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Sample records for gerais brazil rochas

  1. Plecoptera from Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Specimens of Plecoptera collected in Minas Gerais State, Brazil were studied. Twelve previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria boraceiensis Froehlich, 2004, A. debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. itatiaiensis Baldin et al., 2013, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. singularis Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. stanjewetti Froehlich, 2002, A. terere Righi-Cavallaro & Lecci, 2010, A. vanini Froehlich, 2004, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacobson and Bianchi, 1905), K. obtusa Klapálek, 1916, Tupiperla gracilis (Burmeister, 1839) and T. robusta Froehlich, 1998. Additionally, two new species of Anacroneuria are described, A. paprockii n. sp. and A. mineira n. sp., and a list of species from Minas Gerais State is presented. PMID:25284668

  2. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  3. Agriculture near Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Very large fields, typical of commercial and irrigated farmland, contrast with patchy upland agriculture in this view of southeastern Brazil (18.5S, 47.5W). A reservoir, just to the northeast of the city of Uberlandia, State of Minas Gerais, serves as the water source and is fed by the Rios Sao Marcos and the Rio Paranaiba. Near the bottom of the photo is circular feature with a plume of smoke thought to be a mining operation and smelter.

  4. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  5. A Brazilian in the Reich of Wilhelm II: Henrique da Rocha Lima, Brazil-Germany relations and the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 1901-1909.

    PubMed

    Silva, André Felipe Cândido da

    2013-03-01

    This article follows the career of the Brazilian physician Henrique da Rocha Lima, one of the first to join the group of young researchers working at the Instituto Soroterápico de Manguinhos (Instituto Oswaldo Cruz). It describes his first voyage to Germany where he specialized in microbiology and pathological anatomy, training that shaped his subsequent professional identity. The tensions and dilemmas experienced by Rocha Lima provide an insight into what it meant to dedicate oneself to a scientific career in Brazil at the start of the twentieth century. They also reveal the importance of the relations with the German-speaking world for the experimental medicine that became established under the leadership of Oswaldo Cruz.

  6. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions. PMID:26503827

  7. Monitoring Genotoxicity Potential in the Mumbuca Stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa; Morelli, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Rivers are sites for water catchment to supply metropolitan areas but also serve as receptors for discharge of urban sewage, wastewater, and agri-industrial effluents. Bioindicators or sentinel organisms are widely used as markers of pollution in various environments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential and consequent quality of the water from the Mumbuca stream, which supplies the city of Monte Carmelo, located in the Minas Triangle region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was achieved using two variable response bioindicators (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis), the micronucleus (MN) test, and determining the presence of metals by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that site 3 water (region of residential flow and intense industrial pottery activity) presented a greater possibility for induction of genotoxic activity, as evidenced by the increase in the MN frequency in Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis in comparison with the reference-site water. The water of the Mumbuca stream was influenced by genotoxic agents, especially lead and chromium, assessed by the rise in MN rate. Data suggested that discharge of industrial effluents in a specific stretch of the stream interfered with biota functions.

  8. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  9. Two new species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Grossi, Paschoal C; Santos, Mariana D; Almeida, Lúcia M

    2016-02-09

    Two new species of Cyclocephala constituting a new species group in the genus, Cyclocephala machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto municipality, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto) and C. everardoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, 8 km north of Cristália municipality), are here described and illustrated. The only two males known were collected with light traps and have antennal lamellae much larger than other South American species, along with large eyes and a quadrate narrow clypeal apex.

  10. City of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.

  11. Axonopus graniticola, a new species of A. ser. Suffulti (Poaceae, Panicoideae, Paspaleae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viana, Pedro Lage; de Paula, Luiza Fonseca Amorim

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Axonopus ser. Suffulti from Minas Gerais, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Comparison with morphologically related species, as well as comments on the ecology and the conservation status are provided.

  12. Brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2015-10-01

    The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.

  13. [Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935].

    PubMed

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Martins, Maria do Carmo Salazar

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out.

  14. [Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935.

    PubMed

    Cuperschmid, Ethel Mizrahy; Martins, Maria do Carmo Salazar

    2014-11-01

    This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out.

  15. Transmission of Leishmania in coffee plantations of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Bruce; Oliveria, Emerson Barbosa de; Haigh, Emily; Almeida, Lourenço Leal de

    2002-07-01

    Transmission of Leishmania was studied in 27 coffee plantations in the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. Eighteen females and six males (11.6% of the people tested), aged between 7-65 gave a positive response to the Montenegro skin test. Awareness of sand flies based on the ability of respondents to identify the insects using up to seven predetermined characteristics was significantly greater among inhabitants of houses occupied by at least one Mn+ve individual. Five species of phlebotomine sand fly, including three suspected Leishmania vectors, were collected within plantations under three different cultivation systems. Four of these species i.e., Lu. fischeri (Pinto 1926), Lu. migonei (França 1920), Lu. misionensis (Castro 1959) and Lutzomyia whitmani (Antunes Coutinho 1939) were collected in an organic plantation and the last of these was also present in the other two plantation types. The remaining species, Lu. intermedia (Lutz Neiva 1912), was collected in plantations under both the "adensado" and "convencional" systems. The results of this study indicate that transmission of Leishmania to man in coffee-growing areas of Minas Gerais may involve phlebotomine sand flies that inhabit plantations. PMID:12219123

  16. Composition of monazites from pegmatites in eastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murata, K.J.; Dutra, C.V.; da Costa, M.T.; Branco, J.J.R.

    1959-01-01

    Two zoned pegmatites in south-eastern Minas Gerais were sampled in detail for their content of monazite and xenotime and the monazite was analysed for certain of the rare-earth elements and thorium. The ratio of xenotime to monazite increases in both pegmatites from the wall toward the quartz core. The content of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in monazite rises in the same direction. These variation trends suggest that during the crystallization of these pegmatites there was a fractionation of the elements leading to a more or less steady enrichment of the less basic rare-earth elements and of thorium in the residual fluids. One mode of explaining these observed effects postulates that the rare-earth elements and thorium were present in pegmatitic fluids as co-ordination complexes rather than as simple cations. ?? 1959.

  17. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation.

  18. Genetic divergence of sugarcane varieties collected in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar, L E V; Bruzi, A T; Nunes, J A R; Andrade, L A de B; Lopes, M F; Sales, L R; Mourão, M M

    2015-10-30

    Genetic diversity among local accessions and varieties subsidize plant breeding programs, allowing the utilization of existing variability in plants that have already adapted to local climate conditions. An alternative to studying genetic variability is the study of diversity. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among sugarcane accessions and varieties used for the production of craft-distilled cachaça (distilled sugarcane alcohol) in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using a one-way design, an experiment was conducted in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais to evaluate 35 regional accessions derived from germplasm collection expeditions and four varieties. Using morphological descriptions of 46 multicategorical sugarcane characteristics, dissimilarity and Tocher cluster method analyses were performed. Based on the results, it was concluded that genetic diversity exists among the accessions evaluated for the target traits.

  19. Genetic divergence of sugarcane varieties collected in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cesar, L E V; Bruzi, A T; Nunes, J A R; Andrade, L A de B; Lopes, M F; Sales, L R; Mourão, M M

    2015-01-01

    Genetic diversity among local accessions and varieties subsidize plant breeding programs, allowing the utilization of existing variability in plants that have already adapted to local climate conditions. An alternative to studying genetic variability is the study of diversity. The aim of this research was to study genetic diversity among sugarcane accessions and varieties used for the production of craft-distilled cachaça (distilled sugarcane alcohol) in the region of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Using a one-way design, an experiment was conducted in the municipality of Perdões, Minas Gerais to evaluate 35 regional accessions derived from germplasm collection expeditions and four varieties. Using morphological descriptions of 46 multicategorical sugarcane characteristics, dissimilarity and Tocher cluster method analyses were performed. Based on the results, it was concluded that genetic diversity exists among the accessions evaluated for the target traits. PMID:26535718

  20. Three new species and a new record of Smicridea McLachlan 1871 (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Isabela Cristina; Dumas, Leandro Lourenço; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

    2016-05-03

    Three new species of Smicridea McLachlan 1871 are described and illustrated based on specimens collected in Parque Nacional da Serra da Canastra and its surrounding area, Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. Smicridea (Rhyacophylax) necator sp. nov. possibly belongs to the S. (R.) dispar Group, but its placement in this group is weakly supported; S. (Smicridea) franciscana sp. nov. belongs to the S. (S.) nigripennis Group based on morphology of the phallus; S. (S.) sepala sp. nov. is a member of the S. (S.) fasciatella Group, also based on the morphology of the phallus. A new record of S. (S.) sattleri Denning & Sykora 1968 is provided for Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  1. Zinc and copper mineralization of the Vazante area, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Samuel L.

    1956-01-01

    A large body of zinc and copper mineralization is exposed in a line of low hills about 5 kilometers east of the small village of Vazante in the northwestern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Vazante area can be reached by roads leading north from the State of Sao Paulo, via Araxa; west from Balo Horizonte, Minas Gerais; and south from Paracatu, Minas Gerais. The deposit is in branching, sub-parallel fault breccia zones. Calamine (H2Zn2SiO5), and willomite (ZnSiO4), along with small quantities of smithsonite (ZnCO3), form the matrix of the fault breccia. The zinc mineralization is cut by narrow veins of chalcocite in platy crystal aggregate thought to be pseudomorphous after covellite. The chalcocite veins contain small quantities of sphalterite, galena, covellite and calamine. Faults that contain breccia zones displace shale and dolomite. The sedimentary rocks are thought to be Silurian in age. The fault breccia zones have a regional trend of N 40 degrees E and crop out over a strike length of more than four kilometers. The mineralization of the fault zones was observed to continue to the north for an additional four kilometers. The mineralized fault breccia zones range from a few meters to 60 meters in width. A large ore body is indicated that from available samples may average 35 percent zinc.

  2. Two new species of Xestoblatta Hebard, 1916 from Brazil, a redescription of Xestoblatta roppai Rocha e Silva Albuquerque & Fraga, 1975 and a key for the species of the buscki group (Blattodea, Ectobiidae, Blattellinae)

    PubMed Central

    Silva-da-Silva, Luiz Rafael; Lopes, Sonia Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Xestoblatta from northern Brazil are described, Xestoblatta buhrnheimi sp. n. and Xestoblatta rondonensis sp. n., included in the buscki group Gurney (1939), and new characters are added to the description of Xestoblatta mamorensis Lopes & Oliveira, 2006. Xestoblatta roppai Rocha e Albuquerque-Silva & Fraga, 1975, from midwestern Brazil is redescribed, including its genital characters which were not previously described. Additionally, a key for the species of this group is provided, and photographs are given of the species in the habitus, of tergal modifications, and of the genitalia. PMID:26487828

  3. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil's Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae). PMID:24696361

  5. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on swifts (Apodiformes: Apodidae) in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-10-01

    Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae).

  6. Simulating Deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, under Changing Government Policies and Socioeconomic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stan, Kayla; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Espírito-Santo, Mário; Portillo-Quintero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural expansion is causing deforestation in Minas Gerais, Brazil, converting savanna and tropical dry forest to farmland, and in 2012, Brazil’s Forest Code was revised with the government reducing deforestation restrictions. Understanding the effects of policy change on rates and locations of natural ecosystem loss is imperative. In this paper, deforestation in Minas Gerais was simulated annually until 2020 using Dinamica Environment for Geoprocessing Objects (Dinamica EGO). This system is a state-of-the-art land use and cover change (LUCC) model which incorporates government policy, landscape maps, and other biophysical and anthropogenic datasets. Three studied scenarios: (i) business as usual, (ii) increased deforestation, and (iii) decreased deforestation showed more transition to agriculture from shrubland compared to forests, and consistent locations for most deforestation. The probability of conversion to agriculture is strongly tied to areas with the smallest patches of original biome remaining. Increases in agricultural revenue are projected to continue with a loss of 25% of the remaining Cerrado land in the next decade if profit is maximized. The addition of biodiversity value as a tax on land sale prices, estimated at over $750,000,000 USD using the cost of extracting and maintaining current species ex-situ, can save more than 1 million hectares of shrubland with minimal effects on the economy of the State of Minas Gerais. With environmental policy determining rates of deforestation and economics driving the location of land clearing, site-specific protection or market accounting of externalities is needed to balance economic development and conservation. PMID:26371876

  7. Phytogeographical patterns of dry forests sensu stricto in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Daniel M; Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Duque-Brasil, Reinaldo; Schaefer, Carlos E R

    2013-01-01

    The Deciduous Complex that occurs in northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, raises questions about the floristic affinities of these formations in relation to neighboring phytogeographical domains. Little is known about the identity of the seasonal forest formations that comprise this complex, or about its relationships to abiotic components, such as soils, topography and climate. This study aimed to recognize the patterns of floristic similarity of all studied fragments of dry forest of northern Minas Gerais with soil and climate attributes, based on the available database. Cluster analysis indicated the existence of two floristic groups that had clear associations with either the Koppen's BSh (semi-arid) or Aw (seasonal tropical) climates. Likewise, the subdivisions of these groups showed clear associations with the dominant soil classes in the region. The Red-Yellow Latosol is the dominant soil classes in the BSh climatic domain, seconded by alluvial areas associated with Fluvic Neosols. The Aw domain comprised a much varied set of soils: Nitosols, Argisols, Cambisols and Litholic Neosols, most derived from the Bambuí limestone/slate formation. The ecotonal nature of northern Minas Gerais State provides a complex interaction between the flora of neighboring phytogeographical domains. This, allied to pedogeomorphological factors, allowed a better understanding of the effects of late Quaternary climate changes for the Deciduous Complex evolution. We conclude that the Latosols under present-day semi-arid climates (BSh) are relicts of former wetter climates, during which humid forest (semideciduous) expansion took place. Later, these semideciduous forests were subjected to a much drier climate, when selection for deciduousness led to the present-days Deciduous Complex scenario.

  8. When a University Opens Itself to Diversity: A Brief Report on the Intercultural Formation Course for Indigenous Teachers, from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo de Rezende, Luisa Andrade

    2009-01-01

    The Federal University of Minas Gerais (Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-UFMG), located in the city of Belo Horizonte in Brazil, has been a committed partner of indigenous communities since 1996. This partnership began with the creation of spaces intended to elaborate and transform the traditional wisdom of these communities in favour of their…

  9. Dosimetry and image quality in digital mammography facilities in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Sabrina Donato; Joana, Geórgia Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; de Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Leyton, Fernando; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro

    2015-11-01

    According to the National Register of Health Care Facilities (CNES), there are approximately 477 mammography systems operating in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, of which an estimated 200 are digital apparatus using mainly computerized radiography (CR) or direct radiography (DR) systems. Mammography is irreplaceable in the diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. A high standard of image quality alongside smaller doses and optimization of procedures are essential if early detection is to occur. This study aimed to determine dosimetry and image quality in 68 mammography services in Minas Gerais using CR or DR systems. The data of this study were collected between the years of 2011 and 2013. The contrast-to-noise ratio proved to be a critical point in the image production chain in digital systems, since 90% of services were not compliant in this regard, mainly for larger PMMA thicknesses (60 and 70 mm). Regarding the image noise, only 31% of these were compliant. The average glandular dose found is of concern, since more than half of the services presented doses above acceptable limits. Therefore, despite the potential benefits of using CR and DR systems, the employment of this technology has to be revised and optimized to achieve better quality image and reduce radiation dose as much as possible.

  10. Physiographic, stratigraphic, and structural development of the Quadrilatero Ferrifero, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorr, J.V.N.

    1969-01-01

    The Quadrilatero Ferrifero is an area of some 7,000 square kilometers in central Minas Gerais, Brazil centered about lat. 20°15' S, long. 43°30' W.  For 250 years the region has poured forth a variety of mineral riches, now totaling more than $2 billion, and future production will undoubtedly be even greater.  The main products are iron ore, manganese ore, and gold.  To assist this development, the Braziliam and American Governments in 1946 jointly undertook the first detailed geologic study of the region: this report is a synthesis of the results of work and mapping by 17 Brazilian and American geologists under this program; other reports discussing the economic geology, the metamorphic geology, and the igneous geology of the region as a whole are being prepared.

  11. Assessment of PROBA-V Data for Discriminating Burned Areas in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes Pereira, Allan; Pereira, J. M. C.; Oom, Duarte; Tavares de Carvalho, Luis Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    High spatio-temporal resolution optical remote sensing data provides opportunities to monitor and discriminate burned area in a accurate way. This study has the purpose to assess the discriminatory performance of multi-spectral reflectance values of PROBA-V sensor and on normalized difference spectral indices (NDSIs), such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in burned land discrimination a in different land-cover types across Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The M separability index was calculated in each land-cover type including Cerrado (Tropical Savanna), Atlantic Forest, agricultural crops, and pastures, to determine the most powerful band(s) combinations among the PROBA-V reflective bands for discrimination between burnt and unburnt areas The results showed that the BLUE channel is potentially effective for burntarea discrimination in the majority of all land cover types ,. Moreover results showed that spectral indexes used for discriminating burned areas are vegetation type dependant.

  12. Populational dynamics of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linneaus) (Diptera: Muscidae) in three biocenosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Batista, Z; Leite, R C; Oliveira, P R; Lopes, C M L; Borges, L M F

    2005-06-30

    Populational flux of the adult phase of Stomoxys calcitrans was observed in the municipal district of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Three biocenoses were selected for the study: stable agrobiocenosis, pastural agrobiocenosis and eubiocenosis. The occurrence and the populational flux of the insects, using the Magoon trap for their capture, were established. For each trap located in different biocenoses, a crossbred calf (Bos taurusxBos indicus) approximately 6-month-old was used as "live bait," exposed weekly for 48h in the traps. Of the three agrobiocenoses studied, the stable agrobiocenosis contributed the greatest number of specimens of. S. calcitrans captured, corresponding to 96.9% of the total flies of this species collected. S. calcitrans shows seasonal behavior for approximately 6 months (spring and summer being the rainiest months of the year). The population peaked during the months of November and December. During the months of July and August, there was no capture of flies. PMID:15908125

  13. Use of Indicator Kriging to Investigate Schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Ricardo J. P. S.; Freitas, Corina C.; Dutra, Luciano V.; Felgueiras, Carlos A.; Drummond, Sandra C.; Tibiriçá, Sandra H. C.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S.

    2012-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GISs) are composed of useful tools to map and to model the spatial distribution of events that have geographic importance as schistosomiasis. This paper is a review of the use the indicator kriging, implemented on the Georeferenced Information Processing System (SPRING) to make inferences about the prevalence of schistosomiasis and the presence of the species of Biomphalaria, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, in areas without this information, in the Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results were two maps. The first one was a map of Biomphalaria species, and the second was a new map of estimated prevalence of schistosomiasis. The obtained results showed that the indicator kriging can be used to better allocate resources for study and control of schistosomiasis in areas with transmission or the possibility of disease transmission. PMID:22291716

  14. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  15. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  16. Recognition features of felsic pyroclastics of Serra do Tombo formation, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro Paes, Vinícius José; Ozanam Raposo, Frederico; Chaves Sgarbi, Geraldo Norberto; Schiazza, Mariangela; Stoppa, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    In this contribution we report a study of poorly exposed, rhyodacitic welded-ignimbrite deposit from Minas Gerais. A petrographic study of textures indicate high temperature of emplacement. Key features include eutaxitic texture, flattened and agglutinated lapilli and glass menisci. Most of the feldspar minerals and glass are extensively altered to clay minerals, which pseudomorph the original volcanic textures. Glass menisci and spherules suggest a possible process of liquid immiscibility. Immobile trace element distribution indicates a possible link with other post-Palaeozoic felsic volcanic rocks in Brazil, a magmatism interpreted as due to basaltic underplating and partial melting of a hydrous continental crust. A peculiar feature is a high Light REE/Heavy REE ratio. Depletion in heavy rare earth elements is possibly due to a residual HREE-bearing phase in the source. The geologic context of these rocks suggests a Lower Cretaceous age and a tectonic relationship with a continental rifting event.

  17. Demographic pressure over the Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.

    2009-04-01

    The State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is approximately 586.528 km2. From this total, it is believed that about 29,000 km2(Piló 1997; 1999) are composed by carbonatic rocks. With a total of 853 municipalities and some evident environmental problems, the biggest problem is the proper final waste disposal as noticed by Travassos et al (2008). This work is intended to demonstrate the potential degradation of karst scenarios due to the increasing urbanization in the so called "North Vector". There are two State Parks and six other Conservation Units in this region. Historically the cities near this region have been used as dormitory towns. Further north, various ranches, country houses for the weekend and rural hostels are set on karst terrains. The municipalities of Vespasiano, Pedro Leopoldo, Confins, Lagoa Santa, Matozinhos, Funilândia and Prudente de Morais are within the 360 km2-large Environmental Protected Area of the Lagoa Santa Karst. All these municipalities have been facing demographic growth and consequently generate the anthropogenic pressure over the karst. Up to the date on which this abstract was written, the Decree n˚ 6640/2008, signed by the Brazilian government, is in effect. It substituted the previous one, Decree n˚ 99556/1990, which protected the Brazilian speleological heritage. According to the new Decree, now there are no warranties that caves will be protected against infra-structure constructions and mining companies. Besides, it also establishes relevance criteria that point out which caves which can be destroyed without any compensation at all. Certainly the speleological community is already mobilized against this new Decree. Keywords: karst, endokarst, exokarst, Cordisburgo region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  18. [Drinking-and-driving prevalence in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério; Rocha, Mariela Campos; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-04-01

    Problems resulting from alcohol consumption by drivers have been studied worldwide, and epidemiological research points to high injury and death rates related to drinking-and-driving. However, equivalent data are limited in Brazil. In this study, 913 drivers were stopped on public roads with heavy traffic and high concentrations of bars, restaurants, and nightclubs in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, and asked to answer a questionnaire and submit to an active breathalyzer test. The study was done in December 2005 and December 2006. The study adopted the internationally accepted sobriety checkpoint method. In the sample, 38.0% of drivers showed some trace of alcohol in their exhaled air, and 19.6% were at or above the legal limit (0.6 g/l). These figures were five times those found in similar surveys in other countries. The findings suggest a critical drinking-and-driving problem in Belo Horizonte (and probably elsewhere in Brazil) and the need for on-going research, the development of specific public policies to deal with the problem, and effective enforcement of the existing law. PMID:18392360

  19. Variability of Meloidogyne exigua on Coffee in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, D. S.; Oliveira, R. D. L.; Freitas, L. G.; Silva, R. V.

    2005-01-01

    Minas Gerais is the major coffee-producing state of Brazil, with 28% of its production coming from the region of Zona da Mata. Four major species of root-knot nematode attacking coffee (Meloidogyne incognita, M. paranaensis, M. coffeicola, and M. exigua) have been reported from Brazil. To determine the variability in Meloidogyne spp. occurring in that region, 57 populations from 20 localities were evaluated for morphological, enzymatic, and physiological characteristics. According to the perineal pattern, all the populations were identified as M. exigua; however populations from the municipality of São João do Manhuaçu exhibited patterns very similar to M. arenaria. The identity of all the populations was confirmed by the phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase. Thirteen populations (22.8%) showed the typical one-band (E1) esterase phenotype, whereas the others (77.2%) had a novel two-band phenotype (E2). No intraspecies variability was found in any population. All populations were able to reproduce on tomato, pepper, beans, cacao, and soybean. Reproduction was greater on tomato and pepper than on coffee seedlings, the susceptible standard. PMID:19262880

  20. Minasgeraisite, a new member of the gadolinite group from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Gaines, R.V.; Crock, J.G.; Simmons, W.B.; Barbosa, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    Minasgeraisite, Y2CaBe2Si2O10, a 9.833(2), b 7.562(1), c 4.702(1) A, beta 90.46(6)o, P21/a, Z = 2, is a new member of the gadolinite group. Found in quantities of only several hundred mg in the Jaguaracu pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil, it occurs as 0.2 to 1.0 mm-diameter rosettes, coating and intergrown with milarite, albite, quartz and muscovite. The mineral is lavender to lilac purple and has a sheaf-like habit, with a grain size of 4.25, D(calc.) 4.90 g/cm3, lustre is earthy to subvitreous and the streak is pale purple. Minasgeraisite is slowly soluble in common acids. The mineral has one excellent cleavage, (100) by analogy with gadolinite, and another good cleavage (001). Minasgeraisite is biaxial positive with alpha (colourless) 1.740(4), beta (pale greyish yellow) 1.754(4), gamma (lavender purple) 1.786(4), 2Vgamma 68o. Strongest powder XRD lines include 3.11(100), 2.830(100), 2.540(90), 1.768(35) A.-J.A.Z.

  1. Speciation, distribution, and transport of mercury in contaminated soils from Descoberto, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Durão Júnior, Walter Alves; Palmieri, Helena Eugênia Leonhardt; Trindade, Mauro Campos; de Aquino Branco, Otávio Eurico; Filho, Carlos Alberto Carvalho; Fleming, Peter Marschall; da Silva, José Bento Borba; Windmöller, Cláudia Carvalhinho

    2009-05-01

    This work describes an investigation of mercury contamination in an abandoned gold mining site in the rural area of Descoberto, Minas Gerais, Brazil, whose inhabitants have reported "silver balls" present in the soil. Different granulometric fractions of soil samples and sedimented material from rainwater retention tanks in this area were analyzed for total mercury, organic matter, and mercury speciation by thermodesorption/atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed mercury concentrations in the soils in the range of (0.0371-161) mg kg(-1), and the occurrence of Hg(0) oxidation. Some samples had concentrations as high as 90 mg kg(-1) with the majority as Hg(2+), which is important information in order to understand the biogeochemical behavior of mercury in contaminated sites and to apply the appropriate remediation technology. The retention boxes and tank samples showed that fine particles with high mercury content (3.3-90) mg kg(-1) are leached from the contaminated area, which reveals the need for efficient control of this material to prevent the contamination of stream waters. This study is an example that may be useful for other contaminated sites.

  2. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results.

  3. [Hearing loss in urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de; Assunção, Ada Ávila; Santos, Juliana Nunes

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the association between self-reported diagnosis of hearing loss and individual and occupational factors among urban transportation workers in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sample size was calculated by quotas and stratified by occupation (drivers and fare collectors) in the urban transportation companies in Belo Horizonte, Betim, and Contagem. Data were collected with face-to-face interviews and recorded by the interviewers on netbooks. The dependent variable was defined as an affirmative response to the question on prevailing medical diagnosis of hearing loss. The independent variables were organized in three blocks: social and demographic characteristics, lifestyle, and work aspects. Diagnosis of hearing loss was reported by 213 of the 1,527 workers and was associated with age and diagnosis of tinnitus. At the occupational level, hearing loss was associated with history of sick leave, time-on-the-job, and two environmental risks, unbearable noise and whole-body vibration. Measures to prevent hearing loss are needed for urban transportation workers. PMID:26578019

  4. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects.

  5. The impact of diamond extraction on natural denudation rates in the Diamantina Plateau (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The 10Be method was used to investigate the effect of mining activities on the natural denudation rates in alluvial sediments from catchments of the Southern Espinhaço Range (SER) in Minas Gerais State (Brazil). In this region, which is predominantly composed of quartzites, the 10Be concentrations were measured in alluvial sediments from catchments in a preserved natural area of the Serra do Cipó National Park and on the Diamantina Plateau, which was subjected to diamond extraction from beginnings of XVIII century until the end of the XX. Two types of drainage were identified in the Diamantina Plateau area: (i) reworked drainage (alluvial sediments reworked by panning) and (ii) overloaded drainage (alluvial sediments originating from panning processes on saprolites located upstream). The mean denudation value for the natural drainages (˜4.4 m.My-1) is similar to that of the reworked drainages (˜4.3 m.My-1) However, the denudation rates obtained for eleven samples from three sites in overloaded basins range from ˜6.4 m My-1 to ˜22.8 m My-1 and are thus higher than those determined for the reworked and natural basins. These results show that despite the alluvium deposits have been intensely reworked by panning, the values of denudation rates were not changed, they are similar to denudation rates from the natural drainages. However, the natural rates are lower than those affected by panning processes on saprolites.

  6. Biodiversity of dairy Propionibacterium isolated from dairy farms in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosangela; Chuat, Victoria; Madec, Marie-Noelle; Nero, Luis Augusto; Thierry, Anne; Valence, Florence; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes

    2015-06-16

    Dairy propionibacteria are used as ripening cultures for the production of Swiss-type cheeses, and some strains have potential for use as probiotics. This study investigated the biodiversity of wild dairy Propionibacteria isolates in dairy farms that produce Swiss-type cheeses in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. RAPD and PFGE were used for molecular typing of strains and MLST was applied for phylogenetic analysis of strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. The results showed considerable genetic diversity of the wild dairy propionibacteria, since three of the main species were observed to be randomly distributed among the samples collected from different farms in different biotopes (raw milk, sillage, soil and pasture). Isolates from different farms showed distinct genetic profiles, suggesting that each location represented a specific niche. Furthermore, the STs identified for the strains of P. freudenreichii by MLST were not related to any specific origin. The environment of dairy farms and milk production proved to be a reservoir for Propionibacterium strains, which are important for future use as possible starter cultures or probiotics, as well as in the study of prevention of cheese defects. PMID:25791252

  7. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Patrícia da Silva; Ramos, Eliezer Lucas Pires; Gómez-Hernández, César; Ferreira, Gabriela Lícia Santos; Rezende-Oliveira, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  8. PREVALENCE OF CHAGAS DISEASE AMONG BLOOD DONOR CANDIDATES IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Patrícia da Silva; RAMOS, Eliezer Lucas Pires; GÓMEZ-HERNÁNDEZ, César; FERREIRA, Gabriela Lícia Santos; REZENDE-OLIVEIRA, Karine

    2015-01-01

    Despite public health campaigns and epidemiological surveillance activities, Chagas disease remains a major health problem in Latin America. According to data from the World Health Organization, there are approximately 7-8 million people infected with Trypanosoma cruzi worldwide, a large percentage of which in Latin America. This study aims to examine the serological profile of blood donors in blood banks of Hemominas hematology center, in the town of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 53,941 blood donors, which were grouped according to gender and age. Sample collections were performed from January 1991 to December 2011, and 277 donors (0.5%) were considered serologically ineligible due to Chagas disease. Analysis of data showed no significant difference between genders. As for age, the highest proportion of ineligible donors was from 40 to 49 years (30%), and there was a positive correlation between increasing age and the percentage of patients seropositive for Chagas disease. Therefore, adopting strategies that allow the safe identification of donors with positive serology for Chagas disease is essential to reduce or eliminate indeterminate serological results. PMID:27049698

  9. Evaluating karst geotechnical risk in the urbanized area of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Paulo; Halihan, Todd; Hirata, Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    An increase in groundwater consumption in the municipality of Sete Lagoas (Minas Gerais, Brazil) has induced subsidence and collapse in the last three decades. The area is associated with natural karst conditions. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate and identify the potential subsidence or collapse risk zones. Aerial photographs, lithologic well profiles, optical well logs, and geologic mapping were utilized to categorize risk factors influencing karst subsidence and collapse, which were then applied to an index system. The study showed that the majority of the urbanized area overlies mantled limestone from the Sete Lagoas Formation covered with unconsolidated sediments, contained within a graben, resulting in barrier boundaries for groundwater flow. This structure, together with natural karst processes, explains the location of solutionally enlarged bedding-plane conduits and high hydraulic conductivity in the limestone. Five risks zones in the municipality were identified (negligible, low, moderate, considerable, and high risks) related to geologic and hydrologic risk factors. The urbanized area is located largely in the high risk zone where the majority of the collapse features are located. Additional intensive groundwater extraction in that area will likely generate additional events.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Belchior, Ana Paula Cunha; Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Leite, Rômulo Cerqueira

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and regional spread of bovine tuberculosis in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, to identify herd-level risk factors, and to provide guidance for disease control and mitigation of its impact in public health. The study comprised a large-scale random sample survey of 22,990 animals and 1586 herds, distributed in seven regions. A questionnaire was applied on each farm to collect epidemiological and herd management data. Overall, 5.04 % of herds and 0.81 % of animals were positive for bovine tuberculosis. The highest herd prevalence was found in Alto Paranaíba, an expanding dairy region. The more technologically advanced dairy herds showed a prevalence ratio of 2.83 compared to others and are obvious candidates for risk-based surveillance and herd accreditation schemes. Small farms cannot be left out of disease control efforts because they are the vast majority of herds, albeit with lower individual risk. With regard to public health, there is widespread practice of producing homemade fresh cheese with raw milk and of slaughtering culled cows in places without sanitary inspection. This poses a risk to consumers and limits the efficacy of surveillance at slaughter. PMID:26584941

  11. [Equity in coverage by the Family Health Strategy in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Mônica Viegas; Noronha, Kenya; Barbosa, Allan Claudius Queiroz; Rocha, Thiago Augusto Hernandes; Silva, Núbia Cristina da; Calazans, Júlia Almeida; Souza, Michelle Nepomuceno; Carvalho, Lucas Resende de; Souza, Aline

    2015-06-01

    The Family Health Strategy (FHS) plays an important role in prevention and in monitoring families in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. This study aims to analyze equity in the coverage of these services in the urban areas of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The research is unprecedented and analyzes several markers for four target groups: women, pregnant women, children, and the elderly. The study is representative of the various health macro-regions. In 2012, 6,797 households were surveyed, with 5,820 women, 1,758 children, and 3,629 elderly. To analyze equity, FHS coverage rates were calculated according to family income, and concentration indices and curves were estimated. The results show that the FHS is an equitable policy. The indicators show that poorer households have higher visitation rates under the FHS. Coverage of the eligible population is quite high: 88% of households received at least one visit from FHS professionals in the previous 12 months, resulting in a concentration index near zero.

  12. [Association between air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Procópio, Marly; André, Paulo Afonso de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    The city of Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, an area that features large-scale mechanized iron ore pit mines. The current study evaluates the acute effects of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in terms of emergency room visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, controlling for temperature, humidity, and both short and long-term seasonality. Increases of 10mg/m(3) in PM10 were associated with increases in respiratory emergency room visits of 4% (95%CI: 2.2-5.8), at lags 0 and 1 for children and adolescents younger than 13 years of age, and of 12% (95%CI: 8.5-15.5) on the three subsequent days for adolescents (13 to 19 years of age). For cardiovascular diseases, the effect was acute (4%; 95%CI: 0.8-8.5) and mainly for the 45 to 64 age group. These results show that PM10 generated by open pit mining can lead to health problems in the exposed population. PMID:18038038

  13. [Association between air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador; Procópio, Marly; André, Paulo Afonso de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento

    2007-01-01

    The city of Itabira, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is located in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, an area that features large-scale mechanized iron ore pit mines. The current study evaluates the acute effects of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in terms of emergency room visits due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in Itabira. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, controlling for temperature, humidity, and both short and long-term seasonality. Increases of 10mg/m(3) in PM10 were associated with increases in respiratory emergency room visits of 4% (95%CI: 2.2-5.8), at lags 0 and 1 for children and adolescents younger than 13 years of age, and of 12% (95%CI: 8.5-15.5) on the three subsequent days for adolescents (13 to 19 years of age). For cardiovascular diseases, the effect was acute (4%; 95%CI: 0.8-8.5) and mainly for the 45 to 64 age group. These results show that PM10 generated by open pit mining can lead to health problems in the exposed population.

  14. Self-perceived health among 'quilombolas' in northern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Stéphany Ketllin Mendes; Pereira, Mayane Moura; Guimarães, Luiz Sena; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2015-09-01

    Over a century has passed since slavery was abolished in Brazil, yet quilombola communities remain socially vulnerable, especially when it comes to health. The goal of this study was to understand self-perceived health (SPH) in quilombola communities in Northern Minas Gerais, and the factors associated with their negative -perceived their own health. A household survey of a representative sample of quilombola communities in the study region. Validated tools were used to gather data about SPH, socioeconomic conditions, demographics, lifestyle and self-referred morbidity. Following a bivariate analysis, we proceeded to conduct a hierarchical logistics regression analysis. The prevalence of negative SPH was 46.0%. The following variables were statistically associated with negative SPH: age and years of schooling as distal variables, and high blood pressure, diabetes, arthritis, depression and back problems as proximal variables. SPH is associated with demographic and socioeconomic dimensions, and in particular with self-referred morbidity. The concept of health among the quilombola communities included in this study seems to be intimately linked to the absence of disease, especially chronic disease. PMID:26331519

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; da Silva Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1–4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population. PMID:26887252

  17. Diversity of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; De Vasconcelos, Fernanda Bernardes; Da Silva, Daniela Gonçalves; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2011-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of zoonotic diseases that are endemic to many Brazilian states. They are transmitted to the vertebrates by the bite of the hematophagous female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors. Despite the increasing occurrence of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in large urban centers, their transmission continues to occur primarily in a wild environment and may be associated with professional activities, ecotourism activities, or both. This study investigates the ecological parameters of the sand flies present in Ibitipoca State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. During 2009, systematic collections of sand flies were made monthly using HP light traps installed at five sites, including three natural settings (a cave, riparian vegetation, and a rain forest), the tourist and researchers' accommodations, and a surrounding domestic livestock area. In total, 161 sand flies (seven species) were collected, the most abundant, particularly in the surrounding domestic livestock area, being Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus) lloydi (Antunes, 1937). Furthermore, a previously unidentified Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia) sp. was prevalent in the cave environment. There are no existing records of the occurrence of leishmaniasis in Ibitipoca State Park; however, the some species of the subgenus Psychodopygus are known vectors of Leishmania spp in Brazil. Hence, the presence of a species of this genus in areas surrounding the park may represent a risk to ecotourism and the local inhabitants. Our study shows the importance of regular monitoring of the various areas used by humans to determine the distribution and spread of sand fly vectors for preventive management to forestall potential risk to health and consequent effect on ecotourists.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of Dengue virus 1 isolated from South Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond, Betania Paiva; Fagundes, Luiz Gustavo da Silva; Rocha, Raissa Prado; Fumagalli, Marcilio Jorge; Araki, Carlos Shigueru; Colombo, Tatiana Elisa; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Castilho, Thiago Elias; da Silveira, Nelson José Freitas; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is a major worldwide public health problem, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Primary infection with a single Dengue virus serotype causes a mild, self-limiting febrile illness called dengue fever. However, a subset of patients who experience secondary infection with a different serotype can progress to a more severe form of the disease, called dengue hemorrhagic fever. The four Dengue virus serotypes (1-4) are antigenically and genetically distinct and each serotype is composed of multiple genotypes. In this study we isolated one Dengue virus 1 serotype, named BR/Alfenas/2012, from a patient with dengue hemorrhagic fever in Alfenas, South Minas Gerais, Brazil and molecular identification was performed based on the analysis of NS5 gene. Swiss mice were infected with this isolate to verify its potential to induce histopathological alterations characteristic of dengue. Liver histopathological analysis of infected animals showed the presence of inflammatory infiltrates, hepatic steatosis, as well as edema, hemorrhage and necrosis focal points. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses based on the envelope gene provided evidence that the isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 belongs to genotype V, lineage I and it is probably derived from isolates of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The isolate BR/Alfenas/2012 showed two unique amino acids substitutions (SER222THRE and PHE306SER) when compared to other Brazilian isolates from the same genotype/lineage. Molecular models were generated for the envelope protein indicating that the amino acid alteration PHE 306 SER could contribute to a different folding in this region located within the domain III. Further genetic and animal model studies using BR/Alfenas/2012 and other isolates belonging to the same lineage/genotype could help determine the relation of these genetic alterations and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a susceptible population.

  19. Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    2004-01-01

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.

  20. Comparing adult users of public and private dental services in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studying the factors associated with the use of dental services can provide the necessary knowledge to understand the reasons why individuals seek out public healthcare services and the formulation of more appropriate public policies for the present-day reality. Methods This work was a cross-sectional epidemiological study consisting of a sample of adults found in a research databank concerning the conditions of the oral health of the population of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This study examined both main oral health disorders and relevant socioeconomic aspects. The dependent variable was defined as the type of service used, categorized under public and private use. The independent variables were selected and grouped to be inserted in the analysis model according to an adaptation of the behavioral model described by Andersen and Davidson. A hierarchical model was used to analyze the data. The description of variables and bivariate analyses were performed in an attempt to verify possible associations. For each group of variables at each hierarchical level, the gross and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by means of logistic regression. The Complex Samples model from the SPSS statistics program, version 19.0, was used to analyze the sample framework. Results In the final model, the factors associated with the use of public healthcare services by adults were directly related to the socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the individuals, including: being of a dark-skinned black race/color, belonging to families with more than four household residents and with a lower income level, residing in small towns, having more teeth that need treatment. Conclusions According to the findings from this study, socioeconomic and demographic factors, as well as normative treatment needs, are associated with the use of public dental services. PMID:25099268

  1. Water balance indicators from MODIS images and agrometeorological data in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bolfe, Edson L.; da Silva, Gustavo B. S.

    2015-10-01

    Minas Gerais state, Brazil, has experienced severe water scarcity in some areas, demanding large-scale water balance studies to subsidize water policies. The reflectance bands from the MOD13Q1 MODIS product were used together with gridded agrometeorological data in the state, during the year 2014, later extracting the main agriculture growing regions, North, Northwest and Minas Triangle, for analyzes. Precipitation (Prec) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) data from 36 weather stations were interpolated, while for actual evapotranspiration (ET), the SAFER (Simple Algorithm for Evapotranspiration Retrieving) algorithm was used. Two climatic water balance indicators were applied, the Water Balance Ratio (WBr = Prec/ET) and the Water Balance Difference (WDd = Prec - ET). The daily net radiation (Rn) was retrieved from surface albedo (α0), air temperature (Ta) and shortwave atmospheric transmissivity (τsw), while the ground heat flux (G) was estimated as a fraction of Rn. For surface moisture, the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr = ET/ET0) and the evaporative fraction [Ef = λE/(Rn - G)] were used, with the latent heat flux (λE) obtained by transforming ET into energy units. Analyzing WDr and WDd, the most water scarcity critical MODIS 16-day periods, reaching to minimum values lower than 1.0 and -10 mm, respectively, were from the end of April to the middle of October. Higher water availability, detected by these indicators larger than 1.5 and 10 mm, respectively, were from the middle of October to the end of December. The maximums WDr and WDd of 7.0 and 158 mm happened from the middle of November to the start of December in the Northwest agricultural growing region. However, according to the ETr and Ef values, after this period, the soil moisture storage showed a gap, increasing only in the second half of December, when they reached to averages of 0.63. The largest values of these last soil moisture indicators, above 0.70 in May, did not coincided with the period

  2. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving. PMID:23370024

  3. [Positive breathalyzer test: factors associated with drinking and driving in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Rocha, Mariela Campos

    2013-01-01

    Few researches in Brazil have focused on factors associated with drinking and driving. The current study presents data on the prevalence and characteristics of individuals that drive under the influence of alcohol (DUI) in nine regions of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A total of 1,656 drivers were interviewed, of whom 1,254 (76%) agreed to answer a structured questionnaire and submit to the breathalyzer test. The breathalyzer test was positive in 15% of these drivers. The logistic regression model predicted 1.5 times higher odds of a positive breathalyzer test in drivers over 31 years of age and 4.5 times higher in individuals that reported at least weekly alcohol consumption. In addition, drivers in the Barreiro region showed two-fold odds of a positive breathalyzer test. Focused studies with sobriety checkpoints can monitor DUI behavior, drivers' characteristics, and traffic risks, meanwhile orienting public policies to prevent drinking and driving.

  4. Cranial bones and atlas of titanosaurs (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Marinho, Thiago da Silva; Filippi, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos Borges; Ferraz, Mara Lúcia da Fonseca; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes

    2015-08-01

    Isolated left prefrontal, left squamosal and atlas of titanosaur dinosaurs are described and compared. They come from the Late Cretaceous Serra da Galga Member of the Marília Formation at the Serra do Veadinho region, Peirópolis (Uberaba County, Minas Gerais State, Brazil). Due to the sparse cranial elements of titanosaurs already known from Brazil, these specimens are noticeable to be presented. In addition, the atlas vertebra is described for the first time for Brazilian titanosaurs. The morphology of the cranial bones closely resembles lithostratian titanosaurs, such as Rapetosaurus, rather than basal titanosaurs. The atlas is similar to that of other titanosaurs, suggesting that the anatomy of this element seems to be more conservative than other vertebral elements, in which vertebral laminae play an important rule in titanosaur taxonomy.

  5. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae) and mites (Acari) associated with bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in a high-altitude region in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato

    2013-12-01

    A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.

  6. Reconnaissance geologic study of the Vazante zinc district, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, Charles H.; Nahass, Samir

    1977-01-01

    The Vazante district, Minas Gerais, 130 km south of Paracatu, produces nearly all of Brazil's zinc metal. The district is situated on the western side of the Late Precambrian Bambul basin and along the eastern and leading edge of the north-trending Brazilian orogenic belt (ca. 600-500 m.y. old) that borders the western margin of the basin. Reconnaissance study indicates that bedding and low-angle thrust faulting, folding, and low-grade metamorphism dominated the structural development of the district. The structural trend within the district is northeasterly, and dips 20?-45 ? NW. Three sets of folds developed during the main period of eastward thrusting of older Precambrian rocks over the western margin of the Bambui basin. A fourth fold set is transverse to the regional trend. The rocks in the district are tentatively assigned to the Paraopeba Formation of the Bambui Group and are designated A through C in ascending order. Unit A is phyllite to phyllitic siltstone. Unit B consists of interbedded dolomitic limestone and marl-limestone. Irregularly distributed limestone ledges 20 to 100 m thick have the appearance of boudins. Their origin is attributed to a combination of rapid lateral facies changes and differential movement at different structural levels along bedding and low-angle thrust faults, with the formation of tear faults vertically limited by the thrust faults. Unit C consists of interbedded siltstone, dolomitic limestone, and sandstone. Phyllitic rocks along member interfaces in units B and C and at the base of unit C indicate differential penetrative deformation and bedding faulting. The contacts between units A, B, and C are interpreted to be low-angle or bedding faults, and their original stratigraphic positions with respect to each other is unknown. Zinc silicate minerals (hemimorphite and willemite) occur in a folded breccia zone in the lower part of unit B. The breccia zone is interpreted to be tectonic in origin, having formed along the step of a

  7. Two new species of genus Joruma McAtee (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luci Boa Nova; Da-Silva, Elidiomar Ribeiro; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio Fiuza

    2016-01-01

    Joruma abernardesi sp.nov. and Joruma phrolfsi sp.nov. (Typhlocybinae: Jorumini) are described based on specimens from Mata do Paraíso, an Atlantic Forest reserve located at Viçosa municipality. This is the first record of the genus Joruma McAtee in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil.

  8. Analysis of the Representation of Cretaceous Period in Textbooks Used in Schools in the Western Region of the City of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the geography textbooks, which are being used in the public schools of the city of Ituiutaba, Depth of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The research also seeks to address the ways and methods being employed by the teachers of these schools for studies that include the teaching of Geology and Geosciences. In this study, survey…

  9. Two new species of genus Joruma McAtee (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Luci Boa Nova; Da-Silva, Elidiomar Ribeiro; Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio Fiuza

    2016-01-01

    Joruma abernardesi sp.nov. and Joruma phrolfsi sp.nov. (Typhlocybinae: Jorumini) are described based on specimens from Mata do Paraíso, an Atlantic Forest reserve located at Viçosa municipality. This is the first record of the genus Joruma McAtee in Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. PMID:27615975

  10. Two new species of Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (Collembola:Entomobryidae) from Serra do Gandarela, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xisto, Thiago; Mendonça, Maria Cleide De

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Dicranocentrus from Southeastern Brazil are described: D. melinus sp. nov. and D. cuprum sp. nov., both from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Gandarela" (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. These species can be included to gracilis-group due to the absence of chaeta A1, S2, Ps and up to 6+6 chaetae P on dorsal head. A male genital plate is for the first time illustrated for the genus.

  11. Two new species of Dicranocentrus Schött, 1893 (Collembola:Entomobryidae) from Serra do Gandarela, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Xisto, Thiago; Mendonça, Maria Cleide De

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Dicranocentrus from Southeastern Brazil are described: D. melinus sp. nov. and D. cuprum sp. nov., both from "Parque Nacional da Serra do Gandarela" (Minas Gerais State), Brazil. These species can be included to gracilis-group due to the absence of chaeta A1, S2, Ps and up to 6+6 chaetae P on dorsal head. A male genital plate is for the first time illustrated for the genus. PMID:27396001

  12. Distribution of antibodies against influenza virus in pigs from farrow-to-finish farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Alessandra S; Costa, Érica A; Rajão, Daniela S; Guedes, Roberto M C; Ciacci Zanella, Janice R; Lobato, Zélia I P

    2015-01-01

    Background Swine influenza virus (SIV) is the cause of an acute respiratory disease that affects swine worldwide. In Brazil, SIV has been identified in pigs since 1978. After the emergence of pandemic H1N1 in 2009 (H1N1pdm09), few studies reported the presence of influenza virus in Brazilian herds. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the serological profile for influenza virus in farrow-to-finish pig farms in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Methods Thirty farms with no SIV vaccination history were selected from the four larger pig production areas in Minas Gerais state (Zona da Mata, Triângulo Mineiro/Alto Paranaíba, South/Southwest and the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area). At each farm, blood samples were randomly collected from 20 animals in each production cycle category: breeding animals (sows and gilts), farrowing crate (2–3 weeks), nursery (4–7 weeks), grower pigs (8–14 weeks), and finishing pigs (15–16 weeks), with 100 samples per farm and a total of 3000 animals in this study. The samples were tested for hemagglutination inhibition activity against H1N1 pandemic strain (A/swine/Brazil/11/2009) and H3N2 SIV (A/swine/Iowa/8548-2/98) reference strain. Results The percentages of seropositive animals for H1N1pdm09 and H3N2 were 26·23% and 1·57%, respectively, and the percentages of seropositive herds for both viruses were 96·6% and 13·2%, respectively. Conclusions The serological profiles differed for both viruses and among the studied areas, suggesting a high variety of virus circulation around the state, as well as the presence of seronegative animals susceptible to influenza infection and, consequently, new respiratory disease outbreaks. PMID:25648743

  13. Pre-Columbian Chagas disease in Brazil: Trypanosoma cruzi I in the archaeological remains of a human in Peruaçu Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Alexandre; Iñiguez, Alena M; Lima, Valdirene S; Souza, Sheila M F Mendonça de; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Jansen, Ana M

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the presence and distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in a mummy presenting with megacolon that was dated as approximately 560 +/- 40 years old. The mummy was from the Peruaçu Valley in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. All samples were positive for T. cruzi minicircle DNA, demonstrating the presence and broad dissemination of the parasite in this body. From one sample, a mini-exon gene fragment was recovered and characterized by sequencing and was found to belong to the T. cruzi I genotype. This finding suggests that T. cruzi I infected humans during the pre-Columbian times and that, in addition to T. cruzi infection, Chagas disease in Brazil most likely preceded European colonization.

  14. Farmers' Visions on Soils: A Case Study among Agroecological and Conventional Smallholders in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingen, Klarien Elisabeth; De Graaff, Jan; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Kessler, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Why do farmers not take better care of their soils? This article aims to give insight into how farmers look at soil quality management. Design/methodology/approach: It analyses diverse land management practices and visions on soils and soil quality of ten agroecological and 14 conventional smallholder farmers in Araponga, Minas Gerais,…

  15. Synonymy of Crossodactylus bokermanni Caramaschi & Sazima, 1985 with Crossodactylus trachystomus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and description of a new species from Minas Gerais, Brazil (Anura: Hylodidae).

