Science.gov

Sample records for gerbil meriones unguiculatus

  1. Exploring binaural hearing in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) using virtual headphones.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Sandra; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2017-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has become a key species in investigations of the neural processing of sound localization cues in mammals. While its sound localization has been tested extensively under free-field stimulation, many neurophysiological studies use headphones to present signals with binaural localization cues. The gerbil's behavioral sensitivity to binaural cues, however, is unknown for the lack of appropriate stimulation paradigms in awake behaving gerbils. We close this gap in knowledge by mimicking a headphone stimulation; we use free-field loudspeakers and apply cross-talk cancellation techniques to present pure tones with binaural cues via "virtual headphones" to gerbils trained in a sound localization task. All gerbils were able to lateralize sounds depending on the interaural time or level difference (ITD and ILD, respectively). For ITD stimuli, reliable responses were seen for frequencies ≤2.9 kHz, the highest frequency tested with ITD stimuli. ITD sensitivity was frequency-dependent with the highest sensitivity observed at 1 kHz. For stimuli with ITD outside the gerbil's physiological range, responses were cyclic indicating the use of phase information when lateralizing narrow-band sounds. For ILD stimuli, reliable responses were obtained for frequencies ≥2 kHz. The comparison of ITD and ILD thresholds with ITD and ILD thresholds derived from gerbils' free-field performance suggests that ongoing ITD information is the main cue for sound localization at frequencies <2 kHz. At 2 kHz, ITD and ILD cues are likely used in a complementary way. Verification of the use of the virtual headphones suggests that they can serve as a suitable substitute for conventional headphones particularly at frequencies ≤2 kHz.

  2. Exploring binaural hearing in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) using virtual headphones

    PubMed Central

    Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M.

    2017-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has become a key species in investigations of the neural processing of sound localization cues in mammals. While its sound localization has been tested extensively under free-field stimulation, many neurophysiological studies use headphones to present signals with binaural localization cues. The gerbil's behavioral sensitivity to binaural cues, however, is unknown for the lack of appropriate stimulation paradigms in awake behaving gerbils. We close this gap in knowledge by mimicking a headphone stimulation; we use free-field loudspeakers and apply cross-talk cancellation techniques to present pure tones with binaural cues via “virtual headphones” to gerbils trained in a sound localization task. All gerbils were able to lateralize sounds depending on the interaural time or level difference (ITD and ILD, respectively). For ITD stimuli, reliable responses were seen for frequencies ≤2.9 kHz, the highest frequency tested with ITD stimuli. ITD sensitivity was frequency-dependent with the highest sensitivity observed at 1 kHz. For stimuli with ITD outside the gerbil's physiological range, responses were cyclic indicating the use of phase information when lateralizing narrow-band sounds. For ILD stimuli, reliable responses were obtained for frequencies ≥2 kHz. The comparison of ITD and ILD thresholds with ITD and ILD thresholds derived from gerbils’ free-field performance suggests that ongoing ITD information is the main cue for sound localization at frequencies <2 kHz. At 2 kHz, ITD and ILD cues are likely used in a complementary way. Verification of the use of the virtual headphones suggests that they can serve as a suitable substitute for conventional headphones particularly at frequencies ≤2 kHz. PMID:28394906

  3. Determination of Giardia lamblia cyst infective dose for the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, F W; Johnson, C H; Hsu, C H; Rice, E W

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 50% infective dose for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The log10 50% infective dose results calculated by probit analysis and the Spearman-Karber method were 2.45 and 2.50, respectively.

  4. Determination of Giardia lamblia cyst infective dose for the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, F W; Johnson, C H; Hsu, C H; Rice, E W

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 50% infective dose for Giardia lamblia (CDC:0284:1) cysts in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The log10 50% infective dose results calculated by probit analysis and the Spearman-Karber method were 2.45 and 2.50, respectively. PMID:1768111

  5. Behavioral measures of vowel sensitivity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus): effects of age and genetic origin.

    PubMed

    Sinnott, J M; Street, S L; Mosteller, K W; Williamson, T L

    1997-10-01

    Absolute thresholds for complex vowel stimuli were compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) as a function of age and genetic origin. For a group of 12-month-old 'domestic' gerbils obtained from Tumblebrook Farms, lowest thresholds averaging 14 dB SPL occurred for the vowel /alpha/, which had its most intense formant (F1) at 730 Hz. Thresholds increased to 22 dB SPL for /i/, which had its two most intense formants (F1 and F3) at 270 and 3000 Hz, respectively. Highest thresholds of 30 dB SPL occurred for /u/, which had its most intense formant (F1) at 300 Hz. Thresholds increased by about 10 dB per year through the ages of 12-36 months, with most of the loss occurring for /alpha/ and /u/. The domestic gerbils' /alpha/ thresholds corresponded well to those measured in aging gerbils in electrophysiological studies. Vowel thresholds were also measured in a group of first-generation offspring of 'wild' gerbils imported from Asia, first tested at the ages of 18-24 months. Thresholds were similar to those of the 12-month-old domestic gerbils, and showed no hearing loss with age up to 36 months. The wild gerbils were also free of ear impactions, which commonly occurred in the domestic gerbils. The hearing loss with age in the domestic gerbils may have a genetic basis, and might be due to inbreeding in the domestic strain, in contrast to the hybrid vigor of the wild gerbils.

  6. Water deprivation up-regulates urine osmolality and renal aquaporin 2 in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng-Meng; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To better understand how desert rodents adapt to water scarcity, we examined urine osmolality, renal distribution and expression of aquaporins (AQPs) in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during 7 days of water deprivation (WD). Urine osmolality of the gerbils during WD averaged 7503 mOsm kg(-1). Renal distributions of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP3 were similar to that described in other rodents. After the 7 day WD, renal AQP2 was up-regulated, while resting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss decreased by 43% and 36%, respectively. Our data demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils showed high urine concentration, renal AQPs expression and body water conservation to cope with limited water availability, which may be critical for their survival during dry seasons in cold deserts.

  7. Deficiency of antibody responses to T-independent antigens in gerbils---Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Madhu Chhanda; Ravindran, Balachandran

    2002-05-01

    Meriones unguiculatus commonly known as gerbils are widely used as animal models for a variety of parasitic infections such as Brugia malayi, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia duodenalis, Toxoplasma gondi, Helicobacter pylori, Strongyloides stercoralis and Echinococcus multilocularis. Groups of BALB/c mice, gerbils and XID mice were studied for antibody responses to T-independent antigens. Gerbils were found to be significantly deficient in eliciting antibodies to both dextran and phosphorylcholine (PC) in comparison to BALB/c mice. The antibody response of gerbils to T-independent antigens was found to be similar to the response observed in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) deficient XID mice, which are known to be poor responders to T-independent antigens. Similar to XID mice, normal gerbil sera were found to be deficient in naturally occurring antibodies to single stranded DNA (SS-DNA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and phospholipids. This raises the possibility of a deficiency of CD5+ B-lymphocytes (also known as B-1 cells) in gerbils, since deficiency of this sub-population of B-lymphocytes has been attributed to the absence of such naturally occurring antibodies in XID mice. These results indicate the need to study immunogenicity of parasite T-independent antigens and their relationship to protective immunity in parasitic infections in gerbils.

  8. Behaviour in a Colony of Meriones unguiculatus, the Mongolian Gerbil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. J.; Ladd, G. F.

    1973-01-01

    Describes animal behavior experiments that can be easily performed by secondary school students. The experiments illustrate territorial behavior, social order, and exploratory behavior in Mongolian gerbils. (JR)

  9. Sexual maturation of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): a histological, hormonal and spermatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Fochi, Maria Etelvina; Negrin, Ana Carolina; Scarano, Wellerson Rodrigo; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the phases of sexual development of the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) based on an integrative analysis of testicular morphology, hormonal data and sperm parameters. Male gerbils were analysed at 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 50, 60, 70, 90, 100 and 120 days of age. Body, testicular and epididymal weights increased up to Day 70, 60 and 90, respectively. The impuberal phase, characterised by the presence of gonocytes, extended until Day 14. The prepubertal period lasted until Day 42, when puberty was achieved and a drastic increase in serum testosterone levels, mature adult Leydig cells and elongated spermatids was observed. Gerbils at 60 days of age showed a remarkable number of spermatozoa in the testis, epididymidis caput/corpus and cauda, and at Day 70 the maximum daily sperm production was reached. However, the gerbil may be considered sexually mature only from Day 90 onward, when sperm reserves become stable. The total transit time of spermatozoa along the epididymis of sexually mature gerbils was 11 days, with 1 day in the caput/corpus and 10 days in the cauda. These data cover a lacuna regarding the reproductive parameters of this rodent and provide foundations for its use in testicular toxicology studies.

  10. Implication of metabolomic profiles to wide thermoneutral zone in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yaolong; Wang, Dehua

    2016-07-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have evolved a wide thermoneutral zone (26.5-38.9 °C) and high upper critical temperature, and appear to have a high tolerance for heat exposure. Here, we use a metabolomic approach to measure global metabolite profiles for gerbils between lower (27 °C) and upper critical temperatures (38 °C) to investigate the role of metabolomic characterization in maintaining basal metabolic rates within a wide thermoneutral zone. We found that in serum and liver, 14 and 19 metabolites were significantly altered, respectively. In the aerobic respiration-related tricarboxylic cycle (TCA), 5 intermediates (isocitric acid, cis-aconitic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, fumaric acid and malic acid) were increased in serum in 38 °C animals; however, no such increase was found in the liver. A stable level of hepatic TCA cycle intermediates may be related to the steady state of aerobic respiration at 38 °C. Metabolomic results also revealed that acute heat exposure caused increased oxidative stress and low molecular weight antioxidants in Mongolian gerbils. Increased methionine and 2-hydroxybutyrate suggest an accelerated synthesis of glutathione. Increased urate and its precursors, inosine and hypoxanthine, were detected at 38 °C. Glucuronate, threonate and oxalate involved in ascorbate synthesis and degradation were increased in serum at 38 °C. In conclusion, although dramatic metabolomic variation was found, a stable hepatic TCA cycle may contribute to maintaining a constant basal metabolic rate within a wide thermoneutral zone in Mongolian gerbils.

  11. The Cairo spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus shows a strong affinity to the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Agulnik, S I; Silver, L M

    1996-01-01

    The classification of the African spiny mice (genus Acomys) within the Muridae family of rodents has been fraught with controversy. Morphological data suggest a close affinity between this group and true old world mice of the genus Mus. However, the combined results of immunological, biochemical, and DNA melting studies suggest that spiny mice should not even be considered as members of the Murinae subfamily. To further elucidate the position of the spiny mice within the rodent phylogenetic tree, we performed a direct sequence comparison of a 583-nucleotide homologous region from the spiny mouse type species Acomys cahirinus and five other representative rodent species. Our results provide incontrovertible evidence to support the contention that the spiny mouse is more closely related to the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus than it is to Mus musculus.

  12. Paternal behavior in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): Estrogenic and androgenic regulation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Ramos, Guillermo; Martínez-Torres, Martín; Nicolás, Leticia; Carmona, Agustín; Cárdenas, Mario; Luis, Juana

    2015-05-01

    Here, we analyzed the effects of testosterone (T) and its metabolites, estradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), on the onset of paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We hypothesized that T and E2, but not DHT, would facilitate the onset of paternal behavior. Seventy males displaying aggression toward pups were selected through a paternal behavior screening test. Forty males were bilaterally castrated. Of them, 10 were implanted with T, 10 with E2, and 10 with DHT, and 10 received no treatment. Another 30 males underwent a sham procedure. In these gerbils, T, E2 and DHT were measured to obtain the basal levels of these hormones. After treatment, the paternal behavior test was conducted again. Blood samples were obtained immediately after the administration of the test for the quantification of T, E2 and DHT by radioimmunoassay. Surprisingly, 100% of the males that received T, E2 and DHT implants stopped being aggressive and became paternal. Castrated and sham-operated males displayed no changes in their aggressive behaviors. This is the first report that T and its metabolites are involved in neuroendocrine mechanisms that inhibit aggression toward pups and facilitate paternal behavior in virgin male Mongolian gerbils. In addition, this is the first report of regulation of paternal behavior in a rodent by estrogenic and androgenic pathways.

  13. Brain atlas of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in CT/MRI-aided stereotaxic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Radtke-Schuller, Susanne; Schuller, Gerd; Angenstein, Frank; Grosser, Oliver S; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Budinger, Eike

    2016-09-01

    A new stereotaxic brain atlas of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), an important animal model in neurosciences, is presented. It combines high-quality histological material for identification of brain structures with reliable stereotaxic coordinates. The atlas consists of high-resolution images of frontal sections alternately stained for cell bodies (Nissl) and myelinated fibers (Gallyas) of 62 rostro-caudal levels at intervals of 350 μm. Brain structures were named according to the Paxinos nomenclature for rodents. The accuracy of the stereotaxic coordinate system was improved substantially by comparing and matching the series of histological sections to in vivo brain images of the gerbil obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The skull outlines corresponding to the MR images were acquired using X-ray computerized tomography (CT) and were used to establish the relationship between coordinates of brain structures and skull. Landmarks such as lambda, bregma, ear canals and occipital crest can be used to line up skull and brain in standard atlas coordinates. An easily reproducible protocol allows sectioning of experimental brains in the standard frontal plane of the atlas.

  14. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  15. Corticosterone influences gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) prostatic morphophysiology and alters its proliferation and apoptosis rates.

    PubMed

    Antoniassi, Julia Quilles; Fochi, Ricardo Alexandre; Góes, Rejane Maira; Vilamaior, Patricia Simone Leite; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2017-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are hormones that are widely used in medicine; but although side effects are generally recognised, little is known about the precise mechanisms that is implicated in many of these side effects. Furthermore, GCs are highly correlated with stress and behaviour disorders. This study evaluated the effects of the glucocorticoid corticosterone on the ventral prostate of the Mongolian gerbil. Male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) (n = 5) received intraperitoneal injections of saline or corticosterone in doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and 1.5 mg/kg/day for 5 days; while some of the animals were killed immediately after the treatment, the others were killed 5 days after the treatment period. The data show that corticosterone influences the structure and functionality of this organ. This hormone has anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic properties in the prostate. In addition, the frequencies of the androgen (AR), oestrogen (ERα, ERβ) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptors changed. The frequencies of AR, GR and ERβ decreased in the Ct1/5 group; in the groups with rest period, the frequencies of GR increased and ERβ decreased in the epithelium. Changes in the proliferative index, apoptotic index and receptor activity may have contributed to the emergence of prostatic morphological alterations, such as the presence of cellular debris and inflammatory cells. Different doses of corticosterone had variable effects on the prostate, with a higher dose showing subtler effects and a lower dose showing more striking effects. The corticosterone effects on nuclear receptors were reverted or attenuated after a rest period, which was not observed for proliferation and apoptosis. In summary, we have demonstrated that corticosterone might influence the prostatic morphophysiology and that these changes may be linked in some way to the altered receptor distribution. © 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2017 International Journal of

  16. Testosterone stimulates growth and secretory activity of the female prostate in the adult gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda C A; Leite, Rodrigo P; Custódio, Ana M G; Carvalho, Karina P; Monteiro-Leal, Luiz H; Santos, Adriana B; Góes, Rejane M; Carvalho, Hernandes F; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2006-09-01

    The prostate of the female gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is similar to the human female prostate (Skene gland) and, despite its reduced size, it is functional and shows secretory activity. However, virtually nothing is known about its physiological regulation. This study was thus undertaken to evaluate the behavior of the gerbil female prostate in a hyperandrogenic condition. Adult females received subcutaneous injections of testosterone cypionate (1 mg/kg body weight every 48 h) up to 21 days. Circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol were monitored, and the prostate and ovaries subjected to structural and immunocytochemical analyses. The treatment resulted in sustained high levels of circulating testosterone, and caused a transient increase in estradiol. There was an increase in epithelial cell proliferation accompanied by significant reorganization of the epithelium and an apparent reduction in secretory activity, followed by a progressive increase in luminal volume density and accumulation of secretory products. Immunocytochemistry identified the expression of androgen receptor and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-related antigen in prostatic epithelial cells. A circulating PSA-related antigen was also found, and its concentration showed strong negative correlation with circulating estrogen. Epithelial dysplasia was detected in the prostate of treated females. Analysis of the ovaries showed the occurrence of a polycystic condition and stromal cell hyperplasia. The results indicate that testosterone has a stimulatory effect on the female prostate, inducing epithelial cell proliferation, differentiation, secretory activity, and dysplasia. The results also suggest that prostatic growth and activity, polycystic ovaries, and ovarian stromal cell hyperplasia are related to a hyperandrogenic condition in females.

  17. Changes in isoform composition, structure, and functional properties of titin from Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cardiac muscle after space flight.

    PubMed

    Vikhlyantsev, I M; Okuneva, A D; Shpagina, M D; Shumilina, Yu V; Molochkov, N V; Salmov, N N; Podlubnaya, Z A

    2011-12-01

    Changes in isoform composition, secondary structure, and titin phosphorylation in Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cardiac muscle were studied after 12-day-long space flight onboard the Russian spacecraft Foton-M3. The effect of titin on the actin-activated myosin ATPase activity at pCa 7.5 and 4.6 was also studied. Almost twofold increase in titin long N2BA isoform content relative to that of short N2B isoform was found on electrophoregrams of cardiac muscle left ventricle of the flight group gerbils. Differences in secondary structure of titin isolated from cardiac muscle of control and flight groups of gerbils were found. An increase in phosphorylation (1.30-1.35-fold) of titin of cardiac muscle of the flight group gerbils was found. A decrease in activating effect of titin of cardiac muscle of the flight group gerbils on actomyosin ATPase activity in vitro was also found. The observed changes are discussed in the context of M. unguiculatus cardiac muscle adaptation to conditions of weightlessness.

  18. Chromatin organization and remodeling of interstitial telomeric sites during meiosis in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Roberto; Manterola, Marcia; Viera, Alberto; Parra, María Teresa; Alsheimer, Manfred; Rufas, Julio S; Page, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Telomeric DNA repeats are key features of chromosomes that allow the maintenance of integrity and stability in the telomeres. However, interstitial telomere sites (ITSs) can also be found along the chromosomes, especially near the centromere, where they may appear following chromosomal rearrangements like Robertsonian translocations. There is no defined role for ITSs, but they are linked to DNA damage-prone sites. We were interested in studying the structural organization of ITSs during meiosis, a kind of cell division in which programmed DNA damage events and noticeable chromatin reorganizations occur. Here we describe the presence of highly amplified ITSs in the pericentromeric region of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) chromosomes. During meiosis, ITSs show a different chromatin conformation than DNA repeats at telomeres, appearing more extended and accumulating heterochromatin markers. Interestingly, ITSs also recruit the telomeric proteins RAP1 and TRF1, but in a stage-dependent manner, appearing mainly at late prophase I stages. We did not find a specific accumulation of DNA repair factors to the ITSs, such as γH2AX or RAD51 at these stages, but we could detect the presence of MLH1, a marker for reciprocal recombination. However, contrary to previous reports, we did not find a specific accumulation of crossovers at ITSs. Intriguingly, some centromeric regions of metacentric chromosomes may bind the nuclear envelope through the association to SUN1 protein, a feature usually performed by telomeres. Therefore, ITSs present a particular and dynamic chromatin configuration in meiosis, which could be involved in maintaining their genetic stability, but they additionally retain some features of distal telomeres, provided by their capability to associate to telomere-binding proteins.

  19. The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, H S; McGadey, J; Thompson, G G; Moore, M R; Payne, A P

    1983-01-01

    The Harderian gland, its secretory duct and porphyrin content were examined in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). The gland consisted of tubules lined by a single layer of epithelial cells and a myoepithelial network. The tubule cells were often binucleate and possessed lipid vacuoles in the apical half of the cell, a corona of granular endoplasmic reticulum surrounding the nucleus, and cytoplasmic 'slashes'. The latter are probably derived from dense membranous couplets and may be precursors of the lipid vacuoles. Holocrine and merocrine secretion was observed. Interstitial cells included plasma cells, mast cells and (predominantly) melanocytes which render the gland black. The gland was surrounded by a collagen capsule and an outer layer of highly attenuated (possibly endothelioid) cells. Within the gland, the secretory duct was lined by a single layer of normal tubule cells. Outside the gland, the duct enlarged to form an ampulla, from which clefts led off to deep crypts. The ampulla and clefts were lined by cells with small dense apical granules and stubby microvilli; some possessed lipid vacuoles. The crypts were lined by serous cells with active Golgi regions. At the duct opening, ampullary cells became squamous and goblet cells occurred. Geometric crystalloid deposits (with a layered structure of 7.6 nm periodicity) occurred at cleft-crypt junctions. Islets of extra-glandular ductal tissue were occasionally found within the gland. Porphyrins were detectable both by chemical assay and fluorescence microscopy. There was a trend for female glands to have a higher content than males. Solid intraluminal accretions of porphyrin and/or lipid were present. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 PMID:6654750

  20. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    PubMed

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  1. Anthelmintic effects of Prosopis laevigata n-hexanic extract against Haemonchus contortus in artificially infected gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    De Jesús-Gabino, A F; Mendoza-de Gives, P; Salinas-Sánchez, D O; López-Arellano, M E; Liébano-Hernández, E; Hernández-Velázquez, V M; Valladares-Cisneros, G

    2010-03-01

    The anthelmintic effect of Prosopis laevigata (mezquite) n-hexanic extract was evaluated against Haemonchus contortus endoparasitic stages in artificially infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Prosopis laevigata leaves were collected from the Sierra de Huautla, Ecological Reserve of the Biosphere, in Morelos State, Mexico; dehydrated under shade and macerated with n-hexane for 3 days, followed by distillation for 8 h. This procedure was repeated three times and the final extract was kept at 4 degrees C. The in vivo effect of the plant extract was evaluated in gerbils artificially infected with H. contortus. Plant extract concentration was 40 mg/ml. Three groups of gerbils were as follows: group 1 (n = 7), P. laevigata extract at 100 microl intraperitoneally (IP); group 2 (n = 6), control--Tween 20 in water at a single dose of 100 microl IP; group 3 (n = 8) also served as a control, receiving water only, to determine the mortality due to causes other than the plant extract. An additional group of seven gerbils (group 4) was administered fenbendazole, as a positive control. Five days later the animals were euthanized and stomach and mucosa removed to quantify the nematodes. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test to compare the mean of nematodes obtained in groups 1, 2 and 3. The parasite population in the plant extract treated group 1 was reduced by 42.5% (P < 0.05) with respect to the control group 2; and when control group 3 was used for comparison the parasitic reduction was estimated as 53.11%. This study shows the in vivo anthelmintic effect of P. laevigata n-hexane extract for the first time, using gerbils as an in vivo model, with potential use in sheep.

  2. The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was studied from 5 to 60 days after inoculation. Ulcerative lesions were noted 10 to 60 days after inoculation. The sequential development of lesions was asynchronous and progressed from destruction of the interglandular epithelium and of glandular crypt elements to loss of mucosa and formation of granulomatous lesions in the submucosa involving the muscularis mucosae. Pathologic changes in the liver correlated with the formation of ulcerative cecal lesions. Subacute hepatic changes showed lymphocytic portal infiltrate, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, multinucleated giant cells, granuloma formation, and sinusoidal mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates. Metastatic amebic liver abscesses occurred as early as 10 days after inoculation, and small abscesses were found in the portal areas of the right liver lobe. The sequential development and pathologic manifestation of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil for the study of human intestinal amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014436

  3. Development of the nasolacrimal apparatus in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), with notes on network topology and function.

    PubMed

    Rehorek, Susan J; Cunningham, Jayna; Bruening, Amanda E; Johnson, Jessica L; Bhatnagar, Kunwar P; Smith, Timothy D; Hillenius, Willem J

    2015-09-01

    The nasolacrimal apparatus (NLA) is a multicomponent functional system comprised of multiple orbital glands (up to four larger multicellular exocrine structures), a nasal chemosensory structure (vomeronasal organ: VNO), and a connecting duct (nasolacrimal duct: NLD). Although this system has been described in all tetrapod vertebrate lineages, albeit not always with all three main components present, considerably less is known about its ontogeny. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a common lab rodent in which the individual components of the adult NLA have been well studied, but as yet nothing is known about the ontogeny of the NLA. In this study, serial sections of 15 fetal and three adult Mongolian gerbil heads show that the development of the NLA falls into three fetal stages: inception (origin of all features), elongation (lengthening of all features), and expansion (widening of all features). No postnatal or juvenile specimens were observed in this study, but considerable growth evidently occurs before the final adult condition is reached. The development of the orbital glands and the VNO in the Mongolian gerbil is largely consistent with those in other mammals, despite a slight nomenclatural conundrum for the anterior orbital glands. However, the Mongolian gerbil NLD follows a more circuitous route than in other tetrapods, due mainly to the convoluted arrangement of the narial cartilages, the development of a pair of enlarged incisors as well as an enlarged infraorbital foramen. The impact of these associated features on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the NLA could be examined through the approach of network science. This approach allows for the incorporation of adaptations to specific lifestyles as potential explanations for the variation observed in the NLA across different tetrapod clades.

  4. Effect of immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotides on host responses and the establishment of Brugia pahangi in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Chirgwin, Sharon R; Nowling, Jena M; Coleman, Sharon U; Klei, Thomas R

    2003-06-01

    Infection of humans with filarial parasites has long been associated with the maintenance of a dominant Th2-type host immune response. This is reflected by increases in interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-5-producing T cells, elevated immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG4 levels, and a pronounced eosinophilia. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is permissive for the filarial nematodes Brugia malayi and B. pahangi. As in humans, persistent microfilaremic infections of gerbils with Brugia spp. results in increases in Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5. The association of dominant Th2 cytokine profiles with the maintenance of infection suggests that the introduction of Brugia spp. into a strongly Th1-biased environment may adversely affect parasite establishment. Indeed, studies conducted in mice with B. malayi suggest that depleting Th1 effectors such as interferon (IFN)-gamma and nitric oxide results in increased worm recoveries. In the present studies, the Mongolian gerbil was used as a model to investigate the effect of a dominant Th1 cytokine environment on the establishment of B. pahangi. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of immunostimulatory oligodeoxynucleotide (IS ODN) induced the production of IFN-gamma in the peritoneal exudate cells and spleen of gerbils. The presence of IFN-gamma at the time of B. pahangi infection did result in an altered host immune response to B. pahangi. Gerbils that received IS ODN before i.p. B. pahangi infections showed lower levels of the Th2-type cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, compared with animals that received B. pahangi alone (0 + Bp). This alteration in cytokine profile, however, did not alter the establishment or development of B. pahangi in the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, there was no difference in the granulomatous response of gerbils to soluble adult B. pahangi antigen bound to beads embolized in their lungs, regardless of treatment group, suggesting that IL-4 and IL-5 are not essential contributors to the systemic host

  5. [Changes in titin and myosin heavy chain isoform composition in skeletal muscles of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) after 12-day spaceflight].

    PubMed

    Okuneva, A D; Vikhliantsev, I M; Shpagina, M D; Rogachevskiĭ, V V; Khutsian, S S; Poddubnaia, Z A; Grigor'ev, A I

    2012-01-01

    Changes of titin and myosin heavy chain isoform composition in skeletal muscles (m. soleus, m. gastrocnemius, m. tibialis anterior, m. psoas major) in Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus ) were investigated after 12-day spaceflight on board of Russian space vehicle "Foton-M3". In m. psoas and m. soleus in the gerbils from "Flight" group the expected increase in the content of fast myosin heavy chain isoforms (IIxd and IIa, respectively) were observed. No significant differences were found in the content of IIxd and IIa isoforms of myosin heavy chain in m. tibialis anterior in the gerbils from control group as compared to that in "Flight" group. An unexpected increase in the content of slow myosin heavy chain I isoform and a decrease in the content of fast IIx/d isoform in m. gastrocnemius of the gerbils from "Flight" group were observed. In skeletal muscles of the gerbils from "Flight" group the relative content of titin N2A-isoform was reduced (by 1,2-1,7 times), although the content of its NT-isoform, which was revealed in striated muscles of mammals in our experiments earlier, remained the same. When the content of titin N2A-isoform was decreased, no predictable abnormalities in sarcomeric structure and contractile ability of skeletal muscles in the gerbils from "Flight" group were found. An assumption on the leading role of titin NT-isoform in maintenance of structural and functional properties of striated muscles of mammals was made.

  6. Calcified inclusions in the superficial pineal gland of the mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Japha, J L; Eder, T J; Goldsmith, E D

    1976-01-01

    A histological and histochemical study of the pineal gland of neonatal, juvenile and adult gerbils is described. Calcified inclusions appear within pinealocytes in the superficial pineal about the third week of age, and the incidence of inclusions increased with age until, by the eleventh week, they are found in all animals. The inclusions contain an organic matrix composed of a carbohydrate, probably an acid mucopolysaccharide, complexed to protein. Calcification does not occur in the deep pineal. The data are interpreted to indicate that the formation of calcified inclusions is a normal process within the gerbil pineal. The similarity of the process of calcification in the gerbil and in the human pineal suggests that the gerbil may be an animal of choice for the controlled study of the phenomenon of pineal calcification.

  7. Neither testosterone levels nor aggression decrease when the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) displays paternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Juana, Luis; Bárbara, Vázquez-Gaytán; Martín, Martínez-Torres; Agustín, Carmona; Guillermo, Ramos-Blancas; Guadalupe, Ortíz

    2010-03-01

    The first studies that correlated mammalian paternal behavior and testosterone levels indicated that the concentration of this steroid hormone decreases when males exhibit paternal care. However, recent studies have also shown that testosterone levels do not decrease when males display paternal behavior. In this study, we measured testosterone levels in plasma throughout the reproductive cycle of the Mongolian gerbil. Testosterone concentrations were correlated with paternal care as well as aggression. We also examined whether there is a trade-off between paternal behavior and aggression in this mammal. Our results show that Mongolian gerbil testosterone levels do not decrease when the males give paternal care. Likewise, male Mongolian gerbils exhibit high levels of aggression while displaying paternal behavior, indicating that there is no trade-off between aggression and paternal behavior. More studies are needed to determine whether testosterone is involved in the regulation of paternal behavior in this rodent.

  8. Effects of psychoactive drugs on the conflict behavior under operant situation in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Furusawa, K; Tadokoro, S

    1990-06-01

    Effects of diazepam, pentobarbital, morphine, ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine on the conflict behavior established under a MULT FR 20/FR 20 punishment schedule of food reinforcement were investigated in Mongolian gerbils. Fourteen out of 17 gerbils learned lever-press response for food within 15 sessions of training under FR 20 schedule. Although high voltage of electric shock (125-225 V) was required for attaining lever-press suppression, all 14 gerbils exhibited stable conflict behavior, i.e., showing high response rate of 20-30 responses/min in the safety period and low response rate of 0-3 responses/min in the alarm period. Diazepam, a prototype of the antianxiety drugs, increased the response rate in the alarm period. The anticonflict effect was also observed after administration of either pentobarbital or ethanol. On the other hand, morphine suppressed lever-pressing in a nonspecific manner. Caffeine tended to attenuate the conflict behavior, but nicotine had no such effect. These results suggest that the effects of psychoactive drugs on the conflict behavior of gerbils are almost identical with those in mice and rats.

  9. The mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) as a model for inflammation-promoted prostate carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Quintar, Amado A; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Taboga, Sebastião R; Maldonado, Cristina A

    2017-05-11

    One of the recognized issues in prostate cancer research is the lack of animal models allowing the research of pathological, biochemical, and genetic factors in immunocompetent animals. Our research group has successfully employed the gerbil in several studies for prostate diseases. In the present work, we aimed to analyze the effect of chronic bacterial inflammation on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced prostate carcinogenesis in gerbils. Histopathological assessment of the prostatic complex revealed that treatment combinations with MNU plus testosterone or bacterial infection resulted in a promotion of prostate cancer, with bacterial inflammation being more effective in increasing premalignant and malignant tissular alterations than testosterone in the prostate. Furthermore, chronic bacterial inflammation itself induced premalignant lesions in the ventral lobe and increased their frequency in the dorsolateral lobe as well as malignant lesions in the ventral prostate. These animals showed a rich inflammatory microenvironment, characterized as intraluminal and periductal foci. These data indicate that chronic inflammation induced by Escherichia coli acts as a potent tumor promoter, in the early stages of carcinogenesis in the gerbil, in line with the hypothesis of inflammation supporting several steps of tumor development in the prostate gland. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  10. Giardia duodenalis: analysis of humoral immune response in experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Argüello-García, R; Ortega-Pierres, M G

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we have analyzed the humoral immune response in Mongolian gerbils infected with Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of strains P-1 and WB. The course of infection in the animals was assessed by monitoring cyst shedding in feces, and serum samples were collected at weekly intervals to measure antibody levels by ELISA. Parallel studies were carried out to determine the patterns of total and surface antigens of the parasite recognized by antibodies using Western blot and radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays with the use of homospecific enzyme conjugates. Typical patterns of cyst shedding were observed in the infected animals and cyst numbers per gram of feces were consistently higher in gerbils infected with WB strain. Antibody levels to G. duodenalis antigens were observed by week 2 post-infection and were still detectable 4 months after infection. G. duodenalis antigens showed a complex but quantitatively and qualitatively different recognition pattern by infection-induced antibodies in Western blot assays which related to infecting strain. However, RIP assays showed a more restricted and common pattern of recognition of surface antigens from either strain. Taken together, the data obtained in this study provides further information regarding direct comparisons among infecting strain, patterns of infectivity, and host immune response toward G. duodenalis antigens in the gerbil model.

  11. Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kai, O; Sakemi, K; Suzuki, Y; Sonoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-10-01

    Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of the gerbil were studied throughout the reproductive life. Six groups of 7-30 female gerbils were paired monogamously with males at different ages. Out of 101 pairs in 6 groups, 79 (78.2%) produced 1 or more litters. The mean litter size at birth and mean weaning rate of 846 litters were 4.4 (totally 3,733 pups) and 67.4% (2,517 pups), respectively. Reproduction was compared in the 6 age groups. The littering rate (No. of females with litters/No. of female paired) was significantly lower in two groups in which mature females were paired with age-matched males (Group 4) or the oldest females with younger, sexually mature males (Group 6). The interval from pairing to the first litter was shortest in two groups in which mature females were paired with one month older, sexually mature males (Groups 3 and 5). Although the oldest pairs (Group 6) produced about 7 litters, the pairs from the other 5 groups produced about 10 or more litters throughout their reproductive life. The weaning rate was significantly higher in Group 6 (the oldest pairs) than in the younger groups. The effects of parity on reproduction were estimated from the data for the 61 pairs which produced more than 8 litters in the 6 groups. The number of pups at birth and the weaning rate were decreased in last 20-30% of the total parity in all 6 groups, although the age at the last litter in all groups was significantly different. The data suggest that any decline in reproduction may be due to not age but parity in the Mongolian gerbil.

  12. Cellular and extracellular behavior in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) ventral prostate following different types of castration and the consequences of testosterone replacement.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sérgio Marcelino; Leite Vilamaior, Patricia Simone; Corradi, Lara Silvia; Góes, Rejane Maira; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2007-03-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were grouped into two experimental groups: GEx.01 suffered orchiectomy and after 30 days received doses of testosterone cipionate (T), while GEx.02 received weekly and alternated doses of the anti-androgens cyproterone acetate and flutamide for 30 days, and the animals were then euthanized. Structural evaluation reveals a more intense reduction in epithelial height in GEx.02. Smooth muscle cells (SMC) presented a star-shaped aspect after 30 days of hormonal ablation and basal membrane was shown to be more intensely grooved in GEx.01. In both groups, after hormonal replacement, recovery in epithelial height could be noted and the SMC presented its phenotypes, but an increase in RER was seen, characterizing a modulation from its contractile to secreting phenotype. In conclusion, the prostate presented involution capacity after androgen ablation and the ability to reorganize after hormonal replacement, but events resulting from orchiectomy and subsequent T replacement were shown to be more aggressive to the prostate.

  13. Ovariectomy increases the phenotypic plasticity of the female prostate epithelium in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Zanatelli, Marianna; Custodio, Ana M G; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Falleiros-Jr, Luiz R; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-10-14

    The female prostate is a reproductive gland that typically presents a morphology similar to that of the male gland and is highly developed in female Mongolian gerbils. Two main cell populations compose the epithelium gland: basal and secretory luminal cells. However, during postnatal development, diverse secretory cell phenotypes are distributed among the typical ones. Prostate homeostasis is under the control of sexual hormones, such as oestrogen and progesterone. After hormonal deprivation the female gland undergoes several morphophysiological changes. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise, structurally and ultrastructurally, the cellular heterogeneity of the female prostate epithelium in normal conditions and after ovariectomy. Histological routine stains, such as haematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver impregnation, as well as immunocytochemical techniques were used to enable identification of the different cell types. Some secretory cells types were identified and characterised as mucinous, basophil, clear, ciliated, droplet, spumous and neuroendocrine cells. Population tally data showed that the hormonal suppression caused by ovariectomy resulted in a decrease in the proportions of basophil and clear cells and an increase in spumous cells. Thus, the secretory epithelial cells of the female gerbil prostate are not morphologically and functionally uniform, presenting a phenotypical plasticity according to the hormonal environment in which they operate.

  14. Dendritic Morphology of Caudal Periaqueductal Gray Projecting Retinal Ganglion Cells in Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Chaoran; Pu, Mingliang; Cui, Qi; So, Kwok-Fai

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the morphological features of the caudal periaqueductal gray (cPAG)-projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in Mongolian gerbils using retrograde labeling, in vitro intracellular injection, confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction approaches. cPAG-projecting RGCs exhibit small somata (10–17 µm) and irregular dendritic fields (201–298 µm). Sizes of somata and dendritic fields do not show obvious variation at different distance from the optic disk (eccentricity). Dendrites are moderately branched. Morphological analysis (n = 23) reveals that cPAG-projecting RGCs ramified in sublamina a and b in the inner plexiform layer. These cells exhibit different stratification patterns based on the thickness of dendritic bands in sublaminas a and b: majority of analyzed cells (16 out of 23) have two bands of arborizations share similar thickness. The rest of analyzed cells (7 out of 23) exhibit thinner band in sublamina a than in sublamina b. Together, the present study suggests that cPAG of Mongolian gerbil could receive direct retinal inputs from two types of bistratified RGCs. Furthermore, a small subset of melanopsin-expressing RGCs (total 41 in 6 animals) is shown to innervate the rostral PAG (rPAG). Functional characteristics of these non-visual center projecting RGCs remain to be determined. PMID:25054882

  15. Module Equipped with a Life-Support System for Space Experiments with Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, E. A.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Guryeva, T. S.; Mednikova, E. I.

    2008-06-01

    A successful experiment with 12 Mongolian gerbils was performed during the 12-day flight of Russian automatic spacecraft Foton-M3 (September 14-26, 2007). Foton-M3 was not equipped with an air supply system. Due to this, a self-contained "CONTOUR" module equipped with its own Life-Support System, was developed. The cage for animals was equipped with yellow LEDs. The day/night cycle was 12:12 hours. In addition, the module was equipped with a digital video recorder located on the outside surface in front of a transparent window. In space flight, the animals were provided with food bars made of natural products and contained about 20% of water. This moisture met gerbils requirements in water; therefore, the module was not equipped with a water supply system. In the module, the environmental parameters were as follows: p02 = 143-156 (mean 150) mm Hg, pC02 - not more than 0.76 (mean 0.64) mm Hg, temperature = 23-28 (mean 26.7) °C, and RH = 29% at the beginning and 57% at the end of flight (mean 39%). Throughout the entire flight video recording of the animals was performed continuously during the daytime.

  16. Acoustical cues for sound localization by the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Katuhiro; Furukawa, Shigeto

    2005-08-01

    The present study measured the head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) of the Mongolian gerbil for various sound-source directions, and explored acoustical cues for sound localization that could be available to the animals. The HRTF exhibited spectral notches for frequencies above 25 kHz. The notch frequency varied systematically with source direction, and thereby characterized the source directions well. The frequency dependence of the acoustical axis, the direction for which the HRTF amplitude was maximal, was relatively irregular and inconsistent between ears and animals. The frequency-by-frequency plot of the interaural level difference (ILD) exhibited positive and negative peaks, with maximum values of 30 dB at around 30 kHz. The ILD peak frequency had a relatively irregular spatial distribution, implying a poor sound localization cue. The binaural acoustical axis (the direction with the maximum ILD magnitude) showed relatively orderly clustering around certain frequencies, the pattern being fairly consistent among animals. The interaural time differences (ITDs) were also measured and fell in a +/-120 μs range. When two different animal postures were compared (i.e., the animal was standing on its hind legs and prone), small but consistent differences were found for the lower rear directions on the HRTF amplitudes, the ILDs, and the ITDs.

  17. Antiestrogen therapies affect tissue homeostasis of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) female prostate and ovaries.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda C A; Custodio, Ana M G; Campos, Silvana G P; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-10-01

    The present work aims to evaluate the response of the adult gerbil female prostate (paraurethral glands) and ovaries to short-term exposure to antiestrogenic agents, consisting of daily oral doses of letrozole (1 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) or intradermal doses of tamoxifen (1 mg/kg) every other day for 21 days. The serum levels of testosterone and estradiol were monitored, and the prostates and ovaries collected for structural, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical analyses. The letrozole treatment resulted in increases of serum testosterone levels and secretory activity as well as in glandular hyperplasia and dysplastic growth, simulating the effects caused by the exogenous androgens. The effects caused by tamoxifen indicate that this endocrine agent acted as an estrogenic agonist on the prostate, causing glandular hypertrophy, secretory activity decrease, and the development of prostatic lesions. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that the letrozole and tamoxifen therapies result in a series of complex effects that endanger the physiology of hormone-dependent organs, including the female prostate and ovaries. The hormonal imbalance caused by administration of these drugs resulted in considerable changes in prostatic morphology, in a manner very similar to what occurs during the development of prostatic lesions in aged postmenopausal women. Thus, these therapies must be chosen carefully since long-term treatments can result in female prostate dysplasic lesions.

  18. Food hoarding, but not food intake, is attenuated by acute diazepam treatment in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Di; Wang, Qian; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on food hoarding are unknown in rodents, and the effects of energy balance and GABA have not been evaluated in females. To evaluate the role of food deprivation and GABA on food hoarding, female Mongolian gerbils were given i.p. injection of diazepam (1mg/kg and 3mg/kg, respectively), a GABAA receptor agonist. Among food-deprived females, there was a bimodal pattern in the frequency of gerbils with different levels of food hoarding. High food hoarding (HFH) and low food hoarding (LFH) gerbils were analyzed. Diazepam blocked food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, but not in LFH gerbils. This blockade was associated with increased cellular activation in selected brain areas, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), caudate putamen (CP) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), which suggested that direct activation of GABA in the brain reward circuitry decreased food hoarding in HFH females. Moreover, diazepam increased Fos expression in field CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus, but had no significant effect on Fos expression in field CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus, indicating that the hippocampus has area-specific effects on food hoarding in HFH gerbils. Diazepam did not alter food intake in both HFH and LFH gerbils. In addition, serum corticosterone concentrations were higher in the HFH than in the LFH ones. Together, these data indicated that food deprivation increased food hoarding in female gerbils, diazepam reduced food deprivation-induced food hoarding in HFH gerbils, and that GABA might influence food hoarding via classical reward circuitry via the mesolimbic dopamine system and specific hippocampal areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enterovirus 71-Induced Neurological Disorders in Young Gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus: Development and Application of a Neurological Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Ping-Ping; Qian, Lei; Xia, Yong; Xu, Fang; Yang, Zhang-Nv; Xie, Rong-Hui; Li, Xiao; Liang, Wei-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Han-Ping

    2012-01-01

    A reliable disease model mimicking Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in humans is essential for understanding pathogenesis and for developing a safe and effective vaccine. Commonly used rodent models including mouse or rat models are not suitable for vaccine evaluation because the rodents are resistant to EV71 infection after they reach the age of 6 days. In this study, 21-day-old gerbils inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with a non mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related signs including hind limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia and lethargy similar to those of central nervous system (CNS) infection of EV71 in humans. The infected gerbils eventually died of the neurological lesions and EV71 could be isolated from lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem and skeletal muscle. Significantly high virus replication was detected in spinal cord, brainstem and skeletal muscle by cellular analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Histopathologic changes such as neuronal degeneration, neuronal loss and neuronophagia were observed in spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem, and skeletal muscle along with necrotizing myositis and splenic atrophy. Gerbils that received two doses of inactive whole-virus vaccine showed no EV71-specific symptoms after challenged with EV71. In contrast, gerbils that received mock vaccination died of EV71-induced neuropathology after challenged with EV71. The result indicates that gerbils can serve as a reliable disease model for evaluating safety and efficacy of EV71 vaccine. PMID:23284845

  20. Poorly differentiated cutaneous carcinoma of non-sebaceous origin in a 3-year-old Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Heather; Forzán, María J.; Desmarchelier, Marion; Woodland, Meghan; Sayi, Soraya; Gilroy, Cornelia V.

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old female gerbil developed a non-healing skin wound due to a malignant neoplasm. Histology, immunohistochemistry (cytokeratin 19 positive; vimentin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor negative), and electron microscopy (no desmosomes or melanosomes) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis. Unlike in previous reports, it did not arise from the abdominal pad’s sebaceous gland. PMID:26740704

  1. Y-Like Retinal Ganglion Cells Innervate the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Benson Wui-Man; Yang, Jian; Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2011-01-01

    Background The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) of the mesencephalon is a complex multi-functional and multi-transmitter nucleus involved in a wide range of behavioral and physiological processes. The DRN receives a direct input from the retina. However little is known regarding the type of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) that innervates the DRN. We examined morphological characteristics and physiological properties of these DRN projecting ganglion cells. Methodology/Principal Findings The Mongolian gerbils are highly visual rodents with a diurnal/crepuscular activity rhythm. It has been widely used as experimental animals of various studies including seasonal affective disorders and depression. Young adult gerbils were used in the present study. DRN-projecting RGCs were identified following retrograde tracer injection into the DRN, characterized physiologically by extracellular recording and morphologically after intracellular filling. The result shows that DRN-projecting RGCs exhibit morphological characteristics typical of alpha RGCs and physiological response properties of Y-cells. Melanopsin was not detected in these RGCs and they show no evidence of intrinsic photosensitivity. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that RGCs with alpha-like morphology and Y-like physiology appear to perform a non-imaging forming function and thus may participate in the modulation of DRN activity which includes regulation of sleep and mood. PMID:21552551

  2. Hormonal oscillations during the estrous cycle influence the morphophysiology of the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) female prostate (skene paraurethral glands).

    PubMed

    Fochi, Ricardo A; Perez, Ana P S; Bianchi, Carlos V; Rochel, Sabrina S; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Santos, Fernanda C A

    2008-12-01

    The hormonal oscillations that occur during the female reproductive cycle influence the morphophysiology of several organs of the reproductive system. The female prostate is a functional organ sensitive to the action of steroidal hormones, but it is not known whether the hormonal oscillations that occur during the reproductive cycle can alter the biology of this gland. Thus, the present work aims to evaluate the morphofunctional aspects of the female prostate during the gerbil estrous cycle. For this purpose, morphological, morphometric-stereological, serological, and immunocytochemical analyses were carried out. The results of the present study show that the hormonal oscillations that occurred during the estrous cycle altered both the structure and functionality of the gerbil female prostate. These alterations include increased prostatic growth and augmented secretory activity during the proestrus and estrus phases and a gradual decrease of the secretory activity and glandular development in the diestrus I and II phases. These cyclical oscillations appear to be determined by the hormonal peaks of estrogen in diestrus II and by the high levels of progesterone during estrus, since the androgen levels remained constant throughout the estrous cycle.

  3. Effects of diet quality on phenotypic flexibility of organ size and digestive function in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Sheng; Wang, De-Hua

    2007-07-01

    In the context of evolution and ecology, there is a trade-off between the benefits of processing food through a digestive system with specific phenotypic attributes and the cost of maintaining and carrying the digestive system. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that digestive modulations at several levels can match each other to meet the energy and nutrient demands of Mongolian gerbils, a small granivorous rodent species, by acclimating them to a high-quality diet diluted with alfalfa powder. Mongolian gerbils on the diluted diet maintained metabolizable energy intake by an integrated processing response (IPR), which included increases in dry matter intake, gut capacity and rate of digesta passage after 2-weeks of acclimation. Down-regulation of hydrolytic enzyme activity in the intestinal brush-border membrane supported the adaptive modulation hypothesis. The absence of up-modulation of summed enzyme hydrolytic capacity on the diluted diet indicated that greater mass of small intestine on a high-fibre diet is not a direct indicator of digestive or absorptive capacity. Changes in mass of vital organs and carcass suggested that the amount of energy allocated to various organs and hence physiological functions was regulated in response to diet shift.

  4. Effects of exposure to estradiol and estradiol plus testosterone on the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) female prostate.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Diego Augusto Lopes; Zanatelli, Marianna; Shinohara, Filipe Zardini; Góes, Rejane Maira; Dos Santos, Fernanda Cristina Alcântara; Vilamaior, Patricia Simone Leite; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2013-05-01

    The female prostate is a differentiated organ found in several mammal species, including humans and rodents. This gland has been related to important functions on female reproductive biology. Although the factors, which regulate prostate's development and activity are not well known, its functionality has been related to steroid hormones. It is well established that cyclic changes of estradiol and progesterone levels promote histophysiological adaptations of the whole female body. In contrast, only a few is found about those adaptations in female prostate. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of estradiol and estradiol + testosterone association on gerbil female prostate in order to verify, which hormonal associations are necessary to its homeostasis. For this, adult females had the ovaries surgically removed. After recovering, they received estradiol and estradiol + testosterone doses through 30 days, each 48 h. The prostatic tissue underwent morphological and morphometric-estereological analysis. Hormonal restriction caused great gland involution and decreased secretory activity, aspects that were reverted by exposure to estradiol and estradiol + testosterone. However, these hormones were not able to re-establish the normal prostate histoarchitecture. The immunoreaction of steroid receptors (ER-α, ER-β, and AR) responded differently among the experimental and control groups, and PCNA assay showed a decrease in epithelial cell proliferation within groups that had hormone privation. Therefore, we conclude that estradiol and testosterone are able to influence prostate morphophysiology and the maintenance of gland homeostasis depends on a balance among these and other hormones. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Early experience and domestication affect auditory discrimination learning, open field behaviour and brain size in wild Mongolian gerbils and domesticated laboratory gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus forma domestica).

    PubMed

    Stuermer, Ingo W; Wetzel, Wolfram

    2006-10-02

    The influence of early experience and strain differences on auditory discrimination learning, open field behaviour and brain size was investigated in wild-type Mongolian gerbils (strain Ugoe:MU95) raised in the wild (wild F-0) or in the laboratory (wild F-1) and in domesticated Laboratory Gerbils (LAB). Adult males were conditioned for 10 days in a shuttle box go/no-go paradigm to discriminate two frequency-modulated tones. Significant learning was established within 5 days in wild F-0 and within 3 days in wild F-1 and LAB. Spontaneous jumps in the shuttle box (inter-trial crossings) were frequently seen in wild F-0 and F-1, but rarely in LAB. All groups exhibited nearly the same ability to remember after 2 weeks without training. In the open field test applied on 5 consecutive days, no differences in locomotion patterns and inner field preferences were found. Rearing frequency decreased over 5 days in wild gerbils. Running distances (4-6m/min) were similar in wild F-0 and LAB, but higher in wild F-1. The ratio of brain size to body weight did not differ between wild F-0 and F-1, but was 17.1% lower in LAB. Correspondingly high brain weights in wild F-1 and F-0 support our domestication hypothesis and negate any serious effect of early experience or captivity on brain size in Mongolian gerbils. In contrast, wild F-1 raised in the laboratory show a rapid improvement in learning performance, indicating that early experience rather that genetic differences between strains affect shuttle box discrimination learning in gerbils.

  6. Infection with CagA-Positive Helicobacter Pylori Strain Containing Three EPIYA C Phosphorylation Sites is Associated with More Severe Gastric Lesions in Experimentally Infected Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Junior, M. Ferreira; Batista, S.A.; Vidigal, P.V.T; Cordeiro, A.A.C.; Oliveira, F.M.S.; Prata, L.O.; Diniz, A.E.T.; Barral, C.M.; Barbuto, R.C.; Comes, A.D.; Araujo, I.D.; Queiroz, D.M.M.; Caliari, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains containing high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites in the CagA is associated with significant gastritis and increased risk of developing pre-malignant gastric lesions and gastric carcinoma. However, these findings have not been reproduced in animal models yet. Therefore, we investigated the effect on the gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains exhibiting one or three EPIYA-C phosphorilation sites. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori clonal isolates containing one or three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. Control group was composed by uninfected animals challenged with Brucella broth alone. Gastric fragments were evaluated by the modified Sydney System and digital morphometry. Clonal relatedness between the isolates was considered by the identical RAPD-PCR profiles and sequencing of five housekeeping genes, vacA i/d region and of oipA. The other virulence markers were present in both isolates (vacA s1i1d1m1, iceA2, and intact dupA). CagA of both isolates was translocated and phosphorylated in AGS cells. After 45 days of infection, there was a significant increase in the number of inflammatory cells and in the area of the lamina propria in the infected animals, notably in those infected by the CagA-positive strain with three EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites. After six months of infection, a high number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites was associated with progressive increase in the intensity of gastritis and in the area of the lamina propria. Atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia were also observed more frequently in animals infected with the CagA-positive isolate with three EPIYA-C sites. We conclude that infection with H. pylori strain carrying a high number of CagA EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites is associated with more severe gastric lesions in an animal model of H. pylori infection. PMID:26150158

  7. Enterovirus 71 Infection Causes Severe Pulmonary Lesions in Gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, Which Can Be Prevented by Passive Immunization with Specific Antisera

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yong; Qian, Lei; Yang, Zhang-Nv; Xie, Rong-Hui; Sun, Yi-Sheng; Lu, Hang-Jing; Miao, Zi-Ping; Li, Chan; Li, Xiao; Liang, Wei-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Xia, Shi-Chang; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Jiang, Jian-Min; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Mei, Ling-Ling; Liu, She-Lan; Gu, Hua; Xu, Zhi-Yao; Fu, Xiao-Fei; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Han-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema caused by severe brainstem encephalitis is the leading cause of death in young children infected by Enterovirus 71 (EV71). However, no pulmonary lesions have been found in EV71-infected transgenic or non-transgenic mouse models. Development of a suitable animal model is important for studying EV71 pathogenesis and assessing effect of therapeutic approaches. We had found neurological disorders in EV71-induced young gerbils previously. Here, we report severe pulmonary lesions characterized with pulmonary congestion and hemorrhage in a gerbil model for EV71 infection. In the EV71-infected gerbils, six 21-day-old or younger gerbils presented with a sudden onset of symptoms and rapid illness progression after inoculation with 1×105.5 TCID50 of EV71 via intraperitoneal (IP) or intramuscular (IM) route. Respiratory symptoms were observed along with interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary congestion and extensive lung hemorrhage could be detected in the lung tissues by histopathological examination. EV71 viral titer was found to be peak at late stages of infection. EV71-induced pulmonary lesions, together with severe neurological disorders were also observed in gerbils, accurately mimicking the disease process in EV71-infected patients. Passive transfer with immune sera from EV71 infected adult gerbils with a neutralizing antibody (GMT=89) prevented severe pulmonary lesion formation after lethal EV71 challenge. These results establish this gerbil model as a useful platform for studying the pathogenesis of EV71-induced pulmonary lesions, immunotherapy and antiviral drugs. PMID:25767882

  8. Experimental infection of Haemonchus contortus strains resistant and susceptible to benzimidazoles and the effect on mast cells distribution in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Königová, Alzbeta; Hrckova, Gabriela; Velebný, Samuel; Corba, Július; Várady, Marián

    2008-03-01

    Establishment rate of Haemonchus contortus in non-suppressed and immunosuppressed gerbils within 14 days post-infection was compared after inoculation with 1,000 third-stage larvae (L3), exsheathed BZ-susceptible larvae. Based on significantly higher number of larvae in gerbils receiving low doses of immunosuppressant agent hydrocortisone, development of benzimidazole (BZ)-susceptible and BZ-resistant strain of nematode in the stomach was studied on days 4, 7, 10, and 14 p.i. Sections of stomach from both groups of animals were examined for overall histopathological response and dynamics of mucosal mast cells (MMC) and connective tissue mast cells (CTMC). In the immunosuppressed gerbils, H. contortus L3 stage larvae developed to the L4 stage on days 10 and 14 p.i., and their sex ratio was higher toward female worms. Significantly higher ratios of establishment rate were recorded for BZ-susceptible than BZ-resistant strain. Infection elicited strong inflammation mainly in the lamina propria mucosae, where MMC numbers peaked on day 7 p.i., being present in a significantly higher numbers in gerbils infected with BZ-susceptible strain. Infection with BZ-susceptible strain of nematode also resulted in a higher number of CTMC in comparison with the effect of BZ-resistant strain, which were observed in the tela submucosa only. Thus, H. contortus infection in gerbils seems to be a suitable model to study host-parasite interactions. Our results indicate that BZ-resistant strain of H. contortus have a decreased capacity to establish infection in direct relation with lower mucosal and connective tissue MCs counts in the stomach.

  9. The mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is an appropriate animal model for evaluation of the conversion of beta-carotene to vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Lee, C M; Lederman, J D; Hofmann, N E; Erdman, J W

    1998-02-01

    Vitamin A (VA) deficiency is the leading cause of blindness in children in developing countries. Dietary intervention with foods rich in provitamin A carotenoids, such as beta-carotene (betaC), has been suggested as one solution to this problem. The objective of the two studies described in this paper was to examine the utilization of betaC as a source of VA at different stages of VA depletion using the Mongolian gerbil as a model. Male 4- to 5-wk-old Mongolian gerbils were fed powdered betaC-free semipurified diets either with or without VA for 26 d (Study 1), or without VA for 8-10 wk (Study 2). Gerbils were then fed diets with or without VA (20.9 nmol/g diet) and/or betaC [(67.0 micromol/g diet (Study 1) and 145.9 micromol/g diet (Study 2)] for variable periods. Two (Study 1) or three (Study 2) days before termination of the study, 3-4 gerbils per group were dosed orally with 14C-betaC. Tissues were evaluated for VA and betaC content by HPLC. Liver was extracted with and without saponification to evaluate 14C-betaC and 14C-VA content. The results demonstrate the following: 1) the gerbil is an appropriate animal model to study betaC utilization; 2) 20.9 nmol VA/g diet is more than sufficient for this species; 3) the daily VA utilization rate for this species is calculated to be 3.1 microg/100 g body weight; 4) a highly bioavailable source of betaC at a 6:1 weight ratio of betaC:VA is sufficient to reverse marginal VA status in this model; and 5) a highly bioavailable source of betaC fed between a 6:1 and 13:1 weight ratio to VA provides equivalent VA status as preformed VA in Mongolian gerbils.

  10. Brugia pahangi: immunization with early L3 ES alters parasite migration, and reduces microfilaremia and lymphatic lesion formation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Zipperer, Ginger R; Arumugam, Sridhar; Chirgwin, Sharon R; Coleman, Sharon U; Shakya, Krishna P; Klei, Thomas R

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that intradermally (ID) injected Brugia pahangi L3 s migrate through various tissues and into the lymphatics of gerbils in a distinct pattern. Excretory/secretory products (ES) produced at the time of invasion of B. pahangi are likely to be important in this early migration phase of the parasite life cycle in their rodent host. Hence, early L3 ES was collected from 24h in vitro cultures of B. pahangi L3 larvae and used in immunization experiments to investigate the effect of immunity to early L3 ES on worm migration, survival and development of B. pahangi. Immunization of gerbils with ES in RIBI adjuvant produced antibodies to numerous ES proteins eliciting a strong humoral response to ES and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay using anti-ES serum recognized the ES proteins on the surface of B. pahangi L3 larvae. Following ES immunization, gerbils were challenged either ID or intraperitoneally (IP) with 100 L3 s of B. pahangi and euthanized at 3 or 106 days post inoculation (DPI). Immunization with early ES slowed the migration of ID inoculated L3 at 3 DPI and significantly altered the locations of adult worms at 106 DPI. Immunization did not induce protection in any treatment group. However, immunized animals had significantly fewer microfilariae per female worm suggesting the antigens in ES are important in microfilariae development or survival in the host. The number of lymphatic granulomas was also significantly reduced in ES immunized animals. It is important to note that microfilariae serve as a nidus in these granulomas. Our results shows immunization with early Brugia malayi L3 ES alters the worm migration, affects circulating microfilarial numbers and reduces lymphatic granulomas associated with B. pahangi infection in gerbils.

  11. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy-vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ejoh, Richard A.; Dever, Joseph T.; Mills, Jordan P.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanium nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana, and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n = 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n = 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to 6 treatment groups (n = 10/group; 4 vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100% bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0·0001). Liver β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1·9 and 2·3 μg β-carotene equivalents to 1 μg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of β-carotene to retinol. PMID:20412609

  12. Neonatal gonocyte differentiation in Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus involves asynchronous maturation of seminiferous cords and rapid formation of transitional cell stage.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Maria Etelvina; Botta, Lívia Silva; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2010-02-01

    This study describes the neonatal differentiation of the Mongolian gerbil gonocytes, focusing on the relationship between its relocation to the basement membrane, apoptosis and postrelocation changes and also the distribution of androgen receptors (AR). Testes of gerbils from 1 to 35 days of age (d) were examined by high resolution light microscopy and immunocytochemistry for proteins PCNA, VASA, and AR as well as by the TUNEL method. Gonocytes were quantified according to degree of relocation into nonrelocated, relocating and relocated. Most of them were found in the center of seminiferous cords at 1 d but a small number of relocating and relocated gonocytes were already visible in the first postnatal day. After relocation, gonocytes change phenotypically to a transitional stage designated herein prospermatogonia. Both gonocyte relocation and transformation into spermatogonial lineage occur asynchronously in the seminiferous cords, mainly after 7 d. Gonocyte proliferation began before but peak after their relocation to basement membrane at the prospermatogonia stage. Higher levels of gonocyte apoptosis were found at 7 d and 21 d. From this time onward gonocytes were not found. Gonocytes and prospermatogonia showed high amounts of AR in their cytoplasm contrary to spermatogonial subtypes, indicating a possible AR inactivation in these cells. In conclusion, the process of gonocyte relocation in the gerbil extends until the second postnatal week, leads to their rapid differentiation into prospermatogonia and occurs simultaneously with the loss of androgen sensitivity. Differently from other laboratory rodents, the events regarding gonocyte maturation in the gerbil last longer and occur asynchronously in seminiferous cords. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Ejoh, Richard A; Dever, Joseph T; Mills, Jordan P; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-06-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanum nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to six treatment groups (n 10; four vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100 % bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0.0001). Liver beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1.9 and 2.3 microg beta-carotene equivalents to 1 microg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol.

  14. Relative vitamin A values of 9-cis- and 13-cis-β-carotene do not differ when fed at physiological levels during vitamin A depletion in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Davis, Christopher R; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-07-28

    Provitamin A biofortification of staple crops may decrease the prevalence of vitamin A (VA) deficiency if widely adopted in target countries. To assess the impact of processing methods on the VA value of plant foods, the unique bioefficacies of cis-βC isomers (formed during cooking) compared with all-trans (at) β-carotene (βC) must be determined. The bioefficacies of 9-cis (9c)- and 13-cis (13c)-βC isomers were compared with those of the at-βC isomer and VA positive (VA+) and negative (VA - ) controls in VA-depleted Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) in two experimental studies (study 1, n 56; study 2, n 57). A 3- or 4-week depletion period was followed by a 3- or 4-week treatment period in which the groups received oral doses of the 9c-, 13c- or at-βC isomers in cottonseed oil (study 1, 15 nmol/d; study 2, 30 nmol/d). In study 1, the βC isomers did not maintain baseline liver VA stores in all groups (0.69 (SD 0.20) μmol/liver) except in the VA+group (0.56 (SD 0.10) μmol/liver) (P= 0.0026). The βC groups were similar to the VA+group, but the 9c- and 13c-βC groups did not differ from the VA - group (0.39 (SD 0.09) μmol/liver). In study 2, the βC isomers maintained baseline liver VA stores in all the βC groups (0.35 (SD 0.13) μmol/liver), and in the VA+group, the VA supplement (0.54 (SD 0.19) μmol/liver) exceeded the baseline VA status (0.38 (SD 0.15) μmol/liver) (P< 0.0001); however, the 9c-βC group did not differ from the VA - group (0.20 (SD 0.07) μmol/liver). In vivo isomerisation of βC was confirmed in both experimental studies. Lower VA bioconversion factor values were obtained for the cis-βC isomers in study 2 when compared with study 1, but higher values were obtained for the at-βC isomer. Dose and VA status clearly affect bioconversion factors. In conclusion, the cis-βC isomers yielded similar liver VA stores to the at-βC isomer in Mongolian gerbils, and liver VA stores of the 9c- and 13c-βC groups did not differ when the

  15. Obesity-induced diet leads to weight gain, systemic metabolic alterations, adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and oxidative stress in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Luciana L.A.; Fortes, Nathália C.L.; Santiago, Helton C.; Caliari, Marcelo V.; Gomes, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Nowadays, the number of obese people in the world has reached alarming proportions. During the expansion of adipose tissue, a number of functions such as activation and release of cytokines and hormones may be affected. This leads the body to a pro-inflammatory pattern, which may affect the proper functioning of many tissues. Thus, studying the mechanisms by which obesity induces physiological disorders is necessary, and may be facilitated by the use of animal models, in particular rodents. We sought to characterize the metabolic and adipose tissue changes resulting from a diet rich in fats and simple sugars in gerbils. Methods We divided 14 gerbils into two experimental groups that received a diet rich in simple carbohydrates and fats with 5,86 kcal/g (OB, n = 7) or a standard diet with 4.15 kcal/g (CT; n = 7) for 11 weeks. The animals had free access to water and food. The animal weight and food consumption were measured weekly. Blood, adipose tissue and liver of each animal were collected at the end of experiment. The following parameters were determined: cholesterol (COL), triglycerides (TGL) and glycemia (GLI) in the plasma; cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) and hormones (adiponectin and leptin) in adipose tissue; activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), extraction and differentiation of fat and histology in liver. Results The consumption of a diet rich in simple carbohydrates and fats led to increased total body weight and increased relative weights of liver and adipose tissue. In addition, we observed increased fasting glucose levels and circulating triglycerides, along with high TNF-α production in adipose tissue and increased total fat, cholesterol and triglyceride contents in the liver, contributing to higher intensity of hepatic steatosis. On the other hand, the animals of this group showed depletion in the enzyme activity of SOD and CAT in the liver, as well as reduction of IL-10 and adiponectin levels in adipose

  16. [Correlative factors related to the density of Meriones unguiculatus in the Meriones unguiculatus plague foci of Hebei province, 2001-2013].

    PubMed

    Niu, Y F; Kang, X P; Yan, D; Zhang, Y H; Liu, G; Kang, D M; Liu, H Z; Shi, X M; Li, Y G

    2016-08-10

    To explore the yearly, monthly and habitat-related distribution and their relations with Meriones unguiculatus density in the Hebei Meriones unguiculatus plague foci, from 2001 to 2013. Data related to Meriones unguiculatus was gathered through the monitoring programs set up at the national and provincial Meriones unguiculatus plague foci in Hebei province, from 2001 to 2013. According to the yearly density of Meriones unguiculatus, criteria set for the three groups under study, were as follows:'high-risk group'-when the rodent density was≥1.00 under rodents/hm(2),'warning group'-when the rodents/hm(2)>rodent density> 0.20,'standard group'-when rodents/hm(2) rodent density≤0.20 rodents/hm(2). Differences of habitats and monthly distribution among the three groups were compared, under the Kruskal-Wallis H rank sum test while their relations were under the multiple correspondence analysis. The Meriones unguiculatus densities were higher than 1.00 rodents/hm(2), far above the set national standards, in the monitoring area, between 2001 and 2005. From 2005, though the rodent densities began to decrease, however, figures from 2008 to 2013 were still among 0.20 to 1.00 rodents/hm(2). The distribution of habitats in the three groups showed that the Meriones unguiculatus densities were all different in habitats and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The highest median densities were all in the arable land, with maximum value of high-risk group appeared the highest (20.50 rodents/hm(2)) in the wasteland. Monthly distribution showed that the Meriones unguiculatus densities were different and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) in the high-risk and standard groups but not statistically significant in the warning group. Data from the multiple correspondence analysis showed that there was a strong aggregation among wasteland, in April and June, while the warning group was associated with weather in July and the arable land. When the

  17. Synapse Plasticity in Motor, Sensory, and Limbo-Prefrontal Cortex Areas as Measured by Degrading Axon Terminals in an Environment Model of Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Janina; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Grafen, Keren; Winter, York; Witte, A. Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Still little is known about naturally occurring synaptogenesis in the adult neocortex and related impacts of epigenetic influences. We therefore investigated (pre)synaptic plasticity in various cortices of adult rodents, visualized by secondary lysosome accumulations (LA) in remodeling axon terminals. Twenty-two male gerbils from either enriched (ER) or impoverished rearing (IR) were used for quantification of silver-stained LA. ER-animals showed rather low LA densities in most primary fields, whereas barrel and secondary/associative cortices exhibited higher densities and layer-specific differences. In IR-animals, these differences were evened out or even inverted. Basic plastic capacities might be linked with remodeling of local intrinsic circuits in the context of cortical map adaptation in both IR- and ER-animals. Frequently described disturbances due to IR in multiple corticocortical and extracortical afferent systems, including the mesocortical dopamine projection, might have led to maladaptations in the plastic capacities of prefronto-limbic areas, as indicated by different LA densities in IR- compared with ER-animals. PMID:19809517

  18. Maize Genotype and Food Matrix Affect the Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy from Staple and Carrot-fortified Feeds in Mongolian Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Schmaelzle, Samantha; Gannon, Bryan; Crawford, Serra; Arscott, Sara A.; Goltz, Shellen; Palacios-Rojas, Natalia; Pixley, Kevin V.; Simon, Philipp W.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Biofortification to increase provitamin A carotenoids is an agronomic approach to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Two studies compared biofortified foods using in vitro and in vivo methods. Study 1 screened maize genotypes (n = 44) using in vitro analysis, which demonstrated decreasing micellarization with increasing provitamin A. Thereafter, seven 50% biofortified maize feeds that hypothesized a one-to-one equivalency between β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene were fed to Mongolian gerbils. Total liver retinol differed among the maize groups (P = 0.0043). Study 2 assessed provitamin A bioefficacy from 0.5% high-carotene carrots added to 60% staple-food feeds, followed by in vitro screening. Liver retinol was highest in the potato and banana groups, maize group retinol did not differ from baseline, and all treatments differed from control (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene have similar bioefficacy; meal matrix effects influence provitamin A absorption from carrot; and in vitro micellarization does not predict bioefficacy. PMID:24341827

  19. Immunization with a tetramer derivative of an anti-inflammatory pentapeptide produced by Entamoeba histolytica protects gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) against experimental amoebic abscess of the liver.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Scherer, Juan Antonio; Cárdenas, Guadalupe; López-Osuna, Martha; Velázquez, Juan Raymundo; Rico, Guadalupe; Isibasi, Armando; Maldonado, María del Carmen; Morales, María Esther; Fernández-Diez, Jorge; Kretschmer, Roberto R

    2004-01-01

    Axenically grown Entamoeba histolytica produces a pentapeptide (Met-Gln-Cys-Asn-Ser) with several anti-inflammatory properties, including the inhibition of human monocyte locomotion (Monocyte Locomotion Inhibitory Factor (MLIF)). A construct displays the same effects as the native material. It remains to be seen if MLIF is used, or even produced in vivo by the tissue-invading parasite. If MLIF were to be relevant in invasive amoebiasis, immunizing against it could diminish this parasite advantage and prevent lesions. KLH-linked MLIF mixed with Freund's adjuvant was too aggressive an immunizing material to answer this question. However, immunization with a tetramer of MLIF (but not a scrambled version of MLIF) around a lysine core (MLIF-MAPS), that displays increased antigenicity, yet lacks excessive innate immunity activation, completely protects gerbils against amoebic abscess of the liver caused by the intraportal injection of virulent E. histolytica. Liver abscesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes were not prevented. Invasive E. histolytica may produce the parent protein of MLIF in vivo, and if appropriately cleaved, it may play a role in invasive amoebiasis. MLIF may join new vaccination strategies against amoebiasis.

