-specific geological knowledge give information on the fault

  5. COTHERM: Geophysical Modeling of High Enthalpy Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grab, Melchior; Maurer, Hansruedi; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In recent years geothermal heating and electricity generation have become an attractive alternative energy resource, especially natural high enthalpy geothermal systems such as in Iceland. However, the financial risk of installing and operating geothermal power plants is still high and more needs to be known about the geothermal processes and state of the reservoir in the subsurface. A powerful tool for probing the underground system structure is provided by geophysical techniques, which are able to detect flow paths and fracture systems without drilling. It has been amply demonstrated that small-scale features can be well imaged at shallow depths, but only gross structures can be delineated for depths of several kilometers, where most high enthalpy systems are located. Therefore a major goal of our study is to improve geophysical mapping strategies by multi-method geophysical simulations and synthetic data inversions, to better resolve structures at greater depth, characterize the reservoir and monitor any changes within it. The investigation forms part of project COTHERM - COmbined hydrological, geochemical and geophysical modeling of geoTHERMal systems - in which a holistic and synergistic approach is being adopted to achieve multidisciplinary cooperation and mutual benefit. The geophysical simulations are being performed in combination with hydrothermal fluid flow modeling and chemical fluid rock interaction modeling, to provide realistic constraints on lithology, pressure, temperature and fluid conditions of the subsurface. Two sites in Iceland have been selected for the study, Krafla and Reykjanes. As a starting point for the geophysical modeling, we seek to establish petrophysical relations, connecting rock properties and reservoir conditions with geophysical parameters such as seismic wave speed, attenuation, electrical conductivity and magnetic susceptibility with a main focus on seismic properties. Therefore, we follow a comprehensive approach involving

  6. Guide to Geothermal Heat Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Geothermal heat pumps, also known as ground source heat pumps, geoexchange, water-source, earth-coupled, and earth energy heat pumps, take advantage of this resource and represent one of the most efficient and durable options on the market to heat and cool your home.

  7. Turbodrilling in the Geothermal Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, P.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal drilling, historically, has presented what seemed to be insurmountable barriers to the efficient and extended use of downhole drilling motors, especially those containing elastomeric bearing or motor components. In addition to being damaging to rubber, the typical temperatures of 177 to 371 C (350 to 700 F) create other operating problems as well. Recent innovations, specifically in turbodrill design, have opened heretofore unrealized potentials and allowed, for the first time, extended downhole drilling of geothermal wells. A considerable amount of experience has been obtained both in The Geysers and Imperial County areas of California primarily in directional drilling applications using insert, diamond, and polycrystallines diamond compact bits. Other hot-hole applications are currently being drilled successfully or planned in other states, both onshore and offshore. The turbodrill is devoid of any elastomers or other temperature-sensitive materials, hence, its capabilities are closely matched to the requirements of the industry. The bearing assembly can withstand the rigors found in the drilling of typical geothermal formations and provide the performance necessary to stay in the hole, thus providing increased penetration rates and, hence, more economical drilling. This paper presents case histories of recent turbodrill performances in all areas where used. Furthermore, data will be presented showing the performance of insert, diamond, and polycrystalline diamond bits as they relate to the turbodrill, together with forecasts as to the potential that turbodrills have to offer in accelerating and controlling the drilling of geothermal wells.

  8. Geothermal heat pumps in Pierre

    SciTech Connect

    Wegman, S.

    1997-12-01

    There are two municipal connected heat pumps in Pierre, South Dakota: the South Dakota Discovery Center and Pierre City Hall.Both systems now utilize plate heat exchanger between the city water loop and the building loop. This article describes the geothermal system used in Pierre for both space heating and cooling of municipal buildings.

  9. Geothermal Exploration Cost and Time

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jenne, Scott

    2013-02-13

    The Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technology Office (GTO) provides RD&D funding for geothermal exploration technologies with the goal of lowering the risks and costs of geothermal development and exploration. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) was tasked with developing a metric in 2012 to measure the impacts of this RD&D funding on the cost and time required for exploration activities. The development of this cost and time metric included collecting cost and time data for exploration techniques, creating a baseline suite of exploration techniques to which future exploration cost and time improvements can be compared, and developing an online tool for graphically showing potential project impacts (all available at http://en.openei.org/wiki/Gateway: Geothermal). This paper describes the methodology used to define the baseline exploration suite of techniques (baseline), as well as the approach that was used to create the cost and time data set that populates the baseline. The resulting product, an online tool for measuring impact, and the aggregated cost and time data are available on the Open Energy Information website (OpenEI, http://en.openei.org) for public access. - Published 01/01/2013 by US National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL.