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Bruno V S; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Cruz, Carlos Alberto Gonçalves

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the external morphology variation in Crossodactylus bokermanni, C. trachystomus, and in unidentified specimens from 14 localities along the southern region of the Serra do Espinhaço, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, revealed that all of these forms belong to the same taxon. Crossodactylus bokermanni is considered a junior synonym of C. trachystomus, whose holotype is redescribed and figured. The population from Serra da Canastra, western Minas Gerais, previously referred to as Crossodactylus cf. trachystomus, is herein described and figured as Crossodactylus franciscanus. Its advertisement call is redescribed and compared to those known for the genus.

  16. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais. PMID:19046937

  17. Spatial distribution of Biomphalaria mollusks at São Francisco River Basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using geostatistical procedures.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Felgueiras, Carlos A; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2009-03-01

    Geostatistics is used in this work to make inferences about the presence of the species of Biomphalaria (B. glabrata, B. tenagophila and/or B. straminea), intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni, at the São Francisco River Basin, in Minas Gerais, Brazil. One of these geostatistical procedures, known as indicator kriging, allows the classification of categorical data, in areas where the data are not available, using a punctual sample set. The result is a map of species and risk area definition. More than a single map of the categorical attribute, the procedure also permits the association of uncertainties of the stochastic model, which can be used to qualify the inferences. In order to validate the estimated data of the risk map, a fieldwork in five municipalities was carried out. The obtained results showed that indicator kriging is a rather robust tool since it presented a very good agreement with the field findings. The obtained risk map can be thought as an auxiliary tool to formulate proper public health strategies, and to guide other fieldwork, considering the places with higher occurrence probability of the most important snail species. Also, the risk map will enable better resource distribution and adequate policies for the mollusk control. This methodology will be applied to other river basins to generate a predictive map for Biomphalaria species distribution for the entire state of Minas Gerais.

  18. Stratigraphic relations, kimberlite emplacement and lithospheric thermal evolution, Quiricó Basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, George; Grutter, Herman; Winter, Stewart; Luckman, Nigel; Gaunt, Frank; Thomsen, Fernando

    2004-09-01

    The Quiricó Basin covers an area of 10,000 km 2 and is situated to the west of the conventionally defined southwestern margin of the Archean São Francisco craton in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The sedimentary infill of the Quiricó Basin consists of lightly metamorphosed shallow marine clastic bedrock sediments of the Bambuı´ Group (˜650±15 Ma), unconformably overlain by Early Cretaceous terrigenous lacustrine (Quiricó Formation), alluvial fan (Abaeté Formation) and fluvial/aeolian (Três Barras Formation) deposits of the Areado Group. Rare kimberlites and ubiquitous kamafugites of the Alto Paranaı´ba Igneous Province (APIP) erupted through the recently deposited sediments of the Quiricó Basin in the time period 95-61 Ma. The 120-m-thick Mata da Corda Group overlies the Late Cretaceous Areado Group over an area of 8000 km 2 and is composed largely of extrusive kamafugite and related volcanosedimentary material. Unusually large diamonds with proximal surface features and population characteristics are well known to occur in rivers and streams that drain the stratigraphic succession in the Quiricó Basin, prompting the search for their presumably local primary source(s) and a possibly associated Archean basement or cratonic root. Conceptual exploration models for this setting may in part be based on the diamondiferous 120 Ma Canastra and 95 Ma Três Ranchos kimberlites, but require reconciliation with the observed abundance of 85-61 Ma old diamond-free kamafugites. Field relations and carefully controlled stratigraphic samples show that a distinctive mantle-derived indicator mineral suite occurs in the Maxixe Member, a volcaniclastic breccia unit that occurs at the base of the Mata da Corda Group. A detailed thermobarometric comparison of mantle-derived xenocrystic clinopyroxene compositions from this member with clinopyroxene populations derived from kimberlites and kamafugites situated in the Quiricó Basin shows a distinct and abrupt change in

  19. Amphimerus bragai n. sp. (Digenea: Opisthorchiidae), a parasite of the rodent Nectomys squamipes (Cricetidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Moraes Neto, A H; Thatcher, V E; Lanfredi, R M

    1998-01-01

    Amphimerus bragai n.sp. (Digenea, Opisthorchiidae) from the bile ducts of a rodent from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Nectomys squamipes (Cricetidae), is described. The new species as studied by both light and scanning electron microscopy. A table is presented comparing the measurements of the new species with those of A. lancea (Diesing, 1850) and A. vallecaucensis Thatcher; 1970, parasites of dolphins and marsupials, respectively. The new species is similar in size and body form to A. vallecaucensis from which it differs in having a vitellarium that extends to the acetabulum while that of the former species are limited to the posterior one-third of the body. Additionally, the new species is from a rodent.

  20. [The interdiction of disease: a cultural construction of schistosomiasis in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gazzinelli, Maria Flávia; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Santos, Regiane Veloso; Gonçalves, Luiz Alberto Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in a rural area endemic for schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective was to determine the relationship between an environmental and health education program for schistosomiasis, implemented for teachers and students from the state secondary school in the village of Boa União, and the subsequent actions of its participants in regards to the environment and the illness. An important difference in this program is its perspective that it is not merely the implementation of instrumental and cognitive knowledge of the environment and illness, but an approach in which subjects are asked to question and investigate their perception of reality, the environment, and the illness. The study demonstrated that a change in attitude could occur from reflection on one's experience in relation to both the environment and diseases endemic it.

  1. [Nutritional status and associated factors among the elderly in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Clarissa de Matos; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2011-12-01

    This cross-sectional study in 2009 focused on the prevalence of underweight and overweight and associated factors in a sample of 621 elderly individuals in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Data were obtained through home interviews on nutritional status and socio-demographic and health conditions. Of the total sample, 53.3% were females. Median BMI was 26.40 kg/m² (range = 15.20-46.82) and was lower for men than for women. Prevalence of overweight was high (45%; 95%CI: 40%-49%), decreased with age, was positively associated with female gender and history of arthritis/arthrosis, and was negatively associated with age 80 years or older and smoking. Prevalence of underweight was high in men (18.2%), increased with age, and was positively associated with worse self-rated health. The findings highlight the importance of health strategies that favor lifestyle changes and healthy eating habits.

  2. [Interrelatio of acari Ixodidae and hosts of Edentata of the Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D

    1989-01-01

    We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".

  3. Checklist of butterflies (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Izabella; Carvalho, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to contribute to the butterflies’ biodiversity knowledge at Serra do Intendente State Park - Minas Gerais, a study based on collections using Van Someren-Rydon traps and active search was performed. In this study, a total of 395 butterflies were collected, of which 327 were identified to species or morphospecies. 263 specimens were collected by the traps and 64 were collected using entomological hand-nets; 43 genera and 60 species were collected and identified. PMID:25535482

  4. How Stakeholder Engagement is Evolving at the Caldas Uranium Mining Site in Minas Gerais, Brazil - 13223

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Peter M.; Da Silva, Nivaldo Carlos; Pereira de Oliveira, Alexandre; Cioffi Batagini, Regina Maria; Rangel, Heraldo Junior; Da Conceicao Estrella Abad, Maria

    2013-07-01

    The Caldas site is located in the Federal State of Minas Gerais in Brazil about 25 km from the city of Pocos de Caldas. While the city itself has 150,000 inhabitants there is a total population of around 0.5 million people living in an area that could potentially be influenced by the site. Uranium ore was mined and milled here between the years of 1982 and 1995, with ore extraction taking place from an open pit. Of the material removed, aside from that extracted for uranium, some was used on-site for road construction and building embankments while the remainder was disposed of onto two major rock piles. There are a number of potential historical and current environmental impacts to groundwater as a consequence of discharges into streams which then flow off site. The site is now undergoing a phase of decommissioning which includes the formulation and substantiation of a site remediation strategy. As part of a wider International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Project aimed at providing practical guidance for implementing a decommissioning and remediation plan at the site, WSP E and E were invited to lead a mission in order to provide advice on the importance and merits of stakeholder engagement and how to ultimately build an engagement program. In November 2011, WSP E and E met with personnel from the site operators, the Brazilian regulatory bodies and representatives from the local stakeholder community and explained the principles of stakeholder engagement and how the process had internationally evolved principally from a decide-announce-defend approach to a more formal two way mechanism of engagement. Historically there had been insufficient liaison between the site operator, the nuclear regulator and the environmental regulator. All parties had recognized that greater interaction was necessary. There had also been very little engagement with local stakeholders about the various activities on the site and the potential implications of these

  5. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  6. Composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and vegetation corridors in Southern Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Andréa O; Passamani, Marcelo

    2012-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation leads to isolation and reduce habitat areas, in addition to a series of negative effects on natural populations, affecting richness, abundance and distribution of animal species. In such a context, habitat corridors serve as an alternative for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, minimizing the effects of structural isolation of different habitat areas. This study evaluated the richness, composition and abundance of small mammal communities in forest fragments and in the relevant vegetation corridors that connect these fragments, located in Southern Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Ten sites were sampled (five forest fragments and five vegetation corridors) using the capture-mark-recapture method, from April 2007-March 2008. A total sampling effort of 6 300 trapnights resulted in 656 captures of 249 individuals. Across the 10 sites sampled, 11 small mammal species were recorded. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordinations and ANOSIM based on the composition of small mammal communities within the corridor and fragment revealed a qualitative difference between the two environments. Regarding abundance, there was no significant difference between corridors and fragments. In comparing mean values of abundance per species in each environment, only Cerradomys subflavus showed a significant difference, being more abundant in the corridor environment. Results suggest that the presence of several small mammal species in the corridor environment, in relatively high abundances, could indicate corridors use as habitat, though they might also facilitate and/or allow the movement of individuals using different habitat patches (fragments).

  7. Fructification phenology as an important tool in the recovery of iron mining areas in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, L C; Barros, F V; Lemos-Filho, J P

    2009-08-01

    'Canga' is a name given to the ferruginous rocky fields that can be found in the 'Quadrilátero Ferrífero' of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The endemism and species richness make them areas of special biological importance, regarded as high-priority for conservation. Nevertheless, they are being threatened by intense mining activity. Aiming to understand more about this flora, this study was performed in order to determine the maturation or dispersal period of the fruits of four Canga species, Alibertia vaccinioides K.Schum. (Rubiaceae), Coccoloba acrostichoides Cham. (Polygonaceae), Miconia sellowiana Naudin (Melastomataceae), and one probable new species of Calyptranthes Sw. (Myrtaceae). Although fruit maturation or dispersal tended to occur at the end of the dry season, some asynchrony was observed in these species, with food sources being available during most of the year. This shows that these species have the potential to attract animals the whole year round, and planting them for the recovery of iron mining areas may increase the community's self-regeneration capacity, leading to a more successful restoration process.

  8. Epidemiological aspects of lice (Menacanthus species) infections in laying hen flocks from the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, L Do Carmo; Martins, N R Da Silva; Teixeira, C M; Oliveira, P R De; Cunha, L M

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of chicken lice species such as Menacanthus stramineus, M. cornutus and M. pallidulus were studied during an observational, analytical and sectional survey, to determine predisposing factors for their occurrence in laying hen farms in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 431 houses on 43 farms were visited in 2012. M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M. pallidulus occurred in 20.9%, 11.6% and 11.6% of farms, respectively. The frequencies of occurrence of M. cornutus, M. stramineus and M.pallidulus in poultry houses were 10.4%, 8.8% and 3.7%, respectively. The epidemiological determinants for the occurrence of these species were investigated using Poisson or logistic regression models. The region of the farm, the recent use of acaricides and the presence of birds, such as saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola), feral pigeon (Columba livia) and Guira cuckoo (Guira guira) around the farms were related to the epidemiology of M. cornutus. Infestation by M. stramineus was associated with age of birds, number of birds per cage and the presence of Guira cuckoo and Chopi blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) near the poultry houses. The occurrence of M. pallidulus was influenced by the type of facilities, presence of cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and free-range domestic hens around the farm. The use of wire mesh nets in the houses and of forced moulting did not influence lice infestation. PMID:26642864

  9. Pollen grain morphology of Fabaceae in the Special Protection Area (SPA) Pau-de-Fruta, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Maki, Erica S; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo; Mendonça Filho, Carlos Victor

    2013-01-01

    The presented paper considered the pollen morphology of thirteen species belonging to seven genera of the Fabaceae family occurring in the Pau-de-Fruta Special Protection Area (SPA), Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The pollen grains of six species of Chamaecrista [C. cathartica (Mart.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. debilis Vogel, C. flexuosa (L.) Greene, C. hedysaroides (Vogel) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, C. glandulosa (L.) Greene, and C. papillata H.S. Irwin & Barneby] have a similar morphology, characterized by three long colporated apertures with a central constriction. The species share specific morphological features regarding pollen size, endoaperture type (circular, lalongate or lolongate) and SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (rugulate with perforations or perforate). Andira fraxinifolia Benth., Dalbergia miscolobium Benth, Galactia martii DC, Periandra mediterranea (Vell.) Taub., Senna rugosa (G.Don) H.S. Irwin & Barneby and Zornia diphylla (L.) Pers showed different pollen types in small to large size; oblate spheroidal to prolate form; colpus or colporus apertures; circular, lalongate or lolongate endoapertures and distinctive SEM ornamentation patterns of the exine (perforate, microreticulate, reticulate or rugulate with perforations). Only Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart.) Coville presents polyads. The pollen morphology variation of these species allowed the Fabaceae family to be characterized as eurypalynous in the SPA Pau-de-Fruta.

  10. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages.

  11. [Access to medicines for Alzheimer's disease provided by the Brazilian Unified National Health System in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida-Brasil, Celline Cardoso; Costa, Juliana de Oliveira; Aguiar, Viviane Celestino Ferreira Dos Santos; Moreira, Daniela Pena; Moraes, Edgar Nunes de; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Álvares, Juliana

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated barriers to access to treatment for Alzheimer's disease based on administrative cases involving cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and submitted to the Minas Gerais State Health Secretariat in Brazil in 2012 and 2013. Drawing on data from 165 randomly selected cases, the study addressed the following dimensions of access: geographic accessibility, accommodation, acceptability, availability, and affordability. The administrative processing to supply ChEIs took an average of 39 days and was influenced by characteristics of the path taken by the user. The majority of the prescribers met less than 80% of the required criteria in the Clinical Protocol and Therapeutic Guidelines (CPTG) for Alzheimer's disease. As a result, 38% of requests for medication were denied. Private treatment with ChEIs cost the equivalent of 21 days of the monthly minimum wage. In conclusion, bureaucratic administrative procedures and prescribers' difficulty in following the CPTG hindered access to treatment of Alzheimer's disease and imposed a heavy burden on patients' pockets. PMID:27505179

  12. [Factors associated with waiting time and access to kidney transplants in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil'].

    PubMed

    Machado, Elaine Leandro; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; César, Cibele Comini; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze factors associated with access to kidney transplants from living and cadaver donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The authors conducted a non-concurrent cohort study of patients on the waiting list for kidney transplants from 2000 to 2004 and followed until transplantation, death, exclusion, or continued presence on the line at the end of the study on December 31, 2005. The Cox model was used for competing risks. Of the 835 patients, 22.7% were transplanted. Lower risk of transplantation from living donors and cadavers was observed in patients with more time on dialysis and blood type O. Lower risk of transplantation from living donors was observed in residents in a high health risk area and in recipients with diabetes. The greatest disparity in access was observed in transplants from living donors, since there were no significant socio-demographic differences in transplants from cadaver donors. One can infer that the organ allocation system contributed to mitigating socio-demographic inequalities, and that clinical issues were more relevant in access to transplants from cadaver donors.

  13. Utilizing environmental, socioeconomic data and GIS techniques to estimate the risk for ascariasis and trichuriasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Guimaraes, Ricardo J P S; Drummond, Sandra C; Oliveira, Guilherme; Carvalho, Omar S

    2012-02-01

    The impact of intestinal helminths on human health is well known among the population and health authorities because of their wide geographic distribution and the serious problems they cause. Geohelminths are highly prevalent and have a big impact on public health, mainly in underdeveloped and developing countries. Geohelminths are responsible for the high levels of debility found in the younger population and are often related to cases of chronic diarrhea and malnutrition, which put the physical and intellectual development of children at risk. These geohelminths have not been sufficiently studied. One obstacle in implementing a control program is the lack of knowledge of the prevalence and geographical distribution. Geographical information systems (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) have been utilized to improve understanding of infectious disease distribution and climatic patterns. In this study, GIS and RS technologies, as well as meteorological, social, and environmental variables were utilized for the modeling and prediction of ascariasis and trichuriasis. The GIS and RS technologies specifically used were those produced by orbital sensing including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The results of this study demonstrated important factors related to the transmission of ascariasis and trichuriasis and confirmed the key association between environmental variables and the poverty index, which enabled us to identify priority areas for intervention planning in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil. PMID:22041638

  14. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  15. Traditional knowledge and uses of the Caryocar brasiliense Cambess. (Pequi) by "quilombolas" of Minas Gerais, Brazil: subsidies for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, L C L; Morais, L M O; Guimarães, A Q; Almada, E D; Barbosa, P M; Drumond, M A

    2016-06-01

    Local knowledge of biodiversity has been applied in support of research focused on utilizing and management of natural resources and promotion of conservation. Among these resources, Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.) is important as a source of income and food for communities living in the Cerrado biome. In Pontinha, a "quilombola" community, which is located in the central region of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, an ethnoecological study about Pequi was conducted to support initiatives for generating income for this community. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and crossing. The most relevant uses of Pequi were family food (97%), soap production (67%), oil production (37%), medical treatments (17%), and trade (3%). Bees were the floral visitors with the highest Salience Index (S=0.639). Among frugivores that feed on unfallen fruits, birds showed a higher Salience (S=0.359) and among frugivores who use fallen fruits insects were the most important (S=0.574). Borers (folivorous caterpillars) that attack trunks and roots were the most common pests cited. According to the respondents, young individuals of Pequi are the most affected by fire due to their smaller size and thinner bark. Recognition of the cultural and ecological importance of Pequi has mobilized the community, which has shown interest in incorporating this species as an alternative source of income. PMID:27058602

  16. Plagioscion squamosissimus (Sciaenidae) and Parachromis managuensis (Cichlidae): A Threat to Native Fishes of the Doce River in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Lucas C.; Santos, Udson; Zanuncio, José C.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    The middle section of the lake basin of the Doce River in Minas Gerais State, Brazil is plagued by grave environmental problems, including the introduction of non-native fish, which reduces the biodiversity of this region. This study reports the presence of two newly-detected non-native species in the Doce River Basin. Sampling efforts included gill nets with mesh size of 3 to 12 mm (measured diagonally) and trawling nets, both of which were used in independent field campaigns in 2002 and 2011. The two new invasive Perciform fishes, Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840) and Parachromis managuensis (Günther 1867) were collected in Caratinga and Rio Doce municipalities. These records and other reports on non-native fishes suggest favorable environmental conditions for the establishment of invasive species in this drainage. These invasive species have behavior and diet observed in other wide distribution exotic fish of Rio Doce Basin representing a threat to the 77 native fishes of this region, 37 of which are endangered. PMID:22720053

  17. [Alcohol and illicit drug use and its influence on the sexual behavior of teenagers from Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Neilane; Bastos, Francisco I; Mello, Maeve Brito de; Makuch, Maria Yolanda; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Osis, Maria José; Faúndes, Anibal

    2009-06-01

    This article summarizes the findings of a survey including 5,981 students from public schools in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The analysis assessed the influence of drug use on sexual practices. Among the boys engaged in relationships with casual partners who stated having used illicit drugs, 55.7% reported consistent condom use, as compared to 65.4% among those not reporting such habits. Among boys engaged in relationships with stable partners who reported illicit drug use, consistent condom use was reported by 42.7%, versus 64.1% among those not reporting such habits. In the subgroup of boys engaged in stable relationships who did not report illicit drug use, consistent condom use was less frequent among those that used alcohol/cigarettes, compared to those who did not drink or smoke (60.7% vs. 71.1%). Girls were less likely than boys to use condoms consistently, regardless of the nature of their relationships, without a noticeable influence of drug use. Policies to prevent drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, and unplanned pregnancy should be fully integrated.

  18. Evaluation of schistosomiasis control activities in the Family Health Strategy in municipalities in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quites, Humberto Ferreira de Oliveira; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Gazzinelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Observational study that examined the quality of the preventive actions for schistosomiasis control in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy (FHS) in an endemic area. Structured questionnaires were used to interview 97 health professionals of the FHS and the Secretary of Health of 25 municipalities belonging to the State Health Department of Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Models of latent variables were used to define a score to evaluate the quality of the process. The results showed that 57.8% of the FHS teams' actions were unsatisfactory or critical. The professionals did not perform effective activities for the control of the infection and 8.1% did not use the diagnostic methods required by the government. Similarly, the professionals did not receive adequate training for the development of schistosomiasis prevention and control. There was a lack of educational materials to carry out health education activities, and the FHS teams conducted educational activities in only 48% of the schools of municipalities. Less than half of the professionals interviewed knew about the Schistosomiasis Control Program. We concluded that it is necessary to integrate this Program's practices to the FHS, and seek a suitable support of municipal management through pacts and social control. PMID:27532760

  19. Binding intensity and metal partitioning in soils affected by mining and smelting activities in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Costa, E T S; Penido, E S; Sparks, D L; Guilherme, L R G

    2015-09-01

    Mining and smelting activities are potential sources of heavy metal contamination, which pose a threat to human health and ecological systems. This study investigated single and sequential extractions of Zn, Pb, and Cd in Brazilian soils affected by mining and smelting activities. Soils from a Zn mining area (soils A, B, C, D, E, and the control soil) and a tailing from a smelting area were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The samples were subjected to single (using Mehlich I solution) and sequential extractions. The risk assessment code (RAC), the redistribution index (U ts ), and the reduced partition index (I R ) have been applied to the sequential extraction data. Zinc and Cd, in soil samples from the mining area, were found mainly associated with carbonate forms. This same pattern did not occur for Pb. Moreover, the Fe-Mn oxides and residual fractions had important contributions for Zn and Pb in those soils. For the tailing, more than 70 % of Zn and Cd were released in the exchangeable fraction, showing a much higher mobility and availability of these metals at this site, which was also supported by results of RAC and I R . These differences in terms of mobility might be due to different chemical forms of the metals in the two sites, which are attributable to natural occurrence as well as ore processing.

  20. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages. PMID:26495155

  1. Quality assessment of sulfurous thermal waters in the city of Poços de caldas, Minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Adriana Moneira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Ponezi, Alexandre Nunes

    2015-09-01

    Currently, the quality of the water consumed by the population, and also the water used for both leisure and therapeutic bathing, are known. In the city of Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil, the population has two sources of sulfurous thermal water, with free access for various purposes, including drinking. Since 1882, the system has retained the same structural characteristics, and at this time, there appears to be a risk of anthropogenic contamination due to population increase near the springs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the water quality of the sulfurous hot springs distributed in Pedro Botelho fountain, located in Thermas Antônio Carlos, and Monkey fountain, located in Mario Mourao bathhouse, for microbiological and bacteriological components, physical and chemical composition, and radionuclides for a period of 12 months and to compare their quality with Brazilian water quality laws. The results showed that all the values are within the prescribed water quality parameters, except fluoride and sodium, whose levels are above those permitted by law. Excess fluoride in consumed water can cause dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. As for sodium, which exceeded the permissible limits by 20 to 25 %, it can be detrimental to hypertensive individuals. An important fact to consider is that water from sulfurous hot springs cannot be consumed without medical supervision because its chemical characteristics may cause damage to health, and it should only be used as medicinal mineral water. PMID:26255269

  2. Initial growth of leguminous trees and shrubs in a cut gold mined area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, L.E.; Campello, E.F.C.; Ribeiro, E.S. Jr.; Mello, J.W.V.

    1999-07-01

    In an opencast gold mining in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, leguminous trees and shrubs were used to revegetate an acid cut mined area. the substrate was high in pyrite content (3%) and received 50 cm of covered material in two layers: (1) insulating layer of 20 cm where clay or a mining refuse (MR) was used to prevent the pyrite oxidation, and (2) an upper layer with 30 cm formed by topsoil or topsoil + urban compost (3:1 v/v). After the application of the cover materials, planting holes were manually made spaced by 1 x 1 m. Each hole received limestone (100 g), rock phosphate (150 g), potassium chloride (45 g) and cattle manure (2 L). Fifteen leguminous species were planted an each plot (15 x 8 m), spaced by 1.0 x 1.0 m (one specie per row). Sixteen months after the planting the plants were evaluated and the results showed an effect of substrate on the plants survival, height, and diameter. The use of clay as insulating layer was better than mining refuse and the plants did not respond to the addition of urban compost to the topsoil. Among the evaluated species, Thephrosia sinapau, Erytrina verna, Dipterix alata and Stryphnodenadrum guyanensis showed a mortality rate of 100% after 16 months while Sesbania marginata, Acacaia holosericea, Mimosa pellita, Acacia crassicarpa, Acacia mangium and Acacia angustissima exhibited more adaptation capacity to the acid substrate. Analyses from the substrate showed higher exchangeable acidity (Al{sup 3+}) for the plots receiving MR as insulating layer. This study has applications for the acid mine drainage from coal mines of Brazil.

  3. Occurrence of Fasciola hepatica (Linnaeus, 1758) in capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) (Linnaeus, 1766) in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dracz, Ruth Massote; Ribeiro, Vinicius Marques Antunes; Pereira, Cintia Aparecida de Jesus; Lima, Walter Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a parasite that affects the hepatic ducts of several species of domestic and wild vertebrates, causing huge economic losses to livestock rearing worldwide. Reports on occurrences of F. hepatica in capybaras are an important epidemiological aspect of this disease, since these rodents can be a source of contamination for other animals and humans. In the present study, conducted in a rural area of the municipality of Confins, Minas Gerais, fresh feces from capybaras were collected from the ground near a lagoon at the edge of the Ribeirão da Mata river. These were examined using the technique of four metal sieves. F. hepatica eggs were recovered. This trematode species was confirmed by observing morphological characteristics and measuring the eggs recovered from the capybara feces, and through experimental infection of Lymnaea columella (Say, 1817) by miracidia from these eggs and subsequent infection of C57/BL06 mice with metacercariae originating from these infected mollusks. The data suggest the occurrence of natural cycle of F. hepatica in this region and provide a warning that expansion of the geographical distribution of this parasite by means of this rodent is possible. It is therefore important to adopting measures for epidemiological control of this helminthiasis.

  4. Hospitalizations for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Bastos, Mauro Gomes; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze hospitalization rates and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations and to characterize them according to coverage by the Family Health Strategy, a primary health care guidance program. METHODS An ecological study comprising 853 municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, under the purview of 28 regional health care units, was conducted. We used data from the Hospital Information System of the Brazilian Unified Health System. Ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations in 2000 and 2010 were compared. Population data were obtained from the demographic censuses. RESULTS The number of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations declined from 20.75/1,000 inhabitants [standard deviation (SD) = 10.42) in 2000 to 14.92/thousand inhabitants (SD = 10.04) in 2010 Heart failure was the most frequent cause in both years. Hospitalizations rates for hypertension, asthma, and diabetes mellitus, decreased, whereas those for angina pectoris, prenatal and birth disorders, kidney and urinary tract infections, and other acute infections increased. Hospitalization durations and the proportion of deaths due to ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS Mean hospitalization rates for sensitive conditions were significantly lower in 2010 than in 2000, but no correlation was found with regard to the expansion of the population coverage of the Family Health Strategy. Hospitalization rates and proportion of deaths were different between the various health care regions in the years evaluated, indicating a need to prioritize the primary health care with high efficiency and quality. PMID:26039399

  5. [Remuneration and productivity: the case of the Minas Gerais Hospital Foundation, Brazil, 1992-1995].

    PubMed

    Cherchiglia, M L; Girardi, S N; Vieira, R de C; Marques, R B; Mendes, P; da Rocha, W; Pereira, L A

    1998-08-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Minas Gerais State Hospital Foundation immediately after the introduction in its health services units in early 1993 of a new system of rewards for good performance and productivity, as a complement to salaried remuneration. Analysis was based on a cross-sectional study of changes in indicators of production and productivity in the Foundation during the 1992-1995 period. Data were obtained from hospitalization authorization forms, payment authorization guides, and bulletins from the Human Resource Administration. The strategy of conditional remuneration and incentives was adopted not only to step up production and productivity, but also to increase the employees' commitment to the institution. Analysis of the selected indicators appears to confirm other study results in that remuneration based on results (conditional incentives) leads to a positive change in the production level of services and productivity, even if it does not last for the long term. Study results also support the notion that such alternatives may be deliberately used as part of a more general strategy of organizational development and not only as an isolated element for concrete improvements in productivity.

  6. Prevalence and factors associated with asthma in students from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Magna Adaci de Quadros; de Pinho, Lucinéia; Marques, Paula Quadros; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Solé, Dirceu

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of asthma and factors related to asthma development in schoolchildren aged 6 to 14, living in central and peripheral areas of the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais and who were registered with the Family Health Strategy program. Initially, a standard written questionnaire, based on ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), was administered to collect personal data, information regarding income, asthma prevalence, allergic rhinitis and eczema (N = 1,131). Secondly, a case-control study was performed by grouping the patients as either asthmatic (A; N = 172) or non-asthmatic (NA; N = 379). Potential factors associated with the occurrence of asthma were evaluated using the complementary questionnaire from ISAAC phase II. Skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity (STIH) and parasitological tests were also performed. The odds ratio, estimated by multivariate analysis, indicated that asthma cases were related to kindergarten attendance, household smoking, family history of asthma, rhinitis and positive STIH. It was concluded that, in the studied population, the prevalence of asthma was related to genetic predisposition, in addition to individual history, social demographics, exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke and a positive response to allergy testing.

  7. First record of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the Quaternary of Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro (Minas Gerais State), Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Agustín G.; Ferraz, Patrícia Fonseca; Cunha, Gabriel Cardoso; Cunha, Isabella Cardoso; de Souza Carvalho, Ismar; Borges Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos; Neto, Francisco Macedo; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia

    2012-08-01

    Although the occurrence of Pleistocene mammals is abundant in many localities of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Cordisburgo, Patos de Minas, Araxá), there are no references at present of Quaternary megafauna in Uberaba, Triângulo Mineiro, southeastern Brazil. This region is traditionally recognized for its taxonomically diverse fauna of the Late Cretaceous Bauru Group. In 2006, fossil material attributed to giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae), a typical taxon of the Brazilian Pleistocene, was discovered in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State). The specimen (CPP 1122) which is here described consists of several cranial and postcranial bones of a single individual. The material was confined to a small alluvial deposit, yielding in the Córrego da Saudade stream, which due its restricted area distribution it is not represented in geological maps.

  8. Analysis of time series of cattle rabies cases in Minas Gerais, Brazil, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Edna; Sáfadi, Thelma; Da Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhaes; Cardoso, Denis Lucio

    2015-04-01

    Vampire bats are potential transmitters of rabies in rural areas. Cattle rabies is relevant in the state of Minas Gerais due to the increasing cattle herds and geographical features of the area, which are favorable to bat populations. This study evaluated the occurrence of rabies in state cattle by analyzing the time series of monthly values, 2006-2012, describing some aspects of the areas and species affected. The study also pointed out the disease prediction for January-December 2013. We used monthly data of cases reported to the Continental Epidemiological Surveillance System (SIVCONT) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Supply (MAPA), January 2006-March 2013. We also collected data on municipalities and other animal species affected by rabies for a descriptive analysis of the disease. The results indicate that cattle rabies is endemic in the State, with different intensities in different regions. The variables frequency of notifications and bat shelters had a positive and regular correlation (P = 0.035; r = 0.567) between them. With respect to data series, there was a fluctuation of the number of cases (5 to 29 cases per month) over 2006 and 2013, without trend or seasonality, although there would visually appear to be a downward trend. The results also suggest that the forecasting method is suitable for predicting future cases. Bovine species had the highest number of reporting, with 1007 cases (88.88 %), followed by equine species with 112 (9.89 %). The information provided by this study may help understand disease occurrence and find the most effective measures for rabies control in endemic areas. PMID:25698529

  9. The redox processes in Hg-contaminated soils from Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil): implications for the mercury cycle.

    PubMed

    Windmöller, Cláudia C; Durão Júnior, Walter A; de Oliveira, Aline; do Valle, Cláudia M

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of the redox process and chemical speciation of Hg(II) lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical processes controlling the transformation of Hg(II) into toxic and bioaccumulative monomethyl mercury, mainly in areas contaminated with Hg(0). This study investigates the speciation and redox processes of Hg in soil samples from a small area contaminated with Hg(0) as a result of gold mining activities in the rural municipality of Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Soil samples were prepared by adding Hg(0) and HgCl2 separately to dry soil, and the Hg redox process was monitored using thermodesorption coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry. A portion of the Hg(0) added was volatilized (up to 37.4±2.0%) or oxidized (from 36±7% to 88±16%). A correlation with Mn suggests that this oxidation is favored, but many other factors must be evaluated, such as the presence of microorganisms and the types of organic matter present. The interaction of Hg with the matrix is suggested to involve Hg(II)-complexes formed with inorganic and organic sulfur ligands and/or nonspecific adsorption onto oxides of Fe, Al and/or Mn. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction was approximated for two first-order reactions; the faster reaction was attributed to the oxidation of Hg(0)/Hg(I), and the slower reaction corresponded to Hg(I)/Hg(II). The second stage was 43-139 times slower than the first. The samples spiked with Hg(II) showed low volatilization and a shifting of the signal of Hg(II) to lower temperatures. These results show that the extent, rate and type of redox process can be adverse in soils. Descoberto can serve as an example for areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  10. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C; Carmo, Luiz S; Silva, Maria Crisolita C; Oliveira, Afonso L; Morais, Paula B; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 10(3) CFU.g(-1), but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens.

  11. Yeasts and hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Facchin, Susanne; Barbosa, Anne C.; Carmo, Luiz S.; Silva, Maria Crisolita C.; Oliveira, Afonso L.; Morais, Paula B.; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the yeast populations and the main hygienic-sanitary microbial indicators in water buffalo mozzarella produced and commercialized in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Forty-two water buffalo mozzarella samples were purchased from retail outlets in Belo Horizonte. In addition, five samples of consecutive starter cultures, curd before acidification, acidified curd and mozzarella were collected at an industry in the city of Oliveira. Only three of the five water samples analyzed were suitable for consumption according to Brazilian sanitary standards. Four milk samples were highly contaminated with fecal coliforms, and did not meet the minimal hygienic-sanitary standards according to Brazilian regulations. Only one sample of buffalo muzzarela purchased from retail outlets exceeded the limit for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Eleven samples showed counts of thermotolerant coliforms higher than 5 × 103 CFU.g−1, but still lower than the maximum permitted by the Brazilian laws. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were not isolated. Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida lusitaniae and C. parapsilosis were the prevalent yeast species isolated from cheese. Among samples from the production stages, the acidified curd presented the highest numbers of yeasts, with C. catenulata being the most frequent species isolated. Some opportunistic yeast species such as C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, C. catenulata, C. rugosa and C. krusei occurred in the mozzarella cheese samples analyzed. The mozzarella cheese presented a low microbial load as compared to other cheese already studied, and the yeast biota included species typical of cheese and also opportunistic pathogens. PMID:24516436

  12. Insects breeding in pig carrion in two environments of a rural area of the state of minas gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, L S; Paseto, M L; Franco, F T; Perdigão, V C; Capel, G; Mendes, J

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify potential forensic indicators in the insect fauna associated with pig carrion and the pattern of insect succession during the decomposition process in two environments of a rural area in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The study was conducted at two locations: in a pasture and in a fragment of a semi-deciduous forest (vegetation profile of the Cerrado biome) in two different seasons (rainy and dry) of 2010. The decomposition process was more rapid in the rainy season. More than 32,000 insects belonging to 17 species of 6 families of Diptera and 2 species of Coleoptera bred in the carcasses. The majority of Diptera bred in the first three stages of decomposition. However, Phoridae and Coleoptera bred mainly in the last two stages. The insects bred more abundantly in the pasture and in the humid season. The exceptions were the Fanniidae (Diptera), which bred more abundantly in the forest and the Dermestidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera), which did not demonstrate any preference in terms of environments and were more abundant in the dry season, respectively. Species such as Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Peckia (Patonella) intermutans (Walker), Necrobia rufipes (De Geer), and Dermestes maculatus (De Geer) may be potential indicators of post-mortem interval. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius) and Ophyra aenescens (Wiedemann) may be indicators of localization of the natural environment, while Musca domestica Linnaeus may be an indicator of the anthropic environment. The study thus presented many species of potential forensic indicators in rural areas of this region.

  13. Lutzomyia diamantinensis sp. nov., a new phlebotomine species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a quartzite cave in Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Brazilian phlebotomine sandfly found in Brazil, municipality of Diamantina, state of Minas Gerais, is described based on males and females collected in a quartzite cave. The body of spermathecae is continuous to the individual duct, lanky and tapering at the end, with conical shaped, not striated and presenting the head with dense setae. The male presents gonostyle with four spines and a small subterminal seta and gonocoxite with one group of persistent setae. The paramere is simple with a group of small setae on the dorsal apex. The morphological features of this new species permit its inclusion in the migonei group.

  14. Prevalence of antibodies to bluetongue, bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease viruses in water buffaloes in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lage, A P; Castro, R S; Melo, M I; Aguiar, P H; Barreto Filho, J B; Leite, R C

    1996-01-01

    A serological survey to detect water buffaloes with antibodies to bluetongue virus (BTV), bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV 1) and bovine viral diarrhea/mucosal disease virus (BVD/MDV) was performed in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Precipitating antibodies against BTV were detected by the agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID) in 54.4% of the serum samples tested. Microplate serum-neutralization tests revealed that 14.7% and 52.7% of the water buffaloes had antibodies to BHV 1 and BVD/MDV, respectively. The prevalence of antibodies to BTV in water buffaloes under two years old was significantly lower than in adults.

  15. Description of the nymphs of Triatoma pintodiasi Jurberg, Cunha & Rocha, 2013 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Da Motta, Flávia Souza; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo

    2015-04-14

    Triatoma pintodiasi Jurberg, Cunha & Rocha, 2013 has been recently described based on material collected on Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Nymphs of this species were unknown and their description might contribute for studies concerning the taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolution of the genus Triatoma. Such description is herein presented, along with comparison with other species of the rubrovaria subcomplex of species.

  16. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets. PMID:26273278

  17. Microbiological quality and safe handling of enteral diets in a hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Raquel Oliveira Medrado; Correia, Eliznara Fernades; Pereira, Keyla Carvalho; Costa Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza; da Silva, Daniele Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Contamination of enteral diets represents a high risk of compromising the patient's medical condition. To assess the microbiological quality and aseptic conditions in the preparation and administration of handmade and industrialized enteral diets offered in a hospital in the Valley of Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil, we performed a microbiological analysis of 50 samples of diets and 27 samples of surfaces, utensils, and water used in the preparation of the diets. In addition, we assessed the good handling practices of enteral diets according to the requirements specified by the Brazilian legislation. Both kinds of enteral diets showed contamination by coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. No sample was positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, Listeria spp. was detected in only one sample of handmade diets. Contamination was significantly higher in the handmade preparations (p < 0.05). Nonconformities were detected with respect to good handling practices, which may compromise the diet safety. The results indicate that the sanitary quality of the enteral diets is unsatisfactory, especially handmade diets. Contamination by Pseudomonas spp. is significant because it is often involved in infection episodes. With regard to aseptic practices, it was observed the need of implementing new procedures for handling enteral diets.

  18. Associated factors of overweight in adolescents from public schools in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Pinho, Lucinéia; Botelho, Ana Cristina de C.; Caldeira, Antônio Prates

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to support plans and actions that combat the local increasing overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents, the factors associated to weight excess in public school students from Montes Claros, MG, Southeast Brazil, were studied. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a sample of adolescents from the public schools of the city. The nutritional status was evaluated and an inquiry was carried out in the schools to determine food consumption and practice of physical activities. Factors associated to weight excess were assessed by bivariate analysis followed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Weight excess prevalence was detected in 18.5% of the 535 adolescents evaluated. The factors associated to weight excess were: per capita income above half minimum wage (OR 1.99; 95%CI 1.01-3.93), candy consumption above two daily portions (OR 1.94; 95%CI 1.13-3.32) and absence of sport activity during leisure time (OR 2.54; 95%CI 1.15-5.59). CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of weight excess in adolescents from public schools is relevant and associated with socioeconomic condition of the family, bad eating habits and sedentary life. PMID:25119756

  19. Epidemiology of Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Reemerging Focus of Intense Transmission in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Tanure, Aline; Gomes, Marcela Esteves; Apolinário, Estefânia Conceição; Bodevan, Emerson Cotta; de Araújo, Holbiano Saraiva; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed in the urban area of Governador Valadares, a reemerging focus of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil, presenting 86 human cases of VL from 2008 to 2011. The disease prevailed in males (73.2%) with most patients between 0 and 9 years (44.1%) and a lethality rate of 16.2%. A canine survey was carried out on 16,529 domestic dogs in 35 districts in the area and it showed that 30.2% of them (4,992 dogs) were positive for VL by serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 13.6% and 53.4%. The clinical exam of 343 seropositive dogs showed that 49.9% of them were considered symptomatic, with larger prevalence of canine VL being in short-furred animals (90%). The entomological survey was performed in eight districts, where 2,539 phlebotomines were captured, preferentially in the peridomicile (84.5%). Lutzomyia longipalpis was the predominant species (90%) suggesting its participation in the VL transmission in the area. The correlation between canine prevalence and L. longipalpis density was evaluated. PMID:24000322

  20. Coffee seeds isotopic composition as a potential proxy to evaluate Minas Gerais, Brazil seasonal variations during seed maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Carla; Maia, Rodrigo; Brunner, Marion; Carvalho, Eduardo; Prohaska, Thomas; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Plant seeds incorporate the prevailing climate conditions and the physiological response to those conditions (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted). During coffee seed maturation the biochemical compounds may either result from accumulated material in other organs such as leafs and/or from new synthesis. Accordingly, plant seeds develop in different stages along a particular part of the year, integrating the plant physiology and seasonal climatic conditions. Coffee bean is an extremely complex matrix, rich in many products derived from both primary and secondary metabolism during bean maturation. Other studies (De Castro and Marraccini, 2006) have revealed the importance of different coffee plant organs during coffee bean development as transfer tissues able to provide compounds (i.e. sugars, organic acids, etc) to the endosperm where several enzymatic activities and expressed genes have been reported. Moreover, it has been proved earlier on that green coffee bean is a particularly suitable case-study (Rodrigues et al., 2009; Rodrigues et al., submitted), not only due to the large southern hemispheric distribution but also because of this product high economic interest. The aim of our work was to evaluate the potential use of green coffee seeds as a proxy to seasonal climatic conditions during coffee bean maturation, through an array of isotopic composition determinations. We have determined carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur isotopic composition (by IRMS - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry) as well as strontium isotope abundance (by MC-ICP-MS; Multicollector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), of green coffee beans harvested at different times at Minas Gerais, Brazil. The isotopic composition data were combined with air temperature and relative humidity data registered during the coffee bean developmental period, and with the parent rock strontium isotopic composition. Results indicate that coffee seeds indeed integrate the interactions

  1. Characterization and origin of spongillite-hosting sediment from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Gomes, N. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.

    2010-03-01

    Spongillite from João Pinheiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil is mainly known for its use in brick production and in the refractory industry. Very few studies have focused on its geological context. Spongillite-rich deposits occur in shallow ponds on a karstic planation surface developed on rocks of the Neoproterozoic São Francisco Supergroup. Cenozoic siliciclastic sediments are related to this surface. A field study of these deposits and analysis of multispectral images showed a SE-NW preferential drainage system at SE, suggesting that Mesozoic Areado Group sandstones were the source area of the spongillite-hosting sediments. Mineralogical and textural characterization by optical microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential and gravimetric thermal analysis (DTA-GTA), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of seven open-pit spongillite-rich deposits (Avião, Carvoeiro, Vânio, Preguiça, Divisa, Severino, Feijão) showed a sedimentological similarity between the deposits. They are lens-shaped and are characterized at the bottom by sand facies, in the middle by spicules-rich muddy-sand facies and at the top by organic matter-rich muddy-sand facies. Petrographically, the spongillite-hosting sediments and the siliclastic sediments of the Areado Group show detrital phases with similar mineralogical and textural features, such as the presence of well-sorted quartz grains and surface features of abrasion typical of aeolian reworking that occurred in the depositional environment in which the sandstones of the Areado Group were formed. Detrital heavy minerals, such as staurolite, zircon, tourmaline, and clay minerals, such as kaolinite, low amounts of illite, scarce chlorite and mixed-layer chlorite/smectite and illite/smectite occur in the spongillite-hosting sediments and in sandstones from the Areado Group. In both formations, staurolite has similar chemical composition. These mineralogical and textural features show that the

  2. Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dode, Adilza C; Leão, Mônica M D; Tejo, Francisco de A F; Gomes, Antônio C R; Dode, Daiana C; Dode, Michael C; Moreira, Cristina W; Condessa, Vânia A; Albinatti, Cláudia; Caiaffa, Waleska T

    2011-09-01

    Pollution caused by the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) of radio frequencies (RF) generated by the telecommunication system is one of the greatest environmental problems of the twentieth century. The purpose of this research was to verify the existence of a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, from 1996 to 2006 and to measure the human exposure levels to EMF where there is a major concentration of cellular telephone transmitter antennas. A descriptive spatial analysis of the BSs and the cases of death by neoplasia identified in the municipality was performed through an ecological-epidemiological approach, using georeferencing. The database employed in the survey was composed of three data banks: 1. death by neoplasia documented by the Health Municipal Department; 2. BSs documented in ANATEL ("Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações": 'Telecommunications National Agency'); and 3. census and demographic city population data obtained from official archives provided by IBGE ("Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística": 'Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics'). The results show that approximately 856 BSs were installed through December 2006. Most (39.60%) of the BSs were located in the "Centro-Sul" ('Central-Southern') region of the municipality. Between 1996 and 2006, 7191 deaths by neoplasia occurred and within an area of 500 m from the BS, the mortality rate was 34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants. Outside of this area, a decrease in the number of deaths by neoplasia occurred. The greatest accumulated incidence was 5.83 per 1000 in the Central-Southern region and the lowest incidence was 2.05 per 1000 in the Barreiro region. During the environmental monitoring, the largest accumulated electric field measured was 12.4 V/m and the smallest was 0.4 V/m. The largest density power was 40.78 μW/cm(2), and the smallest was 0.04 μW/cm(2).

  3. Evapotranspiration and energy balance components spatial distribution in the north region of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using the SEBAL model and Landsat 5 TM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomide, Reinaldo L.; de Paula Boratto, Isa Maria

    2014-10-01

    The determination of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) values is very useful information for planning irrigation, water supply estimation, regulation of water rights and river basins hydrologic studies. Values of ETc in the North region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were estimated in this research from the multispectral images of the Landsat 5 TM by means of the model Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land- SEBAL, based on the simplified energy balance equation of a surface covered by vegetation, using a few daily surface climatological parameters (wind speed, rainfall, air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation). The aim of this study was to estimate the regional spatial distribution of the energy balance components and evapotranspiration in the study area, covering the irrigated perimeter of Gorutuba, involving the cities of Nova Porteirinha, Janaúba, Porteirinha, Verdelândia and Pai Pedro. Thematic maps of regional evapotranspiration and energy balance components were generated from spectral analyzes of the images obtained, associated with the used weather data. The ability of SEBAL to provide the spatial variability of energy balance components, including evapotranspiration, demonstrated its sensitivity to different occupation of the soil surface vegetation, and to high data temporal and spatial resolutions data, indicating that the SEBAL model can be used in scales and operational routine for north region of Minas Gerais.

  4. Evaluation of the CCA Immuno-Chromatographic Test to Diagnose Schistosoma mansoni in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Alda Maria Soares; Costa, Emanuele Gama Dutra; Ray, Debalina; Suzuki, Brian M.; Hsieh, Michael H.; Fraga, Lucia Alves de Oliveira; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Kato-Katz (KK) stool smear is the standard test for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, but suffers from low sensitivity when infections intensities are moderate to low. Thus, misdiagnosed individuals remain untreated and contribute to the disease transmission, thereby forestalling public health efforts to move from a modality of disease control to one of elimination. As an alternative, the urine-based diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni via the circulating cathodic antigen immuno-chromatographic test (CCA-ICT) has been extensively evaluated in Africa with the conclusion that it may replace the KK test in areas where prevalences are moderate or high. Methods and Findings The objective was to measure the performance of the CCA-ICT in a sample study population composed of residents from non-endemic and endemic areas for schistosomiasis mansoni in two municipalities of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Volunteers (130) were classified into three infection status groups based on duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears from one stool sample (2KK test): 41 negative individuals from non-endemic areas, 41 negative individuals from endemic areas and 48 infected individuals from endemic areas. Infection status was also determined by the CCA-ICT and infection exposure by antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) to S. mansoni soluble egg antigen (SEA) and soluble (adult) worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sensitivity and specificity were influenced by whether the trace score visually adjudicated in the CCA-ICT was characterized as positive or negative for S. mansoni infection. An analysis of a two-graph receiver operating characteristic was performed to change the cutoff point. When the trace score was interpreted as a positive rather than as a negative result, the specificity decreased from 97.6% to 78.0% whereas sensitivity increased from 68.7% to 85.4%. A significantly positive correlation between the CCA-ICT scores and egg counts was identified (r

  5. [Involvement of workers from municipal outpatient services in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the reorganization of services under the Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Bethania Ferreira; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima

    2008-09-01

    This study was conducted in two specialized municipal outpatient clinics in the city of Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study analyzes the involvement of professionals in their work and the reorganization of health services from their perspective, considering the participatory management recommended by the Unified National Health System (SUS). The study included nine workers with or without specific health training, all involved in health sector activities. Participants were selected according to profession or job (groups: dentistry, infrastructure, medicine, social work, psychology, coordination, nursing, pharmacy, and biochemistry), with one participant per "category" for each clinic. The content was submitted to structural narrative analysis. Three analytical categories were identified: management, involvement in work, and involvement in the SUS proposals. The study was not intended to generalize results on health workers' involvement, but it does highlight the importance of understanding the interaction between the management model and the reorganization of services as recommended under the SUS.

  6. The Unique Karyotype of Henochilus wheatlandii, a Critically Endangered Fish Living in a Fast-Developing Region in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Priscilla C.; Santos, Udson; Travenzoli, Natália M.; Zanuncio, Jose C.; Cioffi, Marcelo de B.; Dergam, Jorge A.

    2012-01-01

    Henochilus wheatlandii, the only species of this genus, is critically endangered and was considered extinct for over a century. The rediscovery of this fish in 1996 made it possible to study its phylogenetic relationships with other species in the subfamily Bryconinae. The aim of this study was to characterise the karyotype of H. wheatlandii. Standard staining, C-positive heterochromatin and nucleolar organiser region (NOR) banding, chromomycin A3 staining, and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using 5S rDNA and 18S rDNA probes were conducted on nineteen specimens collected in the Santo Antonio River, a sub-basin of the Doce River in Ferros municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Henochilus wheatlandii shared the same diploid number and chromosome morphology as other species of Bryconinae. However, its heterochromatin distribution patterns, NOR localisation, and FISH patterns revealed a cytogenetic profile unique among Neotropical Bryconinae, emphasizing the evolutionary uniqueness of this threatened species. PMID:22848754

  7. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning. PMID:16862307

  8. Assessment of sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae) control using cypermethrin in an endemic area for visceral leishmaniasis, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marília Fonseca; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2011-11-01

    Montes Claros in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was considered an intense transmission area for visceral leishmaniasis. This study evaluated sand fly fauna after insecticide application. Captures were performed in 10 districts from September 2005 to August 2006 with CDC light traps inside and outside each residence. Cypermethrin was sprayed in two cycles during November/2005 and May/2006. The 636 specimens collected, belonging to 10 species, were predominantly Lutzomyia longipalpis (79%), and most frequently males (70%). The highest percentage of specimens were captured in areas surrounding domiciles (85.8%). The main species were observed to be sensitive to treatment with the insecticide. The results showed a reduction in the number of sand flies collected after use of cypermethrin in homes and annexes, and with residual effect lasting from two to four months.