  20. Characterization of cochlear nucleus principal cells of Meriones unguiculatus and Monodelphis domestica by use of calcium-binding protein immunolabeling.

    PubMed

    Bazwinsky, I; Härtig, W; Rübsamen, R

    2008-01-01

    Antibodies directed against calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k and calretinin were used as neuronal markers to identify and characterize different principal cell types in the mammalian cochlear nucleus. For this purpose, double immunofluorescence labeling and the combination of CaBP-labeling with pan-neuronal markers were applied to analyze the CaBPs distribution in neurons of the cochlear nucleus (CN) of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Despite of the fact, that these two mammalian species are not closely related, principal cell types in the CN of the two species showed many corresponding morphological features and similarities in immunolabeling of the CaBPs. Parvalbumin seems not to be suited as a differential neuronal marker in the CN since it is expressed by almost all neurons. In contrast, calbindin and calretinin were more restricted to specific cell types and showed a mostly complementary labeling pattern. As one of the most interesting findings, calbindin and calretinin were predominantly found in subpopulations of globular bushy cells and octopus cells in the ventral CN. Such a neuron-specific CaBP-expression in subpopulations of morphologically defined cell types argues for a more refined classification of CN cell types in Meriones and Monodelphis. Additionally, other cell types (cartwheel cells, unipolar brush cells, fusiform cells) were marked with calbindin or calretinin as well. Calretinin staining was predominantly observed in auditory nerve fibers and their endings including endbulbs of Held in Meriones. Spherical bushy cells showed a different calretinin-immunolabeling in Meriones and Monodelphis. This species-specific difference may be related to adaptive differences in auditory function.

  1. Experimental infection and adaptation of Rodentolepis nana to the Mongolian jird Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Gustavo José Caldas; de Melo, Alan Lane

    2007-12-01

    A mouse-derived strain of Rodentolepis ( = Hymenolepis) nana was transferred to the Mongolian jird Meriones unguiculatus. It was found that M. unguiculatus has low susceptibility to R. nana mouse isolates. Likewise, adaptation of the parasite to jird hosts, in the absence of dexamethasone treatment, was not demonstrable, at least during ten-passage trials. Nevertheless, the parasite was able to establish, grow and develop to gravid adults in M. unguiculatus treated daily with dexamethasone. Prepatent periods in dexamethasone-treated jirds in ten-passage series ranged from 10 to 17 days post-infection (DPI), the average being 12 days, and the patent periods lasted from 18 to 30 DPI, with an average of 25 days. The population pattern of faecal egg output in immunosuppressed jirds suggests that under a daily dexamethasone treatment protocol, the parasite is able to maintain egg production as long as treatment is sustained.

  2. Probing the spatial cluster of Meriones unguiculatus using the nest flea index based on GIS technology.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Dafang; Du, Haiwen; Wang, Yong; Jiang, Xiaosan; Shi, Xianming; Yan, Dong

    2016-11-01

    The nest flea index of Meriones unguiculatus is a critical indicator for the prevention and control of plague, which can be used not only to detect the spatial and temporal distributions of Meriones unguiculatus, but also to reveal its cluster rule. This study used global spatial autocorrelation and spatial hot spot detection methods to describe the relationship between different years and the autocorrelation coefficient of nest flea indexes; it also used a spatial detection method and GIS technology to detect the spatial gathered hot spot of Meriones unguiculatus in the epidemic areas. The results of this study showed that (1) there were statistically significant spatial autocorrelations in the nest flea indexes in 2006, 2012, 2013 and 2014. (2) Most of the distribution patterns of Meriones unguiculatus were statistically significant clusters of high values. (3) There were some typical hot spot regions of plague distributed along the Inner Mongolia plateau, north of China. (4) The hot spot regions of plague were gradually stabilized after increasing and decreasing repeatedly. Generally speaking, the number of hot spot regions showed an accelerated increase from 2005 to 2007, decreased slowly from 2007 to 2008, rapidly increased again after decreasing slowly from 2008 to 2010, showed an accelerated decrease from 2010 to 2011, and ultimately were stabilized after rapidly increasing again from 2011 to 2014. (5) The migration period of the hot spot regions was 2-3 years. The epidemic area of plague moved from southwest to east during 2005, 2007, 2008 and 2010, from east to southwest during 2007 and 2008, from east to west during 2010 and 2011, and from Midwest to east during 2011 and 2014. (6) Effective factors, such as temperature, rainfall, DEM, host density, and NDVI, can affect the spatial cluster of Meriones unguiculatus. The results of this study have important implications for exploring the temporal and spatial distribution law and distribution of the hot spot

  3. Vaccination with a genetically modified Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 reduces adult parasite numbers and affects the fertility of female worms following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Ward, Danielle; Abraham, David; Lustigman, Sara; Zhan, Bin; Klei, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Vaccination of Mongolian gerbils with Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 in which the amino acid Asn66 was mutated to Lys66 (Bm-CPI-2M) resulted in reduced parasite numbers of 48.6% and 48.0% at 42 and 90 days p.i. with B. malayi L3s. Fertility of female worms was also affected at 90 days p.i. In vitro killing of L3s observed in the presence of gerbil peritoneal exudate cells and anti-Bm-CPI-2M sera suggests antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a putative protective mechanism. These observations suggest that Bm-CPI-2M is a promising prophylactic and anti-fecundity vaccine candidate.

  4. Hesperidin increases intestinal β,β-carotene 15-15' mono-oxygenase 1 (BCMO1) activity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed with β-carotene-free diet.

    PubMed

    Poulaert, Marie; Gunata, Ziya; During, Alexandrine; Reboul, Emmanuelle; Laurent, Caroline; Gaillet, Sylvie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2014-09-15

    β,β-Carotene 15-15' mono-oxygenase 1 (BCMO1) is a key enzyme in vitamin A (VitA) metabolism in mammals. Dietary compounds, such as carotenoids and polyphenols, were reported to influence BCMO1 activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (Hes), on the VitA bioefficacy of β-carotene (Bc) from orange-fleshed sweet potato, using Mongolian gerbils, focussing on BCMO1 activity. Gerbils (n=50) depleted in VitA were divided into five groups fed with basal diet containing 3% white- or orange-fleshed sweet potatoes supplemented or not with Hes. Liver BCMO1 activity was low, with no significant differences between groups. Interestingly, intestinal mucosal BCMO1 activity was significantly higher in the gerbils fed without Bc or VitA than those fed with a VitA/Bc-supplemented diet. Finally, our results show that, under a low VitA status, Hes dramatically stimulated intestinal BCMO1 activity, an effect that could possibly be related to its action as an agonist of PPARγ.

  5. CagA-positive Helicobacter pylori strain containing three EPIYA C phosphorylation sites produces increase of G cell and decrease of D cell in experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Júnior, Moacir Ferreira; Batista, Sérgio de Assis; Barbuto, Rafael Calvão; Gomes, Adriana Dias; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães; Araújo, Ivana Duval; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal

    2016-09-01

    Human infection by Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increase in the number of gastrin-producing G cells and a concomitant decrease of somatostatin-producing D cells. However, to our knowledge, changes in G and D cell numbers in response to infection with H. pylori CagA-positive strains containing different number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites have not been analyzed to date. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a quantitative analysis of the number of G and D cells in Mongolian gerbils challenged with H. pylori strains with different numbers of EPIYA-C motifs. Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with isogenic H. pylori strains containing one to three phosphorylation sites. Mucosal fragments were evaluated by morphometry and immunohistochemistry using primary polyclonal rabbit anti-gastrin and anti-somatostatin antibodies. Positive cells were counted using an image analyzer. Forty-five days after infection, there was a decrease in the number of D cells and an increase in the G/D cell ratio in the group with three EPIYA-C. Six months after infection, there was a progressive and significant increase in the number of G cells and in the G/D cell ratio, with a concomitant decrease in the number of D cells, especially in the three EPIYA-C group. CagA-positive H. pylori strains containing a large number of EPIYA-C phosphorylation sites induce a decrease in D cell number and an increase in G cell number and G/D ratio, which were correlated with the number of inflammatory cells of the lamina propria. Copyright © 2016 Medical University of Bialystok. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential morphology of the superior olivary complex of Meriones unguiculatus and Monodelphis domestica revealed by calcium-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bazwinsky-Wutschke, I; Härtig, W; Kretzschmar, R; Rübsamen, R

    2016-12-01

    In mammals, the superior olivary complex (SOC) of the brainstem is composed of nuclei that integrate afferent auditory originating from both ears. Here, the expression of different calcium-binding proteins in subnuclei of the SOC was studied in distantly related mammals, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) to get a better understanding of the basal nuclear organization of the SOC. Combined immunofluorescence labeling of the calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) parvalbumin, calbindin-D28k, and calretinin as well as pan-neuronal markers displayed characteristic distribution patterns highlighting details of neuronal architecture of SOC nuclei. Parvalbumin was found in almost all neurons of SOC nuclei in both species, while calbindin and calretinin were restricted to specific cell types and axonal terminal fields. In both species, calbindin displayed a ubiquitous and mostly selective distribution in neurons of the medial nucleus of trapezoid body (MNTB) including their terminal axonal fields in different SOC targets. In Meriones, calretinin and calbindin showed non-overlapping expression patterns in neuron somata and terminal fields throughout the SOC. In Monodelphis, co-expression of calbindin and calretinin was observed in the MNTB, and hence both CaBPs were also co-localized in terminal fields within the adjacent SOC nuclei. The distribution patterns of CaBPs in both species are discussed with respect to the intrinsic neuronal SOC circuits as part of the auditory brainstem system that underlie the binaural integrative processing of acoustic signals as the basis for localization and discrimination of auditory objects.

  7. Melatonin in the control of the estrous cycle of the Indian desert gerbil (Meriones hurrianae: Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Joshi, B N; Manepalli, S K; Saibaba, P

    1994-01-01

    Daily administration of melatonin for 8 weeks, either in the morning (9 a.m.) or late in the afternoon (5 p.m.), resulted in significant prolongation of the estrous cycle in the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae. The gonadosomatic index increased significantly (p < 0.01) in the melatonin-treated gerbils compared to the control animals. Histological study of the ovaries revealed enlargement of follicles and corpora lutea with hypertrophied granulosa cells in the melatonin-treated gerbils in comparison to their controls. The data suggest that the mechanism involved in the gonadal response to melatonin may not be the same in the temperate and tropical species.

  8. Behaviour of the Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon), during recovery from food and water deprivation.

    PubMed

    Advani, R; Prakash, I

    1980-04-01

    The responses of Meriones hurrianae deprived of food and food-cum-water were found to be similar in respect of time spent in feeding, exploration and drinking whereas water- deprived gerbils fed for a significantly (P < 0.01) shorter time. However, they explored twice (P < 0.01) as long as gerbils in the other two conditions of deprivation. These observations indicate that deprivation of water increases exploratory behaviour among M. hurrianae but food, and food-cum-water deprivation do not seem to influence it. The behaviour of M. hurrianae, when deprived of water, mostly alternated between exploration and drinking whereas feeding was the major behavioural component of the gerbils deprived of food, and food-cum-water. It appears that feeding behaviour among M. hurrianae is of a higher order than drinking behaviour since the animals depend chiefly on the available water content of the food in their natural invironment - the desert.

  9. [Histomorphometric investigation of the shin bones taken from Mongolian gerbille Meriones unguiculatus exposed on satellite "Foton-M" No. 3].

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    The 12-d space experiment on satellite "Foton-M" No. 3 was the first demonstration of the validity of Mongolian gerbille Meriones unguiculatus as an object, in addition to rats, for biological investigations. Histological and histomorphometric investigations of the shin bones on the next day after landing showed inhibition of the-longitudinal growth and incipient osteopenia. Loss in the spongy bone mass after exposure to microgravity was probably a result of slowed bone formation. It is still an open issue whether the enhanced bone resorption contributes to the osteopenia development, as the number of secondary spongiosis trabecules was too small to understand if the inhibition of bone formation and enhanced bone resorption due to the increased number or activity of osteoclasts were concurrent.

  10. Therapeutic Value of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761® in an Animal Model (Meriones unguiculatus) for Noise Trauma Induced Hearing Loss and Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Buerbank, Stefanie; Schilling, Achim; Schulze, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a common disease in modern societies and may lead to maladaptations within the auditory system that finally result in subjective tinnitus. Available therapies may only alleviate the symptoms rather than restore normal hearing. In a previous study we demonstrated that the prophylactic application of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® significantly reduces NIHL and tinnitus development in our Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) animal model. Here, we tested whether the application of EGb 761® has beneficial effects after the formation of permanent NIHL and tinnitus. To this end we monitored the therapeutic effects of EGb 761® on noise trauma-induced changes in signal processing within the auditory system of our animal model by behavioral (acoustic startle response, ASR) and electrophysiological approaches (auditory brainstem responses, ABR). We found that–in contrast to vehicle–three weeks of daily oral EGb 761® treatment (100 mg/kg body weight) led to a restoration of hearing thresholds back to pre-trauma conditions. In addition, all 9 animals that displayed behavioral signs of subjective tinnitus showed improvement, with 7 of them showing complete relief of tinnitus symptoms during the time of EGb 761® treatment. After discontinuation of EGb 761® treatment, tinnitus related behavior reappeared in all but one of these animals while auditory thresholds remained restored. A detailed analysis of ABR waves revealed that EGb 761® treatment did not simply change auditory processing back to pre-trauma conditions, but led to subtle changes of ABR wave amplitude and latency at different levels of the auditory pathway, with an overall increase of response to low stimulus intensities and a decrease at high intensities. The functional relevance of these changes may be the observed improvement of hearing thresholds while at the same time suppression of responses to high stimulus intensities may point to a global inhibitory

  11. Diversification of the vacAs1m1 and vacAs2m2 Strains of Helicobacter pylori in Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Elizalde, Sandra; Arteaga-Resendiz, Nancy K; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro; Luna, Raúl C; Moreno-Espinosa, Sarbelio; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori exhibits great genetic diversity, and the pathogenic roles of its virulence factors have been widely studied. However, the evolutionary dynamics of H. pylori strains during stomach colonization are not well-characterized. Here, we analyzed the microevolutionary dynamics of the toxigenic strain vacAs1m1, the non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2, and a combination of both strains in an animal model over time. Meriones unguiculatus were inoculated with the following bacteria: group 1-toxigenic strain vacAs1m1/cagA+/cagE+/babA2+; ST181, group 2-non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2/cagA+/cagE+/babA2+; ST2901, and group 3-both strains. The gerbils were euthanized at different time points (3, 6, 12, and 18 months). In group 1, genetic alterations were observed at 6 and 12 months. With the combination of both strains, group 3 also exhibited genetic alterations at 3 and 18 months; moreover, a chimera, vacA m1-m2, was detected. Additionally, four new sequence types (STs) were reported in the PubMLST database for H. pylori. Synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were analyzed and associated with alterations in amino acids. Microevolutionary analysis of the STs (PHYLOViZ) identified in each group revealed many mutational changes in the toxigenic (vacAs1m1) and non-toxigenic (vacAs2m2) strains. Phylogenetic assessments (eBURST) did not reveal clonal complexes. Our findings indicate that the toxigenic strain, vacAs1m1, and a combination of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains acquired genetic material by recombination. The allelic combination, vacAs2m1, displayed the best adaptation in the animal model over time, and a chimera, m1-m2, was also identified, which confirmed previous reports.

  12. Diversification of the vacAs1m1 and vacAs2m2 Strains of Helicobacter pylori in Meriones unguiculatus

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza-Elizalde, Sandra; Arteaga-Resendiz, Nancy K.; Valencia-Mayoral, Pedro; Luna, Raúl C.; Moreno-Espinosa, Sarbelio; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Velázquez-Guadarrama, Norma

    2016-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori exhibits great genetic diversity, and the pathogenic roles of its virulence factors have been widely studied. However, the evolutionary dynamics of H. pylori strains during stomach colonization are not well-characterized. Here, we analyzed the microevolutionary dynamics of the toxigenic strain vacAs1m1, the non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2, and a combination of both strains in an animal model over time. Meriones unguiculatus were inoculated with the following bacteria: group 1-toxigenic strain vacAs1m1/cagA+/cagE+/babA2+; ST181, group 2-non-toxigenic strain vacAs2m2/cagA+/cagE+/babA2+; ST2901, and group 3-both strains. The gerbils were euthanized at different time points (3, 6, 12, and 18 months). In group 1, genetic alterations were observed at 6 and 12 months. With the combination of both strains, group 3 also exhibited genetic alterations at 3 and 18 months; moreover, a chimera, vacA m1-m2, was detected. Additionally, four new sequence types (STs) were reported in the PubMLST database for H. pylori. Synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were analyzed and associated with alterations in amino acids. Microevolutionary analysis of the STs (PHYLOViZ) identified in each group revealed many mutational changes in the toxigenic (vacAs1m1) and non-toxigenic (vacAs2m2) strains. Phylogenetic assessments (eBURST) did not reveal clonal complexes. Our findings indicate that the toxigenic strain, vacAs1m1, and a combination of toxigenic and non-toxigenic strains acquired genetic material by recombination. The allelic combination, vacAs2m1, displayed the best adaptation in the animal model over time, and a chimera, m1-m2, was also identified, which confirmed previous reports. PMID:27877163

  13. Histopathological changes induced by quinalphos in the testes and liver of Indian dessert gerbils, Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Sarin, K; Saxena, A K

    1978-03-01

    Single intraperitoneal injection of quinalphos (15 mg/kg body weight) produced several pathological changes in the testes and liver of the Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurriane (Jerdon). The degenerative changes included testicular atrophy, reduction in tubular size and enlarged interstitium. In the spermatogenic cells, necrosis and karyopycnosis were observed. Hepatic cells revealed cytoplasmolysis, vacuolation and necrosis. The nuclei of the hepatocytes showed karyorrhexis and karyolysis.

  14. ß-Carotene from Red Carrot Maintains Vitamin A Status, but Lycopene Bioavailability Is Lower Relative to Tomato Paste in Mongolian Gerbils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red carrots contain lycopene in addition to ß-Carotene. The utility of red carrot as a functional food depends in part on the bioavailability of its constituent carotenoids. Lycopene bioavailability was compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed freeze-dried red carrot and tomato pa...

  15. Body water relations in two species of gerbil (Tatera indica indica and Meriones hurrianae) of the Indian desert.

    PubMed

    Goyal, S P; Ghosh, P K; Sasidharan, T O; Chand, P

    1988-01-01

    The relative body water conservation efficiency of two Indian desert gerbil species, Meriones hurrianae (diurnal/crepuscular) and Tatera indica (nocturnal), has been examined under near-natural conditions in different seasons. A mean urine osmolarity of 3180 mosmol/l (maximum 4645 mosmol/l) in M. hurrianae and a mean value of 5128 mosmol/l (maximum 7547 mosmol/l) in T. indica have been recorded during summer. Urine osmolarity and urea levels indicated that while M. hurrianae remain sufficiently hydrated mainly by virtue of their feeding habit, Tatera indica may depend on the relatively higher concentrating capacity of their kidneys.

  16. Effects of artemisinin and Artemisia annua extracts on Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite of small ruminants that is responsible for major losses to producers worldwide. Resistance of this nematode to commercial anthelmintics has produced a demand for alternative control methods. Artemisia annua is the sole commercial source of ...

  17. Recurrent Inhibition to the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body in the Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones Unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Dondzillo, Anna; Thompson, John A.; Klug, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Principal neurons in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) receive strong and temporally precise excitatory input from globular bushy cells in the cochlear nucleus through the calyx of Held. The extremely large synaptic currents produced by the calyx have sometimes led to the view of the MNTB as a simple relay synapse which converts incoming excitation to outgoing inhibition. However, electrophysiological and anatomical studies have shown the additional presence of inhibitory glycinergic currents that are large enough to suppress action potentials in MNTB neurons at least in some cases. The source(s) of glycinergic inhibition to MNTB are not fully understood. One major extrinsic source of glycinergic inhibitory input to MNTB is the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body. However, it has been suggested that MNTB neurons receive additional inhibitory inputs via intrinsic connections (collaterals of glycinergic projections of MNTB neurons). While several authors have postulated their presence, these collaterals have never been examined in detail. Here we test the hypothesis that collaterals of MNTB principal cells provide glycinergic inhibition to the MNTB. We injected dye into single principal neurons in the MNTB, traced their projections, and immunohistochemically identified their synapses. We found that collaterals terminate within the MNTB and provide an additional source of inhibition to other principal cells, creating an inhibitory microcircuit within the MNTB. Only about a quarter to a third of MNTB neurons receive such collateral inputs. This microcircuit could produce side band inhibition and enhance frequency tuning of MNTB neurons, consistent with physiological observations. PMID:27489949

  18. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a simple method to infect mice with L3 larvae obtained from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Hübner, Marc P; Torrero, Marina N; McCall, John W; Mitre, Edward

    2009-09-01

    Litomosoides sigmodontis is a filarial nematode that is used as a mouse model for human filarial infections. The life cycle of L. sigmodontis comprises rodents as definitive hosts and tropical rat mites as alternate hosts. Here, we describe a method of infecting mice with third stage larvae (L3) extracted from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). This method enables infection of mice with a known number of L3 larvae without the time-consuming dissection of L3 larvae from mites and results in higher worm recovery and patency rates than conventional methods. Additionally, this method allows for geographical separation of the facility maintaining the L. sigmodontis life cycle from the institution at which mice are infected.

  19. Temporary shift of microfilariae of Brugia pahangi from the lungs to muscles in Mongolian jirds, Meriones unguiculatus, after a single injection of diethylcarbamazine.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Shizugi; Fujimaki, Yasunori; Toriyama, Kanan; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Mitsui, Yoshinori; Aoki, Yoshiki; Kimura, Eisaku

    2006-10-01

    A single-dose treatment with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) reduced microfilaria (mf) counts of Brugia pahangi by >90% at 30 min post-treatment in Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The reduction was followed by a rapid increase in microfilaremia, with the count reaching pretreatment level in 3 hr. The mechanisms behind this temporary reduction of mf were investigated. Without treatment, mf accumulated in the lungs. At 30 min post-treatment, they had moved from the lungs and accumulated in the muscle. At the same time, electron microscopy revealed many mf in the muscle interstitium. DEC concentrations at 30 min were much lower in the muscle (12.2 microg/g of tissue) than in the lungs, liver, and kidneys (19.8-40.7 microg/g), all of which declined to < 0.6 microg/g by 3 hr. The presence of mf in the muscle would be advantageous for avoiding high DEC concentrations, and their extravascular location could prevent attack by host effector cells.

  20. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of the oleoresin of Capsicum annum L. in gerbils (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Dixit, V P; Dobhal, M P

    2002-05-01

    The effect of capsicum oleoresin (CO) on dietary hypercholeterolaemia were observed in male gerbils at a dose of 75 mg/kg body wt/day. The oleoresin reduced serum cholesterol and triglycerides by 70% and 66%, whereas, liver cholesterol and triglycerides were lowered by 70.9% and 68.7% respectively, in comparison with atherogenic fed controls. CO feeding prevented the accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver and aorta. The faecal excretion of cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in oleoresin fed gerbils.

  1. The oestrogenic activity of danazol in the female gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Lohiya, N K; Arya, M; Shivapuri, V S

    1977-07-01

    Antifertility and estrogenic effects of Danazol have been studied in female gerbils. Danazol brings about supression of ovarian weight, presumably by inhibiting gonadotrophin secretion. Enlargement of uterine horns and well defined vaginal keratinization was seen in Danazol treated ovariectomized animals. The results were similar to that of oestradiol dipropionate confirming the oestrogenic activity of Danazol.

  2. Effect of borax on testis of Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurriane Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M P; Mathur, R S; Mehta, K

    1978-10-15

    Borax was injected at a dose level of 250 mg/kg b. wt for 16 days (total dose 4 g/kg b. wt) s.c. to active adult male gerbils. Borax caused several degenerative changes in the testes, of which giant cell formation, pyknosis and exfoliation are prominent. The increased activity of phosphatases was also noticed.

  3. Effects of whole body CO60 irradiation on the male genital tract of gerbil (Meriones hurrianae), hedgehod (hemiechinus auratus Collaris), and house rat (Rattus rattus Rufescens).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P

    1977-06-01

    1. The effects of 400 and 575 rads of whole body irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae), hedgehog (Hemiechinus auratus Collaris) and house rat have been studied with a view to compare the effects of irradiation on the desert mammalian species with those of domestic ones. 2. Typical signs and symptoms of radiation sickness, transient body loss and radiation mortality in gerbils and house-rats were apparent, whereas the hedgehogs were not affected at this dose level. 3. Extensive necrosis, exfoliation of seminiferous element, intertubular edema and shrinkage of the seminiferous tubule and Leydig cell nuclei in gerbils and house-rats were conspicuous in histological preparations. Mild regressive tubular lesions were also observed in hedgehogs treated with 575R. 4. Whole body irradiation depleted the RNA, protein and sialic acid contents of the testes. High cholesterol contens in the testes of irradiated gerbil, hedgehog and house rats identified this as the site of degenerating cells and fragments. 5. Reduced androgen production was confirmed in non active Leydig cells and decreased fructose contents in the seminal vesicles of gerbil and house rats. At 575 R dose level, hedgehog was comparatively radio-resistant. But at 875 R extensive damage to the reproductive organs could be noticed.

  4. The effect of hypothyroidism on the female genital tract of gerbils (Meriones hurrianae jerdon).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Arya, M; Lohiya, N K

    1976-01-01

    The effects of hypothyroidism on the female genital tract of gerbils have been studied. Hypothyroidism was produced by (a) surgical ablation, and (b) pharmacological suppression of the gland. Hypothyroidism resulted in atrophic ovaries. Follivular development was severely arrested, with most of the follicles showing atresia. Distinct effects were produced upon the uterine physiology. Uterine regression was conspicuous in thyroidectomized females. Hypothyroidism resulted in a decreased RNA, protein, sialic acid and glycogen concentration of the uterus. Vaginal RNA, protein and sialic acid contents were low after thyroidectomy. The vaginal cytology showed a constant pattern of its cells, i.e. dioestrous. L-thyroxine treatment restores the biochemical changes of uterus and vagina to subnormal levels in thyroidectomized animals. It is concluded that hypothyroidism affected the weight, cytology and biochemistry of the female genital tract of gerbils.

  5. The effects of light deprivation/blindness on testicular function of gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Sharma, O P; Agrawal, M

    1977-09-01

    1. Light deprivation either by enucleation or darkness resulted in a wide-spread testicular damage. The changes consisted of loss of type A spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. 2. The atrophic testes of eyeless gerbils regenerated after 20 weeks and were indistinguishable from those of untreated, continuous light exposed animals. The reversible effects were not seen in continuous dark exposure. 3. Light deprivation (enucleation/continuous darkness) inhibits the synthesis of RNA, protein and sialic acid in the testes, epididymides and seminal vesicles. The testicular cholesterol and alkaline phosphatase activity was increased. 4. Haemoglobulin, haematrocrit and serum-transaminase levels were all the time within normal limits. Histological preparations of the liver showed normal architecture. 5. Reduced androgen production following a long term light deprivation was reflected in low levels of RNA and sialic acid in the testes and epididymides and shrunken Leydig cell nuclei. 6. In conclusion, light deprivation caused damage to the male genital tract of gerbils.

  6. The hematological effects of irradiation on the Indian desert gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Malhotra, N; Srivastava, P N

    1975-09-01

    Male adult gerbils were irradiated with a whole-body dose of 600 R with gamma-rays. The animals were studied for their hematological response on days, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 28 post irradiation. No significant change was noted in erythrocyte number after irradiation. There was a slight fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit values in the early post-irradiation periods. A transient leukocytosis was observed on day 1 after irradiation followed by a sharp fall on day 2 which continued up to day 3. A recovery in leukocyte value was noted after a week of irradiation. Abnormal leukocytes were noted in the peripheral blood on day 2 after irradiation. The results show that the gerbil is radioresistent and is comparable to the rabbit at this dose-level.

  7. Effects of methallibure (I.C.I. 33828) on the female reproductive tract of the Indian Desert gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Lohiya, N K; Arya, M

    1979-04-01

    Effects of methallibure (I.C.I. 33828) have been studied on the reproductive organs of female gerbils, Meriones hurrianae. Methallibure administration caused reduction of gonadal weight indicating suppression of pituitary gonadotrophins. In the ovaries of the treated females extensive atresia of follicles and of corpora lutea was observed. In addition methallibure interrupted the sex cycle, and a dioestrous vaginal pattern was retained throughout medication. A significant decrease in the level of RNA, protein and sialic acid in the uterus and vagina and of glycogen in the uterus was found. Histological and biochemical changes in the ovaries and uteri suggest a possible direct antioestrogenic action of the compound.

  8. Long-term effect of vasectomy on the biochemical composition of testes and sex accessory organs of the Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Lohiya, N K; Dixit, V P

    1975-02-01

    A long-term vasoligation operation in gerbils, Meriones hurrianae Jerdon did not reveal any consistent change in the weights of androgen dependent organs such as seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, epididymes and perineal complex (levator ani muscle and penis). Histological structure of the testis and caput epididymis remains normal after vasectomy. There was no effect of bilateral vasectomy on androgen production of the testes as reflected by fructose content of coagulating gland. No compensatory hypertrophy of the contralateral testis was observed in unilaterally vasectomized gerbils. The RNA content of the testis and epididymis and ascorbic acid content of adrenal gland did not show appreciable change. No change in protein content of the testis was found but a significant increase was observed in the protein content of epididymis after the operation.

  9. Photoperiod and melatonin-induced changes in male reproduction in Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Sinhasane, S; Joshi, B N

    1997-07-01

    Exposure to continuous darkness and chronic treatment with melatonin, for six weeks, stimulated reproduction in the male Indian desert gerbil as evidenced by morphometric data. Exposure to continuous light, for same duration, on the other hand inhibited reproduction. The results are opposite to those reported from similar studies on temperate zone species. Surface areas of abdominal scent glands increased following both, exposures to continuous darkness and the treatment with melatonin. Exposure to continuous light decreased the scent gland surface area. Assessment of scent gland activity could be useful in evaluation of reproductive function as they are dependent on sex steroids. Melatonin that mediates photoperiodic influence on reproduction is not always inhibitory to gonads.

  10. Behavioural responses of desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae after removal of scent marking gland.

    PubMed

    Idris, Mohd; Tripathi, R S

    2011-07-01

    The desert gerbil, M. hurrianae scent marks the general substratum in its territory with the sebum exudation of mid abdominal gland and urine. Having assessed number of functions, which scent marking plays in the social life of these rodents, the scent marking behaviour was studied in animals, in which the gland was surgically removed and was compared with that of intact rodents. After recovery from the operation, the scent marking frequency of both male and female M. hurrianae declined significantly and was maintained at a low level. Surprisingly, scent marking with urine also declined considerable with time. After 5 months of the operation, desert gerbils were given a choice to respond to male and female sebum odours. The frequency of their scent marking with either sebum or urine did not show any significant enhancement as compared to their initial marking rate. However, the duration of their stay and scent marking frequency near the source of the sebum odour was more that in the clean side of the cage. The role of such altering behaviors of M. hurrianae and their impact on social organization are discussed.

  11. Effects of chemical occlusion of vas deferens on the reproductive organs in gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Agrawal, M; Jain, H C

    1976-09-01

    Male gerbils were sterilized by giving a single injection of a sclerosing chemicial (5% KMnOH) directly into the vasa. After 3 weeks the gerbils were killed. Testes, accessory sex organs, and thyroid and adrenal glands were removed and weighed. Halves of testis and epididymides were fixed in Bouin's fluid fo r microscopic study. The remaining halves were frozen and total RNA, protein, sialic acid, seminal vasicular fructose, and testicular lipids were later determined. Cholesterol estimations were also made. 2 weeks following vas injections animals were tested by exposing them to cycling estrous females. 21 days later the females were examined for possible implantation sites. It was shown that the males had been sterile. Weights of testicles, accessory sex organs, thyroid and adrenal gland remained normal, except that there was a significant increase in the weight of the ventral prostate. No histological changes were found in the testes. Protein content of the testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles did not change. A decrease in RNA was noted. Sialic acid levels did not alter. Cholesterol and total lipids were normal. Alkaline phosphatase activity in the testes and epididymides had not changed after 3 weeks. Vasicular fructose was normal. Complete occlusion of the vasa resulted. After 100 days there was no return to fertility. The results appear to be permanent.

  12. Wisteria floribunda lectin is associated with specific cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus of the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus.

    PubMed

    Cant, Nell B; Benson, Christina G

    2006-01-01

    The cochlear nucleus is made up of a number of diverse cell types with different anatomical and physiological properties. A plant lectin, Wisteria floribunda agglutinin, that recognizes specific carbohydrate residues in the extracellular matrix binds to some cell types in the ventral cochlear nucleus but not to cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. In the ventral cochlear nucleus, the most intensely labeled cells are octopus cells, a subset of multipolar cells and cochlear root neurons. The multipolar cells that are labeled may correspond to the population that projects to the inferior colliculus.

  13. Melatonin and exposure to constant light/darkness affects ovarian follicular kinetics and estrous cycle in Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae.

    PubMed

    Sinhasane, S V; Joshi, B N

    1997-12-01

    Melatonin mediates photoperiodic influence on reproduction and constant light and darkness affect pineal biosynthesis of melatonin. The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of melatonin and drastic photoperiodic changes on reproduction in a tropical desert species with a fossorial lifestyle. Ovarian follicular kinetics and estrous cycle were studied in the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae, after treatment with melatonin and exposure to constant light (LL) and darkness (DD) regimes. Melatonin treatment increased (P < 0.001) ovarian weights without changing the uterine weights. While exposure to LL decreased (P < 0.001) both ovarian and uterine weights, exposure to DD had no effect on these weights. Follicular kinetics of growing and regressing follicles revealed that ovaries of melatonin-treated and DD-exposed animals had significantly more growing follicles. Melatonin treatment increased all types of growing follicles, especially antral and Graafian follicles. Exposure to DD increased all types of growing follicles, with the medium sized antral and Graafian follicles being significant (P < 0.01). In contrast to stimulation of follicular growth by melatonin and DD, LL caused regression of all stages of follicular growth and also reduced the number of small preantral follicles. Melatonin treatment increased (P < 0.001) the length of estrous cycle (5.08 to 7.29 days). Gerbils treated with melatonin, exposed to LL and DD, had a longer (P < 0.001) metestrus. Animals held in LL, had the least number (P < 0.001) of estrous smears (1 in 30 days). The results suggest that melatonin is involved in growth of ovarian follicles in the Indian desert gerbil.

  14. Morphometric study of ovarian follicular growth during the estrous cycle of the laboratory-maintained Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Saidapur, S K; Kamath, S R

    1993-01-01

    The pattern of changes in the population of healthy and regressing follicles in relation to the estrous cycle, was studied in the recently domesticated desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae, which exhibits a longer cycle (proestrus: 1.5 days; estrus: 1 day; metestrus: 1.5 days; diestrus: 3 days). As the granulosa cell layers were not distinct, the follicles were classified on the basis of their morphology and size (group I: small preantral follicles; group II: large preantral follicles; group III: small antral follicles; group IV: medium-sized antral follicles; group V: large-sized follicles; group VI: Graafian follicles). Regressing follicles were classified likewise. Five animals were used for each stage of the cycle. One ovary from each gerbil was serially cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Healthy and regressing follicles were found throughout the cycle. The follicular development occurred typically in a biphasic manner. In phase A, in which follicles reach the antral stage, the growth of oocytes and follicles is linearly correlated, whereas, in phase B, oocyte size remains stationary while follicle size increases due to accumulation of antral fluid. However, oocyte growth and nucleus growth are positively and linearly correlated (r = 0.74). The healthy follicles under 260 microns (groups I, II) do not fluctuate in the ovary of cyclic gerbils, whereas follicles in group III (261-350 microns) increase significantly (p < 0.05) at estrus and those of group IV in diestrus. Further, healthy group III follicles are reduced in diestrus while regressing follicles in group III increase. These findings thus suggest that the antral follicles are rescued from atresia at estrus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Isotype analysis of gerbil-mouse heterohybridomas by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ukaji, Takao; Kai, Osamu

    2012-12-14

    We designed primer sets specific to the immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain constant region (IGHC) genes in Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) to amplify five gerbil IGHC cDNA sequences, Cμ, Cγ1, Cγ2, Cε, and Cα. Five gerbil-mouse heterohybridomas B11D2(C2), B11E2(D5).M, B5-3, D5, and C11 respectively expressed Cγ1, Cμ, Cγ2, Cγ2, and Cγ1. In contrast, a commercial isotyping kit for mouse Igs identified Cγ1, Cμ, Cγ3, Cγ3, and Cγ1, respectively, misidentifying gerbil IgG2 as IgG3 by cross-reactivity with anti-mouse IgG3 polyclonal antibody. These primer sets will allow the accurate estimation of gerbil Ig classes and IgG subclasses. These results from three gerbil strains indicate that the primer sets can be used for isotype analysis of gerbil mAbs and for evaluation of humoral immunity.

  16. Inhibition of spermatogenesis in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae) hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus collaris) and mice after methallibure (ICI 33828) treatment.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K

    1974-01-01

    The effect of methallibure (ICI 33828) on spermatogenesis was studied in the gerbil, hedgehog, and mouse. Injection of ICI 33828, at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 10-25 days, caused testicular lesions in the gerbil and hedgehog, and spermatogonia were absent in the seminiferous e pithelium. Distinct hypertrophy of the Leydig cells was evident. Acces sory sex gland activity was suppressed. It is possible that ICI 33828 impairs testicular androgen production and luteinizing hormone (LH) activity, as suggested by reduced seminal veisicle weight and reduced concentrations of DNA and RNA. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone and LH were considerably reduced. Both adult male gerbils and hedgehogs were rendered sterile by ICI 33828 at the dose studied, while mice were relatively unaffected.

  17. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones Hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus Rufescens).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Agrawal, M; Gupta, C H

    1976-08-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones.

  18. Effect of long-term administration of melatonin on adrenal histomorphology of the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Joshi, B N; Sujathakumari, M

    1995-11-01

    Melatonin treatment for 8 weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.01) in weights of the adrenal glands, in both male and female, M. hurrianae. The weight increase was not related to the time of administration of melatonin. Histology of adrenal glands in melatonin treated gerbils revealed a stimulatory response. In treated gerbils, adrenal cortex exhibited significant hypertrophy with enlarged nuclei and degranulated cytoplasm. Signs of hypertrophy were also evident in the adrenal medulla. The physiological significance of this response is not yet clear. It remains to be clarified if the hypertrophy indicates enhanced synthesis of corticosteroids.

  19. Exposure to different spectra of light, continuous light and treatment with melatonin affect reproduction in the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon).

    PubMed

    Sinhasane, S V; Joshi, B N

    1998-01-01

    In two separate experiments, the gonadal response to melatonin treatment and exposure to continuous white light (LL) and different spectra of light (blue, green, yellow and red) was investigated in the Indian desert gerbil Meriones hurrianae. In experiment 1, exposure to green light for 8 weeks increased (p < 0.01) the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm count, whereas exposure to red light decreased (p < 0.01) the GSI and sperm count. The response of accessory organs to the treatment varied. In experiment 2, exposure to LL for 5 weeks decreased the GSI and sperm count, and treatment with melatonin (in the late-light period) not only increased the GSI and sperm count, but also counteracted the inhibitory action of LL and red light. Melatonin treatment stimulated accessory sex organs and the scent gland surface area. The inhibition or stimulation of the reproductive parameters correlated with an increase or decrease in pinealocytes and pinealocyte nuclear diameters. Therefore, the influence of light and its spectra on reproduction may be mediated by the pineal gland, though extrapineal mechanisms cannot be ruled out.

  20. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with the galactose-specific adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Petri, W A; Ravdin, J I

    1991-01-01

    No protective antigens from Entamoeba histolytica have been previously defined. We tested the ability of the galactose-specific adherence lectin of E. histolytica to elicit a protective immune response in conjunction with Freund's incomplete and complete adjuvants. The gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) model of an experimental amebic liver abscess was used. Gerbils were immunized intraperitoneally or subcutaneously with 10 micrograms of the affinity-purified lectin in complete Freund's adjuvant and then at 2 and 4 weeks with 10 micrograms of the lectin in incomplete Freund's adjuvant. All of the immunized animals developed antilectin antibody titers of greater than 1/1,024 as measured by a radioimmunoassay. The gerbil antilectin antibodies were shown by Western immunoblotting to be directed to the heavy subunit but not the light subunit of the lectin. Immune gerbil sera inhibited amebic adherence by 100% at a 1/10 dilution. Immune and control gerbils were challenged at 6 weeks by the intrahepatic injection of 5 x 10(5) E. histolytica trophozoites. Four independent trials demonstrated complete protection from amebic liver abscess formation in 67% of lectin-immunized gerbils. Unexpectedly, liver abscess weights were significantly higher in the gerbils that failed to become immune than in the control animals. Our results demonstrate that the galactose lectin is a protective antigen and provide an immune-animal model to study the mechanisms of protection and potential disease exacerbation conferred by the antilectin immune response. Images PMID:1987067

  1. Observations on the effects of alpha-chlorhydrin on the testes and pituitary gonadotrophs of gerbil (Meriones hurrianae) and rat.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K

    1976-01-01

    (1) Lower doses of alpha-chlorhydrin caused high selectivity of lesions in the seminiferous tubule of rat and gerbil. (2) The seminiferous epithelium became systematically depleted of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and finally spermatozoa in this sequence. (3) The suppression of RNA concentration in the testes and seminal vesicle is conspicuous. (4) The growth of androgen-dependent organs, i.e. seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, epididymes and perineal complex, is suppressed. (5) These effects are reversible. Repopulation of testis tubules occurs followed by a 40-day recovery period in rat and gerbil. (6) alpha-Chlorhydrin administration brings about hypertrophy of pituitary gonadotrophs which is also reflected in the increased basophilic cell percentage (control: 15.5% alpha-chlorhydrin: 21.5%; p less than 0.01).

  2. Mechanism of acti on of chronically administered cannabis extract on the female genital tract of gerbils Meriones hurrianae.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Arya, M; Lohiya, N K

    1976-01-01

    Daily administration of cannabis extract (2.5 mg/day for a period of 60 days) caused degenerative changes in the ovarian tissue. Luteinization was inhibited. Corpus-luteum degeneration was conspicuous. Distinct effects were produced upon the uterine biochemistry, consisting of decreased RNA, protein, sialic acid and glycogen concentration of the uterus. Vaginal RNA and protein contents were low. An anti-estrogenic action of cannabis extract in female gerbils is suggested.

  3. Coxsackievirus A16 induced neurological disorders in young gerbils which could serve as a new animal model for vaccine evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi-Sheng; Li, Ya-jing; Xia, Yong; Xu, Fang; Wang, Wei-wei; Yang, Zhang-Nv; Lu, Hang-Jing; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Miao, Zi-Ping; Liang, Wei-Feng; Xu, Zhi-Yao; Dong, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Dan-Hong; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; van der Veen, Stijn; Qian, Jie; Zhou, Bin; Yao, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Han-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major pathogens associated with human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-pacific region. Although CA16 infections are generally mild, severe neurological manifestations or even death has been reported. Studies on CA16 pathogenesis and vaccine development are severely hampered because the small animal models that are currently available show major limitations. In this study, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were investigated for their suitability as an animal model to study CA16 pathogenesis and vaccine development. Our results showed that gerbils up to the age of 21 days were fully susceptible to CA16 and all died within five days post-infection. CA16 showed a tropism towards the skeletal muscle, spinal cord and brainstem of gerbils, and severe lesions, including necrosis, were observed. In addition, an inactivated CA16 whole-virus vaccine administrated to gerbils was able to provide full protection to the gerbils against lethal doses of CA16 strains. These results demonstrate that gerbils are a suitable animal model to study CA16 infection and vaccine development. PMID:27667023

  4. Hypnozoites of Cystoisospora Frankel, 1977 (Apicomplexa: Cystoisosporinae) in Mongolian gerbil lymph nodes and their transmission to cats free of coccidia.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos R; Stabenow, Cristiane da S; Massad, Fabiana V; Lopes, Carlos Wilson G

    2007-01-01

    Nine Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were fed with 5.6 x 10(5) Cystoisospora sporulated oocysts orally. After 28 days post inoculation (DPI) four animals were euthanized, and their mesenteric lymph nodes were removed and they were submitted to peptic digestion technique and samples of them were submitted to transmission electron microscopy for hypnozoites identification. From lymph nodes digestion 4 x 10(2) hypnozoites/mL were obtained. Morphologically they were banana or stick form in shape, and measured 18.17 (15.09-20.02) in length by 6.21 (5.48-7.06) microm in width. In the same experiment, at 6 DAI, five gerbils were posted and liver, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were removed from each animal and were homogenized before given to three cats free of coccidia. All visceras used individually in each cat were capable to induce infection of species, C. felis and C. rivolta.

  5. The effect of ligation of cauda epididymidis and vasectomy on testicular function in the adult gerbil (Meriones hurrianae).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K; Arya, M

    1975-08-01

    1. The effects of ligation of caput, cauda epididymides and vasectomy were studied in adult gerbils. 2. The operations were performed unilaterally, the testis and epididymides on the contralateral side serving as controls. 3. Ligation of cauda epididymides decrease testicular weight, whereas caput ligation did not change the testis weight. Accessory sex glands were reduced in size. 4. Ligation caused a drastic degeneration of the spermatogenic cells. There was a complete disruption of testicular function. Leydig cell hypertrophy was conspicuous. Caput and cauda ligation led to degenerative changes in the epididymides. Epididymal epithelium was regressed and the lumen was devoid of spermatozoa. 5. Caput and cauda ligation inhibited the synthesis of RNA, protein and sialic acid in testis and epididymides and depleted the fructose concentration in the seminal vesicle. 6. Vasectomy did not cause any alteration in sperm production during the 8 week period on the lighted side. The cytology and the biochemistry of the testis and epididymides appeared to be normal.

  6. Seasonal plasticity of gut morphology and small intestinal enzymes in free-living Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quan-Sheng; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; Wang, De-Hua

    2013-05-01

    The phenotypic plasticity of the digestive system may determine the diversity of animal diets and, thus, their niche width. This study examines the effects of seasonal fluctuations in food quality and temperature on the gut morphology and the activity of sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N in the small intestinal brush-border membrane of male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Based on the adaptive modulation hypothesis and the principle of optimal gut function design, we hypothesize that the gut size, tissue-specific activity, and total hydrolytic capacity of intestinal digestive enzyme are upregulated in winter and downregulated in summer in response to diet shifts and energy demand in free-living Mongolian gerbils. Various seasonal modulation patterns in digestive enzyme activity in different regions of the small intestines were observed. The results show that male gerbils have the longest and heaviest small intestines in winter. This mechanism may be adapted to increase their food intake during winter. Male gerbils also exhibit the highest tissue-specific and total sucrase, maltase, and aminopeptidase-N activity in winter and in spring. Seasonal modulations are more distinct in the jejunum than in the duodenum and the ileum of the small intestines. The digestive phenotypic flexibility of male gerbils effectively corresponded with seasonal diet shifts and temperature fluctuations.

  7. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in male and female gerbil prostates.

    PubMed

    Rochel-Maia, Sabrina S; Santos, Fernanda C A; Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Góes, Rejane Maira; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus, Gerbilinae: Muridae) is useful for prostate studies, because both males and females spontaneously develop prostatic disorders with age. Estrogens regulate prostate homeostasis via two estrogen receptors, ER alpha (ESR1) and ER beta (ESR2), but the cellular distribution and regulation of these receptors in the gerbil prostate has not been described. Both receptors were localized by immunohistochemistry in the ventral prostate of intact male and female gerbils, in males 7 and 21 days after castration, and in females treated with testosterone for 7 and 21 days. In male and female adult gerbils, ER alpha was detected mainly in prostatic stromal cells, whereas ER beta was present mostly in secretory and basal cells. More ER alpha-positive stromal cells were found in females than in males, as was a reduction toward the male value in females treated with testosterone. Castration did not alter ER alpha expression. Testosterone was necessary for maintenance of ER beta in the male prostate epithelium: ER beta expression declined markedly in prostates of males older than 1 yr, and castration of 4-mo-old males caused a reduction in ER beta to levels seen in 1-yr-old males. Because ER beta is an antiproliferative receptor, its loss with age may predispose the aging gerbil to proliferative diseases of the prostate.

  8. Effects of levonorgestrel-quinestrol (EP-1) treatment on Mongolian gerbil wild populations: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fu, Heping; Zhang, Jinwei; Shi, Dazhao; Wu, Xiaodong

    2013-09-01

    Rodent pest population outbreaks occur frequently in grassland ecosystems in northern China. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a dominant pest rodent which is distributed across the semi-desert grasslands of Inner Mongolia, China. In 2009, we studied the contraceptive effect of levonorgestrel-quinestrol (EP-1), concentration 50 ppm, on a wild Mongolian gerbil population. The one-off contraceptive treatment was compared with a control group using a semi-monthly live trapping method in the Ordos Semi-desert Grassland Region of Inner Mongolia. The results show that juveniles were not recruited in spring in the treatment group. Ratios of juveniles in the control and treatment groups showed significant semi-monthly differences from spring to summer (one-way ANOVA, F2, 14 = 7.53, P < 0.05). Between both groups, annual fluctuations of juvenile and total population densities were significantly different respectively (F2, 14 = 4.64, P < 0.05; F2, 18 = 7.72, P < 0.05). The contraceptive EP-1 delayed the normal reproductive pattern of Mongolian gerbil populations. This suppressed birth rates of gerbil populations, reduced their densities, and changed their age structures. The period of EP-1 baiting should be extended but it could be an ideal method for controlling Mongolian gerbil populations during each breeding season.

  9. Technical note for post-auricular route surgery in Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Risoud, Michaël; Bonne, Nicolas-Xavier; Fourdrinier, Martin; Hubert, Thomas; Vincent, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is commonly used in hearing research because the hearing frequency spectrum of the gerbil is rather similar to that of the human being. However, a precise description of the surgical post-auricular route has not been reported. The aim of this technical note is to provide details on the procedure and the surgical anatomy of the post-auricular route in the Mongolian gerbil. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia on eight (2 males and 6 females) adult Mongolian gerbils. All steps of the post-auricular route were detailed. This surgery provided an access to the following structures: the semi-circular posterior and lateral canals, the external auditory meatus, the tympanic membrane, the round window, the stapes, the stapedial artery and the reliefs of the cochlea. No anatomic variation was noticed among the 8 animals. This post-auricular route in the Mongolian gerbil defines a brief and simple surgery, overall standardized as a consequence of the absence of common anatomic variation, with painless and uncomplicated post-operative stage.

  10. [Development of chow for Mongolian gerbils suitable for the conditions of space flight].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, P E; Mednikova, E I; Solov'eva, Z O; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Il'in, V K; Lysenko, L A

    2008-01-01

    One of formidable issues of experiments with animals in space flight is water supply. For Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), classed as cricetid rodents, water in chow is enough. These animals are a new object for space biology. Our purpose was to compose a full-value formula and design a chow making and long-term storage technology to provide Mongolian gerbils for in microgravity. The chow is required to have a 28-d shelf life. To assess the chow suitability on autonomous space fight, the gerbils we house in a cage with the geometry reproducing the current design of the future space animal module. The assessment was performed with adult male gerbils weighing 50.5 +/- 3.4 g on the average. The animals ate up 40.1 +/- 3.9%, i.e. less than 50% of the feed all through the period of experiment. However, by the end of the experiment the body mass and exterior remained essentially unchanged In was concluded that the chow formula can be prescribed to Mongolian gerbils housed in self-contained modules.

  11. Neuropathology and behavioral impairments after three types of global ischemia surgery in Meriones unguiculatus: evidence in motor cortex, hippocampal CA1 region and the neostriatum.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Fernanda Lopes Buiatti; Bertolino, Guilherme; Gonçalves, Renata Batagini; Marini, Luana de Castro; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2012-01-15

    The effects of three types of global ischemia by occlusion of carotid artery on motor and exploratory behaviors of Gerbils were evaluated by the Activity Cage and Rota rod tests. Animals were divided based on two surgical criteria: unilateral (UNI) or bilateral (BIL) carotid occlusion, with (REP) or without (OCL) reperfusion; and their behavior was evaluated on the fourth (4) or sixth (6) day. There was reduction of cell number in striatum, motor cortex M1 area, and hippocampal CA1 area in all groups in comparison to control animals. For M1 area and striatum, the largest reduction was observed in UNI6, UNI4, and BIL4 groups. Neuronal loss was also observed in CA1 area of BIL4 rodents. There was a decrease in crossings and rearings in all groups in activity cage test, compared to control. Reperfusion, unilateral and bilateral occlusion groups showed decrease in crossings. Only the BIL4 showed a decrease of rearing. In the Rota rod test, except the UNIOCL6, the groups showed a decrease in the balance in comparison to control. Both groups with REP4 showed a major decrease in balance. These findings suggest that both unilateral and bilateral carotid occlusions with reperfusion produce impairments of motor and exploratory behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Permissibility of Mongolian gerbil for Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection and utility of this animal model for anthelmintic studies.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongfang; Hong, Qing; Chen, Daixiong; Liang, Chenjie; Liu, Haiying; Luo, Xiaodong; Zhu, Xunmin

    2014-05-01

    The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) has been indicated to be a useful experimental model host for studying nematode. To understand the possibility of the Mongolian gerbil as an animal model of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, we investigated the development, migration, and tissue distribution of A. cantonensis and pathological changes in the brain and lungs of the infected Mongolian gerbils. The first stage larvae of A. cantonensis in the stool of the infected gerbils were examined by direct smear method at 45th day postinfection (PI). In addition, a group of the infected gerbils were orally fed with albendazole (100 mg/kg/day/gerbil) at the 8th day PI and continued for 3 consecutive days. The results showed that mortality rate of Mongolian gerbils infected with 10 third stage larvae of A. cantonensis was about 62% at the 30th day PI; the peak period of death was from the 23rd to 30th day PI. About 93% (27/29) of the worms in survivors of infected gerbils could develop to complete sexual maturity at the 46th day PI, and the examinations of 12 gerbils in G3 group revealed that first stage larvae of A. cantonensis could be found in the feces of 4 gerbils at the 45th day PI. About 80% of the worms were in the brain of infected gerbils and 20% in the lungs from the 23rd to 25th day PI; during migration of the worms from the brain to lungs, more than 90% of the worms arrived to the lungs and less than 10% of them still stayed in the brain during from the 45th to 46th day PI. Pathological examination revealed that injuries induced by A. cantonensis in infected gerbils were characterized by eosinophilic meningitis and granulomatous pneumonia. Otherwise, albendazole exhibited a good larvicidal activity in the infected Mongolian gerbils. In contrast with infected control group, no gerbils died in administering albendazole, no worms were recovered, and no nervous system symptoms caused by the infection occurred at the 26th day PI. These findings clearly

  13. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-01-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the superior chamber of the middle ear bulla. The gerbils and chinchillas shared similar susceptibilities and responses to the inoculated organisms as determined by X-ray, otoscopic, histopathological, and microbiological determinations at 5 to 7 days. Koch's postulate studies proved the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the pathology found in both animal models. The animals were also susceptible to the polymicrobic culture, although the relative virulence of the individual members of this mixture was low, suggesting that these species potentiated as a polymicrobic mixture. The Corynebacterium sp. appeared to elicit the greatest histopathological response in chronic (8-week) studies in gerbils. The gerbils were found to be useful as an alternative animal model for the study of otitis media of bacterial etiology. Images PMID:6979517

  14. Efficacy of an orange oil emulsion as an anthelmintic against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and in sheep (Ovis aries)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking abomasal parasite responsible for major losses to small ruminant producers worldwide. The recent increase in populations of anthelmintic resistant parasites has produced a demand for alternative control methods. An orange oil emulsion that has shown activity...

  15. Maize genotype and food matrix affect the provitamin A carotenoid bioefficacy from staple and carrot-fortified feeds in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofortification of staple crops to increase provitamin A carotenoids is a promising technique to alleviate vitamin A deficiency. ß-Carotene (ßC) and ß-cryptoxanthin (ßCX) are low in typical maize but higher in biofortified varieties. In vitro screening methods evaluate bioaccessibility of carotenoi...

  16. Kangaroo rats exhibit spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that found in gerbils.

    PubMed

    McGinn, M D; Faddis, B T

    1997-02-01

    Kangaroo rats develop spongiform degeneration of the central auditory system similar to that seen in the gerbil. Light microscopic and transmission electron microscopic study of the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve root (ANR) of Dipodomys deserti and D. merriami show that spongiform lesions develop in dendrites and oligodendrocytes of the cochlear nucleus and in oligodendrocytes of the ANR that are morphologically indistinguishable from those extensively described in the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus. As in Mongolian gerbils, the spongiform degeneration in Dipodomys were much more numerous in animals continually exposed to modest levels of low-frequency noise (< 75 dB SPL). The kangaroo rats with extensive spongiform degeneration also show slightly, but significantly, elevated auditory brainstem evoked response (ABR) thresholds to low-frequency stimuli, a result also found in Mongolian gerbils. These results suggest that the elevated ABR thresholds may be the result of spongiform degeneration. Because low-frequency noise-induced spongiform degeneration has now been shown in the cochlear nucleus of animals from separate families of Rodentia (Heteromyidae and Muridae), the possibility should be investigated that similar noise-induced degenerative changes occur in the central auditory system of other mammals with good low-frequency hearing.

  17. [Gerbil experiment in the flight of spacecraft "Foton-M3"].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P E; Orlov, O I

    2009-01-01

    The 12-d mission of Russian spacecraft Foton-M3 in September of 2007 was used as an opportunity to fly an experiment with 12 male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at the age of 4-4.5 mos. and mean body weight of 51.6 grams. Considering the behavior pattern of these animals, selection and preparation of the experimental groups continued in the course of 2.5-3 months. The flight animals were contained in module Kontur-L outfitted with a self-sustained system of life support. In orbit, the animals received a palletized hydrogenous feed. The physiological and hygienic parameters of the gerbil environment during the flight complied with the official standards. Analysis of the video recorded behavior of animals in microgravity showed that virtually throughout the flight they moved chaotically along the cage never attempting to stabilize position catching at the wire netting of the cage. The animals were decapitated in 21-24 hours after landing. The investigations showed that structural and functional changes in gerbil organs and tissues were generally of the same type as in rats following fights of comparable duration. However, some differences between the animals were attributed to the specifics of water turnover in gerbils.

  18. On effect of chlordane on the blood glucose and of glucose administration on the acute chlordane toxicity in Meriones hurrianae Jerdon, the indian desert gerbil.

    PubMed

    Saxena, S C; Karel, A K

    1976-05-01

    The effect of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body wt. chlordane on the blood glucose level and of glucose administration in chlordane intoxicated Indian desert gerbils are investigated. Chlordane produces hyperglycemia and lowers the glucose tolerance indicating an impairment in the uptake and utilization of glucose in intoxicated gerbils. The possible reasons for these effects are discussed.

  19. Experimental infection in gerbils by Conidiobolus lamprauges.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Isabela; de Campos, Camila Gonçalves; Pescador, Caroline Argenta; Galceran, João Vitor Amorim; Cândido, Stéfhano Luis; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano

    2017-02-28

    Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging entomophthoramycosis caused by fungi Conidiobolus spp. Animal models are essential for the study of infectious disease in various areas such as pathogenesis, diagnostic methods, treatment and prevention. There is not currently an animal model for conidiobolomycosis. The aim of this study was to create an experimental infection protocol for Conidiobolus lamprauges in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). The study animals were randomly divided into four groups of four animals: immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide (CPA) and infected with C. lamprauges (G1), immunocompetent and infected with C. lamprauges (G2), immunosuppressed with CPA (G3), and an immunocompetent control group (G4). Clinical signs were observed only in G1 animals, where the mortality rate reached 75% by day 7 after infection (AI) with a median survival of 2 days. C. lamprauges was detected only in G1, both by PCR and by isolation. Necropsies of the G1 animals showed lesions in the nasal cavity and lung tissue. These lesions were characterized by polymorphonuclear infiltrate cells and by the presence of hyphal structures under silver staining. This animal model will be useful for further investigation of diseases caused by C. lamprauges, particularly of those associated with immunosuppression factors in naturally occurring animal infections.

  20. Twice the amount of alpha-carotene isolated from carrots is as effective as beta-carotene in maintaining the vitamin A status of Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Tanumihardjo, Sherry A; Howe, Julie A

    2005-11-01

    The vitamin A (VA) value of carotenoids from fruits and vegetables is affected by many factors. This study determined the VA value of alpha-carotene isolated from carrots compared with beta-carotene and retinyl acetate supplements fed to Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Gerbils (n = 38) were fed a VA-free diet for 4 wk. At baseline, 6 gerbils were killed to determine liver VA. Gerbils were divided into 3 treatment groups (n = 9/group) and given 35, 35, or 17.5 nmol retinyl acetate, alpha-carotene or beta-carotene, respectively, in 2 divided doses 5 h apart each day. The remaining 5 gerbils received oil vehicle. Gerbils were killed after 3 wk of supplementation. Serum samples and livers were collected and analyzed for VA. Liver extracts were subsequently saponified to quantify alpha-retinol. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among the groups. Liver retinyl palmitate concentrations were significantly higher in the retinyl acetate treatment group (0.198 +/- 0.051 micromol/g; P < 0.05) than in all other groups. The alpha- and beta-carotene treatments resulted in similar retinyl palmitate concentrations, i.e., 0.110 +/- 0.026 and 0.109 +/- 0.051 micromol/g, respectively, which did not differ from the concentrations in gerbils killed at baseline (0.123 +/- 0.024 micromol/g). The oil group had significantly less retinyl palmitate (0.061 +/- 0.029 micromol/g; P < 0.05) than all other groups. alpha-Retinol was detected in livers of the alpha-carotene group (0.062 +/- 0.013 micromol/g). Thus, twice the amount of purified alpha-carotene maintained VA status as well as beta-carotene in VA-depleted gerbils. Conversion factors were approximately 5.5 microg alpha-carotene or approximately 2.8 mug beta-carotene to 1 microg retinol.

  1. Superposition of horseshoe-like periodicity and linear tonotopic maps in auditory cortex of the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Holger; Hess, Andreas; Ohl, Frank W; Scheich, Henning

    2002-03-01

    The segregation of an individual sound from a mixture of concurrent sounds, the so-called cocktail-party phenomenon, is a fundamental and largely unexplained capability of the auditory system. Speaker recognition involves grouping of the various spectral (frequency) components of an individual's voice and segregating them from other competing voices. The important parameter for grouping may be the periodicity of sound waves because the spectral components of a given voice have one periodicity, viz. fundamental frequency, as their common denominator. To determine the relationship between the representations of spectral content and periodicity in the primary auditory cortex (AI), we used optical recording of intrinsic signals and electrophysiological mapping in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We found that periodicity maps as an almost circular gradient superimposed on the linear tonotopic gradient in the low frequency part of AI. This geometry of the periodicity map may imply competitive signal processing in support of the theory of "winner-takes-all".

  2. Longitudinal evaluation of expression of virally delivered transgenes in gerbil cone photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, Matthew C.; Mancuso, Katherine; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Connor, Thomas B.; Hauswirth, William W.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    Delivery of foreign opsin genes to cone photoreceptors using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) is a potential tool for studying the basic mechanisms underlying cone based vision and for treating vision disorders. We used an in vivo retinal imaging system to monitor, over time, expression of virally-delivered genes targeted to cone photoreceptors in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Gerbils have a well-developed photopic visual system, with 11-14% of their photoreceptors being cones. We used replication deficient serotype 5 rAAV to deliver a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). In an effort to direct expression of the gene specifically to either S or M cones, the transgene was under the control of either the human X-chromosome opsin gene regulatory elements, i.e., an enhancer termed the Locus Control Region (LCR) and L promoter, or the human S-opsin promoter. Longitudinal fluorescence images reveal that gene expression is first detectable about 14 days post-injection, reaches a peak after about 3 months, and is observed more than a year post-injection if the initial viral concentration is sufficiently high. The regulatory elements are able to direct expression to a subpopulation of cones while excluding expression in rods and non-photoreceptor retinal cells. When the same viral constructs are used to deliver a human long-wavelength opsin gene to gerbil cones, stimulation of the introduced human photopigment with long-wavelength light produces robust cone responses. PMID:18598398

  3. Liver and brain tryptophan metabolism following hydrocortisone administration to rats and gerbils.

    PubMed

    Green, A R; Sourkes, T L; Young, S N

    1975-02-01

    1 Liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity is low in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and is not induced by hydrocortisone (5 mg/kg). In contrast, there is measurable activity in the rat liver and this is induced by hydrocortisone. In vivo measurements confirmed the absence of induction in gerbils but suggested that they were able to metabolize tryptophan. However no detectable pyrrolase activity was found in any other tissues either before or after hydrocortisone. 2 In agreement with previous observations hydrocortisone decreased rat brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) 6 h after administration. Brain tryptophan concentrations were also decreased at this time. In contrast, hydrocortisone did not alter gerbil brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA or trytophan. alpha-Methyltryptophan activated hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase and decreased brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA in both animals. 3 Results suggest that the decrease in rat brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA following hydrocortisone may be associated with the rise in liver tryptophan pyrrolase and that the brain amine changes are mediated through the decrease in brain tryptophan concentration.

  4. Hormones orchestrated pre- and post-copulatory sexual traits in male Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xue-Ying; Liu, Ding-Zhen; Wang, De-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Parker's sperm competition model predicts a negative relationship between pre-copulatory (social status) and post-copulatory (sperm quality and quantity) sexually selected traits, however, empirical studies have revealed considerable inconsistency in this relationship. We hypothesized that there was a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits, and hormones (corticosterone, CORT; testosterone, T) orchestrate this relationship. In this study, we measured energetic parameters in the dominant-subordinate Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), whose relationship was established under chronic social encounters in a neutral arena, and then tested the relationship between their social status and sperm quality and quantity. Our results showed that dominant males initiated attack sooner and displayed more aggression, self-grooming and locomotion behaviors in daily social encounters across seven consecutive days. Dominant gerbils also had more and better quality of sperm than that of subordinate males, yet showed no significant differences in energy intake and RMR in comparison with subordinate individuals. In addition, dominant males had higher concentrations of serum T than subordinate males, whereas the concentrations of CORT showed a reverse pattern. The frequency and duration of aggression (indicative of social status) increased with elevated T concentrations. Sperm quality in terms of number and activity were associated with higher concentrations of serum T in dominant gerbils, whereas small sperm counts and poor-quality sperm were associated with relatively higher concentrations of serum CORT in subordinate gerbils. Together, our data indicated that there was no trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits but hormones orchestrated the relationship between these traits in male Mongolian gerbils.

  5. [Population characteristics of mucous tissue basocytes in the Mongolian gerbil's jejunum following the 12-day orbital flight onboard space platform "Foton-M3"].

    PubMed

    Atyakshin, D A; Bykov, E G

    2013-01-01

    Optical (light) microscopy and histochemical techniques were used for the first-ever studies of the population characteristics of tissue basocytes in the jejunum mucous membrane in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: flown over 12 days aboard space platform Foton-M3, subjected to spaceflight factors simulation (SFS) in dedicated system Kontur-L (2) and maintained in standard vivarium conditions (control). Space flight was shown to induce quantitative and qualitative changes in the population of jejunum mucus labrocytes. Reduction of the basocytes population, alterations in age composition and ratio of the morphofunctional cell types in microgravity were indicative of cytoplasmic aggregation intensity, paths of biosynthesis products release into the intersticium, and their tinctorial properties. Also, heparin maturation and liberalization into the extracellular space in support of the jejunum mucus adaptive functions progressed with greater intensity. SFS did not affect size of the basocytes population significantly although it did cause qualitative rearrangements in the population structure.