  10. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  11. Molybdenum in icelandic geothermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnórsson, Stefán; Ívarsson, Gretar

    1985-07-01

    Molybdenum concentrations in Icelandic geothermal waters lie in the range 1 70 ppb. Warm waters and dilute high-temperature waters which contain high concentrations of sulphide are lowest in molybdenum. No correlation is otherwise observed between molybdenum concentrations and temperature. Surface waters and cold ground waters do not contain detectable molybdenum (<1 ppb). It seems likely that leaching rate is the prime factor in limiting molybdenum levels in these waters. Within individual geothermal fields molybdenum concentrations are either approximately constant or they vary regularly across the field. This regular variation may often be correlated with variations in other solute concentrations and subsurface temperatures and is taken to indicate a control of molybdenum mobility by a temperature dependent equilibrium. The evidence suggests that the solubility of molybdenite is responsible. Molybdenite has not been found in active geothermal systems in Iceland but is known to occur in some New Zealand geothermal systems and it has been identified in hydrothermally altered Tertiary basalt formations at Reydarártindur in southeast Iceland. Boiling and mixing with cold water leads to molybdenite undersaturation and thus these processes favour leaching of molybdenum from the rock. On the other hand, conductive cooling leads to supersaturation which favours removal of molybdenum from solution.

  12. Geothermal gradients in Mississippi embayment

    SciTech Connect

    Staub, W.P.; Treat, N.L.

    1983-09-01

    A statistical analysis of bottom-hole temperatures from oil and gas wells in the northern Mississippi embayment suggests that the geothermal gradient below a depth of 1 km is low (22.2/sup 0/C/km) and for the New Madrid seismic zone, it is even lower (15.7/sup 0/C/km). These data support the tentative conclusion of Swanberg et al that ground-water convection is the source of near-surface heat in shallow water wells of the region. Research by Mitchell et al had suggested a high geothermal gradient in the crust and upper mantel beneath the New Madrid seismic zone as a plausible explanation for the lower than average compressional wave velocities observed there. Warmer than normal wells in the northern Mississippi embayment are scattered at random and may be attributed to random error in the data. Deep wells in the southern Mississippi embayment are substantially hotter than wells at a comparable depth farther north. The regional geothermal gradient below a depth of 1 km from northern Louisiana to central Mississippi is 26.9/sup 0/C/km. From central Mississippi to central Alabama, the geothermal gradient (23.1/sup 0/C/km) is comparable to that of the northern Mississippi embayment.

  13. Geothermal Research and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-25

    Results are reported on adsorption of water vapor on reservoir rocks, physics of injection of water into vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs, earth-tide effects on downhole pressures, injection optimization at the Geysers, effects of salinity in adsorption experiments, interpreting multiwell pressure data from Ohaaki, and estimation of adsorption parameters from transient experiments.

  14. Leasing of federal geothermal resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    Pursuant to the Geothermal Steam Act of 1970 and the regulations published on December 21, 1973, the first Federal geothermal competitive lease sale was held on January 22, 1974, by the Department of the Interior, offering 33 tracts totalling over 50,000 acres in three Known Geothermal Resource Areas in California. On January 1, 1974, Federal lands outside Known Geothermal Resource Areas were opened to noncompetitive lease applications, of which, 3,763 had been received by June 1, 1974. During fiscal year 1974, a total of 22 competitive leases had been issued in California and Oregon. The principal components in the Department involved in the leasing program are the Geological Survey and the Bureau of Land Management. The former has jurisdiction over drilling and production operations and other activities in the immediate area of operations. The latter receives applications and issues leases and is responsible for managing leased lands under its jurisdiction outside the area of operations. The interrelationships of the above agencies and the procedures in the leasing program are discussed.

  15. Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-08-01

    Milk pasteurization with geothermal energy has been viewed by the author in two locations in the world: Klamath Falls, Oregon and Oradea, Romania. The former is not longer in operation; but, the latter has been operating since 1981. A third dairy using geothermal energy has been reported in Iceland which was established in 1930 to pasteurize milk and evaporate whey to produce brown whey cheese. This dairy merged with another co-op dairy in 1938 and was shut down. A description of the first two of these installations is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation is deemed important, as there is potential for similar installation in other geothermal locations. These two reported savings in energy costs by using geothermal heat; the Klamath Falls installation producing 7,600 L/day (2,000 gals/day) for a savings of $12,000 per year and the Oradea plant producing 70,000 L/day (18,500 gals/day) (winter) and 200,000 L/day (52,800 gals/day) (summer) for savings of $120,000 per year (savings 800 TOE - tonnes of oil equivalent).