  9. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999.

    PubMed

    Souza Lima, S; Marun, B; Alves, P V; Bain, O

    2012-11-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  10. Functional performance and social relations among the elderly in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: a population-based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juliana Lustosa; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa; Ferreira, Fabiane Ribeiro; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2014-05-01

    This study was conducted in a probabilistic sam- ple of 2,055 elderly in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, to examine components of social network (conjugal status and visits by the children, other relatives, and friends) and social support (satisfaction with personal relations and having persons on whom to rely) associated with limitations in performing basic activities of daily living (ADL). Multivariate analysis used the Hurdle model. Performance of ADL showed independent and statistically significant associations with social network (fewer meetings with friends and not having children) and personal support (dissatisfaction/indifference towards personal relations). These associations remained after adjusting for social and demographic characteristics, health status, and other indicators of social relations. Our results emphasize the need for greater attention to social network and social support for elderly with functional limitations and those with weak social networks and social support.

  11. Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae: Waltonellinae) from Bokermannohyla luctuosa (Anura: Hylidae) in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with notes on Paraochoterenella Purnomo & Bangs, 1999

    PubMed Central

    Souza Lima, S.; Marun, B.; Alves, P.V.; Bain, O.

    2012-01-01

    The waltonelline Ochoterenella esslingeri n. sp., a filarial parasite of the anuran Bokermannohyla luctuosa in Minas Gerais, Brazil is described. Several characters distinguish this new species from the 15 species presently included in the genus: the cuticular ornamentation of the female that is restricted to the posterior region of the body, the irregular arrangement of the small, rounded bosses, the postoesophageal vulva, the short glandular oesophagus, the size and shape of the microfilariae, the long left spicule and high spicular ratio. Irregularly arranged, tiny, rounded bosses are common in the monotypic genus Paraochoterenella from an Indonesian ranid, which is not well defined but likely valid. In the Neotropical Realm, the type hosts of the species of Ochoterenella are Hylidae (O. esslingeri n. sp.), Leptodactylidae (two species) and the remaining 13 species were described from the giant toad Rhinella marina (Bufonidae). PMID:23193518

  12. Gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã Brycon orthotaenia (Günther, 1864) (Pisces: Characidae) in the São Francisco river, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, T L; Bazzoli, N; Brito, M F G

    2006-05-01

    The gametogenesis and reproduction of the matrinxã, Brycon orthotaenia in the São Francisco river, Pirapora Region, Minas Gerais, were studied from December, 1998 to November, 1999. The matrinxã B. orthotaenia is an endemic species in the São Francisco river basin in Brazil and important for commercial fishing. The size of the 1st gonadal maturation, indicated by the total length of the smallest spent males and spawned female, was 32.0 and 40.5 cm respectively. Reproduction occurred from October to January, when high frequencies of females and males at an advanced ripening/mature stage and spawned females were found. The short spawning period and histological characteristics of spawned ovaries containing only oocytes in stages of initial development, along with post-ovulatory and atresic follicles, indicated that Brycon orthotaenia presents total spawning.

  13. [Risk of contamination from exposure to Rio Doce water: a case study on the population's perceptions in Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Simão, Andréa Branco; Dias, Carlos Alberto; Braga, Eliza de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    The close relationship between local residents and the Rio Doce and the river's recurrent flooding lead to continuous exposure of the population to waterborne diseases. Given the epidemiological importance of such diseases in the region, this study analyzes the association between risk perception of contamination and river water use, as well as the heuristic mechanisms used by individuals to shape their personal perception of risk. Regression models coupled with thematic network analysis were applied to primary data from 352 households in 2012. The data are representative of urban residents of Tumiritinga, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The results show that while 92.6% of respondents perceived high risk of waterborne diseases, only 11.4% reported not making direct use of the river. This apparent paradox is explained by the lack of information on transmission mechanisms, underestimating the perception of contamination. Public campaigns to promote preventive behavior should stress how waterborne diseases are transmitted, using simple examples to reach a wider local audience.

  14. Description of evandromyia spelunca, a new phlebotomine species of the cortelezzii complex, from a cave in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cave fauna of the Brazil is poorly documented, and among the insects those live or frequent caves and their adjacent environments phlebotomine sand flies call for special attention because several species are vectors of pathogens among vertebrates hosts. A new species of sand fly from Minas Gerais is described based in females and males collected in a cave of the municipality of Lassance. Results The morphological characters of the new species permit to include in the Evandromyia genus, cortelezzii complex. This complex consists of three species: Evandromyia corumbaensis (Galati, Nunes, Oshiro & Rego, 1989), Evandromyia cortelezzii (Brethes, 1923) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvao & Coutinho, 1940). Conclusions The new species can be separate from the others of the cortelezzii complex through morphological characters of the male terminalia and female spermathecae. PMID:21827682

  15. Biomphalaria spp. (Preston,1910) snails in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Zona da Mata Mineira mesoregion, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Bessa, Elisabeth Cristina Almeida; Mittherofhe, Adalberto; Castro, Milton Ferreira de; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Passos, Liana Konovaloff Jannotti; Mattos, Ana Márcia Menezes de; Pinheiro, Liliane Sena; Sacramento e Silva, Dirany; Bastos, Fabiana Oliveira; Andreoli, Gabriela Quirino; Bonato, Glauco Resende; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2006-09-01

    This study focuses on the geographic distribution of the snail of the genus Biomphalaria and evaluates its infectivity by Schistosoma mansoni in 5264 specimens collected in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Of the 31 locations studied, 6 were reservoirs, 11 rudimentary holding ponds, 7 irrigation ditches, 5 lakes, 1 ornamental pond, and 1 waterfall. Intermediate hosts were found only in the rudimentary ponds and ditches, which were 100% positive. Using morphological and molecular analysis techniques, B. tenagophila, B. peregrina, and B. straminea were identified. This is the first report of B. stramínea in the municipality, and evaluation of its infective potential revealed susceptibility of 25.4%. Although we did not find specimens of Biomphalaria infected by S. mansoni, the data obtained indicate the presence of intermediate hosts, especially in the irrigation ditches in Juiz de Fora, and their proximity to contaminated areas.

  16. Genetic variability among natural populations of Zaprionus indianus (Drosophilidae) in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braganholi, D; Bélo, M; Bertoni, B W; Fachin, A L; Beleboni, R O; Zingaretti, S M

    2010-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to detect polymorphisms among Zaprionus indianus fly populations collected from six municipalities in the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil. This species is an important, recently introduced fruit fly pest of figs and other fruit. Among 21 primers, 16 produced 73 reproducible polymorphic fragments; primer AM-9 produced the greatest number of polymorphic bands (nine), with 52% genetic variability among populations. Genetic divergence analysis of the Z. indianus populations demonstrated two major groups, named Western and Eastern groups. There was greater gene flow within than between groups. The correlation coefficient for genetic and geographic distances (Mantel test) was significant, demonstrating isolation by distance.

  17. [Prevalence of frailty and associated factors in community-dwelling elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: data from the FIBRA study].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Renata Alvarenga; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; Giacomin, Karla Cristina; Vasconcelos, Karina Simone de Souza; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Dias, Rosângela Corrêa

    2013-08-01

    The prevalence of frailty varies greatly and has received insufficient attention in developing countries. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of frailty and associated factors among the elderly in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Clinical, functional, and socio-demographic factors were analyzed. An ordinal regression model was used to verify conditions associated with frailty and to determine odds ratios ( α= 0.05). Prevalence rates were 46.3% for pre-frailty was 8.7% for weakness. Pre-frail and frail elderly, respectively, showed higher and increasing odds ratios for dependency in instrumental activities of daily living; restrictions in advanced activities of daily living; use of walking aids; comorbidities; falls; depressive symptoms; lower self-efficacy in preventing falls; hospitalization; and advanced age. The study identified a high percentage of frail states associated with higher odds of adverse health conditions, especially related to disability.

  18. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type.

  19. [Age effect on the life quality and health of garbage collectors of an association in Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jane Rabelo; Elias, Elcinéia Tavares; Magalhães, Marcos Alves de; Vieira, Antônio José Dias

    2009-01-01

    Workers that segregate recyclable garbage are daily exposed to unhealthy work conditions which can have a more intense negative effect with aging of the garbage collector. A population of garbage collectors from Governador Valadares, Minas Gerais, Brazil answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding the presence or absence of labor pain, pain intensity, living conditions, access to health services, occurrence of accidents at works and degree of personal satisfaction. These variables were correlated with the age of the workers. It was observed that pain is not associated to age increase and that it doesn't affect the degree of personal satisfaction of the studied population. The education degree was negatively related with age. The youngest garbage collectors presented a lower degree of life satisfaction. The age of the workers doesn't have any association with the occurrence of accidents at work and dwelling type. PMID:20069185

  20. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation. PMID:26701555

  1. A new species of Hatchet-faced Treefrog Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi (Anura: Hylidae) from Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Lacerda, João Victor A; Pezzuti, Tiago L; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; De Assis, Clodoaldo Lopes; Cruz, Carlos Alberto G

    2015-12-21

    A new species of Sphaenorhynchus is described from the Municipality of Mariana, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is characterized by the vocal sac moderately developed, single, subgular, with longitudinal folds; white canthal and dorsolateral lines delimited below by a dorsolateral black line from the tip of snout extending beyond the eye to gradually disappearing up to the flanks; and premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous, each bearing 1-5 extremely small teeth. It is most similar with Sphaenorhynchus orophilus, from which it can be distinguished by having a less robust forearm in males; glandular subcloacal dermal fold; premaxilla and maxilla almost completely edentulous; and larvae with large marginal papillae in the oral disc. The new species occurs in natural ponds over ironstone outcrops (known as canga) on flat terrain, where males call from the floating vegetation.

  2. Clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni in Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1992.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, R N; Murta, C; Teixeira Júnior, M A; Cury, G C; Rocha, M O

    1995-01-01

    A clinical-epidemiologic study of schistosomiasis mansoni was conducted in the population of Ponte do Pasmado, a village in the municipality of Itinga, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Faecal parasitology by the Kato-Katz method and clinical examination were performed in 93.8% and 82.8% of the local population, respectively. A socioeconomic survey was also made and the signs and symptoms presented by the patients were recorded, as well as their contacts with natural waters. The rate of Schistosoma mansoni infection was 50.3%; the peak of infection occurred during the second decade of life; there was a predominance of low egg counts in faeces (85.89% of positive patients eliminated less than 500 eggs per gram of faeces); the splenomegaly rate was 1.23%. When the risk factors for S. mansoni infection were studied, significant risks were detected in activities such as fetching water, washing dishes, bathing, and crossing streams. PMID:7569646

  3. Capybaras and ticks in the urban areas of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil: ecological aspects for the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Queirogas, V L; Del Claro, K; Nascimento, A R T; Szabó, M P J

    2012-05-01

    In Brazil capybara, the biggest existing rodent species, and associated tick species, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma dubitatum, are undergoing an unplanned host and parasite population expansion in both urban and rural areas. However, scientific information about such issue, particularly in urban areas, is scanty. Such rodent and ticks are associated in some municipalities, particularly in southeastern Brazil, with the transmission of the highly lethal Rickettsia rickettsia caused spotted-fever. In this study ecological aspects related to the establishment and expansion of capybaras and ticks in urban areas of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil were evaluated. For this purpose, capybara and tick abundance in four urban areas and an ecological reserve was determined. Abundance of capybaras varied between areas and over the sampling period and these differences were related to human activities. A positive correlation was found between capybara and tick abundance, however, the tick species had an uneven distribution within the municipality and environmental factors rather than host availability were blamed for such. On the whole these observations show that capybara populations in urban areas are associated to high environmental infestation of ticks and the increased risk of bites and of pathogen transmission to humans. At the same time the uneven distribution of tick species might implicate in an unequal risk of tick-borne diseases within the same urban area.

  4. Flight height preference for oviposition of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of sylvatic yellow fever virus near the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Morone, Fernanda; De Mello, Cecília Ferreira; Dégallier, Nicolas; Lucio, Paulo Sérgio; de Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Guimarães, Anthony Erico

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the oviposition behavior of mosquito species exhibiting acrodendrophilic habits was investigated. The study was conducted near the Simplicio Hydroelectic Reservoir (SHR) located on the border of the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected using oviposition traps installed in forest vegetation cover between 1.70 and 4.30 m above ground level during the months of April, June, August, October, and December of 2011. Haemagogus janthinomys (Dyar), Haemagogus leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and Aedes terrens (Walker) specimens were present among the collected samples, the first two of which being proven vectors of sylvatic yellow fever (SYF) in Brazil and the latter is a vector of dengue in mainland Asia. As the data set was zero-inflated, a specific Poisson-based model was used for the statistical analysis. When all four species were considered in the model, only heights used for egg laying and months of sampling were explaining the distribution. However, grouping the species under the genera Haemagogus Williston and Aedes Meigen showed a significant preference for higher traps of the former. Considering the local working population of SHR is very large, fluctuating, and potentially exposed to SYF, and that this virus occurs in almost all Brazilian states, monitoring of Culicidae in Brazil is essential for assessing the risk of transmission of this arbovirus.

  5. EVIDENCE OF Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum INFECTION IN DOGS FROM JUIZ DE FORA, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL, BASED ON IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC DUAL-PATH PLATFORM (DPP®) AND PCR ASSAYS

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Júnior, José Geraldo; Freire, Mariana Lourenço; Campos, Samantha Priscila Silva; Scopel, Kezia K.G.; Porrozzi, Renato; Da Silva, Edimilson Domingos; Colombo, Fabio A.; da Silveira, Rita de Cássia Viveiros; Marques, Marcos José; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2014-01-01

    In Brazil, domestic dogs are branded as the primary reservoir for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis, due to the clear positive correlation observed between human and canine infection rates. This study aimed to carry out a serological survey of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in dogs housed at a public kennel in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the immunochromatographic TR DPP® CVL rapid test. Additionally, conventional and/or real time PCR assay was used to detect and confirm L. infantum infection in the DPP positive dogs only. Of the 400 dogs studied, most did not present clinical signs for CVL (p < 0.05), and fifteen (3.8%) were seropositive in the DPP test. There was no statistically significant difference between the DPP seropositive dogs and the clinical signs of the disease (p > 0.05). Both conventional and real time PCR tests confirmed L. infantum infection in nine (75.0%) of the twelve DPP seropositive dogs that remained alive during the follow-up period. This study is the first seroepidemiologic survey of CVL held in the city of Juiz de Fora, and the results reinforce the idea that this disease is currently in a process of expansion and urbanization in Brazil. Furthermore, this study highlights the use of the DPP test as an alternative for diagnosing CVL in large and mid-sized cities, due to its ease of implementation. PMID:24879001

  6. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  7. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-11-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range). 

  8. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  9. Seroprevalence and risk factors of antibodies against Leptospira spp. in ovines from Uberlândia municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salaberry, Sandra R.S.; Castro, Vanessa; Nassar, Alessandra F.C.; Castro, Jacqueline R.; Guimarães, Ednaldo C.; Lima-Ribeiro, Anna M.C.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to verify the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies, identify the most frequent serovars and the risk factors associated with the infection in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 334 ovines blood samples were collected in 12 farms from Uberlândia municipality to be evaluated by means the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) against 22 serovars of Leptospira spp. and an epidemiologic questionnaire was applied for each farm in order to correlate with risk factors of leptospirosis: sex, age and breed as well as contact with cattle, contact with dogs and presence of rodents. The prevalence of seropositive to MAT was found in seventy four ovines (22.2%; CI 95% 17.6–26.4%), with titers ranging from 100 to 3200. The most frequent serovars identified were: Hardjo, Autumnalis, Hardjo and Wolffi association and Grippotyphosa. Statistically significant differences were found in males, pure breeds and presence of rodents (p<0.05). The prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies found in the present study demonstrated that this bacterium occurs in ovines of Uberlândia municipality, MG, Brazil. The need for the adoption of efficient management for the control of rodents and infection in ovines in order to avoid leptospirosis in the local flocks and future transmission to humans. PMID:24031773

  10. Paepalanthusserpens, a new microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Echternacht, Livia; Trovó, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We describe and illustrate Paepalanthusserpens, a microendemic species of Eriocaulaceae from the Espinhaço Range. The species is known from a single population growing in rocky areas of the Serra do Cipó, Minas Gerais. It is placed in Paepalanthusser.Paepalanthus, and is easily distinguished from its congeneric species by its elongated, lignescent stem, thickened by the marcescent sheaths of the linear leaves, which are arranged in a rosette at the stem apex, scapes equalling the leaf height, and capitulae with straw-coloured involucral bracts. Comparisons with the morphologically similar species are provided, as well as comments on distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status.

  11. Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Bruno Warlley Leandro; Saraiva, Lara; Neto, Rafael Gonçalves Teixeira; Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy Serra e; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Belo, Vinícius Silva; Silva, Eduardo Sérgio da; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.

  12. Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel de; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Paiva, Nívia Carolina Noguieira; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Martins, Helen Rodrigues; Lana, Marta de

    2015-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region. PMID:25742267

  13. [Socio-demographic and health conditions associated with paid work in adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Castro, Camila Menezes Sabino de; Mambrini, Juliana Vaz de Melo; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Macinko, James; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda

    2015-08-01

    Factors associated with paid work were examined in a probabilistic sample of 3,320 adults (50-69 years) in Greater Metropolitan Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Prevalence of paid work was 62.8% in men and 35.8% in women. For both men and women, paid work was positively associated with schooling and negatively associated with self-rated health. The probability of having paid work was higher for single women and those who knew someone that had suffered discrimination at the workplace. For men, prevalence of paid work varied from 67.2% in those with ≥ 8 years of schooling and better self-rated health, as compared to 37.8% in those with less schooling and poor self-rated health (PR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.37-0.87). In women, the corresponding prevalence rates were 42.1% and 3.6% (PR = 0.09; 95%CI: 0.03-0.26). For women with little schooling and poor self-rated health, the likelihood of having paid work was ten times lower than for their male counterparts. PMID:26375655

  14. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julia; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Roux, Ana V Diez

    2015-11-01

    Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI), obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America. PMID:26648373

  15. The inverted trophic cascade in tropical plankton communities: impacts of exotic fish in the Middle Rio Doce lake district, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Coelho, R M; Bezerra-Neto, J F; Miranda, F; Mota, T G; Resck, R; Santos, A M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Mello, N A S T; Marques, M M; Campos, M O; Barbosa, F A R

    2008-11-01

    The present study deals with the ecological impacts of the introduction of two alien species of piscivorous fish in several lakes of the Middle Rio Doce lake district in Minas Gerais, Brazil. It was demonstrated that these effects were not restricted only to the fish community. The introduction of the predatory red piranha Pygocentrus nattereri and the tucunaré Cichla cf. ocellaris caused not only a sharp decrease in the number of native fish species, but also major shifts in other trophic levels. Just after the fish were introduced, most lakes began to show conspicuous changes in phytoplankton species composition, in which Cyanophyceae gradually came to dominate. The zooplankton community lost several species, and in some cases, such as Lake Carioca, all the cladoceran species disappeared. On the other hand, invertebrate predators, represented by the dipteran Chaoboridae, boomed in the lake, with higher densities of exotic species, probably as a result of the 'ecological release' by reduction of the original fish fauna. There was a general trend of species loss in different trophic levels. All these changes are apparently associated with decreases in water quality. The present situation in these lakes demands new approaches to the management and conservation of these ecosystems. PMID:19197473

  16. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers. PMID:21208512

  17. Infection levels of proteocephalidean cestodes in Cichla piquiti (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae) of the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil, relative to host body weight and gender.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; de Chambrier, A; Mouriño, J L P

    2011-12-01

    We evaluated the relationship between infection by proteocephalid cestodes and the sex and weight classes of tucunaré (Cichla piquiti) captured between August 1999 and June 2001 in the Volta Grande Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 96 fish, 75.9 ± 9.3% males and 88.9 ± 6.4% females, were parasitized by Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, with total mean intensities of 76.6 ± 23.9 and 145.2 ± 36.7, respectively, during this period. In the majority of the months analysed, males showed 71.4-100% prevalence of parasitism and females 80-100%. Although there was no significant difference, females showed a higher mean intensity of infection (145.2 ± 36.7) than males (76.6 ± 23.9). Fish weighing 300-800 g showed a higher mean abundance of parasites (P < 0.05) compared with the biggest specimens weighing 801-2750 g. Analysing both males and females together, the greatest mean intensities of infection were found in October and December (P < 0.05) independent of the year, which coincides with the months of highest rainfall. These results show that fish living in reservoirs may be more susceptible to intermediate hosts than those that live in rivers.

  18. [Evaluation of ectoparasites and hemoparasites in dogs kept in apartments and houses with yards in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Aline O; Souza, Aline D; Feliciano, Eveline A; Rodrigues, André F S F; D'Agosto, Marta; Daemon, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Fleas and ticks transmit various pathogens while feeding on the blood of dogs. This study sought to verify the occurrence of ectoparasitism and hemoparasitism in dogs from two urban areas in the city of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Between February and August 2003, 101 dogs were studied: 50 came from apartments in the downtown region and 51 from houses with grassy yards. The ectoparasites were collected and conserved in etanol 70%. The occurrence of hemoparasites was verified by examining blood smears from sample taken from the dogs'ears. The blood smears were stained with Giemsa and 100 fields per slide were examined, studying the erythrocytes to determine parasitism. From among the dogs living in apartments, we found (with respective prevalence and mean intensity): Ctenocephalides felis (12%), (3.3+/-2.0); Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2%); and ixodid nymphs (2%). In this environment in the dogs were not found hemoparasites. From the houses with grassy yards, we observed the following prevalence levels and mean intensities: C. felis (14%), (2.28+/-1.9); R. sanguineus (35%), (7.8+/-9.8); ixodid nymph (18%), (1.4+/-0.7); and ixodid larvae (4%), (12+/-14.4). The hemoparasites found were: Ehrlichia canis (16%) and Babesia canis (2%).

  19. Long-term (∼57 ka) controls on mercury accumulation in the Southern Hemisphere reconstructed using a peat record from Pinheiro mire (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Marta; Horák-Terra, Ingrid; Rodríguez-Lado, Luis; Aboal, Jesús R; Martínez Cortizas, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Natural archives have been used to reconstruct mercury atmospheric deposition at different spatial and temporal scales during the Holocene in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we present the results from a Brazilian mountain mire (Pinheiro mire, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil), extending back to ∼57 ka. The core was analyzed for mercury concentration, organic matter content, organic carbon isotopic composition, and tracers of mineral matter flux. Principal components analysis followed by principal components regression enabled us to determine the evolution of the weight of the latent processes governing the accumulation of mercury through time. We show that climate change was the main driver for the variations of mercury concentrations, either indirectly by (i) enhancing soil erosion in the mire's catchment, which led to a decrease in mercury concentration due to dilution by low mercury-containing mineral matter, (ii) increasing regional dust deposition, which resulted in increased concentrations, or directly, by long-term changes in atmospheric wet deposition (arid vs humid periods). Internal peat processes (i.e., decomposition and mass loss) had a minor influence at the time scale represented by the core.

  20. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    PubMed

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p < 0.05): availability of health care equipment and other inputs (adjusted PR = 1.57), education and training for family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement. PMID:26578018

  1. Boron-isotopic constraints on the petrogenesis of hematitic phyllite in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Wiedenbeck, Michael; Koglin, Nikola; Lehmann, Bernd; de Abreu, Francisco R.

    2012-05-01

    Metasiliciclastic rocks predominate in the lower units of the Palaeo-Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço Supergroup, in the southern Serra do Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The lower units also comprise rocks with locally preserved igneous fabrics, but which have very unusual chemistries. These rocks, collectively known as hematitic phyllite, are characterised by abundant fine-grained muscovite, i.e. sericite, and variable amounts of titaniferous hematite, rutile and tourmaline. Currently, the hematitic phyllite has been interpreted as a metamorphosed palaeosol after basaltic rocks and, as such, has been used as a palaeoclimatic indicator. However, the lateritic nature of the hematitic phyllite cannot unambiguously be determined because of the K metasomatism, hematitisation and tourmalinisation recorded in the hematitic phyllite and in the arenaceous country rocks. Here we report the B-isotopic and chemical compositions of tourmaline from the hematitic phyllite. Our δ11B data are in the range between - 15‰ and 4‰. The tourmaline compositions fall along the povondraite-"oxy-dravite" join, which defines a meta-evaporitic tourmaline trend. A meta-evaporitic B source is constrained by the B-isotopic data as non-marine. Our model for the hematitic phyllite suggests that B- and K-rich brines were derived from the metamorphic dewatering of non-marine evaporites. Such brines extensively altered volcanic rocks of basaltic and rhyolitic compositions, leading to tourmaline-bearing, hematite-sericite assemblages of the hematitic phyllite.

  2. Texture development during progressive deformation of hematite aggregates: Constraints from VPSC models and naturally deformed iron oxides from Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Filippe; Lagoeiro, Leonardo; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Oliveira, Claudinei G. de; Barbosa, Paola; Ávila, Carlos; Cavalcante, Geane C. G.

    2016-09-01

    We show that naturally-deformed hematite from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero Province, Minas Gerais, Brazil, develops CPOs by dislocation creep, strongly influenced by basal plane parallel glide, even when this is not the favored slip system. Characterization of microstructure and texture, particularly intragranular misorientations, of naturally deformed hematite aggregates by EBSD allowed us to determine the importance of different slip systems, and confirm dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. Viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) models were constructed to constrain the slip systems required to operate for the observed CPO to develop, and its rheological implications. Changes in the CRSS ratio of hematite prism and basal slip systems and deformation regime lead to the development of distinct patterns of hematite crystallographic orientations. The basal slip-dominated simple shear model is the only one that can develop quasi-single-crystal CPO of the kind observed in highly deformed rocks from Quadrilátero Ferrífero. Comparison between naturally deformed hematite aggregates and VPSC models shows that CPO development of hematite is strongly influenced by a highly viscoplastic anisotropy through dislocation creep on hematite basal plane. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that even the unfavorable slip systems should be regarded when the bulk rheology of mineral aggregates is evaluated.

  3. Experimental benznidazole treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira-Silva, Jaquelline Carla Valamiel; Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Oliveira, Maykon Tavares; Paiva, Nívia Carolina Noguieira; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Martins, Helen Rodrigues; de Lana, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi strains from distinct geographic areas show differences in drug resistance and association between parasites genetic and treatment response has been observed. Considering that benznidazole (BZ) can reduce the parasite burden and tissues damage, even in not cured animals and individuals, the goal is to assess the drug response to BZ of T. cruzi II strains isolated from children of the Jequitinhonha Valley, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, before treatment. Mice infected and treated with BZ in both phases of infection were compared with the untreated and evaluated by fresh blood examination, haemoculture, polymerase chain reaction, conventional (ELISA) and non-conventional (FC-ALTA) serologies. In mice treated in the acute phase, a significant decrease in parasitaemia was observed for all strains. Positive parasitological and/or serological tests in animals treated during the acute and chronic (95.1-100%) phases showed that most of the strains were BZ resistant. However, beneficial effect was demonstrated because significant reduction (p < 0.05%) and/or suppression of parasitaemia was observed in mice infected with all strains (acute phase), associated to reduction/elimination of inflammation and fibrosis for two/eight strains. BZ offered some benefit, even in not cured animals, what suggest that BZ use may be recommended at least for recent chronic infection of the studied region. PMID:25742267

  4. Xenotime-hematite aggregates on opaline filaments: evidence for biomineralization in weathered siliciclastic rocks, Capanema, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Koglin, Nikola; Seabra Gomes, Antônio Augusto; Lehmann, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Dissolution cavities in weathered pebbly quartzite of the ~2.5-Ga Moeda Formation at Capanema, Quadrilátero Ferrífero of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are decorated with suspended filaments of opaline silica. The filaments sustain xenotime-hematite aggregates in the open space. Xenotime occurs as inclusions in buds and botryoidal aggregates of hematite. The filamentous structures consist of strand-forming buds, hypha-like extensions, and thin strands that compose mat-like arrangements. They resemble microbial filaments that were replaced by opaline silica and fossilized. The occurrence of spherical hematite as protuberances on hematite-free opaline hyphae is interpreted as accretion of dissolved iron onto extracellular polymers. Phosphate sites in polymeric substances expelled from the microbial filaments might have adsorbed yttrium and heavy rare-earth elements from groundwater to the iron-accreting polymers. These would have resulted in botryoidal aggregates of hematite with xenotime inclusions. The presence of authigenic xenotime in the weathering zone opens a new possibility to constrain the evolution of lateritic profiles by xenotime geochronology.

  5. [Diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A and nutritional anemia status in the population of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Araujo, R L; Araujo, M B; Sieiro, R O; Machado, R D; Leite, B V

    1986-12-01

    A survey was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the nutritional status of the population of Jequitinhonha Valley in regard to vitamin A deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia. A Program--"Programa de Combate à Hipovitaminose A e à Anemia Nutricional Ferropriva em Bolsões de Probreza de Minas Gerais"--is being implanted by the Instituto Nacional de Alimentacão e Nutriçao (INAN) aiming to the prevention of such deficiencies. A random sample of 2,357 children from the towns: Turmalina, Minas Novas and Capelinha (Vale do Jequitinhonha), Minas Gerais (1,604 living in the urban and 753 in the rural areas) was submitted to an eye examination. Blood was drawn from a random subsample of these children (157 from the urban area and 107 from the rural area), in oder to detect possible nutritional problems. The following results were observed (preschool and school children, respectively): 1. Hemoglobin: 23.9% and 20% of the population in the urban area, 34.6 and 18.2% in the rural area, had low and deficient values, respectively. 2. Hematocrit: 1.5 and 2.2% of the population in the urban area, 17.3 and 5.5% in the rural area, had low values. 3. Vitamin A: 8.9 and 4.4% of the population in the urban area, 5.8 and 0% in the rural area, had deficient values (less than 10 micrograms/dl); 26.9 and 31.1% in the urban area, 26.9 and 23.6% in the rural area, had low values (10-20 micrograms/dl). These results show the occurrence of nutritional anemia and vitamin A deficiency in the observed children. As to the eye examination this was performed in 2,357 children. A high incidence of conjunctival xerosis (3.16 and 6.04% in the urban area, 7.7 and 12.6% in the rural area, in preschool and school children, respectively), was detected. Five cases of conjunctival xerosis with Bitot spot (0.2%), corneal xerosis (0.08%) and kerotomalacia (0.04%) were observed. The therapeutic effect of 200,000 UI of oral vitamin A was more efficient in preschool children (90.3% of positive

  6. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2008-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. This paper presents the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  7. Projeto Vida no Vale: universal access to water and sanitation in the North East of Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauark-Leite, L.; Vinçon-Leite, B.; Deroubaix, J. F.; Loireau, A.; Silveira, D.; Haddad, E.

    2007-08-01

    In the rural areas of the developing countries, the access to water supply and sanitation services is still largely inadequate. Poor governance of the water sector is frequently singled out as a cause and reforms are required. Studies analyzing the great diversity of restructuring efforts currently being undertaken in the water sector have not succeeded in determining the most appropriate institutional and economic framework for such reforms. Moreover they underline the lack of documentation on actual projects and call for concrete models and tools for improving water and sanitation services (WSS) and for adapting water utility practice to real conditions. In this context, the Vida no Vale (Life in the Valley) project is aimed at bringing universal access to WSS for all inhabitants of both urban and rural areas, in the north-eastern area of the Brazilian State of Minas Gerais. The project takes sustainable development as its guiding principle, and relies on the joint implementation of an innovative technical design, a governance model involving public participation and subsidiarity, and an economic structure combining financial viability and social equity. Designed at a consistent geographical and hydrological scale, it includes the creation of a regional subsidiary of the existing state water company as a keystone element. The institutional organisation also relies on the creation of a public board consisting of the 92 municipalities of the project region and of the State of Minas Gerais. This board will be in charge of the system's governance. The paper will present the first step of the project (2006), consisting of a feasibility study and the implementation of 9 pilot sub-projects. During the feasibility study, the supply, demand and capacity to pay for water services were defined, existing infrastructure appraised, the necessary amount of investment assessed and an innovative operational model and a sustainable management system, including civil society

  8. [Gravimetric characterization of potentially infectious material in urban solid waste in southern Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors.

  9. Application of the Köppen classification for climatic zoning in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sá Júnior, Arionaldo; de Carvalho, Luiz Gonsaga; da Silva, Fábio Fernandes; de Carvalho Alves, Marcelo

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of the climatic conditions of a region is crucial for its agricultural development. It is also extremely important for understanding the fact that certain cultures have to develop under prevailing temperature and humidity conditions and assist in the adoption of a suitable irrigation technique, as well as its management and operationalization. The Köppen system of climate classification is widely used for the identification of homogeneous climate zones as it considers only rainfall and temperature as the meteorological elements for classification. For this study, we used climatic databases of rainfall and temperature in a raster format, with a spatial resolution of 30″ of arc (an approximate area of 0.86 km2 pixel-1), from 1961 to 1990. Through geoprocessing techniques, we obtained a map of climatic classification for the state of Minas Gerais. We found that the state has the following three major climatic groups: A, B and C, which correspond to tropical rainy, dry and warm temperate climates, respectively. The climate classes obtained were Aw, Am, BSh, Cwa and Cwb, with Aw, Cwa and Cwb classes occupying 99.89% of the territorial area of the state. The validation of the results showed a satisfactory agreement, with 93.75% reliability.

  10. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edvânia Beatriz Dos Santos; Rodrigues, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; Bahia-DE-Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-07-11

    Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  11. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir.

  12. [Tooth decay and associated factors among adolescents in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil: a hierarchical analysis].

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional population-based study (n = 763) conducted in the north of the State of Minas Gerais, which aimed to investigate the prevalence of tooth decay among adolescents and to identify the potential determinants of same. Probability sampling by conglomerates in multiple stages was used. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the data collection by means of intraoral examination and interviews in the previously selected households. In the analysis of the determinant factor for the presence of tooth decay, hierarchical binary logistic regression models were used. The prevalence of tooth decay, decayed, missing and filled teeth were 71.3%, 36.5%, 55.6% and 16%, respectively. The following averages were observed: DMFT (3.4 teeth), number of decayed (0.8 teeth), restored (2.4 teeth) and missing (0.2 teeth). The incidence of tooth decay was higher among adolescents who stated they were black/indigenous/brown (OR = 1.76), lived in crowded households (OR = 2.4), did not regularly visit or had never been to a dentist (OR = 1.9), used public or philanthropic services (OR = 1,8), had smoking habits (OR = 4.1), consumed alcohol (OR = 1.8), perceived their oral health negatively (OR = 5.9 and OR = 1.9) and had toothac in the last six months (OR = 2.0). PMID:26602713

  13. Petrographic and microthermometrical studies of emeralds in the `Garimpo' of Capoeirana, Nova Era, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, J. L.; Mendes, J. C.; da Silveira Bello, R. M.; Svisero, D. P.; Valarelli, J. V.

    1992-03-01

    Petrographic investigations in the area of the Capoeirana emerald deposit, Minas Gerais State, revealed two main lithostructural units. The first unit is comprised of gneissic rocks of granitic composition belonging to the basement complex, and the second is composed of a highly weathered metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence represented by metapelitic schists, amphibolites, schists derived from ultramafic rocks, and quartzites. Quartz and pegmatoid veins appear near the contacts between the gneissic rocks and the mineralization metasedimentary-metavolcanic sequence. The emerald mineralization is dominantly concentrated within the intercalations of meta-ultramafic schists near the contact of the pegmatoid veins. Microthermometric studies of the fluid inclusions of the emerald grains indicate that crystallization occurred in the pressure and temperature ranges of 2000 to 2750 bar and 450 to 650 °C, respectively. These data suggest that the mineralizing solutions have had a late hydrothermal-pneumatolytic origin characterized by low pressures, suggestive of the paragenesis talc + tremolite + carbonate + biotite-phlogopite + chlorite of the emerald wall rocks.

  14. DETECTION OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN THE ENVIRONMENTS OF A PUBLIC SCHOOL IN THE TOWN OF DIAMANTINA , MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Edvânia Beatriz dos Santos; RODRIGUES, Sâmara Lauren Cunha; BAHIA-DE-OLIVEIRA, Gustavo Henrique; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Intestinal parasites are a major public health problem in developing countries, most prevalent in areas where sanitation is poor and the population's hygiene is inadequate. They affect people of all ages, although school-age children are the most susceptible. In this study, we investigated the presence of intestinal parasites in the shared environments of a public school in the town of Diamantina, Minas Gerais State. From December 2012 to February 2013, samples were collected for three months (once a month) by using the Graham method (1941), in duplicate, by affixing a 6 x 5 cm clear tape, six times in each collection site, in a space of about 30 cm2. Then, each tape was positioned longitudinally on a microscope slide and the identification of the biological forms of the parasites was performed with the aid of a 40X objective from an optical microscope. Eleven sites were selected for sampling. Cysts of Entamoeba coli were the most frequently found in this study (50%), followed by Hymenolepis diminuta eggs (27.6%), Iodamoeba butschllii cysts (5.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides eggs (5.6%), Taenia species eggs (5.6%) and hookworm eggs (5.6%). The highest positivity rates were found in the samples drawn from the cafeteria's eating table. The results have indicated the need to improve the cleaning in the school environments, as well as the development of educational practices that may help in the preservation of public health. PMID:27410911

  15. Parasite community of Cichla kelberi (Perciformes, Cichlidae) in the Três Marias Reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Clapp, Michelle Daniele; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    A total of 112 specimens of yellow peacock bass, Cichla kelberi, were collected in the Três Marias Reservoir, upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, between 2004 and 2005. Twelve species of parasites were collected: two species of ectoparasites (the monogenetic Gussevia sp. and the copepod Ergasilus sp.); and ten species of endoparasites, including four species of adult endoparasites: the cestodes Proteocephalus macrophallus and P. microscopicus, and the nematodes: Capillostrongyloides sentinosa and Rhabdochona acuminata, and six species of larval endoparasites: the metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum and the nematodes: Hysterothylacium sp., Contracaecum sp. Type 1, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Spiroxys sp., and Goezia sp.. A significant positive correlation in the abundance of the two adult endoparasites species, P. macrophallus and P. microscopicus, may indicate that such associated species had the same ecological requirements. The positive correlations between the prevalence of the larval endoparasites, Hysterothylacium sp. and A. compactum, may indicate that there was opportunism for the two generalists species. Ergasilus sp., C. sentinosa, R. acuminata and Hysterothylacium sp. were recorded for the first time in C. kelberi, and this increased their list of known hosts. In addition, both proteocephalid species and C. sentinosa can extend their known biogeographical distribution to the Três Marias Reservoir. PMID:25271458

  16. Diagnosis of severe silicosis in young adults working in stone polishing and mining in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto, Claudia Vasques; Carneiro, Ana Paula Scalia; Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Nascimento, Marcela Sousa

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the occurrence of silicosis in a group of stone polishing and/or mining workers who began working under the age of 18, the minimum age in Brazil for working in hazardous or unhealthy conditions. The design is that of a case series with medical follow up via a surveillance program that included medical and occupational histories, chest radiography interpreted according to International Labour Organization (ILO) Classification, and spirometry. The findings call attention to the importance of the problem of silicosis, which persists in the region despite new production technologies, legal requirements, and initiatives to protect workers. Silicosis is a public health problem that must be addressed by the implementation of public policies to improve working conditions and ensure children and teenagers are kept away from hazardous work. While Brazil has started to be a part of the global effort to eliminate silicosis and the worst forms of child labor, there are still problems that must be addressed. PMID:20465059

  17. Early determinants of overweight and obesity at 5 years old in preschoolers from inner of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Luciana Neri; Silva, Kellen Cristine; de Castro Ferreira, Sofia Emanuelle; Lopes Moreira, Lidiane; Lessa, Angelina do Carmo; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Castro Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Brasil está experimentando una transición nutricional caracterizada por una reducción en la prevalencia de deficiencias nutricionales y un aumento del sobrepeso y la obesidad, no sólo en los adultos sino también en los niños y los adolescentes. Objetivos: Este estudio se diseñó para evaluar los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad en preescolares brasileños de 5 años de edad. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal de una cohorte de 232 preescolares nacidos en Diamantina/ Minas Gerais, Brasil. Los datos, que incluían situación socioeconómica, antropometría, dieta, antecedentes de los preescolares y familiares, se recogieron entre julio de 2009 y julio de 2010. Para identificar los factores asociados con sobrepeso y obesidad, se realizaron una regresión logística y un modelo jerárquico. Resultados: El sobrepeso y la obesidad ocurrieron en el 17,2 % de los preescolares. Tras ajustar para obesidad materna, la renta per cápita, la ingesta de alimentos, la ganancia de peso entre los 0-4 meses de edad y el tiempo dedicado al juego, los factores asociados con el sobrepeso y la obesidad que alcanzaban una significación estadística fueron la obesidad materna [OR = 3,12 (IC al 95 % 1,41- 6,91), P = 0,01], la ganancia de peso de más de 0,85 kg/mes en los primeros 4 meses de vida [OR = 2,16 (IC al 95 % 1,01-4,64), P = 0,04] y una menor renta per cápita [OR = 0,32 (IC al 95 % 0,13-0,79), P = 0,01]. Conclusión: Los resultados muestran que la mayor ganancia de peso durante los 4 primeros meses de vida y tener una madre obesa aumentan las probabilidades de sobrepeso/obesidad en los preescolares, mientras que una menor renta per cápita es un factor de protección.

  18. Risky consumption habits and safety of fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fabio Alessandro; Colombo, Monique; Merhi, Carolina Milner; Juliati, Vinícius Augusto; Ferreira, Marcello Sebe; Nero, Marcelo Antônio; Nero, Luis Augusto

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess raw milk consumption habits in the urban population of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the microbiological safety and quality of the fluid milk available in retail sales outlets in the same region. A simplified questionnaire regarding raw milk consumption was applied to the persons responsible for food acquisition in 411 residences. The regular consumption of raw milk was observed by 18.5% of the interviewers, and lack of knowledge of possible risks related to this food product. Microbiological safety and quality were assessed for raw (n=69), pasteurized (n=80), and ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-treated milk (n=80) by analyzing the counts of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli, and detection of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.; raw milk samples were also subjected to enumeration of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus. Concerning raw milk, 59.4% of the samples were considered as produced in inadequate hygienic conditions, 5.8% of the samples presented counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus lower than 100 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and no samples presented with positive results for L. monocytogenes or Salmonella spp. All pasteurized and UHT milk samples presented with low counts of mesophilic aerobes and coliforms, while L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were absent. The data demonstrated that raw milk was consumed by the population studied. Despite the absence of potential hazards, raw milk was of poor hygienic quality, in contrast with the processed fluid milk available in retail sales outlets that was safe and of good hygienic quality, highlighting the suitability of pasteurized and UHT milk for human consumption.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood.

  20. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite - (Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm-1 assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO42- units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm-1 are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm-1 are attributed to the ν1PO43- symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm-1 are assigned to the ν3PO43- antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm-1 are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm-1 are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood.

  1. Vibrational spectroscopy of the phosphate mineral lazulite--(Mg, Fe)Al2(PO4)2·(OH)2 found in the Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei; Beganovic, Martina; Belotti, Fernanda Maria; Scholz, Ricardo

    2013-04-15

    This research was done on lazulite samples from the Gentil mine, a lithium bearing pegmatite located in the municipality of Mendes Pimentel, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Chemical analysis was carried out by electron microprobe analysis and indicated a magnesium rich phase with partial substitution of iron. Traces of Ca and Mn, (which partially replaced Mg) were found. The calculated chemical formula of the studied sample is: (Mg0.88, Fe0.11)Al1.87(PO4)2.08(OH)2.02. The Raman spectrum of lazulite is dominated by an intense sharp band at 1060 cm(-1) assigned to PO stretching vibrations of of tetrahedral [PO4] clusters presents into the HPO4(2-) units. Two Raman bands at 1102 and 1137 cm(-1) are attributed to both the HOP and PO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. The two infrared bands at 997 and 1007 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν1PO4(3-) symmetric stretching modes. The intense bands at 1035, 1054, 1081, 1118 and 1154 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν3PO4(3-) antisymmetric stretching modes from both the HOP and tetrahedral [PO4] clusters. A set of Raman bands at 605, 613, 633 and 648 cm(-1) are assigned to the ν4 out of plane bending modes of the PO4, HPO4 and H2PO4 units. Raman bands observed at 414, 425, 460, and 479 cm(-1) are attributed to the ν2 tetrahedral PO4 clusters, HPO4 and H2PO4 bending modes. The intense Raman band at 3402 and the infrared band at 3403 cm(-1) are assigned to the stretching vibration of the OH units. A combination of Raman and infrared spectroscopy enabled aspects of the molecular structure of the mineral lazulite to be understood. PMID:23434550

  2. Oxidation states of iron as an indicator of the techniques used to burn clays and handcraft archaeological Tupiguarani ceramics by ancient human groups in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floresta, D. L.; Ardisson, J. D.; Fagundes, M.; Fabris, J. D.; Macedo, W. A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics of the Tupiguarani Tradition typically have in common the burning characteristics, their forms and decoration motifs. Dating such ceramic pieces with the radiocarbon method indicate that these artifacts were probably handcrafted between 1,500 and 500 years before the present. Fragments ceramic utensils were collected in the archaeological site of Beltrão, in the municipality of Corinto, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A fragment of about 50 mm in diameter and 15 mm thick, with a color gradation across the ceramic wall ranging from red, on one side, grayish, in the middle, and orange, on the opposite side, was selected for a more detailed examination. The fragment was transversely cut and a series of subsamples were separated from different points along the piece wall, in layer segments of ~3 mm. All subsamples were analyzed with Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 80 K. Results reveal that hematite is the magnetically ordered phase. A Fe2 + component (relative spectral area, 50 %) appears for the grayish subsample. According to these first results, the red subsample seems to be the side that had direct contact with fire used to burn the precursor clay in air. The grayish middle layer is probably due to the clay mixed with some ashes. Mössbauer data reveal that the orange layer, corresponding to the opposite side of the ceramic relatively to the direct fire, does contain about the same Fe2 + :Fe3 + ratio but much lower proportion of α-Fe2O3 than the red layer.

  3. Tree Diversity and Dynamics of the Forest of Seu Nico, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand future changes in community composition due to global changes, the knowledge about forest community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our understanding about processes and patterns involved in maintaining species rich Neotropical ecosystems, we provide here a dataset from the one hectare Forest of Seu Nico (FSN) Dynamics Plot from Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 2868 trees and treelets identified from two census spanning over a nine-year period. Furthermore, soil properties and understory light availability of all 100 10 x 10m subplots from the one hectare FSN Dynamics Plot during the second census are given. PMID:26312053

  4. [Dipterans of forensic interest in two vegetation profiles of cerrado in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Thiago A; Babata, Micaela L Y; De Souza, Carina M; De Sousa, Danielle; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Mendes, Júlio

    2009-01-01

    Carrion breeding insects may be of great utility in crimes briefing. Studies on forensic entomology are restricted to few localities in Brazil and very few of them were done in the cerrado vegetation (a type of Savannah) until now. This work aimed to survey the main species of dipterans associated with the decomposition process of Sus scrofa and the insect succession pattern in carcasses in the Cerrado. The study was carried out in the dry and humid season of the year, in two cerrado vegetation profiles in Uberlândia, MG. Two pig carcasses were placed in each vegetation profile and time period of the year. The decomposition process was slower and insects were more abundant in the dry season. Differences in temperature, air humidity and pluvial precipitation seemed to be the main physical factors responsible for the differences in the time of decomposition of the pig carcasses between the two seasons. Fourteen species of dipterans (59,467 specimens) bred in the decomposing carcasses. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) was the species more abundantly breed in the two periods. The other species that breed in the carcasses were: C. putoria (Wiedemann), Hemilucilia segmentaria(Fabricius), Lucilia eximia(Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae), Peckia (Pattonella) intermutans(Walker), Peckia (Squamatoides) trivitatta(Curran), Sarcodexia lambens(Wiedemann) (Sarcophagidae), Musca domestica(L.), Ophyra aenescens(Wiedemann), Stomoxys calcitransL. (Muscidae), Fannia pusio(Wiedemann), Fannia sp. (Fanniidae), Hermetia illuscens L. (Stratiomyidae) and Phoridae sp. The Cerrado of this region presents many dipterans potential forensic indicators.

  5. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature.

  6. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature. PMID:22317432

  7. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dulgheroff, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Silva, George Allan Villarouco da; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Oliveira, Adriana Gonçalves de; Domingues, André Luiz da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*), VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM) region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3), G1 (sublineage I-A), G9 (lineage III), G12 (lineages II and III), G8 (lineage II), G3 (lineage III), P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb), P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1), I2 (lineage VII), E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X), and H2 (lineage III) were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination). Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context. PMID:27266629

  8. Eco-epidemiology of visceral leishmaniasis in the urban area of Paracatu, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; Regina-Silva, Shara; França-Silva, João Carlos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Araújo, Simone Costa; Valadão, Josiane Lopes; de Oliveira Lara-Silva, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Fernanda Santos; Pacheco, Raquel Silva; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre

    2011-03-10

    The present study was developed in the urban area of Paracatu, an endemic city for the American visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. A six-month canine survey was performed with 6295 domiciled dogs in 28 districts in that area and showed that 4.2% of those (267 dogs) were positive for VL by ELISA and IFAT serum assays. Prevalence ratios for canine VL varied between 1.2% and 16.1%, depending on the district under investigation. Fifteen dogs - 80% of which were clinically asymptomatic for VL - were submitted to a more detailed study that comprised direct parasitological examination and Leishmania kDNA amplification of tissue samples as well as two PCR-RFLP methods using myelocultures. Leishmania amastigotes or Leishmania DNA were detected in all dogs but one. The infecting species of Leishmania was identified in about 50% (7/15) of the sample dogs: Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in two of them and, unexpectedly, Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the remaining five. Three months after the end of confiscation and elimination of the VL-seropositive dogs in the 28 districts of Paracatu, a systematic entomological survey was performed in five of them. Six hundred and sixty five (665) phlebotomine sand flies were captured in total, from which 89.5% were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis. The population density of that species increased during the rainy season. Other thirteen (13) species of phlebotomine sand flies were captured at varying percentages from 0.2 to 5.0%. It is worth noting that L. longipalpis females were predominantely intradomicile when compared to males, suggesting that the VL transmission cycle in Paracatu may be occurring inside home.