  6. Aminoglycoside ototoxicity and hair cell ablation in the adult gerbil: A simple model to study hair cell loss and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Leila; Rivolta, Marcelo N.

    2015-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, has been widely employed as a model for studies of the inner ear. In spite of its established use for auditory research, no robust protocols to induce ototoxic hair cell damage have been developed for this species. In this paper, we demonstrate the development of an aminoglycoside-induced model of hair cell loss, using kanamycin potentiated by the loop diuretic furosemide. Interestingly, we show that the gerbil is relatively insensitive to gentamicin compared to kanamycin, and that bumetanide is ineffective in potentiating the ototoxicity of the drug. We also examine the pathology of the spiral ganglion after chronic, long-term hair cell damage. Remarkably, there is little or no neuronal loss following the ototoxic insult, even at 8 months post-damage. This is similar to the situation often seen in the human, where functioning neurons can persist even decades after hair cell loss, contrasting with the rapid, secondary degeneration found in rats, mice and other small mammals. We propose that the combination of these factors makes the gerbil a good model for ototoxic damage by induced hair cell loss. PMID:25783988

  7. Primary Genetic Investigation of a Hyperlipidemia Model: Molecular Characteristics and Variants of the Apolipoprotein E Gene in Mongolian Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuehuan; Wu, Jiusheng; Shi, Qiaojuan; Guo, Honggang; Ying, Huazhong; Xu, Ningying

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish a novel Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) hyperlipidemia model and to investigate its susceptibility genetic basis. Two rodent (gerbil and rat) hyperlipidemia models were induced by feeding a high fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC) diet. There were significant increases of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in gerbils within a 4-week modeling period. About 10–30% of >8-month-old individuals developed hyperlipidemia spontaneously. The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) gene was cloned by merging a sequence of rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and nested polymerase chain reaction products. The results revealed an open reading frame of 948 bp, encoding a protein of 298 amino acids. The gene without a 5′-UTR region in the first intron was highly homologous to human Apo-A-I and rat Apo-A-IV. The distribution of expression of the ApoE gene in liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, and adrenal gland was detected by an ABC immunohistochemical procedure. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; C97T, G781T, and A1774T) were first found using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) in a closed population containing 444 animals. Correlation analysis confirmed that new SNPs , age, and gender were associated significantly (P < 0.05) with hyperlipidemia. PMID:25006576

  8. Effects of Malva viscus conzattii Greenm flower extract on testicular function of the house rat Rattus rattus Rufescens & the gerbil Meriones hurrianae Jerdon: a biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P

    1977-07-01

    Extract of the flower Malva viscus conzattii (M. conzattii) was administered at a dose of 25/50 mg/day/animal to 30 healthy adult male gerbils and 30 adult male house rats to determine its effect on fertility. After 25 days' treatment fin l body weight, and the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and adrenal glands were measured. Testis, epididymides, and seminal vesicles were prepared for histological examination and total protein, RNA, sialic acid, and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined. Quantitative estimation of cholesterol was also made. While overall body weight remained stable during treatment, testicular weight in both animals was drastically decreased. A complete spermatogenic arrest in the testes was evident in house rats treated with 50 mg/day for 20 days and in the gerbil treated with 25 mg/day for 25 days. The seminiferous tubules showed marked degeneration, lined by 1 or 2 cell layers. Epididymides showed degenerative changes as well. RNA contents of the testes, epididydmides, and seminal vesicles of treated anials were significantly lowered as was sialilc acid content. Total cholesterol was increased significantly. M. conzattii causes an effective inhibition of spermatogenesis in gerbils and house rats in 25 states and induces infertility.

  9. Mechanism of action of alpha-chlorhydrin on the testes and caput epididymidis of rat, gerbil (Meriones hurrianae), bat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K

    1976-01-01

    Chronic administration of alpha-chlorhydrin caused lesions of rat, gerbil and bat testicles selectively. The seminiferous epithelium became systematically depleted of spermatogenic elements. alpha-Chlorhydrin did not produce lesion of the caput epididymidis. Sloughing of the epithelial lining did not occur. No obstruction of the lumen of the epididymal duct was seen. The growth of androgen-dependent organs, i.e. seminal vesicles, epididymis and levator ani muscles was suppressed. alpha-Chlorhydrin caused no response directly on the epididymides. Subcutaneous or oral administration of alpha-chlorhydrin for a period of 3-5 weeks caused no response in the testes and epididymides of the mouse.

  10. [Glycogen content in gerbil's liver following the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    PubMed

    Atiakshin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen cytochemistry and distribution in hepatocytes of the classic liver lobules were studied in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: vivarium, synchronous control and flown in the 12-d Foton-M3 mission. The control animals were shown to have the central glycogen distribution with a large pool of polysaccharides found in hepatocytes of the pericentral and intermediate lobules and a small pool in the periportal area. Glycogen in hepatocyte plasm was within the physiological norm in the alpha- and beta-granules, typically localized on the cell periphery. Exposure to the spaceflight conditions decreased significantly glycogen concentrations in each functional region of the hepatic lobules and reduced the gradient of polysaccharide distribution from the portal triads toward the central vein. In parallel, high glycogen heterogeneity formed in adjacent hepatocytes and loci. The presence of glycosomes evidenced disturbance of carbohydrates metabolism. In addition, intracellular topography of glycogen granules in cytoplasm was altered. Trends of glycogen in gerbils of the synchronous control were similar to the space flown animals but much less pronounced.

  11. Effect of cadmium chloride on testis and seminal vesicular fructose contents of shrew (Suncus murinus anderson), gerbil (Meriones hurrianae jerdon) and hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus collaris).

    PubMed

    Lohiya, N K; Dixit, V P

    1976-03-01

    A single subcutaneous injection of cadmium chloride (0.04 m mol/kg body weight) did not cause any change in the macroscopic and microscopic features of testes and caput epididymis of Suncus. Testes and sex accessory glands did not show any significant change in their weights. Seminal vesicular fructose concentration remains unchanged. The tetes and sex accessory organs of gerbil under comparable condition showed significant weight loss and shrinkage in tubule diameter. The seminiferous epithelium was totally destroyed. A single intratesticular injection of CdCl2 (0.5 mg/kg body weight) in hedgehog resulted in testicular necrosis. The small temperature difference between cremaster sac and rectum, absence of testicular artery and pampiniform plexus and insuficient concentration of cadmium within the testis when administered subcutaneously may be responsible for insensitivity of Suncus testes to cadmium.

  12. Kinetics of spermatogenesis in the Indian desert gerbil, Meriones hurrianae (Jerdon): seminiferous epithelial cycle, frequency of stages, spermatogonial renewal and germ cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Saidapur, S K; Kamath, S R

    1994-06-01

    The present study provides information on the germ cell associations, the pattern of spermatogonial cell renewal, percentage frequency distribution of different cellular associations and germ cell degeneration in the adult gerbil, M. hurrianae. Based on the formation of acrosomal system and the development of the spermatids as visualized with PAS-hematoxylin, 15 steps of spermiogenesis were identified. The first 12 steps were associated with 12 stages, and the other three steps were between the first 6 stages. The relative frequency was maximal for stage VII (14.24) and minimal for stage VIII (4.38), indicating stage VII to be of the longest and stage VIII of the shortest duration. On the basis of their shape, size and nuclear morphology, 6 types (A0, A1, A2, A3 In and B) of spermatogonia were identified in the gerbil. A-type spermatogonia are oval in shape. From A1 and A3 spermatogonia, progressive heterochromatinization was evident. The A3-spermatogonia divide to give rise to In spermatogonia which are smaller than A-type cells. The B-type spermatogonia are derived from In-type cells and are round in shape. These divide to give rise to first generation primary spermatocytes. Spermatogonia divide at fixed stages during the CSE, and they exhibit 5 peaks of mitosis. A-type spermatogonia divide during stages VI, IX, XII and I. In- and B-Types divide during stages II and V respectively. During stages XII and I, A3-type cells divide to give rise to In- as well as to A1-type cells, thus restoring the A-spermatogonial population. In this way A3-cells serve to renew the stem cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Early postnatal response of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus and target muscles to testosterone in male gerbils.

    PubMed

    Hadi Mansouri, S; Siegford, Janice M; Ulibarri, Catherine

    2003-05-14

    This study examined the response of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) and the bulbocavernosus (BC) muscle, to testosterone in male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during the early postnatal period. Male gerbil pups were given testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle for 2 days, then perfused on postnatal day (PND) 3, 5, 10 or 15. The BC and levator ani (LA) muscles were removed, weighed, and sectioned. Cross-sections of BC muscle fibers were measured and muscle fiber morphology examined. Spinal cords were removed and coronally sectioned in order to count and measure the SNB motoneurons. Following TP treatment, male pups of all ages had significantly heavier BC-LA muscles and larger fibers in the BC muscle compared to age-matched controls. The increase in muscle weight following TP treatment was greatest at PND10, while fiber size increased to a similar degree at all ages suggesting that hyperplasia as well as hypertrophy was responsible for the increase in muscle mass at this time. SNB motoneurons increased significantly in number and size with age and TP treatment. We hypothesize that the increase in SNB motoneuron number during normal ontogeny that can be augmented by TP treatment and represents an unusual means of establishing sexual dimorphism in the nervous system of a mammal through cell recruitment to the motor pool of a postnatal animal.

  14. Melaleuca alternifolia anthelmintic activity in gerbils experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Grando, Thirssa H; Baldissera, Matheus D; Gressler, Lucas T; de Sá, Mariângela Facco; Bortoluzzi, Bruna N; Schafer, Andressa S; Ebling, Rafael C; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V; Stefani, Lenita M; Vaucher, Rodrigo; Leal, Marta L R; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2016-11-01

    Gastrointestinal parasites are one of the biggest health problems faced in sheep, mainly due to their pathogenicity and resistance to drugs used to control these parasites. Thus, the following study aimed to assess the anthelmintic efficacy of Melaleuca alternifolia against Haemonchus contortus in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) experimentally infected. Three treatments were tested: M. alternifolia essential oil, popularly known as tea tree oil (TTO), a solid lipid nanocarrier made with essential oil of Melaleuca (nanoTTO), and terpinen-4-ol (terp-4-ol). In vivo studies were performed by determining the mean worm burden of H. contortus in gerbils TTO (0.75 mL/kg); nanoTTO (0.5 mL/kg) and terp-4-ol (0.5 mL l/kg) were able to reduce 46.36%; 48.64%, and 43.18% worm burden, respectively. H. contortus increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, as demonstrated by liver injury. It was found that the TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol were not toxic to liver and kidneys since hepatic and renal functions were not affected. Moreover, terp-4-ol was able to prevent increased levels of seric AST and ALT in infected animals, indicating a hepatoprotective effect. Thus, our results indicate that TTO, nanoTTO, and terp-4-ol are safe and efficient against H. contortus infection in gerbils, and possibly the terp-4-ol may be considered the compound present in the Melaleuca alternifolia responsible for parasitic action against H. contortus.

  15. Distribution of parvalbumin-containing interneurons in the hippocampus of the gerbil--a qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nitsch, C; Scotti, A L; Nitsch, F M

    1995-08-01

    In the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) hippocampal formation, the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) shows a unique species-specific distribution: it is present in the perforant path from the entorhinal cortex to the stratum molecular of the dentate are and cornu ammonis. A possible relation of this to the seizure-sensitivity of gerbils has been suggested. In addition, as in other species, PV is contained in a subpopulation of GABAergic nerve cells of the gerbil hippocampus. The characteristics of these PV-containing neurons are here described. Distribution and shape of the PV-positive neurons in general agreed with the features described for rat hippocampus with two notable exceptions: in CA2 PV-containing perikarya were densely crowded and gave rise to an intense immunoreactive plexus around the pyramidal cells and, in CA1, the number of stained neurons was variable, often much lower than in rats and occasionally not a single PV-positive neuron was present. In parasagittal brain sections of the lateralities 1.0, 1.6 and 2.2 mm from the midline, obtained from 27 male gerbils, the number of PV-containing neurons was determined. The data set obtained in CA3 and dentate area resembled unimodal distributions, while in CA1 a bimodal frequency distribution was present. Since parametric and non-parametric correlation tests rely on a unimodal distribution of the data set, they gave falsely significant values in CA1. The bimodal distribution suggests that, with respect to the PV-containing interneurons in CA1, two different populations of gerbils were included in our sample, those with many positive neurons and those with only a few. Since the nerve terminal staining is preserved also in those gerbils with only a few positive perikarya in CA1, it seems possible that an unknown factor influenced PV expression and storage in the soma. Sex, age, seasonal or circadian rhythm or quality of immunocytochemical staining did not influence the outcome of the quantitative

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Meriones libycus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) and its phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangjie; Liao, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    Meriones libycus belongs to the genus Meriones in Gerbillinae, its complete mitochondrial genome is 16,341 bp in length. The heavy strand contains 32.8% A, 13.1% G, 25.3% C, 28.8% T, protein-coding genes approximately accounting for 69.54%. Results of phylogenetic analysis showed that M. libycus and Meriones unguiculatus were clustered together, and it was consistent with that of primary morphological taxonomy. This study verifies the evolutionary status of M. libycus in Meriones at the molecular level. The mitochondrial genome would be a significant supplement for the gene pool of Rodentia and the conclusion of phylogenetic analysis could be an important molecular evidence for the classification of Gerbillinae.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of Meriones meridianus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) and its phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guangjie; Liao, Jicheng

    2016-07-01

    Meriones meridianus belongs to the genus Meriones in Gerbillinae. Total length of complete mitochondrial genome of M. meridianus is 16,376 bp and the heavy strand contains 32.8% A, 13.1% G, 25.3% C and 28.8% T. Sequences of protein-coding genes are 11,341 bp in length, accounting for 69.25%, approximately. Results of phylogenetic analysis shown that M. meridianus and Meriones unguiculatus were clustered in a single branch. This conclusion would be an important data for relevant studies about the genus Meriones, and mitochondrial genome would be an important supplement for the gene pool of Rodentia. It would play a pivotal role in researches about phylogeography and proteomics involving M. meridianus as well.

  18. Measurement of hepatic sterol synthesis in the Mongolian gerbil in vivo using (/sup 3/H)water: diurnal variation and effect of type of dietary fat

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, N.J.; Holub, B.J.

    1981-01-01

    The hepatic synthesis of sterol was measured in the male Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) in vivo following the administration of (/sup 3/H)water by monitoring the incorporation of radioactivity into digitonin-precipitable sterol. A diurnal rhythm in cholesterol synthesis was exhibited under conditions of ad libitum feeding with alternating 12-hour periods of light (0200 to 1400 hr) and dark (1400 to 0200 hr). The zenith was reached between 1500 and 2100 hr and the nadir approximately 10-12 hours later between 0200 and 0400 hr, which provided a zenith/nadir ratio of 9.6 to 1.0. The in vivo rates of hepatic sterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels were measured in gerbils fed semi-purified diets containing either 19.5% beef tallow + 0.5% safflower, 20% lard, or 20% safflower oil and widely differing ratios of polyunsaturated: saturated fatty acids. All diets were equalized to contain 0.01% cholesterol and 0.05% plant sterol. After 3 days on the experimental diets, the mean rates of cholesterol synthesis (nmol/g liver per hr) were 41.5, 26.6, and 13.8 for animals fed the diets containing beef tallow, lard, and safflower oil, respectively. After 7 and 14 days, synthetic rates were lowest in the gerbils fed safflower oil as were also the plasma cholesterol levels. These results indicate that the type of dietary lipid can significantly influence the in vivo rate of sterol biosynthesis in gerbil liver. This response may contribute, at least in part, to the observed differences in plasma cholesterol levels.

  19. Prostate carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (mnu) in gerbils: histopathological diagnosis and potential invasiveness mediated by extracellular matrix components.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bianca F; Zanetoni, Cristiani; Scarano, Wellerson R; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R; Campos, Silvana G P

    2010-02-01

    In the present study prostate lesions were induced in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) treated with a single N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) dose; thus, the incidence, latency and histology of these lesions were evaluated. Fibrillar elements of the extracellular matrix associated with microinvasive sites were also investigated. Animals were divided into 5 groups, including 2 control groups: (1) remained untreated; (2) received the corn oil vehicle (vehicle, 0.1 ml/application) and three different tumor induction regimens: (1) received MNU (30 mg/kg) and weekly testosterone (2 mg/kg) (MNU+testosterone); (2) received only MNU (30 mg/kg); (3) received weekly testosterone doses (2 mg/kg). After 3 and 6 months the animals were dissected and the prostates were evaluated morphologically, immunohistochemically and quantitatively. MNU plus androgen contributed to the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, microinvasive carcinoma and adenocarcinoma in gerbil prostate. However, these lesions occurred earlier in time in groups that received MNU and androgen compared to control animals as they over time also developed to a high extent microinvasive lesions. Cytochemistry and immunohistochemistry showed that these injuries were commonly associated with inflammatory cells whereas the epithelial cells presented proliferative activity. The alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) expression in prostate cancer cells facilitated diagnosis of gerbil lesions. Testosterone, MNU and MNU+testosterone showed an increased epithelial volume, although the secretory activity was significantly suppressed mainly at neoplastic foci. In the prostatic stroma, reticular fibers increased significantly in MNU, MNU+testosterone and among the lesions found in these groups, while collagen fibers decreased at neoplastic sites. The disruption of the basement membrane was proven at malignant sites by ultrastructural analysis and type IV collagen and laminin degradation. The prostate carcinogenesis

  20. [Handling and maintenance of gerbils during the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, P E; Smirnov, I A; Il'in, E A; Gur'eva, T S; Mednikova, E I; Smolenskaia, T S; Lysenko, L A; Kaminskaia, E V

    2009-01-01

    Pressurized low-sized module Kontur with an independent life support system (LSS) was developed by the Institute of Biomedical Problems cooperatively with the Special Design Bureau of Experimental Equipment to house gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) aboard robotic technology-purpose spacecraft. Design of the module precludes pollution of the environment The fully equipped module weighs 69 kg; average daily power consumption is 62 watts. The environmental parameters for 12 animals flown on Foton-M3 in the period of September 14-26, 2007 were controlled within the following ranges: pO2 - 143-156 mm Hg, (mean 150 mm Hg), pCO2 - 0.76 mm Hg maximum (mean 0.64 mm Hg), temperature - 23-28 degrees C (mean 26.7 degrees C), relative humidity - 29% and 57% at the beginning and end of the flight, respectively (mean 39%). The animals consumed the palletized food prepared of natural products with a moisture content of approx. 20%. The day-night periods were 12 hrs. long. The daytime video recording of the animals went on continuously in the throughout the flight. The experiment showed that the module meets the requirements of experiments with mammals aboard returnable robotic spacecraft and piloted space stations. At the moment, the model is being redesigned for a 30-day BION-M1 mission.

  1. The Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Estrogen Receptor 1 is Related to Sex Dimorphism in the Gerbil Prostate Development.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Maldarine, Juliana S; Zani, Bruno C; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-08-01

    The development of the prostate gland in females has not yet been clearly elucidated, and the sexual dimorphism associated with such gland development in general is far from being understood. In the present study, we used tridimensional (3D) reconstructions and histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to describe the sexual dimorphism and its causes in the early postnatal development of the prostate in male and female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We observed that the female prostate was smaller, had fewer branches throughout the development, and underwent differentiation earlier than that in males. Also, the expression of the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1 or ER-alpha) and fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) was decreased in the periductal region, and the expression of the androgen receptor (AR) was increased in the epithelium. All together, these changes decreased proliferation and branching and led to an earlier prematuration of the female prostate. These new data shed light on the underlying mechanisms involved with the sexual dimorphism in the development of the prostate. Anat Rec, 299:1130-1139, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Pubertal exposure to ethinylestradiol promotes different effects on the morphology of the prostate of the male and female gerbil during aging.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana P S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Caires, Cássia R S; Falleiros, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2017-02-01

    In rodents, the final growth and maturation of the prostate occur at puberty, a crucial period for prostate development. The present study is a serological, morphological, morphometric, and immunohistochemical analysis of the effects of exposure to ethinylestradiol (EE) (15 µg/kg/day) during puberty (EE/PUB group) on the male ventral and female prostate in senile gerbils. In the study, male and female gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) (42 days) received by gavage 15 μg/kg/day of EE (a component of the contraceptive pill), diluted in 100 µL of Nujol® for 1 week (EE/PUB group). In the control group, males and females were not treated. Animals were killed (n = 5) after 12 months in the experimental groups. In the senile male in the EE/PUB group, we observed a reduction in testosterone levels and a decrease in the prostatic epithelial thickness, as well as in the thickness of the muscle layer. In addition, an increase in PIN multiplicity and prostatic inflammation was observed. In the senile female in the EE/PUB group, we observed increased testosterone and estradiol levels, an enhanced prostatic epithelial thickness and an increase in the thickness of the muscle layer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed an increase in positive cells (%) for AR and PCNA in the male prostate and an increase in positive basal cells for p63 in the female prostate of the EE/PUB group. Exposure to EE during puberty resulted in an inhibitory action on the male ventral prostate and an anabolic effect on the female prostate in senile gerbils. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 477-489, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Aging effects on the Binaural Interaction Component of the Auditory Brainstem Response in the Mongolian Gerbil: Effects of Interaural Time and Level Differences

    PubMed Central

    Laumen, Geneviève; Tollin, Daniel J.; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) on wave 4 of the binaural and summed monaural auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) as well as on the DN1 component of the binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR in young and old Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was investigated. Measurements were made at a fixed sound pressure level (SPL) and a fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold to compensate for individual hearing threshold differences. In both stimulation modes (fixed SPL and fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold) an effect of ITD on the latency and the amplitude of wave 4 as well as of the BIC was observed. With increasing absolute ITD values BIC latencies were increased and amplitudes were decreased. ILD had a much smaller effect on these measures. Old animals showed a reduced amplitude of the DN1 component. This difference was due to a smaller wave 4 in the summed monaural ABRs of old animals compared to young animals whereas wave 4 in the binaural-evoked ABR showed no age-related difference. In old animals the small amplitude of the DN1 component was correlated with small binaural-evoked wave 1 and wave 3 amplitudes. This suggests that the reduced peripheral input affects central binaural processing which is reflected in the BIC. PMID:27173973

  4. Aging effects on the binaural interaction component of the auditory brainstem response in the Mongolian gerbil: Effects of interaural time and level differences.

    PubMed

    Laumen, Geneviève; Tollin, Daniel J; Beutelmann, Rainer; Klump, Georg M

    2016-07-01

    The effect of interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD) on wave 4 of the binaural and summed monaural auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) as well as on the DN1 component of the binaural interaction component (BIC) of the ABR in young and old Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was investigated. Measurements were made at a fixed sound pressure level (SPL) and a fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold to compensate for individual hearing threshold differences. In both stimulation modes (fixed SPL and fixed level above visually detected ABR threshold) an effect of ITD on the latency and the amplitude of wave 4 as well as of the BIC was observed. With increasing absolute ITD values BIC latencies were increased and amplitudes were decreased. ILD had a much smaller effect on these measures. Old animals showed a reduced amplitude of the DN1 component. This difference was due to a smaller wave 4 in the summed monaural ABRs of old animals compared to young animals whereas wave 4 in the binaural-evoked ABR showed no age-related difference. In old animals the small amplitude of the DN1 component was correlated with small binaural-evoked wave 1 and wave 3 amplitudes. This suggests that the reduced peripheral input affects central binaural processing which is reflected in the BIC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Acute exposure to bisphenol A and cadmium causes changes in the morphology of gerbil ventral prostates and promotes alterations in androgen-dependent proliferation and cell death.

    PubMed

    Colleta, Simone J; Antoniassi, Julia Q; Zanatelli, Marianna; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2017-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and cadmium (Cd) are environmental pollutants that are implicated in potential reproductive effects, including damage to the prostate gland. Their action during puberty requires analysis to determine the relationship of these compounds with the testosterone peak that occurs during this phase. This study evaluated whether exposure to BPA and Cd during puberty can cause changes in the morphology, proliferation and cell death and androgen receptor (AR) immunostaining of the ventral prostates of normal and castrated male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), considering an acute exposure to the chemicals and evaluation after short (52d) and long (120d) periods. Generally, morphometric-stereological results demonstrated that administration of BPA and Cd (individually or in combination) increased epithelial height, smooth muscle layer (SML) thickness and nuclear area and perimeter, and that these parameters were reduced in castrated animals. In addition, these groups showed important inflammatory processes but not prostate lesions. The proliferation/death rates of prostatic cells obtained by PCNA and TUNEL immunostaining demonstrated increased cell death in the 52d groups; in contrast, the gland acquired a more proliferative nature in the 120d groups. AR immunostaining showed that BPA and Cd compounds interact with ARs in different ways depending on the evaluated period and the hormonal profile of the animal. We conclude that BPA and cadmium are important agents in changing the morphology, proliferation and death of prostatic cells, in addition to interacting with ARs in different patterns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 48-61, 2017.

  6. Observations on the effects of 17-alpha-pregn-4-en-20-yno-(2,3-d) isoxazol-17-ol(Danazol) on the female reproductive tract and pituitary gonadotrophs of gerbil (Meriones hurrianae).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K; Arya, M

    1975-01-01

    Danazol caused leukolysis in adult female gerbils. It brings about suppression of ovarian weight, presumably by inhibiting gonadotrophin secretion from the pituitary gland. Uterotrophic action of Danazol is confirmed in ovariectomized animals. Danazol counteracted the uterotrophic effect of an exogenous oestrogen. Vaginal smears of Danazol-treated animals retained a dioestrous leukocytic pattern indicating the absence of follicular activity. Decreased RNA synthesis in the uterus indicates the possibility that Danazol is anti-oestrogenic. Castration-like changes were noticed in the anterior lobe of the hypophysis after Danazol administration.

  7. Prenatal exposure to ethinylestradiol alters the morphologic patterns and increases the predisposition for prostatic lesions in male and female gerbils during ageing.

    PubMed

    Perez, Ana P S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Caires, Cássia R S; Falleiros-Junior, Luiz R; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-02-01

    Ethinylestradiol (EE) is an endocrine disruptor (ED) which acts as an oestrogen agonist; this compound is known as an oral contraceptive. Male and female rodents exposed to EE during critical time points of development, such as in the prenatal period, show alterations in their reproductive tract during adulthood. Few studies have placed an emphasis on the effects of EE during ageing. Thus, this study had as it's objective the analysis of the morphological and immunohistochemical effects of exposure to EE in the prenatal period on ventral male prostate and female prostate of gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during ageing. The animals were exposed to EE (15 μg/kg/day) during the 18-22th days of prenatal life (EE/PRE group), and the analyses were performed when the male and female reached 12 months of age. Our results showed an increase in the development of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), which was observed in the male and female prostate of EE/PRE groups. Immunohistochemistry showed a rise in prostatic epithelial and basal cells immunoreactivity, respectively, and to AR and p63 in the male EE/PRE. There were alterations in the morphological pattern of the prostatic glands and increase in predisposition to emergence of prostatic lesions of both sexes during ageing. Despite male and female having been exposed to the same doses of EE, the "exposure to EE promoted modifications" more accentuated in the male prostate. Thus the male gland is more sensitive to the action of this synthetic oestrogen than the female prostate. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2016 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  8. Beta-carotene from red carrot maintains vitamin A status, but lycopene bioavailability is lower relative to tomato paste in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jordan P; Simon, Philipp W; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2007-06-01

    Red carrots contain lycopene in addition to alpha- and beta-carotene. The utility of red carrot as a functional food depends in part on the bioavailability of its constituent carotenoids. Lycopene bioavailability was compared in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) fed freeze-dried red carrot and tomato paste (Study 1, n = 47) and whole food extracts dissolved in cottonseed oil (Study 2, n = 39). Diets and supplements were equalized for lycopene and intakes did not differ. Both studies utilized negative (oil) and positive [purified lycopene (Lyc)] controls. In Study 1, vitamin A liver stores (0.68 +/- 0.13 micromol/liver) of the red carrot group did not differ from baseline (0.63 +/- 0.13 micromol/liver) and were greater than those of the tomato paste (0.43 +/- 0.12 micromol/liver), Lyc (0.51 +/- 0.14 micromol/liver), and control (0.38 +/- 0.17 micromol/liver) groups (P < 0.003). A similar pattern was observed in Study 2. In both studies, hepatic lycopene was higher in the tomato paste (82.7 +/- 26.7 and 80.7 +/- 20.2 nmol/liver) groups compared with red carrot groups (59.3 +/- 21.9 and 39.5 +/- 14.1 nmol/liver, P < 0.0001). Hepatic lycopene from tomato paste was higher than Lyc in Study 1, but tomato paste extract and Lyc did not differ in Study 2, when both were dissolved in oil. Red carrot maintains vitamin A status, but constituent beta-carotene may interfere with lycopene bioavailability. These results confirm prior studies in humans on the relative bioavailability of lycopene from red carrots and tomato paste and expand them by suggesting the mechanism and determining vitamin A value.

  9. Histological and immunohistochemical characterization of the Mongolian gerbil's mammary gland during gestation, lactation and involution.

    PubMed

    Leonel, Ellen C R; Falleiros, Luiz R; Campos, Silvana G P; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2017-04-01

    The morphological description of normal tissues is fundamental for making comparisons and in order to identify injuries and lesions. The aim of this work was to describe the morphological characteristics of the female Mongolian gerbil's (Meriones unguiculatus) normal mammary gland, the average expression of hormone receptors, and the average proliferation rates in the epithelial cells during the periods of lactation, pregnancy and involution. Dams were euthanized on the 14th and 21st gestational days, 7 and 14days after parturition, and 3 and 5days after weaning. The dams' mammary tissues were processed and were submitted to haematoxylin and eosin staining, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining, and Gomori's Reticulin staining. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed for the characterization of myoepithelial cells with α-actin, the proliferation rates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), the estrogen hormonal receptors (ESR1 and ESR2), and progesterone receptor (PR) quantifications. It was observed that the abundant adipose tissues were replaced by glandular epithelia and there was an increase in the epithelial cell's height (from 5.97 to 32.4μm in 14th and 21st gestational days and from 20.64 to 25.4μm in 7th and 14th lactational days, respectively) and the acini diameters (from 24.88 to 69.92μm in 14th and 21st gestational days and from 139.69 to 118.59μm in 7th and 14th lactational days, respectively) with the progression of gestation and lactation. The PAS staining intensity varied throughout the glands and between the stages that were evaluated. The extracellular matrix showed different phenotypes too, with more of a presence of the Type I collagen during the early gestation and involution and with more reticular fibers (Type III collagen) during the late gestation period and lactation. The myoepithelial layers showed alterations in their distribution with thick patterns as verified by the α-actin labeling. The PCNA showed higher rates

  10. Desert gerbils affect bacterial composition of soil.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Kam, Michael; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kostina, Natalia V; Dobrovolskaya, Tatiana G; Umarov, Marat M; Degen, A Allan; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    Rodents affect soil microbial communities by burrow architecture, diet composition, and foraging behavior. We examined the effect of desert rodents on nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) communities by identifying bacteria colony-forming units (CFU) and measuring nitrogen fixation rates (ARA), denitrification (DA), and CO2 emission in soil from burrows of three gerbil species differing in diets. Psammomys obesus is folivorous, Meriones crassus is omnivorous, consuming green vegetation and seeds, and Dipodillus dasyurus is predominantly granivorous. We also identified NFB in the digestive tract of each rodent species and in Atriplex halimus and Anabasis articulata, dominant plants at the study site. ARA rates of soil from burrows of the rodent species were similar, and substantially lower than control soil, but rates of DA and CO2 emission differed significantly among burrows. Highest rates of DA and CO2 emission were measured in D. dasyurus burrows and lowest in P. obesus. CFU differed among bacteria isolates, which reflected dietary selection. Strains of cellulolytic representatives of the family Myxococcaceae and the genus Cytophaga dominated burrows of P. obesus, while enteric Bacteroides dominated burrows of D. dasyurus. Burrows of M. crassus contained both cellulolytic and enteric bacteria. Using discriminant function analysis, differences were revealed among burrow soils of all rodent species and control soil, and the two axes accounted for 91 % of the variance in bacterial occurrences. Differences in digestive tract bacterial occurrences were found among these rodent species. Bacterial colonies in P. obesus and M. crassus burrows were related to bacteria of A. articulata, the main plant consumed by both species. In contrast, bacteria colonies in the burrow soil of D. dasyurus were related to bacteria in its digestive tract. We concluded that gerbils play an important role as ecosystem engineers within their burrow environment and affect the microbial complex of

  11. The Gerbils Are Here

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the natural habitat, life-history, and behavior of gerbils. These animals do not drink water, are virtually odorless, can withstand wide temperature ranges, and require minimal attention. As a result they have become popular in research and science classrooms in recent years. (JR)

  12. [Morphological changes in gastric wall of mongolian gerbils following the 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3].

    PubMed

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G

    2012-01-01

    Gastric wall of Meriones unguiculatus is distinguished by species-specific properties arising from the peculiar proportion of interstitium, muscle and epithelial tissues. Exposure to the factors of the 12-d Foton-M3 flight led to microfocal lesions of the mucous coat, dystrophic developments in the acid glands, dissociation of the mucous barrier function and deterioration of its biosynthetic function. Modifications of the tinctorial properties of the interstitium reticulum in every stomach layer progressed concurrently with reductions in prismatic epithelium height, as well as in mucous and muscular layer thickness. It is assumed that existence in the low gravity aboard the Biosat stimulated involutory processes in the gastric wall. Animals of the ground synchronous control conducted in the flight equipment mockup (Kontur-L) exhibited though similar yet less pronounced changes.

  13. The eggshell morphology of Rallicola unguiculatus Piaget, 1880 (Ischnocera: Phthiraptera).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Aftab

    2017-06-01

    The egg chorion of the greater coucal louse, Rallicola unguiculatus bears hexagonal ridges. The hat shaped opercular disc also shows hexagonal marks. Twenty to twenty-three button shaped micropyles occur along the opercular rim. The stigma remained obscured under the cementing material.

  14. [Investigation of the main gas-exchange parameters in the Mongolian gerbil in view of a space experiment].

    PubMed

    Soldatov, P E

    2005-01-01

    A pressurized module with a self-sustained life support system is being designed for spaceflight experiments with Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatis). As a rule, these rodents do not drink free water taking minimum of water available in nourishment Although the gerbil is a common test object, it has never been flown in space. Specifically, nothing is known about the animal gas-exchange parameters critical for the development of life support systems. Our purpose was to shed light on the gerbil's gas-exchange demands and thereupon to prototype the air supply system in simulation experiments. On the average, a group of (n = 9, mean body mass of 45 g) consumed 0.044 ml/g/min of oxygen and produced 0.024 ml/g/min of CO2. The proposed design of the animal gas supply system controls oxygen and carbon dioxide at the atmospheric concentrations. Data of these experiments were used to write specifications for animals maintenance module KONRTUR to be launched aboard space vehicle FOTON-M.

  15. Loss of infectivity of Neospora caninum oocysts maintained for a prolonged time

    PubMed Central

    Uzeda, Rosangela Soares; Costa, Kattyanne De Souza; Santos, Sara Lima; Pinheiro, Alexandre Moraes; De Almeida, Maria Angela Ornelas; McAllister, Milton M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sporulated Neospora caninum oocysts, which had been stored for 46 mo in a 2% sulfuric acid solution at 4℃, remain morphologically viable and infective to gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Six gerbils were orally inoculated with doses of 400 or 1,200 oocysts. Two mo after inoculation, the animals did not show any clinical signs, had no histological lesions, and were seronegative for N. caninum at 1: 50 in an immunofluorescent antibody test. PCR using the brain from each gerbil did not reveal N. caninum specific DNA. We conclude that oocysts preserved for 46 mo are not infective, despite being morphologically intact. PMID:18165712

  16. [Androgenic and estrogenic modulation in the prostate: an approach in rodent experimental models with emphasis on structural biology].

    PubMed

    Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Vilamaior, Patricia Simone Leite; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2009-11-01

    The endocrine system is a complex network of glands and hormones that regulates many of the body's functions; including growth, development and maturation, as well as the way several organs operate. The prostate is an important target of hormones and its functional maturity and development are influenced by steroids levels. Our research group has been evaluating the potential effects of the steroidal agents on the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) male and female prostate using different morphological and immunohistochemical methods. Our results have revealed the Mongolian gerbil prostate as an important tool for the morphofunctional studies of steroid hormones and its antagonist actions.

  17. Experimental infection of Mongolian gerbils with Baylisascaris potosis.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, T; Taira, K; Une, Y

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluated the pathogenicity of Baylisascaris potosis, a newly described ascarid nematode, in Mongolian gerbils. Gerbils were infected with varying doses of either B. potosis or Baylisascaris transfuga embryonated eggs (100, 1,000, and 4,000) for 30 days postinfection (pi). Baylisascaris potosis-infected gerbils showed no clinical signs of disease; however, gerbils exposed to 1,000 and 4,000 B. transfuga eggs showed severe neurologic signs at 22-29 days and 14-15 days pi, respectively. Histopathologic examination revealed larvae and lesions in the intestine, lung, liver, and muscles of B. potosis-infected gerbils, but not in the brain, whereas B. transfuga larvae were found only in the brain and muscle. These results indicate that B. potosis larvae migrate through numerous organs and are associated with visceral larva migrans in gerbils, but less frequently migrate to the nervous system in gerbils than does B. transfuga .

  18. The effects of water deprivation and salt load on water conservation efficiency in two Indian desert gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, T O; Goyal, S P; Chand, P; Ghosh, P K

    1990-01-01

    The effects of water deprivation and intraperitoneal salt loading on urine volume and on various urinary constituents have been examined in two gerbil species of the Rajasthan desert, the Indian desert gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and the Indian gerbil (Tatera indica indica Hardwicke). During summer, hydrated T. indica excreted 0.782 ml urine.100 g-1.d-1 which was about 60.5% higher than the volume of urine excreted by hydrated M. hurrianae (0.487 ml.100 g-1.d-1). During winter, both species excreted around 1.5 ml urine.100 g-1.d-1. The experimental treatments caused reductions in urine volume in M. hurrianae from 40 to 76% during summer and from 35 to 71% in winter. Similar treatments in T. indica caused reductions in urine volume of 50-82% in summer and 5-60% in winter. The mean increase in urine osmolarity following various salt loading treatments in T. indica ranged from 3800 to 5761 mosmol.l-1 and from 4034 to 6255 mosmol.l-1 during summer and winter, respectively. The mean values of urine osmolarity for hydrated T. indica were 2831 and 3189 mosmol.l-1 during summer and winter, respectively. In M. hurrianae salt loading treatments caused increases of urine osmolarity between 3381 and 5646 mosmol.l-1 and between 4032 and 5434 mosmol.l-1, during summer and winter, respectively, over the values recorded for hydrated animals (summer = 3292; winter = 3294 mosmol.l-1). A maximum urine osmolarity of around 7000 mosmol.l-1 was found in both species when subjected to 2% salt-loading treatment. The treatments used in this study increased urinary urea level in both T. indica (3039-4056 mM) and in M. hurrianae (1900-2180 mM) compared to the level in their respective hydrated controls (T. indica = 1628 mM; M. hurrianae = 1372 mM). The results indicate that T. indica may be better adapted to produce more concentrated urine than M. hurrianae.

  19. The distribution of mucous secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of three small rodents from Saudi Arabia: Acomys dimidiatus, Meriones rex and Meriones libycus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Olga; Marais, Sumine; Walters, Jacklynn; van der Merwe, Elizabeth L; Alagaili, Abdulaziz N; Mohammed, Osama B; Bennett, Nigel C; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of mucin phenotypes (which form the protective biofilm of the gastrointestinal tract) differs between intestinal regions. This study examines the distribution of mucin secreting cells in the gastrointestinal tracts of the Eastern spiny mouse (Acomys dimidiatus), King jird (Meriones rex) and Libyan jird (Meriones libycus), which inhabit the dry and hot deserts of Saudi Arabia. Intestinal tract samples were processed to wax and tissue sections stained with Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) and High Iron Diamine-Alcian Blue (HID-AB) in order to determine different mucin phenotypes by quantitative analysis. Mixed mucin secreting cells (combined neutral and acid) was the predominant mucin secreting cell type observed throughout the gastrointestinal tract in all species. Acid mucin secreting goblet cells were mainly located in the colon. A. dimidiatus presented with significantly more total sialo than sulfomucin secreting cells while the opposite was true for both Meriones species. The distribution of mucin secreting cells is therefore similar to previously reported results for small mammals not living under arid conditions.

  20. Amplitude and phase equalization of stimuli for click evoked auditory brainstem responses

    PubMed Central

    Beutelmann, Rainer; Laumen, Geneviève; Tollin, Daniel; Klump, Georg M.

    2015-01-01

    Although auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), the sound-evoked brain activity in response to transient sounds, are routinely measured in humans and animals there are often differences in ABR waveform morphology across studies. One possible reason may be the method of stimulus calibration. To explore this hypothesis, click-evoked ABRs were measured from seven ears in four Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) using three common spectrum calibration strategies: Minimum phase filter, linear phase filter, and no filter. The results show significantly higher ABR amplitude and signal-to-noise ratio, and better waveform resolution with the minimum phase filtered click than with the other strategies. PMID:25618102

  1. Responsiveness to testosterone of male gerbils from known intrauterine positions.

    PubMed

    Clark, M M; Bishop, A M; vom Saal, F S; Galef, B G

    1993-06-01

    Following either a) castration or b) both castration and implantation with capsules releasing a constant, physiological dose of testosterone, adult male Mongolian gerbils that had matured in intrauterine positions between two male fetuses still scent marked with greater frequency than did male gerbils that had matured in intrauterine positions between two female fetuses. We also found significant positive correlations between the relative frequency of scent marking exhibited by individual male gerbils when intact, after castration and after both castration and implantation with capsules releasing testosterone. Each of these findings is consistent with the view that differential exposure to testosterone, as a consequence of fetal intrauterine position, has lasting effects on the organization of scent-marking by male gerbils.

  2. The Gerbil Jar: A Basic Home Experience in Operant Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, L.

    1980-01-01

    Explains how a teaching method such as allowing students to raise gerbils at home can encourage students to gain experience with the fundamental techniques of operant conditioning which are otherwise generally unavailable to students in large introductory psychology courses. (DB)

  3. Neuroanatomical technique for studying long axonal projections in the central nervous system: combined axonal staining and pre-labeling in parasagittal gerbil brain slices.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, N

    2012-08-01

    A method is described for studying the morphological features of extensive axonal projections within the central nervous system of the gerbil, Meriones anguiculatus. Potentially long descending axonal projections between the auditory thalamus and lower brainstem were used as a model. The inferior colliculus (IC) in the tectum was injected in vivo with a fluorescent retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, to label cells in the medial geniculate body (MGB) that had descending projections to the IC, and cells in the superior olivary complex (SOC) that had ascending projections to the IC. Another fluorescent retrograde tracer, fast blue, was injected into the cochlea to label olivocochlear (OC) cells in the SOC. Inferomedially curved parasagittal slices containing ipsilateral auditory cell groups from the thalamus to the brainstem were cut and descending axons of the pre-labeled MGB cells were traced anterogradely with Biocytin. After visualizing histologically the injected Biocytin, discretely labeled IC-projecting axons of the MGB cells were traced including their collaterals that extended further into the SOC. In the SOC, these axons terminated on pre-labeled cells including OC cells. The combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing in the slice preparations described here demonstrated extensive descending axonal projections from the thalamus to their targets in the lower brainstem that had known ascending/descending projections within the auditory system.

  4. The Mongolian gerbil as a model for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Eva-Maria; Martin, Myriam; Bleich, André; Klos, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Mongolian gerbils are used as biomedical research models for a variety of diseases and are in some cases suited better than other rodents for basic research and therapeutic studies. The aim of this study was to establish and characterize a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced model in gerbils for the human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to utilize them for a therapeutic study in vivo. Four concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4%) of DSS were administered via drinking water for 7 days; based on these results, a concentration of 3% DSS was given for 9 days in a second approach. Fluid uptake and general clinical condition were assessed daily using a clinical score. Caecum and colon were scored histologically. Fluid uptake was affected by addition of DSS to the drinking water. First clinical symptoms were observed at day 4 of DSS treatment with a considerable increase in clinical score parameters only in gerbils receiving 2% or 4% DSS. Histologically, ulceration and inflammation were observed predominantly in the caecum of gerbils treated with at least 1% DSS; reproducible inflammation in the colon required at least 2% DSS. Using 3% DSS for 9 days, considerably more inflammation was induced in the colon, comparable with lesions usually observed in the mouse model. Using an optimized protocol, DSS treatment induces reproducibly typhlocolitis in Mongolian gerbils, rendering them as a useful model for IBD. PMID:20113376

  5. Complex state-dependent games between owls and gerbils.

    PubMed

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Mukherjee, Shomen; Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel S

    2010-03-01

    Predator-prey interactions are often behaviourally sophisticated games in which the predator and prey are players. Past studies teach us that hungrier prey take higher risks when foraging and that hungrier predators increase their foraging activity and are willing to take higher risks of injury. Yet no study has looked at the simultaneous responses of predator and prey to their own and each other's hunger levels in a controlled environment. We looked for evidence of a state-dependent game between predators and their prey by simultaneously manipulating the hunger state of barn owls, and Allenby's gerbils as prey. The owls significantly increased their activity when hungry. However, they did not appear to respond to changes in the hunger state of the gerbils. The gerbils reacted strongly to the owls' state, as well as to their own state when the risk was perceived as high. Our study shows that predator-prey interactions give rise to a complex state-dependent game.

  6. Differentiation of Leydig cells in the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Maria Etelvina; Egydio, Fernanda De Mattos; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Mendis-Handagama, S M L Chamindrani; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2010-02-01

    Information on postnatal Leydig cell (LC) differentiation in the Mongolian gerbil has been unavailable. Therefore, current investigation was designed to examine LC lineage differentiationin this rodent, from birth to adulthood. Gerbil testes at 1 day, 1-7 weeks (w), 2 and 3 months of age were conventionally processed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Immunocytochemistry for specific markers of steroidogenic enzymes, namely 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid steroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1) and also for androgen receptor (AR) was performed. The establishment of adult Leydig cell populations (ALC) during testis maturation in the gerbil follows the pattern previously described in other mammalian species, with the four progressive stages of differentiation. The LC progenitors were identified at second w by 3beta-HSD expression; the first newly formed ALC were recognized at fourth w whereas immature ALC appeared at fifth w. The latter were recognized by abundance of cytoplasmic lipid, in addition to expression of 11beta-HSD1 and intense nuclear AR immunoreaction. Mature ALC in gerbil exhibited irregular eccentric nuclei and a cytoplasmic canaliculus in the perinuclear area. Only one third of mature ALC in adult gerbils showed a high expression of 11beta-HSD1 and AR expression was highly variable among them. In conclusion, the process of differentiation of ALC population in gerbil follows the pattern previously established for other rodents. However, the resulting mature ALC are strikingly different due their singular asymmetric morphology and presence of a cytoplasmic canaliculus and as well as their functional heterogeneity.

  7. Acute chlordane toxicity on the serum alkaline phosphatase activity of Meriones hurrianae Jerdon.

    PubMed

    Karel, A K

    1976-02-01

    Different acute doses of chlordane enhance the serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Indian desert gerbils. The damage to parenchymal cells of liver, and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction as a result of chlordane treatment are discussed as the possible reasons for the increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity.

  8. [Development and topography of the ganglion pelvinum in the gerbil].

    PubMed

    Frewein, J

    1978-01-01

    In the gerbil the nerve cells of the plexus pelvinus are concentrated on each side in a solid glanglion pelvinum. This deviates essentially from the pattern in man and the domestic animals where these cells are scattered all over the plexus pelvinus. The large ganglion pelvinum is connected craniodorsally with the nervus hypogastricus and dorsally with the nervi pelvini (from the first 2 or 3 sacral nerves and the last lumbar nerve). The apertura pelvis cranialis appears long and very oblique and, therefore, in the gerbil the ganglion pelvinum is located on each side cranially to the corpus ossis pubis and can be reached by a ventral laparotomy.

  9. Synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex of mice: effects of deprived rearing and voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Schaefers, Andrea T U; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  10. Synaptic Remodeling in the Dentate Gyrus, CA3, CA1, Subiculum, and Entorhinal Cortex of Mice: Effects of Deprived Rearing and Voluntary Running

    PubMed Central

    Schaefers, Andrea T. U.; Grafen, Keren; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud; Winter, York

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus). We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils. PMID:20508828

  11. Infection of the intermediate mite host with Wolbachia-depleted Litomosoides sigmodontis microfilariae: impaired L1 to L3 development and subsequent sex-ratio distortion in adult worms.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Pfarr, Kenneth M; Hoerauf, Achim

    2008-07-01

    The rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis harbour Wolbachia, endosymbionts essential for worm embryogenesis, larval development and adult survival. To study the effect of tetracycline, which depletes Wolbachia, on the development of microfilariae (L1s, MF) to L3 in the intermediate host Ornithonyssus bacoti, and to observe the development of Wolbachia-depleted L3s in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus); microfilaremic gerbils were treated orally with tetracycline for 6 weeks (primary infected Tet) or untreated (primary Con). Treatment resulted in a significant reduction of Wolbachia per MF in primary Tet gerbils. Naïve mites then fed on the primary Tet and primary Con gerbils in the week after treatment ended, when MF levels were not significantly different, and used to infect new gerbils (secondary infected ) Tet, secondary Con) via natural infection. The infection rate from dissected mites was 9% and 54% (primary Tet and primary Con, respectively). After 3 months, worms were isolated from secondary gerbils. Significantly fewer female worms developed in secondary Tet gerbils. In contrast, there was no difference in the number of male worms that developed in secondary gerbils, resulting in a male biased sex-ratio. Although secondary Tet male worms had fewer Wolbachia than secondary Con males, development was not impaired. Female worms that developed from Wolbachia-depleted MF had Wolbachia levels equivalent to worms from secondary Con animals. Thus, tetracycline pre-treatment selected for female worms with high numbers of Wolbachia, whereas male worms had median Wolbachia levels significantly lower than secondary Con males. Therefore, female worms require a higher threshold of Wolbachia for their development. The worms analysed were only exposed to tetracycline as MF, ruling out direct effects of tetracycline during larval development in the mites or secondary gerbils, suggesting that the depletion of Wolbachia in MF was the cause of impaired larval

  12. Effect of passage of Babesia ovis in the gerbil (Acomys cahirinus) on the course of infection in splenectomized lambs.

    PubMed

    Yeruham, I; Hadani, A; Galker, F

    1996-10-15

    Splenectomized gerbils (Acomys cahirinus) have been found to be susceptible to Babesia ovis applied via blood inoculation, whereas intact gerbils were not infected. Blood from splenectomized latently infected gerbils caused infection in a splenectomized lamb. Intact Acomys cahirinus gerbils did not become infected by B. ovis, and all captured rodents in an enzootic area, intact and splenectomized, were found to be negative for B. ovis. It can thus be concluded that Acomys cahirinus does not serve as a natural reservoir for B. ovis.

  13. [Splenic lymphoid structures reorganization in gerbils after space flight].

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, D E; Sapin, M R

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of weightlessness on the organism of mammals, splenic lymphoid tissue was studied in 10 intact Mongolian gerbils and in 10 animals after a 12-days-long spaceflight. In experimental animals the body mass and splenic, thymic and adrenal mass indexes were sharply reduced. In the spleen, the red pulp area was significantly increased, there appeared the areas of fibrous tissue proliferation, and extensive hemorrhage. Lymphoid nodules with germinal centers disappeared, while periarterial lymphoid sheaths were depleted. Quantitative analysis of cellular content of the lymphoid structures of the spleen showed dramatic activation of cell destruction, lymphocytopoiesis suppression with the disappearance of mitotically dividing cells and a decrease in the number of blast cells. The absence of plasma cells indicates the suppression of the processes of the immunocytopoiesis. The complex of changes noted suggests the decrease of immunological barrier of lymphoid tissue in the spleen and in the whole organism, in gerbils under the conditions of weightlessness in the spaceflight.

  14. Amplitude-modulation detection by gerbils in reverberant sound fields.

    PubMed

    Lingner, Andrea; Kugler, Kathrin; Grothe, Benedikt; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2013-08-01

    Reverberation can dramatically reduce the depth of amplitude modulations which are critical for speech intelligibility. Psychophysical experiments indicate that humans' sensitivity to amplitude modulation in reverberation is better than predicted from the acoustic modulation depth at the receiver position. Electrophysiological studies on reverberation in rabbits highlight the contribution of neurons sensitive to interaural correlation. Here, we use a prepulse-inhibition paradigm to quantify the gerbils' amplitude modulation threshold in both anechoic and reverberant virtual environments. Data show that prepulse inhibition provides a reliable method for determining the gerbils' AM sensitivity. However, we find no evidence for perceptual restoration of amplitude modulation in reverberation. Instead, the deterioration of AM sensitivity in reverberant conditions can be quantitatively explained by the reduced modulation depth at the receiver position. We suggest that the lack of perceptual restoration is related to physical properties of the gerbil's ear input signals and inner-ear processing as opposed to shortcomings of their binaural neural processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of negative effects on Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils housed in the same secondary enclosure.

    PubMed

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-05-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure.

  16. Lack of Negative Effects on Syrian Hamsters and Mongolian Gerbils Housed in the Same Secondary Enclosure

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gaskill, Brianna N

    2015-01-01

    In cases where different species might be housed in the same room or secondary enclosure, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals recommends that the animals should be behaviorally compatible and have the same health status. Syrian hamsters and Mongolian gerbils, both desert-dwelling rodents, appear to be reasonable candidates for such a combination. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether housing hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure is an acceptable practice. Weanling and breeding-age hamsters and gerbils were housed in open-topped cages in an isolator for 5 mo; the isolator also contained with nude and haired mice, which acted as sentinels. Cages housing hamsters and gerbils were rotated between species, and dirty bedding was exchanged between species in an effort to transmit microorganisms. In addition, sentinel mice housed in the isolator were supplied with dirty bedding from both hamsters and gerbils. Neither species showed clinical signs of illness, the health status of neither the hamsters nor the gerbils changed significantly, and the sentinel mice acquired only 2 infectious organisms, a Helicobacter species and Staphylococcus aureus. Both hamsters and gerbils bred successfully when housed together in the same isolator, and no infanticide or mortality was seen. Breeding performance did not differ between isolator breeding and barrier breeding. This study supports the housing of hamsters and gerbils in the same secondary enclosure. PMID:26045450

  17. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Cieslak, P R; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    Amebiasis, infection by the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading parasitic cause of death. As a step in the development of a recombinant antigen vaccine to prevent E. histolytica infection, we looked at the ability of a recombinant version of the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) to elicit a protective immune response against invasive amebic disease. Gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, were immunized with either a recombinant SREHP/maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion, recombinant MBP alone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), all combined with complete Freund's adjuvant. In the first trial (group 1), gerbils received a primary and two booster immunizations intraperitoneally; in the second trial (group 2), gerbils were immunized by a single intradermal injection. SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in both groups produced antibody to native SHEHP and developed delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to recombinant SREHP. All gerbils were challenged by an intrahepatic injection with 5 x 10(4) virulent E. histolytica HM1-IMSS trophozoites. Complete protection from amebic liver abscess was seen in 64% of the SHEHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 1 and in 100% of the SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 2. There was no protection observed in MBP- or PBS-immunized gerbils in either group. Our results indicate that the SREHP molecule has potential as a vaccine to prevent amebic infection and demonstrate that successful vaccination of animals with recombinant E. histolytica antigen vaccines is possible. Images PMID:8132322

  18. Climatically driven synchrony of gerbil populations allows large-scale plague outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Frigessi, Arnoldo; Begon, Mike; Davis, Stephen; Leirs, Herwig; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2007-08-22

    In central Asia, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the main host for the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the cause of bubonic plague. In order to prevent plague outbreaks, monitoring of the great gerbil has been carried out in Kazakhstan since the late 1940s. We use the resulting data to demonstrate that climate forcing synchronizes the dynamics of gerbils over large geographical areas. As it is known that gerbil densities need to exceed a threshold level for plague to persist, synchrony in gerbil abundance across large geographical areas is likely to be a condition for plague outbreaks at similar large scales. Here, we substantiate this proposition through autoregressive modelling involving the normalized differentiated vegetation index as a forcing covariate. Based upon predicted climate changes, our study suggests that during the next century, plague epizootics may become more frequent in central Asia.

  19. Neuronal degeneration in the gerbil brainstem is associated with spongiform lesions.

    PubMed

    McGinn, M D; Faddis, B T

    1998-05-01

    Spongiform lesions arise in dendrites and glia in the brainstem of domestic Mongolian gerbils. Most pronounced within the cochlear nucleus (CN), this disorder is dynamic and progressive; the lesions increase in number, size, and extent with age. It has not been clear whether these spongioid lesions either cause or are associated with significant neural degeneration. In contrast, feral Mongolian gerbils (wild-trapped in Tuva) and their offspring show few spongiform lesions. The Tuvan gerbils provide an appropriate within-species control. We compared degeneration in the brainstem of domestic and Tuvan gerbils using the amino-cupric-silver (ACS) stain of de Olmos et al. [(1994) Neurotoxicol. Teratol., 16:545-561]. Positive histologic controls were provided by cerebellar stab wounds in domestic gerbils and by unilateral kainic acid injections into the CN of Tuvan gerbils. The ACS stain revealed extensive degeneration of axons, terminals, dendrites, and neurons in the brainstem of domestic gerbils. Neurodegeneration was most pronounced in the CN and was coextensive with spongiform lesions. Neurodegeneration was also seen in the trapezoid body, lateral lemniscus, and inferior colliculus, but was less pronounced than in the CN. The cerebellar stab wounds resulted in silver-stained Purkinje cells restricted to the stab wound local region. Kainic acid produced extensive neuronal and spongiform degeneration of the injected CN that was very similar to that spontaneously occurring in domestic gerbils. In contrast, the non-injected CN of Tuvan gerbils showed no neuronal or spongiform degeneration with the ACS stain. We conclude that, in domestic gerbils, the naturally occurring spongiform lesions of the CN and the accompanying neurodegeneration are both results of a common mechanism, most probably excitotoxic.

  20. Dynamics of Yersinia pestis and its antibody response in great gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) by subcutaneous infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujiang; Dai, Xiang; Wang, Xinhui; Maituohuti, Abulimiti; Cui, Yujun; Rehemu, Azhati; Wang, Qiguo; Meng, Weiwei; Luo, Tao; Guo, Rong; Li, Bing; Abudurexiti, Abulikemu; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu; Cao, Hanli

    2012-01-01

    Rhombomys opimus (great gerbil) is a reservoir of Yersinia pestis in the natural plague foci of Central Asia. Great gerbils are highly resistant to Y. pestis infection. The coevolution of great gerbils and Y. pestis is believed to play an important role in the plague epidemics in Central Asia plague foci. However, the dynamics of Y. pestis infection and the corresponding antibody response in great gerbils have not been evaluated. In this report, animal experiments were employed to investigate the bacterial load in both the liver and spleen of infected great gerbils. The dynamics of the antibody response to the F1 capsule antigen of Y. pestis was also determined. Captured great gerbils that tested negative for both anti-F1 antibodies and bacterial isolation were infected subcutaneously with different doses (10(5) to 10(11) CFU) of a Y. pestis strain isolated from a live great gerbil during routine plague surveillance in the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China. The clinical manifestations, changes in body weight, anal temperature, and gross anatomy of the infected animals were observed. The blood cell count, bacterial load, and anti-F1 antibody titers were determined at different time points after infection using a blood analyzer, plate counts, and an indirect hemagglutination assay, respectively. The dynamics of bacterial load and the anti-F1 antibody concentration in great gerbils are highly variable among individuals. The Y. pestis infection in great gerbils could persist as long as 15 days. They act as an appropriate reservoir for plague in the Junggar Basin, which is part of the natural plague foci in Central Asia. The dynamics of the Y. pestis susceptibility of great gerbil will improve the understanding of its variable resistance, which would facilitate the development of more effective countermeasures for controlling plague epidemics in this focus.

  1. Free phytosterols facilitate excretion of endogenous cholesterol in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K C; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Wijendran, Vasuki; Beer, Michael

    2005-05-01

    To determine whether phytosterols (PST) facilitate excretion of whole body cholesterol and whether dietary fat or enhancing gallbladder contraction with curcumin might influence this process, four experiments were conducted in gerbils. In Experiment 1, naive gerbils received cholesterol-free purified diets with 30% energy from fat and 0% or 0.75% free PST from tall oil for 4 weeks. In Experiment 2, body cholesterol pools were expanded by feeding a diet containing 0.3% cholesterol for 3 weeks. Subsequently, PST was provided in either fat-free or normal-fat diets without cholesterol for only 2 h each morning, followed by a low-fat diet for the rest of the day and food restriction overnight. In Experiment 3, gerbils were preloaded with cholesterol, followed by either PST alone or PST+curcumin to enhance gallbladder contraction. In Experiment 4, curcumin or curcumin+PST were fed with 30% as fat and 0.15% cholesterol throughout the study. Because of the small whole body cholesterol pool in Experiment 1, the impact of PST was limited. When whole body cholesterol was expanded in Experiments 2 and 3, subsequent reductions of liver esterified cholesterol by PST were significant. In the presence of dietary fat, PST caused a greater reduction (23%) than in a fat-free diet (8%) compared to respective controls. Curcumin (Experiments 3 and 4) proved ineffective in reducing liver or plasma cholesterol pools, and the 3:1 ratio between PST/diet cholesterol was less effective at blocking cholesterol absorption than a 5:1 ratio previously employed. Thus, free PST removed whole body cholesterol, which was enhanced by concomitant fat intake, but was unaffected by a gallbladder contracting agent.

  2. Maintenance of fertility in cryopreserved Indian gerbil (Tatera indica) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Koshimoto, Chihiro; Watanabe, Daisuke; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo

    2009-06-01

    This study is the first attempt at sperm cryopreservation, as well as a further examination of frozen sperm fertility by the hamster test, applied to the maintenance of an Indian gerbil (Tatera indica) colony, which is a newly developing experimental animal. The osmotic tolerance of the spermatozoa was initially investigated by subjection to hypertonicity, up to 620mOsm/kg, for 5min at room temperature prior to freezing. Although the percentage of total motile sperm was not affected, that of progressive motile spermatozoa began to drop at 400mOsm/kg, and a significant decrease was observed at 620mOsm/kg (p<0.01). According to these results, the osmolality of the solutions for the freezing experiment, in which 6-22% raffinose was present, was fixed at approximately 400mOsm/kg. Sperm, suspended in a plastic straw, were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor for 5min, followed by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Motile sperm were recovered from all freezing conditions, and high survival was obtained when sperm were frozen in the presence of 14% and 18% raffinose, with a normalized motility higher than 40%. Fertility of cryopreserved Indian gerbil sperm was examined by the zona-free hamster test. Thawed sperm adhered to 88% of the zona-free hamster oocyte surface, and some oocytes were penetrated and exhibited swollen sperm heads or male pronuclei, which we used to define fertilization. Although the fertilization rate of cryopreserved sperm to zona-free hamster eggs was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm (6% vs. 30%, p<0.01), we demonstrated that thawed Indian gerbil spermatozoa have the ability to maintain their fertility.

  3. Susceptibility to acoustic trauma in young and aged gerbils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Flint A.

    2002-12-01

    The effect of age on susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the effect of gender on the interaction of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and NIHL, and the relative contributions of ARHL and NIHL to total hearing loss are poorly understood. The issues are difficult to resolve empirically in human subjects because of lack of control over extrinsic variables and for ethical reasons. Accordingly, these issues were examined in a well-studied animal model of both ARHL and NIHL, the Mongolian gerbil. Animals were exposed to an intense tone (3.5 kHz, 113 dB SPL, 1 h) either as young adults (6-8 months) or near the end of the average lifespan of the species (34-38 months). Hearing thresholds were determined with the auditory brainstem response (ABR). ARHL was approximately 5-10 dB, with slightly more observed in males at 16 kHz (p<0.05). NIHL of approximately 15-20 dB was similar for the young and old groups, suggesting no differences in susceptibility as a function of age. There were no gender differences in NIHL. The relative contributions of ARHL and NIHL to total hearing loss in aged, noise-exposed gerbils were predicted by an addition of ARHL and NIHL in dB, similar to an international standard on hearing loss allocation, ISO-1999 [Determination of Occupational Noise Exposure and Estimation of Noise-Induced Hearing Impairment (1990)]. Previous evaluations of ISO-1999 using the gerbil animal model concluded that addition of ARHL and NIHL in dB overpredicts total hearing loss. However, in these studies, ARHL was large and nearly equal to NIHL. In the current study, where ARHL was much less than NIHL, addition of the two factors in dB, as recommended by ISO-1999, results in fairly accurate predictions of total hearing loss.

  4. Development of wide-band middle ear transmission in the Mongolian gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstreet, Edward H.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2002-01-01

    Stapes vibrations were measured in deeply anesthetized adult and neonatal (ages: 14 to 20 days) Mongolian gerbils. In adult gerbils, the velocity magnitude of stapes responses to tones was approximately constant over the entire frequency range of measurements, 1 to 40 kHz. Response phases referred to pressure near the tympanic membrane varied approximately linearly as a function of increasing stimulus frequency, with a slope corresponding to a group delay of 30 μs. In neonatal gerbils, the sensitivity of stapes responses to tones was lower than in adults, especially at mid-frequencies (e.g., by about 15 dB at 10-20 kHz in gerbils aged 14 days). The input impedance of the adult gerbil cochlea, calculated from stapes vibrations and published measurements of pressure in scala vestibuli near the oval window [E. Olson, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 3445-3463 (1998)], is principally dissipative at frequencies lower than 10 kHz. Conclusions: (a) middle-ear vibrations in adult gerbils do not limit the input to the cochlea up to at least 40 kHz, i.e., within 0.5 oct of the high-frequency cutoff of the behavioral audiogram; and (b) the results in both adult and neonatal gerbils are inconsistent with the hypothesis that mass reactance controls high-frequency ossicular vibrations and support the idea that the middle ear functions as a transmission line.

  5. Gerbils exhibit stable open-arms exploration across repeated testing on the elevated plus-maze.

    PubMed

    Rico, Javier Leonardo; Penagos-Gil, Marion; Castañeda, Anderson F; Corredor, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Repeated testing on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) leads rats and mice to avoid the open-arms of the apparatus. The effect of multiple exposures to the EPM on the behavioral profile of gerbils is unknown. In this study, young and middle-aged gerbils were exposed to the EPM and four retests were carried out 24, 48, 72 and 96h after the first trial in order to determine whether animals exhibited open-arms avoidance. In addition, groups of young and middle-aged gerbils were exposed to the EPM for 20-min followed by a 5-min retest trial 24h apart to analyze the effect of a prolonged exposure to the EPM on open-arms exploration during first trial and retest. Gerbils exhibited high exploration of open-arms during the first trial and progressive locomotor decrease across repeated testing. Unlike previous reports for rats and mice, young gerbils showed a stable open-arms exploration both across multiple exposures and during a prolonged exposure to EPM. Middle-aged gerbils also exhibited a stable open-arms exploration during retest prior to the 20-min test. Results suggest a reliable repeated test paradigm for the EPM using our proposed methodology for gerbils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of Coriandrum sativum L. in Meriones shawi rats.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, Abderrahmane; Zizi, Soumia; Israili, Zafar H; Lyoussi, Badiâa

    2011-09-01

    The use of an aqueous extract of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.; Apiaceae, Umbelliferae) seeds (CS-extract) in Moroccan traditional treatment of diabetes remains to be experimentally validated. The study aim was to investigate potential hypoglycemic (and hypolipidemic) activity of CS-extract after a single oral dose and after daily dosing for 30 days (sub-chronic study) in normal and obese-hyperglycemic-hyperlipidemic (OHH) Meriones shawi rats. After a single oral dose of CS-extract (20mg/kg; predetermined as optimum), plasma glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TG) were measured in normal and OHH rats (hypercaloric diet and forced limited physical activity); glibenclamide (GLB; 2.5mg/kg) was used as reference. In the sub-chronic study, the effect of CS-extract and GLB (at the above doses) on body weight (BW), plasma glucose, insulin, TC, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TG, urea and creatinine was determined in normal and OHH rats; insulin resistance (IR as HOMA-IR), atherosclerotic and cardioprotective indices were calculated. A single dose of CS-extract or GLB suppressed hyperglycemia in OHH rats, and normo-glycemia was achieved at 6-h post-dose; there was no effect on lipids, TG or insulin, but IR decreased significantly. The hypoglycemic effect was lower in normal rats. In the sub-chronic study in OHH rats, the test substances (CS-extract>GLB) reduced plasma glucose (normoglycemia on Day 21), insulin and IR, TC, LDL-cholesterol, and TG. Atherosclerotic index decreased while cardioprotective indices increased only by CS-extract, with no effect on BW, urea or creatinine. Sub-chronic administration of CS-extract in OHH Meriones shawi rats normalized glycemia and decreased the elevated levels of insulin, IR, TC, LDL-cholesterol and TG. Since, the CS-extract decreased several components of the metabolic syndrome and decreased atherosclerotic and increased cardioprotective indices, CS-extract may have cardiovascular protective effect. The

  7. Comparative analysis of gastric bacterial microbiota in Mongolian gerbils after long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Osaki, Takako; Matsuki, Takahiro; Asahara, Takashi; Zaman, Cynthia; Hanawa, Tomoko; Yonezawa, Hideo; Kurata, Satoshi; Woo, Timothy Derg-hoong; Nomoto, Koji; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-07-01

    Quantitative (qt) real time PCR using 16SrDNA primers is useful for determination of the bacterial composition of the gastric microbiota in Mongolian gerbils. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the gastric microbiota after long-term infection with Helicobacter pylori. One year after inoculation with H. pylori, five gerbils were determined as H. pylori-positive and 6 gerbils H. pylori-negative by culture and real time qt PCR methods. The gastric microbiota of each group of gerbils was also compared with that of 6 gerbils uninfected with H. pylori. DNA from the Atopobium cluster, Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium coccoides group, Clostridium leptum subgroup, Enterococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were detected in the gastric mucus of both infected and uninfected gerbils. In contrast, Eubacterium cylindroides group and Prevotella spp. were detected only in H. pylori-negative gerbils. The numbers of C. leptum subgroup, C. coccoides group and Bifidobacterium spp. in gastric mucus of H. pylori-negative Mongolian gerbils were significantly lower than those in non-infected gerbils. The results obtained suggest that the composition of gastric indigenous microbiota in Mongolian gerbils may be disturbed by long-term infection with H. pylori, and that these changes may in fact inhibit H. pylori infection.