  16. Experiments Demonstrate Geothermal Heating Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    When engineers design heat-pump-based geothermal heating systems for homes and other buildings, they can use coil loops buried around the perimeter of the structure to gather low-grade heat from the earth. As an alternative approach, they can drill well casings and store the summer's heat deep in the earth, then bring it back in the winter to warm…

  17. Process for cementing geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Eilers, Louis H.

    1985-01-01

    A pumpable slurry of coal-filled furfuryl alcohol, furfural, and/or a low molecular weight mono- or copolymer thereof containing, preferably, a catalytic amount of a soluble acid catalyst is used to cement a casing in a geothermal well.

  18. Geothermal reservoir characterization through active thermal testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Martin; Klepikova, Maria; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Fisch, Hansruedi; Loew, Simon; Amann, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Development and deployment of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) as renewable energy resources are part of the Swiss Energy Strategy 2050. To pioneer further EGS projects in Switzerland, a decameter-scale in-situ hydraulic stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment has been launched at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS). The experiments are hosted in a low fracture density volume of the Grimsel granodiorite, similar to those expected at the potential enhanced geothermal system sites in the deep basement rocks of Northern Switzerland. One of the key goals of this multi-disciplinary experiment is to provide a pre- and post-stimulation characterization of the hydraulic and thermal properties of the stimulated fracture network with high resolution and to determine natural structures controlling the fluid flow and heat transport. Active thermal tests including thermal dilution tests and heat tracer tests allow for investigation of groundwater fluid flow and heat transport. Moreover, the spatial and temporal integrity of distributed temperature sensing (DTS) monitoring upgrades the potential and applicability of thermal tests in boreholes (e.g. Read et al., 2013). Here, we present active thermal test results and discuss the advantages and limitations of this method compared to classical approaches (hydraulic packer tests, solute tracer tests, flowing fluid electrical conductivity logging). The experimental tests were conducted in two boreholes intersected by a few low to moderately transmissive fault zones (fracture transmissivity of about 1E-9 m2/s - 1E-7 m2/s). Our preliminary results show that even in low-permeable environments active thermal testing may provide valuable insights into groundwater and heat transport pathways. Read T., O. Bour, V. Bense, T. Le Borgne, P. Goderniaux, M.V. Klepikova, R. Hochreutener, N. Lavenant, and V. Boschero (2013), Characterizing groundwater flow and heat transport in fractured rock using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing

  19. Geothermal resource area 6: Lander and Eureka Counties. Area development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal Resource Area 6 includes Lander and Eureka Counties. There are several different geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70/sup 0/F to in excess of 400/sup 0/F within this two country area. Eleven of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation in this Area Development Plan. The various potential uses of the energy found at each of the 11 resource sites were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation, space heating, recreation, industrial process heat, and agriculture. Within two of these categories certain subdivisions were considered separately. The findings about each of the 11 geothermal sites considered are summarized.

  20. Remote sensing application on geothermal exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffar, Eddy Z.

    2013-09-01

    Geothermal energy is produced when water coming down from the surface of the earth and met with magma or hot rocks, which the heat comes from the very high levels of magma rises from the earth. This process produced a heated fluid supplied to a power generator system to finally use as energy. Geothermal field usually associated with volcanic area with a component from igneous rocks and a complex geological structures. The fracture and fault structure are important geological structures associated with geothermal. Furthermore, their geothermal manifestations also need to be evaluated associated their geological structures. The appearance of a geothermal surface manifestation is close to the structure of the fracture and the caldera volcanic areas. The relationship between the fault and geothermal manifestations can be seen in the form of a pattern of alignment between the manifestations of geothermal locations with other locations on the fault system. The use of remote sensing using electromagnetic radiation sensors to record images of the Earth's environment that can be interpreted to be a useful information. In this study, remote sensing was applied to determine the geological structure and mapping of the distribution of rocks and alteration rocks. It was found that remote sensing obtained a better localize areas of geothermal prospects, which in turn could cut the chain of geothermal exploration to reduce a cost of geothermal exploration.