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic pollution in watersheds influenced by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Ferreira, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD < 0.5 μg L(-1)). Thus, water ingestion may not be a significant exposure pathway to local population. Low groundwater As concentrations (<1 μg L(-1)) are likely due to ore body structural setting, which plunges from 10° to >20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine. Thirty-five percent of As levels in superficial waters (<0.5 to 40 μg L(-1)) were >10 μg L(-1), which is the maximum permissible value for human ingestion. The highest concentrations were found nearby mine facilities and old artisanal mining areas surrounding the mine, decreasing downstream. Undisturbed watersheds showed As concentrations close to LOD. Hydrogeochemical data stress the sorption (adsorption and co-precipitation) of As role, mainly by Fe oxyhydroxides, as a geochemical filter that retains As, attenuating its concentration in both superficial and groundwater. Such minerals are abundant in the region oxisols, sediments, and phyllites and may form stable mineral complexes with As under the pH (mostly neutral) and Eh (reduced environment) conditions found in the field. It has been demonstrated that As(III) (more toxic) and As(V) co-exist in the analyzed waters and that As(V) predominates in superficial water.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry of arsenic pollution in watersheds influenced by gold mining activities in Paracatu (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bidone, Edison; Castilhos, Zuleica; Cesar, Ricardo; Santos, Maria Carla; Sierpe, Ricardo; Ferreira, Marcos

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate total arsenic (As) concentrations in drinking water (main pathway of human exposure) and its hydrogeochemical controls in the "Morro do Ouro" gold mine region, which is the largest gold mine in Brazil, characterized by gold-arsenopyrite association. Arsenic concentration was generally below the detection limit (LOD < 0.5 μg L(-1)). Thus, water ingestion may not be a significant exposure pathway to local population. Low groundwater As concentrations (<1 μg L(-1)) are likely due to ore body structural setting, which plunges from 10° to >20°, being readily covered by thick phyllites that are poor in As some hundreds of meters away from the mine. Thirty-five percent of As levels in superficial waters (<0.5 to 40 μg L(-1)) were >10 μg L(-1), which is the maximum permissible value for human ingestion. The highest concentrations were found nearby mine facilities and old artisanal mining areas surrounding the mine, decreasing downstream. Undisturbed watersheds showed As concentrations close to LOD. Hydrogeochemical data stress the sorption (adsorption and co-precipitation) of As role, mainly by Fe oxyhydroxides, as a geochemical filter that retains As, attenuating its concentration in both superficial and groundwater. Such minerals are abundant in the region oxisols, sediments, and phyllites and may form stable mineral complexes with As under the pH (mostly neutral) and Eh (reduced environment) conditions found in the field. It has been demonstrated that As(III) (more toxic) and As(V) co-exist in the analyzed waters and that As(V) predominates in superficial water. PMID:26797944

  11. Raising awareness about soil diversity: The Education Programme of the Earth Sciences Museum Alexis Dorofeef, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggler, C.

    2012-04-01

    Soils are usually overlooked as part of geodiversity and geoheritage. Increasing the public awareness about soils is a key issue in our changing world. Furthering public awareness involves developing a better understanding of soils, their functions, importance for environment and society, as well as a personal and collective commitment in the stewardship and protection from degradation and loss. This presentation describes the Soil and Environmental Education and Outreach Programme of the Alexis Dorofeef Earth Sciences Museum of the Soil University Department in Viçosa, Brazil. The program has developed different activities linked to formal and non formal education and its main audience are basic education teachers, school children and the general public. The museum acts in different and diverse fronts, supported on a pedagogical background based on Paulo Freire's educational approach, the social-constructivism, which considers social inclusion, knowledge building, horizontal learning and collective action. In its early years, the museum was mainly focused on formal education and this changed with time as our action was reshaped into a broader outreach action stimulated by the new Brazilian government. The museum's indoor activities consist of accompanied thematic visits, hands on experiments, basic school teacher's courses, development of learning materials and methods and professional training. Beyond of the Museum space local interdisciplinary projects with basic education schools are run along with temporary expositions coupled with short courses and workshops with farmers and social movements. We present the results of the changes in awareness about soils among three main groups: school teachers, basic education children and general public. After 10 years of activities, the Soil Education action of the Museum is recognized and well spread among school communities in the town and its neighbourhood. Many school teachers approach the contents and methodologies

  12. Fractionation and leachability of heavy metals from aged and recent Zn metallurgical leach residues from the Três Marias zinc plant (Minas Gerais, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sethurajan, Manivannan; Huguenot, David; Lens, Piet N L; Horn, Heinrich A; Figueiredo, Luiz H A; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2016-04-01

    Various mineral processing operations to produce pure metals from mineral ores generate sludges, residues, and other unwanted by-products/wastes. As a general practice, these wastes are either stored in a reservoir or disposed in the surrounding of mining/smelting areas, which might cause adverse environmental impacts. Therefore, it is important to understand the various characteristics like heavy metal leaching features and potential toxicity of these metallurgical wastes. In this study, zinc plant leach residues (ZLRs) were collected from a currently operating Zn metallurgical industry located in Minas Gerais (Brazil) and investigated for their potential toxicity, fractionation, and leachability. Three different ZLR samples (ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3) were collected, based on their age of production and deposition. They mainly consisted of Fe (6-11.5 %), Zn (2.5 to 5.0 %), and Pb (1.5 to 2.5 %) and minor concentrations of Al, Cd, Cu, and Mn, depending on the sample age. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) results revealed that these wastes are hazardous for the environment. Accelerated Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction clearly showed that potentially toxic heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn can be released into the environment in high quantities under mild acidic conditions. The results of the liquid-solid partitioning as a function of pH showed that pH plays an important role in the leachability of metals from these residues. At low pH (pH 2.5), high concentrations of metals can be leached: 67, 25, and 7 % of Zn can be leached from leach residues ZLR1, ZLR2, and ZLR3, respectively. The release of metals decreased with increasing pH. Geochemical modeling of the pH-dependent leaching was also performed to determine which geochemical process controls the leachability/solubility of the heavy metals. This study showed that the studied ZLRs contain significant concentrations of non-residual extractable fractions of Zn and can

  13. Information System and Geographic Information System Tools in the Data Analyses of the Control Program for Visceral Leishmaniases from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Saraiva, Lara; Leite, Camila Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Luiz Otávio Alves; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Fiúza, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a brief history of control actions for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) from 2006 to 2010 in the Sanitary District (DS) of Venda Nova, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, focusing on the use of information systems and Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The analyses showed that the use of an automated database allied with geoprocessing tools may favor control measures of VL, especially with regard to the evaluation of control actions carried out. Descriptive analyses of control measures allowed to evaluating that the information system and GIS tools promoted greater efficiency in making decisions and planning activities. These analyses also pointed to the necessity of new approaches to the control of VL in large urban centers. PMID:22518168

  14. Use Of The Gpr To Characterize Sedimentary Structures Of Lakes In Sub-Humid Drainage System, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranha, P. A.; Augustin, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    PAULO ROBERTO ANTUNES ARANHA IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL CRISTINA ROCHA AUGUSTIN - IGC - UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS - AV ANTONIO CARLOS 6.627 - CEP: 31270901-BELO HORIZONTE- MG - BRAZIL System of lakes located in the sandstones domains of Supergrupo Urucuia, in the State Park Veredas do Peruaçu, north of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, are common features in ecosystems of the Veredas, a biome of the Cerrado (Savanna-Open pasture). The linearity of these lakes suggests that they could have, in the past, belonged to the same drainage system, that would have been disconnected throughout the evolution of the Vereda system. The objective of this research is with the help of the GPR and using 100 MHz antennaes to obtain radargram images that could assist in the interpretation of the structures occurring at the bottom of these lakes. It is possible do identify on the radargrams reflectors that can be correlated with depositional system. These reflectore have the concave form. The results of these radargrames indicate great conformity between the concave form of the sediments and that of the bottom of the lake, allowing to assume that this deposition has been occurring since a long time ago. Therefore, if there was a connection between the study lake and those located in its proximity it has occurred a long time, before the deposition of the sedimentary sequences had been deposited. The thickness of the sediments, that varies since 2m until 5m, indicates that or either this deposition was either a very rapid one so that could generate a fast deposition, or it has been taking place during a considerable geologic long time.; Data acquisitiont;

  15. Zinc- and Y-group-bearing senaite from St Peters Dome, and new data on senaite from Dattas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foord, E.E.; Sharp, W.N.; Adams, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    'Mineral Y', an unidentified phase described in association with murataite from a pegmatite in the Pikes Peak granite, El Paso County, Colorado (A.M. 59-172) is now found to be a senaite containing ZnO 7.05% and RE2O3 + Y2O3 5.24%, with the Zn and Y-group REE entering the (Ti,Fe,Mn) position. A Zn-bearing senaite from Dattas, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, has ZnO 7.7%.-R.A.H.

  16. Schistosomiasis risk mapping in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a decision tree approach, remote sensing data and sociological indicators.

    PubMed

    Martins-Bedê, Flávia T; Dutra, Luciano V; Freitas, Corina C; Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2010-07-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is not just a physical disease, but is related to social and behavioural factors as well. Snails of the Biomphalaria genus are an intermediate host for Schistosoma mansoni and infect humans through water. The objective of this study is to classify the risk of schistosomiasis in the state of Minas Gerais (MG). We focus on socioeconomic and demographic features, basic sanitation features, the presence of accumulated water bodies, dense vegetation in the summer and winter seasons and related terrain characteristics. We draw on the decision tree approach to infection risk modelling and mapping. The model robustness was properly verified. The main variables that were selected by the procedure included the terrain's water accumulation capacity, temperature extremes and the Human Development Index. In addition, the model was used to generate two maps, one that included risk classification for the entire of MG and another that included classification errors. The resulting map was 62.9% accurate.

  17. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite: isotopic and chemical evidence of arc-related magmatism in the central part of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Avila, Ciro A; Teixeira, Wilson; Cordani, Umberto G; Barrueto, Héctor R; Pereira, Ronaldo M; Martins, Veridiana T S; Dunyi, Liu

    2006-09-01

    The Glória quartz-monzodiorite, one of the mafic plutons of the Paleoproterozoic Mineiro belt, is intrusive into banded gneisses, amphibolites, schists and phyllites of the Rio das Mortes greenstone belt, in the southern portion of the São Francisco Craton, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite yields a SHRIMP U-Pb zircon age of 2188 +/- 29 Ma, suggesting a tectonic relationship with the pre-collisional phase of the Mineiro belt. According to the Nd isotopic evidence (epsilonNd(T) = -3.4; T DM = 2.68 Ga) the original magmas was formed by a mixture among Archean crustal material and Paleoproterozoic juvenile magma. The Glória quartz-monzodiorite shows metaluminous and calc-alkaline tendency with intermediate K content, comparable to that of volcanic-arc rocks. The primary mineralogical assemblage was partly modified by metamorphism, dated between 2131-2121 Ma in nearby coeval plutons. Such metamorphism is significantly older than the reported metamorphic episodes of the Mineiro belt in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region (2059-2041 Ma) in the eastern portion of the study area. This evidence, together with chemical and isotopic data from other mafic and felsic plutons coeval with the Glória quartz-monzodiorite, indicate a tectonic and magmatic migration within the Mineiro belt from west to east.

  18. Species Diversity and Temporal Variation of the Orchid-Bee Fauna (Hymenoptera, Apidae) in a Conservation Gradient of a Rocky Field Area in the Espinhaço Range, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Viotti, M A; Moura, F R; Lourenço, A P

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the orchid-bee community in a conservation gradient of the high-altitude rocky fields in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Sampling was performed at two sites with different anthropic influences: a disturbed area (DA), with exotic plant species, and a preserved area (PA). From September 2009 through February 2011, males of euglossine bees were sampled using aromatic bait-traps. We collected a total of 819 specimens belonging to 11 species and three genera: Euglossa Latreille, Eulaema Lepeletier, and Eufriesea Cockerell. Despite the proximity of DA and PA (about 1.2 km), differences in orchid-bee abundance and richness were observed. Higher abundance was observed in the PA (n = 485) compared with the DA (n = 334). Eight species were common to both sites, and only the DA showed exclusive species. The DA showed higher diversity and higher estimated species richness. Euglossa leucotricha Rebêlo & Moure was the most abundant species at both sites followed by Euglossa melanotricha Moure. Higher abundance and richness were found in the warm rainy season. This study contributes to the knowledge of the orchid-bee fauna in the rocky fields and suggests that the greater resource availability in the DA was responsible for the higher orchid-bee diversity.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Izabella de Oliveira; de Castro, Milton Ferreira; Mitterofhe, Adalberto; Pires, Flávia Alves Condé; Abramo, Clarice; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Tibiriçá, Sandra Helena Cerrato; Coimbra, Elaine Soares

    2011-05-01

    Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases. In Brazil, there is a lack of epidemiologic data concerning these infections in the study area, whose inhabitants have plenty of access to health care services, including good dwelling and adequate sanitary conditions. In this survey we investigated the risk factors for giardiasis and STH in three municipalities with good sanitation, situated in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the municipalities of Piau, Coronel Pacheco and Goianá, in both urban and rural areas. The fieldwork consisted of a questionnaire and the examination of 2,367 stool samples using the Hoffmann, Pons and Janer method. Of all individuals from the population sample, 6.1% were found infected with the parasitic diseases included in this work. Hookworm infection was the most prevalent disease, followed by giardiasis, trichuriasis and ascariasis. Infection was more prevalent in males (8.1%, p < 0.001; odds ratio [OR] = 1.975) and in individuals living in rural areas (8.6%, p = 0.003; OR = 1.693). Multivariate analysis showed that variables such as inadequate sewage discharge (p < 0.001), drinking of unsafe water (p < 0.001), lack of sanitary infrastructure (p = 0.015), and host sex (p < 0.001) were the risk factors more strongly associated with infection status (95% confidence interval [CI]). In this study we demonstrate that giardiasis and STH still persist, infecting people who have good housing conditions and free access to public health care and education.

  20. Assessing the relationship between the δ18O signatures of siliceous sponge spicules and water in a~tropical lacustrine environment (Minas Gerais, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteuzzo, M. C.; Alexandre, A.; Varajão, A. F. D. C.; Volkmer-Ribeiro, C.; Almeida, A. C. S.; Varajão, C. A. C.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.; Miche, H.

    2013-08-01

    Siliceous sponge spicules constitute an important siliceous component of lacustrine sediments, together with widespread diatom frustules. In contrast to diatom frustules, siliceous spicules are formed in sponges in an enzymatic way. Previous attempts to use their oxygen isotopic signature (δ18Osilica) as a paleoenvironmental proxy have led to contradictory conclusions. These attempts demonstrated the need to further assess whether sponges form their silica in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with water. For this reason, we measured the δ18O signature of sponge spicules from a single freshwater species (Metania spinata) grown on natural and artificial supports over nine months in a small Brazilian pond (Lagoa Verde, northwestern Minas Gerais). The δ18Osilica values were obtained using the infrared (IR) laser-heating fluorination technique following a controlled isotopic exchange (CIE). The δ18O values (δ18Owater) and temperature of the pond water were periodically measured and reconstructed over the course of the sponge growth. Assuming that silica may form continuously in the spicules, temperature and δ18Owater values over the months of growth were weighted using a sponge growth coefficient previously established for Metania spinata. The δ18Osilica values of sponges grown simultaneously and on similar substrates were scattered. No relationships were observed between the Δ18Osilica-water and water temperature when the reconstructed values were considered. Conversely, a positive correlation was obtained, with a coefficient of 0.3‰ °C-1 (R2 = 0.63), when δ18Owater values and water temperature at the time of sample collection were considered. Such a positive temperature coefficient clearly indicates that the freshwater sponge Metania spinata does not form its siliceous spicules in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the pond water. Instead, one or several biologically controlled kinetic fractionation mechanisms may be in play during the various steps of silica

  1. Civilise the People, Build the Nation: Scientific and Literary Association and Education in Minas Gerais (Brazil) at the Beginning of the Brazilian Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filho, Luciano Mendes de Faria; Inacio, Marcilaine Soares

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 200 years in Brazil, the notion of "public" has been established to mean the same as the notion of "state". Sergio Buarque de Holanda and, more recently, Marilena Chaui point out that the very old tradition of the appropriation of public goods by the private sector has been updated. However, the understanding of what is considered…

  2. Effect of diflubenzuron on immature stages of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Junqueira da; Mendes, Júlio

    2002-07-01

    Horn fly immatures were raised in media containing different concentrations of diflubenzuron in order to verify their susceptibility to this insect growth regulator (IGR). The 50% and 95% lethal concentrations of diflubenzuron for the population (LC50, LC95) were determined as well as the effect of this IGR on the different immature horn fly stages. The tests were performed using the progeny of adults collected in the field. The immatures were maintained in a growth chamber at 25.0 +/- 0.5oC and 12-12 h photoperiod. IGR concentrations of 300 ppb, 100 ppb and 50 ppb were lethal for 100% of the sample. Pupae malformation occurred in the breeding media containing different diflubenzuron concentrations. Values for LC50, LC95 (+/- 95% fiducial limits) and the slope of the regression line were respectively, 25.521 +/- 1.981 ppb, 34.650 +/- 2.001 ppb and 12.720 +/- 1.096. The third larval instar was more sensitive to the sub-lethal concentration of the product than the first and second ones were. The results indicate that this IGR can be an important tool for controlling horn fly populations as well as for managing horn fly resistance to conventional insecticides against Haematobia irritans in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

  3. [Low weight and functional disability in institutionalized elderly interns in Uberlândia in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sousa, Kamilla Tavares de; Mesquita, Laura Anália Silva de; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Azeredo, Catarina Machado

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to identify the association between nutritional status and functional dependence in institutionalized elderly interns in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. It involved a cross-sectional study with 233 elderly interns in which sociodemographic variables, nutritional status and degree of dependency were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with robust variance to assess the association between nutritional status and functional dependence of these senior citizens. Low weight by the Body Mass Index was associated with functional dependence after controlling for socioeconomic and demographic variables. The elderly with low weight had a prevalence ratio of dependence of 1.2 times the prevalence rate of dependence of well nourished elderly interns. As reported in the literature, age was also associated with dependence with a prevalence ratio of 1.19 for the longest living. Low weight is an important factor associated with functional disability. Thus, the need for evaluation, monitoring and recovery of nutritional status in the institutionalized elderly is stressed, as in addition to reducing morbidity and mortality from several diseases and improve quality of life, it can also prevent and delay functional dependency.

  4. Evaluation of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species richness using two sampling methods in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Jeronimo; de Mello, Viviane Soares; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Morone, Fernanda; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-04-01

    We compared two types of light traps used for monitoring mosquito abundance in the hydroelectric reservoir of Simplício, Além Paraíba - Minas Gerais. Mosquitoes were captured bimonthly using automatic CDC and Shannon traps before the filling of the hydroelectric plant reservoir from December 2008 to December 2009. In total, 1474 specimens from 13 genera were captured. Among the captured specimens, several species known to be vectors of disease-causing agents for humans and/or animals were identified, including Anopheles aquasalis, Aedes albopictus, Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, and Aedes scapularis. Sampling efficacy between the four capture sites was not found to be significantly different, irrespective of species captured or type of trap used. Poor correlation (r (x, y) = -0.0444) between the number of mosquito species and capture site was observed when not influenced by the type of trap used. Among the installation sites of the CDC and Shannon traps in the areas investigated, CDC traps fixed in livestock shelters obtained an overall higher abundance of species captured.

  5. Irrigation canals in Melo creek basin (Rio Espera and Capela Nova municipalities, Minas Gerais, Brazil): habitats to Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) and potential spread of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Leite, M G P; Pimenta, E C; Fujaco, M A G; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2016-04-19

    This study analyzed the presence of Biomphalaria in Melo creek basin, Minas Gerais state, and its relationship to irrigation canals. Seventeen of these canals were used to determine a limnological, morphological and hydrological characterization during an annual seasonal cycle. Biomphalaria samples were sent to René Rachou Research Center/FIOCRUZ for identification and parasitological examination. Six canals were identified as breeding areas for mollusks and in one of them it was registered the coexistence of B. tenagophila (first report to this basin) and B. glabrata species. Results indicated that the low flow rate and speed of water flow were the main characteristics that contributed to this specific growth of the mollusks in the area. These hydraulic characteristics were created due to anthropogenic action through the canalization of lotic areas in Melo creek, which allowed ideal ecological conditions to Biomphalaria outbreak. The results emphasize the need of adequate handling and constant monitoring of the hydrographic basin, subject to inadequate phytosanitary conditions, aiming to prevent the occurrence and propagation of schistosomiasis. PMID:27097093

  6. [Evaluation of a program for the control of schistosomiasis in municipalities located on the basin of the Sao Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima e Costa, M F; Guerra, H L; Pimenta, F G; Firmo, J O; Uchoa, E

    1996-01-01

    An evaluation of the control program on schistosomiasis (PCE/PCDEN) was performed in the region of São Francisco river in MInas Gerais. The study area comprises six municipalities, with 130,000 inhabitants and 916 localities situated in an area with 10,722 km2. The activities initiated in 1983-85 in four municipalities and in 1987 in the other two. The main measures of control were repeated treatment with oxamniquine and use of niclosamide. The prevalence of infection by Schistosoma mansoni in the first four municipalities, that was initially around 18 and 32%, dropped abruptly after the first intervention (1983/85) and remained in levels below the initial ones until the last assessment (1990-94); similar trends were observed for the proportion of infected snails. In these municipalities, the proportion of localities without infection or with prevalence below 5% increased in relation to those with higher prevalence. In the other two municipalities, with initial prevalence below 5%, there were no substantial changes in S. mansoni prevalence or proportion of infected snails; the cost benefit of the program in these municipalities need to be assessed and the priorities redirected to eradicate focal areas and prevent spread to non infected localities. The authors call attention to the difficulties in the long term of a control program based on repeated treatments. Information on factors associated with S. mansoni infection in each locality, or in groups of similar localities, would allow to develop additional measures to treatment that could last longer and be less dependent on the continuous use of chemotherapy.

  7. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6-71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2-40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2-12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7-22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8-26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2-2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4-3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1-2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions.

  8. Α-Thalassemia: Genotypic Profile Associated with Ethnicity and Hematological Differentiation of Iron Deficiency Anemia in the Region of Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Renata A Volpe; Carlos, Aline Menezes; de Souza, Bruna M Bereta; Rodrigues, Cibele Velloso; Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is a hereditary hemoglobinopathy characterized by microcytic anemia due to impaired production of α chains of human globin. Brazilian studies show that the most common genotype is an -α(3.7) deletion with the loss of one or two α genes. As the production of α chains is not as accentuated in these cases, the correct diagnosis can only be achieved through molecular analysis that is not usually routinely performed by laboratories. We investigated the occurrence of α-thal babies born between September 2011 to January 2013 at the hospital of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, Brazil, and blood donors of the Uberaba Regional Blood Center, Hemominas Foundation, Uberaba, Brazil, correlating it with ethnicity and differences between hematological parameters of donors, α-thal and iron deficiency patients. α-Thalassemia was investigated for the most common deleted alleles (-α(3.7), -α(4.2), - -(SEA), - -(FIL), - -(THAI), -(α)(20.5) and - -(MED)). The incidence in newborns was 13.16% with a predominance of heterozygosity for the -α(3.7) genotype (12.35%), followed by the -α(3.7)/-α(3.7) (0.46%) and αα/-α(4.2) genotypes (0.35%). In blood donors, the prevalence of α-thal was 14.89%, with all cases being heterozygous for the -α(3.7) deletion. There was an association of the α-thal genotype with African ancestors for both groups, thereby confirming published data and showing the strong influence of Blacks on the composition of the population of Brazil's southeastern region. Minor changes were found between hematological parameters of blood donors with iron deficiency and α-thal that did not contribute to the differential diagnosis between the two types of anemia.

  9. Determinants of Iron Deficiency Anemia in a Cohort of Children Aged 6-71 Months Living in the Northeast of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Francisca Helena Calheiros; da Silva, Camilo Adalton Mariano; Bonomo, Élido; Teixeira, Romero Alves; Pereira, Cíntia Aparecida de Jesus; dos Santos, Karina Benatti; Fausto, Maria Arlene; Negrão-Correa, Deborah Aparecida; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide. The aim was to identify the prevalence and incidence of anemia in children and to identify predictors of this condition, including intestinal parasites, social, nutritional and environmental factors, and comorbidities. A population-based cohort study was conducted in a sample of 414 children aged 6–71 months living in Novo Cruzeiro in the Minas Gerais State. Data were collected in 2008 and 2009 by interview and included socio-economic and demographic information about the children and their families. Blood samples were collected for testing of hemoglobin, ferritin and C-reactive protein. Anthropometric measurements and parasitological analyses of fecal samples were performed. To identify risk factors associated with anemia multivariate analyses were performed using the generalized estimating equations (GEE). In 2008 and 2009, respectively, the prevalence rates of anemia were 35.9% (95%CI 31.2–40.8) and 9.8% (95%CI 7.2–12.9), the prevalence rates of iron deficiency were 18.4% (95%CI 14.7–22.6) and 21.8% (95%CI 17.8–26.2), and the incidence rates of anemia and iron deficiency were 3.2% and 21.8%. The following risk factors associated with anemia were: iron deficiency (OR = 3.2; 95%CI 2.0-.5.3), parasitic infections (OR = 1.9; 95%CI 1.2–2.8), being of risk of or being a low length/height-for-age (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.4–3.2), and lower retinol intake (OR = 1.7; 95%CI 1.1–2.7), adjusted over time. Nutritional factors, parasitic infections and chronic malnutrition were identified as risk factors for anemia. These factors can be verified in a chronic process and have been classically described as risk factors for these conditions. PMID:26445270

  10. Highlights of the XXI annual meeting of the Brazilian Society of Protozoology, the XXXII annual meeting on Basic Research in Chagas' disease & an international symposium on vesicle trafficking in parasitic Protozoa – 7 to 9 November 2005, Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Jeffrey; Schenkman, Sergio; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the 2005 Annual meeting held in Caxambu, Minas Gerais, Brazil that was convened and organized by the Brazilian Society of Protozoology . This is an annual event and details of these meetings can be found on the Society's website. Within the space available it has been impossible to cover all the important and fascinating contributions and what is presented are our personal views of the meetings scientific highlights and new developments. The contents undoubtedly reflect each author's scientific interests and expertise. Fuller details of the round tables, seminars and posters can be consulted on line at . PMID:16916462

  11. The "Tuteo" of Rocha, Uruguay: A Study of Pride and Language Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the tuteo in Rocha, Uruguay, a unique situation in a country that is mostly "voseante." The study draws on speakers' attitudes toward "tú" and "vos" in Rocha, taken from informal interviews and from a linguistic attitude survey. The survey was conducted with 58 informants, most of whom were…

  12. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  13. Population dynamics and evaluation of the partial selective treatment of crossbreed steers naturally infested with Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in a herd from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Felippelli, Gustavo; Buzzulini, Carolina; Soares, Vando Edésio; de Melo, Daniel Pacheco; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Gonçalves Junior, Geraldo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2016-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the population dynamics of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus over a period of 13 months on a rural property located in the state of Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Animals were treated for ticks indoors by whole body spraying when R. (B.) microplus had an average count equal or more than 30 ticks. The study also evaluated the possibility of a partial selective treatment for bovines to control R. (B.) microplus in which only a percentage of the population would be treated (specifically those bovines with tick counts of ≥20. Moreover, we examined the percentage of the population of R. (B.) microplus present on experimental bovines that did not come into contact with the chemical compounds used in the partial selective treatment. We concluded that in this particular region of Brazil, the crossbreed steers support up to five R. (B.) microplus generations per year and that the number of generations was primarily affected by the pluviometric precipitation. We sprayed the bovines with chemicals seven times during the course of the study. The results of the partial selective treatment method revealed that during the rainy and the dry periods, 42.1% to 60.0% and 61.9% to 79.2% of the animals, respectively, fulfilled the criteria to receive a chemical treatment to reduce the number of cattle ticks. In consideration of the need to slow the development of tick resistance with the chemical compounds used in the spraying treatment, the results showed that the percentage of animals that did not require treatment is not relevant. This was evidenced by the result that bovines that presented tick counts of ≥20 during the dry and rainy periods represented 91.5% and 90.6% of the total recorded R. (B.) microplus populations, respectively. Only 8.7% of the tick population remained free from exposure to acaricides during the 13 months of the study, which is an important point when considering the adoption of the partial selective treatment

  14. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  15. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-04-12

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented.

  16. Two new species of Cyphocharax (Teleostei: Characiformes: Curimatidae) from headwaters of the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco river basins, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Guilherme Moreira; Penido, Iago De Souza; Mello, Gabriel Caetano Guimarães De; Pessali, Tiago Casarim

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Cyphocharax from southeastern Brazil are described. Both new species share with C. punctatus, and C. vanderi the presence of a midlateral series of irregular patches of dark pigmentation along the lateral line. Cyphocharax jagunco, new species, from Rio Jequitinhonha basin, is distinguished from C. lundi, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the number of patches of dark pigmentation along lateral line; the number of pored scales posterior to the hypural joint; the number of scales in the lateral line; and the number of scales rows above lateral line. Cyphocharax lundi, new species, from Rio São Francisco basin, is distinguished from C. jagunco, C. punctatus, and C. vanderi by the presence of dark spots above the lateral line; and the number of scales in the lateral line. Comments on the relationships of the new species within Cyphocharax are presented. PMID:27394625

  17. New records of two endemic troglobitic and threatened arachnids (Amblypygi and Opiliones) from limestone caves of Minas Gerais state, southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gallão, Jonas Eduardo; von Schimonsky, Diego M; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The endemic and threatened troglobites (organisms restricted to caves) Charinus eleonorae (Amblypygi) and Iandumoema uai (Opiliones), both from Olhos d’Água cave, located at Peruaçu Caves National Park (southeast Brazil), have their distribution expanded for a new locality inside of the National Park (Lapa do Cipó cave), extending their distribution at least in 9.5km2. New information This new data suggest that these arachnids can be in a differentiation process and/or there are several possibilities of dispersion in the karst of Peruaçu. Indeed, a revision of their categorical status at IUCN Red List is necessary. We herein report a new distribution range (Lapa do Cipó cave) of the troglobitic species I. uai and C. eleonorae, which are, to date, known to occur in the Olhos d’Água cave, located at the Peruaçu Caves National Park (PCNP). PMID:26696758

  18. A new approach to characterization of the resistance of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) to organophosphate and pyrethroid in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faza, Aline Pasqualini; Pinto, Isabella Silvestre Barreto; Fonseca, Isabela; Antunes, Gustavo Resende; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Daemon, Erik; Muniz, Michelle de Souza; Martins, Marta Fonseca; Furlong, John; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo

    2013-08-01

    The monitoring of resistance of cattle tick populations in Brazil to the chemical bases in use is largely limited to investigation of the phenotypic profile. There are few studies investigating the role played by the genotypic profile in acaricide resistance in the country. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to carry out molecular characterization and trace out the genetic profile of populations of Rhipicephalus microplus with respect to resistance to the organophosphate and pyrethroid chemical groups. For that purpose, larvae were genotyped belonging to 587 populations for pyrethroids and 306 for organophosphates, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. It was found that 75.49% and 97.44% of the larvae studied showed resistance to the organophosphates and pyrethroids, respectively. Among the populations resistant to pyrethroids, 91.9% were heterozygotes, showing that most of the resistant populations have only one allele responsible for resistance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the genotyped populations have high resistance to organophosphates, and even more so to pyrethroids. This information is fundamental for understanding the mechanisms of resistance of R. microplus to acaricides, to enable improvement of control techniques. PMID:23639866

  19. Biomonitoring of the environmental genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries in Monte Carmelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, using Tradescantia pallida.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos Fernando; Júnior, Edimar Olegário de Campos; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Sousa, Eduardo de Freitas; Pereira, Boscolli Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    The micronucleus (MN) test and analysis of heavy metal biological accumulation in Tradescantia pallida (T. pallida) were bioassays used to assess the genotoxic potential of emissions from a complex of ceramic industries into the atmosphere in a city in Brazil that is considered a national reference source for roof tile production. The ceramic industry emission-exposed T. pallida plants were biomonitored during the dry season, in June, July, and August 2013. In addition to the contaminated monitoring site, a reference site in a peri-urban area was utilized, for comparative purposes. Genotoxicity assessments were determined monthly, while heavy metal bioaccumulation was measured at the end of the total exposure period. The MN frequency was significantly greater in T. pallida plants exposed in the ceramic industry emission monitored area compared to the reference site, and highest MN rates were observed in July and August. With respect to heavy metal bioaccumulation in T. pallida leaves, cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) concentrations were significantly higher in plants at the ceramic industry emission monitoring site. Thus, in relation to the parameters assessed, T. pallida was found to be sensitive to atmospheric contamination by heavy metals attributed to ceramic products emissions generated by the ceramic industry, confirming that this plant species may be employed as a reference organism in biomonitoring studies. PMID:26818189

  20. Temporal and Spatial Trends in Childhood Asthma-Related Hospitalizations in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil and Their Association with Social Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Cláudia Silva; Dias, Maria Angélica Salles; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Viana, Thaís Claudino; Mingoti, Sueli Aparecida; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Asthma is a multifactorial disease and a serious public health problem. Environmental factors and poverty are the main determinants of this disease. Objective: To describe the spatial and temporal distribution of asthma-related hospitalizations and identify the areas with the highest prevalence of and vulnerability to severe asthma in a major Brazilian city. Methods: An ecological study of hospitalizations for asthma from 2002 to 2012, in children and adolescents under 15 years of age, living in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. All events were geocoded by residence address using Hospital Information System data. The socioeconomic vulnerability of residence address was ranked using the Health Vulnerability Index. Raster surfaces were generated and time-series plots were constructed to determine spatial and time trends in the frequency of asthma-related hospitalizations, respectively. Results: Asthma-related hospitalization rates were highest in children aged 0–4 years and in boys. There was a decreasing trend in the number of asthma-related hospitalizations across the study period. Approximately 48% of all hospitalizations were children living in health vulnerable areas. Seasonal trends showed a hospitalization peak in March, April, and May, coinciding with the post-rainy period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that social and environmental factors may be determinants of disparities in severe asthma. PMID:27420078

  1. Proteocephalid cestode infection in alien fish, Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), from Volta Grande reservoir, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martins, M L; Pereira, J; De Chambrier, A; Yamashita, M M

    2009-02-01

    This work evaluates the variation of the parasitological indexes in 114 Cichla piquiti Kullander and Ferreira, 2006 (tucunaré) infected by two proteocephalid species (Cestoda) for the period of August 1999 to June 2001 in the Volta Grande reservoir, MG, Brazil. The relation between the parasitosis with rainfall and water quality (pH, electric conductivity, oxygen, chlorophyll, transparency and temperature) is discussed. Prevalence of Proteocephalus macrophallus (Diesing, 1850) and/or P. microscopicus (Woodland, 1935) was 83.3%, mean intensity 110.8 and mean abundance 100.7 during the period. A hundred percent prevalence was reported in August and December 1999, April and December 2000 and June 2001. The largest mean intensities of 122.7 (October 1999), 158.8 (December 1999), 96.4 (February 2000), 400.7 (April 2000), 215.6 (October 2000) and 136.4 (December 2000) were observed. Abiotic factors may favour the development of the species of the food chain that sustain the organisms in the diet of 'tucunaré', but in this case, there was no correlation (P > 0.05) between the values of prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance with the rainfall and water quality. At the same time, these organisms may constitute the intermediate hosts of cestodes. The time-course between the fish species development and the parasitosis manifestation in the definitive host can explain the lack of correlation between the parasitological indexes and abiotic factors. The predation on small fishes and cannibalism described for 'tucunaré' might explain the high values of prevalence and intensity of infection. The results are also related to the exotic condition of the host in the reservoir. PMID:19347164

  2. Denudation rates of the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil, determined by in situ-produced cosmogenic beryllium-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Helen N.; Varajão, César A. C.; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Salgado, André A. R.; Varajão, Angélica F. D. C.

    2013-06-01

    To investigate denudation rates in the southern part of the Espinhaço Range (central-eastern Brazil) and to understand how this important resistant and residual relief has evolved in the past 1.38 My, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations produced in situ were measured in alluvial sediments from the three main regional basins, whose substratum is composed primarily of quartzites. The long-term denudation rates (up to 1.38 My) estimated from these measurements were compared with those that affect the western (São Francisco River) and eastern (Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers) basins, which face the West San Francisco craton and the Atlantic, respectively. Denudation rates were measured in 27 samples collected in catchments of different sizes (6-970 km2) and were compared with geomorphic parameters. The mean denudation rates determined in the northern part are low and similar to those determined in the southern part, despite slightly different geomorphic parameter values (catchment relief and mean slope). For the southern catchments, the values are 4.91 ± 1.01 m My- 1 and 3.65 ± 1.26 m My- 1 for the Doce and São Francisco River basins, respectively; for the northern catchments, they are 4.40 ± 1.06 m My- 1 and 3.96 ± 0.91 m My- 1 for the Jequitinhonha and São Francisco River basins, respectively. These low values of denudation rates suggest no direct correlation if plotted against geomorphic parameters such as the catchment area, maximum elevation, catchment relief, average relief and mean slope gradients. These values show that the regional landscape evolves slowly and is strongly controlled by resistant lithology, with similar erosional rates in the three studied basins.

  3. Application of LANDSAT images in the Minas Gerais tectonic division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacunha, R. P.; Demattos, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The interpretation of LANDSAT data for a regional geological investigation of Brazil is provided. Radar imagery, aerial photographs and aeromagnetic maps were also used. Automatic interpretation, using LANDSAT OCT's was carried out by the 1-100 equipment. As a primary result a tectonic map was obtained, at 1:1,000,000 scale, of an area of about 143,000 square kilometers, in the central portion of Minas Gerais and Eastern Goias States, known as regions potentially rich in mineral resources.

  4. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  5. Brazil.

    PubMed

    1983-07-01

    Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of

  6. Application of remote sensing to the photogeologic mapping of the region of the Itatiaia alkaline complex. M.S. Thesis; [Minas Gerais, Rio De Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and Itatiaia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Rodrigues, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Remote sensing methods applied to geologically complex areas, through interaction of ground truth and information obtained from multispectral LANDSAT images and radar mosaics were evaluated. The test area covers parts of Minos Gerais, Rio De Janeiro and Sao Paulo states and contains the alkaline complex of Itatiaia and surrounding Precambrian terrains. Geological and structural mapping was satisfactory; however, lithological varieties which form the massif's could not be identified. Photogeological lineaments were mapped, some of which represent the boundaries of stratigraphic units. Automatic processing was used to classify sedimentary areas, which includes the talus deposits of the alkaline massifs.

  7. "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle": Antonio Rocha, Storyteller. Cue Sheet for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Elizabeth

    This performance guide is designed for teachers to use with students before and after a performance of "Tales from the Brazilian Jungle" with storyteller Antonio Rocha. The guide, called a "Cuesheet," contains four sheets for use in class. The first, "About the Performance," prepares students for understanding references to the Amazon rainforest,…

  8. O Imperio como Argumento: Um Contraponto entre Joaquim Nabuco e o Bispo D. Jose Mauricio da Rocha (The Empire as Argument: A Counterpoint between Joaquim Nabuco and the Bishop Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Izabel Andrade

    1998-01-01

    Dialogs with the previous article establishing a comparative analysis between the political acceptance present in the reactionary speech of Dom Jose Mauricio da Rocha and in the monarchist words of Joaquim Nabuco. (PA)

  9. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Cintra, Eduardo do Nascimento; do Carmo, Rafaela Andrade; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; Pedrosa, André Luiz; Correia, Dalmo; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia Benedita de

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie's method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie's method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed. PMID:26200960

  10. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CABRINE-SANTOS, Marlene; CINTRA, Eduardo do Nascimento; do CARMO, Rafaela Andrade; NASCENTES, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira; PEDROSA, André Luiz; CORREIA, Dalmo; de OLIVEIRA-SILVA, Márcia Benedita

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG) through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8%) and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%). The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001). The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides(0.3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%). The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8%) when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%), with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92). In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed. PMID:26200960

  11. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA. PMID:24216324

  12. Combined effect of temperature and controlled atmosphere on storage and shelf-life of 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene.

    PubMed

    Gago, Custódia M L; Miguel, Maria G; Cavaco, Ana M; Almeida, Domingos P F; Antunes, Maria D C

    2015-03-01

    The combination of temperature and atmosphere composition for storage of Pyrus communis L. 'Rocha' treated with 1-methylcyclopropene was investigated. Fruits treated with 312 nl l(-1) 1-methylcyclopropene were stored at 0 ℃ and 2.5 ℃ in air and controlled atmosphere (CA) (3.04 kPa O2+ 0.91 kPa CO2). Fruits were removed from storage after 14, 26 and 35 weeks, transferred to shelf-life at approximately 22 ℃ and assessed for ripening and quality, symptoms of superficial scald and internal browning and the accumulation of biochemical compounds related to scald after 0, 1 and 2 weeks. Superficial scald occurred only in fruits stored for 35 weeks in air at 2.5 ℃. Levels of conjugated trienols and α-farnesene increased during the first 26 weeks in storage, remaining constant thereafter. During shelf-life, conjugated trienols were higher in fruits stored in air at 2.5 ℃. Internal browning developed in shelf-life after 26 weeks at 2.5 ℃. Pears in air at 2.5 ℃ were not able to stand a 2-week shelf-life after 35 weeks of storage, while fruits stored at 0 ℃ under CA ripened slowly after the same storage period. The retention of firmness during shelf-life of 1-methylcyclopropene-treated 'Rocha' pear can be overcome by elevating the storage temperature from 0 ℃ to 2.5 ℃, but CA is a required complement to avoid excessive softening after long-term storage. The ratio carotenoid/chlorophyll increased during storage and shelf-life, as plastids senesced. CA reduced the rate of chlorophyll loss during the first 14 weeks in storage, but its effect was reduced afterwards. 'Rocha' pear treated with 1-methylcyclopropene had a similar post-harvest behaviour during long-term storage at 0 ℃ in air or at 2.5 ℃ under CA.

  13. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  14. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L

    2015-01-01

    Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanumamorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanumfilirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanumpsilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanumverticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanumapiahyense Witasek and Solanumlacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species.

  15. Comparison Between Monteiro DA Rocha and Wilhelm Olbers' Methods for the Determination of the Orbits of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.; Fernandes, João

    2006-08-01

    In 1797, under von Zach sponsoring, Wilhelm Olbers published his work on the determination of the parabolic orbits of the comets - "Abhandlung tiber die leichteste und bequemste Methode, die Bahn eines Cometen aus einigen Beobachtungen zu berechnen von Wilhelm Olbers". Over the next century, this method would become the main tool to determine comets' parabolic orbits. Two years later, in 1799, an article of Monteiro da Rocha entitled "Determinação das Orbitas dos Cometas" is published in Memórias da Academia Real das Ciências de Lisboa. This study publishes a method to solve the problem of the determination of comets' orbits very similar with the one proposed by Olbers. In the current article we intend to provide some information about the method of Monteiro da Rocha, which in fact was formerly formulated circa 16-17 years in advance to Olbers method, and to present the results of the quantitative side-by-side comparison of methods.

  16. [Scientific research in nursing education: Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais research groups].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Lino, Mônica Motta; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the scientific production of the Research Groups in Nursing Education (RGNE) of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil. This is a documentary quantitative descriptive retrospective research, conducted by searching the CVs of all researchers who are part of the RGNEs in the Lattes database, followed by the search, organization, and evaluation of their scientific production according to Qualis/CAPES. The period studied was from 1995 to 2009 (the last five CAPES triennia) and included articles, books, book chapters, and full papers in conference proceedings. Results show that Rio de Janeiro has the higher number of articles in Nursing Education, highlighting the qualification of researchers at doctorate level. Both states present historic and socio-economic factors that favor scientific development.

  17. The species of Colletinae (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Rafael R; Silveira, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Minas Gerais is a species-rich territory about as large as France, which houses the headwaters of some of the most important rivers in Brazil, as well as a variety of phytogeographic domains, with a poorly known insect fauna. Here, a synopsis of the bee species included in the genera Colletes Latreille, 1802 and Rhynchocolletes Moure, 1943 (Colletidae: Colletinae) occurring in this state is presented, including synonymies, diagnoses, redescriptions and identification keys to females and males of the eight recognized species, including one described as new. These species are Rhynchocolletes albicinctus Moure, 1943; Colletes altimontanus Ferrari & Silveira sp. nov.; C. argentinus Friese, 1908 stat. rev., C. meridionalis Schrottky, 1902; C. ornatus Schrottky, 1902; C. petropolitanus Dalla Torre, 1896; C. rufipes Smith, 1879; and C. rugicollis Friese, 1900. Colletes extensicornis Vachal, 1909 is here proposed to be a junior synonym of C. meridionalis. PMID:25661943

  18. Propaganda and Philanthropy: The Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral, the Lisbon Site of Biochemistry (1925-1953).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Ana; Amaral, Isabel

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on the internal organization and dynamics of the Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral (IRC) in Lisbon, a privately-funded institution devoted to biomedical research, from the particular vantage point of its laboratory of biochemistry; in particular, the process through which the institution turned from medically-related to chemically-related research in the period spanning from 1925 to 1953. The history of the IRC raises interesting questions regarding the social politics of science as it materialized the desire of leading physicians of the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon to create proper physical facilities for medically-related scientific research. We argue that the process which led to the creation of the IRC coincided with the gradual professional and political ascendance of physicians in Portuguese society initiated in the late nineteenth century, and is closely associated with Portuguese republicanism and the process of Lisbon becoming the scientific capital.

  19. Niobium (columbium) and tantalum resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1975-01-01

    Most of the niobium resources of Brazil occur as pyrochlore in carbonatites within syenitic intrusives of Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary age in western Minas Gerais and southeastern Goils. Minor amounts of it are produced together with tantalum from columbite-tantalite concentrates from pegmatites and placers adjacent to them, in the Sao Joao del Rei district in south-central Minas Gerais. All the niobium and tantalum produced in Brazil is exported. The only pyrochlore mined is from the Barreiro carbonatite deposit near Araxa in Minas Gerais where concentrates and ferroniobium are produced. Exploration work for pyrochlore and other mineral resources are being undertaken on other carbonatites, particularly at Catalao I in southeast Goias and at Tapira and Serra Negra in western Minas Gerais. Annual production and export from the Barreiro deposit are about 8,000 metric tons of pyrochlore concentrate containing about 60 percent Nb205 and about 2,700 metric tons of ferroniobium with 63 percent Nb2O5. The annual production capacity of the Barreiro plant is 18,000 tons of concentrate and 4,000 tons of ferroniobium. Ore reserves of the Barreiro deposit in all categories are 380 million tons with percent Nb2O5. Annual production of tantalite-columbite from the Sao Joao del Rei district, most of which is exported to the United States, is about 290 tons, of which about 79 percent is tantalite and about percent is columbite. Reserves of tantalite-columbite in the Sao Joao del Rei district are about 43,000 tons of proved and 73,000 tons of probable ore.

  20. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum.

  1. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil.

  2. Schooling, Organisation of the Constitutional Monarchy and the Education of Citizens (Brazil, 1822-1889)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Cynthia Greive

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyse the process of institutionalisation of public elementary schooling associated with the political organisation of the constitutional monarchy and the legislation regarding citizen rights and prerogatives in Brazil, especially in the province of Minas Gerais, during the nineteenth century. During this…

  3. New species and records of mites of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) from mammals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Valim, Michel P

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen species of the superfamily Sarcoptoidea (Acariformes: Psoroptidia) belonging to 10 genera of the families Atopomelidae, Listrophoridae, Chirodiscidae, and Listropsoralgidae are recorded in Brazil. Among them, three species, Prolistrophorus hylaeamys sp. nov. from Hylaeamys laticeps (Lund, 1840) (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) from Minas Gerais, Lynxacarus serrafreirei sp. nov. from Galictis cuja (Molina, 1782) (Carnivora: Mustelidae) from Rio de Janeiro (Listrophoridae), and Didelphoecius micoureus sp. nov. (Atopomelidae) from Micoureus paraguayanus (Tate, 1931) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais are described as new for science. Three species of the family Listrophoridae, Prolistrophorus bidentatus Fain et Lukoschus, 1984 from Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887) (Rodentia: Cricetidae) (new host), Prolistrophorus ctenomys Fain, 1970 from Ctenomys torquatus Lichtenstein, 1830 (Rodentia: Ctenomyidae) (new host), and Leporacarus sylvilagi Fain, Whitaker et Lukoschus, 1981 from Sylvilagus brasiliensis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lagomorpha: Leporidae) (new host) -from Minas Gerais and Rio Grande do Sul, and one species of the family Chirodiscidae, Parakosa tadarida McDaniel and Lawrence, 1962 from Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) (Chiroptera: Molossidae) are recorded for the first time in Brazil. The previously unknown female of Didelphoecius validus Fain, Zanatta-Coutinho et Fonseca, 1996 (Atopomelidae) from Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy, 1803) (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) from Minas Gerais is described. All data on host-parasite associations of sarcoptoids in Brazil are summarized. Totally, 61 sarcoptoid species of 8 families are recorded in Brazil. PMID:26751869

  4. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  5. Dengue virus serotype 4 in a highly susceptible population in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amâncio, Frederico F; Ferraz, Marcela L; Almeida, Maria Cristina de M; Pessanha, José Eduardo M; Iani, Felipe C M; Fraga, Gabriela L; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2014-01-01

    In Minas Gerais, Brazil, almost 500,000 dengue fever cases were reported to the State Surveillance System between November 2012 and July 2013. An analysis of the laboratory-confirmed cases revealed a higher age-specific incidence in adults and a higher case fatality rate in people aged ≥50. Dengue virus serotypes 1 and 4 (the latter of which is an emerging serotype in Brazil) were responsible for the outbreak.

  6. Establishment of Tunga trimamillata (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Linardi, Pedro Marcos; De Avelar, Daniel Moreira; Filho, Elias Jorge Facury

    2013-09-01

    Tunga trimamillata is a species of sand flea occurring in Ecuador and Peru parasitizing cattle, goat, sheep, swine, and man. This is the first report of this species in Brazil, having been found on the hooves of cows in Barretos, São Paulo State, and Felixlândia, Minas Gerais State, and previously misidentified as Tunga penetrans. A previous report concerning Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris from Rio Novo, Minas Gerais State, may also be attributed to that species of sand flea, a possible the primary host. Given the large geographical distribution of T. trimamillata, the vast cattle population in Brazil, and the high number of individuals subject to the risk of tungiasis, the number of cases attributed to this sand flea will most likely increase over time. PMID:23797275

  7. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Araujo, Thiago Q; Lourenço, Anete P; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  8. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Garraffoni, André R. S.; Araujo, Thiago Q.; Lourenço, Anete P.; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought. PMID:21594197

  9. New data on freshwater psammic Gastrotricha from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garraffoni, André R S; Araujo, Thiago Q; Lourenço, Anete P; Balsamo, Maria

    2010-10-07

    Current knowledge of freshwater gastrotrich fauna from Brazil is underestimated as only two studies are available. The present communication is a taxonomic account of the first-ever survey of freshwater Gastrotricha in Minas Gerais State. Samplings were carried out yielding six species of three Chaetonotidae genera: Aspidiophorus cf. pleustonicus, Ichthydium cf. chaetiferum, Chaetonotus acanthocephalus, Chaetonotus heideri, Chaetonotus cf. succinctus, Chaetonotus sp., and also an undescribed species belonging to the genus Redudasys (incertae sedis): this is the first finding of specimens of Redudasys outside of original type locality. These preliminary observations suggest that the knowledge of the biodiversity of Gastrotricha in the Minas Gerais State, as well as in the whole Brazil, will certainly increase as further investigations are undertaken, and that freshwater Macrodasyida may be more common than previously thought.

  10. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in 'Rocha' pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and phenolics concentration were studied. The higher IBD incidence in high CO2-stored fruits was positively correlated with fermentative metabolites and negatively with ascorbate and H2O2 concentrations, and it was linked to PPO activation. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms are involved in the occurrence of IBD in 'Rocha' pear. From the integration of the biochemical and enzymatic data, a schematic model illustrating the effects of high CO2 and low O2 in 'Rocha' pears during long-term storage was constructed. PMID:27118401

  11. Biochemical Basis of CO2-Related Internal Browning Disorders in Pears (Pyrus communis L. cv. Rocha) during Long-Term Storage.

    PubMed

    Deuchande, Teresa; Larrigaudière, Christian; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Carvalho, Susana M P; Vasconcelos, Marta W

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at understanding the biochemical basis of internal browning disorders (IBDs) in 'Rocha' pear. For this purpose, the effects of storage under normal controlled atmosphere (CA) (3 kPa of O2 + 0.5 kPa of CO2) and IBD-inducing CA (1 kPa of O2 + 10 kPa of CO2) on the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and phenolics concentration were studied. The higher IBD incidence in high CO2-stored fruits was positively correlated with fermentative metabolites and negatively with ascorbate and H2O2 concentrations, and it was linked to PPO activation. These results indicate that both the antioxidant and fermentative metabolisms are involved in the occurrence of IBD in 'Rocha' pear. From the integration of the biochemical and enzymatic data, a schematic model illustrating the effects of high CO2 and low O2 in 'Rocha' pears during long-term storage was constructed.