  8. Natural maternal transmission of H pylori in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Uk; Kim, Okjin

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate maternal H pylori infection status to determine the potential of maternal transmission. METHODS: In the present study, we examined these issues in an experimental murine model, which is a Mongolian gerbil model that has been reported as an optimal laboratory animal model to study H pylori. Pregnant Mongolian gerbils, infected experimentally with H pylori, were divided into as four groups. Following the experimental design, the stomachs of the mother and litters were isolated and assessed for transmission of H pylori at the prenatal period, parturition day, 1-wk old and 3-wk old respectively. Bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine the presence of transmitted H pylori. RESULTS: All litters showed no transmission of H pylori during pregnancy and at parturition day. However, they revealed 33.3% and 69.6% at 1-wk and 3-wk of age respectively by PCR. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that vertical infection during the prenatal period or delivery procedure is unlikely as a route of mother-to-child H pylori infection. It may be that H pylori is acquired through breast-feeding, contaminated saliva and fecal-oral transmission during co-habitation. PMID:17007019

  9. Mongolian gerbils learn to navigate in complex virtual spaces.

    PubMed

    Thurley, Kay; Henke, Josephine; Hermann, Joachim; Ludwig, Benedikt; Tatarau, Christian; Wätzig, Aline; Herz, Andreas V M; Grothe, Benedikt; Leibold, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) environments are increasingly used to study spatial navigation in rodents. So far behavioral paradigms in virtual realities have been limited to linear tracks or open fields. However, little is known whether rodents can learn to navigate in more complex virtual spaces. We used a VR setup with a spherical treadmill but no head-fixation, which permits animals not only to move in a virtual environment but also to freely rotate around their vertical body axis. We trained Mongolian gerbils to perform spatial tasks in virtual mazes of different complexity. Initially the animals learned to run back and forth between the two ends of a virtual linear track for food reward. Performance, measured as path length and running time between the virtual reward locations, improved to asymptotic performance within about five training sessions. When more complex mazes were presented after this training epoch, the animals generalized and explored the new environments already at their first exposure. In a final experiment, the animals also learned to perform a two-alternative forced choice task in a virtual Y-maze. Our data thus shows that gerbils can be trained to solve spatial tasks in virtual mazes and that this behavior can be used as a readout for psychophysical measurements.

  10. Gerbils in space: performance on the 17-arm radial maze.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, D M; Slobin, P

    1983-01-01

    In Experiment 1 six hungry gerbils received six trials per day on a 17-arm radial maze. During each trial the subjects were allowed to choose freely among the arms, each of which contained a food pellet, until each arm had been visited once or until eight minutes had elapsed. An error was recorded when the subject entered a previously visited arm. The gerbils quickly learned not to re-enter previously visited arms and generally made errors on fewer than 15% of entries, performance comparable to that of the rat and superior to that of other species tested in the radial arm maze. The intertrial-interval duration did not affect accuracy of arm choices during acquisition but did influence asymptotic accuracy. Accuracy did not change systematically over the six trials. A high proportion of arm entries were to nearby arms. Errors occurred most often towards the end of a trial. Odor cues were not important. When the number of trials per day was reduced from six to one, accuracy deteriorated slightly. In Experiment 2 neither the transposition of extramaze cues nor the placement of the maze in a different room had large disruptive effects on accuracy. In Experiment 3 the addition of three explicit intramaze brightness cues aided accuracy, perhaps by permitting the subjects to decompose the large maze into three smaller mazes, although there was no direct evidence that this was the case. Implications of a number of these results for models of spatial maze performance were discussed. PMID:6655427

  11. Hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effect of argan oil (Argania spinosa L.) in Meriones shawi rats.

    PubMed

    Berrougui, H; Ettaib, A; Herrera Gonzalez, M D; Alvarez de Sotomayor, M; Bennani-Kabchi, N; Hmamouchi, M

    2003-11-01

    The potential health benefits of various dietary oils in relation to cardiovascular disease and cancer are recently receiving considerable attention. The main proposal of this study is to investigate the effect of dietary argan oil, obtained from seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) endemic from Morocco, on serum lipids composition. Hyperlipidemia was induced by high calorie and cholesterol (HCC) diet administration in 16 rats (Meriones shawi, a rodent of the Gerbillideae family). Eight rats were treated with argan oil (1ml/100g weight) daily by oral route during 7 weeks (treated group). Control animals were also fed with HCC diet for 7 weeks. After 7-week treatment with argan oil, blood lipoproteins were significantly reduced. Total cholesterol decreased with 36.67% (P<0.01), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol in 67.70% (P<0.001), triglycerides in 30.67% (P<0.05) and body weight in 12.7% (P<0.05). High density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration remained unaltered. These results indicate the beneficial effect of argan oil in the treatment of the hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. This effect will be related with the polyunsaturated fatty acids and other constituents of studied oil.

  12. Study of retinal alterations in a high fat diet-induced type ii diabetes rodent: Meriones shawi.

    PubMed

    Hammoum, Imane; Mbarek, Sihem; Dellaa, Ahmed; Dubus, Elisabeth; Baccouche, Basma; Azaiz, Rached; Charfeddine, Ridha; Picaud, Serge; Ben Chaouacha-Chekir, Rafika

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of type 2 diabetes and the leading cause of blindness in adults of working age. The aim of this work was to study the repercussions of high fat diet (HFD) induced diabetes on the retina of Meriones shawi (M.sh). Two groups of six M.sh each was studied. Group I was a normal control, fed with standard laboratory granules. In Group II, rodents received a HFD of enriched laboratory granules, for a period of 3 months. Body weight and plasma glucose were determined in the two groups. Retinal sections of the two groups were stained with the Hematoxylin-Eosin. Photoreceptors were identified by immunolabeling for rhodopsin (rods) and PNA (cones). Gliosis and microglial activation were identified by immunolabeling for GFAP and Iba-1. Labeling of calretinin and parvalbumin were also carried out to study the AII amacrine cells. Retinal layers thicknesses, gliosis, and specific neural cell populations were quantified by microscopy. The body weight (+77%) and plasma glucose (+108%) were significantly greater in the HFD rodents. Three months of HFD induced a significant loss of 38.77% of cone photoreceptors, as well as gliosis and an increase of 70.67% of microglial cells. Calcium homeostatic enzymes were depleted. This work shows that HFD in Meriones shawi induces a type II diabetes-like condition that causes loss of retinal neurons and photoreceptors, as well as gliosis. Meriones shawi could be a useful experimental animal model for this physiopathology particularly in the study of retinal neuro-glial alterations in Type II diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Hematologic Assessment in Pet Rats, Mice, Hamsters, and Gerbils: Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  14. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    PubMed

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  15. Effects of basilar membrane arch and radial tension on the travelling wave in gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wei Xuan; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The basilar membrane velocity of gerbil cochlea showed discrepancy between theoretical model and experimental measurements. We hypothesize that the reasons of such discrepancies are due to the arch towards the scala tympani and radial tension present in the basilar membrane of the gerbil cochlea. The arch changes the bending stiffness in the basilar membrane, reduces the effective fluid force on the membrane and increases the basilar membrane's inertia. The existence of the radial tension also dampens the acoustic travelling wave. In this paper, the wave number functions along the gerbil basilar membrane are calculated from experimentally measured physical parameters with the theoretical model as well as extracted from experimentally measured basilar membrane velocity with the wave number inversion formula. The two wave number functions are compared and the effects of the tension and membrane arch on the wave number are studied based on various parameters of the model. We found that the bending stiffness across the gerbil basilar membrane varies (1-2 orders along the cochlea in the section 2.2 mm-3 mm from base) more than the calculated value in the flat basilar membrane model and the radial tension increases the damping of the travelling wave in gerbil cochlea significantly (5 times more than that without radial tension). These effects of arch and radial tension in the basilar membrane elucidate the discrepancy between previous theoretical model and experimental measurements in gerbil cochlea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Biological experiments in flights of unmanned space craft Foton-M2 and Foton-M3].

    PubMed

    Ilyin, E A

    2013-01-01

    Missions of unmanned spacecraft Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) of 16 and 12 days in duration, respectively, provided an opportunity to conduct the Russian/US experiments with snails (Helix lucorum and Helix aspera), newts (Pleurodeles waltli), geckos (Pachydactilus turneri) and microorganisms (Streptomyces lividans 66, E. coli and others). Besides, Foton-M3 carried a Russian experiment with Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Objectives of the space experiments were to study the micro-g effects on the living systems' behavior, structure and functioning, post-traumatic regeneration of bone and organs, stable inheritance of plasmid pIJ 702, and melanin pigment synthesis by streptomycets. The survey paper presents the major findings of a large team of investigators.

  17. Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.

    PubMed

    Guan, L R; Yang, Y Q; Qu, J Q; Shen, W X

    1995-01-01

    Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi.

  18. Discovery and study of Leishmania turanica for the first time in China.

    PubMed Central

    Guan, L. R.; Yang, Y. Q.; Qu, J. Q.; Shen, W. X.

    1995-01-01

    Reported are the results of multidisciplinary studies on Leishmania turanica, which was isolated from the auricular tissues of naturally infected great gerbils in Xinjiang, China. Discussed are the biology of the parasite, its molecular biology, its pathogenicity in rodents and humans and its vectors. This was the first time that L. turanica had been reported in China. L. turanica is highly pathogenic in BALB/c mice, with the resulting systemic infection being lethal, and it causes dermal lesions in Meriones unguiculatus. L. turanica parasitizes the macrophages in the interstitium of the testes of Cricetulus barabensis, and entirely destroys the Leydig's cells of severely infected animals. Inoculation of L. turanica can induce simian and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. The cell membrane and flagella of the promastigotes of L. turanica have rather active ACPase. The major vectors of L. turanica were Phlebotomus mongolensis and P. andrejevi. PMID:8846493

  19. Apoptotic hair cell death after transient cochlear ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masafumi; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Koga, Kenichiro; Watanabe, Futoshi; Hyodo, Jun; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2002-12-20

    The mechanisms of cochlear hair cell death following exposure to transient inner ear ischemia were investigated in gerbils histologically. The animals were subjected to ischemic insult by occluding both vertebral arteries for 15 min. Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining showed that inner hair cells (IHCs) underwent sporadic degeneration via nuclear condensation, which peaked 12 hours after the ischemia. Furthermore, nuclear DNA fragmentation was noted by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP)-biotin nick end labeling method. Transmission electron microscopy revealed morphological changes in the IHCs characteristic of apoptosis, including karyopyknosis, chromatin condensation. These findings suggest that apoptotic cell death is the major process in hair cell degeneration in this animal model.

  20. Transmission dynamics of Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1 in Sundevall's jirds (Meriones crassus).

    PubMed

    Morick, Danny; Krasnov, Boris R; Khokhlova, Irina S; Gottlieb, Yuval; Harrus, Shimon

    2013-02-01

    A high prevalence of Bartonella infection is found in many natural systems; however, the transmission dynamics leading to observations of these infections is not fully understood. The capability of Xenopsylla ramesis fleas to serve as competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 (a strain closely related to the zoonotic Bartonella elizabethae) to Meriones crassus jirds was investigated. Naïve X. ramesis fleas were placed for 72 h on naïve jirds or jirds that were either experimentally or naturally infected with Bartonella sp. strain OE 1-1, after which they were placed on naïve jirds. Postfeeding, 69 to 100% of the fleas collected from each Bartonella-positive jird contained Bartonella DNA, and all naïve jirds became positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 after infestation with the infected fleas. In addition, maternal transmission of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in jirds was tested by mating 5 Bartonella-positive and 5 naïve female jirds with 10 naïve male jirds in the absence of fleas. Fifteen offspring were delivered by each group. Cultures of blood drawn from all offspring on days 35 and 47 postdelivery were found to be negative for Bartonella. A single spleen sample from the offspring of a Bartonella-positive mother was found molecularly positive for Bartonella sp. OE 1-1. This study demonstrates that X. ramesis fleas are competent vectors of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 to M. crassus jirds and indicates that maternal transmission is probably not the major transmission route from female jirds to their offspring. We suggest that the dynamics of Bartonella sp. OE 1-1 in the M. crassus jird population in nature is mostly dependent on its vectors.

  1. Acomys, the closest relatives to Gerbils, do express Pdx-1 protein and have similar islet morphology to Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, Carsten R; Kvicerova, Jana; Dickinson, Hayley; Heller, R Scott

    2009-01-01

    Acomys, also called spiny mice, were once used as a diabetes model. We have recently demonstrated that the closest relatives to the Acomys, members of the family Gerbillinae, lack the transcription factor Pdx-1. Therefore, we sought to determine if members of this family also lack Pdx-1, and describe the pancreatic morphology in three different species of Acomys: Acomys cahirinus (Egyptian spiny mouse), Acomys cilicicus (Asia Minor spiny mouse) and Acomys dimidiatus (eastern spiny mouse). We successfully cloned the Acomys Pdx-1 gene and we demonstrate by immunocytochemistry that the Pdx-1 protein is expressed in the pancreatic insulin immunoreactive cells and in a subset of the somatostatin cells. The basic islet structure is very similar to other rodents - with the insulin cells in the center, and glucagon, somatostatin, PP and occasional PYY cells in the periphery. No ghrelin or CART cells were identified. Nkx6.1 was localized specifically to the insulin immunoreactive cells, while Nkx2.2 was found in all endocrine cells except the somatostatin immunoreactive cells. Both MafA and MafB were expressed in the islets; MafA being specific for the insulin cells, while MafB was primarily in the glucagon cells but also found in some insulin cells. Isl-1 was localized in all endocrine cell types. In conclusion, the closest relatives to the Gerbils express a Pdx-1 protein that is 90% similar to other rodents but also has a unique 3 amino acid insert compared to other species.  During the evolution of the spiny mice and the gerbils, it appears that the Pdx-1 gene was lost.

  2. Evaluating the validity of the serologic test for detecting Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Yu, Fang-Jung; Tsai, Pei-Yun; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Chang, Lin-Li; Jan, Chang-Ming; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2007-11-01

    A strong correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer has been reported. Mongolian gerbils are regarded as the most suitable animal model in which to study carcinogenesis associated with H. pylori. The aim of our study was to evaluate the accuracy of the serologic test for detecting H. pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils. The model was developed as follows: the H. pylori colony (vacuolating cytotoxin A (+)/cytotoxin-associated gene A (+)) was cultured from the mucosas of previously H. pylori-fed gerbils. These colonies were cultured in broth. Then,we fed the gerbils with 0.5-1 mL of broth (about 10(9) CFU/mL) (intragastric administration) twice within a 3-day period. After inoculation for 6 or 26 weeks, the gerbils were sacrificed and their gastric mucosas were sampled for a series of examinations. Blood samples for serologic testing (STAT-PAK) were collected. H. pylori infection was confirmed. Statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. Differences were regarded as significant when the p value was less than 0.05. A total of 50 gerbils were inoculated with H. pylori and the success rate reached 88%. All 10 gerbils in the control group showed a negative result. Damage to the mucosas was more obvious following increasing periods of inoculation. The rates of sensitivity and specificity, as determined by the STAT-PAK test, were 90.9% and 100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 60%, respectively. The STAT-PAK test seemed to be more sensitive and accurate (p < 0.05) in high H. pylori densities. In conclusion, the STAT-PAK test (blood-sampling) showed acceptable results and was suitable for long-term observation of H. pylori infection.

  3. Spatial distribution and ecological environment analysis of great gerbil in Xinjiang Plague epidemic foci based on remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Mengxu; Li, Qun; Cao, Chunxiang; Wang, Juanle

    2014-03-01

    Yersinia pestis (Plague bacterium) from great gerbil was isolated in 2005 in Xinjiang Dzungarian Basin, which confirmed the presence of the plague epidemic foci. This study analysed the spatial distribution and suitable habitat of great gerbil based on the monitoring data of great gerbil from Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, as well as the ecological environment elements obtained from remote sensing products. The results showed that: (1) 88.5% (277/313) of great gerbil distributed in the area of elevation between 200 and 600 meters. (2) All the positive points located in the area with a slope of 0-3 degree, and the sunny tendency on aspect was not obvious. (3) All 313 positive points of great gerbil distributed in the area with an average annual temperature from 5 to 11 °C, and 165 points with an average annual temperature from 7 to 9 °C. (4) 72.8% (228/313) of great gerbil survived in the area with an annual precipitation of 120-200mm. (5) The positive points of great gerbil increased correspondingly with the increasing of NDVI value, but there is no positive point when NDVI is higher than 0.521, indicating the suitability of vegetation for great gerbil. This study explored a broad and important application for the monitoring and prevention of plague using remote sensing and geographic information system.

  4. Comparison of ultrastructure and lectin histochemistry on the anterior medial gland of nasal septum in rat and gerbil.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-Fen; Chau, Yat-Pang; Lu, Kuo-Shyan

    2010-10-01

    The anterior medial gland (AMG), located in the submucosa of rodent nasal septum, is suggested to provide fluid for humidification of inspired air. Tremendous variation of the environmental air humidity, on which rats and gerbils depend to live, leads us to expect a multiplicity on ultrastructure and various subcellular glycoconjugate distribution within the AMG acinar cells between these two species. Electron microscopy revealed that: (1) The nucleus of AMG acinar cells in rat was irregular-shaped, but that in gerbil was round or elliptical; (2) Secretory granules in rat AMG acinar cells contained homogenous content with various electron density. However, two types of secretory granules in gerbil AMG acinar cells were found: one with lamellated-structure and high electron density, while the others had particulate materials; (3) Myoepithelial cells were present in the acinus of medial and posterior regions in rat AMG, but absent in gerbil; and (4) Nerve terminals were present only in the medial and posterior rat AMG, but in all three regions of the gerbil AMG. Lectin histochemistry demonstrated that: (1) Rat and gerbil AMG acinar cells expressed strong affinity toward Con A and WGA, but neither showed any reactivity toward UEA and PNA; and (2) Varying degrees of reactivity toward different lectins, including DBA, PNA, SBA and EBL, were recognized in rat and gerbil AMG acinar cells. We confirm the species variation on the ultrastructure and lectin histochemistry of AMG in rats and gerbils, and speculate that these variations may be due to the different living environment.

  5. Adopted cognitive tests for gerbils: validation by studying ageing and ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wappler, Edina A; Szilágyi, Géza; Gál, Anikó; Skopál, Judit; Nyakas, Csaba; Nagy, Zoltán; Felszeghy, Klára

    2009-04-20

    Transient occlusion of common carotid arteries in gerbils is a simple and widely used model for assessing histological and functional consequences of transient forebrain ischemia and neuroprotective action of pharmaceuticals. In the present study we aimed to introduce additional behavioural tests as novel object recognition and food-motivated hole-board learning in order to measure attention and learning capacity in gerbils. For validating these cognitive tests the effects of ageing (4, 9 and 18 months) and those of transient forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion at 9 months of age were investigated. Neuronal cell death was estimated in the hippocampus using TUNEL and caspase-3 double fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. Ageing within the selected range although influenced ambulatory activity, did not considerably change attention and memory functions of gerbils. As a result of transient ischemia a selective neuronal damage in CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus has been observed and tested 4 days after the insult. Ischemic gerbils became hyperactive, but showed decreased attention and impaired spatial memory functions as compared to sham-operated controls. According to our results the novel object recognition paradigm and the hole-board spatial learning test could reliably be added to the battery of conventional behavioural tests applied previously in this species. The novel tests can be performed within a wide interval of adult age and provide useful additional methods for assessing ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils.

  6. Homeostatic and circadian control of body temperature in the fat-tailed gerbil.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, R

    1998-01-01

    The interplay of homeostasis and circadian rhythmicity in the control of body temperature was studied in the fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi). In a first study, the body temperature rhythm of 8 gerbils maintained at 24 degrees C under a 14L:10D light-dark cycle was studied by telemetry. Data from 9 other species of small mammals were also obtained for comparison. The gerbils were found to exhibit a robust rhythm of body temperature (the most robust of the 10 species) with a high plateau during the dark phase of the light-dark cycle and a low plateau during the light phase. In a second experiment, 5 gerbils were allowed to select the temperature of their environment by moving along a thermal gradient. The animals consistently selected higher ambient temperatures during the light phase of the light-dark cycle (when their body temperature was at the low plateau). In a third experiment, the metabolic response of 8 gerbils to an acute cold exposure was determined by indirect calorimetry. Greater cold-induced thermogenesis was observed during the light phase. The fact that the animals selected higher ambient temperatures and displayed greater cold-induced thermogenesis when their body temperature was lower contradicts the hypothesis that the body temperature rhythm is caused by a rhythmic oscillation of the thermoregulatory set point.

  7. State of emergency: behavior of gerbils is affected by the hunger state of their predators.

    PubMed

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Kotler, Burt P

    2010-02-01

    Predator-prey interactions are usually composed of behaviorally sophisticated games in which the values of the strategies of foraging prey individuals may depend on those of their predators, and vice versa. Therefore, any change in the behavior of the predator should result in changes to the behavior of the prey. However, this key prediction has rarely been tested. To examine the effects of the predator state on prey behavior, we manipulated the state of captive Barn Owls, Tyto alba, and released them into an enclosure containing Allenby's gerbils, Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi, a common prey of the owls. The owls were significantly more active when hungry. In response, the gerbils altered their behavior according to the state of the owl. When the owl was hungry, the gerbils visited fewer food patches, foraged in fewer patches, and harvested less food from each patch. Moreover, the gerbils kept their foraging bouts closer to their burrow, which reduced the overlap among foraging ranges of individual gerbils. Thus, changes in the state of the predator affect the foraging behavior of its prey and can also mediate competition among prey individuals.

  8. Everybody loses: intraspecific competition induces tragedy of the commons in Allenby's gerbils.

    PubMed

    Berger-Tal, Oded; Embar, Keren; Kotler, Burt P; Saltz, David

    2015-01-01

    Interference competition may lead to a tragedy of the commons in which individuals driven by self-interest reduce the fitness of the entire group. We investigated this hypothesis in Allenby's gerbils, Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi, by comparing foraging behaviors of single vs. pairs of gerbils. We recorded strong interference competition within the foraging pairs. Competition reduced the amount of time the gerbils spent foraging, as well as foraging efficiency since part of the foragers' attention was directed toward detecting competitors (apparent predation risk). Single gerbils harvested significantly more food than the combined efforts of two gerbils foraging together. Competition reduced the success of both individuals within a pair by more than 50%, making this a case of the tragedy of the commons where each individual's investment in competition reduces the success of all individuals within the group, including its own. Despite their great costs, competitive behaviors will be selected for as long as one individual achieves higher fitness than the other. In nature, interspecific interactions, such as predation risk, may act to reduce and regulate the deleterious effects of intraspecific competition.

  9. Improvement of ischemic damage in gerbil hippocampal neurons by procaine.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Adachi, N; Liu, K; Nagaro, T; Arai, T

    1998-05-04

    Acute cerebral ischemia induces membrane depolarization in the neuron, thereby incurring the simultaneous influx of various ions such as Na+ and Ca2+. Since procaine possesses the ability to inhibit the release of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores to the cytosol as well as the ability to block Na+ channels, the effects of procaine on ischemia were investigated in the present study in gerbils both in vivo and in vitro. The histologic outcome was evaluated 7 days after 3 min of transient forebrain ischemia by assessing delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in animals administered procaine (0.2, 0.4, or 2 micromol) intracerebroventricularly 10 min before ischemia and in animals given saline. The changes in the direct-current potential shift in the hippocampal CA1 area were measured using an identical animal model. A hypoxia-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase was evaluated by in vitro microfluorometry in gerbil hippocampal slices, and the effects of procaine (10, 50, and 100 micromol/l) on the Ca2+ accumulation were examined. Additionally, the effect of procaine (100 micromol/l) in a Ca2+-free condition was investigated. The histologic outcome was improved and the onset of the ischemia-induced membrane depolarization was prolonged by the preischemic administration of procaine. The increase in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ induced by the in vitro hypoxia was suppressed by the perfusion of procaine-containing mediums (50 and 100 micromol/l), regarding both the initiation and the extent of the increase. A hypoxia-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation in the Ca2+-free condition was observed, and the perfusion with procaine (100 micromol/l) inhibited this elevation. Procaine helps protect neurons from ischemia by suppressing the direct-current potential shift and by inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular Ca2+ stores, as well as by inhibiting the influx of Ca2+ from the extracellular space. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Altered expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the epileptic gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yun-Jung; Kim, Heung-No; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Duk-Soo

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the temporal alterations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus after seizure onset. Expression of ACTH was observed within interneurons in the pre-seizure group of seizure sensitive gerbils, whereas its immunoreactivities were rarely detected in seizure resistant gerbil. Three hr after the seizure, ACTH immunoreactivity was significantly increased in interneurons within all hippocampal regions. On the basis of their localization and morphology through immunofluorescence staining, these cells were identified as GABAA α1-containing interneurons. At the 12 hr postictal period, ACTH expression in these regions was down-regulated, in a similar manner to the pre-seizure group of gerbils. These findings support the increase in ACTH synthesis that contributes to a reduction of corticotrophin-releasing factor via the negative feedback system which in turn provides an opportunity to enhance the excitability of GABAergic interneurons. Therefore, ACTH may play an important role in the reduction of excitotoxicity in all hippocampal regions.

  11. Minocycline Protection of Neomycin Induced Hearing Loss in Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Alan M.; Vujanovic, Irena; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    This animal study was designed to determine if minocycline ameliorates cochlear damage is caused by intratympanic injection of the ototoxic aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin. Baseline auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured in gerbils that received 40 mM intratympanic neomycin either with 0, 1.2, or 1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal minocycline. Four weeks later auditory-evoked brainstem responses were measured and compared to the baseline measurements. Minocycline treatments of 1.2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg resulted in significantly lower threshold increases compared to 0 mg/kg, indicating protection of hearing loss between 6 kHz and 19 kHz. Cochleae were processed for histology and sectioned to allow quantification of the spiral ganglion neurons and histological evaluation of organ of Corti. Significant reduction of spiral ganglion neuron density was demonstrated in animals that did not receive minocycline, indicating that those receiving minocycline demonstrated enhanced survival of spiral ganglion neurons, enhanced survival of sensory hairs cells and spiral ganglion neurons, and reduced hearing threshold elevation correlates with minocycline treatment demonstrating that neomycin induced hearing loss can be reduced by the simultaneous application of minocycline. PMID:25950003

  12. The Mongolian Gerbil: A Robust Model of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Noto, Jennifer M; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is an efficient, robust, and cost-effective rodent model that recapitulates many features of H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis in humans, allowing for targeted investigation of the bacterial determinants and environmental factors and, to a lesser degree, host constituents that govern H. pylori-mediated disease. This chapter discusses means through which the Mongolian gerbil model has been used to define mechanisms of H. pylori-inflammation and cancer as well as the current materials and methods for utilizing this model of microbially induced disease.

  13. Spectral Sensitivity Measured with Electroretinogram Using a Constant Response Method

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Fernando Allan de Farias; Gomes, Bruno Duarte; Silveira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Martins, Sonia Limara; Aguiar, Renata Genaro; de Souza, John Manuel; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2016-01-01

    A new method is presented to determine the retinal spectral sensitivity function S(λ) using the electroretinogram (ERG). S(λ)s were assessed in three different species of myomorph rodents, Gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), Wistar rats (Ratus norvegicus), and mice (Mus musculus). The method, called AC Constant Method, is based on a computerized automatic feedback system that adjusts light intensity to maintain a constant-response amplitude to a flickering stimulus throughout the spectrum, as it is scanned from 300 to 700 nm, and back. The results are presented as the reciprocal of the intensity at each wavelength required to maintain a constant peak to peak response amplitude. The resulting S(λ) had two peaks in all three rodent species, corresponding to ultraviolet and M cones, respectively: 359 nm and 511 nm for mice, 362 nm and 493 nm for gerbils, and 362 nm and 502 nm for rats. Results for mouse and gerbil were similar to literature reports of S(λ) functions obtained with other methods, confirming that the ERG associated to the AC Constant-Response Method was effective to obtain reliable S(λ) functions. In addition, due to its fast data collection time, the AC Constant Response Method has the advantage of keeping the eye in a constant light adapted state. PMID:26800521

  14. The effect of gabapentin on gap detection and forward masking in young and old gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gleich, Otto; Strutz, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Auditory temporal processing frequently appears more affected in old subjects than would be predicted by the degree of peripheral hearing loss, pointing to an age-dependent central processing deficit. In parallel, an age-dependent decline of inhibitory function has been demonstrated in the auditory pathway, suggesting a causal relationship between temporal processing and inhibition. Gabapentin has been specifically synthesized as a potential gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) mimetic with the capability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Gabapentin treatment ameliorated tinnitus in a rat model and improved tinnitus annoyance in humans with acoustic trauma. Consequently, the present study evaluated the effect of gabapentin on auditory temporal processing in the gerbil model. Psychometric functions were collected for different test paradigms. (A) "Gap detection": The detection of a gap in the middle of a 800 msec broadband noise pulse was determined either at 15 or at 30 dB SL. (B) "Forward masking": The detection of a 20 msec probe stimulus following 2.5 msec after a 400 msec 40 dB SPL masker was determined with masker and probe frequency at 2.85 kHz. The effect of gabapentin was evaluated by collecting gap detection and forward masking functions before, during, and after treating gerbils with gabapentin doses of 115 or 350 mg/kg/day administered via drinking water. Data under different experimental conditions were collected for groups of 3 to 5 young (<2 years) and 6 to 10 old (>2 years) gerbils. Two-way analyses of variance for the factors age groups and treatment groups with subsequent pairwise comparisons for significant effects were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. For gap detection, mean thresholds were significantly increased in the group of old as compared with the young gerbils at 30 dB SL (young 2.0 msec; old 3.2 msec) and at 15 dB SL (young 2.9 msec; old 9.1 msec). Gabapentin had no significant effect on gap detection, and there was no

  15. Systematics and evolution of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex (Rodentia, Gerbillinae) during the Late Quaternary in northwestern Africa: Exploring the role of environmental and anthropogenic changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Cornette, Raphaël; Lalis, Aude; Nicolas, Violaine; Cucchi, Thomas; Denys, Christiane

    2017-05-01

    Rodents of the Meriones shawii/grandis complex have been attested to in North Africa since the Middle Pleistocene and are abundant in archaeological sites. Today, they are widely spread and represent a major pest to local human populations. This complex, therefore, represents an accurate model for investigating the roles of climate change and human impact in shaping Quaternary faunal diversity and distribution. Many gray areas still exist regarding the systematics, ecology and geographical distribution of this complex, for both present and past populations. The purpose of this study is to compare modern genotyped and fossil Meriones specimens in order to 1) clarify the current systematics and distribution of the Meriones populations of the shawii/grandis complex, 2) document the taxonomic diversity in fossil Meriones from northwestern Africa, and 3) track their phenotypic and biogeographic evolution through time. To answer these questions we used geometric morphometrics on skulls (landmarks) and first upper molars (landmarks and sliding landmarks). We evidenced the existence of two morpho-groups within the M. shawii/grandis complex, with a clear geographic pattern (M. grandis in Morocco vs. M. shawii in Algeria and Tunisia). Currently only one morpho-group, attributed to M. grandis, seems to exist in Morocco, with a small overlap with M. shawii in the most eastern part of the country. However, according to fossil data, M. shawii was also present in Atlantic Morocco during the Late Pleistocene. We have also highlighted the impact of Holocene climate change and habitat anthropization on this arid adapted group. During the Middle Holocene, a major climatic event (last interglacial optimum) seems to have induced a demographic collapse in Moroccan populations and the disappearance of the shawii clade from Morocco (except in the most eastern areas). Both species then re-expanded, benefitting from the increasing aridity and the new ecological niche driven by agriculture

  16. Development of novel microsatellite DNA markers by cross-amplification and analysis of genetic variation in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen; Li, Wei; Tan, Yuanqing; Lu, Jing; Zhu, Xiangdong; Zhao, Taiyun; Dong, Gang; Zeng, Lin

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to establish microsatellite loci for the Mongolian gerbil based on mouse microsatellite DNA sequences and to investigate genetic variation in the laboratory gerbil (Capital Medical University, CMU) and 2 wild gerbil populations (from Yin Chuan city [YIN] and the Hohehot Municipality [HOH]). In total, 536 mouse microsatellite markers were chosen to identify polymorphic dinucleotide repeat loci in the gerbil by cross-amplification. Of these markers, 313 (58.39%) have been discretely amplified from the CMU laboratory gerbil and been sequenced. Of the 313 sequenced markers, 130 were confirmed as simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci in the gerbil. In total, 6 of those newly identified loci plus 6 identified in previous reports were used to estimate the genetic polymorphism for 30 laboratory gerbils and 54 wild gerbils (27 each of the HOH and YIN groups). A total of 29 alleles were observed in the 3 populations, and 11 of 12 loci (91.67%) are polymorphic markers. Nei's standard genetic distances of 0.0592 (CMU vs. HOH) and 0.1033 (CMU vs. YIN) were observed. The averages of observed versus expected heterozygosity are 0.5231/0.4008, 0.5051/0.3882, and 0.4825/0.3665 for the YIN, HOH, and CMU populations, respectively. These results show that cross-amplification using mouse microsatellite primers is an efficient way to identify gerbil SSR loci. By using these 12 selected markers, we have demonstrated that genetic variation level within the CMU population is higher than that has been reported previously and are comparable with the levels found in 2 wild populations.

  17. Prolonged maturation of auditory perception and learning in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Sarro, Emma C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2011-01-01

    In humans, auditory perception reaches maturity over a broad age range, extending through adolescence. Despite this slow maturation, children are considered to be outstanding learners, suggesting that immature perceptual skills might actually be advantageous to improvement on an acoustic task as a result of training (perceptual learning). Previous non-human studies have not employed an identical task when comparing perceptual performance of young and mature subjects, making it difficult to assess learning. Here, we used an identical procedure on juvenile and adult gerbils to examine the perception of amplitude modulation (AM), a stimulus feature that is an important component of most natural sounds. On average, Adult animals could detect smaller fluctuations in amplitude (i.e. smaller modulation depths) than Juveniles, indicating immature perceptual skills in Juveniles. However, the population variance was much greater for Juveniles, a few animals displaying adult-like AM detection. To determine whether immature perceptual skills facilitated learning, we compared naïve performance on the AM detection task with the amount of improvement following additional training. The amount of improvement in Adults correlated with naïve performance: those with the poorest naïve performance improved the most. In contrast, the naïve performance of Juveniles did not predict the amount of learning. Those Juveniles with immature AM detection thresholds did not display greater learning than Adults. Furthermore, for several of the Juveniles with adult-like thresholds, AM detection deteriorated with repeated testing. Thus, immature perceptual skills in young animals were not associated with greater learning. PMID:20506133

  18. Electrically evoked cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions from gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Ren, T; Nuttall, A L; Miller, J M

    1996-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the cochlear partition results in basilar membrane vibration and otoacoustic emissions. Electromotility of stimulated outer hair cells (OHCs) elicits the electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions (EEOAEs). Although electrically evoked upper and lower sideband distortion products (DPs) have been reported, electrically evoked cubic DP has not been investigated. Since the acoustically evoked cubic DP is the most commonly used otoacoustic measure of cochlear nonlinearity, this study tested whether electrical stimuli evoke a cubic DP otoacoustic emission. An electrical current containing the frequency component f1 and f2 (f1 < f2) was delivered to the round window niche of the gerbil, and electrically induced sound pressure change in the external ear canal was measured with a microphone. It was found that, in addition to f1 and f2 EEOAEs, cubic DP (2f1-f2) and other emissions at 3f1-2f2, 2f2-f1 and f2-f1 frequencies are electrically evoked. The electrically evoked cubic DP growth is similar to that of an acoustically evoked cubic DP. An electrical stimulus at f1 or f2 and an acoustic stimulus at f2 or f1 produce an identical cubic DP to that evoked by two electrical stimuli and/or two acoustic stimuli at f1 and f2 frequencies. An acoustic suppressor at a frequency near f2 can completely suppress an electrically evoked cubic DP emission. These data demonstrate that DPs can be provoked by a complex two frequency electrical current delivered to the round window niche. These stimuli elicit mechanical vibrations, from stimulated OHCs near the round window, which propagate apically toward their characteristic frequency places on the basilar membrane, and produce combination DPs. Electrically evoked cubic DPs appear to be produced by the same nonlinear mechanism that generates acoustically evoked DPs.

  19. High-Frequency Resonance in the Gerbil Medial Superior Olive

    PubMed Central

    Mikiel-Hunter, Jason; Kotak, Vibhakar; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    A high-frequency, subthreshold resonance in the guinea pig medial superior olive (MSO) was recently linked to the efficient extraction of spatial cues from the fine structure of acoustic stimuli. We report here that MSO neurons in gerbil also have resonant properties and, based on our whole-cell recordings and computational modeling, that a low-voltage-gated potassium current, IKLT, underlies the resonance. We show that resonance was lost following dynamic clamp replacement of IKLT with a leak conductance and in the model when voltage-gating of IKLT was suppressed. Resonance was characterized using small amplitude sinusoidal stimuli to generate impedance curves as typically done for linear systems analysis. Extending our study into the nonlinear, voltage-dependent regime, we increased stimulus amplitude and found, experimentally and in simulations, that the subthreshold resonant frequency (242Hz for weak stimuli) increased continuously to the resonant frequency for spiking (285Hz). The spike resonance of these phasic-firing (type III excitable) MSO neurons and of the model is of particular interest also because previous studies of resonance typically involved neurons/models (type II excitable, such as the standard Hodgkin-Huxley model) that can fire tonically for steady inputs. To probe more directly how these resonances relate to MSO neurons as slope-detectors, we presented periodic trains of brief, fast-rising excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSCs) to the model. While weak subthreshold EPSC trains were essentially low-pass filtered, resonance emerged as EPSC amplitude increased. Interestingly, for spike-evoking EPSC trains, the threshold amplitude at spike resonant frequency (317Hz) was lower than the single ESPC threshold. Our finding of a frequency-dependent threshold for repetitive brief EPSC stimuli and preferred frequency for spiking calls for further consideration of both subthreshold and suprathreshold resonance to fast and precise temporal processing

  20. Delayed neuronal cell death in brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang; Hata, Ryuji; Zhu, Pengxiang; Takeda, Shoichiro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Sakanaka, Masahiro; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2010-09-14

    Because of the lack of reproducible brainstem ischemia models in rodents, the temporal profile of ischemic lesions in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia has not been evaluated intensively. Previously, we produced a reproducible brainstem ischemia model of Mongolian gerbils. Here, we showed the temporal profile of ischemic lesions after transient brainstem ischemia. Brainstem ischemia was produced by occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries just before their entry into the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae of Mongolian gerbils. Animals were subjected to brainstem ischemia for 15 min, and then reperfused for 0 d (just after ischemia), 1 d, 3 d and 7 d (n = 4 in each group). Sham-operated animals (n = 4) were used as control. After deep anesthesia, the gerbils were perfused with fixative for immunohistochemical investigation. Ischemic lesions were detected by immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2). Just after 15-min brainstem ischemia, ischemic lesions were detected in the lateral vestibular nucleus and the ventral part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, and these ischemic lesions disappeared one day after reperfusion in all animals examined. However, 3 days and 7 days after reperfusion, ischemic lesions appeared again and clusters of ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule-1(IBA-1)-positive cells were detected in the same areas in all animals. These results suggest that delayed neuronal cell death took place in the brainstem after transient brainstem ischemia in gerbils.

  1. Estrogen and progesterone receptor isoforms expression in the stomach of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    AIM: We studied the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) isoforms expression in gastric antrum and corpus of female gerbils and their regulation by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). METHODS: Ovariectomized adult female gerbils were subcutaneously treated with E2, and E2 + P4. Uteri and stomachs were removed, the latter were cut along the greater curvature, and antrum and corpus were excised. Proteins were immunoblotted using antibodies that recognize ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PR-A and PR-B receptor isoforms. Tissues from rats treated in the same way were used as controls. RESULTS: Specific bands were detected for ER-alpha (68 KDa), and PR isoforms (85 and 120 KDa for PR-A and PR-B isoforms, respectively) in uteri, gastric antrum and corpus. We could not detect ER-beta isoform. PR isoforms were not regulated by E2 or P4 in uterus and gastric tissues of gerbils. ER-alpha isoform content was significantly down-regulated by E2 in the corpus, but not affected by hormones in uterus and gastric antrum. CONCLUSION: The presence of ER-alpha and PR isoforms in gerbils stomach suggests that E2 and P4 actions in this organ are in part mediated by their nuclear receptors. PMID:18837087

  2. A review of respiratory system anatomy, physiology, and disease in the mouse, rat, hamster, and gerbil.

    PubMed

    Kling, Melissa A

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide for practitioners a comprehensive overview of respiratory diseases, both infectious and noninfectious, in the mouse, rat, hamster, and gerbil. The information presented will also be useful for veterinarians pursuing board certification. Anatomy and physiology are briefly addressed, as those two facets alone could encompass an entire article for these species.

  3. A Laboratory Exercise on Photoperiodic Changes in the Testes of the Mongolian Gerbil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory exercise using a gerbil is described for use in the high school biology class and in accordance with the National Science Teachers Association guidelines. The authors cite references that deal with current awareness of the moral status concerning animals. The exercise includes measurement and calculations. (SA)

  4. Biofortified Carrot Intake Enhances Liver Antioxidant Capacity and Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofortification efforts have increased concentrations of bioactive compounds in carrots. Vitamin A bioefficacy and antioxidant potential of four biofortified carrot varieties [purple/orange (PO), purple/orange/red (POR), orange/red (OR) and orange (O)] were measured in Mongolian gerbils (n = 73). ...

  5. Oxidative DNA Damage Response in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bae, Minkyung; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced DNA damage which may be related to gastric cancer development. The DNA damage response coordinates DNA repair, cell-cycle transition, and apoptosis through activation of DNA damage response molecules. The damaged DNA is repaired through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). In the present study, we investigated the changes of HR DNA repair proteins (ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated; ATM, ATM and Rad3-related; ATR), NHEJ repair proteins (Ku70/80), cell cycle regulators (Chk1, Chk2), and apoptosis marker (p53/p-p53) were determined in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils. In addition, the effect of an antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on H. pylori-induced DNA damage response was determined to assess the involvement of oxidative stress on DNA damage of the animals infected with H. pylori. One week after intragastric inoculation with H. pylori, Mongolian gerbils were fed with basal diet with or without 3% NAC for 6 weeks. After 6 week, the expression levels of DNA repair proteins (Ku70/80, ATM, ATR), cell cycle regulators (Chk1, Chk2) and apoptosis marker (p-p53/p53) were increased in gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbils, which was suppressed by NAC treatment. In conclusion, oxidative stress mediates H. pylori-induced DNA damage response including NHEJ and HR repairing processes, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in gastric mucosa of Mongolian gerbils.

  6. Cecal and fecal bacterial flora of the Mongolian gerbil and the chinchilla.

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, J M; Fulghum, R S

    1988-01-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is being increasingly used as a laboratory animal and as a pet. Both chinchillas and gerbils are used as animal models for otitis media and other otic research. Previously, only incomplete information was available regarding the indigenous bacterial flora of the lower intestinal tracts of these coprophagic animals. Using the strict anaerobic methodology of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute Anaerobe Laboratory, we studied the predominant bacterial flora of the cecum and fecal pellets of the gerbil and the chinchilla and the bacterial flora of digesta pellets in the proximal colon. We found species of the following anaerobic genera in high dilutions of gerbil fecal pellets: Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides. Only lactobacilli were found in high dilutions of digesta from the upper colon, although the cecum yielded Peptostreptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Clostridium, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, and Bacteroides species from high dilutions of cecal contents. The facultatively anaerobic and aerobic flora isolated consisted of species of Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Escherichia, Pasteurella, and Pseudomonas plus several unidentifiable organisms. Species of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, and anaerobic Lactobacillus were isolated from chinchillas. PMID:3389814

  7. Gerbil: a fast and memory-efficient k-mer counter with GPU-support.

    PubMed

    Erbert, Marius; Rechner, Steffen; Müller-Hannemann, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    A basic task in bioinformatics is the counting of k-mers in genome sequences. Existing k-mer counting tools are most often optimized for small k < 32 and suffer from excessive memory resource consumption or degrading performance for large k. However, given the technology trend towards long reads of next-generation sequencers, support for large k becomes increasingly important. We present the open source k-mer counting software Gerbil that has been designed for the efficient counting of k-mers for k ≥ 32. Our software is the result of an intensive process of algorithm engineering. It implements a two-step approach. In the first step, genome reads are loaded from disk and redistributed to temporary files. In a second step, the k-mers of each temporary file are counted via a hash table approach. In addition to its basic functionality, Gerbil can optionally use GPUs to accelerate the counting step. In a set of experiments with real-world genome data sets, we show that Gerbil is able to efficiently support both small and large k. While Gerbil's performance is comparable to existing state-of-the-art open source k-mer counting tools for small k < 32, it vastly outperforms its competitors for large k, thereby enabling new applications which require large values of k.

  8. Antigen detection and apoptosis in Mongolian gerbil's kidney experimentally intraperitoneally infected by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Yang, Yifei; Hu, Fengjiao; Li, Heng

    2016-02-02

    We examined the effect of hepatitis E virus (HEV) on the renal tissue pathogenesis, morphological damages and related molecular mechanisms following swine HEV suspension intraperitoneally inoculation in Mongolian gerbils. The microscopic and ultramicroscopic analyses of kidney tissue structure were carried out at different points after inoculation of HEV. The immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with HEV presence in the renal tissues. Real-time PCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the kidney were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 14 dpi at a concentration was 7.18 logs g(-1), with detection of HEV ORF2 antigen by immunohistochemistry. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed pathological lesions including glomerular atrophy, degeneration, edema and necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells and Mallory and Sirius red staining indicated the presence of collagen fibers and fibrosis in kidney tissues of inoculated gerbils. Ultrastructural studies of basal membrane of renal tubules demonstrated the rough and uneven with mitochondria swelling and vacuolation in the tissues of HEV inoculated animals. Similarly, significantly higher number of (TUNEL)-positive cells were seen in renal tubule tissues compared to control group. Moreover, immuno histochemical results indicated that significant increase expression of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), FAS and Caspase-3 in HEV inoculated Mongolian gerbils at each time points. Relative mRNA expression by real-time PCR revealed a significantly higher (P<0.05) mRNA level of BAX, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 transcription in HEV inoculated Mongolian gerbils. Our results demonstrates that activation of mitochondria and Caspase-3 protease might be induced the apoptosis which subsequently cause the necrosis and cell death of renal epithelial cells during acute phase of HEV infection in HEV inoculated Mongolian gerbils.

  9. Molecular Characterization of the North American Lung Fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its Development in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Peter U.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Marcos, Luis A.; Weil, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3–8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15–49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis. PMID:21633042

  10. Molecular characterization of the North American lung fluke Paragonimus kellicotti in Missouri and its development in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter U; Curtis, Kurt C; Marcos, Luis A; Weil, Gary J

    2011-06-01

    Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with Paragonimus kellicotti were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3-8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15-49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using P. kellicotti antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that P. kellicotti is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.

  11. Contractile and extensile effects of red and white wine on rat and Mongolian gerbil gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Hideo; Hirota, Mikako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kinjo, Noriko; Mineshita, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The contractile and extensile effects of red and white wine on rat and Mongolian gerbil (gerbil) gastrointestinal smooth muscle were investigated. Both wines elicited contractile responses on rat and gerbil duodenum and ileum but had no such effects on the colon or rectum. Dichloromethane extracts derived from either wine showed extensile responses only on rat duodenum and ileum, and did not elicit extensile effects on the colon or rectum. In contrast, wine dichloromethane extracts did not elicit any extensile effects on either gerbil duodenum or ileum. Moreover, dichloromethane extracts had suppressive effects on acetylcholine-induced contractile responses. Red and white wine has been documented to contain a number of organic acids such as tartaric, malic, lactic, and citric acid. Individually, such compounds evoked contractile response on rat duodenum with an order of contractile potency; citric > tartaric >or= malic > lactic acid. The abundance of such compounds in either wine implicates them as the active component responsible for gastrointestinal smooth muscle responses.

  12. Multiple in vivo passages enhance the ability of a clinical Helicobacter pylori isolate to colonize the stomach of Mongolian gerbils and to induce gastritis.

    PubMed

    Bleich, A; Köhn, I; Glage, S; Beil, W; Wagner, S; Mähler, M

    2005-04-01

    The Mongolian gerbil is an excellent animal model for Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in humans. In this study, initially low colonization rates of the H. pylori strains ATCC 43504, SS1, or HP87 inoculated into gerbils caused difficulties in establishing this model. In order to increase the colonization ability and pathogenicity, the clinical HP87 isolate was selected for adaptation to the gerbil stomach by multiple in vivo passages through gerbils. Development of gastritis was examined histologically at 4-52 weeks after infection. The proportion of gerbils which tested positive for H. pylori by culture at four weeks after inoculation gradually increased from 11.1% of gerbils inoculated with HP87 without prior in vivo passage (P0) to 100% of gerbils inoculated with HP87 with seven in vivo passages (P7). In addition, adaptation of HP87 resulted in more severe histopathological changes. Gerbils infected with adapted HP87 (P7) exhibited severe infiltration by monomorphonuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the mucosa, submucosa, and subserosa of the gastric antrum, as well as epithelial changes consisting of hyperplasia, erosion, and ulceration. Histopathological changes increased in severity from four to 52 weeks after infection. Adaptation of HP87 during its passages through gerbils could be due to genetic changes in bacterial colonization factors. Identification of these changes might be useful to understand the underlying mechanism of gastric adaptation and pathogenesis of H. pylori.

  13. The gerbil elevated plus-maze I: behavioral characterization and pharmacological validation.

    PubMed

    Varty, Geoffrey B; Morgan, Cynthia A; Cohen-Williams, Mary E; Coffin, Vicki L; Carey, Galen J

    2002-09-01

    Several neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonists currently being developed for anxiety and depression have reduced affinity for the rat and mouse NK1 receptor compared with human. Consequently, it has proven difficult to test these agents in traditional rat and mouse models of anxiety and depression. This issue has been overcome, in part, by using non-traditional lab species such as the guinea pig and gerbil, which have NK1 receptors closer in homology to human NK1 receptors. However, there are very few reports describing the behavior of gerbils in traditional models of anxiety. The aim of the present study was to determine if the elevated plus-maze, a commonly used anxiety model, could be adapted for the gerbil. Using a specially-designed elevated plus-maze, gerbils exhibited an 'anxious' behavioral profile similar to that observed in rats and mice, i.e., reduced entries into, and time spent exploring, an open, aversive arm. The anxiolytic drugs diazepam (0.03-3 mg/kg i.p.), chlordiazepoxide (0.3-10 mg/kg i.p.), and buspirone (0.3-30 mg/kg s.c.) increased open arm exploration and produced anxiolytic-like effects on risk-assessment behaviors (reduced stretch-attend postures and increased head dips). Of particular interest, the antidepressant drugs imipramine (1-30 mg/kg p.o.), fluoxetine (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and paroxetine (0.3-10 mg/kg p.o.) each produced some acute anxiolytic-like activity, without affecting locomotor activity. The antipsychotic, haloperidol, and the psychostimulant, amphetamine, did not produce any anxiolytic-like effects (1-10 mg/kg s.c). The anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142, reduced time spent in the open arm and head dips, and increased stretch-attend postures (1-30 mg/kg, i.p.). These studies have demonstrated that gerbils exhibit an anxiety-like profile on an elevated plus-maze, and that the gerbil elevated plus-maze may have predictive validity for anxiolytics, and antidepressants with potential anxiolytic-like effects.

  14. Investigation on the acute toxic effect of pyrethrum on the blood glucose and of glucose administration on the acute pyrethrum toxicity in Meriones hurrianae Jerdon (Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Karel, A K; Saxena, S C

    1975-02-01

    The effect of different doses of pyrethrum on the blood glucose level and glucose tolerance in pytethrum-administered gerbils, were investigated. Pyrethrum produces hyperglycemia and lowers the glucose tolerance indicating an impairment in the uptake and utilization of glucose. The possible reasons for these effects are discussed.

  15. Compromised nutrition in gerbils infected by Cystoisospora felis detected through an animal performance analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo da Silva; Jiménez-Sanz, Amanda Lucía; Detmann, Edenio

    2011-01-01

    The impact of Cystoisospora felis infection on the nutritional efficiency of gerbils was studied. The variables weight gain and feed intake were measured during four weeks in 28 laboratory gerbils, of which 14 were inoculated with 3.5 × 10(5) sporulated oocysts of C. felis and the remaining 14 were controls. The animals from both groups were weighted, killed, eviscerated and had their carcasses and tissues weighted and compared. A modern tool designed for measuring nutritional performance of farm animals was applied. The results showed compromised nutritional efficiency of the infected animals within the first week after infection. The consequences of these results are discussed here, including the potential impact of infection on farm animals performance.

  16. High carbohydrate diet induces nonalcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) in a desert gerbil.

    PubMed

    Semiane, Nesrine; Foufelle, Fabienne; Ferré, Pascal; Hainault, Isabelle; Ameddah, Souad; Mallek, Aicha; Khalkhal, Ali; Dahmani, Yasmina

    2017-01-01

    A high intake of sugars has been linked to diet-induced health problems. The aim of this study was to assess whether the long-term consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a desert gerbil, Gerbillus gerbillus. Compared to natural diet, HCD leads to several metabolic disorders including adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, ectopic fat deposition in the liver, which were associated with higher levels of transcripts of genes involved with fat synthesis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and fibrosis. In the same way, the experimented animals showed enhanced oxidative stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that HCD consumption in gerbils induces metabolic disorders and damaged liver, which are key contributors to NASH development. These results suggest that this rodent represents a valuable natural model for human diet-induced metabolic disorders and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

  17. Effects of dietary calcium on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Iimuro, Masaki; Nakamura, Shiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection causes gastritis and is considered a gastric cancer risk factor. We have previously reported that codfish meal markedly enhanced Hp-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. In the present study, we sought the responsible components in codfish meal. Codfish were divided into three parts (meat, viscera and 'other parts', including bone), and administered to Hp-infected gerbils. Subsequently, cod bone, sardine bone and prawn shell were tested, along with major calcium components, hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, in bone and shell, respectively. 'Other parts' and cod bone enhanced Hp-induced gastritis, as was observed for whole codfish. Similarly, sardine bone and prawn shell, as well as 0.22-0.88% hydroxyapatite and calcium carbonate, enhanced gastritis. In contrast, administration of a higher dose of the calcium compounds exerted protective effects. Intake of calcium compounds may contribute to enhancement of Hp-induced gastritis.

  18. Auditory nerve neurophonic recorded from the round window of the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Henry, K R

    1995-10-01

    In the Mongolian gerbil, round window (RW) recordings of averaged responses to phase-locked acoustic stimuli which are not alternated in polarity can include both the cochlear mirophonic (CM) and auditory nerve neurophonic (ANN). The ANN can dominate the recordings when the RW electrode is referenced to some portion of the body that allows the two electrodes to straddle the auditory nerve. Concentric bipolar RW electrodes are biased in favor of the CM. When there is a substantial ANN component in the RW response, as the sinusoidal stimulus intensity increases there is a non-monotonic increase of amplitude and a pronounced change of phase of the response. When the phase-locked stimuli are alternated in polarity in order to cancel the CM, a residual response is often observed. This residual response has twice the frequency of the stimulus and is decreased in amplitude by forward masking. It also shows a pattern of amplitude decrement following the stimulus onset, resembling adaptation of the firing rate of cochlear nerve axons. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) eliminates the non-monotonic RW amplitude input-output (I/O) function, reduces the phase changes of the response as the stimulus intensity is increased, eliminates the residual non-canceled response to alternated stimuli, and the time-limited amplitude decrements which resemble adaptation. Following application of TTX, the RW response of the gerbil to stimuli with non-alternated polarity much more closely resembles the CM responses of other animals. It is concluded that the gerbil's residual response following cancellation of the CM is the ANN, and that the RW of the gerbil is a convenient site for recording measures of phase-locked cochlear axonal activity.

  19. Lobe identity in the Mongolian gerbil prostatic complex: a new rodent model for prostate study.

    PubMed

    Rochel, Sabrina Santos; Bruni-Cardoso, Alexandre; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto; Vilamaior, Patricia Simone Leite; Góes, Rejane Maira

    2007-10-01

    Knowledge of structural and physiological differences among the prostatic lobes (PL) is the basis for development of experimental studies in traditional laboratory rodents. Although Mongolian gerbil reproductive organs have been increasingly investigated, its prostate structure is far from being properly known, and investigations of this organ focused on the ventral lobe (VL). Thus, the present study provides a thorough morphological description of prostatic complex in the male adult gerbil on the basis of topographic, histological, and ultrastructural analysis and ductal branching. Like other rodents, four pairs of PL were observed. However, in contrast to the rat and mouse, the VL is the least voluminous component and the dorsolateral lobe (DLL) is the most prominent and spatially isolated from remaining PL. The occurrence of a dorsal lobe (DL), hidden between bladder and insertion of seminal vesicles, has not been mentioned in previous reports with Mongolian gerbil. Collagenase digestion followed by microdissection revealed that, except for DL, which has a tubular-acinar organization, all PL exhibit tubular organization and variable ductal branching. Distinct histological and ultrastructural features such as secretory epithelium, aspect of luminal secretion and stromal organization are reported for each PL and are confirmed by morphometric and stereological methods. Histological sections showed at least three intralobar segments in VL and DL. Ultrastructural analysis evidenced that, although luminal epithelial cells of PL share typical features of exocrine secretory cells, there are striking lobe phenotypical variations. Both merocrine and apocrine pathways are observed in variable rates in all PL, with the predominance of the former in the DLL and the latter in the CG. The morphological observations presented herein point to distinct structural identities for each PL, which probably reflects specific functional compromise of seminal fluid secretion. These data

  20. Tympanic membrane boundary deformations derived from static displacements observed with computerized tomography in human and gerbil.

    PubMed

    Gea, Stefan L R; Decraemer, Willem F; Funnell, W Robert J; Funnell, Robert W J; Dirckx, Joris J J; Maier, Hannes

    2010-03-01

    The middle ear is too complex a system for its function to be fully understood with simple descriptive models. Realistic mathematical models must be used in which structural elements are represented by geometrically correct three-dimensional (3D) models with correct physical parameters and boundary conditions. In the past, the choice of boundary conditions could not be based on experimental evidence as no clear-cut data were available. We have, therefore, studied the deformation of the tympanic membrane (TM) at its boundaries using X-ray microscopic computed tomography in human and gerbil while static pressure was applied to the ear canal. The 3D models of the TM and its bony attachments were carefully made and used to measure the deformation of the TM with focus on the periphery and the manubrium attachment. For the pars flaccida of the gerbil, the boundary condition can, for the most part, be described as simply supported. For the human pars flaccida, the situation is more complicated: superiorly, the membrane contacts the underlying bone more and more when pushed further inward, and it gradually detaches from the wall when sucked outward. In gerbil, the attachment of the TM to the manubrium can be described as simply supported. In human, the manubrium is attached underneath the TM via the plica mallearis and the contact of the TM with the bone is indirect. For both human and gerbil, a simple boundary condition for the peripheral edge of the pars tensa is not appropriate due to the intricate structure at the edge: the TM thickens rapidly before continuing into the annulus fibrosis which finally makes contact with the bone.

  1. Hibernation, stress, intestinal functions, and catecholoamine turnover rate in hamsters and gerbils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    Bioenergetic studies on hamsters during depressed metabolic states are reported. External support of blood glucose extended the survival times of hibernating animals. Radioresistance increased in hibernating as well as in hypothermic hamsters. Marked changes in hamster catecholamine turnover rates were observed during acclimatization to high temperature stress. High radioresistance levels of the gerbil gastrointestinal system were attributed in part to the ability of the gut to maintain functional integrity.

  2. Microscopic evaluation of proliferative disorders in the gerbil female prostate: evidence of aging and the influence of multiple pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sergio M; Santos, Fernanda C A; Corradi, Lara S; Goes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2011-10-01

    The gerbil female prostate is located paraurethrally and has all the histological components of the male prostate, like secretor epithelium and fibromuscular stroma. This gland, like the prostate in males, is targeted by testosterone action, which promotes morphofunctional development. Furthermore, estrogens are required to maintain the male and female prostate and this gland presents both estrogen receptors (ER-α and ER-β). In the present work the structural and morphometric-stereological and serological aspects, as well as the quantification of the incidence, multiplicity and percentage of acini affected by different lesions were analyzed. Animals were divided into four groups: five adult nuliparous (AN) gerbils; five adult multiparous (AM) gerbils; five senescent nulliparous (SN) gerbils; five senescent multiparous (SM) gerbils, and were weighed and sacrificed by CO(2) inhalation. The ventral prostate was dissected out, weighed and fixed to perform histological and morphometric-stereological analysis and quantification of prostate disorders. A high rate of lesions, mainly dysplasia, was identified in tissue from senescent multiparous and adult multiparous animals. Prostatitis was found mainly in SN animals, while dysplasia, hyperplasia, neoplasia, PIA and adenocarcinoma were common in SM ones. Although the proliferative lesion incidence was high in AN group, it was highest in the SM group. The hormonal events which occur due to the estrous cycle in female gerbils (after and before each pregnancy) may be responsible for the high number of lesions observed in our study and all the data presented herein lead us to assume that pregnancy promotes augmentations in both the incidence and the multiplicity of proliferative disorders in the gerbil female prostate since progesterone levels remain high during pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gerbil middle-ear sound transmission from 100 Hz to 60 kHz.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Cooper, Nigel P; Rosowski, John J

    2008-07-01

    Middle-ear sound transmission was evaluated as the middle-ear transfer admittance H(MY) (the ratio of stapes velocity to ear-canal sound pressure near the umbo) in gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 60 kHz, a range that spans the gerbil's audiometric range. Similar measurements were performed in two laboratories. The H(MY) magnitude (a) increased with frequency below 1 kHz, (b) remained approximately constant with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, and (c) decreased substantially from 35 to 50 kHz. The H(MY) phase increased linearly with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, consistent with a 20-29 micros delay, and flattened at higher frequencies. Measurements from different directions showed that stapes motion is predominantly pistonlike except in a narrow frequency band around 10 kHz. Cochlear input impedance was estimated from H(MY) and previously-measured cochlear sound pressure. Results do not support the idea that the middle ear is a lossless matched transmission line. Results support the ideas that (1) middle-ear transmission is consistent with a mechanical transmission line or multiresonant network between 5 and 35 kHz and decreases at higher frequencies, (2) stapes motion is pistonlike over most of the gerbil auditory range, and (3) middle-ear transmission properties are a determinant of the audiogram.

  4. Angiogenic activity of beta-sitosterol in the ischaemia/reperfusion-damaged brain of Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seongwon; Kim, Kyu-Won; Choi, Jae-Sue; Han, Sang-Taek; Park, Young-In; Lee, Seung-Ki; Kim, Jeong-Soon; Chung, Myung-Hee

    2002-04-01

    Aloe vera continues to be used for wound healing as a folk medicine. We previously reported that A. vera gel has angiogenic activity. In this study, we report upon the isolation of an angiogenic component beta-sitosterol from A. vera and examination of its effect upon damaged blood vessels of the Mongolian gerbil. In a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay, beta-sitosterol was found to have an angiogenic effect. It enhanced new vessel formation in gerbil brains damaged by ischaemia/reperfusion, especially in the cingulated cortex and septal regions, in a dose-dependent fashion (up to 500 microg/kg, p < 0.05, n = 34 - 40). beta-Sitosterol also enhanced the expressions of proteins related to angiogenesis, namely von Willebrand factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor Flk-1, and blood vessel matrix laminin (p < 0.05, n = 6). In addition, the intraperitoneal administration of beta-sitosterol at 500 microg/kg/day for a period of 19 days significantly improved the motion recovery of ischaemia/reperfusion-damaged gerbils as assessed by rota-rod testing (p < 0.001, n = 10). Our results suggest that beta-sitosterol has therapeutic angiogenic effects on damaged blood vessels.

  5. Inhibitory effect of Raphanobrassica on Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takanori; Wei, Min; Toyoda, Takeshi; Yamano, Shoutaro; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is well known to be associated with chronic gastritis and also development of gastric cancer. Raphanobrassica (RB) is an intergeneric hybrid of the genera Raphanus (radish) and Brassica (cabbages) containing appreciable amounts of glucoraphanin (GR) and glucoraphenin (GRe), which are actively hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase to sulforaphane and sulforaphene, respectively. Both of these metabolites exert antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of two freeze-dried products of RB (RB1 and RB2) on H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. Six-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated orally with H. pylori (ATCC 43504), and 2weeks later were fed diets containing no additives or diets supplemented with 2% RB1 (containing both GR and GRe) or 2% RB2 (containing GR only) for 10weeks. In the RB1, but not the RB2 group, mononuclear cell infiltration, mRNA expression of IL-6, and cell proliferation in the gastric mucosa were significantly suppressed. These results indicate that RB1 containing both GR and GRe exerted significant inhibitory effects on H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils apparently mediated via suppression of IL-6 expression and chronic inflammation.

  6. Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze.

    PubMed

    Bradley, B F; Starkey, N J; Brown, S L; Lea, R W

    2007-05-22

    Lavender is a popular treatment for stress and mild anxiety in Europe and the USA. The present study investigated the effects of (Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (Lamiaceae)) lavender odour inhalation over 2 weeks or 24 h periods, on gerbil behaviour in the elevated plus maze in mature male and female gerbils, and compared results with the effects of diazepam (1 mg/kg) i.p. after 30 min and 2-week administration. Traditional measures of open entries showed an increasing trend over the 2 weeks exposure, whereas ethological measures indicative of anxiety; stretch-attend frequency and percentage protected head-dips, were significantly lower. Exploratory behaviour, total head-dip frequency, increased after 24 h lavender and 2 weeks exposure. These results are comparable with diazepam administration. There were sex differences in protected head-dip an ethological indicator of anxiety: females showed a significant decrease in protected head-dips compared to both males and to female controls. In conclusion exposure to lavender odour may have an anxiolytic profile in gerbils similar to that of the anxiolytic diazepam. In addition, prolonged, 2-week lavender odour exposure increased exploratory behaviour in females indicating a further decrease in anxiety in this sex.

  7. Comparison of the effects of glycerol, mannitol, and urea on ischemic hippocampal damage in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, K; Katayama, Y; Kashiwagi, F; Muramatsu, H; Terashi, A

    1994-01-01

    The effects of glycerol and mannitol, as well as urea, on delayed neuronal death (DND) in the gerbil hippocampus were investigated. 20% solution of glycerol, mannitol and urea were prepared, and 6.5 ml/kg of each agent, or saline, was administered to male Mongolian gerbils intraperitoneally 30 min before ischemia. The animals were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 5 min. Seven days after the ischemic insult, the brains were fixed and stained for histopathological analysis. The number of normal neurons (neuronal density, ND) in a 1 mm linear length of hippocampal CA1 region was counted. ND of sham-operated group (n = 6) was 275.3 +/- 16.7 (mean +/- SD). ND in the saline-treated group (n = 6) was 14.8 +/- 5.0. ND of groups treated with glycerol (n = 6), mannitol (n = 6) and urea (n = 4) was 68.2 +/- 56.7 (p < 0.01), 52.8 +/- 54.4 (p < 0.01) and 12.0 +/- 2.5 (NS), respectively. The present study demonstrates that glycerol and mannitol have some protective effects against DND in the gerbil hippocampus, whereas urea has no effect.

  8. Altered expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the epileptic gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yun-Jung; Kim, Heung-No; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Duk-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the temporal alterations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus after seizure onset. Expression of ACTH was observed within interneurons in the pre-seizure group of seizure sensitive gerbils, whereas its immunoreactivities were rarely detected in seizure resistant gerbil. Three hr after the seizure, ACTH immunoreactivity was significantly increased in interneurons within all hippocampal regions. On the basis of their localization and morphology through immunofluorescence staining, these cells were identified as GABAA α1-containing interneurons. At the 12 hr postictal period, ACTH expression in these regions was down-regulated, in a similar manner to the pre-seizure group of gerbils. These findings support the increase in ACTH synthesis that contributes to a reduction of corticotrophin-releasing factor via the negative feedback system which in turn provides an opportunity to enhance the excitability of GABAergic interneurons. Therefore, ACTH may play an important role in the reduction of excitotoxicity in all hippocampal regions. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(2): 80-85] PMID:23433109

  9. Synergistic effect of febantel and pyrantel embonate in elimination of Giardia in a gerbil model.

    PubMed

    Olson, Merle E; Heine, Josef

    2009-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the optimal dose of febantel, pyrantel embonate and a combination of febantel/pyrantel embonate required to effectively treat Giardia in a gerbil model and to determine if there is a synergistic effect with the two drugs. SPF gerbils were infected by oral inoculation with 105 Giardia duodenalis trophozoites (day 0). On days 5 to 7, animals (n = 6) were treated once daily via oral gavage with febantel, pyrantel embonate, febantel and pyrantel embonate, metronidazole or placebo. Gerbils were euthanised 24 hours after last treatment and duodenal trophozoites were enumerated on a haemocytometer to obtain a concentration of trophozoites/ cm of gut. Febantel alone, effectively eliminated Giardia trophozoites at 160 and 80 mg/kg. Pyrantel embonate did not eliminate Giardia from the animals but significantly reduced parasite counts at all dosages. Febantel combined with pyrantel embonate effectively eliminated Giardia trophozoites at 160, 80 and 40 mg/kg. Metronidazole did not eliminate Giardia trophozoites from the gut. All placebo-treated animals were heavily infected with Giardia trophozoites. It can be concluded that febantel is more effective in elimination of Giardia infections when combined with pyrantel embonate compared to the agents used alone.