  12. Thirteen new records of ferns from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thirteen fern species are reported for the first time for Brazil. Among the new records, eight are from Acre state (Cyathea subincisa, Cyclodium trianae, Elaphoglossum stenophyllum, Hypoderris brauniana, Pleopeltis stolzei, Thelypteris arcana, Thelypteris comosa, Thelypteris valdepilosa), two are from Pará state (Polypodium flagellare, Tectaria heracleifolia), one from Minas Gerais state (Alsophila salvinii), one from Ceará state (Campyloneurum costatum) and one from Bahia state (Thelypteris rolandii). Part of the species shows a disjunct occurrence or illustrates floristic relations between Brazilian and Andean Mountains or Central American Mountains. PMID:25829857

  13. A new metastrongyloidean species (Nematoda) parasitizing pulmonary arteries of Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora: Felidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Muniz-Pereira, Luís C; de Souza Lima, Sueli; Neto, Antonio H A Moraes; Guimarães, Erick V; Luque, José L

    2013-04-01

    Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. (Nematoda, Metastrongyloidea), parasitic in Puma (Herpailurus) yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy, 1803) (Carnivora, Felidae) from the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Angiostrongylus felineus n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having the anterior extremity with accentuated cuticular expansion and by smaller size of spicules. This study describes for the first time a species of Angiostrongylus in a wild Felidae in Brazil.

  14. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining. PMID:24554136

  15. [Iron ore, economic geology and networks of experts between Wisconsin and the state of Minas Gerais, 1881-1914].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the "discovery" of Brazilian iron ore from two perspectives. The first examines the increasing emphasis of the geosciences and their practical application and global reach since the second half of the nineteenth century. While in Brazil economic geology was integrated step by step into state institutions, at the global level it experienced its moment of triumph with the 11th International Geological Congress in 1910. The second deals with a specific social network with a decisive role in the race for Brazilian iron ore: with transnational experts juggling between the logic of the market and that of the academy. The article reveals the importance of local negotiations in the incorporation of the subsoil of Minas Gerais into the global space of mining.

  16. A new species of Dendroblatta Rehn, 1916 from northern Brazil (Blattaria: Ectobiidae) collected in wasp nests.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sonia Maria; Cardoso Da Silva, Leonardo De Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Currently sixteen species of Dendroblatta Rehn, 1916 are known, twelve of them occurring in Brazil. In this paper, one new species, D. spiculata sp. nov., is described from material collected from the Acre and Amazonas states in northern Brazil, in wasp nests. The new species differs from all other members of the genus by the male genitalia pieces. Illustrations of the genital pieces are presented. In Brazil, the genus is now known from the states of Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, and Rondônia.

  17. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  18. Tin resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Annual tin production in Brazil, most of it from cassiterite placer deposits in Rondonia Territory, amounts to about 4,000 metric tons (4,400 short tons) of concentrate containing 66 percent tin, much of which is consumed by Brazilian industry. Reserves of cassiterite concentrate in the placers of Rondonia district are estimated at about 160,000 (176,000 short tons) containing 66 percent tin. Extensive undiscovered resources of cassiterite possibly exist in southern Rondonia Territory and to the east of the Territory in northern Mato Grosso, southern Amazonas, and southern Para. Numerous occurrences have been reported in these regions and as far to the east as the headwaters of the Tapajos and the Xingo Rivers. Minor deposits or occurrences of cassiterite (or lode deposits about which there is only minimal information available) are located in Para, Amapa, Paraiba, Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Goias, Sao Paulo, and Rio Grande do Sul. All the lode tin deposits are dated or enclosed in rocks that date as Precambrian B (900 to 1,300 m.y.).

  19. On the natural diet of Daphnia laevis in the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir (Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais).

    PubMed

    Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Barbosa, F A R

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the major food items ingested by adult specimens of Daphnia laevis within the eutrophic Pampulha reservoir in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The gut content was analyzed after addition of sodium hypochlorite and also through the examination of dissected guts under scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Chlorophyceae was the main food item ingested, representing c. 80.5% of the total ingested food. Moreover, Eutetramorus fottii, Coelastrum pseudomicroporum and Oocystis lacustris, the dominant phytoplankton species within the reservoir, were the most frequent cells found in the gut contents. Euglenophyta also represented an important food item accounting for 15% of the ingested material, including mainly Trachelomonas volvocina and Euglena oxyuris, although less abundant in the reservoir (< 10% of total phytoplankton). Blue-green algae occurred at much lower percentages in the guts than in the phytoplankton. A small amount of undigested Microcystis aeruginosa colonies were also found in the gut content of D. laevis. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that, besides phytoplankton cells, a great amount of abiogenic material was also ingested. The amount of this inorganic material increased considerably in the tract (from 15% to 75% of the gut content), when a peak of D. laevis was observed in the reservoir. Our assumption is that the ingestion of this inorganic material can be a strategy used by D. laevis to obtain additional food supply.

  20. Parotocinclus planicauda, a new species of the subfamily Hypoptopomatinae from southeastern Brazil (Ostariophysi: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Garavello, J C; Britski, H A

    2003-05-01

    Parotocinclus planicauda, a new species from a tributary of the Doce River drainage in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is distinguished from all other species of the genus by the presence of a caudal peduncle almost quadrangular in cross section; the anterior position of the adipose fin, close to the dorsal fin insertion; and very small orbits. A key to the Parotocinclus species of eastern Brazilian coastal rivers south of the São Francisco River is provided.

  1. Three new bee species of Rhophitulus Ducke (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Protandrenini) from Argentina and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Kelli S

    2014-01-01

    This work describes three newly discovered species of Rhophitulus Ducke, 1907: R. labiosus n. sp. from Minas Gerais (Brazil), R. mimus n. sp. from Salta (Argentina), and R. xenopalpus n. sp. from Catamarca and Tucumán (Argentina). Photographs of the holotype of Rhophitulus steinbachi (Friese, 1916) are provided, and modifications in the morphology of a female of R. xenopalpus n. sp. when parasitized by Strepsiptera are recorded for the first time for the genus.  PMID:25112357

  2. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  3. Schistosomiasis risk estimation in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using environmental data and GIS techniques.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Ricardo J P S; Freitas, Corina C; Dutra, Luciano V; Moura, Ana C M; Amaral, Ronaldo S; Drummond, Sandra C; Scholte, Ronaldo G C; Carvalho, Omar S

    2008-01-01

    The influence of climate and environmental variables to the distribution of schistosomiasis has been assessed in several previous studies. Also Geographical Information System (GIS), is a tool that has been recently tested for better understanding the spatial disease distribution. The objective of this paper is to further develop the GIS technology for modeling and control of schistosomiasis using meteorological and social variables and introducing new potential environmental-related variables, particularly those produced by recently launched orbital sensors like the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Three different scenarios have been analyzed, and despite of not quite large determination factor, the standard deviation of risk estimates was considered adequate for public health needs. The main variables selected as important for modeling purposes was topographic elevation, summer minimum temperature, the NDVI vegetation index, and the social index HDI91. PMID:18692017

  4. Tunga penetrans and further parasites in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) from Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Frank, Raphael; Melaun, Christian; Martins, Maria Marlene; Santos, André Luiz Quagliatto; Heukelbach, Jörg; Klimpel, Sven

    2012-11-01

    The Brazilian savannah-like area, the Cerrado region, covers large areas of the country and provides a habitat for a multitude of different animal species. The giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) is geographically widespread and one of the typical inhabitants of the Cerrado. They are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. A population loss of at least 30 % over the past 10 years has been estimated based on local extinctions, habitat loss and deaths caused by fires, roadkills and hunting. Little is known about ecological and in particular parasitic conditions of this highly specialised insectivore species. During September and November 2010 we examined three roadkilled giant anteater for the presence of metazoan ecto- and endoparasites. Besides the cestode species Oochoristica tetragonocephala and the tick species Amblyomma nodosum, we found for the first time the flea Tunga penetrans. Beside morphological flea species identification, we compared a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of eggs, a molecular method utilised for the first time in this combination. The identification of T. penetrans in M. tridactyla represents a new host record and expands the host and distribution range of the zoonotic flea species. PMID:22814770

  5. Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sales, Camila F; Domingos, Fabrício Flávio T; Brighenti, Ludmila S; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Santos, Hélio B; Thomé, Ralph G

    2016-07-11

    Herein we determine for the first time the reproduction parameters and population structure of Hypostomus francisci in the Itapecerica River, São Francisco Basin. A total of 250 specimens was captured quarterly between March 2010 and February 2012. Body weight, total length and weight of the gonads were obtained in the laboratory. Gonad samples were submitted to histological and histochemical techniques. Females with spawning capable ovaries were used to determine the fecundity and relative fecundity. Sex ratio with 1:1.01 (female:male) was observed. Males were more numerous than females for individuals smaller than 170 mm, however the number of females was significantly greater for specimens larger than 330 mm. The length-weight relationship estimated for H. francisci indicates negative-allometric growth. Females spawning capable were observed mostly in November-December-January. Two cohorts of oocytes at a determined time evidencing the development type group-synchronic. The eggs reaching 3.4 mm and the fecundity ranged from 312-1,460 oocytes with an average of 585.81 ± 337.43 oocytes per female. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners. PMID:27411068

  6. Trends in Animal Rabies Surveillance in the Endemic State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E.; Oliveira, Camila S. F.; Capanema, Renato O.; Nicolino, Rafael R.; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J.; Haddad, João Paulo A.

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies. PMID:25774775

  7. Diffusion Pattern and Hotspot Detection of Dengue in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pessanha, José Eduardo Marques Pessanha; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; Brandão, Silvana Tecles; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2012-01-01

    This study considers the dengue occurrence in the city of Belo Horizonte over the last fifteen years. Approximately 186,000 cases registered from 1996 to 2011 were analyzed. The home address of individuals whose dengue case was notified was used as a proxy for exposure location. For determining possible outbreaks of disease and the specific patterns of dengue cases, spatial statistics used included Kernel's estimation. The occurrence of waves of dengue outbreaks was correlated with climatic and vector presence data. Outbreaks had different durations and intensities: case clustering, thinned out both spatially and temporally. These findings may be useful for public health professionals responsible for fighting the disease providing some tools for improving evaluation of interventions such as vector control and patient care, minimizing the collective and individual burden of the disease. PMID:22536269

  8. Phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Timóteo, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Quaresma, Patrícia Flávia; Andrade Filho, Jose Dilermando; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias

    2014-06-01

    This work is characterized by an entomological research and an investigation on whether seasonal behaviours can be associated to the phlebotomine fauna found in the urban area of Timóteo-MG - an endemic focus of tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL). The analysis of the seasonal behaviour of sand flies has taken into account the following climatic variables: rainfall, relative humidity and temperature. Automatic light traps were installed in households between 2009 and 2010. The sand fly species with the highest number captured was Lutzomyia whitmani (66.5%), a TL vector species, whose abundance has provided strong evidences that this species is the main vector of TL in the municipality of Timóteo, with its cycle of transmission developing in its urban area. Amongst the results observed in the analyses of seasonal behaviour, only temperature conveyed particular association between seasonal occurrence of sand flies and climate variables. The findings of this study may assist the local epidemiological surveillance agency in defining strategies and directing efforts for controlling these insects.

  9. Biological variables of Hypostomus francisci (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Itapecerica River, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sales, Camila F; Domingos, Fabrício Flávio T; Brighenti, Ludmila S; Ribeiro, Rosy I M A; Santos, Hélio B; Thomé, Ralph G

    2016-07-11

    Herein we determine for the first time the reproduction parameters and population structure of Hypostomus francisci in the Itapecerica River, São Francisco Basin. A total of 250 specimens was captured quarterly between March 2010 and February 2012. Body weight, total length and weight of the gonads were obtained in the laboratory. Gonad samples were submitted to histological and histochemical techniques. Females with spawning capable ovaries were used to determine the fecundity and relative fecundity. Sex ratio with 1:1.01 (female:male) was observed. Males were more numerous than females for individuals smaller than 170 mm, however the number of females was significantly greater for specimens larger than 330 mm. The length-weight relationship estimated for H. francisci indicates negative-allometric growth. Females spawning capable were observed mostly in November-December-January. Two cohorts of oocytes at a determined time evidencing the development type group-synchronic. The eggs reaching 3.4 mm and the fecundity ranged from 312-1,460 oocytes with an average of 585.81 ± 337.43 oocytes per female. The reproductive parameters and population structure of H. francisci from Itapecerica River suggested that this species showed singular reproductive tactics among congeners.

  10. Severity of malocclusion in adolescents: populational-based study in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Freire, Rafael Silveira; Nepomuceno, Marcela Oliveira; Martins, Andrea Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Marcopito, Luiz Francisco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion in a population of adolescents. METHODS In this cross-sectional population-based study, the sample size (n = 761) was calculated considering a prevalence of malocclusion of 50.0%, with a 95% confidence level and a 5.0% precision level. The study adopted correction for the effect of delineation (deff = 2), and a 20.0% increase to offset losses and refusals. Multistage probability cluster sampling was adopted. Trained and calibrated professionals performed the intraoral examinations and interviews in households. The dependent variable (severity of malocclusion) was assessed using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). The independent variables were grouped into five blocks: demographic characteristics, socioeconomic condition, use of dental services, health-related behavior and oral health subjective conditions. The ordinal logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with severity of malocclusion. RESULTS We interviewed and examined 736 adolescents (91.5% response rate), 69.9% of whom showed no abnormalities or slight malocclusion. Defined malocclusion was observed in 17.8% of the adolescents, being severe or very severe in 12.6%, with pressing or essential need of orthodontic treatment. The probabilities of greater severity of malocclusion were higher among adolescents who self-reported as black, indigenous, pardo or yellow, with lower per capita income, having harmful oral habits, negative perception of their appearance and perception of social relationship affected by oral health. CONCLUSIONS Severe or very severe malocclusion was more prevalent among socially disadvantaged adolescents, with reported harmful habits and perception of compromised esthetics and social relationships. Given that malocclusion can interfere with the self-esteem of adolescents, it is essential to improve public policy for the inclusion of orthodontic treatment among health care provided to this segment of the population, particularly among those of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:27143611

  11. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of Salmonella isolated from butcher shops in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Burin, Raquel Cristina Konrad; Lopes, Danilo Augusto; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Castilho, Natalia Parma Augusto de; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgiode; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2013-09-01

    Salmonella can contaminate finished products of butcher shops, mainly through cross-contamination of utensils exposed to raw materials. To identify the main sources of contamination with this foodborne pathogen in four butcher shop environments, surface samples were obtained from employees' hands, cutting boards, knives, floor of the refrigeration room, meat grinders, and meat tenderizers (32 samples per area) and analyzed for Salmonella using the International Organization for Standardization method 6579, with modifications. Suspect isolates were identified by PCR (targeting ompC), and confirmed Salmonella isolates were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (after treatment with restriction enzyme XbaI), analyzed for the presence of virulence genes (invA, sefA, and spvC), and screened for resistance to 12 antimicrobials. Salmonella isolates was identified only on cutting boards (five samples) from three butcher shops. Fifteen isolates were confirmed as Salmonella belonging to four pulse types (similarity of 71.1 to 100%). The invA gene was detected in 13 isolates, and the sefA was found in 8 isolates; no isolate carried spvC. All tested isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sensitive to amikacin and cefotaxine, and all isolates were resistant to at least 3 of the 12 antimicrobials tested. The results indicate the importance of cutting boards as a source of Salmonella contamination in butcher shops. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains possessing virulence genes highlights the health risks for consumers.

  12. FREQUENCY OF Candida SPECIES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TRIANGULO MINEIRO, MINAS GERAIS STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    MENEZES, Ralciane de Paula; FERREIRA, Joseane Cristina; de SÁ, Walkiria Machado; MOREIRA, Tomaz de Aquino; MALVINO, Lucivânia Duarte Silva; de ARAUJO, Lucio Borges; RÖDER, Denise Von Dolinger de Brito; PENATTI, Mario Paulo Amante; CANDIDO, Regina Celia; PEDROSO, Reginaldo dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Infections by Candida species are a high-impact problem in public health due to their wide incidence in hospitalized patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate frequency, susceptibility to antifungals, and genetic polymorphism of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of hospitalized patients. The Candida isolates included in this study were obtained from blood cultures, abdominal fluids, and central venous catheters (CVC) of hospitalized patients at the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Uberlândia during the period of July 2010 - June 2011. Susceptibility tests were conducted by the broth microdilution method. The RAPD-PCR tests used employed initiator oligonucleotides OPA09, OPB11, and OPE06. Of the 63 Candida isolates, 18 (28.5%) were C. albicans, 20 (31.7%) were C. parapsilosis complex species, 14 (22.2%) C. tropicalis, four (6.4%) C. glabrata, four (6.4%) C. krusei, two (3.3%) C. kefyr, and one (1.6%) C. lusitaniae. In vitro resistance to amphotericin B was observed in 12.7% of isolates. In vitroresistance to azoles was not detected, except for C. krusei. The two primers, OPA09 and OPB11, were able to distinguish different species. Isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species presented six and five clusters, respectively, with the OPA09 marker by RAPD-PCR, showing the genetic variability of the isolates of those species. It was concluded that members of the C. parapsilosis complex were the most frequent species found, and most isolates were susceptible to the antifungals amphotericin B, flucozanole, and itraconazole. High genetic polymorphisms were observed for isolates of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complex species, mainly with the OPA09 marker. PMID:26200956

  13. Trends in animal rabies surveillance in the endemic state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Pastrana, Misael E; Oliveira, Camila S F; Capanema, Renato O; Nicolino, Rafael R; Oviedo-Socarras, Teresa J; Haddad, João Paulo A

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral zoonosis affecting mammal species and causes large economic losses. Included among the neglected diseases, it is still insufficiently addressed by governments and the international community, despite formal surveillance and control programs. This study used a dataset of 10,112 rabies diagnoses in animals provided by the Brazilian passive surveillance system from 2001 to 2012. The positivity rate of the tested samples was 26.4%, and a reduction in the total samples sent during the last six years was observed. The kernel density map indicated case concentration in the south region and a decrease in density of rabies cases in the second period studied (2007 to 2012). The directional trend of positive rabies diagnoses remained in the south region, as shown by the standard deviational ellipse. The spatial scan statistic identified three large clusters of positive diagnoses, one in the first period (2001-2006) and two in the second period (2007-2012), indicating an expansion of risk areas. The decrease in rabies cases from 2006 to 2012 does not necessarily reflect lower viral circulation or improvement in actions by epidemiological surveillance; this decrease could indicate a deficiency in epidemiological surveillance during the observation period due to the increase in the silent areas. Surveillance should maintain an increasing or constant number of tests during the years in addition to a reduction in the number of outbreaks of rabies, which would indicate a lower positivity rate. The findings in this study indicate deterioration in the effectiveness of the passive surveillance for rabies. The number of rabies cases, total number of tests performed and positivity rate are good indicators for evaluating passive surveillance. This paper can function as a guide for the assessment and improvement of the actions in passive surveillance of rabies.

  14. [Persistence of dengue symptoms in patients in Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana de Almeida Silva; Lopes, Juliana Salviano Mendonça; Martins, André Guilherme da Costa; Campos, Fernando Augusto Batista; Miranzi, Sybelle de Souza Castro; Nascentes, Gabriel Antônio Nogueira

    2010-03-01

    The clinical picture of dengue is characterized by a maximum duration of 14 days despite frequent complaints of longer symptoms. This study evaluated the occurrence of persistent symptoms (> 14 days) and its impact on daily life. A hundred eighteen patients were interviewed, and the main symptoms at diagnosis were mialgia (98.3%), fever (97.5%) and weakness (95.8%). The presence of at least a persistent symptom was related by 77 (65.2%) individuals of wich 10 (8.5%) described it as intense and lasting for 30 days or more. The most persistent symptoms mentioned were weakness (58 cases), hiporexia (49) and sleepiness (40), occurring mostly in women, with odds ratio: 5.4 (IC95%: 2.3-12.3). A significant association between the persistence of the symptoms and the history of extra expenses (p = 0,02) was found, as well as a delay to return to normal activities (p < 0.001). Thus, it was verified that dengue presented a relevant impact on every day life, even after 14 days, a fact wich was associated with the presence of persistent symptoms of the illness.

  15. Analysis of the Approach of Paleontology in Geography Textbooks in Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Emerson J. F.; Moura, Gerusa G.; dos A. Candeiro, Carlos R.

    2013-01-01

    The textbook is currently one of the driving instruments of teaching and learning. In the analysis of the contents of paleontology in geography textbooks, these books are important because they reveal problems embedded in these works and allow a more informed choice of books for the approach. In this work we performed an analysis of the approach…

  16. Archetype Development Process of Electronic Health Record of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Abreu Maia, Thais; Fernandes De Muylder, Cristiana; Mendonça Queiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    The Electronic Health Record (EHR) supports health systems and aims to reduce fragmentation, which will enable continuity of patient care. The paper's main objective is to define the steps, roles and artifacts for an archetype development process (ADP) for the EHR at the Brazilian National Health System (SUS) in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). This study was conducted using qualitative analysis based upon an applied case. It had an exploratory purpose metodologically defined in four stages: literature review; descriptive comparison; proposition of an archetype development process and proof of concept. The proof of concept showed that the proposed ADP ensures the archetype quality and supports the semantic interoperability in SUS to improve clinical safety and the continuity of patient care.

  17. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  18. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  19. [Dengue and its vectors in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dégallier, N; da Rosa, A P; Vasconcelos, P F; Figueiredo, L T; da Rosa, J F; Rodrigues, S G; da Rosa, E S

    1996-01-01

    History of dengue in Brazil is covered from the first citations in the XIXth century to the great outbreaks of the last ten years. DEN-1 and DEN-4 viruses have been isolated for the first time in 1982 during an epidemic in Boa Vista, Roraima State. In 1986-1987, epidemics of dengue type 1 covered an extended area from Rio de Janeiro/Sào Paulo States to the North East States of Brazil. During 1990-1991, dengue type 2 epidemics have been notified in the South East (Rio de Janeiro/São Paulo) and in some States of the interior of the country (Mato Grosso do Sul, Tocantins). DEN-1 virus was also circulating the same year in São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. Recently (1994), an important outbreak has been studied in Ceará State, where DEN-2 and DEN-1 viruses have been isolated. In Rio de Janeiro and Ceara (1990 and 1994, respectively), it is probably the succession of infections by DEN-1 and DEN-2 viruses which has caused many DHF/DSS cases. The urban vector has always been the mosquito Aedes aegypti, from which 4, 7 and 16 strains of DEN-4, DEN-1 and DEN-2 have been isolated, respectively. In Brazil, transovarial transmission of dengue viruses by this species has not yet been shown to occur in nature.

  20. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  1. Spotlight: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carter, M

    1996-08-01

    Brazil is South America's largest country and home to nearly half of the continent's people. Despite solid economic growth, Brazil has one of the world's widest income disparities. In the early 1990s, nearly 40% of urban and 66% of rural Brazilians lived in poverty. The streets of Brazil's cities are home to a large population of street children. Although it is difficult to estimate, 10 million children and youths may be either homeless or making a meager living off of the streets. Street children may be linked to prostitution and drugs and be the targets or perpetrators of violence. Child labor is an issue in Brazil. Today an estimated 30% of rural children and 9% of urban children ages 10-13 work in the formal economy. In some rural areas, 60% of workers are ages 5-17. Child labor also contributes to Brazil's relatively low educational attainment levels. UNICEF estimates that around 1990 only 1/3 of all Brazilian children continued on to secondary school, compared to 74% and 47%, respectively, for the Latin America and Caribbean regions. Immunization rates among Brazil's children are rising but still lag slightly behind regional averages. The mortality rate for children under age 5 decreased dramatically from 181 deaths for every 1000 live births in 1960 to 61/1000 in 1994. During the same time period, the average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime dropped from 6.2 to 2.8. This fertility decline is related in part to increased access to and acceptance of family planning. Contraceptive prevalence, including traditional and modern methods, is around 66%, with female sterilization and the pill being the most popular methods. Brazil's abortion rates are high, despite laws limiting access to abortion services. One estimate suggests that about 30% of all pregnancies are terminated through abortion each year.

  2. Legal and health variations in drug litigation injunctions granted in Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago Lopes; Ferré, Felipe; Campos, Orozimbo Henriques; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the factors related to the granting of preliminary court orders [injunctions] in drug litigations. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study of drug lawsuits in the State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil, was conducted from October 1999 to 2009. The database consists of 6,112 lawsuits, out of which 6,044 had motions for injunctions and 5,167 included the requisition of drugs. Those with more than one beneficiary were excluded, which totaled 5,072 examined suits. The variables for complete, partial, and suppressed motions were treated as dependent and assessed in relation to those that were independent – lawsuits (year, type, legal representation, defendant, court in which it was filed, adjudication time), drugs (level five of the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification), and diseases (chapter of the International Classification of Diseases). Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test. RESULTS Out of the 5,072 lawsuits with injunctions, 4,184 (82.5%) had the injunctions granted. Granting varied from 95.8% of the total lawsuits in 2004 to 76.9% in 2008. Where there was legal representation, granting exceeded 80.0% and in lawsuits without representation, it did not exceed 66.9%. In public civil actions (89.1%), granting was higher relative to ordinary lawsuits (82.8%) and injunctions (80.1%). Federal courts granted only 68.6% of the injunctions, while the state courts granted 84.8%. Diseases of the digestive system and neoplasms received up to 87.0% in granting, while diseases of the nervous system, mental and behavioral disorders, and diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue received granting below 78.6% and showed a high proportion of suspended injunctions (10.9%). Injunctions involving paroxetine, somatropin, and ferrous sulfate drugs were all granted, while less than 54.0% of those involving escitalopram, sodium diclofenac, and nortriptyline were granted. CONCLUSIONS There are significant differences in

  3. The role of human adenoviruses type 41 in acute diarrheal disease in Minas Gerais after rotavirus vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Thaís Aparecida Vieira; Assis, Andrêssa Silvino Ferreira; do Valle, Daniel Almeida; Barletta, Vívian Honorato; de Carvalho, Iná Pires; Rose, Tatiana Lundgren; Portes, Silvana Augusta Rodrigues; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; da Rosa e Silva, Maria Luzia

    2016-01-01

    Human adenovirus species F (HAdV-F) type 40 and 41 are commonly associated with acute diarrheal disease (ADD) across the world. Despite being the largest state in southeastern Brazil and having the second largest number of inhabitants, there is no information in the State of Minas Gerais regarding the role of HAdV-F in the etiology of ADD. This study was performed to determine the prevalence, to verify the epidemiological aspects of infection, and to characterize the strains of human adenoviruses (HAdV) detected. A total of 377 diarrheal fecal samples were obtained between January 2007 and August 2011 from inpatient and outpatient children of age ranging from 0 to 12 years. All samples were previously tested for rotavirus, norovirus, and astrovirus, and 314 of 377 were negative. The viral DNA was extracted, amplified using the polymerase chain reaction and the HAdV-positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using the Chi-square test (p < 0.05), considering two conditions: the total of samples tested (377) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (314). The overall prevalence of HAdV was 12.47% (47/377); and in 76.60% (36/47) of the positive samples, this virus was the only infectious agent detected. The phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of 32 positive samples revealed that they all clustered with the HAdV-F type 41. The statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between the onset of the HAdV infection and the origin of the samples (inpatients or outpatients) in the two conditions tested: the total of samples tested (p = 0.598) and the total of negative samples for the remaining viruses tested (p = 0.614). There was a significant association in the occurrence of infection in children aged 0–12 months for the condition 1 (p = 0.030) as well as condition 2 (p = 0.019). The occurrence of infections due to HAdV did not coincide with a pattern of seasonal

  4. Central Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) true-color image was acquired on October 19, 2000, over a region in Brazil large enough to show much of the country's diverse landscape. Spanning some 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles), Brazil is by far the largest South American nation--both in terms of land and population. The region known as the Amazon Basin lies to the northwest (upper left) and extends well beyond the northern and western edges of this scene. Typically, from this perspective Amazonia appears as a lush, dark green carpet due to the thick canopy of vegetation growing there. Some of the Amazon Basin is visible in this image, but much is obscured by clouds (bright white pixels), as is the Amazon River. This region is home to countless plant and animal species and some 150,000 native South Americans. The clusters of square and rectangular patterns toward the center of the image (light green or reddish-brown pixels) are where people have cleared away trees and vegetation to make room for development and agriculture. Toward the western side of the scene there is considerable haze and smoke from widespread biomass burning in parts of Brazil and Bolivia, which shares its eastern border with Brazil. Toward the east in this image is the highland, or 'cerrado,' region, which is more sparsely vegetated and has a somewhat drier climate than the Amazon Basin. The capital city, Brasilia, lies within this region just southwest of the Geral de Goias Mountains (orangish pixels running north-south). There are two large water reservoirs visible in this scene--the Sobradinho Reservoir about 800 km (500 miles) northeast of Brasilia, and the Paranaiba about 500 km (300 miles) southwest of Brasilia. MODIS flies aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. Image courtesy Brian Montgomery, Reto Stockli, and Robert Simmon, based on data from the MODIS Science Team.

  5. Genetic characterization of native and introduced populations of the neotropical cichlid genus Cichla in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Daniel Cardoso; de Oliveira, Denise Aparecida Andrade; Dos Santos, José Enemir; Teske, Peter; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda

    2009-07-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA and Control Region sequences from native and introduced populations was undertaken, in order to characterize the introduction of Cichla (peacock bass or tucunaré) species in Brazil. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes found in introduced fish from Minas Gerais state (southeastern Brazil) clustered only with those from native species of the Tocantins River (Cichla piquiti and C. kelberi), thereby suggesting a single or, at most, few translocation acts in this area, even though with fish from the same source-population. Our study contributes to an understanding of the introduction of Cichla in regions of Brazil outside the Amazon basin, and adds phylogenetic data to the recently describe Cichla species, endemic from the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. PMID:21637525

  6. Genetic characterization of native and introduced populations of the neotropical cichlid genus Cichla in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA and Control Region sequences from native and introduced populations was undertaken, in order to characterize the introduction of Cichla (peacock bass or tucunaré) species in Brazil. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes found in introduced fish from Minas Gerais state (southeastern Brazil) clustered only with those from native species of the Tocantins River (Cichla piquiti and C. kelberi), thereby suggesting a single or, at most, few translocation acts in this area, even though with fish from the same source-population. Our study contributes to an understanding of the introduction of Cichla in regions of Brazil outside the Amazon basin, and adds phylogenetic data to the recently describe Cichla species, endemic from the Tocantins-Araguaia basin. PMID:21637525

  7. A new species of Polystomoides ward, 1917 (Monogenea: polystomatidae) from freshwater chelonians (Testudines: chelidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiano M; Novelli, Iara A; Sousa, Bernadete M; de SouzaLima, Sueli

    2008-06-01

    This report describes the first occurrence of Polystomoides brasiliensis n. sp. (Monogenea: Polystomatidae), a new monogenean species in the buccal and pharyngeal cavities of the freshwater turtles in Brazil. Live monogeneans were collected from Hydromedusa maximiliani and Phrynops geoffroanus at the Mariano Procópio Museum's lake, in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Polystomoides brasiliensis differs from all other species of this genus in having 8-9 genital spines, except for Polystomoides uruguayensis, which has 8-10 genital spines. However, the new species differs morphometrically from P. uruguayensis in the greater size of the outer and inner hamuli, as well as having a testis that is proportionally greater than the pharynx and oral sucker. The current study is the first report of monogeneans in chelonians of Brazil, and the first record of helminths in H. maximiliani. PMID:18605799

  8. First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

    2010-05-01

    Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time. PMID:20163938

  9. A new species of Epicriopsis Berlese (Acari: Mesostigmata: Ameroseiidae) from Brazil, with a key to the world species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Narita, João Paulo Z; Moraes, Gilberto J De

    2016-01-01

    Epicriopsis atuberculatus n. sp. is described, based on the morphology of adult females and males collected from macaúba palms (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.; Arecaceae) in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. This is the first species of the genus described from the American continent, from where it has been rarely reported. A key to the world species of Epicriopsis is provided. PMID:27395142

  10. First report of Calyptospora sp. (Apicomplexa, Calyptosporidae) in forage characid fish from the Três Marias Reservoir, São Francisco Basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Marcia Cavalcanti; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marilia

    2010-05-01

    Coccidians are parasitic protozoans, and Calyptospora is an important genus of coccidia found in freshwater and marine fish of the Americas. This paper describes Calyptospora sp. that were found parasitizing the liver and intestine of Triportheus guentheri and the intestine of Tetragonopterus chalceus, two forage fish species from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Apicomplexa found in the São Francisco Basin are reported here for the first time.

  11. Commercial charcoal manufacture in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Rezende, M.E.; Lessa, A.; Pasa, V.; Sampaio, R.; Macedo, P.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is the only country where charcoal has a major industrial us. Almost 40% of the pig iron and all the ferroalloys produced in the country are based on it and were established near Minas Gerais iron ore deposits using non-sustainable farm charcoal. Since the 1980s charcoal production from large eucalyptus forests is gradually increasing, accounting for 40% of the 8 million tonnes produced in 1991. Farm charcoal is produced when native forests are slashed to give way to farm land. Adequate techniques, labor rights or environmental concerns are not common in this scenario. In large eucalyptus forests charcoal production has a different business approach. Several kinds of masonry ovens are used in both scenarios. Continuous carbonization kilns are not feasible yet because of their high capital cost. The search for a new cheapest design or for the upgrading of the carbonization byproducts is a must. Promising results are shown. Plastics and fine chemicals were already obtained from wood tar. The first Brazilian pilot plant for wood tar fractionation will be started by 9/93. Ironworks have different profiles. Some plants are up-to-date integrated mini-steelworks. Others are small producers of pig ingots. They have in common the need to face coke ironmaking route. Brazilian exports of charcoal based iron and steel products have attained the goal until now. Future charcoal competitiveness will not be so easy. Although expertises believe that coke prices can not stand low for long time it poses additional difficulty to the Brazilian charcoal ironmaker. Three scenarios projected for the future of charcoal ironmaking show that as long as charcoal production costs are properly managed, charcoal will be competitive with coke. The authors defend a common research program that looks for technologies suited to the Brazilian reality.

  12. Two ancient human genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Lao, Oscar; Schroeder, Hannes; Rasmussen, Morten; Raghavan, Maanasa; Moltke, Ida; Campos, Paula F; Sagredo, Francisca Santana; Rasmussen, Simon; Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Albrechtsen, Anders; Allentoft, Morten E; Johnson, Philip L F; Li, Mingkun; Reis, Silvia; Bernardo, Danilo V; DeGiorgio, Michael; Duggan, Ana T; Bastos, Murilo; Wang, Yong; Stenderup, Jesper; Moreno-Mayar, J Victor; Brunak, Søren; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Hodges, Emily; Hannon, Gregory J; Orlando, Ludovic; Price, T Douglas; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Nielsen, Rasmus; Heinemeier, Jan; Olsen, Jesper; Rodrigues-Carvalho, Claudia; Lahr, Marta Mirazón; Neves, Walter A; Kayser, Manfred; Higham, Thomas; Stoneking, Mark; Pena, Sergio D J; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the peopling of the Americas remains an important and challenging question. Here, we present (14)C dates, and morphological, isotopic and genomic sequence data from two human skulls from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, part of one of the indigenous groups known as 'Botocudos'. We find that their genomic ancestry is Polynesian, with no detectable Native American component. Radiocarbon analysis of the skulls shows that the individuals had died prior to the beginning of the 19th century. Our findings could either represent genomic evidence of Polynesians reaching South America during their Pacific expansion, or European-mediated transport.

  13. [Identification of a new focus of schistosoma mansoni. (Municipality of Nova Lima, MG, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guerra, H L; Guimarães, C T; França, M A; Rocha, R S; Katz, N

    1991-01-01

    The detection of a new transmission focus of schistosomiasis in Nova Lima town, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, is reported. The search of snail intermediate hosts in Banqueta do Bananal a small locality of Boa Vista neighbourhood detected 356 specimens of Biomphalaria glabrata, with a infection rate of 8.4%. In hundred-sixty-two patients stool examinations (Kato-Katz method) were done, showing ninety-one patients with eggs of Schistosoma mansoni in their feces. The integrated action of local residents and the local administration resulted in the elimination of the focus.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism among populations of Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier (Apidae: Meliponini) from southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rogelio R; Arias, Maria C; Moretto, Geraldo

    2009-01-01

    The geographical distribution of the Brazilian endemic stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata Lepeletier ranges from Rio Grande do Sul to Minas Gerais states. The objective of the present study was to verify mtDNA polymorphisms among samples of M. q. quadrifasciata collected in southern Brazil. Twenty nine colonies from three localities (Blumenau and Mafra/SC and Prudentópolis/ PR) were sampled. Seven mtDNA regions were amplified and further digested with 15 restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). Five composite haplotypes were identified, with two unique to samples from Prudentópolis and the remaining three to samples from Mafra and/or Blumenau. PMID:19488509

  15. Epidemiological Profile and Quality Indicators in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome in Northern Minas Gerais - Minas Telecardio 2 Project

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Bárbara Campos Abreu; Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Reis Júnior, Rasível dos Santos; França, Ana Luiza Nunes; Passos, Priscilla Fortes de Oliveira; Lemos, Thais Ribeiro; Antunes, Izabella de Oliveira; Ferreira, Camila Gonçalves; Antunes, André Pires; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-01-01

    Background: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of death in Brazil. In the Brazilian public health system, the in-hospital mortality associated with acute myocardial infarction is high. The Minas Telecardio 2 Project (Projeto Minas Telecardio 2) aims at implementing a myocardial infarction system of care in the Northern Region of Minas Gerais (MG) to decrease hospital morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cared for in the period that preceded the implementation of the system of care. Methods: Observational, prospective study of patients with ACS admitted between June 2013 and March 2014 to six emergency departments in Montes Claros, MG, and followed up until hospital discharge. Results: During the study period, 593 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of ACS (mean age 63 ± 12 years, 67.6% men), including 306 (51.6%) cases of unstable angina, 214 (36.0%) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and 73 (12.3%) of non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The total STEMI mortality was 21%, and the in-hospital mortality was 17.2%. In the STEMI patients, 46,0% underwent reperfusion therapy, including primary angioplasty in 88 and thrombolysis in six. Overall, aspirin was administered to 95.1% of the patients within 24 hours and to 93.5% at discharge, a P2Y12 inhibitor was administered to 88.7% participants within 24 hours and to 75.1% at discharge. A total of 73.1% patients received heparin within 24 hours. Conclusion: We observed a low reperfusion rate in patients with STEMI and limited adherence to the recommended ACS treatment in the Northern Region of MG. These observations enable opportunities to improve health care. PMID:27355471

  16. First record of Segonalia Young (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil including the description of S. machadoi sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2016-01-01

    Segonalia, a previously monotypic genus known from Bolivia, is newly recorded from Brazil and Paraguay based on specimens of S. steinbachi Young, 1977 from Minas Gerais State, Brazil and Paraguay and a new species from Piauí and Pará States, Brazil. Segonalia machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CZMA: Brasil, Piauí State, Parque Nacional de Sete Cidades, 04˚5'57"S, 41˚42'34"W 193 m a.s.l., 12.II.2013, D.M. Takiya leg.) can be distinguished from the type species by its body length and shape of the male pygofer apex and aedeagus. A diagnosis of Segonalia and comparative notes and illustrations of the type species are given. PMID:27395968

  17. Military Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haussman, Fay

    1974-01-01

    A large share of the credit for Brazil's recent progress must go to Brazil's highly structured military education, including the colegios militares (high schools), the military colleges, and the general staff schools. (Author/PG)

  18. Recent studies on UV radiation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa, M. P.; Ceballos, J. C.; Moregula, A.; Okuno, E.; Fausto, A.; Mol, A.; Santos, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    This presentation shows a summary of UV index measurements performed in the last years in Southeastern (SE) and Northeastern (NE) Brazilian regions. Brazil has an area of 8.5 million km2 distributed between latitudes 5˚ N and 35˚ S and longitudes 5˚ W and 75˚ W. SE is the most important economic pole of South America and the NE coast is an important tourist region. This large area has a great diversity of climatic, atmospheric and geographical conditions in addition to very diverse social and cultural habits. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is an epidemiological health problem with more than 120,000 new cases each year. The most of these cases are found in the South and Southeast regions, with about 70 new NMSC per 100,000 inhabitants. Solar Light UV501 biometers are installed in the SE cities of São Paulo (23.6˚ S, 46.7˚ W, 865 m ASL), Itajubá/Minas Gerais (22.4˚ S; 45.5˚ W, 846 m ASL) and the NE city of Ilhéus/Bahia (14.8˚ S; 39.3˚ W; 54 m ASL). First measurements began in 2005 in São Paulo city, while Itajubá and Ilhéus have regular measurements from the beginning of 2008. Other studies related to the UV radiation modeling and interactions with atmosphere components, as ozone, aerosols and clouds, have also been performed. For example: a) UVI modelling calculations performed by a multiple-scattering spectral models; b) studies on the aerosol radiative properties based on satellite (MODIS/Terra-Aqua) and ground-based (Aeronet) observation; c) ozone content variability from satellite (OMI/Aura) and ground-based (Microtops ozonometer) measurements; d) behavioral profile of the population, as regarding habits of solar exposure and sun protection measures. Results show that more than 75% of the measurements conducted in the summer (outside noon) can be classified as upper than high UVI according to World Health Organization (WHO) recommended categories: Low (UVI < 2), Medium (3 ? UVI < 6), High (6 ? UVI < 8), Very High (8 ? UVI

  19. Biochemical Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vella, F.

    1988-01-01

    Described are discussions held concerning the problems of biochemical education in Brazil at a meeting of the Sociedade Brazileira de Bioquimica in April 1988. Also discussed are other visits that were made to universities in Brazil. Three major recommendations to improve the state of biochemistry education in Brazil are presented. (CW)

  20. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease in pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Gasparini, Marcela R; Sales, Érica B; Rivetti, Anselmo V; Sousa, Natália M; Oliveira, Anapolino M; Camargos, Marcelo F; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Tatiana F; Gonçalves, Junia P M; Madureira, Marieta C; Ribeiro, Damaso P; Marcondes, Ivone V; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F; Fonseca, Antônio A

    2016-10-01

    Senecavirus A (SV-A) may cause vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in pigs, and was first detected in Brazil in 2015. Samples including tissues and serum from pigs with suspected vesicular diseases were collected from January to August in 2015 from farms in the states of Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, Goiás and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and tested for the presence of SV-A by reverse transcriptase PCR. All samples were negative for foot and mouth disease virus, as well as 13 other infectious agents associated with vesicular diseases in pigs. SV-A was detected by PCR in 65/265 (24.5%) specimens. A 530 base pair fragment sequenced from the VP1 protein coding region indicated a high genetic distance from SV-A in other countries, but a common origin among the Brazilian isolates.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of senecavirus A associated with vesicular disease in pigs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laguardia-Nascimento, Mateus; Gasparini, Marcela R; Sales, Érica B; Rivetti, Anselmo V; Sousa, Natália M; Oliveira, Anapolino M; Camargos, Marcelo F; Pinheiro de Oliveira, Tatiana F; Gonçalves, Junia P M; Madureira, Marieta C; Ribeiro, Damaso P; Marcondes, Ivone V; Barbosa-Stancioli, Edel F; Fonseca, Antônio A

    2016-10-01

    Senecavirus A (SV-A) may cause vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in pigs, and was first detected in Brazil in 2015. Samples including tissues and serum from pigs with suspected vesicular diseases were collected from January to August in 2015 from farms in the states of Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, Goiás and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and tested for the presence of SV-A by reverse transcriptase PCR. All samples were negative for foot and mouth disease virus, as well as 13 other infectious agents associated with vesicular diseases in pigs. SV-A was detected by PCR in 65/265 (24.5%) specimens. A 530 base pair fragment sequenced from the VP1 protein coding region indicated a high genetic distance from SV-A in other countries, but a common origin among the Brazilian isolates. PMID:27687954

  3. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L) to the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and methoprene in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juliana Junqueira de; Mendes, Júlio

    2007-01-01

    Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) was reared in several concentrations of diflubenzuron and methoprene under laboratory conditions in Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Characteristics such as LC50 and LC95, the susceptibility of immature stages of different ages to these insect growth regulators and their residual effects were studied. The LC50 and LC95 of diflubenzuron and methoprene were 5.19 and 12.24 ppb; 19.95 and 72.08 ppb, respectively. While diflubenzuron caused great mortality in all larval instars, methoprene was more effective when the mosquito was exposed from the start of the fourth larval instar onwards. Commercial concentrations of these two insect growth regulators close to LC95 presented greater residual activity than did their respective technical formulations. The parameters were compared with those obtained elsewhere. The characteristics investigated here indicate that these insect growth regulators are effective alternatives for controlling the dengue vector in the Uberlândia region.

  4. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city.

  5. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  6. Estimation of the degree of soil P saturation from Brazilian Mehlich-1 P data and field investigations on P losses from agricultural sites in Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Fischer, P; Pöthig, R; Gücker, B; Venohr, M

    2016-01-01

    The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of agricultural soils is studied worldwide for risk assessment of phosphorus (P) losses. In previous studies, DPS could be reliably estimated from water-soluble P (WSP) for European and Brazilian soils. In the present study, we correlated measured WSP and Mehlich-1 P (M1P) from soils of Minas Gerais (MG) and Pernambuco (PE) (R(2) = 0.94, n = 59) to create a DPS map from monitoring data. The resulting DPS map showed high spatial variability and low values of DPS (54 ± 22%, mean and standard deviation; n = 1,827). Measured soil DPS values amounted to 63 ± 14% and resulted in relatively low dissolved P concentrations measured in a surface runoff study in MG. However, fertilizer grains on the soil surface led to high WSP values (>30 mg/kg) indicating high risks of dissolved P losses. We suppose that small Oxisol particles with Fe and Al hydroxides sorbed most of the dissolved fertilizer P in runoff so that P was mainly exported in particulate form. In soils with lower contents of P sorption and binding partners, e.g. Entisols in PE, this effect may be less dominant. Consequently, superficial fertilizer effects have to be considered in addition to DPS in risk assessment of P losses from agricultural areas in Brazil. PMID:27508374

  7. Human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in an emerging focus in Araçuaí, Minas Gerais: spatial distribution and socio-environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Ursine, Renata Luiz; Dias, João Victor Leite; Morais, Harriman Aley; Pires, Herton Helder Rocha

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse the spatial distribution of human (2007-2013) and canine (2013) visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the city of Araçuaí, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and identify the socio-environmental factors related to their occurrence. The spatial distribution of human and canine cases was analysed by kernel density estimation (KDE) and the K function. The KDE values were analysed for correlation between human and canine LV and for normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Socio-environmental aspects of household structures and surroundings were evaluated. The spatial distribution of human and canine VL cases exhibited a significant aggregated pattern in distances greater than 350 and 75 m, respectively. The higher occurrence of human and canine infection occurred in the central area of the city. A positive correlation between the densities of human and canine cases was observed, as well as a negative correlation between NDVI and densities of human and canine cases. Socio-environmental analysis revealed that the large amount of animals, organic material from trees and deficiencies in environmental sanitation are possibly contributing to the continuation of the transmission cycle of Leishmania infantum in Araçuaí. These results can contribute to the planning by competent agencies to reduce the incidence of infection in the city. PMID:27384080

  8. New records and human parasitism by Ornithodoros mimon (Acari: Argasidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Marcili, Arlei; Ogrzewalska, Maria; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Fernandes, André A; Leite, Romario C; Venzal, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    The bat tick Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones is currently known by only few reports in Bolivia, Uruguay, Argentina, and the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. Here, we expand the distribution of O. mimon in Brazil to the states of Minas Gerais (southeastern region), Goiás (central-western), Pernambuco, and Rio Grande do Norte (northeastern). Ticks were collected on human dwellings, where there had been repeated complains of tick bites on persons during the night. Tick bites were generally followed by intense inflammatory reactions that lasted for several weeks at the bite site. Bats and opossums were reported to inhabit the attic of the infested houses. In addition, a free-ranging opossum (Didelphis albiventris Lund) trapped in Rio Grande do Norte was found infested by argasid larvae. Based on morphological and/or molecular analysis, all ticks were identified as O. mimon. From one of the sites (Tiradentes, state of Minas Gerais), 20 field-collected nymphs were tested by a battery of polymerase chain reaction protocols targeting tick-borne microorganisms of the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Rickettsia, Borrelia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Coxiella; no tick specimen was found infected by any of these microorganism genera. The current study expands northwards the distribution of O. mimon, which has been shown to be very harmful to humans because of the intense inflammatory response that usually occurs after tick bites. PMID:24605480

  9. Manaus, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The junctions of the Amazon and the Rio Negro Rivers at Manaus, Brazil. The Rio Negro flows 2300 km from Columbia, and is the dark current forming the north side of the river. It gets its color from the high tannin content in the water. The Amazon is sediment laden, appearing brown in this simulated natural color image. Manaus is the capital of Amazonas state, and has a population in excess of one million. The ASTER image covers an area of 60 x 45 km. This image was acquired on July 16, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation

  10. Orchid bee fauna (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossina) of Atlantic Forest fragments inside an urban area in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nemésio, André; Silveira, Fernando A

    2007-01-01

    Male orchid bees were collected by chemical baiting in four forest fragments in parks of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. One thousand three hundred and twenty-five males belonging to 14 species were captured within one year. The capture data were compared through correlation tests. The data suggest that abundance of orchid bees tend to increase with fragment size, although no correlation between species richness and fragment size was obtained. The results presented herein suggest that forest fragments in a large city may be of importance concerning conservation of orchid-bee faunas.

  11. Paracrias pluteus (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) in Brazil: new distribution and host records, and with a new host group for Paracrias

    PubMed Central

    Pikart, Tiago G.; Souza, Gabriely K.; Costa, Valmir A.; Hansson, Christer; Zanuncio, José C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Bruchines damage agricultural crops and trees, reducing the quantity and quality of the seeds. The aim of this study is to record, for the first time, Paracrias pluteus as a parasitoid on the immature stages of Sennius spodiogaster and Sennius cupreatus on seeds of Melanoxylon brauna in Teixeiras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Paracrias pluteus is a parasitoid without previous host records and known only from Costa Rica. Specimens obtained in this study add to knowledge of the biology of Paracrias species with a new host group (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), and the first host record and a new distribution for Paracrias pluteus. PMID:21747676

  12. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics – dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  13. A new highly specialized cave harvestman from Brazil and the first blind species of the genus: Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. (Arachnida, Opiliones, Gonyleptidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto-da-Rocha, Ricardo; da Fonseca-Ferreira, Rafael; Bichuette, Maria Elina

    2015-01-01

    A new species of troglobitic harvestman, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n., is described from Toca do Geraldo, Monjolos municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is distinguished from the other two species of the genus by four exclusive characteristics - dorsal scutum areas with conspicuous tubercles, enlarged retrolateral spiniform tubercle on the distal third of femur IV, eyes absent and the penial ventral process slender and of approximately the same length of the stylus. The species is the most highly modified in the genus and its distribution is restricted only to caves in that particular area of Minas Gerais state. The type locality is not inside a legally protected area, and there are anthropogenic impacts in its surroundings. Therefore, Iandumoema smeagol sp. n. is vulnerable and it must be considered in future conservation projects. PMID:26798238

  14. The Statherian itabirite-bearing sequence from the Morro Escuro Ridge, Santa Maria de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveira Braga, Flávia Cristina; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Queiroga, Gláucia Nascimento; Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal Jesse

    2015-03-01

    The itabirite-bearing metasedimentary sequence from Morro Escuro Ridge comprises the basal units of the Espinhaço Supergroup and makes up a small tectonic inlier developed during one of the Brasiliano orogenic events (800-500 Ma), amongst horses of the Archean TTG gneisses, including sheared granites of the anorogenic Borrachudos Suite (˜1700 Ma). The metasedimentary rocks are comprised of low-to intermediate-amphibolite facies schists, quartzites, conglomerates and banded iron formation (itabirite) correlatable with the sequences of the Serro Group, which underlies the metasedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup in the Serra da Serpentina Ridge. A maximum Statherian deposition age (1668 Ma) was established using SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic constraints on zircon grains from conglomerate and quartzite units overlying the itabirite. The itabirite is predominantly hematitic and its geochemical characteristics are typical of a Lake Superior-type BIF deposited in a platformal, suboxic to anoxic environment distant from Fe-bearing hydrothermal vents. Close to the contact zone with amphibolites of the Early Neoproterozoic Pedro Lessa mafic suite, an increase of the magnetite content and crystallization of metasomatic Mg-hornblende and Ce-allanite can be observed. These mineralogical changes developed preferentially along the igneous contact zone but are probably co-genetic with the formation of alteration haloes in zircon grains during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny (506 ± 6 Ma).