  10. iTRAQ-based differential proteomic analysis in Mongolian gerbil brains chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Lv, Lin; Wang, Yapei; Feng, Weili; Hernandez, Jorge A; Huang, Wanyi; Zheng, Yuxiang; Zhou, Xue; Lv, Shumei; Chen, Yajun; Yuan, Zi-Guo

    2017-03-17

    The aim of our study was to detect differentially regulated proteins and specific signaling pathways in Mongolian gerbil brains during chronic Toxoplasma gondii (T.gondii) PRU strain infection. We use a iTRAQ-based strategy to detecte 4935 proteins, out of which 110 proteins were differentially expressed (>/=2.0-fold, p value <0.05) when the brain of gerbils infected with T.gondii was compared to control brain tissues. We confirmed the authenticity and the accuracy of iTRAQ results through quantitative real-time PCR and western blot (WB), which was consistent with mass spectrometry analysis. Pathway analysis and GO (Gene Ontology) annotations indicated the deregulation of several pathways related to immune response, metabolism and neurological processes, like neuronal growth and neurotransmitter transport. Through the iTRAQ-based strategy, we obtained a comparative proteome profile of brain tissues from Mongolian gerbils with chronic infection of T.gondii. Several differentially expressed proteins involved in neurological pathways, like Parvalbumin, Drebrin or Synaptotagmin, can be further investigated to enhance our understanding of central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by T.gondii.

  11. Mistuning detection and onset asynchrony in harmonic complexes in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Klinge, Astrid; Klump, Georg

    2010-07-01

    By applying a Go/NoGo paradigm, thresholds for detecting mistuning of components of a 200 Hz complex were determined in the Mongolian gerbil and compared with thresholds obtained in a previous study with an 800 Hz complex. Frequency difference limens (FDLs) for detecting mistuning decreased with increasing harmonic frequency and harmonic number (0.5% to 0.01% Weber fraction). It was furthermore examined how starting and ending the mistuned component earlier than the remaining complex affects the FDL (duration of all components 400 ms, time shift 30 to 500 ms). Large FDLs that are similar to pure tone FDLs (between 21% and 6.7%) were found for onset asynchronies of 300 ms and more, indicating separate processing of the mistuned component. Small FDLs that are similar to FDLs of the synchronous condition were found if the temporal overlap between the mistuned component and the remaining complex was 100 ms or more. These experimental data in combination with a simulation of processing of the harmonic complexes by the gerbil's peripheral auditory filters led to the conclusion that the phase and amplitude modulations in the filter outputs can provide cues that allow gerbils a sensitive detection of mistuning across a wide range of frequencies.

  12. Mechanical model of an arched basilar membrane in the gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wei Xuan; Lee, Seong Hyuk; Kim, Namkeun; Shin, Choongsoo S; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The frequency selectivity of a gerbil cochlea, unlike other mammals, does not depend on varying thickness and width of its basilar membrane from the basal to the apical end. We model the gerbil arched basilar membrane focusing on the radial tension, embedded fiber thickness, and the membrane arch, which replace the functionality of the variation in thickness and width. The model is verified with the previous gerbil cochlea model which estimated the equivalent basilar membrane thickness and is shown to be more accurate than the flat sandwiched basilar membrane model. The simple sinusoidal-shaped bending mode assumption in previous models is found to be valid in the present model with <12% error. Parametric study on the present model shows that fiber thickness contribution to the membrane stiffness is close to the 3rd order, higher than the 1st order estimation of previous models. We found that the effective Young's modulus of the fiber bundle is at least 6 orders higher than the shear modulus of the soft-cells and the membrane radial bending stiffness is more sensitive to the membrane arch and the shear modulus of the soft-cells near the apical end. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequencing, annotation, and comparative genome analysis of the gerbil-adapted Helicobacter pylori strain B8

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Mongolian gerbils are a good model to mimic the Helicobacter pylori-associated pathogenesis of the human stomach. In the current study the gerbil-adapted strain B8 was completely sequenced, annotated and compared to previous genomes, including the 73 supercontigs of the parental strain B128. Results The complete genome of H. pylori B8 was manually curated gene by gene, to assign as much function as possible. It consists of a circular chromosome of 1,673,997 bp and of a small plasmid of 6,032 bp carrying nine putative genes. The chromosome contains 1,711 coding sequences, 293 of which are strain-specific, coding mainly for hypothetical proteins, and a large plasticity zone containing a putative type-IV-secretion system and coding sequences with unknown function. The cag-pathogenicity island is rearranged such that the cagA-gene is located 13,730 bp downstream of the inverted gene cluster cagB-cag1. Directly adjacent to the cagA-gene, there are four hypothetical genes and one variable gene with a different codon usage compared to the rest of the H. pylori B8-genome. This indicates that these coding sequences might be acquired via horizontal gene transfer. The genome comparison of strain B8 to its parental strain B128 delivers 425 unique B8-proteins. Due to the fact that strain B128 was not fully sequenced and only automatically annotated, only 12 of these proteins are definitive singletons that might have been acquired during the gerbil-adaptation process of strain B128. Conclusion Our sequence data and its analysis provide new insight into the high genetic diversity of H. pylori-strains. We have shown that the gerbil-adapted strain B8 has the potential to build, possibly by a high rate of mutation and recombination, a dynamic pool of genetic variants (e.g. fragmented genes and repetitive regions) required for the adaptation-processes. We hypothesize that these variants are essential for the colonization and persistence of strain B8 in the gerbil

  14. [Molecular mechanism of protective effect of puerarin solid lipid nanoparticle on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liu; Luo, Cheng-Feng; Yuan, Mu; Chen, Min-Sheng; Ji, Hong

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the effects of puerarin solid lipid nanoparticle on fore brain ischemic-reperfusion injury in gerbils and it's mechanisms. Gerbils were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham group, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury group, puerarin solid lipid nanoparticle group and puerarin injection control group. The gerbils' cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model was constructed with ligating bilater carotids method. The histomorphology and Bcl-2, Caspase-3 and HSP70 expressions were detected by HE dyeing and immunohistochemical method. After 24 h ischemia and reperfusion in gerbils, the level of Bcl-2 and HSP70 expressions in puerarin solid lipid nanoparticle group increased (P < 0.01) compared with the ischemic-reperfusion model group, and the level of Caspase-3 expression decreased (P < 0.01). The same results was consistent in puerarin injection control group. Puerarin solid lipid nanoparticle group can protect the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in gerbils, which may be related to the upregulation of Bcl-2 and HSP70 expression and downregulation of Caspase-3 expression.

  15. Age-dependent effects of ELF-MF on oxidative stress in the brain of Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Selaković, Vesna; Rauš Balind, Snežana; Radenović, Lidija; Prolić, Zlatko; Janać, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The aim of study was to investigate the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF; 50 Hz; 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 mT) on oxidative stress in the brain of 3- (adult) and 10-month-old (middle-aged) gerbils. Nitric oxide (NO) level, superoxide (O2(-)) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and index of lipid peroxidation (ILP) were measured in the forebrain cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum immediately and 3 days after cessation of 7-day exposure. In all gerbils, ELF-MF significantly increased oxidative stress in all tested brain regions. This effect was correlated with the value of magnetic induction and was higher in middle-aged gerbils. Three days after cessation of exposure, the values of examined parameters were closer to control levels. In adult gerbils, the effect of ELF-MF of 0.1 mT on NO level, O2(-) production and SOD activity was almost fully disappeared, and ILP was at the control level regardless of the value of magnetic induction. In middle-aged gerbils, the effect of ELF-MF was still present but to a lesser degree than those observed immediately after cessation of exposure. These findings pointed out the ability of ELF-MF to induce age- and magnetic induction-dependent modification of oxidative stress in the brain.

  16. Voltage-gated Na+ channel II immunoreactivity is selectively up-regulated in hippocampal interneurons of seizure sensitive gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kwak, Sung-Eun; Choi, Hui-Chul; Song, Hong-Ki; Kim, Yeong-In; Jo, Seung-Mook; Kang, Tae-Cheon

    2008-06-27

    In the present study, we investigated the distribution of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) in the normal and epileptic hippocampus of gerbils (a genetic epilepsy model) in order to confirm the relationship between VGSC and seizure activity in these animals. There was no difference of VGSC I immunoreactivity in the hippocampus between seizure-resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils. VGSC II immunoreactivity was rarely detected in the perikarya of principal neurons and interneurons in the SR gerbil hippocampus. However, in the SS gerbil hippocampus, VGSC II immunoreactivity was densely observed in the somata of interneurons located in the stratum radiatum and stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Double immunofluorescent study showed immunoreactivity for calretinin (approximately 80% in VGSC II-positive neurons) or calbindin D-28k (approximately 20% in VGSC II-positive neurons) in VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons. VGSC II-immunoreactive neurons did not show parvalbumin immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that seizure activity in SS gerbils may be related to the selective hyperactivation of interneurons in stratum lacunosum-moleculare via the up-regulation of VGSC II expression, which leads to the disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal cells.

  17. New animal model of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils infected with Helicobacter pylori and treated with a chemical carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Inada, K I; Tsukamoto, T; Nakanishi, H; Ikehara, Y; Yoshikawa, A; Kaminishi, M; Kuramoto, S; Tatematsu, M

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 WHO/IARC concluded that "Helicobacter pylori is a definite carcinogen" based on epidemiological studies, but there have been few reports demonstrating a relation between H. pylori and stomach cancer in animal models. We have succeeded in producing adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs of Mongolian gerbils with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea as carcinogens and hope to establish an experimental stomach carcinogenesis model using H. pylori. Male Mongolian gerbils, 7 weeks old, were infected with H. pylori followed by MNNG administration at a concentration of 100ppm administration or treated with MNNG at a concentration of 300ppm in their drinking water followed by inoculation with H. pylori. They were then killed sequentially, and their excised stomachs underwent microbiological and histopathological examinations. H. pylori were detected in all infected gerbils. Hyperplastic change of pyloric mucosa was observed with high 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation in affected animals. H. pylori infection persists on administration of MMNG and enhances glandular stomach proliferation in Mongolian gerbils. Whether long-term colonization promotes carcinogenesis in the glandular stomach of Mongolian gerbils is a matter of great interest.

  18. Multichannel cochlear implant for selective neuronal activation and chronic use in the free-moving Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Wiegner, Armin; Wright, Charles G; Vollmer, Maike

    2016-11-01

    Animal models for chronic multichannel cochlear implant stimulation and selective neuronal activation contribute to a better understanding of auditory signal processing and central neural plasticity. This paper describes the design and surgical implantation of a multichannel cochlear implant (CI) system for chronic use in the free-moving gerbil. For chronic stimulation, adult-deafened gerbils were connected to a multichannel commutator that allowed low resistance cable rotation and stable electric connectivity to the current source. Despite the small scale of the gerbil cochlea and auditory brain regions, final electrophysiological mapping experiments revealed selective and tonotopically organized neuronal activation in the auditory cortex. Contact impedances and electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses were stable over several weeks demonstrating the long-term integrity of the implant and the efficacy of the stimulation. Most animal models on multichannel signal processing and stimulation-induced plasticity are limited to larger animals such as ferrets, cats and primates. Multichannel CI stimulation in the free-moving rodent and evidence for selective neuronal activation in gerbil auditory cortex have not been previously reported. Overall, our results show that the gerbil is a robust rodent model for selective and tonotopically organized multichannel CI stimulation. We anticipate that this model provides a useful tool to develop and test both passive stimulation and behavioral training strategies for plastic reorganization and restoration of degraded unilateral and bilateral central auditory signal processing in the hearing impaired and deaf central auditory system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioral and pharmacological validation of the gerbil forced-swim test: effects of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Newton, Amy E; Wright, Robert N; Lodge, Nicholas J; McElroy, John F

    2008-07-01

    Several studies have suggested that neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists may have therapeutic potential as novel antidepressant drugs. To test these compounds preclinically, gerbils have become one of the preferred species in that they demonstrate close NK1 receptor homology with humans and bind NK1 antagonists with higher affinity than rats and mice. The intent of the present study was to determine whether the forced-swim test (FST), one of the most commonly used animal tests of antidepressant-like activity, could be adapted for use with the gerbil. Critical factors in the establishment of this assay included swim tank diameter, weight, and sex of the animals tested. Pharmacological validation of the FST using standard antidepressant compounds (eg fluoxetine, paroxetine, desipramine) resulted in decreased immobility time during the test, indicative of an antidepressant-like effect. Similar to results reported for the rat and mouse FST, the antipsychotic drug haloperidol increased immobility, whereas the psychostimulant, amphetamine decreased immobility, and anxiolytic drugs (eg buspirone) had no effect. Investigation into the locomotor effects of all compounds tested was consistent with previous reports in other species, with the exception of paroxetine, which produced hyperactivity at therapeutically effective doses in gerbils. In addition to standard antidepressants, NK1 antagonists (L-733060, MK-869, and CP-122721) all reduced immobility in the gerbil FST without affecting locomotor activity. Overall, these results suggest that the gerbil is an ideal species for use in the FST, and that this paradigm may have predictive validity for identifying novel antidepressant compounds.

  20. Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in soil and wild Libyan jird Meriones libycus in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Adham, Khadiga G; Al-Eisa, Nadia A; Farhood, Manal H

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to document the impact of heavy metal pollution on the Libyan jird, Meriones libycus and to contribute to an environmental impact statement for the rapidly growing City of Riyadh. All metal concentrations in surface soil of a polluted site (within Riyadh City) were higherthan those from a reference site (outside the city).Although Pb declined versus earlier reports on Riyadh soil, Cd (0.97 microg g(-1)) and Hg (0.28 microg g(-1)) were above some of the most stringent quality guidelines (0.07-0.62 microg g(-1) for Cd and 0.14-0.18 microg g(-1) for Hg). Metal distribution in M. libycus proved site-related and organ-specific, recognizing a higher affinity of most tested metals towards the kidneys, liver and brain than the lung and heart. The comparatively lower site-specific accumulation of Pb in soft tissues was attributed primarily to its major hypothetical accumulation in bones, whereas, the transition rate of Hg from the liver was suggested to be lower to the brain than to the kidneys. Although a non hazardous status was assumed for Cu (11.27-13.16 microg g(-1)) and Hg (up to 0.207 microg g(-1)) in tissues of M. libycus, a potential risk was imposed by mean tissue concentrations of Cd (up to 3.29 microg g(01)), Ni (up to 1.48 microg g(-1)) and Pb (up to 1.94 microg g(-1)). On the grounds of the significantly higher metal levels in polluted soft tissues versus reference subjects, Libyan jirds possess high exposure potential and can be useful biomonitors of environmental metal contamination.

  1. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. II: Inferring function from structure.

    PubMed

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Anatomists and zoologists who study middle ear morphology are often interested to know what the structure of an ear can reveal about the auditory acuity and hearing range of the animal in question. This paper represents an introduction to middle ear function targetted towards biological scientists with little experience in the field of auditory acoustics. Simple models of impedance matching are first described, based on the familiar concepts of the area and lever ratios of the middle ear. However, using the Mongolian gerbil Meriones unguiculatus as a test case, it is shown that the predictions made by such 'ideal transformer' models are generally not consistent with measurements derived from recent experimental studies. Electrical analogue models represent a better way to understand some of the complex, frequency-dependent responses of the middle ear: these have been used to model the effects of middle ear subcavities, and the possible function of the auditory ossicles as a transmission line. The concepts behind such models are explained here, again aimed at those with little background knowledge. Functional inferences based on middle ear anatomy are more likely to be valid at low frequencies. Acoustic impedance at low frequencies is dominated by compliance; expanded middle ear cavities, found in small desert mammals including gerbils, jerboas and the sengi Macroscelides, are expected to improve low-frequency sound transmission, as long as the ossicular system is not too stiff. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  2. Pineal calcification: its mechanism and significance.

    PubMed

    Krstić, R

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of conventional transmission electron microscopy and ultracytochemical reactions for demonstration of calcium, for glucose-6-phosphatase, and for Ca2+-ATPase, intracellular and extracellular mineralization foci in the superficial pineal gland of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) have been described. The initial intracellular calcification sites occur in the cytoplasmic matrix, vacuoles, mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum of large clear pinealocytes. These loci, and particularly those within the cytoplasmic matrix, transform into acervuli by a further addition of hydroxyapatite crystals. The cells gradually degenerate, die, break down, and the acervuli reach the extracellular space. It has been suggested that the reason for a rise in intracellular calcium levels could be the incapacity of Ca2+-ATPase to eliminate this cation from the cell, so that the hypercalcemic intracellular milieu becomes favourable for the initial crystallization. The primary extracellular mineralization sites occur in the calcium-rich flocculent material. The mineralization process in the gerbil pineal gland is interpreted as a histophysiological phenomenon intimately related to the metabolic activity of the pineal gland.

  3. Anthelmintic activity of Cymbopogon citratus against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Santos, Jessica Maria Leite dos; Silva, Kaline das Chagas; Araújo Filho, José Vilemar de; Camurça-Vasconcelos, Ana Lourdes Fernandes; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of major economic importance in livestock. An alternative for the control of parasites is phytotherapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus decoction (CcD), C. citratus essential oil (CcEo) and citral against Haemonchus contortus using in vitro egg hatch test (EHT) and larval development test (LDT) and an in vivo test using a Meriones unguiculatus (gerbil) model. The effect of 800 mg/kg CcEo was evaluated in gerbils that had been artificially infected with 5,000 third-stage H. contortus larvae. The effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% (EC50) of egg hatching were 0.46, 0.14 and 0.13 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. The EC50 values in the LDT were 5.04, 1.92 and 1.37 mg/mL for CcD, CcEo and citral, respectively. H. contortus population in the group treated with C. citratus essential oil was reduced by 38.5% (P< 0.05) in comparison to the control group. These results suggest that it may be possible to use C. citratus essential oil to control of H. contortus parasite of small ruminant.

  4. Dimensional analysis and dynamic response characterization of mammalian peripheral vestibular structures.

    PubMed

    Ramprashad, F; Landolt, J P; Money, K E; Laufer, J

    1984-03-01

    Extensive morphometric measurements were made on the vestibular system of the rabbit ( Oryctulagus cuniculus), the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), the chinchilla (Chinchilla laniger ), and the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) from serial sections of temporal bones. Additionally, a more limited set of measurements were also completed on the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus), the Capuchin monkey (Cebus sp.), the harp seal ( Pagophilus groenlandicus Erxleben , 1777), and the two-toed sloth ( Choloepus sp.). The following measurements were made: 1) radius of curvature (R) of each membranous semicircular canal (herein called semicircular duct-see nomenclature in Nomina Anatomica (1968) ), 2) cross-sectional diameter of the ducts and the osseous semicircular canals, and 3) some pertinent morphometrics of the cristae ampullares and the utricle. In all species studied 1) the radii of curvature of the three semicircular ducts are dissimilar, with that of the lateral duct being as small as, or smaller than, those of the anterior and posterior ducts; 2) R for the anterior duct is largest in the harp seal and the rabbit; 3) the canal and duct dimensions are largest in the Capuchin and squirrel monkeys, the two-toed sloth, and the harp seal, and smallest in the gerbil; 4) the proportion of otic fluid "space" that is occupied by endolymph shows a ranking of gerbil greater than rabbit greater than two-toed sloth greater than chinchilla = owl monkey greater than squirrel monkey greater than Capuchin monkey greater than harp seal; and 5) the gross ampullary and utricular dimensions are largest in the harp seal and smallest in the gerbil. These measurements were used for determining the time constants describing semicircular-canal dynamics in the Steinhausen (1931, 1933) and Oman -Marcus (1980) equations.

  5. The anxiogenic-like effects of dehydration in a semi-desert rodent Meriones shawi indicating the possible involvement of the serotoninergic system.

    PubMed

    Elgot, Abdeljalil; El hiba, Omar; Gamrani, Halima

    2012-10-01

    Dehydration is a powerful stimulus causing disequilibrium in homeostasis of water and electrolytes resulting from depletion in total body water. Most studies have focused on domestic and laboratory animals; however, the study of desert animals allows improved understanding about water balance and resistance to dehydration and associated behavioral changes, including those related to mood disorders. Meriones shawi (Shaw's Jird) is a desert rodent characterized by its resistance to long periods of thirst that can extend for several months. In the present study, M. shawi were subjected to water deprivation for 1 and 3 months. We used 5-HT immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effects of prolonged dehydration on the serotoninergic system in both dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DRN, MRN), which are the main sources of 5-HT input to several brain areas. In addition, a dark/light box was used to evaluate the anxiolytic-like or anxiogenic-like effects of dehydration on M. shawi. The results showed a reduction in the 5-HT immunolabelling in both DRN and MRN following 1 and 3 months of dehydration. This diminution of serotonin immunoreactivity was accompanied by noticeable changes in anxiety behavior of Meriones, with animals spending more time in the light box, suggesting anxiogenic-like effects caused by dehydration. Overall, the results indicate that dehydration is able to reduce serotoninergic neurotransmission, which might be involved in generating anxiety behavior in this desert animal.

  6. Early induction of secretoneurin expression following kainic acid administration at convulsant doses in the rat and gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Marti, E; Blasi, J; Ferrer, I

    2002-01-01

    The expression of secretogranin-II and its major proteolytic product secretoneurin (SN) is under the control of neuronal excitation, as demonstrated by treating rats with the excitotoxic kainic acid (KA). Differences in the structure and function of the hippocampus in rats and gerbils have been described; these suggest possible differential reactive responses to KA. In the present study, the SN immunostaining pattern in relation with cell damage is analyzed from 6 h to 4 days following KA administration in rats and gerbils. Dramatic differences in the expression of SN were found in the hippocampal complex following KA administration in gerbils and rats. A robust increase in SN immunoreactivity was detected in the pyramidal cell layer of the rat hippocampus, especially in the CA1 area. In the gerbil, however, a strong increase in SN immunostaining was detected in interneurons of the hippocampal formation, as shown by double-labeling immunohistochemistry to SN and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin. In addition, no damage (in the hippocampal formation) or moderate damage (in the entorhinal cortex) was observed in the gerbil, in contrast to the rat. The administration of KA and the GABA-B receptor inhibitors (CGP56999A or CGP36742) to the gerbil resulted in a strong rise in SN immunoreactitivty in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus, as in the rat. However, no increased cell damage was observed under these conditions. The present data provide evidence of a species-differential reactive response to KA that might be based, in part, on distinct inhibitory intrahippocampal circuitry.

  7. Apigenin has anti-atrophic gastritis and anti-gastric cancer progression effects in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Weng, Bi-Chuang; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Yang, Sheau-Fang; Wu, Deng-Chang; Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-02-12

    Apigenin, one of the most common flavonoids, is abundant in celery, parsley, chamomile, passionflower, and other vegetables and fruits. Celery is recognized as a medicinal vegetable in Oriental countries to traditionally treat inflammation, swelling, blood pressure, serum lipid, and toothache. In this study, we investigated apigenin treatment effects on Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression in Mongolian gerbils. Five to eight-week-old Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with Helicobacter pylori for four weeks without (atrophic gastritis group) or with N'-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) (gastric cancer group) in drinking water, and were then rested for two weeks. During the 7th-32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 7th-52th (gastric cancer group) weeks, they were given various doses (0-60 mg/kgbw/day) of apigenin. At the end of the 32th (atrophic gastritis group) or the 52th (atrophic gastritis group) week, all Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed using the CO2 asphyxia method. The histological changes of Helicobacter pylori colonization, neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations, and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils were examined using immunohistochemistry stain and Sydney System scoring. Apigenin treatments (30-60 mg/kgbw/day) effectively decreased atrophic gastritis (atrophic gastritis group) and dysplasia/gastric cancer (gastric cancer group) rates in Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin treatment (60 mg/kgbw/day) significantly decreased Helicobacter pylori colonization and Helicobacter pylori-induced histological changes of neutrophil and monocyte infiltrations and atrophic gastritis in both atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer Mongolian gerbils. Apigenin has the remarkable ability to inhibit Helicobacter pylori-induced atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer progression as well as possessing potent anti-gastric cancer activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  8. Dose Response of Listeria monocytogenes Invasion, Fetal Morbidity, and Fetal Mortality after Oral Challenge in Pregnant and Nonpregnant Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Roulo, Rebecca M.; Fishburn, Jillian D.; Amosu, Mayowa; Etchison, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth or premature delivery. The Mongolian gerbil was recently proposed as the most appropriate small-animal model of listeriosis due to its susceptibility to the same invasion pathways as humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate invasion and adverse pregnancy outcomes in gerbils orally exposed to L. monocytogenes, to compare the dose-response data to those of other animal models, and to investigate differences in the responses of pregnant versus nonpregnant gerbils. Gerbils were orally exposed to 0 (control), 103, 105, 107, or 109 CFU L. monocytogenes in whipping cream. L. monocytogenes was recovered in a dose-dependent manner from fecal samples, adult organs, and pregnancy-associated tissues. Dams exposed to 109 CFU had more invaded organs and higher concentrations of L. monocytogenes in almost all organs than nonpregnant animals, though no differences in fecal shedding were seen between the two groups. Adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred only in the dams treated with 109 CFU. A 50% infectivity dose (ID50) of 2.60 × 106 CFU for fetuses was calculated by fitting the data to a logistic model. Our results suggest that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) falls within the range of 5 × 106 to 5 × 108 CFU. This range includes the guinea pig and nonhuman primate LD50s, but the observation that L. monocytogenes-induced stillbirths can be seen in guinea pigs and primates exposed to lower doses than those at which stillbirths were seen in gerbils indicates that gerbils are not more sensitive to L. monocytogenes invasion. PMID:25156729

  9. Dose response of Listeria monocytogenes invasion, fetal morbidity, and fetal mortality after oral challenge in pregnant and nonpregnant Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Roulo, Rebecca M; Fishburn, Jillian D; Amosu, Mayowa; Etchison, Ashley R; Smith, Mary Alice

    2014-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth or premature delivery. The Mongolian gerbil was recently proposed as the most appropriate small-animal model of listeriosis due to its susceptibility to the same invasion pathways as humans. The objectives of this study were to investigate invasion and adverse pregnancy outcomes in gerbils orally exposed to L. monocytogenes, to compare the dose-response data to those of other animal models, and to investigate differences in the responses of pregnant versus nonpregnant gerbils. Gerbils were orally exposed to 0 (control), 10(3), 10(5), 10(7), or 10(9) CFU L. monocytogenes in whipping cream. L. monocytogenes was recovered in a dose-dependent manner from fecal samples, adult organs, and pregnancy-associated tissues. Dams exposed to 10(9) CFU had more invaded organs and higher concentrations of L. monocytogenes in almost all organs than nonpregnant animals, though no differences in fecal shedding were seen between the two groups. Adverse pregnancy outcomes occurred only in the dams treated with 10(9) CFU. A 50% infectivity dose (ID50) of 2.60 × 10(6) CFU for fetuses was calculated by fitting the data to a logistic model. Our results suggest that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) falls within the range of 5 × 10(6) to 5 × 10(8) CFU. This range includes the guinea pig and nonhuman primate LD50s, but the observation that L. monocytogenes-induced stillbirths can be seen in guinea pigs and primates exposed to lower doses than those at which stillbirths were seen in gerbils indicates that gerbils are not more sensitive to L. monocytogenes invasion.

  10. Long-term efficacy of deferasirox in preventing cardiovascular complications in the iron-overloaded gerbil.

    PubMed

    Al-Rousan, Rabaa M; Manzoor, Kamran; Paturi, Satyanarayana; Arvapalli, Ravi Kumar; Laurino, Joseph P; Darnon, Lucy; Walker, Ernest M; Blough, Eric R

    2012-03-01

    Iron-induced cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in iron-overloaded patients. Deferasirox is a novel tridentate oral chelator that exhibits a half-life suitable for once-daily dosing; however, little is known regarding the effectiveness of this agent in preventing iron-induced cardiovascular disease. Adult male Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into 3 groups: control, iron overload, and iron overload followed by deferasirox treatment. Iron-overloaded animals received iron dextran 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip)/5 days for 10 weeks, while deferasirox was given 100 mg/kg per d orally (po) for 9 months post iron loading. Cardiac and aortic iron levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Gerbil electro- and echocardiograms were obtained in anesthetized animals at regular intervals. Compared to control animals, iron concentration was 3.3- and 2.4-fold higher in iron-overloaded heart and aorta, respectively (P < .05). Deferasirox treatment reduced cardiac and aortic iron levels by 32% and 35%, respectively (P < .05). These results were consistent with the decrease in cellular iron deposition observed with Prussian Blue iron staining. Iron-overloaded gerbils were found to exhibit frequent arrhythmias including premature ventricular contractions, supraventricular tachycardia, and recurrent ventricular tachycardia. In addition, echocardiographic assessment demonstrated iron overload-associated increase in left ventricular dimensions including left ventricular posterior wall dimension (LVPWd: 49%), left ventricular internal dimension (LVIDd: 26%), and left ventricular septum thickness (LVSd: 42%). These parameters were significantly reduced with deferasirox treatment (LVPWd: 23%, LVIDd: 24%, and LVSd: 27%). Iron overload was also associated with reduced ejection fraction (EF: by 30%) and fractional shortening (FS: by 23%) in comparison with controls (P < .05). With deferasirox treatment, these values were higher

  11. Tight junctions in Gerbil von Ebner's gland: horseradish peroxidase and freeze-fracture studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anthony Y; Chen, Ming-Huei; Wu, Sandy Y; Lu, Kuo-Shyan

    2015-03-01

    The permeability of tight junctions to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and the freeze-fracture appearance of junctional structures were investigated in the von Ebner's gland of gerbils. In the tracing study, HRP was either administered topically on the dorsal surface of tongues or injected subepithelially into the connective tissue of vallate papillae for 5-30 min. Lingual tissues containing the von Ebner's gland were sectioned and examined by light and electron microscopy. In von Ebner's glands, the reaction product for HRP was found in the intercellular and interstitial spaces, whereas HRP appeared to penetrate the tight junctions and the reaction product was localized in the lumina of serous acini. In contrast, the staining for HRP that delineated the boundary of epithelial cells was frequently observed in the superficial layers of the lingual epithelium but not the underlying tissues while applying HRP topically. Freeze-fracture replicas of acinar cells revealed that the tight junction had a depth of 0.815 ± 0.023 μm, and 4-6 parallel strands on the protoplasmic fracture face, with a branching network of joining strands with interruptions, interconnections and high linear strand density apically, and corresponding grooves on the extracellular face. Quantitative analyses showed a greater number of strands (7.217 ± 0.326) in gerbils compared to those of acinar cells (3.86 ± 0.22) in mice. These results demonstrate that the tight junctions in the gerbil von Ebner's gland is permeable, and that specific species differences in tight junction structures may be associated with the mechanism for survival in an extremely dry environment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Rufinamide pretreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion injury in the gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae-Chul; Shin, Bich-Na; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Sung Koo; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Young Joo; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Park, Joon Ha

    2017-11-01

    Rufinamide, a voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) blocker, is widely used for the clinical treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Previous studies have demonstrated that VGSC blockers have neuroprotective properties against ischemic damage following experimental cerebral ischemia. However, protective effects of rufinamide against cerebral ischemic insults have not been addressed. Therefore, in the present study, we firstly examined neuroprotective effects of rufinamide using a gerbil model of transient global cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were established by the occlusion of common carotid arteries for 5 min. The gerbils were divided into vehicle-treated sham-operated group, vehicle-treated ischemia-operated group, 50 and 100 mg/kg rufinamide-treated sham-operated groups, and 50 and 100 mg/kg rufinamide-treated ischemia-operated groups. Rufinamide was administrated intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days before ischemic surgery. To examine neuroprotective effects of rufinamide, we carried out cresyl violet staining, neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. In addition, we examined gliosis using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (a marker for astrocytes) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (a marker for microglia). We found that pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of rufinamide effectively protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) area after transient global cerebral ischemia. In addition, pre-treatment with 100 mg/kg of rufinamide significantly attenuated activations of astrocytes and microglia in the ischemic CA1 area. These findings suggest that rufinamide can display neuroprotective effect against cerebral ischemic insults and that its neuroprotective effect may involve the attenuation of ischemia-induced glial activation.

  13. Preventive effects of Cladosiphon fucoidan against Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hideyuki; Iimuro, Masaki; Uchiya, Naoaki; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Nagaoka, Masato; Ueyama, Sadao; Hashimoto, Shusuke; Yokokura, Teruo; Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji

    2003-02-01

    Recently, the acquisition by Helicobacter pylori of resistance to antibiotics has become a serious problem. Therefore, nonantibiotic substances are required to diminish H. pylori-induced gastric lesions. In the present study, the effects of Cladosiphon fucoidan were examined in terms of H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin in vitro and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis in vivo. The inhibitory effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan and other polysaccharides on H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin was assayed in vitro with mucin-coated microtiter plates. The effect of Cladosiphon fucoidan on H. pylori-induced gastritis was examined in vivo using Mongolian gerbils. H. pylori-inoculated gerbils were given fucoidan in drinking water. Six weeks after H. pylori-inoculation, gerbils were sacrificed for macroscopic and microscopic examination of gastric lesions and counting of viable H. pylori in the gastric mucosa. Cladosiphon fucoidan inhibited the H. pylori attachment to porcine gastric mucin at pH 2.0 and 4.0. Two other sulfated polysaccharides, Fucus fucoidan and dextran sulfate sodium, also inhibited the attachment but only at pH 2.0. Inhibitory effects of these three sulfated polysaccharides were not observed at pH 7.2 and nonsulfated polysaccharides, such as mannan and dextran, exerted no influence at any pH. In the in vivo experiment, the H. pylori-induced gastritis and the prevalence of H. pylori infected animals were markedly reduced by fucoidan in a dose-dependent manner, at doses of 0.05 and 0.5% in the drinking water. Cladosiphon fucoidan may deserve particular attention as a safe agent that can prevent H. pylori infection and reduce the risk of associated gastric cancer.

  14. Effect of arginine vasopressin on the cortex edema in the ischemic stroke of Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Wu, Chun-Fang; Yang, Jun; Gao, Yang; Sun, Fang-Jie; Wang, Da-Xin; Wang, Chang-Hong; Lin, Bao-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    Brain edema formation is one of the most important mechanisms of ischemia-evoked cerebral edema. It has been demonstrated that arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptors are involved in the pathophysiology of secondary brain damage after focal cerebral ischemia. In a well-characterized animal model of ischemic stroke of Mongolian gerbils, the present study was undertaken to clear the effect of AVP on cortex edema in cerebral ischemia. The results showed that (1) occluding the left carotid artery of Mongolian gerbils not only decreased the cortex specific gravity (cortex edema) but also increased AVP levels in the ipsilateral cortex (ischemic area) including left prefrontal lobe, left parietal lobe, left temporal lobe, left occipital lobe and left hippocampus for the first 6 hours, and did not change of the cortex specific gravity and AVP concentration in the right cortex (non-ischemic area); (2) there were many negative relationships between the specific gravity and AVP levels in the ischemic cortex; (3) intranasal AVP (50 ng or 200 ng), which could pass through the blood-brain barrier to the brain, aggravated the focal cortex edema, whereas intranasal AVP receptor antagonist-D(CH2)5Tyr(ET)DAVP (2 µg) mitigated the cortex edema in the ischemic area after occluding the left carotid artery of Mongolian gerbils; and (4) either intranasal AVP or AVP receptor antagonist did not evoke that edema in the non-ischemic cortex. The data indicated that AVP participated in the process of ischemia-evoked cortex edema, and the cerebral AVP receptor might serve as an important therapeutic target for the ischemia-evoked cortex edema.

  15. Helicobacter pylori with high thioredoxin-1 expression promotes stomach carcinogenesis in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin-Na; Ding, Shi-Gang; Shi, Yan-Yan; Zhang, He-Jun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Chao

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies by this group have shown that Helicobacter pylori with high thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) expression might be involved in stomach carcinogenesis in vitro. To study histopathological changes of the stomach mucosa in vivo, a Mongolian gerbil model infected with H. pylori with high Trx1 expression was established. Healthy, male Mongolian gerbils (n=75) were randomly divided into 3 groups: controls (n=15), which were not infected with H. pylori, high Trx1 (n=30) which were infected with H. pylori with high Trx1 expression and low Trx1 (n=30) which were infected with low Trx1 expression H. pylori. The animals were sacrificed at 4, 20, 34, 48, 70 and 90 weeks after inoculation. The Mongolian gerbil model of H. pylori infection was successfully established. Three animals died during the study, leaving 72 animals (controls, n=14; low Trx1, n=29; high Trx1, n=29) examined on schedule. Histopathological analysis of the stomach mucosa showed gradually increased aggravation over time in the high and low Trx1 groups. Compared with control and low Trx1, the histopathological changes were more serious in the high Trx1 group. At 90 weeks, no abnormal changes were found in the controls, but 62.5% of the high Trx1 group and 33.3% of the low Trx1 showed adenocarcinomas. The H. pylori Trx1 level in gastric cancer tissue was significantly higher than that from gastritis tissue. Within gastric cancer cells, high Trx1 expression in H. pylori significantly upregulated cyclin D1. High Trx1 expression in H. pylori promoted stomach carcinogenesis. More studies are needed to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Molecular cloning, characterization, and distribution of the gerbil angiotensin II AT2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Armando, Ines; Baiardi, Gustavo; Sreenath, Taduru; Kulkarni, Ashok; Martínez, Alfredo; Saavedra, Juan M

    2003-12-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone encoding the gerbil AT2 receptor (gAT2) gene from a gerbil adrenal gland cDNA library. The full-length cDNA contains a 1,089-bp open reading frame encoding 363 amino acid residues with 90.9, 96.1, and 95.6% identity with the human (hAT2), rat (rAT2), and mouse AT2 (mAT2) receptors, respectively. There are at least seven nonconserved amino acids in the NH2-terminal domain and in positions Val196, Val217, and Met293, important for angiotensin (ANG) II but not for CGP-42112 binding. Displacement studies in adrenal sections revealed that affinity of the gAT2 receptor was 10-20 times lower for ANG II, ANG III, and PD-123319 than was affinity of the rAT2 receptor. The affinity of each receptor remained the same for CGP-42112. When transfected into COS-7 cells, the gAT2 receptor shows affinity for ANG II that is three times lower than that shown by the hAT2 receptor, whereas affinities for ANG III and the AT2 receptor ligands CGP-42112 and PD-123319 were similar. Autoradiography in sections of the gerbil head showed higher binding in muscles, retina, skin, and molars at embryonic day 19 than at 1 wk of age. In situ hybridization and emulsion autoradiography revealed that at embryonic day 19 the gAT2 receptor mRNA was highly localized to the base of the dental papilla of maxillary and mandibular molars. Our results suggest selective growth-related functions in late gestation and early postnatal periods for the gAT2 receptor and provide an essential basis for future mutagenesis studies to further define structural requirements for agonist binding.

  17. Interactions between alcohol and other drugs on open-field and temperature measurements in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Järbe, T U; Ohlin, G C

    1977-05-01

    Open-field activity and rectal temperature were measured in mongolian gerbils treated with alcholol (1 and 2 g/kg) only and when alcohol was combined with bemegride (20 and 40 mg/kg), DH-524 (20 mg/kg), or d-amphetamine (8 mg/kg). None of the purported antagonists normalized the alcholol-produced changes in the open-field test, nor did they reverse the alcohol-induced hypothermia. However, alcohol offered protection against bemegride-induced convulsion and death. When compared with pervious data (1) it is suggested that alcohol is differentiated from pentobarbital and diazepam on the basis of their interactional effects with bemegride.

  18. Acute and chronic effects of beta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on seizures in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Ten Ham, M; Loskota, W J; Lomax, P

    1975-03-01

    Beta9-THC was injected daily for 6 days into gerbils from our breeding colony that exhibit spontaneous epileptiform seizures. At a dose of 20 mg/kg no effect was seen on the latency, duration or severity of the seizures induced after 1 and 6 days of treatment. Delta9-THC (50 mg/kg) completely abolished the seizures after a single injection but tolerance developed to this effect so that no protection was afforded after 6 daily doses. Severe toxic signs were evident at the higher dose level with marked depression of spontaneous motor activity. The toxic effect increased progressively with chronic treatment and half the animals failed to survive.

  19. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group.

    PubMed

    Randall, Jan A; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C; Hooper, Stacie L; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  20. Extremely low frequency magnetic field induced changes in motor behaviour of gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Rauš, Snežana; Selaković, Vesna; Radenović, Lidija; Prolić, Zlatko; Janać, Branka

    2012-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate behavioural effects of an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) in 3-month-old Mongolian gerbils submitted to global cerebral ischemia. After 10-min occlusion of both common carotid arteries, the gerbils were placed in the vicinity of an electromagnet and continuously exposed to ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) for 7 days. Their behaviour (locomotion, stereotypy, rotations, and immobility) was monitored on days 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 after reperfusion for 60min in the open field. It was shown that the 10-min global cerebral ischemia per se induced a significant motor activity increase (locomotion, stereotypy and rotations), and consequently immobility decrease until day 4 after reperfusion, compared to control gerbils. Exposure to ELF-MF inhibited development of ischemia-induced motor hyperactivity during the whole period of registration, but significantly in the first 2 days after reperfusion, when the postischemic hyperactivity was most evident. Motor activity of these gerbils was still significantly increased compared to control ones, but only on day 1 after reperfusion. Our results revealed that the applied ELF-MF (50Hz, 0.5mT) decreased motor hyperactivity induced by the 10-min global cerebral ischemia, via modulation of the processes that underlie this behavioural response.

  1. What do predators really want? The role of gerbil energetic state in determining prey choice by Barn Owls.

    PubMed

    Embar, Keren; Mukherjee, Shomen; Kotler, Burt P

    2014-02-01

    In predator-prey foraging games, predators should respond to variations in prey state. The value of energy for the prey changes depending on season. Prey in a low energetic state and/or in a reproductive state should invest more in foraging and tolerate higher predation risk. This should make the prey more catchable, and thereby, more preferable to predators. We ask, can predators respond to prey state? How does season and state affect the foraging game from the predator's perspective? By letting owls choose between gerbils whose states we experimentally manipulated, we could demonstrate predator sensitivity to prey state and predator selectivity that otherwise may be obscured by the foraging game. During spring, owls invested more time and attacks in the patch with well-fed gerbils. During summer, owls attacked both patches equally, yet allocated more time to the patch with hungry gerbils. Energetic state per se does not seem to be the basis of owl choice. The owls strongly responded to these subtle differences. In summer, gerbils managed their behavior primarily for survival, and the owls equalized capture opportunities by attacking both patches equally.

  2. Draft genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, an isolate from the great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Yang, Xianwei; Yuan, Yanting; Dai, Xiang; Yan, Yanfeng; Cao, Hanli; Luo, Tao; Guo, Rong; Wang, Xinhui; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Yujiang; Cui, Yujun

    2012-10-01

    We deciphered the genome of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, isolated from the Junggar Basin, a newly discovered great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China. The total length of assembly was 4,597,322 bp, and 4,265 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. It is the first Y. pestis genome from this plague focus.

  3. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging

    PubMed Central

    Kotler, Burt P.; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-01-01

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full < wane < wax < new). Similarly, they displayed higher GUDs at brighter moon phases (wax > full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator–prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase. PMID:20053649

  4. Alarm signals of the great gerbil: Acoustic variation by predator context, sex, age, individual, and family group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin

    2005-10-01

    The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.

  5. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-05-22

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full < wane < wax < new). Similarly, they displayed higher GUDs at brighter moon phases (wax > full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator-prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase.

  6. Measurement of the Three-Dimensional Vibration Motion of the Ossicular Chain in the Living Gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decraemer, Willem F.; de La Rochefoucauld, Ombeline; Olson, Elizabeth S.

    2011-11-01

    In previous studies 3D motion of the middle-ear ossicles in cat and human temporal bone were explored but models for hearing research has shifted in the last decades to smaller mammals and gerbil in particular has become a hearing model of first choice. In the present study we have measured with an optical interferometer the 3D motion of the malleus and incus in anesthetized gerbil for sound of moderate intensity (90 dB SPL) in a broad frequency range. To access the malleus and incus the pars flaccida was completely removed exposing the neck and head of the malleus and the incus from the malleus-incus joint to the long process of the incus and the plate of the lenticular process. In a previous study an approach through a hole in the bullar wall was used to study the stapes motion so that we now have a complete picture of the middle ear motion. In both approaches vibration measurements were done at 6 to 7 points per ossicle while the angle of observation was varied over approximately 30 degrees to enable calculation of the 3D velocity components. Knowledge of middle ear motion is of great importance in understanding how the middle ear transforms the acoustical input from the ear canal to the cochlea.

  7. Surgical and chemical castration induce differential histological response in prostate lobes of Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Góes, Rejane Maira; Zanetoni, Cristiani; Tomiosso, Tatiana Carla; Ribeiro, Daniele Lisboa; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the short-term alterations in the prostate ventral and dorsal lobe of the adult Mongolian gerbil, in response to two different androgen suppression approaches. Groups (n=6) of 16-week-old gerbils were maintained intact or subjected, either to the bilateral surgical castration 1 week previously or to daily subcutaneous injections of Flutamide (10mg/kg body weight) for 7 days. The main microscopic features of both prostate lobes in these groups were compared using conventional paraffin tissue sections, measurements of acinar epithelial height and stereological data of main gland components (acini, collagen fibers and fibromuscular stroma). Marked alterations were observed in the basement membrane of the ventral lobe after both surgical and chemical castration, such as an increase in thickness and collagen staining. A low degree of epithelial atrophy was detected in the dorsal lobe following both androgen suppression approaches in comparison with that found in the ventral lobe, indicating that this lobe is not so responsive to testosterone ablation induced by castration or Flutamide treatment, at least insofar as secretory activity is concerned. However, the dorsal lobe exhibited marked stromal modification, such as an increase in collagen fibers following castration and an increase in fibromuscular stroma following Flutamide-treatment. Thus, the histological and quantitative data indicates a differential short-term response of the prostate dorsal lobe to surgical castration and Flutamide therapy, suggesting the existence of lobe-specific mechanisms for stromal remodeling.

  8. Simultaneous Measurements of Ossicular Velocity and Intracochlear Pressure Leading to the Cochlear Input Impedance in Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Decraemer, W. F.; Khanna, S. M.; Olson, E. S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent measurements of three-dimensional stapes motion in gerbil indicated that the piston component of stapes motion was the primary contributor to intracochlear pressure. In order to make a detailed correlation between stapes piston motion and intracochlear pressure behind the stapes, simultaneous pressure and motion measurements were undertaken. We found that the scala vestibuli pressure followed the piston component of the stapes velocity with high fidelity, reinforcing our previous finding that the piston motion of the stapes was the main stimulus to the cochlea. The present data allowed us to calculate cochlear input impedance and power flow into the cochlea. Both the amplitude and phase of the impedance were quite flat with frequency from 3 kHz to at least 30 kHz, with a phase that was primarily resistive. With constant stimulus pressure in the ear canal the intracochlear pressure at the stapes has been previously shown to be approximately flat with frequency through a wide range, and coupling that result with the present findings indicates that the power that flows into the cochlea is quite flat from about 3 to 30 kHz. The observed wide-band intracochlear pressure and power flow are consistent with the wide-band audiogram of the gerbil. PMID:18459001

  9. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2′-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:27162767

  10. Aqueous extract of Cordyceps alleviates cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hak; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Hwang, Lakkyong; Jin, Jun-Jang; Choi, Hyun-Hee; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral ischemia is caused by reduced cerebral blood flow due to a transient or permanent cerebral artery occlusion. Ischemic injury in the brain leads to neuronal cell death, and eventually causes neurological impairments. Cordyceps, the name given to the fungi on insects, has abundant useful natural products with various biological activities. Cordyceps is known to have nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antiapoptotic effects. We investigated the effects of Cordyceps on short-term memory, neuronal apoptosis, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following transient global ischemia in gerbils. For this study, a step-down avoidance test, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, immunohistochemistry for caspase-3 and 5-bromo-2'-de-oxyuridine, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosin kinase B were performed. In the present study, Cordyceps alleviated cerebral ischemia-induced short-term memory impairment. Cordyceps showed therapeutic effects through inhibiting cerebral ischemia-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus. Cordyceps suppressed cerebral ischemia-induced cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus due to the reduced apoptotic neuronal cell death. Cordyceps treatment also enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the hippocampus of ischemic gerbils. It can be suggested that Cordyceps overcomes cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis, thus facilitates recovery following cerebral ischemia injury.

  11. Local persistence and extinction of plague in a metapopulation of great gerbil burrows, Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Schmid, B V; Jesse, M; Wilschut, L I; Viljugrein, H; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2012-12-01

    Speculation on how the bacterium Yersinia pestis re-emerges after years of absence in the Prebalkhash region in Kazakhstan has been ongoing for half a century, but the mechanism is still unclear. One of the theories is that plague persists in its reservoir host (the great gerbil) in so-called hotspots, i.e. small regions in which the conditions remain favourable for plague to persist during times where the conditions in the Prebalkhash region as a whole have become unfavourable for plague persistence. In this paper we use a metapopulation model that describes the dynamics of the great gerbil. With this model we study the minimum size of an individual hotspot and the combined size of multiple hotspots in the Prebalkhash region that would be required for Y. pestis to persist through an inter-epizootic period. We show that the combined area of hotspots required for plague persistence is so large that it would be unlikely to have been missed by existing plague surveillance. This suggests that persistence of plague in that region cannot solely be explained by the existence of hotspots, and therefore other hypotheses, such as survival in multiple host species, and persistence in fleas or in the soil should be considered as well.

  12. Pulmonary pathology from inhalation of a complex mineral oil mist in dogs, rats, mice and gerbils.

    PubMed

    Stula, E F; Kwon, B K

    1978-05-01

    Dogs, rats, mice, and gerbils were exposed for 6 hours per day, 5 days per week, for periods up to 2 years, to an atmosphere containing a complex mineral oil-base mist at concentrations of 5 and 100 mg/M3. The mass median diameter of the oil droplets was approximately that found in textile plants ( approximately 1.0 mu). In addition, these test atmospheres contained 1000 ppm acetone,an acetate fiber solvent, in order to simulate fiber plant conditions. Evidence of oil mist was detectable within lung macrophages of all species tested and at both concentrations. Only at the higher concentration (100 mg/M3),, in dogs and rats, but not in mice and gerbils, was a retention of oil of such a magnitude so as to result in the development of oil microgranulomas. Rats given a 10-month recovery period following 12 months of exposure did not completely recover from the oil microgranuloma. These results indicate that the presence of typical textile fiber adjuvants in mineral oil and the concurrent presence of 1000 ppm acetone in the atmosphere do not significantly alter the inhalation toxicity of pure white mineral oil mist.

  13. Population coding of interaural time differences in gerbils and barn owls.

    PubMed

    Lesica, Nicholas A; Lingner, Andrea; Grothe, Benedikt

    2010-09-01

    Interaural time differences (ITDs) are the primary cue for the localization of low-frequency sound sources in the azimuthal plane. For decades, it was assumed that the coding of ITDs in the mammalian brain was similar to that in the avian brain, where information is sparsely distributed across individual neurons, but recent studies have suggested otherwise. In this study, we characterized the representation of ITDs in adult male and female gerbils. First, we performed behavioral experiments to determine the acuity with which gerbils can use ITDs to localize sounds. Next, we used different decoders to infer ITDs from the activity of a population of neurons in central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. These results show that ITDs are not represented in a distributed manner, but rather in the summed activity of the entire population. To contrast these results with those from a population where the representation of ITDs is known to be sparsely distributed, we performed the same analysis on activity from the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus of adult male and female barn owls. Together, our results support the idea that, unlike the avian brain, the mammalian brain represents ITDs in the overall activity of a homogenous population of neurons within each hemisphere.

  14. C-Phycocyanin is neuroprotective against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Pentón-Rol, Giselle; Marín-Prida, Javier; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto; Martínez-Sánchez, Gregorio; Acosta-Medina, Emilio Felino; Valdivia-Acosta, Alain; Lagumersindez-Denis, Nielsen; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Efraín; Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; López-Saura, Pedro Antonio; Guillén-Nieto, Gerardo; Pentón-Arias, Eduardo

    2011-08-10

    Although the huge economic and social impact and the predicted incidence increase, neuroprotection for ischemic stroke remains as a therapeutically empty niche. In the present study, we investigated the rationale of the C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) treatment on global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in gerbils. We demonstrated that C-PC given either prophylactically or therapeutically was able to significantly reduce the infarct volume as assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and the neurological deficit score 24h post-stroke. In addition, C-PC exhibited a protective effect against hippocampus neuronal cell death, and significantly improved the functional outcome (locomotor behavior) and gerbil survival after 7 days of reperfusion. Malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxidation potential (PP) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were assayed in serum and brain homogenates to evaluate the redox status 24h post-stroke. The treatment with C-PC prevented the lipid peroxidation and the increase of FRAP in both tissue compartments. These results suggest that the protective effects of C-PC are most likely due to its antioxidant activity, although its anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory properties reported elsewhere could also contribute to neuroprotection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the neuroprotective effect of C-PC in an experimental model of global cerebral I/R damage, and strongly indicates that C-PC may represent a potential preventive and acute disease modifying pharmacological agent for stroke therapy.

  15. [Contractile properties of fibers and cytoskeletal proteins of gerbil's hindlimb muscles after space flight].

    PubMed

    Lipets, E N; Ponomareva, E V; Ogneva, I V; Vikhliantsev, I M; Karaduleva, E V; Kratashkina, N L; Kuznetsov, S L; Podlubnaia, Z A; Shenkman, B S

    2009-01-01

    The work had the goal to compare the microgravity effects on gerbil's muscles-antagonists, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The animals were exposed in 12-d space microgravity aboard Earth's artificial satellite "Foton-M3". Findings of the analysis of single skinned fibers contractility are 19.7% diminution of the diameter and 21.8% loss of the total contractive force of m. soleus fibers post flight. However, there was no significant difference in calcium sensitivity which agrees with the absence of changes in the relative content of several major cytoskeletal proteins (titin and nebulin ratios to heavy chains of myosin were identical in the flight and control groups) and a slight shifting of the myosin phenotype toward the "fast type" (9%, p < 0.05). These parameters were mostly unaffected by the space flight in m. tibialis anterior. To sum up, the decline of contractility and diminution of gerbil's myofibers after the space flight were less significant as compared with rats and did not impact the sytoskeletal protein ratios.

  16. Gerbil middle-ear sound transmission from 100 Hz to 60 kHz1

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Cooper, Nigel P.; Rosowski, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Middle-ear sound transmission was evaluated as the middle-ear transfer admittance HMY (the ratio of stapes velocity to ear-canal sound pressure near the umbo) in gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 60 kHz, a range that spans the gerbil’s audiometric range. Similar measurements were performed in two laboratories. The HMY magnitude (a) increased with frequency below 1 kHz, (b) remained approximately constant with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, and (c) decreased substantially from 35 to 50 kHz. The HMY phase increased linearly with frequency from 5 to 35 kHz, consistent with a 20–29 μs delay, and flattened at higher frequencies. Measurements from different directions showed that stapes motion is predominantly pistonlike except in a narrow frequency band around 10 kHz. Cochlear input impedance was estimated from HMY and previously-measured cochlear sound pressure. Results do not support the idea that the middle ear is a lossless matched transmission line. Results support the ideas that (1) middle-ear transmission is consistent with a mechanical transmission line or multiresonant network between 5 and 35 kHz and decreases at higher frequencies, (2) stapes motion is pistonlike over most of the gerbil auditory range, and (3) middle-ear transmission properties are a determinant of the audiogram. PMID:18646983

  17. Naloxone-precipitated abstinence in mice, rats and gerbils acutely dependent on morphine.

    PubMed

    Ramabadran, K

    1983-01-01

    Acute dependence on a single dose of morphine in mice, rats and gerbils was assessed by observing several signs of abstinence precipitated by various doses of naloxone, diprenorphine and Mr 2097. In mice and rats acutely dependent on morphine, naloxone, diprenorphine and Mr 2097 precipitated dose-dependently the signs of abstinence such as jumping, urination, teeth chattering, chewing, paw shakes, head shakes and ptosis. In these two species, the precipitation of these signs were mediated by stereospecific opiate receptors, as Mr 2096, the non-antagonistic isomer of Mr 2097, did not precipitate any of them. In gerbils acutely dependent on morphine, naloxone precipitated urination, teeth chattering, chewing, paw shakes, head shakes, "wet dog" shakes, yawning and writhing. In naive animals of all three species, the opioid antagonists produced varying degrees of "abstinoid" signs. The precipitated withdrawal might be the result of "abstinoid" effects superimposed on real abstinence signs. High doses of naloxone and diprenorphine showed a regression of "abstinoid" signs probably because of interfering morphinomimetic properties. The present data indicate that these three rodents may be successfully employed in the rapid identification of drugs to produce morphine-like dependence or to precipitate withdrawal.

  18. Effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on ouabain induced auditory neuropathy in gerbils (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Bae, Sung Huyn; Chang, So-Young; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Aim: to investigate effectiveness of Low level laser therapy (LLLT) in rescueing ouabain induced spiral ganglion cell damage using Mongolian gerbils. Methods: Animals were divided into 3 groups; Control, Ouabain, Ouabain + LLLT group. Auditory neuropathy was induced by topical application of ouabain (1 mmol/L, 3uL) on the round window membrane in gerbils. Transmeatal LLLT was irradiated into the right ear for 1h (200mW, 720 J) daily for 7d in Ouabain + LLLT group. Before and 7 days after ouabain application, hearing was evaluated using both ABR and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE). Seven days after ouabain application, animals were sacrificed to evaluate the morphological changes of cochlea using cochlear section image and whole mount Immunofluorescent staining. Results: DPOAE tests were normal in all animals after ouabain topical treatment indicating intact outer hair cells. Ouabain group showed ABR threshold increase compared with control group. Ouabain+LLLT group showed significant improvement of ABR threshold compared to ouabain only group. H and E stains of mid-modiolar section of cochlear showed spiral ganglion cells, neurofilaments, and post synaptic receptor counts were decreased while inner and outer hair cells were preserved in ouabain group. Ouabain +LLLT group showed higher numbers of spiral ganglion cells, density of neurofilaments and post synaptic receptor counts compared to ouabain group. Conclusions: The results demonstrated that LLLT was effective to rescue ouabain-induced spiral ganglion neuropathy.

  19. Nonesterified phytosterols dissolved and recrystallized in oil reduce plasma cholesterol in gerbils and humans.

    PubMed

    Hayes, K C; Pronczuk, A; Perlman, D

    2004-06-01

    When free phytosterols are adequately heated and then cooled in fat, they recrystallize and are rendered bioavailable for blocking cholesterol absorption. To extend the application of phytosterols to fried foods, the activity of these modified crystals was assessed in 2 experiments with 26 male gerbils fed purified diets containing 0.15 g/100 g cholesterol with or without 0.75 g/100 g free phytosterols. The heat-modified soybean sterols were added directly to the diet (Expt. 1) or as phytosterol-enriched potato chips (Expt. 2). In the gerbil experiments, only the diet containing phytosterols significantly reduced plasma cholesterol (35-48%) and the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (40%), as well as hepatic cholesterol esters (80%). In a subsequent human study, subjects (n = 7) consumed two 28-g servings of tortilla chips fried in oil with or without phytosterols that provided 0 or 1.5 g/d for 4-wk periods in a crossover design (Expt. 3). During consumption of the phytosterol-enriched chips, significant reductions in plasma cholesterol (10%) and LDL cholesterol (15%) were achieved without affecting HDL-C. This novel means of delivering free phytosterols proved to be both functionally efficient and effective.

  20. Localization of melanopsin-immunoreactive cells in the Mongolian gerbil retina.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Mi-Jin; Jeon, Chang-Jin

    2015-11-01

    Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are involved in circadian rhythm and pupil responses. The purpose of this study was to reveal the organization of melanopsin-immunoreactive (IR) neurons in the Mongolian gerbil retina using immunocytochemistry. Melanopsin-IR cells were primarily located in the ganglion cell layer (GCL; M1c; 75.15%). Many melanopsin-IR cells were also observed in the inner nuclear layer (INL; M1d; 22.28%). The M1c and M1d cell types extended their dendritic processes into the OFF sublayer of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). We rarely observed bistratified cells (M3; 2.56%) with dendrites in both the ON and OFF sublayers of the IPL. Surprisingly, we did not observe M2 cells which are well observed in other rodents. Melanopsin-IR cell somas were small to medium in size and had large dendritic fields. They had 2-5 primary dendrites that branched sparingly and had varicosities. Melanopsin-IR cell density was very low: they comprised 0.50% of the total ganglion cell population. Moreover, none of the melanopsin-IR cells expressed calbindin-D28K, calretinin, or parvalbumin. These results suggest that in the Mongolian gerbil, melanopsin-IR cells are expressed in a very small RGC subpopulation, and are independent of calcium-binding proteins-containing RGCs.

  1. [Jejunum intersticium in mongolian gerbils after the flight on spacecraft Foton-M3].

    PubMed

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Methods of light optical microscopy were used to explore histoarchitectonics, topography and tinctorial properties of the extracellular phase of fibers of jejunum wall intersticium in Mongolian gerbils following 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3, ground-based simulation of the spaceflight factors in the KONTUR-L facility, and in the group of biological control Postflight destructive changes were found in reticulin fibers (type-III collagen) of villi stroma, intercrypt intersticium and submucosa. Local acidophilia and fiber homogenization formed in type I collagen present in the intestinal subserous layer, muscular layers endomysium and submucose against the background of progressing edema and arterial, venous plethora and lymphostasis. Elastic component of the intersticium was disarranged in the structures of internal elastic membrane of submucous vessels, fragmented and partly reduced. Simulation of the orbital factors, except for microgravity, in the KONTUR-L facility called forth similar, although less often and diffuse, changes in intersticium fibers. The results of examination of intestinal intersticium fibers in the vivarium control gerbils discovered expressed species characters that should be taken into account by investigators, especially when comparing with data obtained from other animal species.

  2. 17beta-estradiol pretreatment reduces CA1 sector cell death and the spontaneous hyperthermia that follows forebrain ischemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Plahta, W C; Clark, D L; Colbourne, F

    2004-01-01

    Pretreatment with 17beta-estradiol attenuates ischemia-induced hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) neuronal death. We assessed whether this is mediated through prevention of hyperthermia that normally follows ischemia in gerbils. Male gerbils were given sustained-released 17beta-estradiol pellets or sham operation. Later, a guide cannula was implanted for brain temperature measurement and some were implanted with core temperature telemetry probes. Gerbils were subjected to either 5 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion or sham procedures 2 weeks after pellet surgery. Brain temperature was normothermic during surgery in all cases. In experiment 1, only core temperature was measured afterward in untreated and estrogen-treated gerbils. In experiment 2, postischemic core temperature was measured in untreated and two estrogen-treated ischemic groups, one of which had their postischemic temperature increased, via infrared lamp, to mimic the untreated group. Habituation was assessed on days 5 and 6. Hyperthermia, like that which occurs spontaneously, was forced on untreated and estrogen-treated ischemic animals in the third experiment, where brain temperature was measured. CA1 cell counts were assessed after a 7-day survival. A fourth experiment measured brain and core temperature simultaneously in normal gerbils during heating with an infrared lamp. Estrogen did not affect core temperature of non-ischemic gerbils whereas spontaneous postischemic hyperthermia was blocked. Estrogen reduced cell death and provided behavioral protection when gerbils regulated their own core temperature, but not when core hyperthermia was enforced. Conversely, estrogen reduced cell death in gerbils that had their brain temperature elevated. Experiment 4 showed that the brain becomes overheated (by approximately 1 degree C) when core temperature is elevated. Accordingly, estrogen likely failed to reduce CA1 injury in experiment 2, when core hyperthermia was enforced, because of overheating the

  3. Lipidomics reveals mitochondrial membrane remodeling associated with acute thermoregulation in a rodent with a wide thermoneutral zone.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qian; Li, Min; Shi, Yao-Long; Liu, Huwei; Speakman, John R; Wang, De-Hua

    2014-07-01

    Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) have high physiological flexibility in response to acute temperature changes, and have the widest thermoneutral zone (TNZ, 26.5-38.9 °C) reported among small mammals. At the upper critical temperature (T(uc), 38.9 °C), body temperatures of gerbils were significantly increased (39-41 °C) while metabolic rates were maintained at the basal level. In contrast, below the lower critical temperature (T(lc), 26.5 °C), metabolism was elevated and body temperature stable. Rapid changes in mitochondrial membrane lipidome were hypothesized to play an important role during acute thermoregulation of gerbils. Taking advantage of a recent lipidomic technique, we examined changes in the membrane phospholipids environment and free fatty acids (FFA) production in mitochondria between 38 and 27 °C (in the TNZ), and between 27 and 16 °C (below the TNZ). At 38 °C, acute heat stress elicited distinct remodeling in mitochondrial membrane lipidome which related to a potential decrease in mitochondrial respiration and membrane fluidity compared to 27 °C. At 16 °C, a sharply decreased unsaturation index and increased chain lengths were detected in mitochondrial FFA production both in muscle and brown adipose tissue. Our results suggest that mitochondrial membrane lipid remodeling may stabilize membrane function and activity of respiration related membrane protein to maintain a stable metabolic rate at T(uc), and improve heat production by decomposing less fluid fatty acid conjugates of membrane lipids under acute cold exposure. These data therefore imply an important role of membrane remodeling during acute thermoregulation in a non-hibernating endotherm.

  4. Evidence for rodent-common and species-typical limb and digit use in eating, derived from a comparative analysis of ten rodent species.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, I Q; Sarna, J R; Pellis, S M

    1998-11-01

    Order Rodentia comprises a vast portion of mammalian species (1814 species), which occupy extremely diverse habitats requiring very distinct motor specializations (e.g. burrowing, hopping, climbing, flying and swimming). Although early classification of paw use ability suggests rodents are impoverished relative to primates and make little use of their paws, there have been no systematic investigations of paw use in rodents. The present study was undertaken to describe limb/paw movements in a variety of common rodents. The movements used for handling sunflower seeds and other foods were videorecorded and analyzed in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), laboratory mouse (Mus musculus), laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus), gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Richardson's ground squirrel (Spermophilus richardsonni), prairie dog (Cynomus parvidens), and Canadian beaver (Castor americanus). The results suggested five order-common movements of food handling: (1) locating food by sniffing, (2) grasping food by mouth, (3) sitting back on the haunches to eat, (4) grasping the food using an elbow-in movement, and (5) manipulate the food with the digits. Different species displayed species-typical specializations including (1) bilateral grasping with the paws (gerbil), (2) unilateral grasping with a paw (beaver), (3) unilateral holding (ground squirrels), (4) various grip and digit postures (all species), (5) unilateral object removal from the mouth (gerbil), (6) bilateral thumb holding (squirrels), and (7) simultaneous holding/manipulation of two objects (squirrels). Only the guinea pig did not handle food with its paws, suggesting its behavior is regressive. The existence of a core pattern of paw and digit use in rodents suggests that skilled limb and paw movements originate at least with the common ancestors of the rodent, and likely the common ancestor to

  5. Immunoperoxidase staining of alveolar hydatid cyst from an experimentally infected gerbil.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2003-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis, the small fox tapeworm, has an extensive geographical range in the northern hemisphere where foxes and small rodents represent natural hosts. The larval stage of this parasite, alveolar echinococcosis (AE), is an emerging zoonosis of increasing importance. It is a serious human illness which is often misdiagnosed as hepatic cancer. If not identified at an early stage of parasite development it can lead to the death of patients. Histological examination of biopsies is one of the classical methods of diagnosis. In this study, in order to gain unequivocal histopathological diagnosis of AE, the immunoperoxidase staining technique was performed on routinely processed histological sections of an experimentally infected gerbil, using rabbit anti-E. multilocularis protoscolex IgG labelled with horseradish peroxidase. Demonstration of AE antigen was achieved by dark brown stain of cyst membranes against a blue background of the host liver cells stained with hematoxylin.

  6. Response properties of gerbil otolith afferents to small angle pitch and roll tilts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, J. D.; Angelaki, D. E.; Correia, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The responses from isolated single otolith afferent fibers were obtained to small angle sinusoidal pitch and roll tilts in anesthetized gerbils. The stimulus directions that produced the maximum (response vector) and minimum response sensitivities were determined for each otolith afferent, with response vectors for the units being spread throughout the horizontal plane, similar to those reported for other species. A breadth of tuning measure was derived, with narrowly tuned neurons responding maximally to stimulation in one direction and minimally along an orthogonal ('null') direction. Most (approximately 80%) otolith afferents are narrowly tuned, however, some fibers were broadly tuned responding significantly to stimulations in any direction in the horizontal plane. The number of broadly tuned otolith afferents (approximately 20%) differs significantly from the more substantial number of broadly tuned vestibular nuclei neurons (88%) recently reported in rats.

  7. Interleukin-6 receptor expression and localization after transient global ischemia in gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Florence; Herrmann, Martina; Otten, Uwe; Nitsch, Cordula

    2003-04-24

    Ischemia results in increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in the brain. To prove a connection between IL-6 upregulation and IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression following ischemia, we analyzed cell-type specific expression changes of IL-6R using transient global ischemia in the gerbil as a model. In sham operated animals, IL-6R mRNA and protein were mainly detected in hippocampal pyramidal cells and interneurons. After ischemia, IL-6R was expressed in neurons but there was no increase during the peak IL-6 expression. Neuronal IL-6R mRNA and protein decreased in parallel with pyramidal cell death, starting 2 days after ischemia. Double-labeling experiments revealed that in postischemic hippocampus IL-6R was not present in GFAP-reactive astrocytes but that the surviving parvalbumin containing interneurons expressed IL-6R mRNA.

  8. Comparison of albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel chemotherapy of Echinococcus multilocularis in a gerbil model.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D H; Morris, D L; Reffin, D; Richards, K S

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of albendazole (50 mg/kg/d), mebendazole (50 mg/kg/d) and praziquantel (500 mg/kg/d) against established intraperitoneal infections of Echinococcus multilocularis in gerbils was compared by monitoring parasite weight and making ultrastructural observations on treated and untreated material. Praziquantel was the most active protoscolicidal agent, reducing protoscolex viability to less than 2%, although it did not inhibit cyst growth. Albendazole was the most effective agent in reducing cyst growth and was, when compared with other regimes significantly more effective than mebendazole (p less than 0.05), praziquantel (p less than 0.01) or untreated controls (p less than 0.01). Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:2583567

  9. Potential effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection on glucose metabolism of Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Li, Wei; He, Cong; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-11-28

    To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on metabolic parameters in Mongolian gerbils. A total of 40 male, 5- to 8-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free Mongolian gerbils (30-50 g) were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group (n = 20) and an H. pylori group (n = 20). After a two-week acclimation period, the control group was administered Brucella broth and the H. pylori group was challenged intra-gastrically five times every other day with approximately 10(9)/CFU H. pylori ATCC43504 (CagA+, VacA+). Each group was then divided into two subgroups, which were sacrificed at either 6 or 12 mo. The control and H. pylori subgroups each contained 10 Mongolian gerbils. Body weight, abdominal circumference, and body length were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and Lee's index were calculated. Biochemical assays were used to detect serum indexes, including glucose, glycated hemoglobin (GHb), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol, using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN)-γ, were assayed using ELISA. The expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and islet apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. At each time point, body weight, abdominal circumference, BMI, and Lee's index were increased after H. pylori infection. However, these differences were not significant. H. pylori infection significantly increased the GHb (5.45 ± 0.53 vs 4.98 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and HbA1c (4.91 ± 0.61 vs 4.61 ± 0.15, P < 0.05) levels at 12 mo. We observed no significant differences in serum biochemical indexes, including fasting blood glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, at 6 or 12 mo after infection. H. pylori infection significantly increased the

  10. Potential effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection on glucose metabolism of Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Li, Wei; He, Cong; Xie, Chuan; Zhu, Yin; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on metabolic parameters in Mongolian gerbils. METHODS: A total of 40 male, 5- to 8-wk-old, specific-pathogen-free Mongolian gerbils (30-50 g) were randomly allocated into two groups: a control group (n = 20) and an H. pylori group (n = 20). After a two-week acclimation period, the control group was administered Brucella broth and the H. pylori group was challenged intra-gastrically five times every other day with approximately 109/CFU H. pylori ATCC43504 (CagA+, VacA+). Each group was then divided into two subgroups, which were sacrificed at either 6 or 12 mo. The control and H. pylori subgroups each contained 10 Mongolian gerbils. Body weight, abdominal circumference, and body length were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and Lee’s index were calculated. Biochemical assays were used to detect serum indexes, including glucose, glycated hemoglobin (GHb), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triacylglycerol, and total cholesterol, using an automatic biochemistry analyzer. Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon (IFN)-γ, were assayed using ELISA. The expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and islet apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. RESULTS: At each time point, body weight, abdominal circumference, BMI, and Lee’s index were increased after H. pylori infection. However, these differences were not significant. H. pylori infection significantly increased the GHb (5.45 ± 0.53 vs 4.98 ± 0.22, P < 0.05) and HbA1c (4.91 ± 0.61 vs 4.61 ± 0.15, P < 0.05) levels at 12 mo. We observed no significant differences in serum biochemical indexes, including fasting blood glucose, triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, at 6 or 12 mo after infection. H. pylori infection

  11. Cold adaptive thermogenesis in small mammals from different geographical zones of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Sun, R; Huang, C; Wang, Z; Liu, X; Hou, J; Liu, J; Cai, L; Li, N; Zhang, S; Wang, Y

    2001-07-01

    The mechanisms of thermogenesis and thermoregulation were studied in the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) and greater vole (Eothenomys miletus) of the subtropical region, and Brandt's vole (Microtus brandti), Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), Daurian ground squirrel (Spermophilus dauricus) and plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) of the northern temperate zone. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) increased significantly in T. belangeri, E. miletus, M. brandti and M. unguiculatus after cold acclimation (4 degrees C) for 4 weeks. In T. belangeri, the increase in RMR and thermogenesis at liver cellular level were responsible for enhancing the capacity of enduring cold stress, and homeothermia was simultaneously extended. Stable body temperature in M. brandti, E. miletus, M. unguiculatus and O. curzoniae was maintained mainly through increase in NST, brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and its mitochondrial protein content, and the upregulation of uncoupling protein (UCP1) mRNA, as well as enhancement of the activity of cytochrome C oxidase, alpha-glycerophosphate oxidase and T(4) 5'-deiodinase in BAT mitochondria. The RMR in O. curzoniae and euthermic S. dauricus was not changed, while NST significantly increased during cold exposure; the former maintained their stable body temperature and mass, while body temperature in the latter declined by 4.8 degrees C. The serum T(3) concentration or ratio of T(3)/T(4) in all the species was enhanced after cold acclimation. Results indicated that: (1) the adaptive mechanisms of T. belangeri residing in the subtropical region to cold are primarily by increasing RMR and secondly by increasing NST, and the mechanisms of thermogenesis are similar to those in tropical mammals; (2) in small mammals residing in northern regions, the adaptation to cold is chiefly to increase NST; (3) the mechanism of cold-induced thermogenesis in E. miletus residing in subtropical and high mountain regions is similar to that

  12. Elastic characterization of the gerbil pars flaccida from in situ inflation experiments.

    PubMed

    Aernouts, Jef; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2011-10-01

    In hearing science, finite element modelling is used commonly to study the mechanical behaviour of the middle ear. Correct quantitative elasticity parameters are an important input in these models. However, up till now, no large deformation elastic characterization of the pars flaccida, a small part of the tympanic membrane, has been carried out. In this paper, an elastic characterization of the gerbil pars flaccida is presented. The gerbil is used frequently as animal model in middle ear mechanics research. Characterization was done via inverse analysis of in situ static pressure inflation experiments. As a first approach, the pars flaccida was modelled as a linear homogeneous isotropic elastic membrane, which resulted in an average Young's modulus of = (41.0 ± 0.4) kPa. It was found that linear elastic modelling cannot describe inflation stagnation at high pressures. Therefore, in a second approach, the Veronda-Westmann hyperelastic model was introduced. This was able to describe curve stagnation, the mean parameters that were found are = (3.1 ± 0.4) kPa and = (2.5 ± 0.2). Finally, in situ strain was considered in the finite element models which resulted in a better description of the behaviour for small pressures. Incorporating this, the optimal Veronda-Westmann parameters are = (2.6 ± 0.6) kPa, = (1.4 ± 0.2) kPa for a radial in situ strain of <εR> = (12 ± 2)%. In conclusion, this paper shows that a linear elastic material is not appropriate to describe pars flaccida's behaviour in the quasi-static pressure regime, that the currently used membrane stiffness estimates do not hold for large deformations and that incorporating an in situ strain in the models is necessary for a good description for small static pressures.

  13. The Harderian gland of the Cheesman's gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani ) of the Kuwaiti desert.

    PubMed

    Sabry, I; Al-Azemi, M; Al-Ghaith, L

    2000-04-01

    The Harderian gland is a large orbital structure. Several functions have been ascribed to the gland such as lubrication of the eye, a source of pheromones, thermoregulartory lipids and photoprotective secretions and a part of the retinal-pineal axis. In the present study, the Harderian gland of the Cheesman's gerbil, Gerbillus cheesmani, is described for the first time. The gland is located around the posterior portion of the eyeball. The gland is compound tubular, surrounded by a thin connective tissue capsule. Only one secretory epithelial cell type was recognized, characterized by the presence of lipid vacuoles and cytoplasmic slashes in high numbers; the former being more concentrated towards the apical part while the latter being more concentrated towards the central and basal parts. Some of the cytoplasmic slashes contained electron dense filamentous structures. Similar structures were observed in the lipid vacuoles. Thus, a functional relationship between the cytoplasmic slashes and the lipid vacuoles is suggested. A unique structure was observed, termed dome-like cells, located between the epithelial cells and the basement membrane. These cells were characterized by the extensive presence of pleomorphic mitochondria and compact lamellae of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER) in the form of finger prints. The gland was found to be actively secreting porphyrins as well as lipids. Cellular debris was also seen in the tubular lumina. Myoepithelial cells with their spindle shape and elongated nuclei were evident between the basement membrane and the secretory epithelium. Sparse interstitial tissue was observed in-between the gland tubules of both male and female gerbils. Macrophages, dendritic melanocytes and lymphocytes are the most represented cellular components of the interstitium. Further studies are required to investigate the function of the dome-like cells as well as the role of lymphocytes in the rodents Harderian gland.

  14. Tissue changes in senescent gerbil prostate after hormone deprivation leads to acquisition of androgen insensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Silvana G P; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Scarano, Wellerson R; Corradi, Lara S; Santos, Fernanda C A; Custodio, Ana M G; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the response of the prostate epithelium of senescent gerbils submitted to orchiectomy and with or without steroidal blockade. Animals were divided into five groups, all surgically castrated except the control group composed of intact animals. In the experimental groups, doses of flutamide and/or tamoxifen were applied for 1, 3, 7 and 30 days postcastration. The structural methods applied reveal that castration, whether associated or not with anti-steroidal drugs, promoted short- and long-term decrease in wet and relative weights of the prostate. The quantitative decline of epithelial compartment proportion observed at the end of treatment was due to the sum of slight changes in the epithelium and lumen. The apoptotic index had risen significantly at 1 day and declined at 7 days postcastration. Androgen receptor (AR) expression decreased after 3 days of hormonal ablation, coinciding with the highest levels of apoptosis and cell proliferation observed in all treated groups. The majority of cells remained differentiated in all groups due to CK 8/18 expression. Some animals remained with injuries such as carcinomas and adenocarcinomas after hormonal ablation. In the latter a mixture of AR-positive and AR-negative cells was identified. Microinvasive carcinomas found in the group treated for 30 days consisted of PCNA-positive, inflammatory and non-proliferating cells. Low apoptosis incidence and bcl-2 positive cells were observed in these lesions. The treatments promoted a reduction of lesions in older gerbils, but treatment-resistant tumours will improve understanding of the events that lead to hormone resistance. PMID:20353424

  15. Effect of short-term gravitational unloading on rat and mongolian gerbil muscles.

    PubMed

    Ogneva, Irina V; Kurushin, Vsevolod A; Altaeva, Erzhena G; Ponomareva, Elena V; Shenkman, Boris S

    2009-12-01

    Gravitational unloading leads to destructive changes in the structure and function of muscle fibers. However, the role of the EMG activity level is still unclear. We measured changes caused by one- and three-day hypogravity in the following muscles: Soleus (Sol), Tibialis anterior (TA) and Gastrocnemius c.m. (MG). We used Wistar rats and Mongolian gerbils. The following parameters were assessed: the specific force of contraction of isolated fibers by tensometry, the transverse stiffness of the contractile apparatus by atomic force microscopy, and the calcium content by Fluo-4. We detected the accumulation of calcium ions in all muscles even after one-day unloading. In Sol this effect was more significant than in other muscles. After one-day of hypogravity we detected an increase in the specific force in all muscle types and species. Meanwhile, the transverse stiffness of the contractile apparatus, M-band and Z-disc increased only in fast muscles but not in Sol. After three-days of unloading, the specific force in Sol decreased, and the transverse stiffness of the contractile apparatus behaved in the same way as the force. The specific tension of fast muscle fibers decreased significantly in comparison with one-day unloading. In addition, the transverse stiffness of some areas of MG had a tendency to decrease in comparison to "one-day" unloading, although there was no such a tendency in the fibers of TA. In Mongolian gerbils the tendencies were the same as in the rats, but showed less dramatic changes. The reduction in the magnitude of changes in the Sol-MG-TA series correlates with EMG activity.

  16. Tissue changes in senescent gerbil prostate after hormone deprivation leads to acquisition of androgen insensitivity.

    PubMed

    Campos, Silvana G P; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Scarano, Wellerson R; Corradi, Lara S; Santos, Fernanda C A; Custodio, Ana M G; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2010-10-01

    The present study examined the response of the prostate epithelium of senescent gerbils submitted to orchiectomy and with or without steroidal blockade. Animals were divided into five groups, all surgically castrated except the control group composed of intact animals. In the experimental groups, doses of flutamide and/or tamoxifen were applied for 1, 3, 7 and 30 days postcastration. The structural methods applied reveal that castration, whether associated or not with anti-steroidal drugs, promoted short- and long-term decrease in wet and relative weights of the prostate. The quantitative decline of epithelial compartment proportion observed at the end of treatment was due to the sum of slight changes in the epithelium and lumen. The apoptotic index had risen significantly at 1 day and declined at 7 days postcastration. Androgen receptor (AR) expression decreased after 3 days of hormonal ablation, coinciding with the highest levels of apoptosis and cell proliferation observed in all treated groups. The majority of cells remained differentiated in all groups due to CK 8/18 expression. Some animals remained with injuries such as carcinomas and adenocarcinomas after hormonal ablation. In the latter a mixture of AR-positive and AR-negative cells was identified. Microinvasive carcinomas found in the group treated for 30 days consisted of PCNA-positive, inflammatory and non-proliferating cells. Low apoptosis incidence and bcl-2 positive cells were observed in these lesions. The treatments promoted a reduction of lesions in older gerbils, but treatment-resistant tumours will improve understanding of the events that lead to hormone resistance. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Nitric Oxidergic Cells Related to Ejaculation in Gerbil Forebrain Contain Androgen Receptor and Respond to Testosterone

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Danielle A.; Yahr, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Two clusters of forebrain neurons—one in the posterodorsal preoptic nucleus (PdPN) and one in the lateral part of the posterodorsal medial amygdala (MeApd)—are activated at ejaculation in male rats and gerbils as seen with Fos immunocytochemistry. To understand the functions of these cells and how they respond synchronously, it may be useful to identify their neurotransmitters. Nitric oxide (NO) was of interest because its levels in the preoptic area affect ejaculation, and it could synchronize clustered neurons through paracrine/volume transmission. Thus, we determined whether the ejaculation-related cells produce NO by assessing Fos co-localization with NO synthase (NOS) in recently mated male gerbils. We also studied NOS-Fos co-localization in the medial part of the medial pre-optic nucleus (MPNm), where half of the neurons that express Fos after mating reflect ejaculation. We also quantified NOS co-localization with androgen receptor (AR) and NOS sensitivity to androgens at these sites. Without quantification, we extended these analyses throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Many mating-activated PdPN, lateral MeApd, and MPNm cells contained NOS (32–54%), and many NOS neurons at these sites expressed Fos (34–51%) or AR (25–69%). PdPN and MPNm NOS cells were sensitive to testosterone but not its androgenic metabolite dihydrotestosterone. The overall distribution of NOS and NOS-AR cells was similar to that in rats. These data suggest that NO may help to synchronize the activation of PdPN and lateral MeApd neurons at ejaculation and that NOS in PdPN and MPNm cells is regulated by testosterone acting via estradiol or without undergoing metabolism. PMID:21280043

  18. Effects of early exposure to ventral gland odor on physical and behavioral development and adult social behavior in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Blum, S L; Balsiger, D; Ricci, J S; Spiegel, D K

    1975-12-01

    Comparisons were made between male and female gerbils reared by ventral gland-excised and intact patents. Repeated measurements before and after puberty failed to reveal an effect of gland odor exposure on body weight, ventral gland size, open-field defecation, and time of vaginal opening. Exposed animals were more attracted than nonexposed animals to a strange male's gland odor during preference tests involving "marked" and "unmarked" paper strips. Opposite-sex pairs of exposed animals engaged in more social behavior than did nonexposed pairs, but there was no difference in fighting frequency or, during extended cohabiitation, in fecundity. While early exposure to gland odor apparently does not affect physical maturation, it may enhance later responsiveness to stimuli (gland odors) that are useful in locating conspecifics and that facilitate social interactions between previously unacquainted gerbils.

  19. Ischemic preconditioning decreases intracellular zinc accumulation induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    PubMed

    Miyawaki, Takahiro; Yokota, Hidenori; Oguro, Keiji; Kato, Kengo; Shimazaki, Kuniko

    2004-05-27

    In normal gerbils, intracellular zinc ions ([Zn2+]i) and calcium ions ([Ca2+]i) accumulate in hippocampal CA1 neurons after global ischemia. We examined whether ischemic preconditioning modifies these changes in gerbil hippocampal slices. In normal slices, large increases in [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i were observed in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 area after oxygen-glucose deprivation. In preconditioned slices, there were significantly decreased peak levels of [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i in CA1. However, there were no differences in the peak levels of these ions in CA3 and dentate gyrus. These results suggest that modified [Zn2+]i and [Ca2+]i accumulation after an ischemic insult might be important for the mechanisms of ischemic tolerance induced by preconditioning.

  20. A Phytochemically characterized extract of Cordyceps militaris and cordycepin protect hippocampal neurons from ischemic injury in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Koo; Lim, Soon Sung; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Yeon Sil; Kim, Ho Gyoung; Kang, Il-Jun; Kwon, Hyung Joo; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Won, Moo-Ho

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of the dried, hot-water extract of Cordyceps militaris (CME) and its major metabolite (cordycepin) against ischemic damage. The repeated treatment with CME protected hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic damage in gerbils. The treatment with CME or cordycepin in gerbils reduced 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (a marker of lipid peroxidation) immunoreactivity and levels in the ischemic CA1 region. Glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive astrocytes and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 immunoreactive microglia in the vehicle-treated ischemic group were activated in the CA1 region 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion, whereas in the CME- or cordycepin-treated ischemic group, their activation was significantly decreased. These results suggest that the repeated treatment with CME protects against neuronal damage from ischemia/reperfusion by reducing oxidative damage.

  1. [Visceral lesions in mammals and birds exposed to agents of human cercarial dermatitis].

    PubMed

    Bayssade-Dufour, Ch; Vuong, P N; René, M; Martin-Loehr, C; Martins, C

    2002-11-01

    Over the past few years, the cercarial dermatitis has become a new problem of public health, obviously linked to the prolonged stay of migrant birds on our territory. This is a skin affection characterized by pruriginous and papulous eruptions caused by penetration of avian bilharzian larvae under the skin. These larvae are emitted by molluscs, mostly limneids. In aquatic birds, especially in migrating Anatidae, these larvae reach the visceral vessels, become adults in a few weeks, lay eggs, then degenerate. Corresponding miracidia contaminate new limneids. Since 1993, the total number of annual cases of cercarial dermatitis has increased from only ten to thousands in France and the affection rages in pools where limneids, migrating water birds and swimmers gather together. Fever, respiratory and/or digestive allergic symptoms appear in some cases. This clinical pattern has encouraged to undertake research on the future of these bilharzian larvae in mammals organism. A preliminary investigation on a rodent model showed that, once the skin barrier had been crossed, the schistosomulae migrated into the lungs of the host; there they survived a week and induced lesions. The goal of this study is to carry on the research, over a longer period, after exposure to cercariae, simultaneously in mammals and birds, with two species of bilharziae present in France. The selected models are the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus for mammals, and the ducks Anas platyrhynchos and Cairina moschata, for birds. 5 M. unguiculatus and 2 A. platyrhynchos were exposed to cercariae emitted by Radix auricularia; 2 gerbils and 5 A. platyryhnchos to larvae of R. peregra, 3 C. moschata to larvae emitted by two species of molluscs: 70-230 from R. auricularia and 330-585 from R. peregra. 5 gerbils died between 2 and 5 weeks after exposure, 2 gerbils sacrificed early, served as control animals for skin manifestations. Eight ducks were sacrificed between 2 and 4 weeks after; the 2 last ones, exposed

  2. [An experimental study on ischemically induced brain damage by whole body calorimetry and pathohistology in the gerbil].

    PubMed

    Kishi, H

    1998-05-01

    Moderate hypothermia has been reported to mitigate neuronal damage in the gerbil brain following brief periods of forebrain ischemia, but the relationship between brain damage and whole body calorimetry has not been clarified. We report the effect of hypothermia on the brain damage by whole body calorimetry using Bio Dynamic Calorimeter (BDC200, ESCO Ltd JAPAN). Although it is an indirect method, whole body calorimetry may be able to measure the brain damage, thereby enabling investigations on alleviation of brain damage.

  3. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug. PMID:27006947

  4. A comparative histopathology, serology and molecular study, on experimental ocular toxocariasis by Toxocara cati in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Zibaei, Mohammad; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Karamian, Mehdi; Uga, Shoji; Oryan, Ahmad; Jahadi-Hosseini, Seyed Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the performance of three in-house diagnostic tests, that is, histopathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for the diagnosis after experimental infection with Toxocara cati. Twenty Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats were divided into ten groups (n = 2/group). Toxocara cati infections were established in Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats by administering doses of 240 and 2500 embryonated Toxocara cati eggs by gavage, respectively. Tissue sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin and observed under the light microscope. Sera and vitreous fluid collected from separate infected groups were tested against Toxocara cati antigens, for 92 days postinfection. Genomic DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and aqueous fluids belong to the animals. The histopathology test gave negative results among the groups of animals examined between 5 and 92 days postinfection. The ELISA results showed that anti-Toxocara antibodies have risen between 7 and 61 days postinfection in sera and vitreous fluid in the animals infected, respectively. Analysis of PCR products revealed positive band (660 bp) in the orbital tissue infected Mongolian gerbils at 5 days postinfection. Of the three evaluated methods, the PCR could be recommended for scientific and laboratory diagnoses of toxocariasis in experimentally infected animals.

  5. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wasserberg, G.; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  6. Combined histological and hematological assessment of iron-induced organ damage in a gerbil model of iron overload

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Man; Liu, Rong-Rong; Wang, Cong-Jun; Kang, Wei; Yang, Gao-Hui; Zhong, Wu-Ning; Lai, Yong-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies with gerbil models have suggested that excessive iron exposure causes cardiomyopathy and hepatic injury, but pathological analysis was not comprehensive, preventing a detailed understanding of how the metal induces this damage. Methods and results: Gerbils received single intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (200 mg/kg) or saline and were then analyzed comprehensively for hematological and histological signs of organ damage. These tests included hematology parameters and determination of liver iron concentration, malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activity; examination of heart and liver tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian-blue and Masson stain; and electron microscopy analysis of heart and liver ultrastructure. Iron-overloaded animals showed significantly different hematology parameters and significantly higher liver iron concentrations than saline-injected animals, as well as significantly higher malondialdehyde levels and significantly lower glutathione peroxidase activity. Histology analyses showed cellular damage, iron deposits, and both myocardial and liver fibrosis, while electron microscopy of heart and liver sections showed abundant iron deposition lysosomes, and disordered and swollen mitochondria. All these pathological changes increased with exposure time. Conclusions: This comprehensive assessment of iron overload in a gerbil model suggests that excessive iron deposition induces extensive cellular damage, particularly fibrosis in heart and liver. This damage may be the direct result of iron-mediated lipid peroxide damage and of iron deposition that cause compression of myocardial and liver cells, as well as vascular occlusion. PMID:25901205

  7. Selection of genes associated with variations in the Circle of Willis in gerbils using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenkun; Huo, Xueyun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Lu, Jing; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Fu, Rui; He, Zhengming; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2015-01-01

    Deformities in the Circle of Willis (CoW) can significantly increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deformities have not been understood. Based on our previous studies, variations in the CoW of gerbils are hereditary. A normal CoW is observed in approximately 60% of gerbils, a percentage that also applies to humans. Thus, gerbil is an ideal experimental model for studying variations in the CoW. To study the mechanisms underlying these variations, we selected genes associated with different types of the CoW using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). After evaluating the efficiency of SSH using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on subtracted and unsubtracted cDNA and Southern blotting on SSH PCR products, 12 SSH libraries were established. We identified 4 genes (CST3, GNAS, GPx4 and PFN2) associated with variations in the CoW. These genes were identified with qPCR and Western blotting using 70 expressed sequence tags from the SSH libraries. Cloning and sequencing allowed us to demonstrate that the 4 genes were closely related to mouse genes. We may assume that these 4 genes play an important role in the development of variations in the CoW. This study provides a foundation for further research of genes related to development of variations in the CoW and the mechanisms of dysmorphosis of cerebral vessels.

  8. Delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after forebrain ischemia in hyperglycemic gerbils: amelioration by indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Kondo, F; Kondo, Y; Makino, H; Ogawa, N

    2000-01-17

    Hyperglycemia worsens ischemic-induced neuronal damage. Many reports argue the delayed neuronal cell death (DND) after forebrain ischemia in gerbils is due to apoptosis. We examined the effects of hyperglycemia and indomethacin on DND after forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Complete occlusion of both common carotid arteries was performed for 3.5 min followed by declamping and reperfusion. Blood glucose levels were maintained at 25-30 mmol/1 for 24 h after reperfusion in the hyperglycemic groups. We examined morphological changes consistent with DND using Nissel-stained sections and DNA fragmentation using TUNEL staining, at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120 h, and 7 days after reperfusion. DND was noted 96-120 h after ischemia in normoglycemic group. Hyperglycemia enhanced the development of DND at an earlier stage (48-84 h after ischemia). TUNEL positive neurons were detected 72-108 h after reperfusion in normoglycemic group, but very few TUNEL positive neurons were detected in hyperglycemic group at 36-48 h. Indomethacin reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in normoglycemia and completely inhibited the appearance of TUNEL-positive cells under hyperglycemia. The number of viable neurons at 7 days after ischemia was markedly higher in indomethacin-treated groups than vehicle-treated group. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia worsens DND after forebrain ischemia in gerbils but such process is not associated with DNA fragmentation. Our results also showed that indomethacin provides a neuroprotective effect in normo- and hyperglycemic conditions.

  9. Effect of swine hepatitis E virus on the livers of experimentally infected Mongolian gerbils by swine hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifei; Shi, Ruihan; She, Ruiping; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Mao, Jingjing; Du, Fang; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Can

    2015-10-02

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted between rats, pigs, cattle, rabbits, chicken, cats, and deer. Because wild and domestic rodents have anti-HEV antibodies, they are considered potential reservoirs of HEV. In the current study, Mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with swine hepatitis E virus and the effects of this infection were investigated. After inoculation with HEV, the liver-to-body weight ratio increased at 7 dpi. Mongolian gerbils demonstrated significant increase (p<0.05) in Aspartate Transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) concentrations in the sera, and HEV IgG was detected at 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Real-time PCR revealed that the copies of HEV RNA in the liver were detected at 7 dpi, and peaked at 28 dpi at a concentration of 7.73 logs g(-1). Using both light and electron microscopy, hepatic lesions were observed in the HEV inoculated animals. In the experimental group, characteristic viral hepatitis lesions were prominent in the liver. HEV antigen was detected in the liver by immunohistochemistry, and HEV ORF3 antigen was detectable in liver by Western blot. These results clearly demonstrate that viral load of HEV in livers was dynamic, and ultrastructural hepatic injury in HEV infected Mongolian gerbils and anti-HEV IgG positive seroconversion were observed during infection.

  10. A study of intraspecies variations of Indian gerbil, Tatera indica Hardwicke, 1807 (Muridae, Rodentia) in Eastern Border of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, A; Meshkani, J

    2010-01-15

    In this study, 93 specimens of adult Indian Gerbil (Tatera indica) were collected by live-trap from different localities of Eastern Border of Iran. Specimens were collected among 3 populations from Torbat-e-Jam, Sistan and Chabahar with North longitude 60 degrees-61.5 degrees and East latitude 25.50 degrees-35.50 degrees. At first, external and cranial characters were measured and then ratio of measured characters to head and body length were calculated. It showed that there are differences in characters of Indian gerbils in various latitudes while ratio of measured characters to head and body length were compared between these 3 populations. These differences are more obvious in Chabahar so that 16 from 23 characters are significantly higher than those in Torbat-e-Jam and Sistan and 3 characters are significantly lower than those from two other localities. Also, 4 characters have no significant difference in these populations. The result of MANCOVA showed that there are no significant differences between sexes. This study tries to shed some more light on the effect of climate changes and height on morphometric changes of Indian gerbil in Eastern border of Iran.

  11. Dependence of the Startle Response on Temporal and Spectral Characteristics of Acoustic Modulatory Influences in Rats and Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Steube, Natalie; Nowotny, Manuela; Pilz, Peter K. D.; Gaese, Bernhard H.

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation by non-startling prepulses, presented shortly before the startle-eliciting stimulus, is a broadly applied test paradigm to determine changes in neural processing related to auditory or psychiatric disorders. Modulation by a gap in background noise as a prepulse is especially used for tinnitus assessment. However, the timing and frequency-related aspects of prepulses are not fully understood. The present study aims to investigate temporal and spectral characteristics of acoustic stimuli that modulate the ASR in rats and gerbils. For noise-burst prepulses, inhibition was frequency-independent in gerbils in the test range between 4 and 18 kHz. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) by noise-bursts in rats was constant in a comparable range (8–22 kHz), but lower outside this range. Purely temporal aspects of prepulse–startle-interactions were investigated for gap-prepulses focusing mainly on gap duration. While very short gaps had no (rats) or slightly facilitatory (gerbils) influence on the ASR, longer gaps always had a strong inhibitory effect. Inhibition increased with durations up to 75 ms and remained at a high level of inhibition for durations up to 1000 ms for both, rats and gerbils. Determining spectral influences on gap-prepulse inhibition (gap-PPI) revealed that gerbils were unaffected in the limited frequency range tested (4–18 kHz). The more detailed analysis in rats revealed a variety of frequency-dependent effects. Gaps in pure-tone background elicited constant and high inhibition (around 75%) over a broad frequency range (4–32 kHz). For gaps in noise-bands, on the other hand, a clear frequency-dependency was found: inhibition was around 50% at lower frequencies (6–14 kHz) and around 70% at high frequencies (16–20 kHz). This pattern of frequency-dependency in rats was specifically resulting from the inhibitory effect by the gaps, as revealed by detailed analysis of the underlying startle amplitudes. An

  12. Transmission efficiency of the plague pathogen (Y. pestis) by the flea, Xenopsylla skrjabini, to mice and great gerbils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujiang; Dai, Xiang; Wang, Qiguo; Chen, Hongjian; Meng, Weiwei; Wu, Kemei; Luo, Tao; Wang, Xinhui; Rehemu, Azhati; Guo, Rong; Yu, Xiaotao; Yang, Ruifu; Cao, Hanli; Song, Yajun

    2015-05-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by Yersinia pestis, is characterized by its ability to persist in the plague natural foci. Junggar Basin plague focus was recently identified in China, with Rhombomys opimus (great gerbils) and Xenopsylla skrjabini as the main reservoir and vector for plague. No transmission efficiency data of X. skrjabini for Y. pestis is available till now. In this study, we estimated the median infectious dose (ID50) and the blockage rates of X. skrjabini with Y. pestis, by using artificial feeders. We then evaluated the flea transmission ability of Y. pestis to the mice and great gerbils via artificial bloodmeal feeding. Finally, we investigated the transmission of Y. pestis to mice with fleas fed by infected great gerbils. ID50 of Y. pestis to X. skrjabini was estimated as 2.04 × 10(5) CFU (95% CI, 1.45 × 10(5) - 3.18 × 10(5) CFU), around 40 times higher than that of X. cheopis. Although fleas fed by higher bacteremia bloodmeal had higher infection rates for Y. pestis, they lived significantly shorter than their counterparts. X. skrjabini could get fully blocked as early as day 3 post of infection (7.1%, 3/42 fleas), and the overall blockage rate of X. cheopis was estimated as 14.9% (82/550 fleas) during the 14 days of investigation. For the fleas infected by artificial feeders, they seemed to transmit plague more efficiently to great gerbils than mice. Our single flea transmission experiments also revealed that, the transmission capacity of naturally infected fleas (fed by infected great gerbils) was significantly higher than that of artificially infected ones (fed by artificial feeders). Our results indicated that ID50 of Y. pestis to X. skrjabini was higher than other fleas like X. cheopis, and its transmission efficiency to mice might be lower than other flea vectors in the artificial feeding modes. We also found different transmission potentials in the artificially infected fleas and the naturally infected ones. Further studies are

  13. Ischemia-induced degeneration of CA1 pyramidal cells decreases seizure severity in a subgroup of epileptic gerbils and affects parvalbumin immunoreactivity of CA1 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Winkler, D T; Scotti, A L; Nitsch, C

    2001-04-01

    Mongolian gerbils are epilepsy-prone animals. In adult gerbils two major groups can be differentiated according to their seizure behavior: Highly seizure-sensitive gerbils exhibit facial and forelimb clonus or generalized tonic-clonic seizures from the first test on, while kindled-like gerbils are seizure free for the first three to six consecutive tests, later develop forelimb myoclonus, and eventually progress to generalized tonic-clonic seizures. In the hippocampus, seizure history of the individual animal is mirrored in the intensity in which GABAergic neurons are immunostained for the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin: they lose parvalbumin with increasing seizure incidence. In a first step to clarify the influence of hippocampal projection neurons on spontaneous seizure behavior and related parvalbumin expression, we induced degeneration of the CA1 pyramidal cells by transient forebrain ischemia. This results in a decreased seizure sensitivity in highly seizure-sensitive gerbils. The kindling-like process, however, is not permanently blocked by the ischemic nerve cell loss, suggesting that an intact CA1 field is not a prerequisite for the development of seizure behavior. The seizure-induced loss of parvalbumin from the ischemia-resistant interneurons recovers after ischemia. Thus, changes in parvalbumin content brought about by repeated seizures are not permanent but can rather be modulated by novel stimuli.

  14. [Importance of Shaw's Jird Meriones shawii within the trophic components of the Barn Owl Tyto alba in steppic areas of Algeria].

    PubMed

    Sekour, Makhlouf; Souttou, Karim; Guerzou, Ahlem; Benbouzid, Noureddine; Guezoul, Omar; Ababsa, Labed; Denys, Christiane; Doumandji, Salaheddine

    2014-06-01

    The study of the diet of the Barn Owl in two steppic regions (M'Sila and Djelfa) located in the Algerian highlands is based on the analysis of the pellets of rejections collected in six stations. The analysis of 706 pellets resulting from the various stations made it possible to count 1380 individuals, represented by seven classes, 12 orders, 32 families, and 76 species of preys. The mammals are consumed with variable abundance rates between 59.1 % and 90.0 % whose predominance is assigned to the rodents (relative abundance: AR > 58 %). The latter constitute the most advantageous preys in biomass (61.4 ≤ B % ≤ 99.2). The most consumed prey is Meriones shawii, with variable rates between 31.9 % and 76.6 %. Generally, Tyto alba presents a diversified diet in the majority of the stations (0.69 ≤ E ≤ 0.76), except the station of Ain El-Hadjel (E = 0.35), with a low diversity and dominance of M. shawii (AR = 76.6 %). Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Helminth Infections of Meriones persicus (Persian Jird), Mus musculus (House Mice) and Cricetulus migratorius (Grey Hamster): A Cross-Sectional Study in Meshkin-Shahr District, Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    ZAREI, Zabiholah; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; HEIDARI, Zahra; DAVOODI, Jaber; SHABESTARI, Afshin; MOTEVALLI HAGHI, Afsaneh; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh; KIA, Eshrat Beigom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rodents have important role as reservoirs of different parasites. The aim of this study was to determine helminth parasites of abundant rodents in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province northwest Iran. Methods: From April 2014 to March 2015; 205 rodents including 118 Meriones persicus, 63 Mus musculus and 24 Cricetulus migratorius were collected, using live traps. All rodents were dissected and their different tissues examined for infectivity with helminth parasites. Results: Overall, 74.2% of rodents were infected with helminth parasites. The rate of infectivity in M. persicus, M. musculus and C. migratorius was 82.2%, 61.9%, 66.7%, respectively. In general, among all 205 rodents, the species and infection rates of helminthes were as follows: Nematoda: Trichuris sp. (46.8%), Capillaria hepatica (18.1%), Syphacia frederici (14.2%), Aspicularis tetraptera (3.4%), Trichuris rhombomidis (2%), Heligmosomom sp. (2%), Streptopharagus kuntzi (0.5%), Spiruridae gen. sp. (0.5%); Cestoda: Hymenolepis nana fraterna (16.6%) Hymenolepis diminuta (7.3%) tetratiridium of Mesocestoides sp. (1%), Paranoplocephala sp. (0.5%), Cysticercus fasciolaris (0.5%), Taenia endothoracicus larva (0.5%), and Acanthocephala: Moniliformis moniliformis (18.5%). Conclusions: Variable species of helminthes circulate in the rodents of the study area. Presence of several zoonotic species highlights the potential risk of infections for public health. PMID:28096855

  16. Carotenoid profiles in provitamin A-containing fruits and vegetables affect the bioefficacy in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Arscott, Sara A; Howe, Julie A; Davis, Christopher R; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-07-01

    Fruits and vegetables are rich sources of provitamin A carotenoids. We evaluated the vitamin A (VA) bioefficacy of a whole foods supplement (WFS) and its constituent green vegetables (Study 1) and a variety of fruits with varying ratios of provitamin A carotenoids (Study 2) in VA-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 77/study). After feeding a VA-deficient diet for 4 and 6 weeks in Studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets, equalized for VA, were fed for 4 and 3 weeks, respectively. Both studies utilized negative and VA-positive control groups. In Study 1, liver VA was highest in the VA group (0.82 +/- 0.16 micromol/liver, P < 0.05), followed by brussels sprouts (0.50 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver), Betanat (beta-carotene from Blakeslea trispora) (0.50 +/- 0.12 micromol/liver) and spinach (0.47 +/- 0.09 micromol/liver) groups, which did not differ from baseline. The WFS (0.44 +/- 0.06 micromol/liver) and kale (0.43 +/- 0.14 micromol/liver) groups had lower liver VA than the baseline group (P < 0.05), but did not differ from the brussels sprouts, Betanat and spinach groups. In Study 2, liver VA was highest in the orange (0.67 +/- 0.18 micromol/liver), papaya (0.67 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver) and VA (0.66 +/- 0.14 micromol/liver) groups, followed by the mango (0.58 +/- 0.09 micromol/liver) and tangerine (0.55 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver) groups. These groups did not differ from baseline. The banana group (0.47 +/- 0.15 micromol/liver) was unable to maintain baseline stores of VA and did not differ from the control (0.46 +/- 0.13 mumol/liver). These fruits (except banana), vegetables and the WFS were able to prevent VA deficiency in Mongolian gerbils and could be an effective part of food-based interventions to support VA nutrition in developing countries and worldwide.

  17. Alterations of interneurons of the gerbil hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia: effect of pitavastatin.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Toshiki; Hayakawa, Natsumi; Tounai, Hiroko; Sakuma, Mio; Kato, Hiroyuki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2005-11-01

    We investigated the immunohistochemical alterations of parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons in the hippocampus after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils in comparison with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-expressing interneurons. We also examined the effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor pitavastatin against the damage of neurons and interneurons in the hippocampus after cerebral ischemia. Severe neuronal damage was observed in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons 5 and 14 days after ischemia. The PV immunoreactivity was unchanged up to 2 days after ischemia. At 5 and 14 days after ischemia, in contrast, a conspicuous reduction of PV immunoreactivity was observed in interneurons of the hippocampal CA1 sector. Furthermore, a significant decrease of PV immunoreactivity was found in interneurons of the hippocampal CA3 sector. No damage of nNOS-immunopositive interneurons was detected in the gerbil hippocampus up to 1 day after ischemia. Thereafter, a decrease of nNOS immunoreactive interneurons was found in the hippocampal CA1 sector up to 14 days after ischemia. Pitavastatin significantly prevented the neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector 5 days after ischemia. Our immunohistochemical study also showed that pitavastatin prevented significant decrease of PV- and nNOS-positive interneurons in the hippocampus after ischemia. Double-labeled immunostainings showed that PV immunoreactivity was not found in nNOS-immunopositive interneurons of the brain. The present study demonstrates that cerebral ischemia can cause a loss of both PV- and nNOS-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampal CA1 sector. Our findings also show that the damage to nNOS-immunopositive interneurons may precede the neuronal cell loss in the hippocampal CA1 sector after ischemia and nNOS-positive interneurons may play some role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic diseases. Furthermore, our present study indicates that pitavastatin can

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils does not initiate hematological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chuan; Xu, Li-Yao; Li, Wei; Yang, Zhen; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection contributes to idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) onset in gerbils. METHODS: A total of 135 Mongolian gerbils were randomly divided into two groups: an H. pylori infection group and a control group. Both groups were fed the same diet and the same amount of food. Each group was then divided into three subgroups, which were sacrificed at 6, 12, or 18 mo for analysis. At each time point, arterial blood was collected from the abdominal aorta and a complete blood cell count was analyzed in the clinical laboratory in the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in platelet counts (938.00 ± 270.27/L vs 962.95 ± 162.56 × 109/L), red blood cell counts (8.11 ± 1.25/L vs 8.44 ± 1.48 × 1012/L), or hemoglobin levels (136.9 ± 8.76 g/L vs 123.21 ± 18.42 g/L) between the control and the H. pylori groups, respectively, at 18 mo. With the exception of the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), all other indicators, including white blood cell counts, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width, lymphocyte count, and lymphocyte count percentage, showed no significant differences between the control and H. pylori infection groups at each time point. The MCV in the H. pylori infection group (52.32 f/L ± 2.86 f/L) was significantly lower than the control group (55.63 ± 1.89 f/L) at 18 mo (P = 0.005), though no significant differences were observed at 6 (54.40 ± 2.44 f/L vs 53.30 ± 1.86 f/L) or 12 mo (53.73 ± 2.31 f/L vs 54.80 ± 3.34 f/L). CONCLUSION: A single H. pylori infection is insufficient to cause onset of ITP or IDA and other factors may be required for disease onset. PMID:25232266

  19. Biointeraction of sodium selenite and aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in the Mongolian gerbil

    SciTech Connect

    Lalor, J.H.; Llewellyn, G.C.

    1981-09-01

    The interaction of sodium selenite (Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/) and aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) was studied in 6-wk-old male Mongolian gerbils. Each of four groups of gerbils were fed one of the following diets during a 12-wk experimental period: control (commercial Chow), 5.0 ppm Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/, 12.8 ppm AFB/sub 1/, or 5.0 ppm Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + 12.8 ppm AFB/sub 1/. Animals receiving Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ in the diet, alone and with AFB/sub 1/, had a significantly lower mean total weight gain during the experiment than did control animals. Animals receiving both compounds together displayed a very high level of physical activity compared to the three other groups. Blood analysis showed no change in total leukocytes, but the relative percentage of lymphocytes increased and the percentage of neutrophils decreased concurrently in the order: control < AFB/sub 1/ < Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + AFB/sub 1/ < Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/. A significant reduction in organ weight relative to body weight was observed in the liver, kidney, and lung of the animals fed AFB/sub 1/ alone but only in the liver of those fed both Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ and AFB/sub 1/. No similar alterations were observed in the Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ group. Histopathological examination revealed considerably less hepatic damage in animals fed Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ with AFB/sub 1/ than in those receiving either compound alone. Renal and intestinal damage, however, was most severe in this double-treatment group. Hepatic protein analysis revealed two protein peaks in the Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 3/ + AFB/sub 1/ group that were absent in all other groups. It was concluded that these proteins may be selenoproteins directly or indirectly involved in the lower incidence of histopathological damage in this group.

  20. Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) in hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Hofmannová, Lada; Hlásková, Lenka; Květoňová, Dana; Vítovec, Jiří; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2014-03-17

    The morphological, biological, and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium hedgehog genotype are described, and the species name Cryptosporidium erinacei n. sp. is proposed to reflect its specificity for hedgehogs under natural and experimental conditions. Oocysts of C. erinacei are morphologically indistinguishable from Cryptosporidium parvum, measuring 4.5-5.8 μm (mean=4.9 μm) × 4.0-4.8 μm (mean=4.4 μm) with a length to width ratio of 1.13 (1.02-1.35) (n=100). Oocysts of C. erinacei obtained from a naturally infected European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) were infectious for naïve 8-week-old four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris); the prepatent period was 4-5 days post infection (DPI) and the patent period was longer than 20 days. C. erinacei was not infectious for 8-week-old SCID and BALB/c mice (Mus musculus), Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), or golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Phylogenetic analyses based on small subunit rRNA, 60 kDa glycoprotein, actin, Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein, thrombospondin-related adhesive protein of Cryptosporidium-1, and heat shock protein 70 gene sequences revealed that C. erinacei is genetically distinct from previously described Cryptosporidium species.

  1. Characterizing Wave Propagation in the Organ of Corti with Stroboscopic Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zosuls, Aleks; Rupprecht, Laura C.; Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Here we present the results from a new high-frequency mechanical stimulation system that was designed to provide more precise local excitation and motion sensing of the organ of Corti (OC/BM complex). It is based on mechanical tissue excitation via a small vibrating probe and measurement using stroboscopic video microscopy. The system is currently capable of measuring sub-micrometer motion at frequencies from DC to 60 kHz. Measurements were performed on excised Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) cochleae. The underside of the BM was mechanically stimulated in the direction normal to the membrane with a 20 μm diameter glass probe. Data was collected at multiple focal planes from the BM to the tectorial membrane in order to capture motion for cellular and extracellular structures. For this study, inner hair cell hair bundles and basilar membrane collagen fiber bundle regions of interest were selected and displacements quantified using a cross-correlation technique. Displacement magnitude and phase was measured as a function of distance from the probe and a function of stimulus frequency. At certain frequencies both magnitudes and phases decreased with distance from the probe in a manner that suggests that both direct longitudinal coupling and wave propagation were contributing to the responses.

  2. The reproductive tract of the male spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) and coagulation studies with other species.

    PubMed

    Peitz, B; Foreman, D; Schmitt, M

    1979-09-01

    The testes of the spiny mice showed asymmetry, the left being significantly heavier than the right (P = 0.025). Histological studies indicated that spermatozoa were first present in the testes of animals 35--45 days of age but the maturation of the accessory glands, especially the lateral prostates and coagulating glands, occurred later. The highest fructose concentration in the adult was in the lateral prostates (126.97 +/- 22.23 mg fructose/100 g, n = 5) and coagulating glands (99.38 +/- 17.65 mg fructose/100 g gland weight, n = 5). Coagulation tests of mixtures of extracts of seminal vesicles and coagulating glands from spiny mice and rats indicated that the vesiculase of the spiny mouse was active on rat substrates and vice versa. Cross-reactions of extracts of house mouse (Mus musculus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus), and guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus) seminal vesicles (substrate) and coagulating glands (vesiculase) with those of rats and spiny mice showed that although the substrates of rat and spiny mouse were readily coagulated by vesiculase from all the other species, rat and spiny mouse vesiculase were not equally active on substrates of the other species.

  3. Histochemical characterization of cytotoxic brain edema. Potassium concentrations after cerebral ischemia and during the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Oehmichen, M; Ochs, U; Meissner, C

    2000-08-01

    Cytotoxic edema is a phenomenon of the ischemically damaged brain. In the present study we tested a histochemical method that detects this phenomenon based on potassium (K+) levels in the brain. In a first series focal cerebral ischemia was induced by arterial occlusion in 23 gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). After survival times of 30, 60 and 120 min, the animals were killed and brain section histochemically stained for potassium and quantitatively evaluated with a morphometric method. The results were compared with those using physicochemical techniques. A distinct K+ depletion could be demonstrated in the area of the focal ischemia within a survival time of 30 min, the depletion growing thereafter with increasing survival time. In a second series histochemical and chemical methods were used to study the stability of K+ levels in undamaged brains of 15 healthy rats during postmortem intervals of 2.5 and 5 h. Within these intervals K+ levels were clearly depleted, apparently as a result of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) diffusion. Even if neuronal injury can be demonstrated histochemically after very brief survival times of about 30 min, postmortem storage of the cadavers rendered detection impossible due to electrolyte and water diffusion. In autoptic human cases, therefore, this technique is of no practical utility in detecting cytotoxic brain edema in postmortem tissue.

  4. Key participants of the tumor microenvironment of the prostate: an approach of the structural dynamic of cellular elements and extracellular matrix components during epithelial-stromal transition.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Bianca F; Campos, Silvana G P de; Costa, Carolina F P; Scarano, Wellerson R; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a multistep process that begins with the transformation of normal epithelial cells and continues with tumor growth, stromal invasion and metastasis. The remodeling of the peritumoral environment is decisive for the onset of tumor invasiveness. This event is dependent on epithelial-stromal interactions, degradation of extracellular matrix components and reorganization of fibrillar components. Our research group has studied in a new proposed rodent model the participation of cellular and molecular components in the prostate microenvironment that contributes to cancer progression. Our group adopted the gerbil Meriones unguiculatus as an alternative experimental model for prostate cancer study. This model has presented significant responses to hormonal treatments and to development of spontaneous and induced neoplasias. The data obtained indicate reorganization of type I collagen fibers and reticular fibers, synthesis of new components such as tenascin and proteoglycans, degradation of basement membrane components and elastic fibers and increased expression of metalloproteinases. Fibroblasts that border the region, apparently participate in the stromal reaction. The roles of each of these events, as well as some signaling molecules, participants of neoplastic progression and factors that promote genetic reprogramming during epithelial-stromal transition are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal studies of Giardia contamination in two community drinking water supplies: cyst levels, parasite viability, and health impact.

    PubMed Central

    Isaac-Renton, J; Moorehead, W; Ross, A

    1996-01-01

    Giardia cyst concentrations were determined in an inventory of 153 raw and 91 chlorinated drinking water samples collected at 86 sites from throughout the western Canadian province of British Columbia. Sixty-four percent of raw water samples were cyst positive (69% of sites). Cyst concentrations were lower in chlorinated than in raw water. The viability of cysts in drinking water samples assessed by infectivity in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was decreased in chlorinated water. Two rural communities using Giardia-contaminated surface drinking water sources were selected for longitudinal studies including drinking water testing and serological studies of residents. Three hundred thirty-six raw and treated samples from these communities were collected over 24 months. Cyst concentrations and viability were assessed in a 12-month study of each community. Parasite concentrations were lower in chlorinated water than in raw water in both communities. Cyst concentrations were lower in reservoir-settled water than in raw water. Viability, assessed by animal infectivity and corrected for inoculum, decreased following reservoir settling as well as after chlorination. A bolus or spiking phenomenon of cysts was observed in both community drinking water systems and deserves further study. A striking seasonal pattern was seen in one community but not in the second. The seroprevalence data and number of laboratory-confirmed cases identified in each year-long community study are consistent with the possibility that low-level endemic transmission is occurring. PMID:8572711

  6. [Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus in Mongolian herbils after the flight on space apparatus Foton-M3].

    PubMed

    Atiakshin, D A; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus was analyzed in the liver of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus returned from 12-d space flight of Foton-M3 (SF) and their vivarium and ground synchronous controls. Volume, ploidy and number of hepatocyte nuclei, nucleolus dimensions and number as well as contacts with karyolemma were determined in the central, intermediate and peripheral areas of the liver classical lobe. Also, total number of mitoses and amitoses was determined in the liver parenchyma. The vivarium control animals displayed specifics of the nucleus apparatus structure that depended on intralobe topography. Based on the selected criteria, high functional activity was characteristic of cells in the intermediate area. According to the criteria, nuclear apparatus in the synchronous control tended to down the functional activity The adaptive adjustment of nuclei in SF seemed to have been initiated by changes in the hepatic blood flow: volumes of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleoli increased as did the number of nuclei in cell, whereas ploidy made a decrease, especially in the intermediate area. Under the SF conditions, particularly important compensatory mechanism for the liver function was intensification of amitosis and consequent increase of the population of dinuclear hepatocytes.

  7. Identification and Characterization of Helicobacter pylori Genes Essential for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Kavermann, Holger; Burns, Brendan P.; Angermüller, Katrin; Odenbreit, Stefan; Fischer, Wolfgang; Melchers, Klaus; Haas, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori causes one of the most common, chronic bacterial infections and is a primary cause of severe gastric disorders. To unravel the bacterial factors necessary for the process of gastric colonization and pathogenesis, signature tagged mutagenesis (STM) was adapted to H. pylori. The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) was used as model system to screen a set of 960 STM mutants. This resulted in 47 H. pylori genes, assigned to 9 different functional categories, representing a set of biological functions absolutely essential for gastric colonization, as verified and quantified for many mutants by competition experiments. Identification of previously known colonization factors, such as the urease and motility functions validated this method, but also novel and several hypothetical genes were found. Interestingly, a secreted collagenase, encoded by hp0169, could be identified and functionally verified as a new essential virulence factor for H. pylori stomach colonization. Furthermore, comB4, encoding a putative ATPase being part of a DNA transformation-associated type IV transport system of H. pylori was found to be absolutely essential for colonization, but natural transformation competence was apparently not the essential function. Thus, this first systematic STM application identified a set of previously unknown H. pylori colonization factors and may help to potentiate the development of novel therapies against gastric Helicobacter infections. PMID:12668646

  8. Determination of 5-methylcytosine from plant DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wagner, I; Capesius, I

    1981-06-26

    The relative amounts of the five nucleosides (deoxycytidine, 5-methyldeoxycytidine, deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine and thymidine) in the DNA of nine plant species, one plant satellite DNA, and one animal species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The method allows the clean separation of the nucleosides from 10 microgram samples with 15 min. The following values for the proportion of methylated cytosines among all cytosines were obtained: Lobularia maritima 18.5%, Nicotiana tabacum 32.6%, Pisum sativum 23.2%, Rhinanthus minor 29.2%, Sinapsis alba 12.2%, Vicia faba 30.5%, Viscum album 23.2%, Cymbidium pumilum 18.8%, Cymbidium pumilum AT-rich satellite DNA 15.8%, Triticum aestivum 22.4%. DNA of an animal, the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, had a methylation percentage of 3.1%. An estimate of the GC content based on the buoyant density of DNA tends to be lower than the actual value, an estimate based on the melting temperature tends to be higher. This supports the finding by other authors that DNA methylation decreases the buoyant density and may increase the melting temperature at high m5C concentration.

  9. Molecular analysis of isolates of the cestode Rodentolepis nana from the great gerbil, Rhombomys opimus.

    PubMed

    Mirjalali, H; Kia, E B; Kamranrashani, B; Hajjaran, H; Sharifdini, M

    2016-03-01

    Rodentolepis nana (syn. Hymenolepis nana) is a cyclophyllidean zoonotic enteric parasite with worldwide distribution. In humans, it is more prevalent in children, especially in temperate zones. A morphologically similar species of R. nana occurs in different rodents, including gerbils. In the present study molecular characterization of five isolates of R. nana from Rhombomys opimus in the Golestan Province (n= 2) and Razavi Khorasan Province (n= 3), both in north-eastern Iran, were analysed. After DNA extraction, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the R. nana isolates was amplified and sequenced, and genetic variation was analysed. Accordingly, two isolates from the Razavi Khorasan Province showed ITS2 signatures that differed from the isolates from the Golestan Province. The third isolate from Razavi Khorasan did not reveal these specific signatures, but exhibited sparse nucleotide polymorphisms in the ITS2 sequence. The ITS gene is conserved, and variation in this fragment could be an interesting subject for further inspection of existing variation in the genome of R. nana, among different domestic and wildlife host species and from different areas.

  10. Electrical filtering in gerbil isolated type I semicircular canal hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, K. J.; Ricci, A. J.; Correia, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Membrane potential responses of dissociated gerbil type I semicircular canal hair cells to current injections in whole cell current-clamp have been measured. The input resistance of type I cells was 21.4 +/- 14.3 (SD) M omega, (n = 25). Around the zero-current potential (Vz = -66.6 +/- 9.3 mV, n = 25), pulsed current injections (from approximately -200 to 750 pA) produced only small-amplitude, pulse-like changes in membrane potential. 2. Injecting constant current to hyperpolarize the membrane to around -100 mV resulted in a approximately 10-fold increase in membrane resistance. Current pulses superimposed on this constant hyperpolarization produced larger and more complex membrane potential changes. Depolarizing currents > or = 200 pA caused a rapid transient peak voltage before a plateau. 3. Membrane voltage was able to faithfully follow sine-wave current injections around Vz over the range 1-1,000 Hz with < 25% attenuation at 1 kHz. A previously described K conductance, IKI, which is active at Vz, produces the low input resistance and frequency response. This was confirmed by pharmacologically blocking IKI. This conductance, present in type I cells but not type II hair cells, would appear to confer on type I cells a lower gain, but a much broader bandwidth at Vz, than seen in type II cells.

  11. Electrical filtering in gerbil isolated type I semicircular canal hair cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennie, K. J.; Ricci, A. J.; Correia, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Membrane potential responses of dissociated gerbil type I semicircular canal hair cells to current injections in whole cell current-clamp have been measured. The input resistance of type I cells was 21.4 +/- 14.3 (SD) M omega, (n = 25). Around the zero-current potential (Vz = -66.6 +/- 9.3 mV, n = 25), pulsed current injections (from approximately -200 to 750 pA) produced only small-amplitude, pulse-like changes in membrane potential. 2. Injecting constant current to hyperpolarize the membrane to around -100 mV resulted in a approximately 10-fold increase in membrane resistance. Current pulses superimposed on this constant hyperpolarization produced larger and more complex membrane potential changes. Depolarizing currents > or = 200 pA caused a rapid transient peak voltage before a plateau. 3. Membrane voltage was able to faithfully follow sine-wave current injections around Vz over the range 1-1,000 Hz with < 25% attenuation at 1 kHz. A previously described K conductance, IKI, which is active at Vz, produces the low input resistance and frequency response. This was confirmed by pharmacologically blocking IKI. This conductance, present in type I cells but not type II hair cells, would appear to confer on type I cells a lower gain, but a much broader bandwidth at Vz, than seen in type II cells.

  12. Prevention of delayed neuronal death in gerbil hippocampus by a novel vinca alkaloid derivative (vinconate).

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kogure, K

    1989-08-01

    We investigated the effect of vinconate, a novel vinca alkaloid derivative, on delayed neuronal death using Mongolian gerbils. The animals were allowed to survive for 7 d after 3 or 5 min of forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries. Morphological changes and calcium (45Ca) accumulation were evaluated in the CA1 sector of the hippocampus after ischemia. Vinconate (50, 100, and 300 mg/kg) showed protective effects against neuronal death in a dose-dependent manner when administered intraperitoneally (ip) 10 min before 5 min of ischemia. However, the administration of vinconate (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip) immediately after 5 min of ischemia showed no therapeutic effect, whereas a marked therapeutic effect of vinconate (50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) was observed when administered immediately after 3 min of ischemia. An anesthetic dose of pentobarbital (40 mg/kg, ip) also produced significant protection against neuronal death. Furthermore, a 45Ca autoradiographic study indicated that a marked calcium accumulation was found in the Ca1 sector at 7 d after 5 min of ischemia, which was consistent with the extent of histological neuronal damage. When vinconate (100 and 300 mg/kg, ip) was administered 10 min before 5 min of ischemia, the abnormal calcium accumulation was not detected in the CA1 sector. These data indicate that suppression of abnormal neuronal activity may be owing to the antagonistic action of vinconate on calcium accumulation.

  13. Neuroprotective activity of chlormethiazole following transient forebrain ischaemia in the gerbil.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, A. J.; Jones, J. A.; Baldwin, H. A.; Green, A. R.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of chlormethiazole, and other drugs which potentiate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) function on delayed neuronal death in the hippocampus has been examined in the gerbil. 2. Chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) and two other drugs previously reported to be neuroprotective (dizocilpine, 3 mg kg-1, i.p. and ifenprodil, 4 mg kg-1, i.p.) were all found to prevent neurodegeneration of CA1/CA2 neurones in the hippocampus when given 30 min before a 5 min episode of bilateral carotid artery occlusion. 3. Chlormethiazole (100 mg kg-1) was neuroprotective when given up to 3 h, after the ischaemic episode. 4. Given 1 h after the cartoid artery occlusion, chlormethiazole produced significant protection against hippocampal neurodegeneration at a dose of 50 mg kg-1, but not at 25 mg kg-1. 5. Phenobarbitone (100 mg kg-1, i.p.) and Saffan (alphaxalone, 45 mg kg-1 plus alphadalone, 15 mg kg-1, i.p.) were not protective when given 1 h after the ischaemic episode while pentobarbitone (30 mg kg-1, i.p.) had a modest protective effect. 6. Evidence is presented to show that neither the operating procedure nor the chlormethiazole administration lowered rectal or cerebral temperature. 7. The data suggest that chlormethiazole may be a useful treatment in the prevention of neurodegeneration following stroke or cardiac arrest. Images Figure 1 PMID:1797307

  14. GABA and benzodiazepine receptors in the gerbil brain after transient ischemia: demonstration by quantitative receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Onodera, H.; Sato, G.; Kogure, K.

    1987-02-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to measure the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and benzodiazepine receptors after ischemia by means of transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries in the gerbil. (/sup 3/H)Muscimol was used to label the GABAA receptors and (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam to label central type benzodiazepine receptors. In the superolateral convexities of the frontal cortices, (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding was increased in 60% of the animals killed 3 days after ischemia, and decreased in 67% of the animals killed 27 days after ischemia. Twenty-seven days after ischemia, (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding in the substantia nigra pars reticulata increased to 252% of the control, though the increase in (/sup 3/H)muscimol binding was not significant. In the dorsolateral region of the caudate putamen, marked neuronal necrosis and depletion of both (/sup 3/H)muscimol and (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding sites were observed 27 days after ischemia, the ventromedial region being left intact. In spite of the depletion of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, both (/sup 3/H)muscimol and (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam binding sites were preserved 27 days after ischemia. Since our previous study revealed that adenosine A1 binding sites were depleted in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus after ischemia correlating with neuronal damage, GABAA and benzodiazepine receptors may not be distributed predominantly on the pyramidal cells in the CA1 region.

  15. An immunohistochemical study of parvalbumin containing interneurons in the gerbil hippocampus after cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Araki, T; Kato, H; Liu, X H; Kogure, K; Kato, K; Itoyama, Y

    1994-09-01

    We investigated postischemic changes of non-pyramidal neurons in the gerbil hippocampus 1 h - 7 days after 10 min of cerebral ischemia, with parvalbumin and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2)-immunohistochemistry. Parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus were unaffected up to 24 h after ischemia. A slight reduction of the immunoreactivity in neuronal processes was seen in the hippocampal CA1 sector 48 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, a marked loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons was observed in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 sectors. Furthermore, reduced staining in the dentate granular and molecular layers was observed. MAP2-immunoreactive pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus were unchanged up to 48 h after ischemia. Seven days after ischemia, a severe loss of MAP2 immunoreactivity was found in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 neurons and dentate hilar neurons. However, scattered CA1 neurons, most likely interneurons, preserved MAP2 immunoreactivity. The results demonstrate that transient cerebral ischemia can cause a loss of parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons in the hippocampus. Furthermore, some interneurons seem to lose parvalbumin synthesis. Although dentate granule cells are resistant to ischemia, considerable reductions of afferent input was suggested by parvalbumin staining.

  16. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin alleviates hearing loss after transient cochlear ischemia and reperfusion in the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Okada, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Shoichiro; Hyodo, Jun; Imai, Kiyohiro; Hato, Naohito; Gyo, Kiyofumi

    2012-02-01

    To test liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) in transient cochlear ischemia/reperfusion as a model of sudden deafness, Mongolian gerbils were randomly assigned to receive 2 mL/kg of either low-affinity LEH (l-LEH, P₅₀0₂ = 40 mm Hg), high-affinity LEH (h-LEH, P₅₀0₂ = 10 mm Hg), homologous red blood cells (RBCs), or saline (each group n = 6) 30 min before 15-min occlusion of the bilateral vertebral arteries and reperfusion. Sequential changes in hearing were assessed by auditory brain response 1, 4, and 7 days after ischemia/reperfusion, when the animals were sacrificed for pathological studies. h-LEH was significantly more protective than l-LEH in suppressing hearing loss, in contrast to RBC or saline treatment, at 8, 16, and 32 kHz, where hearing loss was most severe (P < 0.05 between any two groups) on the first day after cochlear ischemia/reperfusion. Thereafter, hearing loss improved gradually in all groups, with a significant difference among groups up to 7 days, when morphological studies revealed that the inner hair cells but not the outer hair cells, were significantly lost in the groups in the same order. The results suggest that pretreatment with h-LEH is significantly more protective than l-LEH in mitigating hearing loss and underlying pathological damage, in contrast to transfusion or saline infusion 7 days after transient cochlear ischemia/reperfusion.

  17. Postnatal development of Mongolian gerbil female prostate: An immunohistochemical and 3D modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Zani, Bruno C; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2016-05-01

    The development of the prostate in male rodents, which involves complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and the urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM), has been deeply studied. In females, however, this process is not very clear. In this study, the postnatal development of the prostate in female Mongolian gerbils employing three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, histochemical, and immunohistochemical techniques was characterized. It was observed that prostatic branching and differentiation in females was induced by a single mesenchyme localized at a ventrolateral position, which was named as ventrolateral mesenchyme (VLM); furthermore, the canalization of solid buds began on the third postnatal day (P3) and the branching morphogenesis on P5. We observed secretions in the acini at the end of the first month, and, on P45, the acini were completely differentiated. The strong cell proliferation phase in the first week coincided with the mesenchymal expression of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1). The expression of androgen receptor (AR) paralleled cell differentiation, and, on P30, immunolabelling with p63 was restricted to basal cells. This study serves as a baseline parameter for future research on disruptions that could affect the development of the female prostate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Disorders related with ageing in the gerbil female prostate (Skene's paraurethral glands).

    PubMed

    Custodio, Ana M G; Santos, Fernanda C A; Campos, Silvana G P; Vilamaior, Patricia Simone Leite; Oliveira, Sérgio M; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2010-04-01

    The female organs, which are regulated by steroid hormones, are targets of studies especially those related to senescence. However, although the female prostate is an organ influenced by hormones and susceptible to lesions, there is still little information about its histopathology. Thus, given the morphophysiological similarity between the prostate in women and female gerbils, the present study aimed to identify the spontaneous histopathological changes in this rodent to provide contributions to the understanding of lesions that also affect the human female prostate. The structural, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, morphometric-stereological and serological aspects, as well as the quantification of the incidence, multiplicity and percentage of acini affected by different lesions were analyzed. Benign prostate lesions including hyperplasia, prostatitis, microcalculi and calculi; preneoplastic lesions like dysplasias; premalignant lesions, such as high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia as well as malignant ones, specifically adenocarcinoma, were identified in the adult gland, but they were intensified during senescence, which is possibly due to the imbalance among steroid hormone levels. Although clinical attention focuses on other urogenital organs, the real condition of the histopathological injuries in the human female prostate should be considered. A serious preventive work regarding the female prostate could be applied in the gynaecological context in order to monitor the gland and avoid possible disturbances to women's health and consequently provide better quality of life.

  19. Budding process during the organogenesis of the ventral prostatic lobe in Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno Domingos Azevedo; Biancardi, Manoel Francisco; Santos, Fernanda Cristina Alcantara dos; Góes, Rejane Maira; Vilamaior, Patrícia Simone Leite; Taboga, Sebastião Roberto

    2014-06-01

    The prostate is a mammalian gland that shows a complex process of organogenesis. Here, a morphological study to characterize the organogenesis of the ventral prostate lobe in male gerbils was conducted. The urogenital sinus (UGS) was dissected out and processed for paraffin embedding. Histological sections were subjected to cytochemical, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemical, and three-dimensional reconstruction techniques. We found that the first ventral buds emerged from the ventral urethral epithelium between the days 20 and 21 of prenatal life, reaching the ventral mesenchymal pad and initiating the branching process on the first day of postnatal life. The buds presented a V-shaped elongation, suggesting that the smooth muscle layer (SML) plays an important role during budding events. Indeed, whereas the androgen receptor (AR) was preferentially found in the UGS mesenchyme (UGM), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) was localized in both the UGM and in the emerging buds. This study characterized the morphological aspects of the budding process in a different rodent from rat and mice, serving as a new model for future studies on developmental biology of the prostate. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Neuroprotection and reduced gliosis by atomoxetine pretreatment in a gerbil model of transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Ha; Shin, Bich Na; Chen, Bai Hui; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Myeong; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Sung Koo; Won, Moo-Ho

    2015-12-15

    Atomoxetine (ATX) is a non-stimulant selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we firstly examined neuroprotective effects of pre- or post-treatment with 15 and 30 mg/kg ATX against ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampal cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) region subjected to 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia using cresyl violet staining, neuronal nuclei immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-J B histofluorescence staining. We found that only pre-treatment with 30 mg/kg ATX protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from ischemic insult. In addition, pre-treatment with 30 mg/kg ATX, which had neuroprotective effect against ischemic damage, distinctly attenuated the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the ischemic CA1 region compared with the vehicle-treated ischemia group by glial fibrillary acidic protein (for astrocytes) and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (for microglia) immunohistochemistry. In brief, our present results indicate that ATX has neuroprotective effect against transient cerebral ischemic insult and that the neuroprotective effect of ATX may be closely associated with attenuated glial activation.

  1. Effects of a 2X gravity environment on the ultrastructure of the gerbil parathyroid gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannes, P. L.; Hayes, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies concerning the effects of hypergravity on bone have shown increases in bone mass or bone dimensions. Correlative studies, which could provide clues to the mechanism for such a response, have been lacking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ultrastructure of parathyroid glands of Mongolian gerbils exposed to a continuous 2 X gravity force for 60 d. It was found that the experimental animals had parathyroid glands which had a greater percentage of chief cells in the active stage of their secretory cycle when compared with control animals. This result was interpreted to indicate an increase in parathyroid gland secretory activity and, hence, an increase in parathyroid hormone release. It was suggested that increased parathyroid secretory activity was necessary to maintain serum calcium levels of hypergravity animals within normal limits. Cellular forms resembling water clear cells and highly compact, degenerating cells were described in experimental animals but not in controls. Areas suggestive of cellular dissolution and disorganization were also reported in experimental parathyroids.