  15. Longitudinal analysis of antigen specific response in individuals with Schistosoma mansoni infection in an endemic area of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Matoso, Leonardo Ferreira; Oliveira-Prado, Roberta; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; LoVerde, Philip T.; Kloos, Helmut; Gazzinelli, Andréa; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Background Immunoepidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between IgE and IgG4 antibodies with age and with resistance and susceptibility to infection. It is believed that the IgE and IgG4 responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) can be used for serological analysis of infection and post-treatment status. This study aimed to evaluate the association between Schistosoma mansoni infection and anti-SEA IgG4 and IgE reactivities, and determine whether these reactivities could be used as biomarkers of infection. Methods Between 2001 and 2009, a longitudinal study was performed in which parasitologic and blood specimens and socioeconomic and water-contact information were collected from 127 individuals. All patients positive for S. mansoni infection were treated. Results Schistosomiasis prevalence and the geometric mean of the egg count in 2001 were 59% and 61.05, respectively, decreasing to 26.8% and 8.78 in 2009. IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity in infected individuals was significantly higher than that in uninfected individuals at all time points. Analysis of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) area showed that the IgG4 anti-SEA antibodies were able to predict infection by S. mansoni at each time point. Conclusion IgG4 anti-SEA reactivity can be used as a biomarker for immune monitoring of the presence of infection with S. mansoni in endemic areas. PMID:24189480

  16. Heavy Metals and Histopathological Alterations in Salminus franciscanus (Lima & Britski, 2007) (Pisces: Characiformes) in the Paraopeba River, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savassi, Lourenço Almeida; Arantes, Fabio Pereira; Gomes, Marcos Vinicius Teles; Bazzoli, Nilo

    2016-04-01

    Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Hg, and Fe in the liver, spleen and muscle, of the fish Salminus franciscanus, from two sections of Paraopeba River, highly affected by anthropogenic influences, was detected in levels above those recommended for human consumption. Positive correlations between fish size and levels of metals were detected for Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn. In the livers, areas with lipid accumulation and pigmented macrophages were also observed, as was fibrosis of the spleen in the parenchymal area through the presence of pigmented macrophages. The diameter of vitellogenic follicles was less and the frequency of atresia was higher in fish from section A. Thus, our study showed that beyond the risk to the population that eats S. franciscanus from the Paraopeba River, we should also consider the risk to the conservation of this species, since histopathological changes were detected in target organs and in some reproductive parameters.

  17. Diamonds from the Espinhaço Range (Minas Gerais, Brazil) and their redistribution through the geologic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, M. L. S. C.; Karfunkel, J.; Hoppe, A.; Hoover, D. B.

    2001-07-01

    Diamond-bearing deposits from the Espinhaço Range are associated with three distinct periods in the geologic record. During a Precambrian magmatic period (≥1.75 Ga), diamondiferous rocks were introduced into the crust; the location of these rocks remains an enigma. During a second period, diamonds were eroded from the primary rocks and deposited in the Mesoproterozoic Espinhaço basin (≅1.75-1.70 Ga), where several generations of reworking and diagenisis are suggested. The third period is the Phanerozoic, during which several more episodes of reworking occurred. The first was during the Eocretaceous uplift of the range, when Precambrian conglomerates were partially eroded and diamonds redeposited in fluvial systems. These deposits have little economic significance because of overlying Tertiary laterites. Renewed upheaval at the Neogene formed diamondiferous fanglomeratic deposits as a result of the pronounced relief. Quaternary climate cycling developed colluvial deposits on earlier formed occurrences. Fanglomeratic and colluvial deposits are worked where the adjacent Proterozoic or Cretaceous sources produced widespread diamond-bearing gravels. Finally, recent river systems have reworked all the earlier sources to produce economic gravels in some places. Although these recent gravels are low grade, they are a major diamond source because of the large reserves. The mineralogical characteristics of these diamonds reflect the long history and repeated reworking of the source deposits, and the geologic history of the region points towards an extra-basinal source area, probably to the west within the São Francisco Craton. This repeated reworking has resulted in a natural selection of the diamonds that eliminated low-quality stones in the journey to their final resting place.

  18. Geological-structural interpretation using products of remote sensing in the region of Carrancas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; Dosanjos, C. E.; Barbosa, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency of some criteria developed for the utilization of small scale and low resolution remote sensing products to map geological and structural features was demonstrated. Those criteria were adapted from the Logical Method of Photointerpretation which consists of textural qualitative analysis of landforms and drainage net patterns. LANDSAT images of channel 5 and 7, 4 LANDSAT-RBV scenes, and 1 radar mosiac were utilized. The region of study is characterized by supracrustal metassediments (quartzites and micaschist) folded according to a "zig-zag" pattern and gnaissic basement. Lithological-structural definition was considered outstanding when compared to data acquired during field work, bibliographic data and geologic maps acquired in larger scales.

  19. Evaluation of MODIS-LAI products in the tropical dry secondary forest of Mata Seca, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamarte Loreto, Payri Alejandra

    Leaf Area Index (LAI) advances scientific knowledge of the role of secondary forests in forest area conservation. MODIS-LAI products provide an alternative, efficient and cost-effective method for measuring LAI in Tropical Dry Forests (TDFs). The performance of MODIS-LAI satellite products in a TDF was studied as a function of successional stages by (1) estimating seasonal LAI variations compared to in situ LAI values (2) using dry season MODIS-LAI products to estimate Woody Area Index (WAI) (3) estimating phenology changes through comparisons to in situ data. The study demonstrates (1) MODIS-LAI product showed agreement with in situ values with increasing successional stage. (2) MODIS-LAI product showed best agreement to in situ WAI values in the intermediate successional stage. (3) TIMESAT analysis indicated that MODIS-LAI products detected start-of-season 1-2 weeks before in situ values and end-of-season 20-30 days after in situ values, indicating that MODIS-LAI product captures canopy leafing, but is not suitable for detecting senescence. Keywords: Leaf Area Index, Validation, MODIS, Woody Area Index, Phenology, Tropical Secondary Forest Succession, Hemispherical Photography, LAI-2000,.

  20. Prevalence and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profile of Candida spp. Clinical Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves-Junior, Athayde; Cartágenes-Pinto, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Débora A S; de Sá, Leandro F Reis; Junqueira, Maria de Lourdes; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis has become an important concern for clinical practice, especially with the increasing incidence of immunocompromised patients. In this scenario, the development resistance to fluconazole presents a challenge for treating these opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiology features of Candida infections in a Brazilian University Hospital using data, previously unavailable. We observed that 44% of the 93 clinical isolates tested, belonged to Candida albicans species and 56% belonged to non-Candida albicans species (mainly Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata). Most strains were isolated from urine samples where C. albicans was predominantly detected. 29 strains presented a fluconazole resistance phenotype and of these, 22 were chemosensitised by FK506, a classical inhibitor of ABC transporters related to azoles resistance. These data suggest the probable role of efflux pumps in this resistance phenotype. Our study highlights the need for developing effective control measures for fungal infections, rational use of antifungal drugs and development of new molecules able to abrogate the active transport of antifungals.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Soil Moisture Behavior in a Headwater Watershed of the Mantiqueira Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture is highly relevant in watersheds for understanding the many hydrological and erosion processes, to better model the processes and apply them to conservation planning. The goal of this study was to map soil moisture of the surf...

  2. [First notification of Eimeria bareillyi (Apicomplexa: Eimeridae) in feces of buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) naturally infected in Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Bastianetto, Eduardo; Freitas, Carolina M V; Bello, Ana Cristina P P; Cunha, Arildo P; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C; Leite, Romário C

    2008-09-01

    In this study the evolution of Eimeriosis in naturally infected calves was analyzed during 23 days starting at birth. The specie E. bareillyi was first identified in feces culture. Later other species of Eimeria already described in water buffalo were identified. The animals which died were submitted to necropsy, revealing macroscopic lesions in the ileum region. Histological analyses of the ileum region showed acute necrotic enteritis and the presence of Eimeria sp. in different developmental stages. Early infection by this parasite could be responsible for a secondary bacterial infection trough the intestinal lesions. The utilization of prophylactic medication and the therapeutic treatment of clinical Coccidiosis in water buffalo calves are necessary to their satisfactory development and surveillance.

  3. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  4. Seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus.

    PubMed

    Valdespino, Iván A; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We describe seven new species of Selaginellasubg.Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaalstonii, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucronata, Selaginellamucugensis, Selaginellasaltuicola, and Selaginellasematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginellaalstonii and Selaginellasaltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, and Selaginellamucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginellaalstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginellamucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginellasaltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginellasematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginellaalstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginellablepharodella, Selaginellacrinita, Selaginellamucugensis, and Selaginellasematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginellamucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginellasaltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginellasematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new synonymy for Selaginellapalmiformis

  5. Seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginellaceae) from Brazil and new synonyms for the genus

    PubMed Central

    Valdespino, Iván A.; Heringer, Gustavo; Salino, Alexandre; Góes-Neto, Luiz A. de Araújo; Ceballos, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We describe seven new species of Selaginella subg. Stachygynandrum (Selaginella alstonii, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucronata, Selaginella mucugensis, Selaginella saltuicola, and Selaginella sematophylla) from Brazil and discuss their possible affinities and conservation status. Scanning electron micrographs of stem sections, leaves, and spores are provided to illustrate the new taxa. In Selaginella alstonii and Selaginella saltuicola vegetative growth from strobilus tips is reported and discussed. Four of the new species are from the Espinhaço Mountain Range associated with Campos Rupestres (montane savannah/rocky fields) vegetation. Three of these (i.e., Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, and Selaginella mucugensis) were collected in the northern part of the range in Chapada Diamantina, state of Bahia, while Selaginella alstonii is from the southern part of the range in the state of Minas Gerais. Selaginella mucronata is found in Atlantic Rainforest vegetation in the state of Espírito Santo, whereas Selaginella saltuicola inhabits Cerrado (tropical savannah) vegetation in the state of Mato Grosso. Selaginella sematophylla is the most widely distributed of the new species and was collected in Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states in Campos Rupestres and Atlantic Rainforest vegetation. Selaginella alstonii occurs in rocky caves, Selaginella blepharodella, Selaginella crinita, Selaginella mucugensis, and Selaginella sematophylla seem adapted to seasonally dry places, living on sandy or humid soils, Selaginella mucronata occupies humid, forest understory, and Selaginella saltuicola is adapted to wet places associated with rocks or logs in waterfalls. Of the seven new species, six are considered local endemics (except for Selaginella sematophylla) because of their restricted currently known distributions to one or two localities within a single state in Brazil. Additionally, we propose new

  6. Bayesian Geostatistical Modeling of Leishmaniasis Incidence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Scholte, Ronaldo G. C.; Guimarães, Luiz H.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries with an estimated 350 million people at risk and approximately 2 million cases annually. Brazil is one of the most severely affected countries. Methodology We applied Bayesian geostatistical negative binomial models to analyze reported incidence data of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil covering a 10-year period (2001–2010). Particular emphasis was placed on spatial and temporal patterns. The models were fitted using integrated nested Laplace approximations to perform fast approximate Bayesian inference. Bayesian variable selection was employed to determine the most important climatic, environmental, and socioeconomic predictors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Principal Findings For both types of leishmaniasis, precipitation and socioeconomic proxies were identified as important risk factors. The predicted number of cases in 2010 were 30,189 (standard deviation [SD]: 7,676) for cutaneous leishmaniasis and 4,889 (SD: 288) for visceral leishmaniasis. Our risk maps predicted the highest numbers of infected people in the states of Minas Gerais and Pará for visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our spatially explicit, high-resolution incidence maps identified priority areas where leishmaniasis control efforts should be targeted with the ultimate goal to reduce disease incidence. PMID:23675545

  7. The rate of recurrent BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 mutations in the general population, and unselected ovarian cancer cases, in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Schayek, Hagit; De Marco, Luiz; Starinsky-Elbaz, Sigal; Rossette, Mariana; Laitman, Yael; Bastos-Rodrigues, Luciana; da Silva Filho, Agnaldo Lopes; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, several recurring mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and a TP53 mutation (R337H) have been reported in high risk breast cancer cases. We hypothesized that these recurring mutations may also be detected in the general population and ovarian cancer cases in the state of Minas Gerais. To test this notion, participants were recruited from the outpatient and the Gynecological clinic in the UFMG Medical Center in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. BRCA1 (c.68_69delAG, c.5266dupC, c.181T>G, c.4034delA, c.5123C>A), BRCA2 (c.5946delT, c.8537_8538delAG, 4936_4939delGAAA), the c.156_157insAlu* BRCA2 and the c.1010G>A *TP53 mutation were genotyped using validated techniques. Overall, 513 cancer free participants (273 men) (mean age 47.7 ± 15.1 years) and 103 ovarian cancer cases (mean age at diagnosis 58.7 ± 9.6 years) were studied. None of the participants were found to carry any of the genotyped mutations. We conclude that the recurring mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 cannot be detected in the general population or consecutive ovarian cancer cases in this geographical region in Brazil.

  8. Assessment of performance of professionals in immunohematology proficiency tests of the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais

    PubMed Central

    Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Ângela Melgaço; de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Souza, Helio Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite significant advances, the practice of blood transfusion is still a complex process and subject to risks. Factors that influence the safety of blood transfusion include technical skill and knowledge in hemotherapy mainly obtained by the qualification and training of teams. Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between professional categories working in transfusion services of the public blood bank network in the State of Minas Gerais and their performance in proficiency tests. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study (2007-2008) performed using a specific instrument, based on evidence and the results of immunohematology proficiency tests as mandated by law. Results The error rates in ABO and RhD phenotyping, irregular antibody screening and cross-matching were 12.5%, 9.6%, 43.8% and 20.1%, respectively. When considering the number of tests performed, the error rates were 4.6%, 4.2%, 26.7% and 11.0%, respectively. The error rates varied for different professional categories: biochemists, biologists and biomedical scientists (65.0%), clinical pathology technicians (44.1%) and laboratory assistants, nursing technicians and assistant nurses (74.6%). A statistically significant difference was observed when the accuracy of clinical pathology technicians was compared with those of other professionals with only high school education (p-value < 0.001). This was not seen for professionals with university degrees (p-value = 0.293). Conclusion These results reinforce the need to invest in training, improvement of educational programs, new teaching methods and tools for periodic evaluations, contributing to increase transfusion safety and improve hemotherapy in Brazil. PMID:23049397

  9. Uranium deposits of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    Brazil is a country of vast natural resources, including numerous uranium deposits. In support of the country`s nuclear power program, Brazil has developed the most active uranium industry in South America. Brazil has one operating reactor (Angra 1, a 626-MWe PWR), and two under construction. The country`s economic challenges have slowed the progress of its nuclear program. At present, the Pocos de Caldas district is the only active uranium production. In 1990, the Cercado open-pit mine produced approximately 45 metric tons (MT) U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (100 thousand pounds). Brazil`s state-owned uranium production and processing company, Uranio do Brasil, announced it has decided to begin shifting its production from the high-cost and nearly depleted deposits at Pocos de Caldas, to lower-cost reserves at Lagoa Real. Production at Lagoa Real is schedules to begin by 1993. In addition to these two districts, Brazil has many other known uranium deposits, and as a whole, it is estimated that Brazil has over 275,000 MT U{sub 3}O{sub 8} (600 million pounds U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) in reserves.

  10. A new species of Neocarus Chamberlin & Mulaik, 1942 (Opilioacarida, Opilioacaridae) from Brazil, with remarks on its postlarval development

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Klompen, Hans; Zacarias, Mauricio Sergio; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Neocarus proteus sp. n., is described from caves and the surrounding epigean environment of ferruginous outcrops (Cangas) in Minas Gerais, Brazil. In addition, some notes about development in this species are presented. Neocarus proteus is the only species in the genus that has smooth or barbed genital setae and that carries coronidia on the basitarsi, tibiae and genua of legs II–III. Females carry additional setae with rounded tips on the subcapitulum, and are, on average, larger than males. This distinct sexual dimorphism appears in the tritonymphal instar and is maintained in the adults. PMID:24363585

  11. Genetic characterization of cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces in Brazil assessed with simple sequence repeats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Based on nine microsatellite loci, the aim of this study was to appraise the genetic diversity of 42 cassava (Manihot esculenta) landraces from selected regions in Brazil, and examine how this variety is distributed according to origin in several municipalities in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Amazonas and Mato Grosso. High diversity values were found among the five above-mentioned regions, with 3.3 alleles per locus on an average, a high percentage of polymorphic loci varying from 88.8% to 100%, an average of 0.265 for observed heterozygosity and 0.570 for gene diversity. Most genetic diversity was concentrated within the regions themselves (HS = 0.52). Cluster analysis and principal component based scatter plotting showed greater similarity among landraces from São Paulo, Mato Grosso do Sul and Amazonas, whereas those from Minas Gerais were clustered into a sub-group within this group. The plants from Mato Grosso, mostly collected in the municipality of General Carneiro, provided the highest differentiation. The migration of human populations is one among the possible reasons for this closer resemblance or greater disparity among plants from the various regions. PMID:21637653

  12. 2,000,000 Electrocardiograms by Distance: An Outstanding Achievement for Telehealth in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcolino, Milena Soriano; Alkmim, Maria Beatriz Moreira; Bonisson, Leonardo; Minelli Figueira, Renato; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to describe the evolution of the telediagnostic service of the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais (TNMG), a public telehealth service in Brazil. It started in 2006 with 82 cities, restricted to electrocardiography analysis. Currently it extends to 772 cities--performing also Holter, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and retinography analysis--and 48 ambulances in the north of the state, as part of a myocardial infarction system of care. Using low-cost equipment and simple technology, TNMG has employed various strategies to increase telehealth use. The number of ECGs performed by TNMG has progressively increased. It was expected to achieve 2 million in February 2015. The utilization rates were around 90%. It proved to be economically sound, promoting savings of 45M USD for an investment of 10.2M USD. It is currently a regular health service in the state, integrated into the healthcare system. In conclusion, the telehealth model developed in Minas Gerais produced good clinical and economical results.

  13. Co-circulation in a single biome of the Juquitiba and Araraquara hantavirus detected in human sera in a sub-tropical region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Jansen; Duré, Ana I L; Negrão, Raquel; Ometto, Tatiana; Thomazelli, Luciano M; Durigon, Edison Luiz

    2015-05-01

    Hantaviruses is an emerging infectious disease. Although HCPS has been reported in several regions of Brazil, more cases of HCPS have recently been reported in Minas Gerais than in any other state. In 2009, we analyzed 27 samples presenting antibodies against hantaviruses. These samples originated from 688 symptomatic patients, as determined based on the Hemorrhagic Fever Protocol. A subsequent SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR demonstrated the presence of the virus in 22 of the samples. Among the RT-PCR-positive samples, 17 were analyzed using DNA sequencing; these sequences were compared with others deposited in GenBank and showed similarity with the Araraquara and Juquitiba virus clusters. This work describe the detection of Juquitiba virus, including three fatal cases, in Minas Gerais state, furthermore, showed that it is feasible to characterize the circulating strains using a small fragment of S segment. Finally, the results suggest the co-circulation of Araraquara and Juquitiba virus in a single biome in Minas Gerais state.

  14. Brazil: Xingu River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... title:  Fire and Deforestation near the Xingu River     View Larger Image Numerous fires occurred near the headwaters of the Xingu River and the Xingu Indigenous Peoples' Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, during ...

  15. Social Studies in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the role of social studies in transmitting the cultural heritage of Brazil. Includes descriptions of Brazilian culture and the educational structure. Journal availability: see SO 506 831. (AV)

  16. [Another Dante's inferno in a gold mine during the Vargas era: Nova Lima, Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Maia, Andréa Casa Nova

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the control strategies in place at Morro Velho mine in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, and the changes after the implementation of labor legislation during the Vargas administration. The diseases common amongst mine workers, silicosis and arsenicosis, are investigated through statements given by former miners and a book by an anonymous author that discusses the diseases and the power relations between employers and employees, identifying the limitations of the legislation and the workers' struggles. The book presents a striking story of how for many years the British company side-stepped laws such as the insalubrity premium, a right which other mining companies, not only of British ownership, flouted and still flout in different parts of the world.

  17. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Tanure, Aline; Peixoto, Jennifer Cunha; Afonso, Margarete Martins dos Santos; Duarte, Rosemere; Pinheiro, Aimara da Costa; Coelho, Suedali Villas Bôas; Barata, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis(82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii(17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  18. Vascular plant community composition from the campos rupestres of the Itacolomi State Park, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leyh, Werner; Miazaki, Angela S.; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campos rupestres are rare and endangered ecosystems that accommodate a species-rich flora with a high degree of endemism. Here, we make available a dataset from phytosociological surveys carried out in the Itacolomi State Park, Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. All species in a total of 30 plots of 10 x 10 m from two study sites were sampled. Their cardinality, a combination of cover and abundance, was estimated. Altogether, we registered occurrences from 161 different taxa from 114 genera and 47 families. The families with the most species were Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Cyperaceae. Abiotic descriptions, including soil properties such as type, acidity, nutrient or aluminum availability, cation exchange capacity, and saturation of bases, as well as the percentage of rocky outcrops and the mean inclination for each plot, are given. This dataset provides unique insights into the campo rupestre vegetation, its specific environment and the distribution of its diversity. PMID:25829858

  19. [Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Antônio Marcos; Alves, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel; de Rezende, Glycia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Costa

    2005-04-01

    Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23) and 69.6 (16/23) respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18). Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool samples showed 58% and 23% of Ancylostoma sp and Toxocara sp eggs infection respectively.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF SANDFLIES (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) BLOOD MEALS IN AN ENDEMIC LEISHMANIASIS AREA IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TANURE, Aline; PEIXOTO, Jennifer Cunha; AFONSO, Margarete Martins dos Santos; DUARTE, Rosemere; PINHEIRO, Aimara da Costa; COELHO, Suedali Villas Bôas; BARATA, Ricardo Andrade

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this study was to identify blood meals of female sandflies captured in the municipality of Governador Valadares, an endemic area of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. From May 2011 to January 2012, captures were performed using HP light traps in four districts. There were 2,614 specimens (2,090 males and 524 females) captured; 97 engorged females were identified belonging to the species Lutzomyia longipalpis (82.1%) and Lutzomyia cortelezzii (17.9%). Considering simple and mixed feeding, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed a predominance of chicken blood (43.6%) in Lutzomyia longipalpis, showing the important role that chickens exert around the residential areas of Governador Valadares. This finding increases the chances of sandflies contact with other vertebrates and consequently the risk of leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:26422156

  1. Two new species of Ulmeritoides Traver (Ephemeroptera: Leptophlebiidae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souto, Paula Malaquias; Da-Sil, Elidiomar Ribeirova; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz; Gonçalves, Inês Corrêa

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Ulmeritoides Traver, 1959 are described from Southeastern Brazil based on male and female imagos. Ulmeritoides angelus sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZRJ: Minas Gerais State) differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: forewings hyaline, base dark brown and purplish; veins R1 light brown; dark brown spots on bullae of veins Sc and R2; apex of penis lobes somewhat rounded, each with one central spine. Ulmeritoides tamoio sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZRJ: São Paulo State) differs from all other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: wings hyaline; veins C, Sc and R1 brownish; brownish spots on bullae of veins Sc and R2; apex of penis lobes straight, ending in rather acute apical and mesal projections. An updated key to the genera Ulmeritoides Traver, 1956 and Ulmeritus Traver, 1956 is also given. PMID:27395967

  2. A new Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from southern Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Henrique C; Resende, Flávia C; Teixeira, Mauro; Dal Vechio, Francisco; Clemente, Cinara A

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Amphisbaena is described from a semi-deciduous forest in Conceição do Mato Dentro, southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following combined characters can diagnose the new species from all congeners: head round-shaped; two or three precloacal pores sequentially arranged; 190-199 body annuli; 2-3 lateral annuli; 23-25 caudal annuli; autotomy sites on caudal annuli 7-9; 12-14 dorsal segments on midbody annulus; 14-16 ventral segments on midbody annulus; three supralabials; three infralabials; postmalar row present or absent; dorsum light brown, with cream intersegmental sutures; venter cream. To date, the new species is known only from the Espinhaço Range, highlighting the importance of conservation actions for these mountains.

  3. Landscape structure in the expansion area of deforestation of the Brazilian Cerrado in Minas Gerais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, A. D.; Streher, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and is listed as one of the hotspots for biodiversity conservation priority. The biome provides important ecosystem services such as maintenance of the biodiversity, water cycle and carbon storage, and your preservation is essential to protecting the Amazon Rainforest. Although its importance, it was heavily affected by deforestation, with a loss of about 49% of its original native cover by the year of 2010. In Minas Gerais state, the remaining Cerrado original cover is very expressive, shaped by a mosaic of phytophysionomies, comprising grassland, savanna and forest. The great species diversity and endemism in these landscapes, associated with changes imposed by man over time, caused major environmental damage in this biome. Recently, new deforestation fronts have been identified throughout the Brazilian Cerrado, including Minas Gerais State. This study aimed to analyze the landscape structure in front of expansion in this state, as a subsidy for the establishment of guidelines for future biodiversity conservation and landscape planning. The study site comprised the sub basins of the Paracatú River (SF7) and Middle São Francisco (SF9). The analyses were performed based on land use, mapped through remote sensing techniques, resulting in 18 classes of land use. The most important results of the calculated indices showed that the study area is highly fragmented, with most of the remaining patches small, with large perimeter and strong edge effect, favoring biodiversity loss. Moreover, the biological flow in the study area is hindered by the presence of few fragments into a predetermined radius of 10 km. It has been found that less than 30% of the native vegetation remnant in the area, making all existing fragments relevant to conservation. Finally, the landscape metrics analyzed showed that there is a high level of environmental risk determining low support existing biodiversity in the landscape.

  4. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891) Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae) IN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Valeriana Valadares; dos Santos, Hudson Andrade; Silva, Amália Verônica Mendes da; Fontes, Gilberto; Vieira, Gabriela Lisboa; Ferreira, Arilton Carlos; da Silva, Eduardo Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronata could, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri,based on Stunkard's (1940) description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeri in Brazil. PMID:26603236

  5. FIRST CASE OF HUMAN INFECTION BY Bertiella studeri (Blanchard, 1891) Stunkard,1940 (Cestoda; Anoplocephalidae) IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    LOPES, Valeriana Valadares; dos SANTOS, Hudson Andrade; da SILVA, Amália Verônica Mendes; FONTES, Gilberto; VIEIRA, Gabriela Lisboa; FERREIRA, Arilton Carlos; da SILVA, Eduardo Sergio

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cestodes of the Bertiella genus are parasites of non-human primates found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas. Species Bertiella studeri and Bertiella mucronata could, accidentally, infect human beings. The infection occurs from ingestion of mites from the Oribatida order containing cysticercoid larvae of the parasite. The objective of this report is to register the first case of human infection by Bertiella studeri in Brazil. Proglottids of the parasite, found in the stool sample of a two-and-a-half-year-old child, were fixed, stained and microscopically observed to evaluate its morphological characteristics. Eggs obtained from the proglottids were also studied. The gravid proglottids examined matched the description of the genus Bertiella. The eggs presented a round shape, with the average diameter of 43.7 µm, clearly showing the typical pyriform apparatus of B. studeri. The authors concluded that the child was infected with Bertiella studeri, based on Stunkard's (1940) description of the species. This is the fifth case of human Bertiellosis described in Brazil through morphometric analysis of the parasite, the third in Minas Gerais State and the first diagnosed case of Bertiella studeri in Brazil. PMID:26603236

  6. Short communication: Recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, I A; Pietralonga, P A G; Schwarz, D G G; Faria, A C S; Moreira, M A S

    2012-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Some researchers have indicated a possible role of MAP in Crohn's disease. Despite extensive research and large and important advances in the past few decades, the etiology of Crohn's disease remains indefinite. The most probable transmission route of MAP from animals to humans is milk and dairy products. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis has already been detected in milk samples worldwide, and some studies have reported that MAP is resistant to pasteurization. In Brazil, MAP has been reported in raw milk samples; however, Brazilian retail pasteurized milk has not yet been tested for viable MAP. The aim of this study was to investigate MAP in pasteurized milk in the region of Viçosa (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Thirty-seven samples were collected and processed for culture of MAP. One colony similar to MAP was observed and confirmed by IS900-nested PCR and sequencing. Analysis revealed 97 to 99% identity with the MAP K-10 strain. This study is the first report of the presence of MAP in retail pasteurized whole milk in Brazil.

  7. Integrating three tools for the environmental assessment of the Pardo River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carolina S; Alves, Renato I S; Fregonesi, Brisa M; Beda, Cassio F; Suzuki, Meire N; Trevilato, Rudison B; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for strategic assessment of environmental conditions in river basins around the world. In spite of the considerable water resources, Brazil has been suffering from water quality decrease in recent years. Pardo River runs through Minas Gerais and São Paulo, two of the most economically important states in Brazil, and is being currently promoted as a future drinking water source. This study aimed at integrating three different tools to conduct a hydromorphological assessment focused on the spatial complexity, connectivity, and dynamism of the Pardo River, Brazil. Twelve sampling stretches were evaluated in four sampling campaigns, in dry and rainy seasons. In each stretch, permanent preservation areas (PPAs), hydromorphological integrity by rapid assessment protocol (RAP), and physicochemical parameters were qualified. The kappa coefficient was used to assess statistical agreement among monitoring tools. The PPA analysis showed that in all stretches, the vegetation was modified. RAP results revealed environmental deterioration in stretches located near human activities and less variability of substrates available for aquatic fauna and sediment deposition as well. Low values for dissolved oxygen in the river mouth were noted in the rainy season. Electrical conductivity was higher in stretches near sugarcane crops. The poor agreement (k<0.35) between the RAP and physicochemical parameters indicates that the tools generate different and complementary information, while they are not replaceable. Potential changes of the hydromorphological characteristics and variations in physicochemical indicators must be related to extensive PPA modification.

  8. Integrating three tools for the environmental assessment of the Pardo River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carolina S; Alves, Renato I S; Fregonesi, Brisa M; Beda, Cassio F; Suzuki, Meire N; Trevilato, Rudison B; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for strategic assessment of environmental conditions in river basins around the world. In spite of the considerable water resources, Brazil has been suffering from water quality decrease in recent years. Pardo River runs through Minas Gerais and São Paulo, two of the most economically important states in Brazil, and is being currently promoted as a future drinking water source. This study aimed at integrating three different tools to conduct a hydromorphological assessment focused on the spatial complexity, connectivity, and dynamism of the Pardo River, Brazil. Twelve sampling stretches were evaluated in four sampling campaigns, in dry and rainy seasons. In each stretch, permanent preservation areas (PPAs), hydromorphological integrity by rapid assessment protocol (RAP), and physicochemical parameters were qualified. The kappa coefficient was used to assess statistical agreement among monitoring tools. The PPA analysis showed that in all stretches, the vegetation was modified. RAP results revealed environmental deterioration in stretches located near human activities and less variability of substrates available for aquatic fauna and sediment deposition as well. Low values for dissolved oxygen in the river mouth were noted in the rainy season. Electrical conductivity was higher in stretches near sugarcane crops. The poor agreement (k<0.35) between the RAP and physicochemical parameters indicates that the tools generate different and complementary information, while they are not replaceable. Potential changes of the hydromorphological characteristics and variations in physicochemical indicators must be related to extensive PPA modification. PMID:26266898

  9. Dengue virus detection in Aedes aegypti larvae from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cecílio, Samyra Giarola; Júnior, Willer Ferreira Silva; Tótola, Antônio Helvécio; de Brito Magalhães, Cíntia Lopes; Ferreira, Jaqueline Maria Siqueira; de Magalhães, José Carlos

    2015-06-01

    The transmission of dengue, the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil, has been intensified over the past decades, along with the accompanying expansion and adaptation of its Aedes vectors. In the present study, we mapped dengue vectors in Ouro Preto and Ouro Branco, Minas Gerais, by installing ovitraps in 32 public schools. The traps were examined monthly between September, 2011 through July, 2012 and November, 2012 to April, 2013. The larvae were reared until the fourth stadium and identified according to species. The presence of dengue virus was detected by real time PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. A total of 1,945 eggs was collected during the 17 months of the study. The Ovitrap Positivity Index (OPI) ranged from 0 to 28.13% and the Eggs Density Index (EDI) ranged from 0 to 59.9. The predominant species was Aedes aegypti, with 84.9% of the hatched larvae. Although the collection was low when compared to other ovitraps studies, vertical transmission could be detected. Of the 54 pools, dengue virus was detected in four Ae. aegypti pools. PMID:26047186

  10. Pathogens of wild maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Curi, Nelson Henrique; Coelho, Carlyle Mendes; de Campos Cordeiro Malta, Marcelo; Magni, Elisa Maria Vaz; Sábato, Marco Aurelio Lima; Araújo, Amanda Soriano; Lobato, Zelia Inês Portela; Santos, Juliana Lúcia Costa; Santos, Hudson Andrade; Ragozo, Alessandra Alves Mara; de Souza, Silvio Luís Pereira

    2012-10-01

    The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, is an endangered Neotropical canid that survives at low population densities. Diseases are a potential threat for its conservation but to date have been poorly studied. We performed clinical evaluations and investigated the presence of infectious diseases through serology and coprologic tests on maned wolves from Galheiro Natural Private Reserve, Perdizes City, Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Fifteen wolves were captured between 2003 and 2008. We found high prevalences of antibody to canine distemper virus (CDV; 13/14), canine parvovirus (CPV; 4/14), canine adenovirus type 2 (13/14), canine coronavirus (5/11), canine parainfluenza virus (5/5), and Toxoplasma gondii (6/8), along with Ancylostomidae eggs in all feces samples. Antibodies against Leishmania sp. were found in one of 10 maned wolves, and all samples were negative for Neospora caninum. Evidence of high exposure to these viral agents was also observed in unvaccinated domestic dogs from neighboring farms. High prevalence of viral agents and parasites such as CDV, CPV, and Ancylostomidae indicates that this population faces considerable risk of outbreaks and chronic debilitating parasites. This is the first report of exposure to canine parainfluenza virus in Neotropical free-ranging wild canids. Our findings highlight that canine pathogens pose a serious hazard to the viability of maned wolves and other wild carnivore populations in the area and emphasize the need for monitoring and protecting wildlife health in remaining fragments of the Cerrado biome. PMID:23060508

  11. Metacercarial Infection of Wild Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hudson A.; Mati, Vitor L. T.; Melo, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Fingerlings of Oreochromis niloticus collected in an artificial urban lake from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were evaluated for natural infection with trematodes. Morphological taxonomic identification of four fluke species was performed in O. niloticus examined, and the total prevalence of metacercariae was 60.7% (37/61). Centrocestus formosanus, a heterophyid found in the gills, was the species with the highest prevalence and mean intensity of infection (31.1% and 3.42 (1–42), resp.), followed by the diplostomid Austrodiplostomum compactum (29.5% and 1.27 (1-2)) recovered from the eyes. Metacercariae of Drepanocephalus sp. and Ribeiroia sp., both found in the oral cavity of the fish, were verified at low prevalences (8.2% and 1.6%, resp.) and intensities of infection (only one metacercaria of each of these species per fish). These species of trematodes are reported for the first time in O. niloticus from South America. The potential of occurrence of these parasites in tilapia farming and the control strategies are briefly discussed. PMID:25485302

  12. Characterization and Spectral Monitoring of Coffee Lands in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, H. M. R.; Volpato, M. M. L.; Vieira, T. G. C.; Maciel, D. A.; Gonçalves, T. G.; Dantas, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, coffee production has great economic and social importance. Despite this fact, there is still a shortage of information regarding its spatial distribution, crop management and environment. The aim of this study was to carry out spectral monitoring of coffee lands and to characterize their environments using geotechnologies. Coffee fields with contiguous areas over 0.01 km2 within a 488.5 km2 region in the south of Minas Gerais state were selected for the study. Spectral data from the sensors OLI/Landsat 8 and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission from 2014 to 2015 were obtained, as well as information on production areas, surface temperature, vegetation indexes, altitude and slope, were gathered and analyzed. The results indicate that there is great variation in the NDVI and NDWI values, with means ranging from 0.21 to 0.91 (NDVI) and 0.108 to 0.543 (NDWI). The altitude ranged from 803 to 1150 m, and the surface temperature from 20.9°C to 27.6°C. The altitude and the surface temperature distribution patterns were correlated with the vegetation indexes. The slope classes were very homogeneous, predominantly with declivities between 8 to 20 %, characterized as wavy relief. This study made possible the characterization and monitoring of coffee lands and its results may be instrumental in decision-making processes related to coffee management.

  13. Sickle cell anemia in Brazil: personal, medical and endodontic patterns.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Shirlene Barbosa Pimentel; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Rosa, Marco Aurélio Camargo da; Brito, Luciana Carla Neves de; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Martelli, Hercílio; Ribeiro, Antônio Paulino

    2016-05-20

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most prevalent genetic disease worldwide. Recurrent vaso-occlusive infarcts predispose SCA patients to infections, which are the primary causes of morbidly and mortality. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between SCA and endodontic diseases. Personal information, medical data (hematological indices, virologic testing, blood transfusions, medications received, splenectomy) and information on the need for endodontic treatment were obtained from SCA patients who were registered and followed up by the Fundação Hemominas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.These data were compared with the need for root canal treatment in SCA patients. One hundred eight patients comprised the studied population, and the rate of the need for endodontic therapy was 10.2%. Among the medical data, a significant difference was observed for eosinophil (p = 0.045) counts and atypical lymphocyte counts (p = 0.036) when the groups (with and without the need for endodontic treatment) were compared. Statistical relevance was observed when comparing the patients with and without the need for root canal therapy concerned eosinophil counts and atypical lymphocyte counts. The differences in statistical medical data, observed between the groups suggest that both parameters are naturally connected to the stimulation of the immune system that can occur in the presence of root canal infections and that can be harmful to SCA individuals. PMID:27223130

  14. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories.

  15. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  16. [A better Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lesser, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Many countries in the Americas describe themselves as "nations of immigrants." In the United States, the myth of the "promised land" suggests that foreigners better themselves upon arrival because the nation is intrinsically great. In Brazil, however, the relationship between immigration and national identity is different. Many intellectuals, politicians, and cultural and economic leaders saw (and see) immigrants as improving an imperfect nation that has been tainted by the history of Portuguese colonialism and African slavery. As a result, immigrants were often hailed as saviors because they modified and improved Brazil, not because they were improved by Brazil. This "improvement" took place through absorption, mixture and with the use of increasingly flexible racial and ethnic categories. PMID:24789488

  17. Investigation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum strains variability in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abreu, M J; Souza, E A

    2015-01-01

    White mold is a common bean disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, resulting in economic losses in Brazil and worldwide. Lack of knowledge about the population structure of the pathogen makes it difficult to control the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize strains of S. sclerotiorum obtained from ex-perimental and commercial common bean fields in Brazil. We analyzed 50 strains of S. sclerotiorum collected at several locations in the state of Minas Gerais. The strains were characterized according to their ability and time for developing apothecia. Morphological and physiological analyses such as the mycelial growth index, colony color, the time re-quired to form the first sclerotia on media, the number of sclerotia per plate, average sclerotium size, and sclerotium shape were performed. We determined the mycelial compatibility, conducted molecular analy-sis of microsatellites, and evaluated the aggressiveness of 28 strains. Most strains had the ability to form apothecia. A small group of strains showed mycelial compatibility, and the strains showed different aggres-siveness levels. Overall, the population studied here demonstrated wide variability based on the morphological, physiological, and molecular traits analyzed. The average size and shape of sclerotia presented a cor-relation of 0.617, whereas the times required to form sclerotia and the number of sclerotia per plate showed a correlation of -0.455. The char-acterization of the pathogen population described herein will provide an important tool for promoting the development of bean cultivars re-sistant to white mold. PMID:26125896

  18. [Yellow fever epidemiology in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mondet, B

    2001-08-01

    present in the area but infecting humans only rarely if at all. The virus occasionally leaves the cyclic emergence area and appears in the sporadic emergence area to the east, in the states of Bahia, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, and, as a consequence, moving onto other hydraulic basins. The small river basins in Maranhão and NorthWest states, as well as in the northern part of the state of Roraima also form part of the sporadic emergence area. The epidemics that occur here are directly linked to the endemic area and are only preceded by sometimes indiscernible epizootics and can consequently not be foreseen. Again the virus appears to use privileged pathways to reach the sporadic emergence areas where human and monkey populations are generally only partially immunised against yellow fever and where contact with mosquitoes is intense despite the fact it is limited in space and time, being restricted to the often narrow strip of trees along the water courses. Other routes used by the virus may be the Madeira, Xingu and Tapajós rivers, the scene of outbreaks observed in the state of Rondônia and in the north of Mato Grosso, where ongoing environmental changes are likely to result in an increasing number of outbreaks in the coming years. Since the discovery of the sylvatic cycle of yellow fever in 1933, not only the extent of the epidemiological areas has changed, but also their limits. Ecological modifications that are currently taking place in the Amazon basin, which is an endemic reservoir of the virus, will inevitably facilitate an increase the contact between humans and vectors. While more and more urban areas harbour populations of Aedes aegypti, the domestic and urban vector of yellow fever, it is particularly important to try to protect human populations living in emergence zones and epidemic areas and thus to prevent the arrival of the virus in towns via humans with viremia--in other words the much feared urbanisation of yellow fever in Brazil. PMID:11681224

  19. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed.

  20. A taxonomic synopsis of South American Cyanogomphini Carle with description of Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. from the Cerrado of Brazil (Odonata: Gomphidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ângelo Parise; Almeida, Marcus Vinícius Oliveira De

    2016-01-01

    A synopsis of Cyanogomphini Carle, 1986 (sensu Belle 1996), including all species currently under the genera Cyanogomphus Selys, 1873, and Tibiagomphus Belle, 1992, is provided. Cyanogomphus angelomachadoi sp. nov. (Holotype ♂ deposited in DZRJ: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Jaboticatubas municipality, Parque Nacional da Serra do Cipó, collecting site "Córrego das Pedras" 19°22'17"S, 43°36'03"W, 766 m a.s.l., 12.XII.2011, A.P.M. Santos & D.M. Takiya leg.) is described and illustrated based on four males and two females from Minas Gerais and São Paulo States, southeastern Brazil. The new species is most similar to C. waltheri Selys, 1873, from which it can be distinguished by its smaller size; larger pale areas on mesepisternum; pale dorsal surface of metathoracic tibia; larger distal concavity on epiproct, with laterodistal projection, in lateral view forefinger-shaped; and occurrence in Cerrado province. Five species are recognized in Cyanogomphini, and for each one a synonymy, diagnoses, identification key and maps of distribution are presented. The status of sibling taxa Tibiagomphus uncatus (Fraser, 1947) and T. noval (Rodrigues Capítulo, 1985), as well as the Agriogomphus-complex of genera are also discussed. PMID:27395962

  1. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  2. Brazil's mental health adventure.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This is an account of my trips to Brazil in 2001 where I worked on a series of mental health projects with Brazilian colleagues. I first got interested in Brazil after I graduated from college when I was a Peace Corps volunteer in Northeast Brazil (Bahia state). After I got out of the Peace Corps I moved to Rio de Janeiro and went to work for United Press International (UPI) in their Rio bureau. I was UPI foreign news correspondent for a year and a half. Those years in Brazil were probably the happiest years of my life. Later on, after I became ill in the U.S., my Brazilian connection played an important role in my recovery. Raised in a Victorian family in a small town in the Midwest, and schooled in a traditional boarding school for boys and then at an all men's college, Brazil's lively Latino culture served as a healthy antidote for my tendency to be reserved and often depressed. My contact with Brazilians and Brazilian culture always beckoned me on. I maintained contact with my friends in Brazil and they stuck by me through my illness years. What seemed like my emotional and intellectual "excess" to me, was easily accepted by my Brazilian friends. I felt much more myself interacting with Brazilians and connected to a larger sense of self I developed in Brazil. I traveled to Brazil at every opportunity and made friends with Brazilians I met in the States. I initiated Portuguese classes at John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1990s and then was invited to teach Brazilian culture to undergraduates. These appointments and my own resilience moved me past one depression and a dysthymia condition and into the wider community. I regained my confidence as a teacher, a role I had before and during the years of my illness. From this position, I organized a club for Brazilian students studying in the Cleveland area. After this teaching stint, I felt ready to pursue full time employment and began a job search that would eventually land me in New Haven at

  3. Chikungunya risk for Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genus Alphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever. PMID:26398876

  4. Human Pythiosis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Sandra de Moraes Gimenes; Araújo, João Pessoa; Candeias, João Manuel Grisi; Fabiano de Franco, Marcello; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar; Mendoza, Leonel; Pires de Camargo, Rosangela; Marques, Silvio Alencar

    2005-01-01

    Pythiosis, caused by Pythium insidiosum, occurs in humans and animals and is acquired from aquatic environments that harbor the emerging pathogen. Diagnosis is difficult because clinical and histopathologic features are not pathognomonic. We report the first human case of pythiosis from Brazil, diagnosed by using culture and rDNA sequencing. PMID:15890126

  5. Brazil: Rio Branco

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  Deforestation near Rio Branco, Brazil     View Larger Image Settlement and deforestation surrounding the Brazilian town of Rio Branco are seen here in the striking "herring bone" deforestation patterns that cut through the rainforest. Rio Branco is the ...

  6. Chikungunya risk for Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to show, based on the literature on the subject, the potential for dispersal and establishment of the chikungunya virus in Brazil. The chikungunya virus, a Togaviridae member of the genusAlphavirus, reached the Americas in 2013 and, the following year, more than a million cases were reported. In Brazil, indigenous transmission was registered in Amapa and Bahia States, even during the period of low rainfall, exposing the whole country to the risk of virus spreading. Brazil is historically infested by Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, also dengue vectors. Chikungunya may spread, and it is important to take measures to prevent the virus from becoming endemic in the country. Adequate care for patients with chikungunya fever requires training general practitioners, rheumatologists, nurses, and experts in laboratory diagnosis. Up to November 2014, more than 1,000 cases of the virus were reported in Brazil. There is a need for experimental studies in animal models to understand the dynamics of infection and the pathogenesis as well as to identify pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to identifying effective drugs against the virus. Clinical trials are needed to identify the causal relationship between the virus and serious injuries observed in different organs and joints. In the absence of vaccines or effective drugs against the virus, currently the only way to prevent the disease is vector control, which will also reduce the number of cases of dengue fever.

  7. English Teaching Profile: Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This review of the status of English language instruction in Brazil provides an overview of the Brazilian geographic, historical, and political context and the role of English in the society in general and in the educational system. The following topics are covered: an outline of the status of English use and instruction in the educational system…

  8. Adult Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    The status and goals of adult education programs in Brazil are discussed in this report. Supplemental systems such as the Brazilian Literacy Movement (Mobral) and their results are described and evaluated. Charts detailing the evolution of literacy are shown and priorities in education are suggested. The progress of other educational entities is…

  9. Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T

    2016-05-03

    In the present paper we describe a new species of Pareiorhina from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the dorsal surface of caudal peduncle strongly concave, 30 vertebrae, bicuspid teeth, a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, smaller odontodes along the snout margin, a small orbital diameter, a higher head width, a shorter interorbital width, a shorter predorsal length, a shorter cleithral width, and a shorter caudal peduncle depth. The new species is known from four small streams of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of the rio Maranhão, one tributary of the rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of the Rio das Velhas. This species is found in fast-flowing streams associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers.

  10. Description of a new species of Pareiorhina (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriel S C; Roxo, Fábio F; Oyakawa, Osvaldo T

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we describe a new species of Pareiorhina from Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the dorsal surface of caudal peduncle strongly concave, 30 vertebrae, bicuspid teeth, a conspicuous cylindrical shaped papilla between the oral valve and premaxilla, smaller odontodes along the snout margin, a small orbital diameter, a higher head width, a shorter interorbital width, a shorter predorsal length, a shorter cleithral width, and a shorter caudal peduncle depth. The new species is known from four small streams of the rio São Francisco basin: one tributary of the rio Maranhão, one tributary of the rio Paraopeba and two tributaries of the Rio das Velhas. This species is found in fast-flowing streams associated with rocks and sand in the bottom of the rivers. PMID:27394827

  11. A Lagrangian identification of major sources of moisture for Southeastern Brazil during anomalous dry periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L. A.; Ambrizzi, T.; Gimeno, L.; Drumond, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil (SEB) comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. Its rainy season occurs in the Austral summer.. Although less rain is registered during the winter, spring and autumn, there are years that negative precipitation anomalies were recorded in these seasons. In preliminary studies, the SEB was divided into homogenous regions with respect to precipitation. Five regions were determined: R1 (south-central state of São Paulo), R2 (north of São Paulo and southern Minas Gerais), R3 (central Minas Gerais and south-central state of Rio de Janeiro), R4 (north of the state of Minas Gerais) and R5 (north of Rio de Janeiro, the central-eastern Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo). For each region, extreme dry events were identified based on the method of consecutive dry periods. In this study, the method developed by Stohl and James (2004,2005), which use the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART (Stohl et al.,1998), was applied with the objective to calculate and track the air particles and the atmospheric moisture backward in time to produce information on the spatial distribution of moisture sources. In this approach, the atmosphere is divided homogeneously into a large number of particles that are transported by the model which register their positions and specific humidity (q) every 6h. Increases and decreases in moisture along the trajectory can be calculated through changes in (q) with time. Adding thes changes for all particles residing in the atmospheric column over an area, we obtain (E-P) (E is the evaporation an P the precipitation per unit area).Where (E-P) is positive, the particles gain humidity and these are sources regions. For (E-P) negative, the particles lose humidity and these are sink regions. We analyzed the winter, autumn and spring from 1982 to 2009. FLEXPART were forced by ERA Interim dataset available every 6h with a 1 degree resolution. For each homogenous region in SEB (E

  12. Deforestation, Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This view of deforestation in Rondonia, far western Brazil, (10.0S, 63.0W) is part of an agricultural resettlement project which ultimately covers an area about 80% the size of France. The patterns of deforestation in this part of the Amazon River Basin are usually aligned adjacent to highways, secondary roads, and streams for ease of access and transportation. Compare this view with the earlier 51G-37-062 for a comparison of deforestation in the region.