  2. Periodotopy in the gerbil inferior colliculus: local clustering rather than a gradient map

    PubMed Central

    Schnupp, Jan W. H.; Garcia-Lazaro, Jose A.; Lesica, Nicholas A.

    2015-01-01

    Periodicities in sound waveforms are widespread, and shape important perceptual attributes of sound including rhythm and pitch. Previous studies have indicated that, in the inferior colliculus (IC), a key processing stage in the auditory midbrain, neurons tuned to different periodicities might be arranged along a periodotopic axis which runs approximately orthogonal to the tonotopic axis. Here we map out the topography of frequency and periodicity tuning in the IC of gerbils in unprecedented detail, using pure tones and different periodic sounds, including click trains, sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) noise and iterated rippled noise. We found that while the tonotopic map exhibited a clear and highly reproducible gradient across all animals, periodotopic maps varied greatly across different types of periodic sound and from animal to animal. Furthermore, periodotopic gradients typically explained only about 10% of the variance in modulation tuning between recording sites. However, there was a strong local clustering of periodicity tuning at a spatial scale of ca. 0.5 mm, which also differed from animal to animal. PMID:26379508

  3. Effects of a 2X gravity environment on the ultrastructure of the gerbil parathyroid gland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sannes, P. L.; Hayes, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies concerning the effects of hypergravity on bone have shown increases in bone mass or bone dimensions. Correlative studies, which could provide clues to the mechanism for such a response, have been lacking. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ultrastructure of parathyroid glands of Mongolian gerbils exposed to a continuous 2 X gravity force for 60 d. It was found that the experimental animals had parathyroid glands which had a greater percentage of chief cells in the active stage of their secretory cycle when compared with control animals. This result was interpreted to indicate an increase in parathyroid gland secretory activity and, hence, an increase in parathyroid hormone release. It was suggested that increased parathyroid secretory activity was necessary to maintain serum calcium levels of hypergravity animals within normal limits. Cellular forms resembling water clear cells and highly compact, degenerating cells were described in experimental animals but not in controls. Areas suggestive of cellular dissolution and disorganization were also reported in experimental parathyroids.

  4. [Rna content of gerbil hepatocytes after the flight aboard space platform Foton-M3].

    PubMed

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    The paper compares and contrasts the results of measuring the hepatocyte cytoplasm area and RNA content in 35 gerbils in three series of experiments, i.e. the vivarium control, modeled space flight (synchronous control) and exposure to the factors of 12-d Foton-M3 orbital flight. Central, intermediate and peripheral zones of hepatic lobes were subjected to histological and histochemical analyses to measure the hepatocyte cytoplasm area; the RNA content was determined from the level of cytoplasm basophilia after azure staining. Cytometric and cytophotometric investigations were performed using image analyzer Video-7-Test-Morpho. In the vivarium animals, hepatocytes with the largest cytoplasm localized predominantly in the intermediate and central zones of the lobes. Judging from the results of microdensitometry, the RNA content was particularly high in binucleate hepatocytes of the intermediate zone. In the synchronous control, hepatocytes tended to grow in size, in the peripheral zone specifically, whereas RNA content was largely equal no matter hepatocyte topography. After space flight, cytoplasm enlargement transcended this process in the vivarium animals. The cytoplasm RNA content along the entire liver parenchyma made a significant decrease equally as compared with the vivarium and synchronous control animals.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of genistein in Mongolian gerbils: estrogen receptor-β involvement.

    PubMed

    Donzelli, Andrea; Braida, Daniela; Finardi, Annamaria; Capurro, Valeria; Valsecchi, Anna Elisa; Colleoni, Mariapia; Sala, Mariaelvina

    2010-01-01

    Genistein is a naturally occurring plant-derived phytoestrogen, present in the human diet, known to possess some beneficial effects. The present study investigated the effect of genistein on neuroprotection evaluated through electroencephalographic and behavioural correlates in a model of global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Over the dose range tested, genistein (3 and 10 mg/kg), given 5 min after recirculation antagonized the ischemia-induced electroencephalographic total spectral power decrease 7 days after ischemia; fully prevented ischemia-induced hyperlocomotion evaluated 1 day after ischemia; reversed ischemia-induced memory impairment evaluated through both nest building behaviour and object recognition test; decreased malondialdehyde overproduction in the brain, evaluated 7 days after reperfusion; and fully promoted the survival of pyramidal cells in the CA(1) hippocampal subfield. The selective antagonist for estrogen receptor-β (ERβ), 4-[2-phenyl-5,7-bis(trifluoromethyl) pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]phenol (PHTPP) given 30 min before carotid occlusion, fully prevented the neuroprotective effect of genistein at the dose of 3 mg/kg. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of genistein through the activation of ERβ and provide further grounds for the growing interest concerning the true potential of phytoestrogens as compounds to beneficially affect brain injury without having the disadvantages of estrogens.

  6. Neuroprotection of antioxidant enzymes against transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Chul

    2014-01-01

    Experimentally transient global cerebral ischemia using animal models have been thoroughly studied and numerous reports suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuronal death in ischemic lesions. In animal models, during the reperfusion period after ischemia, increased oxygen supply results in the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are involved in the process of cell death. ROS, such as superoxide anions, hydroxyl free radicals, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide are produced as a consequence of metabolic reactions and central nervous system activity. These reactive species are directly involved in the oxidative damage of cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in ischemic tissues, which can lead to cell death. Antioxidant enzymes are believed to be among the major mechanisms by which cells counteract the deleterious effect of ROS after cerebral ischemia. Consequently, antioxidant strategies have been long suggested as a therapy for experimental ischemic stroke; however, clinical trials have not yet been able to promote the translation of this concept into patient treatment regimens. This article focuses on the contribution of oxidative stress or antioxidants to the post-ischemic neuronal death following transient global cerebral ischemia by using a gerbil model. PMID:25276473

  7. Disorders related with ageing in the gerbil female prostate (Skene's paraurethral glands)

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Ana M G; Santos, Fernanda C A; Campos, Silvana G P; Vilamaior, Patricia Simone Leite; Oliveira, Sérgio M; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2010-01-01

    The female organs, which are regulated by steroid hormones, are targets of studies especially those related to senescence. However, although the female prostate is an organ influenced by hormones and susceptible to lesions, there is still little information about its histopathology. Thus, given the morphophysiological similarity between the prostate in women and female gerbils, the present study aimed to identify the spontaneous histopathological changes in this rodent to provide contributions to the understanding of lesions that also affect the human female prostate. The structural, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical, morphometric-stereological and serological aspects, as well as the quantification of the incidence, multiplicity and percentage of acini affected by different lesions were analyzed. Benign prostate lesions including hyperplasia, prostatitis, microcalculi and calculi; preneoplastic lesions like dysplasias; premalignant lesions, such as high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia as well as malignant ones, specifically adenocarcinoma, were identified in the adult gland, but they were intensified during senescence, which is possibly due to the imbalance among steroid hormone levels. Although clinical attention focuses on other urogenital organs, the real condition of the histopathological injuries in the human female prostate should be considered. A serious preventive work regarding the female prostate could be applied in the gynaecological context in order to monitor the gland and avoid possible disturbances to women's health and consequently provide better quality of life. PMID:20041966

  8. [Experimental observation on the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology of Great Gerbils (Rhombomys opimus) in the Junggar Basin by subcutaneous injecting of Yersinia pestis].

    PubMed

    Li, B; Azhati, Rehemu; Meng, W W; Luo, T; Li, B; Abulimiti, Maituohuti; Wang, X H; Dai, X; Zhang, Y J

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To understand the histopathological and ultrastructural pathology changes of great gerbils in the Junggar Basin to Yersinia pestis infection. Methods: Forty captured great gerbils from the Junggar Basin that tested negative for anti-F1 antibodies were infected. The Y. pestis strain 2504, isolated from a live great gerbil in the natural plague foci of the Junggar Basin in 2005 with a median lethal dose (LD(50)) of <10 CFU/ml, was used in this study. Forty great gerbils were divided into seven infection groups and were subcutaneously infected with 7.4×10(5), 7.4×10(6), 7.4×10(7), 7.4×10(8), 7.4×10(9), 7.4×10(10), or 3.0×10(11) CFU/ml of 2504. One milliliter of physiological saline was injected in the noninfected group as a control. We collected the liver, spleen, heart, and lung from all animals for histopathologic and ultrastructural pathology examination. Results: Great gerbils in the 7.4×10(8)-3.0×10(11) CFU/ml groups did not survive and exhibited pathological changes and altered ultrastructural pathology. The liver tissue of infected great gerbils showed spotty necrosis and fatty degeneration, intranuclear canaliculi with increased hepatocytes, and uneven distribution of organelles. Additionally, reactive proliferation of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, blood sinusoid lacunae with neutrophil infiltration, and phagocytosed bacteria in phagocyte cells were observed. Myocardial fiber hypertrophy and interstitial indistinction, nuclear matrices decreased in cardiac myocytes, and loose arrangement of myogenic fibers in myocardial cells were also observed. Angiectasia, capillary congestion, and tissue necrosis were found in the lung. No significant difference in histopathological and ultrastructural pathology in the parenchymal organ was observed between the 7.4×10(5)-7.4×10(7) CFU/ml groups and the 7.4×10(8)-3.0×10(11) CFU/ml groups, and no specific death caused by Y. pestis infection was apparent in the 7.4×10(5)-7.4×10(7) CFU/ml groups

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Capsaicin and Piperine on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Chronic Gastritis in Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Takeshi; Shi, Liang; Takasu, Shinji; Cho, Young-Man; Kiriyama, Yuka; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Tatematsu, Masae; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-04-01

    Spices have been used for thousands of years, and recent studies suggest that certain spices confer beneficial effects on gastric disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible chemopreventive effects of spice-derived compounds on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-induced gastritis. We examined the inhibitory effects of curcumin, capsaicin, and piperine on H. pylori in vitro by determining the colony-forming units and real-time RT-PCR in H. pylori stimulated AGS gastric cancer cells. For in vivo analysis, 6-week-old SPF male Mongolian gerbils were infected with H. pylori, fed diets containing 5000 ppm curcumin, 100 ppm capsaicin, or 100 ppm piperine, and sacrificed after 13 weeks. All three compounds inhibited in vitro proliferation of H. pylori, with curcumin being the most effective. Infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was suppressed by piperine both in the antrum and corpus of H. pylori-infected gerbils. Capsaicin also decreased neutrophils in the antrum and corpus and mononuclear cell infiltration and heterotopic proliferative glands in the corpus. mRNA expression of Tnf-α and formation of phospho-IκB-α in the antrum were reduced by both capsaicin and piperine. In addition, piperine suppressed expression of Il-1β, Ifn-γ, Il-6, and iNos, while H. pylori UreA and other virulence factors were not significantly attenuated by any compounds. These results suggest that capsaicin and piperine have anti-inflammatory effects on H. pylori-induced gastritis in gerbils independent of direct antibacterial effects and may thus have potential for use in the chemoprevention of H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The gastrin receptor antagonist netazepide (YF476) prevents oxyntic mucosal inflammation induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sørdal, Øystein; Waldum, Helge; Nordrum, Ivar S; Boyce, Malcolm; Bergh, Kåre; Munkvold, Bjørn; Qvigstad, Gunnar

    2013-12-01

    Long-term Helicobacter pylori infection causes gastritis leading to hypergastrinemia and predisposes to gastric cancer. Our aim was to assess the role of gastrin in oxyntic mucosal inflammation in H. pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils by means of the gastrin receptor antagonist netazepide (YF476). We studied 60 gerbils for 18 months and left five animals uninfected (control group), inoculated 55 with H. pylori, and treated 28 of the infected animals with netazepide (Hp+YF476 group). Twenty-seven infected animals were given no treatment (Hp group). We measured plasma gastrin and intraluminal pH. H. pylori detection and histologic evaluations of the stomach were carried out. All 55 inoculated animals were H. pylori positive at termination. Eighteen animals in the Hp group had gastritis. There was a threefold increase in mucosal thickness in the Hp group compared to the Hp+YF476 group, and a threefold increase in oxyntic neuroendocrine cells in the Hp group compared to the Hp+YF476 group (p < .05). All animals in the Hp+YF476 group had macro- and microscopically normal findings in the stomach. Plasma gastrin was higher in the Hp group than in the control group (172 ± 16 pmol/L vs 124 ± 5 pmol/L, p < .05) and highest in the Hp+YF476 group (530 ± 36 pmol/L). Intraluminal pH was higher in the Hp group than in the Hp+YF476 group (2.51 vs 2.30, p < .05). The gastrin antagonist netazepide prevents H. pylori-induced gastritis in Mongolian gerbils. Thus, gastrin has a key role in the inflammatory reaction of the gastric mucosa to H. pylori infection in this species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cardiac Iron Determines Cardiac T2*, T2, and T1 in the Gerbil Model of Iron Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Aguilar, Michelle; Nick, Hanspeter; Nelson, Marvin D.; Coates, Thomas D.; Pollack, Harvey; Moats, Rex

    2010-01-01

    Background Transfusional therapy for thalassemia major and sickle cell disease can lead to iron deposition and damage to the heart, liver, and endocrine organs. Iron causes the MRI parameters T1, T2, and T2* to shorten in these organs, which creates a potential mechanism for iron quantification. However, because of the danger and variability of cardiac biopsy, tissue validation of cardiac iron estimates by MRI has not been performed. In this study, we demonstrate that iron produces similar T1, T2, and T2* changes in the heart and liver using a gerbil iron-overload model. Methods and Results Twelve gerbils underwent iron dextran loading (200 mg · kg−1 · wk−1) from 2 to 14 weeks; 5 age-matched controls were studied as well. Animals had in vivo assessment of cardiac T2* and hepatic T2 and T2* and postmortem assessment of cardiac and hepatic T1 and T2. Relaxation measurements were performed in a clinical 1.5-T magnet and a 60-MHz nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometer. Cardiac and liver iron concentrations rose linearly with administered dose. Cardiac 1/T2*, 1/T2, and 1/T1 rose linearly with cardiac iron concentration. Liver 1/T2*, 1/T2, and 1/T1 also rose linearly, proportional to hepatic iron concentration. Liver and heart calibrations were similar on a dry-weight basis. Conclusions MRI measurements of cardiac T2 and T2* can be used to quantify cardiac iron. The similarity of liver and cardiac iron calibration curves in the gerbil suggests that extrapolation of human liver calibration curves to heart may be a rational approximation in humans. PMID:16027257

  12. MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in the prostates of male and female mongolian gerbils: effects of hormonal manipulation.

    PubMed

    Rochel-Maia, S S; Santos, F C A; Vilamaior, P S L; Justulin, L A; Felisbino, S L; Góes, R M; Taboga, S R

    2011-11-01

    TIMPs in the prostates of male and female gerbils and evaluated the effects of testosterone on the expression of these enzymes. Ventral prostates from male gerbils that were either intact or had been castrated for 7 or 21 days, along with prostates from female gerbils that were either intact or had been treated with testosterone for 7 or 21 days, were submitted to histological, stereological and immunohistochemical analyses. Stereology of prostatic components showed significant alterations of tissue compartments in the ventral male prostate after castration, especially after 21 days, with a significant increase in stroma. Administration of testosterone led to disorganization in the female prostate, with a significant increase in collagen fibers and smooth muscle cells after 21 days, along with the development of epithelial lesions such as PINs. MMP-2 increased after 21 days of castration in males; however, the TIMP-2 immunoreaction for this group was weak or absent. In females, the expression of MMP-2 appeared to decrease after 7 days of treatment with testosterone, but after 21 days, both epithelium and stroma showed a stronger reaction for MMP-2 than the controls. The expression of TIMP-2 in the treated females was similar to its expression in the castrated males. We conclude that the distribution of MMPs and TIMPs in both male and female prostates is altered by androgen manipulation, but the mechanism of stromal regulation appears to be distinct between genders because both the lack of T in castrated males and the excess levels of T in treated females lead to the same effect.

  13. Spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) do not respond to thymus-independent type 2 antigens.

    PubMed

    Pennello, Anthony; Taylor, Justin; Matlack, Robin; Karp, Jonathan; Riggs, James

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the immune system of spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) has been limited. Originally grouped with Mus, Acomys has recently been placed closer to Meriones (gerbils). This study compared immunity in Acomys, Mus, and Meriones. Lymphocytes from all rodents examined proliferated in response to mitogen and superantigen stimulation. Only Mus T cells responded to anti-CD3 stimulation. Acomys, like Meriones, and Mus that express xid, did not respond to thymus-independent type 2 antigens. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that T cell-specific MAbs did not bind Acomys or Meriones lymphocytes. The B cell-specific anti-CD45R (B220) MAb detected all rodent B cells and revealed the absence of a CD45R(lo) subset in the peritoneal cavity of Acomys and Meriones. Bone marrow from Acomys and Meriones failed to reconstitute B cell function in SCID mice. Thus, in terms of immunity, Acomys appears to be more similar to Meriones than Mus.

  14. Accumulation of heavy metals and As in liver, hair, femur, and lung of Persian jird (Meriones persicus) in Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khazaee, Manoochehr; Hamidian, Amir Hossein; Alizadeh Shabani, Afshin; Ashrafi, Sohrab; Mirjalili, Seyyed Ali Ashghar; Esmaeilzadeh, Esmat

    2016-02-01

    Rodents frequently serve as bioindicator to monitor the quality of the environment. Concentrations of 11 elements (Cd, Co, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cu, Sb, As, Sr, Ni, and Cr) were investigated and compared in liver, hair, femur, and lung of the Persian jird (Meriones persicus) from Darreh Zereshk copper mine, Iran. Metals were determined in different tissues of 39 individuals of Persian jird, collected by snap trap in 2014 from five areas of Darreh Zereshk copper mine. Samples were prepared by wet digestion method, and the contents of elements were analyzed with ICP-OES (VARIAN, 725-ES) instrument. Cadmium, Sb, and Co were below the limit of detection, and Mn and As were found only in hair and liver tissues. We detected the highest concentration of Cu, As, Ti, Fe, Mn, Cr, and Ni in hair in comparison with other tissues. Significant higher levels of Ti in femur and hair; Fe in liver and hair; Mn in liver; As in hair; Sr in lung; Cr in lung, hair, femur, and liver; Cu in femur; and Ni in liver and lung tissues were observed in females. Nearly all element concentrations in the tissues of Persian jird from flotation site, Darreh Zereshk and Hasan Abad villages and leaching site (mining areas) were higher than those from tailing dump site (reference site). We found the highest concentrations of As in liver and hair; Ni and Cr in liver, hair, and lung; and Sr in lung and hair tissues of Persian jird in leaching site. We tried to specify the status of elements before fully exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine by using bioindicator species. Based on our achievements, initial activities did not strongly pollute the surrounded environment of the mine. The high abundance of Persian jird as well as their several proper features makes them a suitable species for biomonitoring programs especially for further studies will be performed after full exploitation of Darreh Zereshk copper mine.

  15. First Report on Isolation and Characterization of Leishmania major from Meriones hurrianae (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) of A Rural Cutaneous leishmaniasis Focus in South-Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kassiri, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Javadian, Ezat–Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic health problem in many rural areas of Iran, with doubled number of incidences over the last decade. Different species of rodents serve as natural reservoir host for ZCL. The disease is considered as a major health problem in rural areas of Mirjaveh, Chabahar, and Konarak Counties of Sistan va Baluchistan Province. Objectives This study describes the identity of Leishmania species, isolated from Meriones hurrianae from Chabahar County using RAPD-PCR methodology. Materials and Methods Rodents were entrapped by live traps baited with roasted walnut, tomato, and cucumber during spring and summer. All rodents were identified based on external features including fur color, ears characteristics, tail length, hind feet, body measurements, and internal features of teeth and cranium. Giemsa-stained impressions from rodents’ ears were examined for amastigotes microscopically. The samples from infected rodents were cultured in NNN+LIT medium and then the harvested parasites at the stationary phase were subjected to DNA extraction followed by amplification with RAPD-PCR. Results All the 28 entrapped animals were identified as M. hurrianae. Five animals showed to harbor Leishmania parasite by microscopy. Leishmania DNA isolated from five M. hurrianae produced distinctive bands of L. major with four primers. However, the products that were amplified with primers AB1-07, 327, and 329 were stable and reproducible. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of L. major from M. hurrianae from Iran. Conclusions Regarding infection rate of 17.8%, M. hurrianae seems to play the major role in the maintenance and transmission of disease to humans in this area. PMID:24616787

  16. First Report on Isolation and Characterization of Leishmania major from Meriones hurrianae (Rodentia: Gerbillidae) of A Rural Cutaneous leishmaniasis Focus in South-Eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Kassiri, Hamid; Naddaf, Saied Reza; Javadian, Ezat-Aldin; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2013-09-01

    Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is an endemic health problem in many rural areas of Iran, with doubled number of incidences over the last decade. Different species of rodents serve as natural reservoir host for ZCL. The disease is considered as a major health problem in rural areas of Mirjaveh, Chabahar, and Konarak Counties of Sistan va Baluchistan Province. This study describes the identity of Leishmania species, isolated from Meriones hurrianae from Chabahar County using RAPD-PCR methodology. Rodents were entrapped by live traps baited with roasted walnut, tomato, and cucumber during spring and summer. All rodents were identified based on external features including fur color, ears characteristics, tail length, hind feet, body measurements, and internal features of teeth and cranium. Giemsa-stained impressions from rodents' ears were examined for amastigotes microscopically. The samples from infected rodents were cultured in NNN+LIT medium and then the harvested parasites at the stationary phase were subjected to DNA extraction followed by amplification with RAPD-PCR. All the 28 entrapped animals were identified as M. hurrianae. Five animals showed to harbor Leishmania parasite by microscopy. Leishmania DNA isolated from five M. hurrianae produced distinctive bands of L. major with four primers. However, the products that were amplified with primers AB1-07, 327, and 329 were stable and reproducible. This is the first report on the isolation and identification of L. major from M. hurrianae from Iran. Regarding infection rate of 17.8%, M. hurrianae seems to play the major role in the maintenance and transmission of disease to humans in this area.

  17. NK1 receptor antagonism lowers occupancy requirement for antidepressant-like effects of SSRIs in the gerbil forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lelas, Snjezana; Li, Yu-Wen; Wallace-Boone, Tanya L; Taber, Matthew T; Newton, Amy E; Pieschl, Rick L; Davis, Carl D; Molski, Thaddeus F; Newberry, Kimberly S; Parker, Michael F; Gillman, Kevin W; Bronson, Joanne J; Macor, John E; Lodge, Nicholas J

    2013-10-01

    The known interactions between the serotonergic and neurokinin systems suggest that serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) efficacy may be improved by neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonism. In the current studies combination of a subeffective dose of an SSRI (0.3 mg/kg fluoxetine or 0.03 mg/kg citalopram) with a subeffective dose of an NK1R antagonist (0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721) produced efficacy in the gerbil forced swim test (FST). Serotonin transporter (SERT) occupancy produced by 1 mg/kg fluoxetine (lowest efficacious dose) was 52 ± 5% and was reduced to 29 ± 4% at 0.3 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious in combination with 0.3 mg/kg aprepitant or 1 mg/kg CP-122,721; the corresponding NK1R occupancies were 79 ± 4% and 61 ± 4% for aprepitant and CP-122,721, respectively. For citalopram, SERT occupancy at the lowest efficacious dose (0.1 mg/kg) was 50 ± 4% and was reduced to 20 ± 5% at 0.03 mg/kg, a dose that was efficacious when combined with aprepitant (0.3 mg/kg). Aprepitant (10 mg/kg) augmented the serotonin elevation produced by fluoxetine (1 or 10 mg/kg) in the gerbil prefrontal cortex; i.e. NK1R antagonism can modulate serotonin responses. A novel orally-available dual-acting NK1R antagonist/SERT inhibitor BMS-795176 is described; gerbil Ki = 1.4 and 1 nM at NK1R and SERT, respectively. BMS-795176 was efficacious in the gerbil FST; efficacy was observed with 35 ± 3% SERT occupancy and 73 ± 3% NK1R occupancy. The interaction between NK1R antagonism and SERT inhibition to lower the SERT occupancy required for antidepressant-like efficacy suggests that BMS-795176 has the potential to improve efficacy with a reduction in SSRI-associated side effects.

  18. Using a third tone to probe the physiological generation site of distortion product otoacoustic emissions in gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The generation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) has been summarized using a two-mechanism theory consisting of nonlinear distortion and linear coherent reflection. However, the precise generation site in the cochlea is still unclear. The current study in gerbils used a third tone in different cochlear regions to probe the cochlear origin site of DPOAEs. DPOAEs and their intracochlear sources, distortion products (DPs), were simultaneously measured. Our results suggest that the major generation site of DPOAEs evoked by an f2/f1 ratio of 1.25 extends basal to the primary f2 place, which is consistent with notions about the location of the cochlear amplifier.

  19. Simultaneous Intracochlear Pressure Measurements from Two Cochlear Locations: Propagation of Distortion Products in Gerbil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Sound energy propagates in the cochlea through a forward-traveling or slow wave supported by the cochlear partition and fluid inertia. Additionally, cochlear models support traveling wave propagation in the reverse direction as the expected mechanism for conveying otoacoustic emissions out of the cochlea. Recently, however, this hypothesis has been questioned, casting doubt on the process by which otoacoustic emissions travel back out through the cochlea. The proposed alternative reverse travel path for emissions is directly through the fluids of the cochlea as a compression pressure in the form of a fast wave. In the present study, a custom-made micro-pressure sensor was used in vivo in the gerbil cochlea to map two-tone-evoked pressure responses at distinct longitudinal and vertical locations in both the scala tympani and scala vestibuli. Analyses of the magnitude and phase of intracochlear pressure responses at the primary tone and distortion product frequencies were used to distinguish between fast and slow waves in both the forward- and reverse-propagation directions. Results demonstrated that distortion products may travel in both forward and reverse directions post-generation and the existence of both traveling and compression waves. The forward-traveling component appeared to duplicate the process of any external tone, tuned to the local characteristic-frequency place, as it increased compressively and nonlinearly with primary-tone levels. A compression wave was evidenced at frequencies above the cutoff of the recording site. In the opposite direction, a reverse-traveling wave played the major role in driving the stapes reversely and contributed to the distortion product otoacoustic emission. The compression wave may also play a role in reverse propagation when distortion products are generated at a region close to the stapes.

  20. Localization of organ of Corti protein II in the adult and developing gerbil cochlea.

    PubMed

    Yoho, E R; Thomopoulos, G N; Thalmann, I; Thalmann, R; Schulte, B A

    1997-02-01

    The distribution of organ of Corti protein II (OCP-II) was assessed in the developing and mature gerbil cochlea by light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry. In the adult cochlea, OCP-II was expressed only in certain epithelial cells which included all supporting cells of the organ of Corti, inner and outer sulcus cells and interdental cells. Inner and outer hair cells lacked immunoreactivity. The highest gold particle labeling density was seen overlying intracellular regions devoid of organelles. In the developing inner ear, OCP-II was first detected at 2 days after birth (DAB) with the strongest staining in immature Deiters, inner phalangeal and pillar cells. Immunostaining intensity increased gradually in cells lying laterally and medially to the more centrally located supporting cells and reached adult levels in all reactive cell types around 18 DAB. The results demonstrated conclusively that OCP-II is a cytosolic protein and fail to support its role as a transcription factor postulated on the basis of its homology with p15 or a role in the control of the cycle as suggested by its near-identity with p19Skp1, a cyclin A/CDK2-associated protein. The continued high level of expression in the mature cochlea argues against OCP-II's involvement in regulating the development and differentiation of epithelial cells. The protein's unique distribution and its gradual increase in expression prior to and during the onset and maturation of hearing, however, support its potential function in the recycling of K+ effluxed from hair cells and neurons back to endolymph.

  1. Detection of Intracochlear Damage During Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion using Extracochlear Measurements in the Gerbil

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Faisal I.; Choudhury, Baishakhi; DeMason, Christine E.; Adunka, Oliver F.; Finley, Charles C.; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives An intraoperative monitoring algorithm during cochlear implant electrode insertion could be used to detect trauma and guide electrode placement relative to surviving hair cells. The aim of this report was to assess the feasibility of using extracochlear recording sites to monitor acoustically evoked responses from surviving hair cells and neural elements during implantation in an animal model. Design The normal-hearing gerbil was used. Two recording methods, one using a lock in amplifier and another using Fourier analysis of recorded signals were used to obtain frequency specific information about the responses to tones. Amplitude and threshold determinations were made at the round window and at three extracochlear sites. To induce intracochlear damage, a platinum-iridium wire was inserted through the round window. The wire was advanced and changes in the potentials were correlated with cochlear contact. Anatomical integrity was assessed using cochlea whole mount preparations. Results In general, the lock-in amplifier showed greater sensitivity and lower thresholds at higher frequencies relative to the Fourier method. Also, the lock-in amplifier was more resistant to masking effects. Both systems were able to detect loss of cochlear potentials secondary to intracochlear trauma. Histological damage was seen in all cases and corresponded to electrophysiological changes. Conclusions Impact of electrodes on cochlear structures affecting cochlear performance could be detected from several extracochlear sites. The lock-in amplifier demonstrated greater sensitivity and resistance to noise when compared to the FFT recording paradigm. The latter showed greater flexibility of detecting and separating hair cell and neural potentials. PMID:22252968

  2. Progesterone as a morphological regulatory factor of the male and female gerbil prostate

    PubMed Central

    Fochi, Ricardo A; Santos, Fernanda C A; Goes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and oestrogen are the main active steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system respectively. In female rodents progesterone (P4), together with testosterone and oestrogen, has an essential role in the regulation of the oestrous cycle, which influences the prostate physiology through their oscillations. In this work we investigated how the male and female prostate gland of Mongolian gerbils responds to surgical castration at the start of puberty and what are the effects of T, oestradiol (E2) and P4 replacement, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. We also examined the location of the main steroid receptors present in the prostate. In the castrated animals of both sexes an intense glandular regression, along with disorganization of the stromal compartment, and abundant hyperplasia was observed. The replacement of P4 secured a mild recovery of the glandular morphology, inducing the growth of secretory cells and restoring the androgen receptor (AR) cells. The administration of P4 and E2 eliminated epithelial hyperplasia and intensified gland hypertrophy, favouring the emergence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In animals treated with T and P4, even though there are some inflammatory foci and other lesions, the prostate gland revealed morphology closer to that of control animals. In summary, through the administration of P4, we could demonstrate that this hormone has anabolic characteristics, promoting hyperplasia and hypertrophy, mainly in the epithelial compartment. When combined with E2 and T, there is an accentuation of glandular hypertrophy that interrupts the development of hyperplasia and ensures the presence of a less dysplastic glandular morphology. PMID:24205795

  3. Correlation of Fos expression and circling asymmetry during gerbil vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular compensation is a central nervous system process resulting in recovery of functional movement and control following a unilateral vestibular lesion. Small pressure injections of phosphorothioate 20mer oligonucleotides were used to probe the role of the Fos transcription protein during vestibular compensation in the gerbil brainstem. During isoflurane gas anesthesia, antisense probes against the c-fos mRNA sequence were injected into the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei unilaterally prior to a unilateral surgical labyrinthectomy. Anionic dyes, which did not interact with the oligonucleotides, were used to mark the injection site and help determine the extent of diffusion. The antiFos oligonucleotide injections reduced Fos expression at the injection site in neurons which normally express Fos after the lesion, and also affected circling behavior induced by hemilabyrinthectomy. With both ipsilateral and contralateral medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei injections, less ipsilateral and more contralateral circling was noted in animals injected with antiFos injections as compared to non-injected controls. The degree of change in these behaviors was dependent upon the side of the injection. Histologically, antiFos injections reduced the number of Fos immunolabeled neurons around the injection site, and increased Fos expression contralaterally. The correlation of the number of neurons with Fos expression to turning behavior was stronger for contralateral versus ipsilateral turns, and for neurons in the caudal and ipsilateral sub-regions of the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. The results are discussed in terms of neuronal firing activity versus translational activity based on the asymmetrical expression of the Fos inducible transcription factor in the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. Although ubiquitous in the brain, transcription factors like Fos can serve localized and specific roles in sensory-specific adaptive stimuli. Antisense

  4. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning

    PubMed Central

    Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L.; Schulz, Andreas L.; Ohl, Frank W.; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden

  5. Progesterone as a morphological regulatory factor of the male and female gerbil prostate.

    PubMed

    Fochi, Ricardo A; Santos, Fernanda C A; Goes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-12-01

    Testosterone (T) and oestrogen are the main active steroid hormones in the male and female reproductive system respectively. In female rodents progesterone (P4), together with testosterone and oestrogen, has an essential role in the regulation of the oestrous cycle, which influences the prostate physiology through their oscillations. In this work we investigated how the male and female prostate gland of Mongolian gerbils responds to surgical castration at the start of puberty and what are the effects of T, oestradiol (E2) and P4 replacement, using both quantitative and qualitative methods. We also examined the location of the main steroid receptors present in the prostate. In the castrated animals of both sexes an intense glandular regression, along with disorganization of the stromal compartment, and abundant hyperplasia was observed. The replacement of P4 secured a mild recovery of the glandular morphology, inducing the growth of secretory cells and restoring the androgen receptor (AR) cells. The administration of P4 and E2 eliminated epithelial hyperplasia and intensified gland hypertrophy, favouring the emergence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). In animals treated with T and P4, even though there are some inflammatory foci and other lesions, the prostate gland revealed morphology closer to that of control animals. In summary, through the administration of P4, we could demonstrate that this hormone has anabolic characteristics, promoting hyperplasia and hypertrophy, mainly in the epithelial compartment. When combined with E2 and T, there is an accentuation of glandular hypertrophy that interrupts the development of hyperplasia and ensures the presence of a less dysplastic glandular morphology. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of otitis media in-vitro and in-vivo using gerbil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Kwon, Pil Seung; Ahn, Jin Chul; Chung, Phil Sang; Ge, Ruifeng

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antibacterial effects of PDT on common bacteria causing otitis media with effusion (OME). In vitro study was carried out using a hematoporphyrin derivative sensitizer (photogem) and 632 nm diode laser on H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, and S. pneumoniae. One ml of each bacterial suspension was incubated for 3 hours and various concentrations of photogem were administered into the suspension. The suspensions were irradiated with 632 diode laser (15 J/cm2). The presence of colony forming units of the bacteria was examined, microscopic structures of bacteria were examined by TEM, and cytometry of bacteria was performed. The PDT was effective in killing all 3 kinds of bacteria. TEM showed damaged bacterial cell membrane and cytoplasmic structures and the flow cytometry showed lower number of viable bacteria in PDT group comparing to the control group. In vivo PDT study was performed using gerbil. S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae was injected into bullae. Photogem was injected into bullae in 2 days by when OME was developed and transcanal irradiation of 632 nm diode laser (90 J) was performed with a fiber perforated through an ear drum into a middle ear cavity and bulla. Four days after PDT, middle ear and bulla were washed with DPBS and the washed DPBS was cultured. The presence of bacterial colonies was examined. PDT was effective in killing S. pneumoniae in 87 % of the infected bullae with OME while it was effective to eradicate H. influenzae in 50 % of the infected bullae with OME. The results of these studies demonstrated that PDT may be effective to treat otitis media. It may have clinical implication to treat otitis media that is resistant to antibiotic therapy.

  7. Development of sound localization mechanisms in the mongolian gerbil is shaped by early acoustic experience.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Armin H; Grothe, Benedikt

    2005-08-01

    Sound localization is one of the most important tasks performed by the auditory system. Differences in the arrival time of sound at the two ears are the main cue to localize low-frequency sound in the azimuth. In the mammalian brain, such interaural time differences (ITDs) are encoded in the auditory brain stem; first by the medial superior olive (MSO) and then transferred to higher centers, such as the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus (DNLL), a brain stem nucleus that gets a direct input from the MSO. Here we demonstrate for the first time that ITD sensitivity in gerbils undergoes a developmental maturation after hearing onset. We further show that this development can be disrupted by altering the animal's acoustic experience during a critical period. In animals that had been exposed to omnidirectional white noise during a restricted time period right after hearing onset, ITD tuning did not develop normally. Instead, it was similar to that of juvenile animals 3 days after hearing onset, with the ITD functions not adjusted to the physiological range. Animals that had been exposed to omnidirectional noise as adults did not show equivalent abnormal ITD tuning. The development presented here is in contrast to that of the development of neuronal representation of ITDs in the midbrain of barn owls and interaural intensity differences in ferrets, where the representations are adjusted by an interaction of auditory and visual inputs. The development of ITD tuning presented here most likely depends on normal acoustic experience and may be related to the maturation of inhibitory inputs to the ITD detector itself.

  8. Glucose metabolism and neurogenesis in the gerbil hippocampus after transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Lee, Kwon Young; Park, Joon Ha; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence exists that glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) plays an important role in the energy metabolism in the brain. Most previous studies have been conducted using focal or hypoxic ischemia models and have focused on changes in GLUT3 expression based on protein and mRNA levels rather than tissue levels. In the present study, we observed change in GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the adult gerbil hippocampus at various time points after 5 minutes of transient forebrain ischemia. In the sham-operated group, GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 region was weak, in the pyramidal cells of the CA1 region increased in a time-dependent fashion 24 hours after ischemia, and in the hippocampal CA1 region decreased significantly between 2 and 5 days after ischemia, with high level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity observed in the CA1 region 10 days after ischemia. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), we observed strong GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the astrocytes. GLUT3 immunoreactivity increased after ischemia and peaked 7 days in the dentate gyrus after ischemia/reperfusion. In a double immunofluorescence study using GLUT3 and doublecortin (DCX), we observed low level of GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the differentiated neuroblasts of the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus after ischemia. GLUT3 immunoreactivity in the sham-operated group was mainly detected in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that the increase in GLUT3 immunoreactivity may be a compensatory mechanism to modulate glucose level in the hippocampal CA1 region and to promote adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. PMID:27651772

  9. Reversal Learning in Humans and Gerbils: Dynamic Control Network Facilitates Learning.

    PubMed

    Jarvers, Christian; Brosch, Tobias; Brechmann, André; Woldeit, Marie L; Schulz, Andreas L; Ohl, Frank W; Lommerzheim, Marcel; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Biologically plausible modeling of behavioral reinforcement learning tasks has seen great improvements over the past decades. Less work has been dedicated to tasks involving contingency reversals, i.e., tasks in which the original behavioral goal is reversed one or multiple times. The ability to adjust to such reversals is a key element of behavioral flexibility. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms underlying contingency-reversal tasks. We first conduct experiments with humans and gerbils to demonstrate memory effects, including multiple reversals in which subjects (humans and animals) show a faster learning rate when a previously learned contingency re-appears. Motivated by recurrent mechanisms of learning and memory for object categories, we propose a network architecture which involves reinforcement learning to steer an orienting system that monitors the success in reward acquisition. We suggest that a model sensory system provides feature representations which are further processed by category-related subnetworks which constitute a neural analog of expert networks. Categories are selected dynamically in a competitive field and predict the expected reward. Learning occurs in sequentialized phases to selectively focus the weight adaptation to synapses in the hierarchical network and modulate their weight changes by a global modulator signal. The orienting subsystem itself learns to bias the competition in the presence of continuous monotonic reward accumulation. In case of sudden changes in the discrepancy of predicted and acquired reward the activated motor category can be switched. We suggest that this subsystem is composed of a hierarchically organized network of dis-inhibitory mechanisms, dubbed a dynamic control network (DCN), which resembles components of the basal ganglia. The DCN selectively activates an expert network, corresponding to the current behavioral strategy. The trace of the accumulated reward is monitored such that large sudden

  10. Correlation of Fos expression and circling asymmetry during gerbil vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    1999-01-01

    Vestibular compensation is a central nervous system process resulting in recovery of functional movement and control following a unilateral vestibular lesion. Small pressure injections of phosphorothioate 20mer oligonucleotides were used to probe the role of the Fos transcription protein during vestibular compensation in the gerbil brainstem. During isoflurane gas anesthesia, antisense probes against the c-fos mRNA sequence were injected into the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei unilaterally prior to a unilateral surgical labyrinthectomy. Anionic dyes, which did not interact with the oligonucleotides, were used to mark the injection site and help determine the extent of diffusion. The antiFos oligonucleotide injections reduced Fos expression at the injection site in neurons which normally express Fos after the lesion, and also affected circling behavior induced by hemilabyrinthectomy. With both ipsilateral and contralateral medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei injections, less ipsilateral and more contralateral circling was noted in animals injected with antiFos injections as compared to non-injected controls. The degree of change in these behaviors was dependent upon the side of the injection. Histologically, antiFos injections reduced the number of Fos immunolabeled neurons around the injection site, and increased Fos expression contralaterally. The correlation of the number of neurons with Fos expression to turning behavior was stronger for contralateral versus ipsilateral turns, and for neurons in the caudal and ipsilateral sub-regions of the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. The results are discussed in terms of neuronal firing activity versus translational activity based on the asymmetrical expression of the Fos inducible transcription factor in the medial vestibular and prepositus nuclei. Although ubiquitous in the brain, transcription factors like Fos can serve localized and specific roles in sensory-specific adaptive stimuli. Antisense

  11. Plague cycles in two rodent species from China: Dry years might provide context for epizootics in wet years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.; Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Plague, a rodent-associated, flea-borne zoonosis, is one of the most notorious diseases in history. Rates of plague transmission can increase when fleas are abundant. Fleas commonly desiccate and die when reared under dry conditions in laboratories, suggesting fleas will be suppressed during droughts in the wild, thus reducing the rate at which plague spreads among hosts. In contrast, fleas might increase in abundance when precipitation is plentiful, producing epizootic outbreaks during wet years. We tested these hypotheses using a 27-yr data set from two rodents in Inner Mongolia, China: Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). For both species of rodents, fleas were most abundant during years preceded by dry growing seasons. For gerbils, the prevalence of plague increased during wet years preceded by dry growing seasons. If precipitation is scarce during the primary growing season, succulent plants decline in abundance and, consequently, herbivorous rodents can suffer declines in body condition. Fleas produce more offspring and better survive when parasitizing food-limited hosts, because starving animals tend to exhibit inefficient behavioral and immunological defenses against fleas. Further, rodent burrows might buffer fleas from xeric conditions aboveground during dry years. After a dry year, fleas might be abundant due to the preceding drought, and if precipitation and succulent plants become more plentiful, rodents could increase in density, thereby creating connectivity that facilitates the spread of plague. Moreover, in wet years, mild temperatures might increase the efficiency at which fleas transmit the plague bacterium, while also helping fleas to survive as they quest among hosts. In this way, dry years could provide context for epizootics of plague in wet years.

  12. [The isoenzyme identification of Leishmania isolates taken from greater gerbils, sandflies and human patients in foci of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkmenistan].

    PubMed

    Strelkova, M V; Eliseev, L N; Ponirovskiĭ, E N; Erokhin, P I; Rakitskaia, T A; Valevich, T A; Sysoev, V V; Allenov, V A; Adamishina, T A; Dergacheva, T I

    1993-01-01

    In 1991-1992, 230 isolates were obtained in the Tedzhen oasis and its adjacent desert areas: 172 isolates from great gerbils, 39 from P. papatasi, and 19 from human cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. All the isolates were identified by the isoenzyme polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis by 8 enzymes. The characteristics of Leishmania circulation in the hyperendemic foci of Turkmenistan were similar to those previously studied in the mesoendemic areas of Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. L. turanica which is non-pathogenic for man prevailed among infected great gerbils in winter, spring, and early summer, making the natural foci epidemiologically safe in that period of time. It was only in August-September that the great gerbil infection rate by L. major appeared to increase, occasionally reaching 100%. Epizootics due to L. major are developing in the presence of L. turanica, therefore most isolates are clone mixtures of L. major and L. turanica. P. papatasi is the only vector in the Tedzhen oasis; there has been strong evidence for its transmission of both L. major and L. turanica, which makes the concept inconsistent that P. papatasi is associated only with L. major. The overall analysis of recent findings of the distribution of L. major in the populations of great gerbils makes it possible to limit the former endemic zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis areas to 40 degrees N latitude and the southern borders of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Within this area, the distribution of L. major is uneven and associated basically with rivers, valleys, oases, and foothill desert plains.

  13. Ecdysterone protects gerbil brain from temporal global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via preventing neuron apoptosis and deactivating astrocytes and microglia cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Tao; Feng, Wan-Yu; Wang, Zhan-You; Cheng, Mao-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Ecdysterone (EDS), a common derivative of ecdysteroid, has shown its effects on alleviating cognitive impairment and improving the cognition and memory. However, the mechanisms remain unknown. Using temporal global forebrain ischemia and reperfusion-induced brain injury as a model system, we investigated the roles of EDS in improving cognitive impairment in gerbil. Our results demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of EDS obviously increased the number of surviving neuron cells by Nissl and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining. Indeed, the protecting effects of EDS are because of its ability to prevent the apoptosis of neuron cells as evidenced by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 deactivation in the brain of temporal global forebrain ischemia/reperfusion-treated gerbil. Moreover, EDS administration suppressed the ischemia stimulated activity of astrocytes and microglia cells by inhibiting the production of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in the brain of gerbil. More importantly, these actions of neurons and astrocytes/microglia cells in response to EDS treatment played pivotal roles in ameliorating the cognitive impairment in the ischemia/reperfusion-injured gerbil. In view of these observations, we not only decipher the mechanisms of EDS in reducing the syndrome of ischemia, but also provide novel perspectives to combat ischemic stroke.

  14. Effect of giardiasis combined with low-protein diet on intestinal absorption of glucose and electrolytes in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Maria Aparecida; de Oliveira, Dirce Ribeiro; de Freitas, Sabrina Emanuele; de Pinho Viana, Marcelo; Borges, Elizabeth Lage

    2012-08-01

    Studies have shown that symptomatic infection by Giardia lamblia causes acute or chronic diarrhea, dehydration, abdominal pain and malabsorption, leading to undernutrition and weight loss. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of giardiasis and its combination with a low-protein diet on the intestinal absorption of glucose and electrolytes in gerbils. The intestinal absorption of glucose, sodium and potassium was investigated in male gerbils weighing 46-64 g (n≥5). A Tyrode solution containing twice the glucose, sodium and potassium concentration (pH 7.4) was infused through the intestinal loops for 40 min. Glucose absorption was not significantly affected by diet and infection. However, there was a significant increase in sodium absorption in the Giardia-infected group (57.2±6.1, p<0.05) in comparison to the control, low-protein diet and low-protein diet+Giardia-infected groups (8.9±6.5, 2.8±11.1 and 0.8±7.9, respectively; p<0.05). Moreover, potassium was absorbed in the Giardia-infected group (0.45±0.30), while the other groups exhibited potassium secretion. A low-protein diet and Giardia infection had no influence over glucose absorption. However, Giardia infection increased sodium and potassium uptake, suggesting a compensatory mechanism for maintaining homeostasis after likely hypernatremia and hypokalemia caused by the diarrhea that accompanies giardiasis.

  15. Immunohistochemical localization of the Na-K-Cl co-transporter (NKCC1) in the gerbil inner ear.

    PubMed

    Crouch, J J; Sakaguchi, N; Lytle, C; Schulte, B A

    1997-06-01

    We mapped the cellular and subcellular distribution of the Na-K-Cl co-transporter (NKCC) in the adult gerbil inner ear by immunostaining with a monoclonal antibody (MAb T4) generated against human colon NKCC. Heavy immunolabeling was seen in the basolateral plasma membrane of marginal cells in the stria vascularis and dark cells in the vestibular system. Subpopulations of fibrocytes in the cochlear spiral ligament and limbus and underlying the vestibular neurosensory epithelium also stained with moderate to strong intensity, apparently along their entire plasmalemma. Because MAb T4 recognizes both the basolateral secretory (NKCC1) and the apical absorptive (NKCC2) isoforms of the co-transporter, we employed reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to explore isoform diversity in inner ear tissues. Using NKCC1 and NKCC2 isoform-specific PCR primers based on mouse and human sequences, only transcripts for NKCC1 were detected in the gerbil inner ear. The presence of abundant NKCC1 in the basolateral plasmalemma of strial marginal and vestibular dark cells confirms conclusions drawn from pharmacological and physiological data. The co-expression of NKCC1 and Na,K-ATPase in highly specialized subpopulations of cochlear and vestibular fibrocytes provides further evidence for their role in recycling K+ leaked or effluxed through hair cells into perilymph back to endolymph, as postulated in current models of inner ear ion homeostasis.

  16. Saccule contribution to immediate early gene induction in the gerbil brainstem with posterior canal galvanic or hypergravity stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, T. H.; Kaufman, G. D.; Purcell, I. M.; Perachio, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Immunolabeling patterns of the immediate early gene-related protein Fos in the gerbil brainstem were studied following stimulation of the sacculus by both hypergravity and galvanic stimulation. Head-restrained, alert animals were exposed to a prolonged (1 h) inertial vector of 2 G (19.6 m/s2) head acceleration directed in a dorso-ventral head axis to maximally stimulate the sacculus. Fos-defined immunoreactivity was quantified, and the results compared to a control group. The hypergravity stimulus produced Fos immunolabeling in the dorsomedial cell column (dmcc) of the inferior olive independently of other subnuclei. Similar dmcc labeling was induced by a 30 min galvanic stimulus of up to -100 microA applied through a stimulating electrode placed unilaterally on the bony labyrinth overlying the posterior canal (PC). The pattern of vestibular afferent firing activity induced by this galvanic stimulus was quantified in anesthetized gerbils by simultaneously recording from Scarpa's ganglion. Only saccular and PC afferent neurons exhibited increases in average firing rates of 200-300%, suggesting a pattern of current spread involving only PC and saccular afferent neurons at this level of stimulation. These results suggest that alteration in saccular afferent firing rates are sufficient to induce Fos-defined genomic activation of the dmcc, and lend further evidence to the existence of a functional vestibulo-olivary-cerebellar pathway of adaptation to novel gravito-inertial environments.

  17. Prenatal testosterone exposure as a model for the study of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the gerbil prostate.

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Manoel F; Perez, Ana Ps; Góes, Rejane M; Santos, Fernanda Ca; Vilamaior, Patrícia Sl; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2012-11-01

    The development of the prostate depends on a precise androgenic control, so sensible interferences may predispose this gland to develop prostatic diseases during life. These aspects are of interest and preoccupation, since human beings are exposed to a growing number of endocrine-disrupting chemicals with androgenic potential. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the prostates of adult gerbils exposed to testosterone during intrauterine life. Serological, morphological, morphometric-stereologic, immunohistochemical and three-dimensional reconstruction analyses were used. We found that the testosterone effects were dose-dependent and more harmful to females, leading to the development of masculine characteristics, evidenced by an increased anogenital distance, and absence of vaginal opening and the ectopic development of prostatic tissue. Moreover, premalignant lesions, such as prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, were observed in addition to inflammatory foci in the prostate. The results showed that the prenatal exposure to testosterone may affect the reproductive system, disrupting developmental processes and increasing susceptibility to the development of prostatic diseases in the Mongolian gerbil.

  18. Intrauterine exposure to oestradiol promotes sex-specific differential effects on the prostatic development of neonate gerbils.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Maldarine, Juliana S; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Pinto-Fochi, Maria E; Antoniassi, Julia Q; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2017-07-25

    The effects of intrauterine exposure to 17β-oestradiol (E2) are well studied for the male prostate and there are accumulating evidences that the exposure to high dosages leads to a hypomorphic development. However, there is a lack of information about the effects of intrauterine exposure to E2 in the prostate of rodent females, and such research becomes relevant in view of the presence of functional prostate in a proportion of women, and the morphophysiological similarities between the prostate of female rodents and the prostate of women. This study uses histochemical, immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction techniques to evaluate the effects of intrauterine exposure to E2 (500 BW/d) on neonatal prostate development in both male and female gerbils. It was verified that intrauterine exposure to E2 promotes epithelial proliferation and growth of prostatic budding in females, whereas in males the prostatic budding shows hypomorphic growth in the VMP (Ventral Mesenchymal Pad) as well as reduced epithelial proliferation. Together, the data demonstrate that intrauterine exposure to E2 causes different effects on male and female prostates of the gerbil even at the early postnatal development of the gland. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Progesterone restores the female prostate activity in ovariectomized gerbil and may act as competitor of testosterone in intraprostatic environment.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Filipe Z; Silva, Diego A L; Zanatelli, Marianna; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2013-05-30

    Little is known about the effect of progesterone on gerbil female prostate. It is known that normal oscillation in the progesterone and estradiol levels during the estrous cycle phases influence the morphophysiology of this gland. The present study aims to evaluate the isolated effect of prolonged administration of progesterone combined or not with testosterone on the prostate of ovariectomized female gerbil. To observe the morphological changes caused by castration in the prostate of different groups stereologic analyses of all prostate compartments, analysis of nuclear area and perimeter, and morphometric measurements of epithelial and smooth muscle cells layers were used. In addition, immunocytochemistry was performed to investigate the distribution of the androgen, estrogen alfa and beta and progesterone receptors in different prostatic compartments. This study demonstrated that both treatments partially recovered the structure of the gland. In the group treated with progesterone plus testosterone a higher incidence of epithelial and stromal disorders occurred, besides the absence of secretory activity. Thus, treatment only with progesterone showed better results in the restoration of glandular homeostasis mainly seen by the regulation of the secretory activity. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that progesterone may have a significant role on the maintenance of prostate morphophysiology, and showed an interesting evidence of hormonal competition between progesterone and testosterone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Saccule contribution to immediate early gene induction in the gerbil brainstem with posterior canal galvanic or hypergravity stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, T. H.; Kaufman, G. D.; Purcell, I. M.; Perachio, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Immunolabeling patterns of the immediate early gene-related protein Fos in the gerbil brainstem were studied following stimulation of the sacculus by both hypergravity and galvanic stimulation. Head-restrained, alert animals were exposed to a prolonged (1 h) inertial vector of 2 G (19.6 m/s2) head acceleration directed in a dorso-ventral head axis to maximally stimulate the sacculus. Fos-defined immunoreactivity was quantified, and the results compared to a control group. The hypergravity stimulus produced Fos immunolabeling in the dorsomedial cell column (dmcc) of the inferior olive independently of other subnuclei. Similar dmcc labeling was induced by a 30 min galvanic stimulus of up to -100 microA applied through a stimulating electrode placed unilaterally on the bony labyrinth overlying the posterior canal (PC). The pattern of vestibular afferent firing activity induced by this galvanic stimulus was quantified in anesthetized gerbils by simultaneously recording from Scarpa's ganglion. Only saccular and PC afferent neurons exhibited increases in average firing rates of 200-300%, suggesting a pattern of current spread involving only PC and saccular afferent neurons at this level of stimulation. These results suggest that alteration in saccular afferent firing rates are sufficient to induce Fos-defined genomic activation of the dmcc, and lend further evidence to the existence of a functional vestibulo-olivary-cerebellar pathway of adaptation to novel gravito-inertial environments.

  1. Imaging and cell count in cleared intact cochlea in the Mongolian gerbil using laser scanning confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Risoud, M; Sircoglou, J; Dedieu, G; Tardivel, M; Vincent, C; Bonne, N-X

    2017-09-01

    To draw up a clearing protocol for Mongolian gerbil cochlea, and to assess the feasibility of quantifying and analyzing 3D cell architecture in the transparent cochleae. Freshly dissected inner ears were prepared on a 13-day protocol: fixation, microdissection, post-fixation, decalcification, pretreatment (signal enhancement, permeabilization and blocking), fluorescent labeling (indirect immunolabeling and direct labeling), dehydration, clearing in Spalteholz solution (MSBB: methyl salicylate and benzyl benzoate) and mounting. Image acquisition used laser scanning confocal microscopy. ImageJ software was used to measure the length of the organ of Corti thus available for analysis and to count inner and outer hair cells. Four cochleas underwent imaging. 3D reconstruction enabled organ of Corti length to be measured, at a mean 1269±346μm. Mean inner and outer hair-cell count per organ of Corti length was 142±44 and 400±122, respectively. Cochlear clearing by MSBB was feasible in Mongolian gerbils and provided high-resolution immunofluorescence-labeled inner-ear images. To our knowledge, this was the first application of the technique in this species. Cell count could thus be performed along the organ of Corti length without traumatic dissection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Cytological and cytogenetic studies of cells of Mongolian gerbils' retinal epithelium and marrow following 12-day space flight].

    PubMed

    Vorozhtsova, S V; Abrosimova, A N; Fedorenko, B S; Rakov, D V

    2011-01-01

    The paper report the results of studying mitotic activity and cytogenetic disorders in marrow and retinal epithelium cells of Mongolian gerbils in 21 - 23 hrs. of landing space apparatus Foton-M3, and the animals of synchronous and vivarium controls. Cells of the space flown gerbils displayed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) gain in the ratio of mitosis prophases and metaphases to the sum of ana- and telophases (1.7 +/- 0.3 and 2 +/- 0.1, respectively) as compared to these parameters in the synchronous and vivarium controls, where the ratio made up 0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.7 +/- 0.1, respectively. Frequency of aberrant mytoses in the form of bridges was increased equally in both types of cells. Patterns of chromosome damages occurred in flight infer that the major portion of changes was not due to chromosome breakage but adhesion and ensuing wrong disjunction. These results seem to have been caused by acute g-stress to organism during re-entry and return from micro-g to the normal gravity.

  3. Saccule contribution to immediate early gene induction in the gerbil brainstem with posterior canal galvanic or hypergravity stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marshburn, T H; Kaufman, G D; Purcell, I M; Perachio, A A

    1997-06-27

    Immunolabeling patterns of the immediate early gene-related protein Fos in the gerbil brainstem were studied following stimulation of the sacculus by both hypergravity and galvanic stimulation. Head-restrained, alert animals were exposed to a prolonged (1 h) inertial vector of 2 G (19.6 m/s2) head acceleration directed in a dorso-ventral head axis to maximally stimulate the sacculus. Fos-defined immunoreactivity was quantified, and the results compared to a control group. The hypergravity stimulus produced Fos immunolabeling in the dorsomedial cell column (dmcc) of the inferior olive independently of other subnuclei. Similar dmcc labeling was induced by a 30 min galvanic stimulus of up to -100 microA applied through a stimulating electrode placed unilaterally on the bony labyrinth overlying the posterior canal (PC). The pattern of vestibular afferent firing activity induced by this galvanic stimulus was quantified in anesthetized gerbils by simultaneously recording from Scarpa's ganglion. Only saccular and PC afferent neurons exhibited increases in average firing rates of 200-300%, suggesting a pattern of current spread involving only PC and saccular afferent neurons at this level of stimulation. These results suggest that alteration in saccular afferent firing rates are sufficient to induce Fos-defined genomic activation of the dmcc, and lend further evidence to the existence of a functional vestibulo-olivary-cerebellar pathway of adaptation to novel gravito-inertial environments.

  4. Comparative virulence of in vitro-cultured primate- and pig-associated Helicobacter suis strains in a BALB/c mouse and a Mongolian gerbil model.

    PubMed

    Bosschem, Iris; Flahou, Bram; Bakker, Jaco; Heuvelman, Edwin; Langermans, Jan A M; De Bruyne, Ellen; Joosten, Myrthe; Smet, Annemieke; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. This bacterium mainly colonizes the stomach of pigs, but it has also been detected in the stomach of nonhuman primates. The aim of this study was to obtain better insights into potential differences between pig- and primate-associated H. suis strains in virulence and pathogenesis. In vitro-isolated H. suis strains obtained from pigs, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were used for intragastric inoculation of BALB/c mice and Mongolian gerbils. Nine weeks and six months later, samples of the stomach of inoculated and control animals were taken for PCR analysis and histopathological examination. The cynomolgus monkey-associated H. suis strain only colonized the stomach of mice, but not of Mongolian gerbils. All other H. suis strains colonized the stomach in both rodent models. In all colonized animals, severe gastric inflammation was induced. Gastric lymphoid follicles and destruction of the antral epithelium were observed in infected gerbils, but not in mice. Infection with both pig- and primate-associated H. suis strains evoked a similar marked Th17 response in mice and gerbils, accompanied by increased CXCL-13 expression levels. Apart from the cynomolgus monkey-associated strain which was unable of colonizing the stomach of Mongolian gerbils, no substantial differences in virulence were found in rodent models between in vitro-cultured pig-associated, cynomolgus monkey-associated and rhesus monkey-associated H. suis strains. The experimental host determines the outcome of the immune response against H. suis infection, rather than the original host. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Parvalbumin disappears from GABAergic CA1 neurons of the gerbil hippocampus with seizure onset while its presence persists in the perforant path.

    PubMed

    Scotti, A L; Kalt, G; Bollag, O; Nitsch, C

    1997-06-20

    Mongolian gerbils are epilepsy prone animals, a trait observable at the behavioural level during the 2nd month of life. As a unique species difference, gerbils express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) in the perforant path from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus. In this study, we determined the time of appearance of PV in the layer II neurons of the entorhinal cortex and the perforant path terminals in gerbils between post-natal days 30 and 50. Signs of low grade seizures were observed in few animals from P40 onward. PV stain in the entorhinal cortex and perforant path terminals was already detectable at P30, well before the onset of behavioural seizures and did not change with age. It is suggested that the presence of PV in this pathway may be related to the generation early in life of an epileptogenic focus in the limbic forebrain. Altered inhibitory hippocampal circuits have also been suggested as a cause of seizures in the gerbil. Therefore, we quantitated hippocampal GABA-immunoreactive neurons and the PV-immunoreactive subpopulation. A group of gerbils with a high density of stained pyramidal interneurons in CA1 and one lacking PV-stained perikarya could be distinguished at P40 and P50. The density of GABA-immunoreactive nerve cells however, remained the same in both groups and through the ages studied. Thus, perikaryal PV is lost from intact GABAergic nerve cells at the same time as behavioural seizures are observed. The loss of PV from GABAergic neurons may affect their functional properties and be instrumental for the maintainance of behavioural seizures.

  6. Maturation of glycinergic inhibition in the gerbil medial superior olive after hearing onset

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Anna K; Kapfer, Christoph; Grothe, Benedikt; Koch, Ursula

    2005-01-01

    The neurones of the medial superior olive (MSO) are the most temporally sensitive neurones in the brain. They respond to the arrival time difference of sound at the two ears with a microsecond resolution; these interaural time differences are used to localize low-frequency sounds. In addition to the excitatory inputs from each ear, the MSO neurones also receive binaural glycinergic projections, which have a critical role in sound localization processing. Recently, it was shown that the glycinergic input to the MSO undergoes an experience-dependent structural reorganization after hearing onset. To explore the maturation of inhibition during the development of sound localization on a cellular level, glycinergic currents and potentials were measured in gerbil MSO principal cells from postnatal (P) day P12–P25 by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. The synaptic glycinergic currents accelerated to rapid decay kinetics (∼2 ms) and rise times (∼0.4 ms) after hearing onset, reaching maturity around P17. Since the kinetics of miniature glycinergic currents did not change with age, it is likely that a higher degree of transmitter release synchrony is the underlying mechanism influencing the acceleration of the kinetics. During the same period, the synaptic glycinergic potentials accelerated four-fold, largely as a result of a prominent decrease in input resistance. In accordance with a reorganization of the glycinergic inputs, the evoked peak conductances decreased more than two-fold, together with a three-fold reduction in the frequency of miniature events after hearing onset. These age-dependent changes were absent in animals that had been reared in omni-directional noise, indicating that an experience-dependent pruning of synaptic inputs is important for the maturation of functional inhibition in the MSO. Taken together, these striking developmental adjustments of the glycinergic inhibition in the MSO most probably reflect an adaptation to improve the encoding of

  7. Finite-Element Modelling of the Response of the Gerbil Middle Ear to Sound.

    PubMed

    Maftoon, Nima; Funnell, W Robert J; Daniel, Sam J; Decraemer, Willem F

    2015-10-01

    We present a finite-element model of the gerbil middle ear that, using a set of baseline parameters based primarily on a priori estimates from the literature, generates responses that are comparable with responses we measured in vivo using multi-point vibrometry and with those measured by other groups. We investigated the similarity of numerous features (umbo, pars-flaccida and pars-tensa displacement magnitudes, the resonance frequency and break-up frequency, etc.) in the experimental responses with corresponding ones in the model responses, as opposed to simply computing frequency-by-frequency differences between experimental and model responses. The umbo response of the model is within the range of variability seen in the experimental data in terms of the low-frequency (i.e., well below the middle-ear resonance) magnitude and phase, the main resonance frequency and magnitude, and the roll-off slope and irregularities in the response above the resonance frequency, but is somewhat high for frequencies above the resonance frequency. At low frequencies, the ossicular axis of rotation of the model appears to correspond to the anatomical axis but the behaviour is more complex at high frequencies (i.e., above the pars-tensa break-up). The behaviour of the pars tensa in the model is similar to what is observed experimentally in terms of magnitudes, phases, the break-up frequency of the spatial vibration pattern, and the bandwidths of the high-frequency response features. A sensitivity analysis showed that the parameters that have the strongest effects on the model results are the Young's modulus, thickness and density of the pars tensa; the Young's modulus of the stapedial annular ligament; and the Young's modulus and density of the malleus. Displacements of the tympanic membrane and manubrium and the low-frequency displacement of the stapes did not show large changes when the material properties of the incus, stapes, incudomallear joint, incudostapedial joint, and

  8. Convergent properties of vestibular-related brain stem neurons in the gerbil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three classes of vestibular-related neurons were found in and near the prepositus and medial vestibular nuclei of alert or decerebrate gerbils, those responding to: horizontal translational motion, horizontal head rotation, or both. Their distribution ratios were 1:2:2, respectively. Many cells responsive to translational motion exhibited spatiotemporal characteristics with both response gain and phase varying as a function of the stimulus vector angle. Rotationally sensitive neurons were distributed as Type I, II, or III responses (sensitive to ipsilateral, contralateral, or both directions, respectively) in the ratios of 4:6:1. Four tested factors shaped the response dynamics of the sampled neurons: canal-otolith convergence, oculomotor-related activity, rotational Type (I or II), and the phase of the maximum response. Type I nonconvergent cells displayed increasing gains with increasing rotational stimulus frequency (0.1-2.0 Hz, 60 degrees /s), whereas Type II neurons with convergent inputs had response gains that markedly decreased with increasing translational stimulus frequency (0.25-2.0 Hz, +/-0.1 g). Type I convergent and Type II nonconvergent neurons exhibited essentially flat gains across the stimulus frequency range. Oculomotor-related activity was noted in 30% of the cells across all functional types, appearing as burst/pause discharge patterns related to the fast phase of nystagmus during head rotation. Oculomotor-related activity was correlated with enhanced dynamic range compared with the same category that had no oculomotor-related response. Finally, responses that were in-phase with head velocity during rotation exhibited greater gains with stimulus frequency increments than neurons with out-of-phase responses. In contrast, for translational motion, neurons out of phase with head acceleration exhibited low-pass characteristics, whereas in-phase neurons did not. Data from decerebrate preparations revealed that although similar response types could

  9. Auditory response properties in the superior paraolivary nucleus of the gerbil.

    PubMed

    Behrend, Oliver; Brand, Antje; Kapfer, Christoph; Grothe, Benedikt

    2002-06-01

    The ascending auditory pathway is characterized by parallel processing. At the brain stem level, several structures are involved that are known to serve different well-defined functions. However, the function of one prominent brain stem nucleus, the rodent superior paraolivary nucleus (SPN) and its putative homologue in other mammals, the dorsomedial periolivary nucleus, is unknown. Based on extracellular recordings from anesthetized gerbils, we tested the role of the SPN in sound localization and temporal processing. First, the existence of binaural inputs indicates that the SPN might be involved in sound localization. Although almost half of the neurons exhibited binaural interactions (most of them excited from both sides), effects of interaural time and intensity differences (ITD; IID) were weak and ambiguous. Thus a straightforward function of SPN in sound localization appears to be implausible. Second, inputs from octopus and multipolar/stellate cells of the cochlear nucleus and from principal cells of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body could relate to precise temporal processing in the SPN. Based on discharge types, two subpopulations of SPN cells were observed: about 60% of the neurons responded to pure tones with sustained discharges, with irregular spike patterns and no phase-locking. Only four neurons showed a regular spike pattern ("chopping"). About 40% of the neurons responded with phasic ON or OFF discharges. Average first spike latency observed in neurons with sustained discharges was significantly shorter than that of ON responders, but had a considerably higher trial-to-trial variation ("jitter"). A subpopulation of ON responders showed a jitter of less than +/-0.1 ms. Most neurons (66%) responded to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated sounds (SAM) with an ongoing response, phase-locked to the stimulus envelope. Again, ON responders showed a significantly higher temporal precision in the phase-locked discharge compared with the sustained

  10. Convergent properties of vestibular-related brain stem neurons in the gerbil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, G. D.; Shinder, M. E.; Perachio, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    Three classes of vestibular-related neurons were found in and near the prepositus and medial vestibular nuclei of alert or decerebrate gerbils, those responding to: horizontal translational motion, horizontal head rotation, or both. Their distribution ratios were 1:2:2, respectively. Many cells responsive to translational motion exhibited spatiotemporal characteristics with both response gain and phase varying as a function of the stimulus vector angle. Rotationally sensitive neurons were distributed as Type I, II, or III responses (sensitive to ipsilateral, contralateral, or both directions, respectively) in the ratios of 4:6:1. Four tested factors shaped the response dynamics of the sampled neurons: canal-otolith convergence, oculomotor-related activity, rotational Type (I or II), and the phase of the maximum response. Type I nonconvergent cells displayed increasing gains with increasing rotational stimulus frequency (0.1-2.0 Hz, 60 degrees /s), whereas Type II neurons with convergent inputs had response gains that markedly decreased with increasing translational stimulus frequency (0.25-2.0 Hz, +/-0.1 g). Type I convergent and Type II nonconvergent neurons exhibited essentially flat gains across the stimulus frequency range. Oculomotor-related activity was noted in 30% of the cells across all functional types, appearing as burst/pause discharge patterns related to the fast phase of nystagmus during head rotation. Oculomotor-related activity was correlated with enhanced dynamic range compared with the same category that had no oculomotor-related response. Finally, responses that were in-phase with head velocity during rotation exhibited greater gains with stimulus frequency increments than neurons with out-of-phase responses. In contrast, for translational motion, neurons out of phase with head acceleration exhibited low-pass characteristics, whereas in-phase neurons did not. Data from decerebrate preparations revealed that although similar response types could

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of vestibular efferent neurons innervating semicircular canals of the gerbil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, I. M.; Perachio, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Anterograde labeling techniques were used to examine peripheral innervation patterns of vestibular efferent neurons in the crista ampullares of the gerbil. Vestibular efferent neurons were labeled by extracellular injections of biocytin or biotinylated dextran amine into the contralateral or ipsilateral dorsal subgroup of efferent cell bodies (group e) located dorsolateral to the facial nerve genu. Anterogradely labeled efferent terminal field varicosities consist mainly of boutons en passant with fewer of the terminal type. The bouton swellings are located predominately in apposition to the basolateral borders of the afferent calyces and type II hair cells, but several boutons were identified close to the hair cell apical border on both types. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of the terminal fields from these cells located in the sensory neuroepithelium of the anterior, horizontal, and posterior cristae were performed. We show that efferent neurons densely innervate each end organ in widespread terminal fields. Subepithelial bifurcations of parent axons were minimal, with extensive collateralization occurring after the axons penetrated the basement membrane of the neuroepithelium. Axonal branching ranged between the 6th and 27th orders and terminal field collecting area far exceeds that of the peripheral terminals of primary afferent neurons. The terminal fields of the efferent neurons display three morphologically heterogeneous types: central, peripheral, and planum. All cell types possess terminal fields displaying a high degree of anisotropy with orientations typically parallel to or within +/-45 degrees of the longitudinal axis if the crista. Terminal fields of the central and planum zones predominately project medially toward the transverse axis from the more laterally located penetration of the basement membrane by the parent axon. Peripheral zone terminal fields extend predominately toward the planum semilunatum. The innervation

  12. Assessing plasma lipid levels, body weight, and hepatic and renal toxicity following chronic oral administration of a water soluble phytostanol compound, FM-VP4, to gerbils.