  13. IPPs in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Alqueres, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Brazil offers a viable opportunity for independent power producers (IPPs). Four areas of the Brazilian power sector may be the potential starting points for an independent power industry. Recent legislation also has opened the doors for IPP activity by allowing companies to form consortia to generate power for their own needs. Another recent decree formed the basis for a grid system to which generators can sell power. This also has laid the groundwork for more clearly defined wheeling charges.

  14. Factors Associated with Providers’ Perceptions of Mental Health Care in Santa Luzia’s Family Health Strategy, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela R.; Pinto, Rogerio M.; Rahman, Rahbel; Spector, Anya Y.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has a unique mental health care system, characterized by universal coverage delivered by interdisciplinary teams both in the community and in specialized centros de atenção psicossocial (CAPS—psychosocial care centers). Provision of patient-centered mental health care is an important principle of Brazilian mental health care, but this topic has not been well-studied. We analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 151 community health workers (CHWs), nurses, and physicians in Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Chi-squares, t-tests and multivariate regression analyses examined differences in socio-demographics, caseload, engagement in evidence-based practices (EBPs), and transdisciplinary collaboration between providers who reported providing high levels of patient-centered mental health care and those who did not. In multivariate regression models, components of transdisciplinary collaboration were significantly associated with providers’ perceptions of patient-centered mental health care (p < 0.05). CHWs were also significantly more likely to report providing patient-centered care than physicians and nurses. EBP engagement and sociodemographics were not associated with perceptions. Results suggest that training efforts to improve patient-centered mental health care in Brazil could build upon CHWs’ skills and focus on transdisciplinary collaboration. Findings may inform practice in other countries with similar health care systems. PMID:26703644

  15. Going beyond the tip of the Drosophilidae iceberg: New Cladochaeta Coquillett, 1900 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pirani, Gabriela; Amorim, Dalton De Souza

    2016-01-01

    Drosophilidae comprises more than 4,000 described species worldwide. Despite the huge number of papers published on the genus Drosophila Fallén, 1823, large parts of the family are still poorly known. The drosophiline genus Cladochaeta Coquillet, 1900 has more than 100 Neotropical and several southern Nearctic described species, but there is quite a large number of undescribed species. The Brazilian fauna of the genus was studied and 12 new species are herein described-Cladochaeta armatopsis nov. sp., C. balbiae nov. sp., C. paraitinga nov. sp., C. asapha nov. sp., C.chauliodactyla nov. sp., C. conicophallus nov. sp., C. dicrophallus nov. sp., C.grimaldii nov. sp., C. atlantica nov. sp., C. periotoi nov. sp., C. phallotrixa nov. sp. and C. stigmata nov. sp. We set the first record of C. arthrostyla Grimaldi & Nguyen, 1999 for northeastern Brazil a species otherwise known from Costa Rica, and the first record of C. bomplandi (Malloch, 1934) for the state of Minas Gerais, a species known for northeastern Argentina and southern Brazil. The descriptions include photographs for each species and detailed illustrations of the male terminalia in different views. A synopsis on the taxonomy and natural history of the genus is provided, as well as comments about the relationships of species in the genus, a discussion on problems of male terminalia sclerite homology and the problem of association between males and females. PMID:27470807

  16. Epidemiological profile of individuals with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jequitinhonha Valley, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, M E da Consolação; Pedrosa-Silva, A L; Sá E Rocha, L; Lima, N L; Verli, F D; Ferreira, F de Oliveira; Marinho, S A

    2014-01-09

    This study aimed to characterize the epidemiological profile of patients with American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in 34 municipalities in Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil, registered from 2005 to 2010 with the Regional Health Superintendence, using data from the Brazilian Disease Notification Information System. Among 281 cases, 156 (55.5%) were included in the study. A statistically significant difference was found in ACL among men between 21 and 60 years of age (P = 0.034) in relation to women and other age groups. Analysing the male sample, a significant association was found between ACL and occupation (P = 0.04). The cutaneous form occurred in 87.3% of cases. The medication most often employed was pentavalent antimony (87.3%), with cure achieved in 91.1% of cases. The epidemiological profile of ACL in the Jequitinhonha Valley is similar to that reported for other regions of Brazil, exhibiting a rural occupational nature and affecting men with low levels of schooling within the productive age.

  17. Lack of Cyathostomin sp. reduction after anthelmintic treatment in horses in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Canever, Ricardo J; Braga, Pollyana R C; Boeckh, Albert; Grycajuck, Marcelly; Bier, Daniele; Molento, Marcelo B

    2013-05-01

    The increase of anthelmintic resistance in the last years in the nematode population of veterinary importance has become a major concern. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the main anthelmintic drugs available in the market against small strongyles of horses in Brazil. A total of 498 horses from 11 horse farms, located in the states of Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil, were treated with ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole, orally at their recommended doses. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) was used to determine the product's efficacy and fecal culture was used to determine the parasite genus. Reduction on anthelmintic efficacy was found for fenbendazole in all horse farms (11/11), pyrantel in five yards (5/11) and ivermectin had low efficacy in one of the yards studied (1/11). Multidrug resistance of up to 3 drugs classes was found in one of the tested farms (1/11). Cyathostomin were the most prevalent parasite. The results showed that resistance to fenbendazole is widespread; the efficacy of pyrantel is in a critical situation. Although the macrocyclic lactones compounds still showed high efficacy on most farms, suspected resistance to macrocyclic lactones is of great concern.

  18. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from wildlife and livestock in Paraiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Shoji, Y; Kobayashi, Y; Sato, G; Gomes, A A B; Itou, T; Ito, F H; Sakai, T

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-four rabies virus (RV) isolates from foxes (8), insectivore bats (9), cattle (14), sheep (1), a goat (1) and a donkey (1) from Paraiba state, northeastern Brazil, were genetically characterized. Sequences of 890 nts of nucleoprotein (N) genes of these isolates were analyzed and compared with those of other Brazilian isolates characterized earlier. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three genetical lineages of RV co-existing in this region. Each lineage was found to be associated with particular host species and to circulate independently of each other. The first lineage was found in foxes (Dusicyon sp.) and could be discriminated from domestic carnivore isolates from Sao Paulo, Goias and Minas Gerais in the southern and central Brazil. The second lineage was associated with insectivorous bats (Molossus spp.) and differed from vampire bat-associated RV isolates. The third lineage was found in livestock and clustered with vampire bat-associated RV isolates from Sao Paulo, Tocantins, Goias and Matto Grosso. These results indicate that RV of these genetic lineages are cocirculating in the Paraiba state and that livestock in this region are infected with vampire bat-associated RV, suggesting that the vampire bat is the main reservoir of livestock rabies in this region. PMID:16599183

  19. Anomalies in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Faustino, Juliana Xavier; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Filho, José Dilermando Andrade

    2013-03-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main species involved in the epidemiological cycle of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. This species shows a wide geographic distribution and belongs to a group that has 2 setae in the paramere with the curved tips towards the apex of this structure among other characteristics. Morphological characters in the genitalia of phlebotomines are essential for correct identification of species. The aim of this study was to report the finding of unilateral and bilateral anomalies in the paramere of L. longipalpis males collected in Várzea da Palma municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Twelve collections were made during the period April 2009 to March 2010, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps, HP model. Of the 8,832 male L. longipalpis collected, we found 6 types of unilateral anomalies and 2 types of bilateral anomalies in 0.5% of the insects collected. The anomalies were described according to number, position, and size of the setae of paramere. This information will be useful in the validation of new species.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of novel system of mosquito surveillance and control, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pepin, Kim M; Marques-Toledo, Cecilia; Scherer, Luciano; Morais, Maira M; Ellis, Brett; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2013-04-01

    Of all countries in the Western Hemisphere, Brazil has the highest economic losses caused by dengue fever. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of a novel system of vector surveillance and control, Monitoramento Inteligente da Dengue (Intelligent Dengue Monitoring System [MID]), which was implemented in 21 cities in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Traps for adult female mosquitoes were spaced at 300-m intervals throughout each city. In cities that used MID, vector control was conducted specifically at high-risk sites (indicated through daily updates by MID). In control cities, vector control proceeded according to guidelines of the Brazilian government. We estimated that MID prevented 27,191 cases of dengue fever and saved an average of $227 (median $58) per case prevented, which saved approximately $364,517 in direct costs (health care and vector control) and $7,138,940 in lost wages (societal effect) annually. MID was more effective in cities with stronger economies and more cost-effective in cities with higher levels of mosquito infestation.

  1. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  2. Health promotion in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes. PMID:17596091

  3. Evaluation of a 25-Year-Program for the Control of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in an Endemic Area in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Sarvel, Ana K.; Oliveira, Áureo A.; Silva, Alexandre R.; Lima, Anna C. L.; Katz, Naftale

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies showed that chemotherapy can control schistosomiasis morbidity, but association of measures (water supply, sewage disposal and increase of socioeconomic conditions) is necessary for transmission control. Methodology/Principal Findings A survey dealing with socioeconomic conditions, snail survey, contact with natural waters, and clinical and stool examinations was undertaken at an endemic area in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The methodology used was the same for both evaluations (1981 and 2005). Four hundred and seventy-five out of 1,474 individuals studied in 1981 could be contacted. From these, 358 were submitted to stool examination, and 231 of them were clinically examined. Patients eliminating S. mansoni eggs in their stools were treated. The results showed that the prevalence rate in Comercinho, a municipality of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, was substantially reduced to 70.4% and 1.7% in 1981 and 2005, respectively, as well as the frequency of the hepatosplenic form (7% to 1.3%) after five treatments effectuated between 1981 and 1992. No other new case of this form was detected from 1981 onwards. Another important aspect to be considered was the improvement of people's living standard that occurred in the region after more than two decades' efforts (better housing, professional skill and adequate basic sanitation). Conclusion/Significance The control of morbidity and very significant decrease of schistosomiasis transmission in an area until then considered as hyperendemic was possible by means of association of successive specific treatments of the local population, together with the construction of privies, water supply in the houses and improvement of socioeconomic conditions. PMID:21423644

  4. Brazil: Intercultural Experiential Learning Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Brazil by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Brazil is given, covering the following: its size and geography, history, language, economy,…

  5. A Comprehensive View of Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    This student and teacher resource discusses the geography, history, and contemporary changes and achievements of Brazil. It is intended to complement textbooks and other teaching materials by serving as a resource for teachers, administrators, and students. The document is presented in three parts. Part I focuses on the geography of Brazil,…

  6. Group 2 vaccinia virus, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Assis, Felipe Lopes; Borges, Iara Apolinario; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Trindade, Giliane de Souza; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado; Mesquita, Vaz; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos

    2012-12-01

    In 2011, vaccinia virus caused an outbreak of bovine vaccinia, affecting dairy cattle and dairy workers in Brazil. Genetic and phenotypic analyses identified this isolate as distinct from others recently identified, thereby reinforcing the hypothesis that different vaccinia virus strains co-circulate in Brazil.

  7. Upward Lightning in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, C.; Saba, M. M.; Alves, J.; Warner, T. A.; Albrecht, R. I.; Bie, L. L.

    2012-12-01

    Observations of upward lightning from tall objects have been reported since 1939. Interest in this subject has grown recently, some of it because of the rapid expansion of wind power generation. Also, with the increasing number of tall buildings and towers, there will be a corresponding increase in the number of upward lightning flashes from these structures. Reports from recent field observations are beginning to address the nature of upward lightning initiation, but much still needs to be learned. Examples are studies of upward lightning from towers in winter thunderstorms in Japan (Wang and Takagi, 2010; and Lu et al., 2009) and summer thunderstorms in Europe (Miki et al., 2005; Flache et al., 2008; and Diendorfer et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2011) and in North America (Mazur and Ruhnke, 2011; Hussein et al., 2011; Warner, 2011, and Warner et al., 2011). Up to January 2012, no upward flash had ever been registered in Brazil. With the help of some video cameras, we recorded 15 upward lightning which started from one of the towers located on Peak Jaraguá in the city of São Paulo. This paper describes the first results of this field campaign. A combination of high-speed video and standard definition video were used to record upward lightning flashes from multiple towers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, a city located in southeastern Brazil with a population over 10 million people, an average elevation of around 800 meters above sea level, and a flash density of 15 flashes/km2/year. Observations of 15 upward flashes made with these assets were analyzed along with BrasilDAT Lightning Detection Network and a lightning mapping array (LMA) and electric field sensors.

  8. Astronomy in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, Beatriz; Maciel, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    A historical background combined with political decisions along time explain the increasing importance of Brazil in the world's astronomical scenario. Professional astronomy was triggered in the late sixties and early seventies by the two main historical institutions then existing (ON and IAG/USP), together with the creation of agencies for research and combined with individual actions. There are presently 670 astronomers working in the country, including permanent jobs and graduate students. A brief description of observational facilities and plans to increase access to other facilities is presented.

  9. Social Psychotherapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Heloisa J; Marra, Marlene M; Knobel, Anna M

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the practice of sociodrama, a method created by J. L. Moreno in the 1930s, and the Brazilian contemporary socio-psychodrama. In 1970, after the Fifth International Congress of Psychodrama was held in Brazil, group psychotherapy began to flourish both in private practice and hospital clinical settings. Twenty years later, the Brazilian health care system added group work as a reimbursable mental health procedure to improve social health policies. In this context, socio-psychodrama became a key resource for social health promotion within groups. Some specific conceptual contributions by Brazilians on sociodrama are also noteworthy. PMID:26401805

  10. Diversity and population dynamics of Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae (Acari: Mesostigmata) in tropical flowers in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-06-01

    Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant.

  11. Biothics in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Debora; Guilhem, Dirce Bellezi; Garrafa, Volnei

    1999-07-01

    In this article the authors briefly sketch the nature of Brazilian bioethics. Bioethics emerged in Brazil later than in other Western countries and the 1990's were the most important period for the spread of the discipline in the country. It is in this period that some structural elements of bioethics were established, such as research groups, regulation of Local Research Ethics Committees (Comitês Locais de Etica em Pesquisa -- CEP), the creation of the National Commission of Ethics in Research with Human Beings (Comissão Nacional de Etica em Pesquisa com Seres Humanos -- CONEP) and the Brazilian Bioethics Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Bioética -- SBB). With regard to theoretical work, Brazilian bioethics is clearly an importer of theories from countries central to the studies of bioethics, or, in other words, countries where biothics first emerged and was established. The most commonly used theory among Brazilian researchers is principalism.

  12. The Brazil nut problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Dora; Ruiz-Suarez, Jesus

    2004-03-01

    The segregation of large intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed is studied. We measure rising times a function of density, diameter and depth; for two different sinusoidal excitations. Our results shed definitive light to explain the fundamental aspects of the fascinating Brazil nut problem. At low frequencies (high amplitudes), inertia and convection are the only mechanisms behind segregation. Inertia dominates when the relative density of the intruder is greater than one and convection when it is less than one. At high frequencies (small amplitudes), where convection is suppressed, segregation occurs by buoyancy or sinkage. Finally, when the diameter of the intruders is changed, the well known paradigm "larger intruders rise faster" fails if the mass of the intruders is kept constant (while their relative densities are greater than one).

  13. Tungsten resources of Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Max Gregg

    1974-01-01

    Brazilian tungsten production, 85 percent of which is exported, comes almost entirely from scheelite-bearing tactites in northeast Brazil, and has reached an annual rate of about 2,000 metric tons (2,200 short tons) of scheelite concentrate with 70 percent WO3. Scheelite ore reserves, located principally in the State of Rio Grande do Norte, are estimated to be as high as 8,300,000 tons (9,100,000 short tons) containing 0.7 percent WO3. Minor deposits (or those about which only minimal information is available) of wolframite, with which some cassiterite is associated, are located in Sao Paulo, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Both the scheelite and the wolframite deposits are considered . to be late Precambrian A (620 to 900 m.y.) or early Cambrian in age.

  14. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  15. Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160251.html Zika: Why Brazil, Why Now Several factors -- including economics, ... been the country hit hardest by the ongoing Zika virus epidemic and its potential for birth defects. ...

  16. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae) and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, P F A; Aguiar, J A B; Figueira, J E C

    2015-05-01

    Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records. PMID:26132031

  17. Evaluation of the sticky MosquiTRAP for detecting Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) during the dry season in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama, Renata A; Silva, Eric M; Silva, Ivoneide M; Resende, Marcelo C; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2007-01-01

    MosquiTRAP is a sticky trap specifically designed to capture gravid females of Aedes aegypti (L.) and allows the identification of the mosquito in the field during the inspection of the trap. This study aims to compare this sticky trap to larval and ovitrap surveys for field monitoring of A. aegypti during the dry season. The study was conducted from March to June of 2003 in 20 blocks of the district of Itapoã, Belo Horizonte, MG. The traps were monitored every week while the larval survey was conducted on a monthly basis. The larval index: Premise Index (PI) and Breteau Index (BI) had equal values throughout the experiment (1.72 in the first two months and zero in the last two). The container index (CI) during the first two months was 0.09 and 0.1%, respectively and zero in the last two. The Ovitrap Positive Index (OPI) ranged from 16.7 to 76.9%, and the MosquiTRAP Positive Index (MPI) ranged from 0 to 31.5%. The Egg Density Index (EDI) ranged from 26.6 to 82.8, while the Adult Density Index ranged from 0 to 1.6 throughout the experiment. Temperature and rainfall did not affect the Positive and Density Indices, although these environmental variables seemed to have affected the larvae indices. Although the MosquiTRAP caught a low number of Aedes mosquitoes during the study, it was more sensitive than the larval survey to detect the presence of Aedes mosquitoes. PMID:17607465

  18. Study project of intrusive rocks: States of Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, south and east of Minas Gerais and southeast of the state of Sao Paulo. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Dossantos, A. R.; DOSANJOS; Barbos, M. P.; Veneziani, P.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping intrusive rocks in polycyclic and polymetamorphic areas using the logic method for photointerpretation of LANDSAT and radar imagery was investigated. The resolution, scale and spectral characteristics of the imagery were considered. Spectral characteristics of the intrusive rock units mapped using image 100 were investigated. It was determined that identification of acidic and basic intrusive bodies and determination of their relationships with principal structural directions using the logic method was feasible. Tectonic compartments were subdivided into units according to their predominant lithographic types, ignoring stratigraphy. The principal directions of various foliations, faults, megafolds, and fractural systems were defined. Delineation of the boundaries of intrusive bodies mapped using the spectral characteristics of Image 100 imagery ws determined to be more accurate than visual analysis. A 1:500,000 scale map of intrusions in the areas studied was generated.

  19. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk.

  20. Diversity of bees and their floral resources at altitudinal areas in the Southern Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vinícius A; Antonini, Yasmine; Araújo, Ana P A

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Espinhaço Range consists of large areas covered by quartzitic or metaliferous tropical altitudinal fields. The Espinhaço Range ecosystems are endangered by anthropic high impacts, particularly due to mining and urbanization. We conducted a one-year inventory of the bee flora and fauna at the quartzitic Ouro Branco Mountains and a two-year survey of the metaliferous Ouro Preto fields. The samples were collected twice a month, from 8:00 am to 5:00 pm. The bees (677) belonged to 91 species, five families. The family Apidae was the richest and most abundant, followed by the Halictidae and Megachilidae. The bees visited 46 flowering plant species; the most visited plants were the Asteraceae (n = 220), the Malpighiaceae (n = 95), the Melastomataceae (n = 94), the Fabaceae (n = 78), and the Solanaceae (n = 63). Diversity was higher in Ouro Branco (H = 1.47) than in Ouro Preto (H = 1.17). The low richness and abundance of bees in our research site when compared to other Brazilian "Cerrado" areas can be due to the high altitude, low temperature, and low availability of flowers we found. "Canga" and rupestrian areas house fauna and flora species that are rare and threatened by extinction. The southern Espinhaço areas can, therefore, be given the status of permanent biodiversity preservation area.

  1. First records of Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825 (Charadriidae) and Gelochelidon nilotica Gmelin 1789 (Sternidae) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, P F A; Aguiar, J A B; Figueira, J E C

    2015-05-01

    Around forty bird species habitually reproduce in the Northern Hemisphere during summer, and migrate to the Southern Hemisphere during northern winter. These migrating birds fly together in large or small groups until they have reached the Caribbean, Central American, or Brazilian shores. Charadrius semipalmatus, Bonaparte 1825, is one of these migrating species that uses resting and feeding areas along eastern and western coasts of North and South America, with several records for the Brazilian coast, and very few for the inland country. On November 24, 2011, an individual of this species was observed on the banks of one of the lakes that compose a complex of about 40 temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa Environmental Protection Area. On October 29 and 30, 2012 a single individual of Gelochelidon nilotica, Gmelin 1789, was also observed in Sumidouro State Park. We suggest that these specimens have used the Atlantic Ocean migration route, following the São Francisco River Basin, until the karst area. Although highly impacted, the temporary lakes within the Karst of Lagoa Santa still harbor a significant number of bird species, and serve as resting and feeding places for migratory or errant species that are still eliciting new records.

  2. [Determinants of food and nutrition insecurity: a study conducted in Low-budget Restaurants in Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sobrinho, Fernanda Martins; Silva, Yara Cardoso; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa; Dias Júnior, Cláudio Santiago

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this study is to evaluate the condition of household food and nutrition (in)security (IAN) of the users of low-budget restaurants in Belo Horizonte (BH). This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out on all low-budget restaurants and cafeteria in BH with a sample of 1613 users. The IAN was assessed using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and cross-checked with the socioeconomic profile of the users. The Chisquare and Mann-Whitney tests were applied. All p-value < 0.25 variables were included in the multivariate analysis. The groups most exposed to IAN among users of low-budget restaurants are those with a lower socioeconomic level and per capita income class and those with a large number of residents in the household. Also affected are those who admit to having different kinds of wants and needs, and those for whom price and living alone are the main reasons for frequenting low-budget restaurants. The factors affecting the IAN are varied and multifactorial, thus representing a major challenge for public policy makers and for those who live directly with these dietary restrictions. The low-budget restaurants serve as a strategy for promoting healthy eating habits.

  3. Occurrence of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus in goat milk from small and medium-sized farms located in Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, V Q; Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-12-01

    Consumption of goat milk has been increasing due to its nutritional characteristics and health benefits. Therefore, assessment of the presence of foodborne pathogens in this product is critical to ensure its safety to consumers. The present study aimed to identify common foodborne pathogens in raw goat milk. Fifty-three samples of raw goat milk from 11 farms were collected and cultured for the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as for enumeration and isolation of coagulase-positive and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CPS and CNS, respectively). All samples tested negative for Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes. The CPS counts in raw goat milk samples were predominantly less than 2 log cfu/mL (n=39), and CNS counts were predominantly higher than 3 log cfu/mL (n=42). Based on Staphylococcus counts, 51 isolates were selected (CPS=26; CNS=25) and tested by PCR for the presence of classic enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, sed, and see). Only 3 isolates (CPS=2, CNS=1) were negative for all enterotoxin-encoding genes tested, and the genotype sec and see was the most frequent (n=16), followed by sea, sec, and see (n=13) and sec (n=13); sed was not detected in any isolate. The frequencies of enterotoxin-encoding genes for CPS and CNS were similar, demonstrating the equivalence of both groups in harboring these virulent markers. These results suggest that Salmonella and L. monocytogenes are not frequent contaminants of raw goat milk, but that Staphylococcus spp. that are capable of producing enterotoxins are prevalent; therefore, consumers of raw goat milk and products made from raw milk are at risk. PMID:26476939

  4. Environmental factors and benthic Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) assemblages in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Suriani-Affonso, A L; França, R S; Marchese, M; Rocha, O

    2011-05-01

    The Oligochaeta forms an important part of the macroinvertebrates inhabiting sediments of lotic ecosystems. It has an important role in the cycling of matter and energy transfer in these environments. The aim of this study is to analyse limnological variables, their influence on the structure and diversity of benthic oligochaete taxocenosis in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River and its tributary the Piumhi River. Samples were taken in two climatic periods, the dry season in October 2006 and 2007 and the rainy season in March 2007 and 2008 at three points along the Piumhi River and six points along the São Francisco River. The sediment of the São Francisco consisted predominantly of sand and clay, whereas the sediment of the Piumhi was mainly sandy. Six species of oligochaete occurred in the Piumhi River while seven were found in the São Francisco. Of these, Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925, Pristina americana Cernosvitov, 1937, Bothrioneurum sp. Stolc, 1888 and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 occurred in the sediment of both rivers. L. hoffmeisteri showed the highest numerical abundance in the Piumhi River and Brinkhurstia americana (Brinkhurst, 1964) and L. neotropicus Cernosvitov, 1939 were the most abundant species in the São Francisco River. The highest oligochaete density was recorded in the Piumhi during the dry seasons. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) of sediment characteristics explained most of the data variability and the association of the presence of oligochaete species in the Piumhi and São Francisco Rivers with the limnological variables (grain size composition and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the sediment). PMID:21755161

  5. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility of micro-organisms recovered from cutaneous lesions of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Claúdia O; Carvalho, Maria Auxiliadora R; Nicoli, Jacques R; Hamdan, Junia S; Mayrink, Wilson; Genaro, Odair; Carmo, Luiz S; Farias, Luiz M

    2005-11-01

    An evaluation of the microbiota present in cutaneous ulcers from 31 patients with a clinical and parasitological diagnosis of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) was carried out by the standard filter paper disc technique, including antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates. Microbial examination indicated that 21 patients (67.7%) were contaminated with one to four bacteria and some of them also with yeast. A total of 142 micro-organisms were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently recovered bacterium (95.2% of positive patients) and was found to produce type B (70% of the staphylococcal isolates) and type C (50%) enterotoxins as well as toxic shock syndrome toxin (60%). Proteus mirabilis (33.3% of the positive patients), Streptococcus pyogenes (19.0 %), H(2)S-negative Proteus species (19.0%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.3%), Enterobacter species (9.5%), Peptostreptococcus species (9.5%), Pseudomonas species (4.8%), Prevotella bivia (4.8%), Escherichia coli (4.8%), Streptococcus agalactiae (4.8%), Bacteroides fragilis (4.8%), Candida albicans (9.5%) and Candida tropicalis (4.8%) were also isolated. Surprisingly, Staph. aureus isolates were susceptible to almost all tested drugs, although some of them were resistant to penicillin (69%) and ampicillin + sulbactam (68%). Concerning obligate anaerobes, all the Gram-negative isolates (25% of the total) were resistant to metronidazole. The results of the present study show that microbial secondary contaminants, particularly Staph. aureus, should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ATL lesions. PMID:16192439

  6. Environmental factors and benthic Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) assemblages in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River (Minas Gerais State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Suriani-Affonso, A L; França, R S; Marchese, M; Rocha, O

    2011-05-01

    The Oligochaeta forms an important part of the macroinvertebrates inhabiting sediments of lotic ecosystems. It has an important role in the cycling of matter and energy transfer in these environments. The aim of this study is to analyse limnological variables, their influence on the structure and diversity of benthic oligochaete taxocenosis in a stretch of the Upper São Francisco River and its tributary the Piumhi River. Samples were taken in two climatic periods, the dry season in October 2006 and 2007 and the rainy season in March 2007 and 2008 at three points along the Piumhi River and six points along the São Francisco River. The sediment of the São Francisco consisted predominantly of sand and clay, whereas the sediment of the Piumhi was mainly sandy. Six species of oligochaete occurred in the Piumhi River while seven were found in the São Francisco. Of these, Pristina synclites Stephenson, 1925, Pristina americana Cernosvitov, 1937, Bothrioneurum sp. Stolc, 1888 and Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri Claparede, 1862 occurred in the sediment of both rivers. L. hoffmeisteri showed the highest numerical abundance in the Piumhi River and Brinkhurstia americana (Brinkhurst, 1964) and L. neotropicus Cernosvitov, 1939 were the most abundant species in the São Francisco River. The highest oligochaete density was recorded in the Piumhi during the dry seasons. Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) of sediment characteristics explained most of the data variability and the association of the presence of oligochaete species in the Piumhi and São Francisco Rivers with the limnological variables (grain size composition and total nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the sediment).

  7. Detrital zircon without detritus: a result of 496-Ma-old fluid-rock interaction during the gold-lode formation of Passagem, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Alexandre Raphael; Zeh, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Zircon and xenotime occur in tourmaline-rich hydrothermal pockets in the auriferous lode of Passagem de Mariana, a world-class gold deposit. Zircon grains show pristine oscillatory zoning, but many of them are altered, exhibiting porous domains filled with graphite. Uranium-Pb dating of zircon, using in-situ laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, yields ages between 3.2 and 2.65 Ga, which match those for detrital zircon of the footwall quartzite of the > 2.65-Ga-old Moeda Formation. Discordant analyses point to zircon-age resetting during the Brasiliano orogeny at ca. 500 Ma. This interpretation is supported by U-Pb dating of euhedral xenotime immediately adjacent to altered zircon within the same tourmaline pocket. The xenotime grains give a Concordia age of 496.3 ± 2.0 Ma, which is identical to that determined for monazite of a quartz-hematite vein-type deposit (i.e., jacutinga lode) in the region (Itabira), another important mineralisation style of gold. The occurrence of relatively abundant inherited detrital zircon, but absence of rock fragments in the tourmaline pocket investigated here, implies that detrital material was completely replaced by tourmaline. The graphite overprint on the altered detrital zircon attests to a reducing fluid, which was likely formed by fluid-rock interaction with carbonaceous phyllite of the Batatal Formation, the host rock of the Passagem lode.

  8. Agriculture, Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This infrared scene of agriculture and ranching enterprises along the middle portion of the Rio Sao Francisco basin of Brazil (13.0S, 43.5 W) shows the usefulness of infrared film in determining types of vegetation. This region of Brazil has been under study for agriculture and ranching enterprises for several years. However, unpredictable rainfall and frequent severe droughts have limited the success of these enterprises.

  9. The municipal solid waste and the quality of life of collectors of recyclable materials in Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    de Barros Pimenta, Aline; Santos, Sueli Maria dos Reis; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Borges, Marcos Mantins; de Oliveira Marques, Geraldo Luciano; Abdalla, E José Gustavo Francis

    2012-01-01

    The generation growing and diversified of Municipal Solid Waste is configured as an environmental problem, economic and social deterioration, especially, by application of inappropriate management of them. Faced with this urban context, the research in development presents as specific objective assessment of the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials were active in the city of Juiz de Fora, in the brazilian state of Minas Gerais. In addition, the objective is, still, the recognition of the activity of sorting performed by "scavengers" in order to maximize the reduction, reuse and recycling energy and material waste daily. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the questionnaire Word Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-100), prepared by the World Health Organization, in order to value the quality of life of the gatherers of recyclable materials, involved, even in educational workshops in order to discuss and organize strategies of health care and scouting to the basement to public policies.

  10. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America. PMID:25557749

  11. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  12. New species and reports of dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from Salminus franciscanus (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra Moraes; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Six species of dactylogyrid monogenoideans were collected at the upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from the gills of Salminus franciscanus. Anacanthorus adkruidenieri sp. n. and Anacanthorus paradouradensis sp. n. are described and compared with the other species of Anacanthorus. Anacanthorus adkruidenieri sp. n. is more similar to A. kruidenieri and A. parakruidenieri, but it can be distinguished from both by the rod-shaped accessory piece, which is articulated with the base of the male copulatory organ and is coiled around it, and by the shank of the hook, with expanded proximal bulbous portion bearing a central, elliptical foramen. Anacanthorus paradouradensis sp. n. resembles A. douradensis, but differs in the accessory piece, which is approximately half the length of the copulatory organ. Salminus franciscanus is a new host record and the São Francisco Basin is a new locality record for Anacanthorus daulometrus, Annulotrematoides glossophallus, Jainus iocensis and Tereancistrum arcuatus. PMID:25947500

  13. Pollen analysis of honey and pollen collected by Apis mellifera linnaeus, 1758 (Hymenoptera, Apidae), in a mixed environment of Eucalyptus plantation and native cerrado in Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simeão, C M G; Silveira, F A; Sampaio, I B M; Bastos, E M A F

    2015-11-01

    Eucalyptus plantations are frequently used for the establishment of bee yards. This study was carried on at Fazenda Brejão, northwestern region of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This farm is covered both with native Cerrado vegetation (Brazilian savanna) and eucalyptus plantations. This paper reports on the botanic origin of pollen pellets and honey collected from honeybee (Apis mellifera) hives along a thirteen-month period (January 2004 to January 2005). The most frequent pollen types found in the pollen pellets during the rainy season were Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), an unidentified Poaceae, unidentified Asteraceae-2, Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae); during the dry season the most frequent pollen types were Acosmium dasycarpum (Fabaceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae) and Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). Pollen grains of Baccharis sp. (Asteraceae), Cecropia sp. 1 (Cecropiaceae), Copaifera langsdorffii (Fabaceae), Mimosa nuda (Fabaceae), Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae) and Trema micrantha (Ulmaceae) were present in the honey samples throughout the study period.

  14. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-01-01

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed. PMID:27395095

  15. New species and reports of dactylogyrids (Monogenoidea) from Salminus franciscanus (Actinopterygii: Bryconidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Cassandra Moraes; Cohen, Simone Chinicz; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2015-03-30

    Six species of dactylogyrid monogenoideans were collected at the upper São Francisco River, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from the gills of Salminus franciscanus. Anacanthorus adkruidenieri sp. n. and Anacanthorus paradouradensis sp. n. are described and compared with the other species of Anacanthorus. Anacanthorus adkruidenieri sp. n. is more similar to A. kruidenieri and A. parakruidenieri, but it can be distinguished from both by the rod-shaped accessory piece, which is articulated with the base of the male copulatory organ and is coiled around it, and by the shank of the hook, with expanded proximal bulbous portion bearing a central, elliptical foramen. Anacanthorus paradouradensis sp. n. resembles A. douradensis, but differs in the accessory piece, which is approximately half the length of the copulatory organ. Salminus franciscanus is a new host record and the São Francisco Basin is a new locality record for Anacanthorus daulometrus, Annulotrematoides glossophallus, Jainus iocensis and Tereancistrum arcuatus.

  16. More on the spider genus Xeropigo O.P.-Cambridge (Araneae, Corinnidae, Corinninae): seven new species and new records from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo S; Shimano, Yulie; Candiani, David F; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2016-05-17

    Seven new species of the spider genus Xeropigo O. P.-Cambridge are described from Brazil, increasing the genus member list up to 16 species. X. piripiri n. sp., X. aitatu n. sp., and X. cajuina n. sp. are described from the state of Piauí. X. crispim n. sp. is described from the states of Ceará, Piauí, and Maranhão. X. oxente n. sp. is described from the state of Rio Grande do Norte. X. canga n. sp. is described from the state of Minas Gerais. X. ufo n. sp. is described from the state of Mato Grosso. The geographical distribution of X. tridentiger, X. camilae, X. pachitea, and X. perene is updated. A key to all species of Xeropigo is presented and possible relationships among all species of the genus are discussed.

  17. Chemical Constituents of Essential Oil from Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae) Leaves Cultivated in Hidrolândia, Goiás, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Sandra Ribeiro; Oliveira, Thiago Levi Silva; Bara, Maria Teresa Freitas; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rezende, Maria Helena; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; de Paula, José Realino

    2012-01-01

    Several studies involving the family Verbenaceae, occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado, have emphasized the popular use of many aromatic species. We highlight the use of Lippia sidoides Cham., known as “alecrim pimenta,” native to northeastern Brazil and northern Minas Gerais. Leaves of this species were collected in antropized Brazilian Cerrado area, in Hidrolândia, Goiás, and their essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and thereafter analyzed GC/MS. Among the compounds identified in this study were the most abundant oxygenated monoterpenes, followed by sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons. The oxygenated monoterpene 1,8-cineole was the major constituent followed by isoborneol and bornyl acetate. The chemical composition of essential oil described in this paper differs from that described in the literature for L. sidoides found in its native environment, where the major constituents are thymol and carvacrol. PMID:22505916

  18. Vertical distributions of uranium, thorium and potassium and of volumetric heat production rates in the sediments of the São Francisco Basin, Central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, F B; Roque, A

    2001-09-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium measurements and volumetric heat production rate calculations were made in Bambui Group Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks from the São Francisco Basin, central Brazil. The measurements were made from drilling cuttings from two deep wells drilled near the cities of Alvorada do Norte, northeast Goiás State, and Montalvânia, north of Minas Gerais State. The obtained results allowed the construction of the vertical profiles depicting the abundances of heat generating elements, of the heat production rate and of U/Th, U/K and Th/K ratios in these sediments. These profiles, which reflect both the lithology and the sediment history. are used to interpret some aspects of the Bambui Group sedimentation sequence.

  19. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species. PMID:25945624

  20. Dero (Allodero) lutzi Michaelsen, 1926 (Oligochaeta: Naididae) associated with Scinax fuscovarius (Lutz, 1925) (Anura: Hylidae) from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.

  1. Folic acid intake by pregnant women from Vale do Jequitinhonha, Brazil, and the contribution of fortified foods.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Humberto Gabriel; Gubert, Muriel Bauermann; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco

    2015-03-01

    The folate deficiency can result in irreversible health damage, such as the neural tube defects. The aim of this article is to determine the folate intake of pregnant women in Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, one of the poorest regions in the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in 2013 with 492 pregnant women attending the basic health units run by the public health service (Sistema Único de Saúde, SUS) in 15 municipalities. A standard questionnaire was used to gather the data, which included socioeconomic indicators and a food frequency questionnaire. The data were analyzed and compared statistically based on prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of inadequate folate intake was associated with some socioeconomic factors: it was higher amongst the low income and less educated women, in younger women and those who had fewer meals per day. The prevalence of inadequate folate intake in the diet was 94.7% when the contribution of food fortification was not considered, 49.2% taking into account fortified foods, and 17.1% considering food folate, fortified foods, and supplementation with folic acid. We conclude that fortifying foods with folic acid at the current levels reduces the inadequacy of folate intake in the diet, but not enough to assure safe levels and to meet the nutritional requirements of pregnant women in Brazil.

  2. Experimental and molecular study of cercariae of Clinostomum sp. (Trematoda: Clinostomidae) from Biomphalaria spp. (Mollusca: Planorbidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, H A; Caffara, M; Fioravanti, M L; Melo, A L

    2015-02-01

    Despite the large number of reports of species of Clinostomum from vertebrate hosts in South America, studies evaluating the molluscan transmitters of these parasites are scarce. In the present study, clinostomatoid cercariae shed from 0.02% (4/17,485) specimens of Biomphalaria spp., collected at the Pampulha reservoir, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used for experimental infection of Poecilia reticulata . Samples of cercariae from molluscs and metacercariae experimentally obtained from fish were subjected to morphological and molecular analyses and compared with species of Clinostomum reported in the Americas. The cercariae and metacercariae, here identified as Clinostomum sp., present general morphology similar to that reported for Clinostomum marginatum , however, from molecular point of view, differ significantly from North American C. marginatum and other species of Clinostomum reported in South America. These results suggest that the diversity of Clinostomum found in Brazil may be underestimated. Additional studies aimed at molecular characterization of South American species of Clinostomum, including the finding of specimens with sequences similar to that reported for C. marginatum in North America are required.

  3. Neotectonics in northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego

    The thesis describes neotectonic deformation in the continental intraplate region of northeastern Brazil and explores its links with modern seismicity. The region, which is under E-W-oriented compression and N-S-oriented extension, shows shallow earthquake swarms which last for several years and include 5.0-5.2 mb events. Remote sensing, borehole and geophysical data, in conjunction with field structural information, indicate a continuous faulting process since the Miocene which has reactivated Cretaceous faults and Precambrian shear zones or in places generated new faults which cut across existing structures. Three main sets of faults are recognised across the area: a NE-striking set, a NW-striking set and a N-striking set. The first and the second sets are pervasive and their cross-cutting relationships show that they locally form a conjugate set and display both a strike-slip and a dip-slip component of movement. They have generated troughs filled by as much as 260 m of Cainozoic sediments. Radiocarbon dating shows that some of the faults slipped as recently as 4,041-3,689 cal. yr BP. Although the elevation of coastal deposits is consistent with the predictions of glacioisostatic models for the area, tectonic influence can be detected notably near the Carnaubais fault, where rapid emergence by at least 5 m to the east of Sao Bento occurred 4,080-2,780 cal. yr BP. Secondary ground failure, which includes hydroplastic deformation, liquefaction and landslides, can be seen in Quaternary alluvial sediments and is reported in the historical record. The present data show that the potential for large earthquakes in northeastern Brazil has been underestimated. Empirical relationships using liquefaction and surface rupture point to events of at least Ms=6.8 compared to a maximum mb = 5.2 recorded instrumentally. The finding that NE- and NW-trending faults are favourably orientated for reactivation in relation to the current stress field is of potential value for seismic

  4. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  5. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages. PMID:26840000

  6. Ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sand fly collections were performed to study ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna of the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods The collections were performed in peridomicile areas and along trails previously selected for the study of wild and synanthropic Leishmania hosts. Differences in the distribution patterns of the sand fly species as well as in species richness and abundance between the different ecotopes were investigated during both rainy and dry seasons over the course of the study period. Results A total of 8,046 sand flies belonging to 11 genera and 28 species were collected. Lutzomyia longipalpis and Nyssomyia intermedia were the most abundant species in peridomicile areas, whereas Martinsmyia minasensis and Lutzomyia cavernicola were the most abundant species among the different trail ecotopes. Conclusion The different composition of the sand fly fauna observed in the peridomicile areas and in the trails during the study, reinforces the importance of sampled different areas in a phlebotomine fauna survey. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Ny. Intermedia most abundant in peridomicile can be important to Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis transmission in the Imbaúbas native village. PMID:24886717

  7. On the possibility of autochthonous Chagas disease in Roraima, Amazon region, Brazil, 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Luitgards-Moura, José Francisco; Borges-Pereira, José; Costa, Jane; Zauza, Patrícia Lago; Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti

    2005-01-01

    Chagas disease has been almost entirely eradicated from the arid zones in Central and Northeastern Brazil where rare or no autochthonous cases have been reported. However, in the last 10 years the disease has increasingly been registered in the Amazon Region. Aiming to investigate the possibility of the occurrence of autochthonous cycle of Chagas disease in Roraima, triatomine collections, vectorial susceptibility studies (this one to be shown elsewhere), parasitological and serological analyses were conducted in three agricultural settlement areas (Rorainópolis, Passarão Project and Ilha Community). Blood-donor candidates were also investigated. This is the first epidemiological survey on Chagas disease conducted in agricultural settlements in Roraima. Triatomine species found were Triatoma maculata, Rhodnius pictipes, Rhodnius robustus and Panstrongylus geniculatus. Trypanosoma cruzi detection analyses included xenodiagnosis, indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemaglutination, ELISA and kinetoplast PCR amplification. Natural triatomine infection was not found in intestinal contents. Twenty-five adult settlers (1.4% out of 1821, all > 15 year-old, 20 migrants) presented anti-T. cruzi antibodies. Two migrant settlers (from Minas Gerais and Maranhão) tested positive for more than two serological tests, besides either being positive for xenodiagnosis or PCR. Results show that Chagas disease is not endemic in the areas studied. However, all elements of the transmission cycle are present, demanding for an adequate and continuous vigilance.

  8. Science, health and development: Chagas disease in Brazil, 1943-1962.

    PubMed

    Kropf, S Petraglia

    2005-12-01

    The present paper discusses the historical construction and legitimacy of Chagas disease as a distinct nosological entity and as a public health issue in Brazil. It focuses on the activities of a group of researchers from Oswaldo Cruz Institute who worked at the Centre for the Study and Prevention of Chagas disease, located in Bambuí, Minas Gerais. Led in the 1940s and 50s by Emmanuel Dias, disciple of Carlos Chagas, the group made important contributions to the clinical characterization of Chagas disease as a cardiac illness, established the fact that it was technically possible to control the disease by using residual insecticides, and engaged in intense political mobilization to have the disease included as part of the Health Ministry sanitation campaigns. My hypothesis is that the group's work was a determining factor in the overcoming of certain unresolved controversies that had surrounded the medical and social identity of the disease since the 1920s. I examine to what extent this process was directly linked both to post-war optimism over new possibilities of combating infectious diseases and to the national and international debate on the relation between health and economic and social development.

  9. Fasciola hepatica IN BOVINES IN BRAZIL: DATA AVAILABILITY AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION

    PubMed Central

    Bennema, Sita C.; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Medeiros, Camilla; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a disease of importance for both veterinary and public health. For the first time, georeferenced prevalence data of Fasciola hepatica in bovines were collected and mapped for the Brazilian territory and data availability was discussed. Bovine fasciolosis in Brazil is monitored on a Federal, State and Municipal level, and to improve monitoring it is essential to combine the data collected on these three levels into one dataset. Data were collected for 1032 municipalities where livers were condemned by the Federal Inspection Service (MAPA/SIF) because of the presence of F. hepatica. The information was distributed over 11 states: Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, Pará, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo. The highest prevalence of fasciolosis was observed in the southern states, with disease clusters along the coast of Paraná and Santa Catarina and in Rio Grande do Sul. Also, temporal variation of the prevalence was observed. The observed prevalence and the kriged prevalence maps presented in this paper can assist both animal and human health workers in estimating the risk of infection in their state or municipality. PMID:24553606

  10. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  11. An analysis of the impact of the Schistosomiasis Control Programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ronaldo Santos do; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Lima, David Duart; Engels, Dirk

    2006-09-01

    The impact of the Schistosomiasis Control Programme (PCE) in Brazil was analyzed, covering the period 1976 to 2003, using the following indicators: percentage of Schistosoma mansoni carriers detected among the population examined in the coproscopic surveys (PPS): mortality rate for schistosomiasis, per 100,000 inhabitants (TME): hospitalization rate for schistosomiasis, per 100,000 inhabitants (TIE): average age of deaths caused by schistosomiasis (IMOE). There was a 38.5% reduction in the PPS after the introduction of the PCE, attributed to the treatment of carriers. Even in hyper-endemic municipalities, such as Conde and Cuitegí, in the state of Paraíba, the PPS fell more than 50% after the first year of treatment. The parasitic burden of the carriers also decreased in the two municipalities. The TME was reduced by 63.4% and the TIE by 77.3%. The mortality rate was highest among the 50-and-above age group. The country's IMOE rose 32.3%. The IMOE was seen to be much lower in the state of Minas Gerais, where the PCE was only initiated in 1983, with very limited coverage. PMID:17308751

  12. Public Knowledge about and Detection of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Urban Divinópolis, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Margonari, Carina; Menezes, Júlia Alves; Rocha, Marcele Neves; Maia, Kamila Nunes; Éder de Oliveira, Michael; Luisa Fonseca, Amanda; Furtado de Sousa, Fabrizio; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Madureira, Ana Paula; Melo, Maria Norma; Soares, Rodrigo Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniases are diseases with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations including cutaneous (CL) and visceral (VL) forms. Many factors may affect their occurrence and expansion including environmental, geographic, and social conditions. In the past two decades, Divinópolis, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, has exhibited the potential for a disease outbreak, with the appearance of CL, and VL cases (human and canine). Hence, this study was initiated to monitor public knowledge of the disease. Questionnaires were administered in four neighborhoods (Jardim Belvedere, Esplanada, Danilo Passos I and II) where most of the human and canine cases have been reported. The analyses demonstrated that public knowledge of the disease is sparse and fragmented. A strong perception of the dog as the main reservoir was observed. Five veterinary clinics were evaluated for the presence of canine VL using serological (RIFI and ELISA) and molecular (PCR-RFLP) techniques. This is the first study demonstrating the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in Divinópolis, suggesting a possible urbanization of VL. PMID:22991521

  13. Chagas Disease Control Programme in Brazil: a study of the effectiveness of 13 years of intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, F. C.; Vitor, R. W.; Antunes, C. M.; Carneiro, M.

    1998-01-01

    Reported is an evaluation of 13 years of intervention by the Chagas Disease Control Programme in an endemic area (Montalvania) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The design used was an epidemiological panel study. The reduction of Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates was estimated from data collected on three separate occasions: a serological survey in 1975-80, a quasi-experimental study in 1987, and the present investigation. A random sample of 156 households was selected and blood samples were collected from 653 inhabitants. The data routinely collected by the control programme were analysed to correlate the results with the incidence of T. cruzi. The overall prevalence of infection was 2.3%; however, no participant under 14 years of age was found to have a positive serological test. The total reduction in T. cruzi infection rates in this area from the start of the programme's activities was estimated to be 83.5%. Cross-sectional comparisons for the age groups 2-6 years and 7-14 years indicated a 100% reduction in T. cruzi incidence rates; but cohort comparisons showed that 100% reduction was achieved only for the 2-6-years age group. PMID:9803589

  14. Geologic conceptual model of the municipality of Sete Lagoas (MG, Brazil) and the surroundings.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Paulo; Hirata, Ricardo; Cordeiro, Arnaldo; Barbati, Daniela; Peñaranda, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    The study area is located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, among the municipalities of Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, and Sete Lagoas, with Velhas River as the eastern boundary. It is located in the São Francisco Craton, where carbonated argillo-arenaceous sediments are emplaced giving origin to the Bambuí Group, in the São Francisco Basin. Despite the geological knowledge previously developed, the region needs work on integration and detailing of such information. For this reason, the main objective was to contribute to the quality of the geologic cartography, the spatial distribution, and the structural framework geometry. Thus, geologic mapping, aerial photography interpretation, and evaluation of 270 lithologic well profiles were carried out. It was possible to establish a new geologic perspective of the region by obtaining the detailed geologic map of the municipality of Sete Lagoas, 14 geologic cross sections, and a geologic conceptual model. The study showed that the area is within a basin border, presenting a geometry conditioned by horst and graben system controlled by faulting. This structural feature displaced stratigraphic sequences positioning them side by side with lithologic sequences with different ages.

  15. Seasonal Variation and Frequency Distribution of Ectoparasites in Crossbreed Cattle in Southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz da Costa, Maria do Socorro; Guimarães, Marcos Pezzi; Lima, Walter dos Santos; Ferraz da Costa, Ana Julia; Facury Filho, Elias Jorge; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the seasonal variation and frequency distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Haematobia irritans, and Dermatobia hominis on crossbred heifers under field conditions in the northeast of Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. From November 2007 to September 2009 (23 months), 40 heifers aged 16.6 ± 2.4 months were divided into groups A (1/4 Holstein × 3/4 Gir) and B (1/2 Holstein × 1/2 Gir) and had the monthly infestation estimated along with the climatic conditions. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures were 28.5 and 19°C, respectively. The ectoparasites were present on animals in all months of the year. The levels of ticks on the animals were low (3.0 ± 0.2 ticks/animal), with the highest density in midwinter. The temperature was the climatic factor that most influenced the tick levels. The population of H. irritans (13.9 ± 0.3 flies/animal) and D. hominis (1.5 ± 0.2 larvae/animal) on heifers was more influenced by rainfall and exhibited two population peaks during the year. 1/2 Holstein heifers harbored significantly more H. irritans and D. hominis than 1/4 Holstein heifers. The results are discussed considering the most appropriate periods to apply ectoparasiticides and the genetic make-up of the animals. PMID:26464941

  16. HIGH PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis INFECTION AMONG THE ELDERLY IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Naves, Maria Margarida; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known about the frequency of intestinal parasites in the elderly due to a lack of attention given to the occurrence of these infections among older adults. This study compares the frequency of Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites between elderly living in nursing homes (n = 100) and those noninstitutionalized (n = 100) from Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, associated with data of epidemiological and socio-demographic conditions. Through coproparasitological examination of both groups, enteroparasites were detected in 15 of 200 individuals examined (7.5%; CI: 5.1- 9.9). S. stercoralis was the most frequent parasite 10/200 (5%; CI: 4.2-5.8), being significantly higher in males and in individuals with autonomy for daily living activities. There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of parasites between the two groups compared. In conclusion, S. stercoralis infection was highly prevalent in elderly patients and it does not depend on whether the individual was institutionalized or not. PMID:24037284

  17. Population genetic structure of Attalea vitrivir Zona (Arecaceae) in fragmented areas of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R R M; Cavallari, M M; Pimenta, M A S; Abreu, A G; Costa, M R; Guedes, M L

    2015-06-11

    Attalea vitrivir Zona (synonym Orbignya oleifera) is one of the six species of Arecaceae known as "babassu". This species is used to make cosmetics, food, and detergents due to the high concentration of oil in the seeds. It is found only in fragmented areas of southern Bahia State and northern Minas Gerais State, southeast Brazil, and this fragmentation has affected both its ecological and genetic characteristics. We evaluated the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of A. vitrivir in six areas of two different regions at the extremes of its geographical range, in order to gain a better understanding of the factors that affect the distribution and partitioning of its diversity. Nine inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers amplified 74 polymorphic bands, resulting in large diversity values (Shannon diversity index, 0.37-0.47; intrapopulation genetic diversity, 0.25-0.34). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed considerable differentiation between sampling sites (30.03%) and regions (12.08%), although most of the diversity was observed within sampling sites (69%). Further differentiation between sampling sites was noted more in the northern region than in the southern region, highlighting the genetic connectivity between the sampling sites within Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area (southern region). The identification of two distinct genetic clusters (K = 2) corresponded to the northern and southern regions, and corroborated the AMOVA results. We suggest that the northern area, outside Rio Pandeiros Environmental Protection Area, must be included in future management plans for this species.