    PubMed

    Wasan, K M; Najafi, S; Wong, J; Kwong, M; Pritchard, P H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the effect of a FM-VP4 when incorporated into the diet or drinking water on plasma lipids, body weight, and hepatic and renal function following chronic oral administration to gerbils. Gerbils were administered water and food daily containing either no FM-VP4 (controls; n=6), 2% or 4% FM-VP4 incorporated into the gerbil diet (n=6 each treatment group) or 2% or 4% FM-VP4 dissolved in the drinking water (n=6 each treatment group). Body weight and food and water intake were monitored weekly. Following 8 weeks of this regiment blood was obtained via a cardiac puncture and all animals were sacrificed humanely. Plasma obtained from this blood was analyzed for total cholesterol, total triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels by standard enzymatic and precipitation techniques. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels were determined by the Friedewald equation. The plasma was also analyzed for changes in hepatic enzyme (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT]) and plasma creatinine (renal function) concentrations. 2% and 4% FM-VP4 administration incorporated both into the diet and in the drinking water resulted in a significant decrease in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration compared to controls. Animals administered 4% FM-VP4 in either their diet or drinking water had significantly lower body weight following the 8 weeks of treatment compared to the other groups. Significant differences in daily water intake was observed in all treatment groups with the exception of the 2% FM-VP4 in diet group compared to controls. Significant differences in daily food intake were observed in gerbils administered 2% FM-VP4 in the drinking water and 4% FM-VP4 in the diet and drinking water groups compared to controls. A significant decrease in total plasma triglyceride concentration was observed in gerbils administered 4% FM-VP4 in their drinking water compared

  13. Age-dependent increase in the expression of antioxidant-like protein-1 in the gerbil hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-A; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Choong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant-like protein-1 (AOP-1) reduces the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the age-related change in AOP-1 expression in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged gerbils was compared using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated that the protein expression of AOP-1 was gradually and significantly increased in the hippocampus during the normal aging process. In addition, the age-dependent increase in AOP-1 immunoreactivity was also observed in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus proper; however, in the dentate gyrus, AOP-1 immunoreactivity was not altered during the normal aging process. These results indicated that the expression of AOP-1 is significantly increased in the hippocampus proper, but not in the dentate gyrus, during the normal aging process. PMID:27511601

  14. Neuroprotection of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by anti-inflammatory effect in gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Jae-Chul; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Jong-Dai; Hong, Seongkweon; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tried to verify the neuroprotective effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Linne (CIL) extract, which has been used as a botanical drug in East Asia, against ischemic damage and to explore the underlying mechanism involving the anti-inflammatory approach. A gerbil was given CIL extract for 7 consecutive days followed by bilateral carotid artery occlusion to make a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion model. Then, we found that CIL extracts protected pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) from ischemic damage using neuronal nucleus immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence. Accordingly, interleukin-13 immunoreactivities in the CA1 pyramidal neurons of CIL-pretreated animals were maintained or increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. These findings indicate that the pre-treatment of CIL can attenuate neuronal damage/death in the brain after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion via an anti-inflammatory approach. PMID:27073380

  15. Short-term individual housing induced social deficits in female Mongolian gerbils: attenuation by chronic but not acute imipramine.

    PubMed

    Pickles, A R; Hagan, J J; Jones, D N C; Hendrie, C A

    2012-04-01

    Mongolian gerbils are highly sensitive to manipulations of their social environments. Housing females individually for short periods (in the order of 7-21 days) has been shown to produce robust and reliable impairments of their subsequent social behaviour. These effects are typified by a marked reduction in the social investigation of an unfamiliar male in a neutral arena and/or a marked increases in levels of freezing whilst and only whilst they are being socially investigated (Immobile in contact). These responses demonstrate housing induced impaired motivation to socially interact. These effects have also been shown to be sensitive to treatment with chronic (but not acute) administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. It was therefore of interest to know if similar effects would be produced by treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant Imipramine. This mixed NA/5-HT reuptake inhibitor first developed in the 1950's is a commonly used standard in animal models of depression and remains in clinical use today. Female gerbils were individually housed for 7 days or maintained in single-sex groups of 4 for the same period. All animals were then randomly allocated to be administered with either 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg imipramine. Acute administration did not reverse the social impairments produced by the individual housing but did produce non-specific stimulant effects on locomotion in both housing conditions. These social impairments were however reduced after a further 14 days chronic treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg imipramine and stimulant effects were no longer seen. Following chronic administration in group-housed animals locomotor stimulation was replaced with sedation, which resulted in a reduction in social behaviour. That is, opposite to the effect seen in Individual housed animals. It is therefore concluded that chronic treatment with imipramine serves to increase social behaviour but only in those animals with a pre-existing social

  16. Cooking enhances but the degree of ripeness does not affect provitamin A carotenoid bioavailability from bananas in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Arscott, Sara A; Khanna, Harjeet; Arinaitwe, Geofrey; Dale, James; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Mondloch, Stephanie; Tanumihardjo, Jacob P; De Moura, Fabiana F; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2012-12-01

    Banana is a staple crop in many regions where vitamin A deficiency is prevalent, making it a target for provitamin A biofortification. However, matrix effects may limit provitamin A bioavailability from bananas. The retinol bioefficacies of unripe and ripe bananas (study 1A), unripe high-provitamin A bananas (study 1B), and raw and cooked bananas (study 2) were determined in retinol-depleted Mongolian gerbils (n = 97/study) using positive and negative controls. After feeding a retinol-deficient diet for 6 and 4 wk in studies 1 and 2, respectively, customized diets containing 60, 30, or 15% banana were fed for 17 and 13 d, respectively. In study 1A, the hepatic retinol of the 60% ripe Cavendish group (0.52 ± 0.13 μmol retinol/liver) differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver) and was higher than the negative control group (0.39 ± 0.16 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0065). In study 1B, no groups differed from baseline (0.65 ± 0.15 μmol retinol/liver; P = 0.20). In study 2, the 60% raw Butobe group (0.68 ± 0.17 μmol retinol/liver) differed from the 60% cooked Butobe group (0.87 ± 0.24 μmol retinol/liver); neither group differed from baseline (0.80 ± 0.27 μmol retinol/liver; P < 0.0001). Total liver retinol was higher in the groups fed cooked bananas than in those fed raw (P = 0.0027). Body weights did not differ even though gerbils ate more green, ripe, and raw bananas than cooked, suggesting a greater indigestible component. In conclusion, thermal processing, but not ripening, improves the retinol bioefficacy of bananas. Food matrix modification affects carotenoid bioavailability from provitamin A biofortification targets.

  17. Stomach-specific anti-H. pylori therapy. II. Gastric residence studies of tetracycline-loaded chitosan microspheres in gerbils.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Radi; Amiji, Mansoor

    2003-08-01

    This study examines the gastric residence of chitosan microspheres and the local tetracycline concentrations following oral administration in gerbils. Chitosan microspheres were prepared by ionic cross-linking and precipitation with sodium sulfate. Gastric retention studies were performed by administering radioiodinated [125I] chitosan microsphere suspension in the nonacid-suppressed and acid-suppressed states. At different time points, animals were sacrificed, and the radioactivity in tissues and fluids was measured with a gamma counter. Local tetracycline concentrations were measured using chitosan microspheres loaded with tritiated-[3H]-tetracycline. The radioactivity, measured with a liquid scintillation analyzer, was used to determine the microg of drug per gram of tissues or fluids under nonacid-suppressed and acid-suppressed states. Microspheres with a spherical shape and an average diameter of 2.0-3.0 microm were formed. After 2 hr in the fasted stomach, approximately 10% of the administered dose remained. The microspheres were predominantly found in the colon after 6 hr of administration. There was no detectable radioactivity in the small intestine, plasma, urine, liver, and kidneys. Additionally, acid suppression with ranitidine did not influence the gastric residence time of chitosan microspheres. To our disappointment, tetracycline concentration profile in the stomach from microsphere formulation was similar to the aqueous solution. Also, there was no significant difference between the stomach tetracycline concentrations in the nonacid-suppressed and acid-suppressed states. The drug was predominantly found in the colon and urine samples after 6 hr. Tetracycline could not be detected in the plasma, small intestine, liver, or kidneys. Results of this study show that chitosan microspheres prepared by ionic cross-linking do not provide a longer residence time in the fasted gerbil stomach. The tetracycline concentration profile in the stomach, following

  18. Identification of mRNA transcripts and immunohistochemical localization of Na/H exchanger isoforms in gerbil inner ear.

    PubMed

    Bond, B R; Ng, L L; Schulte, B A

    1998-09-01

    Recent physiological and pharmacological studies have implicated involvement of the Na/H exchanger (NHE) in regulating inner ear ion homeostasis, but the cellular distribution of this membrane transporter remains unknown. Here reverse transcription and the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed to screen adult gerbil inner ears for mRNA transcripts encoding the four best characterized isoforms of NHE. PCR products spanning selected segments of NHE mRNAs were cloned and sequenced. The putative housekeeping gene NHE-1 was found to be expressed and the 459 bp product shared 98.7% amino acid homology with rat sequence. NHE-2, NHE-3 and NHE-4 cDNA transcripts likewise were detected and the PCR products shared 100, 99.4 and 88.9% amino acid homology, respectively, with their rat counterparts. In addition, the cellular distribution of NHE isoforms 1 and 3 was mapped in the gerbil inner ear by immunostaining with polyclonal antisera against rat antigens. In the cochlea, the antiserum against NHE-1 reacted strongly at the basolateral membrane of strial marginal cells as well as with inner and outer hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons. Less intense staining for NHE-1 was present in subpopulations of fibrocytes in the spiral limbus and in inferior and superior areas of the spiral ligament. In the vestibular system dark and transitional cells expressed abundant NHE-1 as did hair cells and vestibular ganglia neurons. Immunostaining with the antiserum against NHE-3 was limited to the apical surface of marginal cells in the stria vascularis. Based on these data, NHE-1 likely functions primarily to maintain intracellular pH levels in cells where it is found in high abundance. NHE-3, on the other hand, possibly participates in the vectorial transcellular movement of Na+ by strial marginal cells thus helping to maintain the extremely low Na+ level in cochlear endolymph.

  19. Androgen receptor in the Mongolian gerbil ventral prostate: evaluation during different phases of postnatal development and following androgen blockage.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Renato S; Scarano, Wellerson R; Campos, Silvana G P; Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-12-01

    The normal growth, differentiation and maintenance of the morphofunctional integrity of the prostate gland are dependent on the interaction of constant levels of androgens with their receptors. The need to study the responses to hormones under several conditions and the effect of their blockage is due to the fact that the human prostate is the site of a great number of age-related diseases, and the ones with a major medical importance are prostate cancer (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which can both be treated with androgen suppression. Seventy-five male gerbils were divided, randomly, into 3 groups of 25 animals each, where each group corresponded to one phase of postnatal development. In each phase, it was possible to morphologically and stereologically analyze the compartments of prostatic ventral lobe, as well as to immunohistochemically analyze the degree of expression of androgen receptors (ARs) after the androgen blockage therapies. In addition, it was possible to establish the hormonal dosage of serum testosterone levels given the comparative approach of the expression of androgen receptors. There is a pattern of AR distribution in the prostatic ventral lobe throughout postnatal development, in which the younger the animal is the higher, the interaction of circulating androgens that stimulate the AR expression in both the epithelial and stromal compartments. The androgen blockage therapies decreased AR expression in the prostatic compartments, but the androgen reposition after these blockages was not sufficient to recover the glandular structure or stimulate the AR expression up to normal physiological conditions. Both the regulation and distribution of androgen receptors along the gerbil prostatic tissues are complex mechanisms that are likely to be genetically regulated by androgens prenatally or by other factors that are still unknown. This rodent species seems to be a valuable model in the attempt to improve the understanding of the

  20. Spatial distribution patterns of plague hosts: point pattern analysis of the burrows of great gerbils in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Laudisoit, Anne; Hughes, Nelika K; Addink, Elisabeth A; de Jong, Steven M; Heesterbeek, Hans A P; Reijniers, Jonas; Eagle, Sally; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Begon, Mike

    2015-07-01

    The spatial structure of a population can strongly influence the dynamics of infectious diseases, yet rarely is the underlying structure quantified. A case in point is plague, an infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague dynamics within the Central Asian desert plague focus have been extensively modelled in recent years, but always with strong uniformity assumptions about the distribution of its primary reservoir host, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus). Yet, while clustering of this species' burrows due to social or ecological processes could have potentially significant effects on model outcomes, there is currently nothing known about the spatial distribution of inhabited burrows. Here, we address this knowledge gap by describing key aspects of the spatial patterns of great gerbil burrows in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan. Burrows were classified as either occupied or empty in 98 squares of four different sizes: 200 m (side length), 250 m, 500 m and 590-1020 m. We used Ripley's K statistic to determine whether and at what scale there was clustering of occupied burrows, and semi-variograms to quantify spatial patterns in occupied burrows at scales of 250 m to 9 km. Significant spatial clustering of occupied burrows occurred in 25% and 75% of squares of 500 m and 590-1020 m, respectively, but not in smaller squares. In clustered squares, the clustering criterion peaked around 250 m. Semi-variograms showed that burrow density was auto-correlated up to a distance of 7 km and occupied density up to 2.5 km. These results demonstrate that there is statistically significant spatial clustering of occupied burrows and that the uniformity assumptions of previous plague models should be reconsidered to assess its significance for plague transmission. This field evidence will allow for more realistic approaches to disease ecology models for both this system and for other structured host populations.

  1. Realistic 3D computer model of the gerbil middle ear, featuring accurate morphology of bone and soft tissue structures.

    PubMed

    Buytaert, Jan A N; Salih, Wasil H M; Dierick, Manual; Jacobs, Patric; Dirckx, Joris J J

    2011-12-01

    In order to improve realism in middle ear (ME) finite-element modeling (FEM), comprehensive and precise morphological data are needed. To date, micro-scale X-ray computed tomography (μCT) recordings have been used as geometric input data for FEM models of the ME ossicles. Previously, attempts were made to obtain these data on ME soft tissue structures as well. However, due to low X-ray absorption of soft tissue, quality of these images is limited. Another popular approach is using histological sections as data for 3D models, delivering high in-plane resolution for the sections, but the technique is destructive in nature and registration of the sections is difficult. We combine data from high-resolution μCT recordings with data from high-resolution orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical-sectioning microscopy (OPFOS), both obtained on the same gerbil specimen. State-of-the-art μCT delivers high-resolution data on the 3D shape of ossicles and other ME bony structures, while the OPFOS setup generates data of unprecedented quality both on bone and soft tissue ME structures. Each of these techniques is tomographic and non-destructive and delivers sets of automatically aligned virtual sections. The datasets coming from different techniques need to be registered with respect to each other. By combining both datasets, we obtain a complete high-resolution morphological model of all functional components in the gerbil ME. The resulting 3D model can be readily imported in FEM software and is made freely available to the research community. In this paper, we discuss the methods used, present the resulting merged model, and discuss the morphological properties of the soft tissue structures, such as muscles and ligaments.

  2. Survival of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the gerbil hippocampus following transient forebrain ischemia does not depend on HSP-70 protein induction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, I; Soriano, M A; Vidal, A; Planas, A M

    1995-09-18

    HSP-70 was induced in the gerbil following 20 min of forebrain ischemia. The induction, as revealed with immunohistochemistry, is stronger and longer-lasting in CA3 and dentate gyrus than in CA1. Most neurons in this region, except GABAergic interneurons containing the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, eventually cease to live as a result of delayed cell death. Double-labeling of inducible HSP-70 and parvalbumin has shown that no co-localization occurs in the hippocampus and neocortex of the gerbil in this model of transient forebrain ischemia. These results show that different thresholds of sensitivity and vulnerability exist for different subpopulations of neurons in the ischemic hippocampus, and suggest that HSP-70 protein induction is probably not essential for the survival of particular neuronal subpopulations subjected to transient ischemia.

  3. [Determination of ion content and localization of vasopressin and aquaporin receptors in the gerbil kidney after the flight aboard biosatellite "Foton M3"].

    PubMed

    Shakhmatova, E I; Seliverstova, E V; Natochin, Iu V

    2009-01-01

    After 12 days on space fight, body mass of gerbils decreased by 32.9%; however, the effective systems of regulation did not let changes in the concentration of Na, K, Mg ions in fresh samples of the renal cortex. These data are viewed as a reflection of the regulation systems strategy to preserve the optimal conditions for functioning of the kidney, a vital body organ. The cations were reduced significantly in the renal medulla when calculated for dry mass and compared with the synchronous control. This could have changed the osmoregulating function of the kidney during space fight and, due to small cations accumulation, caused the drop of the cortex/medulla osmotic gradient. Locations of V1a-, V1b- and V2-receptors and aquaporin 1 and 2 in renal tubule cells of gerbils before and fight are described.

  4. Hepatic cytochrome p450-2A and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein mRNA are induced in gerbils after consumption of isoflavone-containing protein.

    PubMed

    Mezei, Orsolya; Chou, Chris N; Kennedy, Kathleen J; Tovar-Palacio, Claudia; Shay, Neil F

    2002-09-01

    Soy intake reduces cholesterol levels, but neither the exact component in soy causing this reduction nor the mechanism by which cholesterol is reduced is known with certainty. In this study, a genetic screen was performed to identify hepatic mRNA in gerbils regulated by soy or soy isoflavones. Gerbils were fed casein, an alcohol-washed soy-based diet (containing low levels of isoflavones), and the soy-based diet supplemented with an isoflavone-containing soy extract. After feeding for 28 d, gerbils were killed, hepatic RNA was isolated, and genes that were differentially expressed in any of the three dietary conditions were identified. Fifteen different mRNA were originally selected, including two mRNA that were studied further and shown to be highly regulated. Messenger RNA levels for both cytochrome P450-2A and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase-associated protein were up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner when soy replaced casein in the diet at 0, 33, 67 and 100% of original casein levels. A subsequent experiment used purified amino acid mixtures resembling the percentage amino acid composition of soy and casein to ensure that isoflavone-free protein sources could be tested. Using these mixtures, a 2 x 2 x 2 design tested: natural vs. synthetic protein sources, casein- vs. soy-based diets, and isoflavone extract-supplemented or supplement-free diets. This design demonstrated that these two mRNA were again significantly up-regulated more than twofold (P < 0.05) in gerbils fed all diets containing isoflavones. Induction of these two mRNA by soy may be due to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor element in the promoter region of both genes.

  5. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Sunna; Moon, Bo Reum

    2016-02-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  6. Helicobacter pylori Induced Gastric Immunopathology Is Associated with Distinct Microbiota Changes in the Large Intestines of Long-Term Infected Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Heimesaat, Markus M.; Fischer, André; Plickert, Rita; Wiedemann, Tobias; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Göbel, Ulf B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation in mice and men are frequently accompanied by distinct changes of the GI microbiota composition at sites of inflammation. Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection results in gastric immunopathology accompanied by colonization of stomachs with bacterial species, which are usually restricted to the lower intestine. Potential microbiota shifts distal to the inflammatory process following long-term H. pylori infection, however, have not been studied so far. Methodology/Principal Findings For the first time, we investigated microbiota changes along the entire GI tract of Mongolian gerbils after 14 months of infection with H. pylori B8 wildtype (WT) or its isogenic ΔcagY mutant (MUT) strain which is defective in the type IV secretion system and thus unable to modulate specific host pathways. Comprehensive cultural analyses revealed that severe gastric diseases such as atrophic pangastritis and precancerous transformations were accompanied by elevated luminal loads of E. coli and enterococci in the caecum and together with Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in the colon of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected gerbils as compared to naïve animals. Strikingly, molecular analyses revealed that Akkermansia, an uncultivable species involved in mucus degradation, was exclusively abundant in large intestines of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected nor naïve gerbils. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, long-term infection of Mongolian gerbils with a H. pylori WT strain displaying an intact type IV secretion system leads to distinct shifts of the microbiota composition in the distal uninflamed, but not proximal inflamed GI tract. Hence, H. pylori induced immunopathogenesis of the stomach, including hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia, might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes whereas the exact underlying mechanisms need to be further unraveled. PMID:24941045

  7. Helicobacter pylori induced gastric immunopathology is associated with distinct microbiota changes in the large intestines of long-term infected Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Heimesaat, Markus M; Fischer, André; Plickert, Rita; Wiedemann, Tobias; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Göbel, Ulf B; Bereswill, Stefan; Rieder, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation in mice and men are frequently accompanied by distinct changes of the GI microbiota composition at sites of inflammation. Helicobacter (H.) pylori infection results in gastric immunopathology accompanied by colonization of stomachs with bacterial species, which are usually restricted to the lower intestine. Potential microbiota shifts distal to the inflammatory process following long-term H. pylori infection, however, have not been studied so far. For the first time, we investigated microbiota changes along the entire GI tract of Mongolian gerbils after 14 months of infection with H. pylori B8 wildtype (WT) or its isogenic ΔcagY mutant (MUT) strain which is defective in the type IV secretion system and thus unable to modulate specific host pathways. Comprehensive cultural analyses revealed that severe gastric diseases such as atrophic pangastritis and precancerous transformations were accompanied by elevated luminal loads of E. coli and enterococci in the caecum and together with Bacteroides/Prevotella spp. in the colon of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected gerbils as compared to naïve animals. Strikingly, molecular analyses revealed that Akkermansia, an uncultivable species involved in mucus degradation, was exclusively abundant in large intestines of H. pylori WT, but not MUT infected nor naïve gerbils. Taken together, long-term infection of Mongolian gerbils with a H. pylori WT strain displaying an intact type IV secretion system leads to distinct shifts of the microbiota composition in the distal uninflamed, but not proximal inflamed GI tract. Hence, H. pylori induced immunopathogenesis of the stomach, including hypochlorhydria and hypergastrinemia, might trigger large intestinal microbiota changes whereas the exact underlying mechanisms need to be further unraveled.

  8. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) Reduces Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Gerbils Submitted to Global Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Rauš Balind, Snežana; Selaković, Vesna; Radenović, Lidija; Prolić, Zlatko; Janać, Branka

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field as ecological factor has influence on all living beings. The aim of this study was to determine if extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF, 50 Hz, 0.5 mT) affects oxidative stress in the brain of gerbils submitted to 10-min global cerebral ischemia. After occlusion of both carotid arteries, 3-month-old gerbils were continuously exposed to ELF-MF for 7 days. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion production, superoxide dismutase activity and index of lipid peroxidation were examined in the forebrain cortex, striatum and hippocampus on the 7th (immediate effect of ELF-MF) and 14th day after reperfusion (delayed effect of ELF-MF). Ischemia per se increased oxidative stress in the brain on the 7th and 14th day after reperfusion. ELF-MF also increased oxidative stress, but to a greater extent than ischemia, only immediately after cessation of exposure. Ischemic gerbils exposed to ELF-MF had increased oxidative stress parameters on the 7th day after reperfusion, but to a lesser extent than ischemic or ELF-MF-exposed animals. On the 14th day after reperfusion, oxidative stress parameters in the brain of these gerbils were mostly at the control levels. Applied ELF-MF decreases oxidative stress induced by global cerebral ischemia and thereby reduces possible negative consequences which free radical species could have in the brain. The results presented here indicate a beneficial effect of ELF-MF (50 Hz, 0.5 mT) in the model of global cerebral ischemia. PMID:24586442

  9. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant protein derived from the 170-kilodalton surface adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes extensive morbidity and mortality worldwide through intestinal infection and amebic liver abscess. Here we show that vaccination of gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, with recombinant proteins derived from the 170-kDa galactose-binding adhesin of E. histolytica and the serine-rich E. histolytica protein or a combination of the two recombinant antigens provides excellent protection against subsequent hepatic challenge with virulent E. histolytica trophozoites. PMID:8188384

  10. The comparative host status of red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster) for epifaunal arthropods in the southern Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Braack, L E; Horak, I G; Jordaan, L C; Segerman, J; Louw, J P

    1996-06-01

    Red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster) were trapped at monthly intervals, when possible, over a 2-year period, in the southern Kruger National Park, Mpumalanga Province. Forty-six specimens of each species were caught, euthenased and microscopically examined for fleas, lice, ticks and mites. Clear differences existed between the two rodent hosts in infestation intensity and also parasite species. The flea, Xenopsylla brasiliensis, commonly and exclusively utilized red veld rats, whereas Xenopsylla frayi was common and specific to bushveld gerbils. T. leucogaster were commonly infested with the lice Hoplopleura biseriata and Polyplax biseriata, while only a single A. chrysophilus hosted the louse, Hoplopleura patersoni. Red veld rats harboured small numbers of the immature stages of Haemaphysalis leachi/spinulosa and relatively large numbers of Rhipicephalus simus. The larvae of R. simus were irregularly collected from February to September and the nymphs from March to November. Bushveld gerbils hosted fewer ticks than did the rats, with a single specimen of H. leachi/spinulosa and low numbers of immature Hyalomma truncatum, the latter erratically present from June to October. Miles were abundant on both rodent hosts, A. chrysophilus hosting 13 species in six families, and T. leucogaster hosting 12 species representing seven families, with clear differences in mite assemblages between the two rodents. As the rats and gerbils were collected from the same trap lines at the same times, the differences in species composition and infestation intensity of their parasites, suggest that immunological behavioural or other segregating mechanisms are in operation to maintain discrete parasite assemblages.

  11. Fermented soybeans, Chungkookjang, prevent hippocampal cell death and β-cell apoptosis by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines in gerbils with transient artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sunmin; Kim, Da Sol; Moon, Bo Reum

    2015-01-01

    Since Chungkookjang, a short-term fermented soybean, is known to improve glucose metabolism and antioxidant activity, it may prevent the neurological symptoms and glucose disturbance induced by artery occlusion. We investigated the protective effects and mechanisms of traditional (TFC) and standardized Chungkookjang fermented with Bacillus licheniformis (BLFC) against ischemia/reperfusion damage in the hippocampal CA1 region and against hyperglycemia after transient cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Gerbils were subjected to either an occlusion of the bilateral common carotid arteries for 8 min to render them ischemic or a sham operation. Ischemic gerbils were fed either a 40% fat diet containing 10% of either cooked soybean (CSB), TFC, or BLFC for 28 days. Neuronal cell death and cytokine expression in the hippocampus, neurological deficit, serum cytokine levels, and glucose metabolism were measured. TFC and BLFC contained more isoflavonoid aglycones than CSB. Artery occlusion increased the expressions of IL-1β and TNF-α as well as cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and induced severe neurological symptoms. CSB, TFC, and BLFC prevented the neuronal cell death and the symptoms such as dropped eyelid, bristling hair, reduced muscle tone and flexor reflex, and abnormal posture and walking patterns, and suppressed cytokine expressions. CSB was less effective than TFC and BLFC. Artery occlusion induced glucose intolerance due to decreased insulin secretion and β-cell mass. TFC and BLFC prevented the impairment of glucose metabolism by artery occlusion. Especially TFC and BLFC increased β-cell proliferation and suppressed the β-cell apoptosis by suppressing TNF-α and IL-1β which in turn decreased cleaved caspase-3 that caused apoptosis. In conclusion, TFC and BLFC may prevent and alleviate neuronal cell death in the hippocampal CA1 region and neurological symptoms and poststroke hyperglycemia in gerbils with artery occlusion. This might be associated with

  12. Novel antiepileptic drug lacosamide exerts neuroprotective effects by decreasing glial activation in the hippocampus of a gerbil model of ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Yan, Bing Chun; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Dae Hwan; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Chen, Bai Hui; Lee, Jae-Chul; Cho, Young Shin; Shin, Myoung Chul; Cho, Jun Hwi; Hong, Seongkweon; Won, Moo-Ho; Kim, Sung Koo

    2015-12-01

    Lacosamide, which is a novel antiepileptic drug, has been reported to exert various additional therapeutic effects. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of lacosamide against transient cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal cell damage in the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA)-1 region of a gerbil model. Neuronal Nuclei immunohistochemistry demonstrated that pre- and post-surgical treatment (5 min ischemia) with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons in the lacosamide-treated-ischemia-operated group from ischemic injury 5 days post-ischemia, as compared with gerbils in the vehicle-treated-ischemia-operated group. Furthermore, treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide markedly attenuated the activation of astrocytes and microglia in the ischemic CA1 region at 5 days post-ischemia. The results of the present study suggested that pre- and post-surgical treatment of the gerbils with lacosamide was able to protect against transient cerebral ischemic injury-induced CA1 pyramidal neuronal cell death in the hippocampus. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of lacosamide may be associated with decreased activation of glial cells in the ischemic CA1 region.

  13. Phenotypic and metabolic aspects of prostatic epithelial cells in aged gerbils after antisteroidal therapy: turnover in the state of chromatin condensation and androgen-independent cell replacement.

    PubMed

    Campos, Silvana G P; Gonçalves, Bianca F; Scarano, Wellerson R; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2014-01-01

    The gerbil is a rodent considered a good model for studies of prostatic morphophysiology under different experimental conditions. Studies involving castration and steroidal blockers of aged gerbils showed that the glandular epithelium persists after long-term therapy, preventing the organ atrophy. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic characteristics and behavior of prostatic epithelial cells that remained after different periods of hormone ablation in aged gerbils. The identification of elements that influenced the survival of this cell type was performed by morphometric, nuclear phenotypes, ultrastructural and immune histochemical analysis. The most significant responses to treatment, by analyzing morphometric features, were observed during the first three time points (day 1, day 3, and day 7), after which there appeared to be an adjustment of the gland to the hormone ablation. All treatments led to changes in the state of chromatin condensation, DNA methylation pattern and phenotypic changes indicated cell senescence. Additionally, an increase in the basal cells seemed to guarantee self-renewal properties to the epithelium. These data indicate that changes occur at many levels, including gene expression and nuclear architecture in the epithelial cells, when aging and steroidal blockade are associated. These aspects are important when considering castration-resistant prostate cancer, a malignant tumor posing difficult therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Statistical analysis of the dynamics of antibody loss to a disease-causing agent: plague in natural populations of great gerbils as an example.

    PubMed

    Park, Siyun; Chan, Kung-Sik; Viljugrein, Hildegunn; Nekrassova, Larissa; Suleimenov, Bakhtiyar; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Klassovskiy, Nikolay L; Pole, Sergey B; Chr Stenseth, Nils

    2007-02-22

    We propose a new stochastic framework for analysing the dynamics of the immunity response of wildlife hosts against a disease-causing agent. Our study is motivated by the need to analyse the monitoring time-series data covering the period from 1975 to 1995 on bacteriological and serological tests-samples from great gerbils being the main host of Yersinia pestis in Kazakhstan. Based on a four-state continuous-time Markov chain, we derive a generalized nonlinear mixed-effect model for analysing the serological test data. The immune response of a host involves the production of antibodies in response to an antigen. Our analysis shows that great gerbils recovered from a plague infection are more likely to keep their antibodies to plague and survive throughout the summer-to-winter season than throughout the winter-to-summer season. Provided the seasonal mortality rates are similar (which seems to be the case based on a mortality analysis with abundance data), our finding indicates that the immune function of the sampled great gerbils is seasonal.

  15. Vaccination of Gerbils with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 Concurrently or as a Fusion Protein Confers Consistent and Improved Protection against Brugia malayi Infection.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Abraham, David; Bell, Aaron; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin; Lustigman, Sara; Klei, Thomas R

    2016-04-01

    The Brugia malayi Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 proteins are orthologous to Onchocerca volvulus Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, and which were selected as the best candidates for the development of an O. volvulus vaccine. The B. malayi gerbil model was used to confirm the efficacy of these Ov vaccine candidates on adult worms and to determine whether their combination is more efficacious. Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 administered individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein were tested in gerbils using alum as adjuvant. Vaccination with Bm-103 resulted in worm reductions of 39%, 34% and 22% on 42, 120 and 150 days post infection (dpi), respectively, and vaccination with Bm-RAL-2 resulted in worm reductions of 42%, 22% and 46% on 42, 120 and 150 dpi, respectively. Vaccination with a fusion protein comprised of Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 resulted in improved efficacy with significant reduction of worm burden of 51% and 49% at 90 dpi, as did the concurrent vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2, with worm reduction of 61% and 56% at 90 dpi. Vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 as a fusion protein or concurrently not only induced a significant worm reduction of 61% and 42%, respectively, at 150 dpi, but also significantly reduced the fecundity of female worms as determined by embryograms. Elevated levels of antigen-specific IgG were observed in all vaccinated gerbils. Serum from gerbils vaccinated with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein killed third stage larvae in vitro when combined with peritoneal exudate cells. Although vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually conferred protection against B. malayi infection in gerbils, a more consistent and enhanced protection was induced by vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 fusion protein and when they were used concurrently. Further characterization and optimization of these filarial vaccines are warranted.

  16. Vaccination of Gerbils with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 Concurrently or as a Fusion Protein Confers Consistent and Improved Protection against Brugia malayi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Abraham, David; Bell, Aaron; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.; Zhan, Bin; Lustigman, Sara; Klei, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Brugia malayi Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 proteins are orthologous to Onchocerca volvulus Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, and which were selected as the best candidates for the development of an O. volvulus vaccine. The B. malayi gerbil model was used to confirm the efficacy of these Ov vaccine candidates on adult worms and to determine whether their combination is more efficacious. Methodology and Principle Findings Vaccine efficacy of recombinant Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 administered individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein were tested in gerbils using alum as adjuvant. Vaccination with Bm-103 resulted in worm reductions of 39%, 34% and 22% on 42, 120 and 150 days post infection (dpi), respectively, and vaccination with Bm-RAL-2 resulted in worm reductions of 42%, 22% and 46% on 42, 120 and 150 dpi, respectively. Vaccination with a fusion protein comprised of Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 resulted in improved efficacy with significant reduction of worm burden of 51% and 49% at 90 dpi, as did the concurrent vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2, with worm reduction of 61% and 56% at 90 dpi. Vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 as a fusion protein or concurrently not only induced a significant worm reduction of 61% and 42%, respectively, at 150 dpi, but also significantly reduced the fecundity of female worms as determined by embryograms. Elevated levels of antigen-specific IgG were observed in all vaccinated gerbils. Serum from gerbils vaccinated with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually, concurrently or as a fusion protein killed third stage larvae in vitro when combined with peritoneal exudate cells. Conclusion Although vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 individually conferred protection against B. malayi infection in gerbils, a more consistent and enhanced protection was induced by vaccination with Bm-103 and Bm-RAL-2 fusion protein and when they were used concurrently. Further characterization and optimization of these filarial vaccines are warranted. PMID:27045170

  17. Maize Milling Method Affects Growth and Zinc Status but Not Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy in Male Mongolian Gerbils1234

    PubMed Central

    Pixley, Kevin V; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles. Objective: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29–35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A–biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status. Methods: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no–vitamin A placebo group (VA−), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment). Study 2 (n = 33) was a 2 × 2 milling-by-zinc [no-zinc placebo group (Zn−) compared with zinc-supplemented group (Zn+)] design, including 2 wk of VA depletion followed by four 3-wk treatments (n = 8–9/treatment). For study 1, positive and negative control groups were given supplemental VA at equimolar amounts to β-carotene equivalents consumed by the orange groups (74 ± 5 nmol/d) or placebo, respectively. For study 2, positive and negative control groups were given 152 μg Zn/d or placebo, respectively. Results: Milling significantly affected zinc concentration, providing 44–45% (whole grain) or 9–14% (refined) NRC requirements. In study 1, orange maize improved liver VA concentrations (mean ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.08 μmol/g) compared with the white maize groups (0.072 ± 0.054 μmol/g). Provitamin A bioefficacy was similar. In study 2, neither zinc nor milling influenced liver retinol. Refined Zn− gerbils weighed less than others by day 14 (46.6 ± 7.1 compared with 56.5 ± 3.5 g, respectively; P < 0.0001). Milling affected pancreas zinc concentrations (refined Zn−: 21.1 ± 1.8 μg Zn/g; whole Zn−: 32.5 ± 5.8 μg Zn/g). Conclusions: Whole-grain intake improved zinc and did not affect provitamin A bioefficacy. Other factors affected by milling (e.g., shelf life, preference, aflatoxin fractioning) need to be

  18. Maize Milling Method Affects Growth and Zinc Status but Not Provitamin A Carotenoid Bioefficacy in Male Mongolian Gerbils.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Bryan M; Pixley, Kevin V; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2017-03-01

    Background: Vitamin A (VA) and zinc deficiencies are prevalent. Maize is a common staple, and milling affects nutrient and nutrient-modifier profiles.Objective: We investigated the interaction of maize milling methods (i.e., whole grain compared with refined) in male Mongolian gerbils aged 29-35 d with conventionally bred provitamin A-biofortified (orange) or white maize on VA and zinc status.Methods: Study 1 (n = 67) was a 2 × 3 milling (whole compared with refined) by VA [no-vitamin A placebo group (VA-), orange, and VA-supplemented group (VA+)] design, with 4 wk of VA depletion followed by six 4-wk treatments (n = 10/treatment). Study 2 (n = 33) was a 2 × 2 milling-by-zinc [no-zinc placebo group (Zn-) compared with zinc-supplemented group (Zn+)] design, including 2 wk of VA depletion followed by four 3-wk treatments (n = 8-9/treatment). For study 1, positive and negative control groups were given supplemental VA at equimolar amounts to β-carotene equivalents consumed by the orange groups (74 ± 5 nmol/d) or placebo, respectively. For study 2, positive and negative control groups were given 152 μg Zn/d or placebo, respectively.Results: Milling significantly affected zinc concentration, providing 44-45% (whole grain) or 9-14% (refined) NRC requirements. In study 1, orange maize improved liver VA concentrations (mean ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.08 μmol/g) compared with the white maize groups (0.072 ± 0.054 μmol/g). Provitamin A bioefficacy was similar. In study 2, neither zinc nor milling influenced liver retinol. Refined Zn- gerbils weighed less than others by day 14 (46.6 ± 7.1 compared with 56.5 ± 3.5 g, respectively; P < 0.0001). Milling affected pancreas zinc concentrations (refined Zn-: 21.1 ± 1.8 μg Zn/g; whole Zn-: 32.5 ± 5.8 μg Zn/g).Conclusions: Whole-grain intake improved zinc and did not affect provitamin A bioefficacy. Other factors affected by milling (e.g., shelf life, preference, aflatoxin fractioning) need to be considered to maximize health.

  19. Evaluation of Water-Chemistry and Water-Level Data at the Henderson Road Superfund Site, Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 1991-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    , which is about 190 feet north of the source area. A much larger area was affected by chlorobenzene than benzene. Chlorobenzene concentrations decreased in the source area and increased at and beyond the site boundary. Water from four wells in and northeast of the source area sampled in 2008 exceeded the 5.06 ug/L ARAR for 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA). Increases in 1,1-DCA concentration between pre-shutdown samples collected in July 2006 and samples collected in February 2008 ranged from 0.4 to 20 ug/L. Water from two wells in the source area sampled in 2008 exceeded the 175 ug/L ARAR for total xylene. The 1,1-DCA and xylene plumes appear to extend in an east-northeast direction from the source area. Large drawdowns in the Upper Merion Reservoir during droughts in 1998 and 2001 affected water levels in the Chester Valley and at the Henderson Road Site, except for well HR-17-170. After the drought of 2001, water levels in the Chester Valley showed a protracted recovery lasting from September 2001 until June 2005 (46 months). Water-level data were evaluated temporally for 1997-2008 and spatially for (1) June 16, 2003, when the extraction wells were pumping at the full rate prior to the start of the June 2003 shutdown test; (2) July 10, 2006, during the period of reduced pumping after the June 2003 shutdown test; and (3) February 25-29, 2008, when the extraction wells were not pumping. Except for well HR-5-195, wells were categorized as shallow, intermediate-depth, and deep wells. The potentiometric surface for shallow wells did not appear to be affected by pumping of the extraction wells. The general direction of ground-water flow was to the north. The potentiometric surface for intermediate-depth wells showed a cone of depression when the extraction wells were pumping at the full rate but did not show a cone of depression when the extraction wells were pumping at the reduced rate. The ground-water-flow direction was toward the north and northeast, similar to

  20. Protective effect of olive leaf extract on hippocampal injury induced by transient global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in Mongolian gerbils.

    PubMed

    Dekanski, Dragana; Selaković, Vesna; Piperski, Vesna; Radulović, Zeljka; Korenić, Andrej; Radenović, Lidija

    2011-10-15

    The beneficial effects of antioxidant nutrients, as well as complex plant extracts, in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion brain injury are well known. Mediterranean diet, rich in olive products, is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, inflammation and stroke. In this study, the possible neuroprotective effect of standardized dry olive leaf extract (OLE) is investigated for the first time. Transient global cerebral ischemia in Mongolian gerbils was used to investigate the OLE effects on different parameters of oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampus. The biochemical measurements took place at different time points (80min, 2, 4 and 24h) after reperfusion. The effects of applied OLE were compared with effects of quercetin, a known neuroprotective plant flavonoid. Pretreatment with OLE (100mg/kg, per os) significantly inhibited production of superoxide and nitric oxide, decreased lipid peroxidation, and increased superoxide dismutase activity in all time points examined. Furthermore, OLE offered histological improvement as seen by decreasing neuronal damage in CA1 region of hippocampus. The effects of applied OLE were significantly higher than effects of quercetin (100mg/kg, per os). Our results indicate that OLE exerts a potent neuroprotective activity against neuronal damage in hippocampus after transient global cerebral ischemia, which could be attributed to its antioxidative properties.

  1. Sound pressure distribution and power flow within the gerbil ear canal from 100 Hz to 80 kHz.

    PubMed

    Ravicz, Michael E; Olson, Elizabeth S; Rosowski, John J

    2007-10-01

    Sound pressure was mapped in the bony ear canal of gerbils during closed-field sound stimulation at frequencies from 0.1 to 80 kHz. A 1.27-mm-diam probe-tube microphone or a 0.17-mm-diam fiber-optic miniature microphone was positioned along approximately longitudinal trajectories within the 2.3-mm-diam ear canal. Substantial spatial variations in sound pressure, sharp minima in magnitude, and half-cycle phase changes occurred at frequencies >30 kHz. The sound frequencies of these transitions increased with decreasing distance from the tympanic membrane (TM). Sound pressure measured orthogonally across the surface of the TM showed only small variations at frequencies below 60 kHz. Hence, the ear canal sound field can be described fairly well as a one-dimensional standing wave pattern. Ear-canal power reflectance estimated from longitudinal spatial variations was roughly constant at 0.2-0.5 at frequencies between 30 and 45 kHz. In contrast, reflectance increased at higher frequencies to at least 0.8 above 60 kHz. Sound pressure was also mapped in a microphone-terminated uniform tube-an "artificial ear." Comparison with ear canal sound fields suggests that an artificial ear or "artificial cavity calibration" technique may underestimate the in situ sound pressure by 5-15 dB between 40 and 60 kHz.

  2. INFLUENCE OF IRON CHELATION ON R1 AND R2 CALIBRATION CURVES IN GERBIL LIVER AND HEART

    PubMed Central

    Wood, John C.; Aguilar, Michelle; Otto-Duessel, Maya; Nick, Hanspeter; Nelson, Marvin D.; Moats, Rex

    2008-01-01

    MRI is gaining increasing importance for the noninvasive quantification of organ iron burden. Since transverse relaxation rates depend on iron distribution as well as iron concentration, physiologic and pharmacologic processes that alter iron distribution could change MRI calibration curves. This paper compares the effect of three iron chelators, deferoxamine, deferiprone, and deferasirox on R1 and R2 calibration curves according to two iron loading and chelation strategies. 33 Mongolian gerbils underwent iron loading (iron dextran 500 mg/kg/wk) for 3 weeks followed by 4 weeks of chelation. An additional 56 animals received less aggressive loading (200 mg/kg/week) for 10 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of chelation. R1 and R2 calibration curves were compared to results from 23 iron-loaded animals that had not received chelation. Acute iron loading and chelation biased R1 and R2 from the unchelated reference calibration curves but chelator-specific changes were not observed, suggesting physiologic rather than pharmacologic differences in iron distribution. Long term chelation deferiprone treatment increased liver R1 50% (p<0.01), while long term deferasirox lowered liver R2 30.9% (p<0.0001). The relationship between R1 and R2 and organ iron concentration may depend upon the acuity of iron loading and unloading as well as the iron chelator administered. PMID:18581418

  3. Bilateral Ablation of Auditory Cortex in Mongolian Gerbil Affects Discrimination of Frequency Modulated Tones but not of Pure Tones

    PubMed Central

    Ohl, Frank W.; Wetzel, Wolfram; Wagner, Thomas; Rech, Alexander; Scheich, Henning

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the role of auditory cortex in the Mongolian gerbil in differential conditioning to pure tones and to linearly frequency-modulated (FM) tones by analyzing the effects of bilateral auditory cortex ablation. Learning behavior and performance were studied in a GO/NO-GO task aiming at avoidance of a mild foot shock by crossing a hurdle in a two-way shuttle box. Hurdle crossing as the conditioned response to the reinforced stimulus (CR+), as false alarm in response to the unreinforced stimulus (CR−), intertrial activity, and reaction times were monitored. The analysis revealed no effects of lesion on pure tone discrimination but impairment of FM tone discrimination. In the latter case lesion effects were dependent on timing of lesion relative to FM tone discrimination training. Lesions before training in naive animals led to a reduced CR+ rate and had no effect on CR− rate. Lesions in pretrained animals led to an increased CR− rate without effects on the CR+ rate. The results suggest that auditory cortex plays a more critical role in discrimination of FM tones than in discrimination of pure tones. The different lesion effects on FM tone discrimination before and after training are compatible with both the hypothesis of a purely sensory deficit in FM tone processing and the hypothesis of a differential involvement of auditory cortex in acquisition and retention, respectively. PMID:10509706

  4. Time-course changes in immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in the gerbil hippocampus following transient cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon Ha; Lee, Choong Hyun; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Yan, Bing Chun; Lee, Jae-Chul; Lee, Tae Hun; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il-Jun

    2013-12-01

    Glucose is a main energy source for normal brain functions. Glucokinase (GK) plays an important role in glucose metabolism as a glucose sensor, and GK activity is modulated by glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP). In this study, we examined the changes of GK and GKRP immunoreactivities in the gerbil hippocampus after 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia. In the sham-operated-group, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities were easily detected in the pyramidal neurons of the stratum pyramidale of the hippocampus. GK and GKRP immunoreactivities in the pyramidal neurons were distinctively decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA), not CA2/3, 3 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). Five days after I-R, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities were hardly detected in the CA1, not CA2/3, pyramidal neurons; however, at this point in time, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities were newly expressed in astrocytes, not microglia, in the ischemic CA1. In brief, GK and GKRP immunoreactivities are changed in pyramidal neurons and newly expressed in astrocytes in the ischemic CA1 after transient cerebral ischemia. These indicate that changes of GK and GKRP expression may be related to the ischemia-induced neuronal damage/death.

  5. Inhibitory effect of etodolac, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, on stomach carcinogenesis in Helicobacter pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils

    SciTech Connect

    Magari, Hirohito; Shimizu, Yasuhito; Inada, Ken-ichi; Enomoto, Shotaro; Tomeki, Tatsuji; Yanaoka, Kimihiko; Tamai, Hideyuki; Arii, Kenji; Nakata, Hiroya; Oka, Masashi; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi; Tsutsumi, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Tatematsu, Masae; Ichinose, Masao E-mail: ichinose@wakayama-med.ac.jp

    2005-08-26

    The effect of the selective COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, on Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-associated stomach carcinogenesis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils (MGs). Hp-infected MGs were fed for 23 weeks with drinking water containing 10 ppm N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. They were then switched to distilled water and placed on a diet containing 5-30 mg/kg/day etodolac for 30 weeks. We found that etodolac dose-dependently inhibited the development of gastric cancer, and no cancer was detected at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Etodolac did not affect the extent of inflammatory cell infiltration or oxidative DNA damage, but it significantly inhibited mucosal cell proliferation and dose-dependently repressed the development of intestinal metaplasia in the stomachs of Hp-infected MGs. These results suggest that COX-2 is a key molecule in inflammation-mediated stomach carcinogenesis and that chemoprevention of stomach cancer should be possible by controlling COX-2 expression or activity.

  6. Apocynin protects against global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and injury in the gerbil hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qun; Tompkins, Kenneth D; Simonyi, Agnes; Korthuis, Ronald J; Sun, Albert Y; Sun, Grace Y

    2006-05-23

    Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is an important underlying cause for neuronal injury leading to delayed neuronal death (DND). In this study, apocynin, a specific inhibitor for NADPH oxidase, was used to test whether suppression of ROS by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor can protect against ischemia-induced ROS generation and decrease DND. Global cerebral ischemia was induced in gerbils by a 5-min occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA). Using measurement of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) as a marker for lipid peroxidation, apocynin (5 mg/kg body weight) injected i.p. 30 min prior to ischemia significantly attenuated the early increase in HNE in hippocampus measured at 3 h after I/R. Apocynin also protected against I/R-induced neuronal degeneration and DND, oxidative DNA damage, and glial cell activation. Taken together, the neuroprotective effects of apocynin against ROS production during early phase of I/R and subsequent I/R-induced neuronal damage provide strong evidence that inhibition of NADPH oxidase could be a promising therapeutic mechanism to protect against stroke damage in the brain.

  7. The protective effect of M40401, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, on post-ischemic brain damage in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Iannone, Michelangelo; Muscoli, Carolina; Palma, Ernesto; Granato, Teresa; Modesti, Andrea; Nisticò, Robert; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Salvemini, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radical species has been shown to occur in brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, most of free radical scavengers known to antagonize oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase), are unable to protect against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury when given in vivo, an effect mainly due to their difficulty to gain access to brain tissues. Here we studied the effect of a low molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetic (M40401) in brain damage subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion injury in Mongolian gerbils. Results In animals undergoing ischemia-reperfusion injury, neuropathological and ultrastructural changes were monitored for 1–7 days either in the presence or in the absence of M40401 after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCO). Administration of M40401 (1–40 mg/kg, given i.p. 1 h after BCCO) protected against post-ischemic, ultrastructural and neuropathological changes occurring within the hippocampal CA1 area. The protective effect of M40401 was associated with a significant reduction of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in ischemic brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion Taken together, these results demonstrate that M40401 provides protective effects when given early after the induction of ischemia-reperfusion of brain tissues and suggest the possible use of such compounds in the treatment of neurological dysfunction subsequent to cerebral flow disturbances. PMID:12809567

  8. Aging effects on the mongolian gerbil female prostate (Skene's paraurethral glands): structural, ultrastructural, quantitative, and hormonal evaluations.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Ana Maria G; Santos, Fernanda C A; Campos, Silvana G P; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Góes, Rejane M; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2008-04-01

    Different from the classic view, the prostate is not a gland exclusive to the male, also being an organ of the female genital system presenting morphofunctional similarity between human and rodent. Thus structural, ultrastructural, morphometric-stereological features of the female prostate (Skene's paraurethral gland) and steroid serological levels were evaluated during young, adult, and senile ages in the Mongolian gerbil. The morphofunctional precocity of the female gland in comparison with the male gland occurring in young gland is probably associated with the female circulating steroid levels. The hormonal imbalance in senesce coincides with its susceptibility to histopathological lesions, such as epithelial hypertrophy, metaplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia. Differently than that of males, the aging degeneration of the female gland involves the accumulation of lipofuscin granules. However, the alterations in senile prostate did not damage its functionality. These analyses reinforce the use of this experimental model for the comprehension of glandular morphofunctional aspects with special attention to senescence. Thus, the appreciation of this organ becomes relevant to avoid future discomfort to women's health. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Prenatal exposure to testosterone masculinises the female gerbil and promotes the development of lesions in the prostate (Skene's gland).

    PubMed

    Biancardi, Manoel F; Perez, Ana P S; Caires, Cássia Regina Suzuki; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patrícia S L; Santos, Fernanda C A; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2015-09-01

    Androgenic imbalance may disrupt prostate development, leading to morphological alterations in adulthood and predisposing this gland to develop diseases during ageing. However, little is known about the endocrine disruption of the prostate that is caused by androgenic compounds, especially in female experimental models. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prostates of aged female gerbils exposed to testosterone at certain periods in intrauterine and postnatal life, to determine whether exposure at a particular age increases susceptibility to prostatic lesions in these animals. To this end, morphological, stereological, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses were employed. It was found that females exposed to testosterone during intrauterine life were masculinised, showing increased anogenital distance, absence of the vaginal opening and ectopic development of prostatic tissue. Several areas of adenomatous hyperplasia, generally associated with inflammatory foci and mainly located in the ectopic prostatic tissue around the vaginal wall, were also observed. In conclusion, the results showed that abnormal prenatal exposure to testosterone severely affects the reproductive systems of female animals by disrupting normal prostate morphogenesis and increasing susceptibility to the development of prostatic diseases during ageing.

  10. Intrauterine exposure to 17β-oestradiol (E2) impairs postnatal development in both female and male prostate in gerbil.

    PubMed

    Sanches, Bruno D A; Santos, Juliana M; Zani, Bruno C; Biancardi, Manoel F; Santos, Fernanda C A; Góes, Rejane M; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2017-07-30

    We employed histological techniques to assess the effects of intrauterine exposure to different dosages of E2 on male and female Mongolian gerbils on the postnatal development of the prostate. E2 promotes alterations this gland branches in the female, but not in males, even at low dosage, at higher dosages, acini of altered aspect are verified in the male and female prostate, as well as a decrease in branching number, reduced cell proliferation and staining for FGF10, simultaneously to the increased labelling for TGFβ1, which may account for alterations on branching of the prostate. The sensitivity of the female prostate to intrauterine exposure to E2, which can reflect the E2 dependence of female prostate development. This becomes alarming in view of the occurrence of prostate in female of several mammals and including women, and the possibility that low E2 dosage exposures considered safe to males provoke developmental alterations in female prostate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Actions of oestradiol and progesterone on the prostate in female gerbils: reversal of the histological effects of castration.

    PubMed

    Zanatelli, Marianna; Silva, Diego A L; Shinohara, Filipe Z; Góes, Rejane M; Santos, Fernanda C A; Vilamaior, Patricia S L; Taboga, Sebastião R

    2014-01-01

    The female prostate is a functionally active gland in several mammalian species, including humans and rodents. Investigations of prostate morphophysiology during the phases of the oestrous cycle have shown that the female prostate is influenced by fluctuations in serum concentrations of oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of combined prolonged administration of E2 and P4 on the prostate in ovariectomised female gerbils. Ovariectomy caused atrophy and decreased glandular secretory activity. Administration of E2 and P4 (0.1mgkg(-1) diluted in 0.1mL of mineral oil, every 48h over 30 days) resulted in a recovery of overall prostate structure, as evidenced by increased epithelial height, mass and prostatic secretory activity, without leading the appearance of significant lesions. Evaluation of androgen receptor (AR) expression revealed increased immunoreactivity in the E2+P4-treated group. Immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) α was decreased in the castrated groups, but increased in the group subjected to hormone treatment. There were no significant differences in ERβ immunoreactivity among the groups. Assessment of cell proliferation revealed greater immunoreactivity in the treated group. Together, the results indicate that the interaction between E2 and P4 may be responsible for maintaining female prostate gland histophysiology.

  12. Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse (Acomys) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to true mice (Murinae).

    PubMed

    Chevret, P; Denys, C; Jaeger, J J; Michaux, J; Catzeflis, F M

    1993-04-15

    Spiny mice of the genus Acomys traditionally have been classified as members of the Murinae, a subfamily of rodents that also includes rats and mice with which spiny mice share a complex set of morphological characters, including a unique molar pattern. The origin and evolution of this molar pattern, documented by many fossils from Southern Asia, support the hypothesis of the monophyly of Acomys and all other Murinae. This view has been challenged by immunological studies that have suggested that Acomys is as distantly related to mice (Mus) as are other subfamilies (e.g., hamsters: Cricetinae) of the muroid rodents. We present molecular evidence derived from DNA.DNA hybridization data that indicate that the spiny mouse Acomys and two African genera of Murinae, Uranomys and Lophuromys, constitute a monophyletic clade, a view that was recently suggested on the basis of dental characters. However, our DNA.DNA hybridization data also indicate that the spiny mice (Acomys) are more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice and rats (Murinae) with which they have been classified. Because Acomys and the brush-furred mice Uranomys and Lophuromys share no derived morphological characters with the Gerbillinae, their murine morphology must have evolved by convergence, including the molar pattern previously considered to support the monophyly of the Murinae.

  13. Molecular evidence that the spiny mouse (Acomys) is more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to true mice (Murinae).

    PubMed Central

    Chevret, P; Denys, C; Jaeger, J J; Michaux, J; Catzeflis, F M

    1993-01-01

    Spiny mice of the genus Acomys traditionally have been classified as members of the Murinae, a subfamily of rodents that also includes rats and mice with which spiny mice share a complex set of morphological characters, including a unique molar pattern. The origin and evolution of this molar pattern, documented by many fossils from Southern Asia, support the hypothesis of the monophyly of Acomys and all other Murinae. This view has been challenged by immunological studies that have suggested that Acomys is as distantly related to mice (Mus) as are other subfamilies (e.g., hamsters: Cricetinae) of the muroid rodents. We present molecular evidence derived from DNA.DNA hybridization data that indicate that the spiny mouse Acomys and two African genera of Murinae, Uranomys and Lophuromys, constitute a monophyletic clade, a view that was recently suggested on the basis of dental characters. However, our DNA.DNA hybridization data also indicate that the spiny mice (Acomys) are more closely related to gerbils (Gerbillinae) than to the true mice and rats (Murinae) with which they have been classified. Because Acomys and the brush-furred mice Uranomys and Lophuromys share no derived morphological characters with the Gerbillinae, their murine morphology must have evolved by convergence, including the molar pattern previously considered to support the monophyly of the Murinae. PMID:8475093

  14. All-trans beta-carotene appears to be more bioavailable than 9-cis or 13-cis beta-carotene in gerbils given single oral doses of each isomer.

    PubMed

    Deming, Denise M; Teixeira, Sandra R; Erdman, John W

    2002-09-01

    Male gerbils (28 d old) were used to investigate the beta-carotene (betaC) isomer pattern in the intestine and tissues 6 h after ingestion of three betaC isomers. After a 49- to 52-d period of consuming the AIN93G diet without vitamin A (VA) or betaC, three groups (n = 7) were gavaged with crystalline all-trans (at)betaC, 9-cis (9c)betaC or 13-cis (13c)betaC solubilized in oil and a control group (n = 5) with oil alone. Total betaC per dose for gerbils in the atbetaC, 9cbetaC and 13cbetaC groups was 384 +/- 3, 391 +/- 2 and 386 +/- 2 nmol, respectively. After 6 h, gerbils were killed and serum, stomach contents, small intestinal contents (SIC), small intestinal mucosal scrapings (SIM) and liver were collected. betaC and VA in tissues were quantified using HPLC. Nonspecific isomerization of betaC occurred in the digestive tracts of gerbils administered betaC; the greatest effect was in the SIC of the 13cbetaC (50:50 cis:trans) and 9cbetaC (70:30 cis:trans) groups. Concentrations of total betaC in the SIM of gerbils administered at betaC were greater than those intubated with 9cbetaC and 13cbetaC (P < 0.05). Gerbils that received atbetaC had greater total betaC concentrations in serum (P < 0.05) and total betaC stores in liver (P < 0.01) compared with those administered 9cbetaC and 13cbetaC. Gerbils intubated with 9cbetaC had higher levels of total betaC in serum (P = 0.05) and liver (P < 0.01) compared with those intubated with 13cbetaC. Because of its preferential uptake, transport and tissue accumulation, atbetaC appears to be a more bioavailable isomer than 9cbetaC or 13cbetaC in gerbils.

  15. Hippophae rhamnoides L. leaves extract enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation through upregulation of intrinsic factors in the dentate gyrus of the aged gerbil.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Chen, Bai Hui; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, In Hye; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Lee, Jae-Chul; Yan, Bing Chun; Choi, Jung Hoon; Hwang, In Koo; Park, Ju-Hee; Han, Sang-No; Lee, Yun Lyul; Kim, Myong Jo; Won, Moo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides L. (HL) exerts antioxidant activities against various oxidative stress conditions. In this study, we investigated effects of extract from HL leaves (HLE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) of aged gerbils. Aged gerbils (24 months) were divided into vehicle (saline)-treated- and HLE-treated-groups. The vehicle and HLE were orally administered with 200 mg/kg once a day for 20 days before sacrifice. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were examined in the DG using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in immunoreactivities of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (p-GSK-3β) to examine their relation with neurogenesis using immunohistochemistry. The administration of HLE significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-positive neuroblasts with well-developed processes in the SGZ of the DG of the HLE-treated-group. In addition, immunoreactivities of SOD1, SOD2, BDNF, and p-GSK-3β were significantly increased in granule and polymorphic cells of the DG in the HLE-treated-group compared with those in the vehicle-treated-group. HLE treatment significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, showing that immunoreactivities of SOD1, SOD2, BDNF, and p-GSK-3β were significantly increased in the DG. These indicate that increased neuroblast differentiation neurogenesis may be closely related to upregulation of SOD1, SOD2, BDNF, and p-GSK-3β in aged gerbils.

  16. Ischemic preconditioning maintains the immunoreactivities of glucokinase and glucokinase regulatory protein in neurons of the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region following transient cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    CHO, YOUNG SHIN; CHO, JUN HWI; SHIN, BICH-NA; CHO, GEUM-SIL; KIM, IN HYE; PARK, JOON HA; AHN, JI HYEON; OHK, TAEK GEUN; CHO, BYUNG-RYUL; KIM, YOUNG-MYEONG; HONG, SEONGKWEON; WON, MOO-HO; LEE, JAE-CHUL

    2015-01-01

    Glucokinase (GK) is involved in the control of blood glucose homeostasis. In the present study, the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the immunoreactivities of GK and its regulatory protein (GKRP) following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia was investigated in gerbils. The gerbils were randomly assigned to four groups (sham-operated group, ischemia-operated group, IPC + sham-operated group and IPC + ischemia-operated group). IPC was induced by subjecting the gerbils to 2 min of ischemia, followed by 1 day of recovery. In the ischemia-operated group, a significant loss of neurons was observed in the stratum pyramidale (SP) of the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) at 5 days post-ischemia; however, in the IPC+ischemia-operated group, the neurons in the SP were well protected. Following immunohistochemical investigation, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP were markedly decreased in the CA1, but not the CA2/3, from 2 days post-ischemia, and were almost undetectable in the SP 5 days post-ischemia. In the IPC + ischemia-operated group, the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the SP of the CA1 were similar to those in the sham-group. In brief, the findings of the present study demonstrated that IPC notably maintained the immunoreactivities of GK and GKRP in the neurons of the SP of CA1 following ischemia-reperfusion. This indicated that GK and GKRP may be necessary for neuron survival against transient cerebral ischemia. PMID:26134272

  17. Ethics control of vertebrate animals experiments in biosatellite BION-M1 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilyin, Eugene

    During April 19-May 19, 2013 it was realized 30-days flight of Russian biosatellite Bion-M1. The main goal of this flight was to study effects of microgravity upon behavior and structural-functional state of different physiological systems of vertebrates. The folloving species were accommodated aboard of biosatellite: 45 mice C57bl/6, 8 Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus, 15 lizards, i.e. geckos Chondrodctylus turneri Gray, and fish Oreochromis mossambicus. The selection and traing of mice for the flight and ground-based control experiments was carried out at the Research Institute of Mitoengineering by Moscow State University. The protocols for animals care and reserch were revised and adopted by Bioethics Commission of above mentioned institute (decision on November 01, 2013, N35). The final version of Bion-M1 Scientific Reseach Program and protocols for separate experiments were discussed and adopted by Biomedical Ethics Commission of Institute of Biomedical Problems (decision on April 4, 2014, N317). The IMBP Commission has a status of Physiological Section of Russian Bioethics Committee by Russian Commision for UNESCO affairs and follows the Russian Bioethical Guidelines for Experiments in Aerospace and Naval Medicine and other national and international rules including COSPAR International Policy and Guidelines for Animal Care and Use in Space-born Research. Because US-scientists were the main partners in mice investigations the decision of IMBP Biomedical Commission related to Bion-M1 project was sended for information to Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of NASA Ames Research Center. Postflight estimation of mice was done by Russian veterinary with the participation of NASA Chief veterinary.

  18. Incidence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal protozoan parasites in populations of Swiss dogs.

    PubMed

    Sager, H; Moret, C Steiner; Müller, N; Staubli, D; Esposito, M; Schares, G; Hässig, M; Stärk, K; Gottstein, B

    2006-06-30

    The protozoan parasite Neospora caninum is one of the most important abortifacient organisms in cattle worldwide. The dog is known to act as definitive host although its potential role as infection source for bovines still remains unelucidated. The aim of the present study was to compile initial epidemiological data on the prevalence and incidence of N. caninum in Swiss dogs acting as definitive hosts. Thus, 249 Swiss dogs were investigated coproscopically in monthly intervals over a period of 1 year. A total of 3289 fecal samples was tested by the flotation technique. Among these, 202 were shown to contain Sarcocystis sp. (6.1%), 149 Cystoisospora sp. (=Isospora sp.; 4.5%) and 25 Hammondia/Neospora-like oocysts (HNlO) (0.7%). All but one sample containing HNlO were from different dogs; one dog shed HNlO at two subsequent time points. Calculation of the yearly incidence for HNlO resulted in the surprisingly high value of 9.2%. Farm dogs exhibited a higher incidence for HNlO than urban family dogs. Thirteen out of the 25 HNlO-samples showed sporulation after 5 days incubation at room temperature. HNlO were further differentiated by species-specific PCR. However, all HNlO-samples were negative for N. caninum, Hammondia heydorni and Toxoplasma gondii. One reason may be the low oocyst density found in most fecal samples, which did not permit us to carry out PCR under optimal conditions. Three out of the 25 HNlO-cases contained enough oocysts to allow further enrichment and purification by the flotation technique. Subsequently, twenty to fifty sporulated HNlO-oocysts were orally administered to Meriones unguiculatus. All gerbils were seronegative for N. caninum at 5 weeks p.i. A N. caninum-seroprevalence of 7.8% was determined by ELISA upon 1132 serum samples collected from dogs randomly selected by veterinarians among their clinical patients.

  19. Meiotic Pairing and Segregation of Achiasmate Sex Chromosomes in Eutherian Mammals: The Role of SYCP3 Protein

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Roberto; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Calvente, Adela; Gómez, Rocío; Suja, José Ángel; Rufas, Julio S; Page, Jesús

    2007-01-01

    In most eutherian mammals, sex chromosomes synapse and recombine during male meiosis in a small region called pseudoautosomal region. However in some species sex chromosomes do not synapse, and how these chromosomes manage to ensure their proper segregation is under discussion. Here we present a study of the meiotic structure and behavior of sex chromosomes in one of these species, the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). We have analyzed the location of synaptonemal complex (SC) proteins SYCP1 and SYCP3, as well as three proteins involved in the process of meiotic recombination (RAD51, MLH1, and γ-H2AX). Our results show that although X and Y chromosomes are associated at pachytene and form a sex body, their axial elements (AEs) do not contact, and they never assemble a SC central element. Furthermore, MLH1 is not detected on the AEs of the sex chromosomes, indicating the absence of reciprocal recombination. At diplotene the organization of sex chromosomes changes strikingly, their AEs associate end to end, and SYCP3 forms an intricate network that occupies the Y chromosome and the distal region of the X chromosome long arm. Both the association of sex chromosomes and the SYCP3 structure are maintained until metaphase I. In anaphase I sex chromosomes migrate to opposite poles, but SYCP3 filaments connecting both chromosomes are observed. Hence, one can assume that SYCP3 modifications detected from diplotene onwards are correlated with the maintenance of sex chromosome association. These results demonst