  18. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome. PMID:26541807

  19. Hydrological Forecasting Practices in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Fernando; Paiva, Rodrigo; Collischonn, Walter; Ramos, Maria-Helena

    2016-04-01

    This work brings a review on current hydrological and flood forecasting practices in Brazil, including the main forecasts applications, the different kinds of techniques that are currently being employed and the institutions involved on forecasts generation. A brief overview of Brazil is provided, including aspects related to its geography, climate, hydrology and flood hazards. A general discussion about the Brazilian practices on hydrological short and medium range forecasting is presented. Detailed examples of some hydrological forecasting systems that are operational or in a research/pre-operational phase using the large scale hydrological model MGB-IPH are also presented. Finally, some suggestions are given about how the forecasting practices in Brazil can be understood nowadays, and what are the perspectives for the future.

  20. Diversity and Localization of Bacterial Endosymbionts from Whitefly Species Collected in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  1. Diversity and localization of bacterial endosymbionts from whitefly species collected in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marubayashi, Julio Massaharu; Kliot, Adi; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Rezende, Jorge Alberto Marques; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are sap-sucking insect pests, and some cause serious damage in agricultural crops by direct feeding and by transmitting plant viruses. Whiteflies maintain close associations with bacterial endosymbionts that can significantly influence their biology. All whitefly species harbor a primary endosymbiont, and a diverse array of secondary endosymbionts. In this study, we surveyed 34 whitefly populations collected from the states of Sao Paulo, Bahia, Minas Gerais and Parana in Brazil, for species identification and for infection with secondary endosymbionts. Sequencing the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene revealed the existence of five whitefly species: The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci B biotype (recently termed Middle East-Asia Minor 1 or MEAM1), the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum, B. tabaci A biotype (recently termed New World 2 or NW2) collected only from Euphorbia, the Acacia whitefly Tetraleurodes acaciae and Bemisia tuberculata both were detected only on cassava. Sequencing rRNA genes showed that Hamiltonella and Rickettsia were highly prevalent in all MEAM1 populations, while Cardinium was close to fixation in only three populations. Surprisingly, some MEAM1 individuals and one NW2 population were infected with Fritschea. Arsenopnohus was the only endosymbiont detected in T. vaporariorum. In T. acaciae and B. tuberculata populations collected from cassava, Wolbachia was fixed in B. tuberculata and was highly prevalent in T. acaciae. Interestingly, while B. tuberculata was additionally infected with Arsenophonus, T. acaciae was infected with Cardinium and Fritschea. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis on representative individuals showed that Hamiltonella, Arsenopnohus and Fritschea were localized inside the bacteriome, Cardinium and Wolbachia exhibited dual localization patterns inside and outside the bacteriome, and Rickettsia showed strict localization outside the bacteriome. This study is

  2. Relative Risk of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Brazil: A Spatial Analysis in Urban Area

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Valdelaine Etelvina Miranda; Pinheiro, Letícia Cavalari; Almeida, Maria Cristina de Mattos; de Menezes, Fernanda Carvalho; Morais, Maria Helena Franco; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Assunção, Renato Martins; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease whose factors involved in transmission are poorly understood, especially in more urban and densely populated counties. In Brazil, the VL urbanization is a challenge for the control program. The goals were to identify the greater risk areas for human VL and the risk factors involved in transmission. Methodology This is an ecological study on the relative risk of human VL. Spatial units of analysis were the coverage areas of the Basic Health Units (146 small-areas) of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Human VL cases, from 2007 to 2009 (n = 412), were obtained in the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System. Bayesian approach was used to model the relative risk of VL including potential risk factors involved in transmission (canine infection, socioeconomic and environmental features) and to identify the small-areas of greater risk to human VL. Principal Findings The relative risk of VL was shown to be correlated with income, education, and the number of infected dogs per inhabitants. The estimates of relative risk of VL were higher than 1.0 in 54% of the areas (79/146). The spatial modeling highlighted 14 areas with the highest relative risk of VL and 12 of them are concentrated in the northern region of the city. Conclusions The spatial analysis used in this study is useful for the identification of small-areas according to risk of human VL and presents operational applicability in control and surveillance program in an urban environment with an unequal spatial distribution of the disease. Thus the frequent monitoring of relative risk of human VL in small-areas is important to direct and prioritize the actions of the control program in urban environment, especially in big cities. PMID:24244776

  3. Thunderstorms over Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph, acquired in February 1984 by an astronaut aboard the space shuttle, shows a series of mature thunderstorms located near the Parana River in southern Brazil. With abundant warm temperatures and moisture-laden air in this part of Brazil, large thunderstorms are commonplace. A number of overshooting tops and anvil clouds are visible at the tops of the clouds. Storms of this magnitude can drop large amounts of rainfall in a short period of time, causing flash floods. However, a NASA-funded researcher has discovered that tiny airborne particles of pollution may modify developing thunderclouds by increasing the quantity and reducing the size of the ice crystals within them. These modifications may affect the clouds' impact on the Earth's 'radiation budget,' or the amount of radiation that enters and leaves our planet. Steven Sherwood, a professor at Yale University, found that airborne aerosols reduce the size of ice crystals in thunderclouds and may reduce precipitation as well. Using several satellites and instruments including NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, Sherwood observed how airborne pollution particles (aerosols) affect large thunderstorms, or cumulonimbus clouds in the tropics. Common aerosols include mineral dust, smoke, and sulfates. An increased number of these particles create a larger number of smaller ice crystals in cumulonimbus clouds. As a result of their smaller size, the ice crystals evaporate from a solid state directly into a gas, instead of falling as rain. Sherwood noted that this effect is more prevalent over land than open ocean areas. Previous research by Daniel Rosenfeld of Hebrew University revealed that aerosols and pollution reduced rainfall in shallow cumulus clouds of liquid water, which do not have the capability to produce as much rainfall. Sherwood expanded on that research by looking at cumulonimbus clouds with more ice particles. Studies

  4. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised.

  5. Sexuality education in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Suplicy, M

    1994-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive program of sex education in Brazilian schools is described in the context of Brazil's culture and traditions such as the Carnival. The influence of Catholicism is explored as is the effect of the behavioral restrictions called for by scientists concerned about sexually transmitted diseases. The Brazilian response to homosexuality is described, and the emergence of a public discussion of sexuality in the media is traced. It is noted that improvements in the status of women have been held in check by a public ridicule of feminism and by the strength of the traditional patriarchal structures which dominate the culture. With this picture given of how the issue of sexuality fits into Brazilian life, the 1980s initiative on the part of the Work and Research Group for Sex Education is described. Opposition to this effort has largely taken the form of passive resistance; even the Catholic Church has not officially protested the sex education program. Details are provided about 1) the selection of teachers, teacher training, and weekly supervisory teacher meetings; 2) the way in which parental permission for student participation was gained; 3) the implementation of the program; 4) the successes achieved; and 5) the difficulties encountered. Finally, it is noted that plans were made to expand the sex education project from the Sao Paulo area to 6 additional large cities in 1994. Also planned is the publication of the Brazilian Guidelines for Comprehensive Sexuality which will explain the sex education methodology and be extremely valuable in the establishment of new projects. PMID:12287356

  6. Country watch: Brazil.

    PubMed

    Szterenfeld, C

    1995-01-01

    The Health in Prostitution Project was launched in 1991 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The project offers a multi-year training program of health education designed to both fight the stigmatization of and violence against commercial sex workers and enhance their self-esteem, self-determination, and access to civil rights. The project therefore promotes individual awareness while influencing public opinion and policies. At first, health agents were recruited among women and transvestites who work in street-based sex work. The program was then gradually expanded to include young male sex workers and other locations, such as private parlors, saunas, and escort services. People of all sexes and sexual orientation now comprise the health agent group. The program has a paid staff of five women, three young men, and three transvestites, and approximately 70 sex workers are trained annually. Basic training includes topics such as human sexuality, personal risk assessment, HIV/STD infection, negotiation of safer sex, and STD referral services. Year two training emphasizes reproductive and women's health issues, while year three courses prioritize street work methodologies. Theatrical performances, speaking English as a second language, and performing Bach flower therapy for clients take place during the fourth year. Program trainers include medical specialists, nurses, psychologists, health educators, lawyers, and university students. At least half of the 350 health agents trained thus far are estimated to be currently engaged in paid or voluntary prevention work. Two surveys with female sex workers in 1991 and 1993 found that reported regular condom use increased from 57% to 73%; the health agents are having an effect. The program is constantly evaluated and revised. PMID:12346918

  7. Zika virus outbreak in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heukelbach, Jorg; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Kelvin, Alyson Ann; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano

    2016-02-28

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

  8. Brazil The Duck Lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of Brazil covers an area of about 298 kilometers x 358 kilometers, and was captured by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera on December 27, 2001. The 'Lagoa dos Patos', in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, translates to 'the Duck Lagoon'. It was named by 16th century Jesuit settlers, who asked the King of Spain to grant them title to the lagoon so that they could breed ducks. The King consented, but revoked his edict when he discovered that the 'duck-pond' (measuring about 14,000 square kilometers) was one of the largest lagoonal systems in the world. Note the sediment plume emanating from the southern end of the lagoon. Sailors in the 16th century imagined this outlet to be the mouth of a large river. Early Portuguese explorers mistook the entrance to the lagoon for the mouth of a great river and called it the Rio Grande. A series of wave-like points and curls form 'cusps' on the inner shores of the lagoon. The lagoon's characteristics change with short-term tide-induced cyclic perturbations, and with longer term large scale meteorological conditions. The distinctive wavelike 'cusps' along the inner shores result from the circulation, erosion and accumulation of sediments driven by wind and tidal action. The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) circulation affects precipitation amount and continental runoff, thereby changing the contents of the lagoon waters. High rainfall and increased freshwater discharge during El Nino events correspond with elevated dissolved nutrient concentrations and increased phytoplankton growth. La Nina years are dry and the associated low rainfall reduces the freshwater recharge to the lagoon, causing an increase in salinity. Occasional blooms of toxic cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa), have been registered in the lagoon when nutrient concentrations are elevated. A number of reeds and grasses are important to the lagoon estuary, including widgeon grass

  9. Opportunity Foregone: Education in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Nancy, Ed.; Sabot, Richard H., Ed.

    The studies presented in this volume help readers to understand the constraints faced in addressing the key problems within the Brazilian education system. Steps to address the issues and benefits to be gained by addressing those issues are discussed. Forty-two authors reiterate that the success of Brazil's education reform will have an important…

  10. Environmental Education Activities in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Michele

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental education activities in the Cuiaba region of Brazil's Amazon and Platina Basins. Activities include the environmental education specialization course at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, teacher training in rural schools, and the introduction of environmental themes into school curriculum. (MDH)

  11. Chromobacterium violaceum in Siblings, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Juarez; Ruf, Hilda; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G.; Maciel, Elves Anderson Pires; Rolim, Ana; Jabur, Laura; Vasconcelos, Luciana; Silvany, Célia

    2005-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil. PMID:16229777

  12. Chromobacterium violaceum in siblings, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Isadora Cristina; Dias, Juarez; Ruf, Hilda; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G; Maciel, Elves Anderson Pires; Rolim, Ana; Labur, Laura; Vasconcelos, Luciana; Silvany, Célia

    2005-09-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum, a saprophyte bacterium found commonly in soil and water in tropical and subtropical climates, is a rare cause of severe, often fatal, human disease. We report 1 confirmed and 2 suspected cases of C. violaceum septicemia, with 2 fatalities, in siblings after recreational exposure in northeastern Brazil. PMID:16229777

  13. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  14. Neglected tropical diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lindoso, José Angelo L; Lindoso, Ana Angélica B P

    2009-01-01

    Poverty is intrinsically related to the incidence of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). The main countries that have the lowest human development indices (HDI) and the highest burdens of NTDs are located in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Among these countries is Brazil, which is ranked 70th in HDI. Nine out of the ten NTDs established by the World Health Organization (WHO) are present in Brazil. Leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, dengue fever and leprosy are present over almost the entire Brazilian territory. More than 90% of malaria cases occur in the Northern region of the country, and lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis occur in outbreaks in a particular region. The North and Northeast regions of Brazil have the lowest HDIs and the highest rates of NTDs. These diseases are considered neglected because there is not important investment in projects for the development of new drugs and vaccines and existing programs to control these diseases are not sufficient. Another problem related to NTDs is co-infection with HIV, which favors the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations and therapeutic failure. In this article, we describe the status of the main NTDs currently occurring in Brazil and relate them to the HDI and poverty.

  15. Education for Librarianship in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Pamela F.

    The paper examines and describes the development, trends, and current status of education for librarianship in Brazil against the background of the contemporary library scene and the system of higher education in general, focusing on the development of the 30 undergraduate and six post-graduate library programs in existence today. The master's…

  16. Evaluating School Facilities in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Sheila Walbe; Moreira, Nanci Saraiva

    2008-01-01

    Brazil's Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region is conducting a performance evaluation pilot study at three schools serving disadvantaged populations. The objective is first to test methods which can facilitate Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) and then to carry out the evaluations. The preliminary results are provided below.

  17. [The Impact of Prohibition on drinking and driving in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to present comparative data on drinking and driving behavior among drivers in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais, in the period from 2005 to 2009, evaluating the impact of Law No. 11.705 (Prohibition), dated June 6, 2008. Data regarding prevalence of this behavior, collected at Sobriety Checkpoints (internationally used methodology) were analyzed using representative samples obtained from drivers on different public roads with intensive traffic in Belo Horizonte (2005-2009), thus permitting analysis of the impact of the new law. In 2008, the data showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the prevalence of individuals driving with any level of alcohol in the blood, when compared to 2007, after the change in legislation. This study showed that the impact caused by Law No.11.705 was marked in the sense of modifying the behavior under scrutiny. However, other control measures need to be added to the current legislation, in order to obtain a continuous reduction of drinking and driving behavior, thereby fostering a culture of sobriety on the road. PMID:22534851

  18. [The Impact of Prohibition on drinking and driving in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais].

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rogério de Souza; Campos, Valdir Ribeiro; Duailibi, Sérgio; Laranjeira, Ronaldo Ramos

    2012-04-01

    The scope of this paper is to present comparative data on drinking and driving behavior among drivers in Belo Horizonte in the State of Minas Gerais, in the period from 2005 to 2009, evaluating the impact of Law No. 11.705 (Prohibition), dated June 6, 2008. Data regarding prevalence of this behavior, collected at Sobriety Checkpoints (internationally used methodology) were analyzed using representative samples obtained from drivers on different public roads with intensive traffic in Belo Horizonte (2005-2009), thus permitting analysis of the impact of the new law. In 2008, the data showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the prevalence of individuals driving with any level of alcohol in the blood, when compared to 2007, after the change in legislation. This study showed that the impact caused by Law No.11.705 was marked in the sense of modifying the behavior under scrutiny. However, other control measures need to be added to the current legislation, in order to obtain a continuous reduction of drinking and driving behavior, thereby fostering a culture of sobriety on the road.

  19. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature.

  20. Enteroparasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais.

    PubMed

    Machado, Eleuza Rodrigues; Santos, Dircelina Silva; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of intestinal parasites and commensals among children in four peripheral districts located in the northern, southern, eastern and western sectors of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, using the Baermann methods as modified by Moraes and Lutz. Out of 160 individuals studied, 93 (58.1% CI: 50.4-65.7) were infected, distributed among the sectors as follows: northern (72.5%), southern (47.5%), eastern (57.5%) and western (55%). The positive findings according to age groups were: 0-5 years (26.9%), 5-10 years (21.2%) and 10-15 years (10%). Male children presented 2.7 times higher risk of infection than females did (OR: 2.7; CI: 1052-7001). The parasites and commensals identified were: Giardia lamblia (27.5%), Entamoeba coli (20.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (14.4%), Enterobius vermicularis (8.8%), Hymenolepis nana (7.5%), Hymenolepis diminuta (5%), hookworms (3.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.5%), Endolimax nana (2.5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (2.5%), Strongyloides stercoralis (1.3%), Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%) and Capillaria hepatica (0.6%). The infection rate in these children was high and showed the need to implement prophylactic education programs in the community. PMID:19142436

  1. [Multiple sclerosis: study of patients with relapsing-remitting form registered at Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health].

    PubMed

    Santos, Eustáquio Claret dos; Yokota, Mitico; Dias, Nádia Fernanda Rezende

    2007-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The recommended treatment for the relapsing-remitting form is carried out with the immunomodulatory drugs, which are provided, in Belo Horizonte, by Minas Gerais Secretary of State for Health (MG/SSH). We analyzed data of 283 patients registered at Exceptional Drug Program (immunomodulators) of SES/MG from May to October 2004. There was predominance of females (3.7:1) and the mean age was 38.4 +/-10.7 years old. The first clinical manifestations were 29.7+/-10.2 years old. The initial symptoms included sensorial (46.4%), visual (33.1%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (30.1%) and motor (pyramidal) syndrome (25.9%). The symptoms observed in subsequent relapses were motor (22.3%), brainstem/cerebellar syndromes (18.9%), visual (18.9%) and sensorial findings (9.6%). In 234 brain MRI and 109 spine MRI there were demyelinating lesions at 97.4% and 85.3% respectively. We compared our findings with other series described on Brazilian literature. PMID:17952303

  2. Relationship Between South Atlantic Subtropical High and South Atlantic SST Anomalies during Extreme Precipitation Events on Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pampuch, L.; Ambrizzi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Southeast region of Brazil comprises the states of Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo. It occupies 10.85% of Brazilian territory and is highly urbanized. The Southeast Brazil is the biggest geoeconomic region of the country having a strong and diverse economy. Agriculture dominates in all states of the region. The main agricultural products are sugar cane, coffee, cotton, maize, cassava, rice, beans and fruits. Livestock farming is also practiced in the region. The largest herd of cattle is found in the state of Minas Gerais. These activities are highly dependent on the amount and distribution of rainfall. Studies of extreme precipitation events over Brazil have been well emphasized in the literature over the years and their relationship with anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in both the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean have been analyzed. This paper investigates the extreme events occurring in southeastern Brazil from 1982 to 2004 using the technique of quantiles. The composite technique was applied to precipitation, sea level pressure anomaly (SLP) and sea surface temperature anomaly (SST) data in order to investigate the characteristics of rainfall patterns, the position and intensity of South Atlantic subtropical high (SASH) and SST anomalies in the Southern Atlantic Ocean (SAO) in the occurrence of these events and to make a distinction between dry and wet extremes. Analyzing the precipitation patterns, it was noticed that the composition of dry events throughout the Southeast Brazil has negative precipitation anomalies. Particularly, in the southern part of the region there is a large precipitation deficit, having an average of 50mm in the winter months. The composition for the wet events shows that, on average, positive precipitation anomalies with the southern region containing the highest cumulative average, reaching a positive anomaly of 100mm. The composition of SLP in the case of dry events indicates a positive anomaly

  3. [Friar José Mariano da Conceição Veloso and the promotion of industrial techniques in colonial Brazil: discussion of some concepts from the chemical sciences].

    PubMed

    Luna, Fernando J

    2009-01-01

    At the turn of the 19th century, Minas Gerais Botanist Friar Veloso worked intensely on the publication of books to promote among settlers from the Portuguese empire techniques for improving agricultural production and from the incipient chemistry industry. This article analyzes the first volume of the "Alographia dos alkalis fixos...", a work that includes articles, book chapters, letters and patents from ten authors, particularly French and English, about the scientific and technical knowledge needed for the production of potassium carbonate from the ash of native plants. Some concepts and definitions used at the time of the Chemical Revolution are discussed, considering that Veloso translated them to Portuguese and introduced them to Brazil through his work.

  4. Geotourism in the "Estrada Real", Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travassos, L. E. P.; Barbosa, F. M. Da C. P.

    2009-04-01

    Many natural landscapes are preserved throughout the World due to their cultural and historical values as well as for their environmental importance. The Way of Saint James of Compostela (Camino de Santiago de Compostela), located in Europe, is a well known example of this. It was the inspiration source for the development of a tourist route in the Brazilian States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, although it has no pilgrimage connotation. The Estrada Real (literally translated as the Royal Route) is made of a series of roads or routes that were formerly used by the Portuguese colonizers to control the flow of gold, silver, diamonds and other precious stones and minerals. The tourist activities, particularly in the State of Minas Gerais, are experiencing an accelerated growth, benefiting the local and traditional communities economically. The existence of various geomorphological and geological sites in the Estrada Real has also favored the increase of the ecotourism and the Brazilian incipient geotourism. However, the uncontrolled touristic activities can damage the natural environment and some historical heritage sites. This research basically consisted in a preliminary identification of important geomorphosites such as caves and mountains that need to be protected for a rational and sustainable use. Out of the 4,632 known Brazilian caves, approximately 1,655 caves developed in limestone, dolomite, quartzite and granite are located in the State of Minas Gerais. For this reason, the authors strongly recommend that studies on the importance of such geomorphosites should take place in the municipalities of the Estrada Real in order to guide the regional development of tourism and sustainable development. Keywords: ecotourism, Estrada Real, sustainability.

  5. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  6. First record of Ceratium furcoides (Dinophyta), an invasive species, in a temporary high-altitude lake in the Iron Quadrangle (MG, Southeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    Moreira, R A; Rocha, O; Santos, R M; Laudares-Silva, R; Dias, E S; Eskinazi-Sant'Anna, E M

    2015-01-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Ceratium are generally marine organisms, but rare occurrences in freshwater have been observed in Brazil. In this paper we are recording for the first time the presence of Ceratium furcoides, an invasive species, in a shallow, natural intermittent pool formed at a high-altitude at the southern end of the Iron Quadrangle, an iron-mining district of Minas Gerais State (Southeast Brazil). Samples were collected in October and November of 2010 (rainy period). The population density of this organism observed in Lagoa Seca ("Dry Pool") was very low, at most 4 ind L-1. Mountain lakes are extremely vulnerable to atmospheric deposition of organisms, making them valuable witnesses both of the many forms of impact arising from human activities and of the extended global connections that facilitate the dispersion and introduction of new species over great distances. Studies on the population dynamics of C. furcoides in natural tropical systems are still rare and very recent to the brazilian scenario and hence the monitoring of its dynamics and the potential impact on aquatic communities of its becoming established are essential to an understanding of the process of bioinvasion by this species.

  7. [Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil: estimation of prevalence based on preliminary data of national serological surveys in children under 5 years old and other sources].

    PubMed

    Luquetti, Alejandro O; Ferreira, António Walter; Oliveira, Rosângela A; Tavares, Suelene B N; Rassi, Anis; Dias, João Carlos P; Prata, Aluizio

    2005-01-01

    A prevalence estimation of congenital transmission in Brazil is performed, based on several sources of recent data. From a serological survey conducted now in Brazil, with children below 5 years old, preliminary data from the state of Minas Gerais only 19/9,556 children did have antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi. All 19 mothers were infected, but only one child persisted with antibodies on a second blood collection, hence diagnosed as congenital. The other were just passive transference of maternal antibodies. From a recent publication, 278 children born from 145 infected mothers were studied. Two cases (0.7%) were congenital. In other source, from 1,348 blood donors, 35 were born in non endemic areas. When 10 of them were called, 8 were born from infected mothers and five may be congenital. Finally, no infection was detected in 93 children born from 78 infected mothers. The reasons for this low prevalence are discussed, are lower than in other countries of the South Cone, that harbor also T. cruzi 2, but are unrecognized up to now.

  8. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  9. AIDS Treatment In Brazil: Impacts And Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nunn, Amy Stewart; Fonseca, Elize Massard da; Bastos, Francisco I.; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    Brazil has one of the developing world's largest, and arguably most successful, AIDS treatment programs. In this paper we review the treatment program, including controversial policies that Brazil has used to promote widespread local and global access to AIDS treatment. We also examine the lessons learned from this program and highlight the challenges Brazil faces, including the rising costs of AIDS treatment and changes in donors' funding priorities. Finally, we explore the relevance of Brazil's treatment program for other countries and its broad implications for global AIDS and health policy. PMID:19597210

  10. El-Niño southern oscillation and rainfall erosivity in the headwater region of the Grande River Basin, Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, C. R.; Norton, L. D.; Curi, N.; Yanagi, S. N. M.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Relationships between regional climate and oceanic and atmospheric anomalies are important tools in order to promote the development of models for predicting rainfall erosivity, especially in regions with substantial intra-annual variability in the rainfall regime. In this context, this work aimed to analyze the rainfall erosivity in headwaters of Grande River Basin, Southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. This study considered the two most representative environments, the Mantiqueira Range (MR) and Plateau of Southern Minas Gerais (PSM). These areas are affected by the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) indicators Sea Surface Temperature (SST) for Niño 3.4 Region and Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI). Rainfall erosivity was calculated for individual rainfall events from January 2006 to December 2010. The analyses were conducted using the monthly data of ENSO indicators and the following rainfall variables: rainfall erosivity (EI30), rainfall depth (P), erosive rainfall depth (E), number of rainfall events (NRE), number of erosive rainfall events (NEE), frequency of occurrence of an early rainfall pattern (EP), occurrence of late rainfall pattern (LP) and occurrence of intermediate rainfall patter (IP). Pearson's coefficient of correlation was used to evaluate the relationships between the rainfall variables and SST and MEI. The coefficients of correlation were significant for SST in the PSM sub-region. Correlations between the rainfall variables and negative oscillations of SST were also significant, especially in the MR sub-region, however, the Person's coefficients were lesser than those obtained for the SST positive oscillations. The correlations between the rainfall variables and MEI were also significant but lesser than the SST correlations. These results demonstrate that SST positive oscillations play a more important role in rainfall erosivity, meaning they were more influenced by El-Niño episodes. Also, these results have shown that the ENSO variables have

  11. Rainfall erosivity in Brazil: A Review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, we review the erosivity studies conducted in Brazil to verify the quality and representativeness of the results generated and to provide a greater understanding of the rainfall erosivity (R-factor) in Brazil. We searched the ISI Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and Google Scholar datab...

  12. Recent developments on shotcrete applications in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Guimaraes Filho, J.D.; Guimaraes Neto, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes the development of shotcrete in Brazil, since its introduction in the country to the present. Firstly, the authors focus on the application, with an overview on the main projects in which shotcrete was used. Next, the evolution of fabrication of shotcrete equipment in Brazil and some new achievements in this area are shown.

  13. CHARCOAL-PRODUCING INDUSTRIES IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Charcoal workers in northeastern Brazil: Occupational risks and effects of exposure to wood smoke
    ABSTRACT
    Brazil has the largest production of charcoal in the world, which is used mostly in the iron and steel industries. In most of the production sites, the process is ba...

  14. Brazil = Brasil. America = Las Americas [Series].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    Written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades, this bilingual English/Spanish social studies resource booklet provides an encyclopedia-style overview of Brazil's history, geography, economy, and culture. Topics include Brazil's form of government; geographic regions; holidays; climate; people; music; carnaval celebration;…

  15. Inequality and School Reform in Bahia, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiter, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    This article compares public and community schools in Salvador, the state capital of Bahia, Brazil. Based on quantitative data analysis and qualitative research conducted on-site during three research trips in 2001, 2003 and 2005, the author finds that Brazil's extreme inequality and the associated concentration of state power in a few hands stand…

  16. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... juice from Brazil (71 FR 12183). The Commission is conducting a review to determine whether revocation... frozen concentrated orange juice for further manufacturing and NFC stands for conventional pasteurized... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  17. Higher Education Reform in Brazil: Reinforcing Marketization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Siqueira, Angela C.

    2009-01-01

    Higher education in Brazil began based on institutions organized as isolated establishments, and mostly privately owned. Nonetheless, public institutions created as universities and developing research activities and other services became the desired ideal for higher education. The first educational institutions in Brazil were created in the…

  18. Counseling in Brazil: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutz-Midgett, Aida; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-01-01

    This article describes counseling in Brazil, which is rooted in career and vocational guidance. Although considered a distinct discipline, counseling falls under the umbrella of psychology. The multicultural movement is gaining momentum in Brazil, and counselors are pioneers working with socioracial minority college students. This is an emerging…

  19. Popular Documentation and Communication Centres in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Ana Maria P.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a study of the popular documentation and communication centers in Brazil which have developed to preserve the history of the struggles of the lower classes and to act as popular information services that fill information needs not met by traditional libraries. Social, economic, and political issues in Brazil are outlined. (Contains 10…

  20. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have…

  1. Redescription of Cystidicoloides fischeri based on specimens from piranhas in Brazil, and erection of a new genus (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Michelle D; Brasil-Sato, Marília C

    2008-08-01

    The cystidicolid nematode Cystidicoloides fischeri (Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928) is redescribed from specimens collected from the stomach of the San Francisco piranha, Pygocentrus piraya (Cuvier), and the white piranha, Serrasalmus brandtii (Lütken) (both Characidae, Characiformes) (new host records), from the Três Marias Reservoir, Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The morphology of this type species of Cystidicoloides Skinker, 1931, studied with both light and scanning electron microscopy, is characterized by some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the presence of a cephalic cuticular collarette, subdorsal and subventral cephalic spikes, cuticular tooth-like elevations inside the prostom, deirids, area rugosa, and details in the structure of the cephalic end. Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982 is transferred to Cystidicoloides as C. izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb. Cystidicoloides uniseriata Valovaya and Valter, 1988 is considered a species inquirenda with uncertain generic appurtenance. The presence of subdorsal and subventral cephalic spikes and the collarette are characteristic of Cystidicoloides, comprising only species parasitizing Neotropical fishes. The species from salmonids in the Holarctic, hitherto reported mostly as Cystidicoloides ephemeridarum (Linstow, 1872), belongs to a different, newly erected genus, for which the name Salmonema n. gen. (type species S. ephemeridarum) is now proposed. Cystidicoloides prevosti (Choquette, 1951) is transferred to Salmonema as S. prevosti (Choquette, 1951) n. comb. Sterliadochona ssavini Skryabin, 1948 and Sterliadochona Skryabin, 1948 are considered as species inquirenda and a genus inquirendum, respectively. A key to species of Cystidicoloides is provided. PMID:18576775

  2. Length-weight relationships and biomass of the main microcrustacean species of two large tropical reservoirs in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, S L; Maia-Barbosa, P M; Pinto-Coelho, R M

    2013-08-01

    Length-weight equations were determined for the main microcrustacean species of Três Marias and Furnas reservoirs (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), and evaluated the fluctuations of their biomass. We examined the following species: Thermocyclops minutus, Bosminopsis deitersi, Bosmina hagmanni, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Moina minuta (Três Marias Reservoir), and Notodiaptomus henseni, Daphnia ambigua, Ceriodaphnia silvestrii, Diaphanosoma spinulosum, D. fluviatile, and Bosmina freyi (Furnas Reservoir). Dry weight was obtained in a microbalance for each size class (Cladocera) or developmental stage (Copepoda). Microcrustacean mean biomass varied from 5.76 mg DW.m(-3) and 20.36 mg DW.m(-3) (Furnas Reservoir) and from 3.75 mg DW.m(-3) and 18.14 mg DW.m(-3) (Três Marias Reservoir). Significant differences (p < 0.000) between seasons were registered with higher biomass during the rainy seasons. Thermocyclops minutus was the most important species in Três Marias, whereas in Furnas, N. henseni contributed in equal proportion. In Furnas, the higher cladoceran biomass was explained by the contribution of larger-sized species, such as D. ambigua, C. silvestrii, D. spinulosum, and D. fluviatile. Even though both reservoirs are considered oligotrophic, there were significant differences in the estimated microcrustacean biomass, which reinforces the importance of this parameter for the description of the real contribution of each species in the community. PMID:24212700

  3. Pareiorhaphis vetula, a new armored catfish from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Reis, Roberto E

    2016-07-28

    A new species of Pareiorhaphis is described from the upper Rio Doce basin. The description is based on a series of specimens recently collected in small headwater tributaries to the Rio Guanhães, a tributary of the Rio Santo Antonio, left bank of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis vetula, new species, is a small loricariid catfish with dark brown spots irregularly scattered over a brown background on the dorsal surface of body and along flanks. The new species differs from all other Pareiorhaphis species by having the maxillary barbel completely adnate to the lower lip and by adult males possessing a particularly elongate, sharply pointed, conical urogenital papilla. In addition, Pareiorhaphis vetula is further distinguished from most congeners by having a shorter pelvic-fin spine, or by possessing more numerous premaxillary teeth, and by lacking a dorsal-fin spinelet. A comparison with congeners P. nasuta, P. scutula and P. proskynita, which also occur in headwater streams of the Rio Doce basin is also presented.

  4. Metazoan parasites of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) an endemic siluriform fish of the São Francisco basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brasil-Sato, Marilia de C; Dos Santos, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    Specimens of Conorhynchos conirostris (Valenciennes, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Siluriformes) were collected from the upper São Francisco River (18 degrees 12'32''S, 45 degrees 15'41''W) in the municipality of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate their parasitofauna. Of the 24 pirá fish collected, 8 were male (33.3%) and 16 were female (66.7%). Of this total, 12 were parasitized (50%). Nine species of parasites were found: Helobdella sp., Creptotrema creptotrema Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; Palaeocryptogonimus claviformis Szidat, 1954; metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. and of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz 1928); Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp. (young specimen); larvae of Anisakidae and Rhabdochona sp.; and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (young specimen). Helobdella sp. had the highest prevalence, followed by C. creptotrema (most abundant) and P. claviformis. Creptotrema creptotrema was dominant species in the parasite community of C. conirostris. There was no influence of the host size and sex on the prevalence and abundance of parasites, with P. claviformis being found only in male hosts. With the exception of Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) sp., this was the first record of these parasites in C. conirostris.

  5. Ochratoxigenic fungi associated with green coffee beans (Coffea arabica L.) in conventional and organic cultivation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Fátima Rezende, Elisângela; Borges, Josiane Gonçalves; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; Prado, Guilherme; Paiva, Leandro Carlos; Batista, Luís Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The genera Aspergillus comprises species that produce mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, ochratoxins and patulin. These are cosmopolitan species, natural contaminants of agricultural products. In coffee grains, the most important Aspergillus species in terms of the risk of presenting mycotoxins belong to the genera Aspergillus Section Circumdati and Section Nigri. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. Thirty samples of coffee grains (Coffea arabica L.) were analysed, being 20 of them of conventional coffee grains and 10 of them organic. The microbiological analysis was done with the Direct Plating Technique in a Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) media. The identification was done based on the macro and micro morphological characteristics and on the toxigenic potential with the Plug Agar technique. From the 30 samples analysed, 480 filamentous fungi of the genera Aspergillus of the Circumdati and Nigri Sections were isolated. The ochratoxigenic species identified were: Aspergillus auricoumus, A. ochraceus, A. ostianus, A. niger and A. niger Aggregate. The most frequent species which produces ochratoxin A among the isolated ones was A. ochraceus, corresponding to 89.55%. There was no significant difference regarding the presence of ochratoxigenic A. ochreceus between the conventional and organic cultivation systems, which suggests that the contamination risk is similar for both cultivation systems. PMID:24294225

  6. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a Cave of the Speleological Province of Bambuí, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings. PMID:24130847

  7. Life cycle and behavior of Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) under laboratory conditions and remarks on parasitism of toads in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Pires, Marcus Sandes; da Silva, Hélio Ricardo; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes

    2013-05-01

    The life cycle and behavior of Amblyomma rotundatum were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The experiment started with four engorged females collected from toads (Rhinella schneideri) naturally infested at the Pirapitinga Ecological Station in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Developmental periods of free-living stages were assessed in an incubator at 27 ± 1 °C, >80 % RH and darkness. The complete life cycle, including pre-attachment periods for each parasitic stage, ranged from 126 to 228 days. The pre-attachment, feeding and molting periods increased as the life cycle progressed from larva to adult female. Oviposition lasted about 20 days, with the peak occurring on days 4 and 5. Longevity of nymphs and adult females was quite similar (approximately 250 and 240 days, respectively) and slightly longer than that of larvae. Lesions caused by tick feeding are discussed and a list of known hosts, including new host records for A. rotundatum, is offered.

  8. Pareiorhaphis vetula, a new armored catfish from the headwaters of the Rio Doce basin, Brazil (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edson H L; Lehmann, Pablo A; Reis, Roberto E

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Pareiorhaphis is described from the upper Rio Doce basin. The description is based on a series of specimens recently collected in small headwater tributaries to the Rio Guanhães, a tributary of the Rio Santo Antonio, left bank of the Rio Doce in Minas Gerais State, eastern Brazil. Pareiorhaphis vetula, new species, is a small loricariid catfish with dark brown spots irregularly scattered over a brown background on the dorsal surface of body and along flanks. The new species differs from all other Pareiorhaphis species by having the maxillary barbel completely adnate to the lower lip and by adult males possessing a particularly elongate, sharply pointed, conical urogenital papilla. In addition, Pareiorhaphis vetula is further distinguished from most congeners by having a shorter pelvic-fin spine, or by possessing more numerous premaxillary teeth, and by lacking a dorsal-fin spinelet. A comparison with congeners P. nasuta, P. scutula and P. proskynita, which also occur in headwater streams of the Rio Doce basin is also presented. PMID:27470867

  9. Ecological aspects of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from a cave of the speleological province of Bambuí, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Ramos, Mariana Campos das Neves Farah; Serra e Meira, Paula Cavalcante Lamy; Zenóbio, Ana Paula Lusardo de Almeida; Botelho, Helbert Antônio; Sanguinette, Cristiani de Castilho; Saraiva, Lara; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2013-01-01

    Phlebotomines are invertebrate hosts of Leishmania genus species which are etiological agents of leishmaniases in humans and other mammals. Sandflies are often collected in entomological studies of caves both in the inner area and the adjacent environments. Caves are ecotypes clearly different from the external environment. Several caves have been opened to public visitation before any studies were performed and the places do not have scientific monitoring of the fauna, flora, geological and geographical characteristics. These events can lead to the loss of geological and biological information. Considering these aspects, this study aimed to describe the sand fly fauna, including the ecological features, in a limestone cave at the Speleological Province of Bambuí (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). A total of 8,354 specimens of sandflies belonging to 29 species were analyzed: Lutzomyia cavernicola (20%), Nyssomyia intermedia (15%), Martinsmyia oliveirai (13%), Evandromyia spelunca (12%), Evandromyia sallesi (11%), Migonemyia migonei (9%), Nyssomyia whitmani (9%), Sciopemyia sordellii (4%) and Lutzomyia longipalpis (2%). The others species represent 5% of the total. This manuscript presents data found on richness, diversity, evenness and seasonality, comparing the sand fly fauna trapped in the cave and its surroundings.

  10. The role of environmental land use conflicts in soil fertility: A study on the Uberaba River basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valera, C A; Valle Junior, R F; Varandas, S G P; Sanches Fernandes, L F; Pacheco, F A L

    2016-08-15

    In the Uberaba River basin (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil), pastures for livestock production have invaded areas of native vegetation (Cerrado biome), while already existing pastures were invaded by crop agriculture, with an expansion of sugar cane plantations in the most recent years. In some areas of the basin, these land use changes were classified as environmental land use conflicts because the new uses were not conforming to land capability, i.e. the soil's natural use. Where the areas in conflict became dense, some soil properties have changed significantly, namely the organic matter content and the exchangeable potassium concentration, which have decreased drastically (5kg/m(3) per 10% increase in the conflict area) threatening the fertility of soil. Besides, these changes may have triggered a cascade of other environmental damages, specifically the increase of soil erosion and the degradation of water quality with negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity, related to a disruption of soil organic matter structural functions. Because half the Uberaba catchment has been considered is a state of accentuated environmental degradation, not only caused by environmental land use conflicts, conservation measures have been proposed and requested for immediate implementation across the watershed. PMID:27107645

  11. Chemical reducing pedoenvironment in a peatland influenced by hematitic phyllite lithology in the southern Espinhaço chain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paesano, Andrea; Silva, Alexandre Christófaro; Ivashita, Flávio Francisco; Cerqueira Machado-Flavio Sives, Carla Fabiana; Sives, Flávio; Mercader, Roberto Carlos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2014-04-01

    A peatland in Pinheiro, Diamantina City, Minas Gerais State - Brazil, was sampled at different depths of two profiles with diverse vegetation coverings (grassland field and bush) in order to collect materials that might reflect changes in the chemical states of iron over the peat formation coming from original minerals such as hematitic phyllite surrounding the boggy pedon. Samples collected were chemically, structurally and magnetically characterized. The results show that both series of peats are composed of organic matter and minerals such as quartz, kaolinite, gibbsite, rutile and muscovite. Deeper layers present only quartz. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that iron is present in both electron states, Fe2+ and Fe3+, under both vegetations, each valence appearing in the spectra in the form of a discrete doublet. No hyperfine magnetic splitting was observed in any spectrum at room temperature. The Mössbauer subspectral area of Fe2+ tended to increase from the upper to deeper layers. Magnetic measurements reveal that the magnetic response of the surface samples is the highest, displaying a sharp decrease below 15 cm and that the magnetic signal is a superposition of (super)paramagnetic and ferrimagnetic contributions. Samples from the grassland field also show a diamagnetic component for the deeper layers.

  12. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil. PMID:25576441

  13. Brazil ALDF System Error Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rompala, John T.

    1999-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among: the Global Hydrology Climate Center (GHCC) of NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Atmospheric Electric Group of the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research, the University of San Paulo (USP), and the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INME), a network of four lightning detectors has been established in Brazil's Rhondonian region. This paper surveys the efforts of GHCC researchers to develop algorithms and field procedures which reliable determine lightning strike locations based on site data comprised of the signal time of arrival, and radiated electromagnetic field.

  14. Geodiversity and geoconservation in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardozo Moreira, Jasmine; Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2014-05-01

    Brazil is a large country with a wide diversity of landscapes and geological features and has been an important world producer of mineral resources. Despite this, until the 90's of last century, there has not been much concern and policies about geological heritage and geoconservation. Only at the end of the century the National Geological Service (CPRM) included the physical characterization of areas with geotouristic interest in its mission of generation and diffusion of geological information. In 1997, was created the Brazilian Commission of Geological and Paleobiological Sites (SIGEP, http://sigep.cprm.gov.br), responsible for the assessment, description and publicizing the sites of geological heritage. This is by now the most comprehensive and relevant initiative to protect the national heritage. It is composed by a fully accessible national database composed by 167 certified sites presented as scientific papers. Furthermore, a web-based applicative for the inventory and protection of geological heritage sites is being developed by the National Geological Service. The wider knowledge about geological heritage can be a useful tool for its conservation and this has been an important goal in the creation of protected areas, by means of environmental education and tourism. In Brazil, actions, research and publications about the subject have increased in the last five years, as well as the outreach and responsible use of the geological heritage. Scientific meetings, conferences and courses are growing and spreading around the country. The main scientific meeting has been the Brazilian Symposium of Geological Heritage that in its second edition (2013) had more than 200 papers presented. At that meeting it was also created the Association in Defence of the Geomining Heritage and the Association of Aspiring Geoparks. Brazil has only one geopark in the Unesco's Global Geopark Network, that is the Araripe Geopark, created in 2006. By the moment, propositions are being

  15. Malaria in Brazil: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Brazil, with approximately 306 000 registered cases in 2009, but it is estimated that in the early 1940s, around six million cases of malaria occurred each year. As a result of the fight against the disease, the number of malaria cases decreased over the years and the smallest numbers of cases to-date were recorded in the 1960s. From the mid-1960s onwards, Brazil underwent a rapid and disorganized settlement process in the Amazon and this migratory movement led to a progressive increase in the number of reported cases. Although the main mosquito vector (Anopheles darlingi) is present in about 80% of the country, currently the incidence of malaria in Brazil is almost exclusively (99,8% of the cases) restricted to the region of the Amazon Basin, where a number of combined factors favors disease transmission and impair the use of standard control procedures. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 83,7% of registered cases, while Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for 16,3% and Plasmodium malariae is seldom observed. Although vivax malaria is thought to cause little mortality, compared to falciparum malaria, it accounts for much of the morbidity and for huge burdens on the prosperity of endemic communities. However, in the last few years a pattern of unusual clinical complications with fatal cases associated with P. vivax have been reported in Brazil and this is a matter of concern for Brazilian malariologists. In addition, the emergence of P. vivax strains resistant to chloroquine in some reports needs to be further investigated. In contrast, asymptomatic infection by P. falciparum and P. vivax has been detected in epidemiological studies in the states of Rondonia and Amazonas, indicating probably a pattern of clinical immunity in both autochthonous and migrant populations. Seropidemiological studies investigating the type of immune responses elicited in naturally-exposed populations to several malaria vaccine candidates in

  16. Genetic determinants of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population from rural Brazil.

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Parra, Flavia C; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the heritability of and pleiotropic relationships among triglycerides and cholesterol lipoproteins that have long been considered traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Quantitative lipid and lipoprotein phenotypes were determined for a cross-sectional sample of a community in Jequitinhonha valley in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The sample consisted primarily of subsistence farmers. Two hundred sixty-nine individuals (128 males and 141 females), ages 18-88 years, were sampled. Eighty-eight percent (n = 252) of the individuals belonged to a single pedigree, which was highly informative for genetic analysis. Data on anthropometrics, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were available for each study participant. Extended pedigrees were constructed using the pedigree-based data management software PedSys. Univariate and bivariate variance-components analyses, adjusted by sex and age, were performed using the SOLAR software package. Heritability estimates of lipids and lipoproteins ranged from 29% to 45% (p < 0.008). The highest heritability estimated was for HDL-C (h2 = 44.8%, p < 0.0001), and this was the only trait that exhibited a significant household effect (c2 = 25%). Strong positive genetic correlations were found between triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) (rhog = 0.998) and between total cholesterol and LDL-C (rhog = 0.948). Significant genetic correlations were also found between triglycerides and LDL-C, between total cholesterol and VLDL, and between total cholesterol and LDL-C and VLDL, and finally between LDL and VLDL. There was a significant negative environmental correlation between triglycerides and HDL-C (rhoe = -0.406). PMID:18027813

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assessment in sediment of national parks in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; Pereira, Márcia de Souza; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and 'restinga' environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng g(-1)), followed by PNJUB (89 ng g(-1)), PNSO (57 ng g(-1)) and PNSB (27 ng g(-1)). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng g(-1)) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterized for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern.

  18. Genetic determinants of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a population from rural Brazil.

    PubMed

    Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Parra, Flavia C; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the heritability of and pleiotropic relationships among triglycerides and cholesterol lipoproteins that have long been considered traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Quantitative lipid and lipoprotein phenotypes were determined for a cross-sectional sample of a community in Jequitinhonha valley in northern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The sample consisted primarily of subsistence farmers. Two hundred sixty-nine individuals (128 males and 141 females), ages 18-88 years, were sampled. Eighty-eight percent (n = 252) of the individuals belonged to a single pedigree, which was highly informative for genetic analysis. Data on anthropometrics, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were available for each study participant. Extended pedigrees were constructed using the pedigree-based data management software PedSys. Univariate and bivariate variance-components analyses, adjusted by sex and age, were performed using the SOLAR software package. Heritability estimates of lipids and lipoproteins ranged from 29% to 45% (p < 0.008). The highest heritability estimated was for HDL-C (h2 = 44.8%, p < 0.0001), and this was the only trait that exhibited a significant household effect (c2 = 25%). Strong positive genetic correlations were found between triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) (rhog = 0.998) and between total cholesterol and LDL-C (rhog = 0.948). Significant genetic correlations were also found between triglycerides and LDL-C, between total cholesterol and VLDL, and between total cholesterol and LDL-C and VLDL, and finally between LDL and VLDL. There was a significant negative environmental correlation between triglycerides and HDL-C (rhoe = -0.406).

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSESSMENT IN SEDIMENT OF NATIONAL PARKS IN SOUTHEAST BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Azeredo, Antonio; de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Paulo, João; Torres, Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment and their sources found in protected regions of southeastern Brazil. Samples of sediments were collected at four National Parks: Itatiaia National Park (PNIT), Serra da Bocaina National Park (PNSB), Serra dos Orgãos National Park (PNSO) and Jurubatiba National Park (PNJUB). The National Parks studied comprise rainforests, altitudinal fields and ‘restinga’ environments located in the Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states. The sampling was conducted between 2002 and 2004 from June to September. In general, the environmental levels of PAHs found were similar to those in other remote areas around the globe. PNIT exhibited the highest median values of total PAHs in sediment (97 ng·g−1), followed by PNJUB (89 ng·g−1), PNSO (57 ng·g−1) and PNSB (27 ng·g−1). The highest levels of total PAHs (576 and 24430 ng·g−1) could be associated to a point source contamination where are characterizated for human activities. At PNSB and PNIT the PAH profiles were richer in 2 and 3 ring compounds, whereas at PNSO and PNJUB, the profiles exhibited 3 and 4 ring compounds. The phenanthrene predominance in most samples could indicate the influence of biogenic synthesis. The samples with a petrogenic pattern found in this study might be associated with the vicinity of major urban areas, highway traffic and/or industrial activities close to PNSO and PNIT. At PNIT and PNJUB, forest fires and slash and burn agricultural practices may drive the results towards a pyrolytic pattern. PMID:18472130

  20. Evaluation of surface water quality in aquatic bodies under the influence of uranium mining (MG, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rodgher, Suzelei; de Azevedo, Heliana; Ferrari, Carla Rolim; Roque, Cláudio Vítor; Ronqui, Leilane Barbosa; de Campos, Michelle Burato; Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes

    2013-03-01

    The quality of the water in a uranium-ore-mining area located in Caldas (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and in a reservoir (Antas reservoir) that receives the neutralized acid solution leaching from the waste heaps generated by uranium mining was investigated. The samples were collected during four periods (October 2008, January, April and July 2009) from six sampling stations. Physical and chemical analyses were performed on the water samples, and the data obtained were compared with those of the Brazilian Environmental Standards and WHO standard. The water samples obtained from waste rock piles showed high uranium concentrations (5.62 mg L(-1)), high manganese values (75 mg L(-1)) and low average pH values (3.4). The evaluation of the water quality at the point considered the limit between the Ore Treatment Unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Industries and the environment (Consulta Creek) indicated contamination by fluoride, manganese, uranium and zinc. The Antas reservoir showed seasonal variations in water quality, with mean concentrations for fluoride (0.50 mg L(-1)), sulfate (16 mg L(-1)) and hardness (20 mg L(-1)) which were low in January, evidencing the effect of rainwater flowing into the system. The concentrations for fluoride, sulfate and manganese were close or above to the limits established by current legislation at the point where the treated mining effluent was discharged and downstream from this point. This study demonstrated that the effluent discharged by the UTM affected the quality of the water in the Antas reservoir, and thus the treatments currently used for effluent need to be reviewed.