Mezey, M; Fulmer, T; Fairchild, S
This article explores the relative merits of encouraging preparation of more nurses with specialization in geriatrics as compared to encouraging geriatric preparation among nurses whose major field of study is outside geriatrics. The article explores two approaches to examining capacity for geriatric nursing scholarship among nurse scholars not involved in geriatrics, and in schools of nursing with strength in research but with little geriatric research. The findings show an ongoing need to strengthen geriatric nursing as an area of specialization. Faculty prepared in geriatric nursing are underrepresented in schools of nursing, and only a small number of doctoral students specialize in geriatric nursing. Academic nursing programs with strength in geriatric nursing need ongoing support to maintain and expand current geriatric programs. Data support that encouraging individual non-geriatric nurse faculty and doctoral candidates to focus their work on areas of concern to geriatric nursing, and strengthening geriatrics in research-intensive schools of nursing that have not heavily invested in geriatric scholarship are viable options for strengthening academic geriatric nursing. Establishing mechanisms to attract nurse scholars working outside the scope of geriatric nursing to address clinical issues of concern to older adults offers promise in rapidly attracting new scholars to geriatric nursing.
Fulmer, T; Ashley, J; Reilly, C
In conclusion, it is important to reiterate the interdependent nature of the functional health patterns as they relate to the geriatric patient in the acute care setting. Further, the combination of the primary nursing model with the functional health pattern approach that leads to subsequent nursing diagnoses provides a comprehensive care approach, which is so important for the elderly patient. As elders live longer, become frailer, and are subject to increasingly frequent hospitalizations, it will become more and more important to provide care in a manner that decreases fragmentation, increases individualization, and makes provisions for comprehensive and wholistic continuing care.
People are living longer. The average age of the population is increasing, and is expected to keep growing. Any person age 65 and older is now considered "geriatric." However, although growing, this population is not receiving adequate nursing care, and results in increased pain, falls, and even death. Geriatric curriculum is becoming…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Cruz, Andrei Angelo R.; Cruz, Angela Laurice G.; Cruz, Robert Edward D.; Cuarto, Jose Mari Nino L.
The continually rising percentage of the elderly population and the demand for geriatric nursing care are dramatically related. While it is true that most undergraduate programs prepare nurses for the care of geriatric patients, most receive limited academic preparation in the nursing curriculum (Williams & Mezey, 2000). This is particularly…
Bonnel, W B
Knowledgeable practitioners with the skills needed to serve in a variety of clinical settings are the primary objective of the Adult-Geriatric Advanced Nursing Program and the FNP elective, Advanced Practice Nursing Care of the Frail Elderly. The continued blending of long term and acute care settings will further cloud and challenge the school responsible for educating APNs in the care of older adults, particularly the frail elderly. Education needs to provide flexibility for students through new service designs such as interactive computer courses. Nurses with an orientation to the future should consider geriatric nursing education.
Lubart, Emily; Segal, Refael; Rosenfeld, Vera; Madjar, Jack; Kakuriev, Michael; Leibovitz, Arthur
Medical care in nursing homes is not provided by board-licensed geriatricians; it mainly comes from physicians in need of educational programs in the field of geriatrics. Such programs, based on curriculum guidelines, should be developed. The purpose of this study was to seek input from nursing home physicians on their perceived needs for training…
Braun, Kathryn L.; Rose, Charles L.
Relatives (N=62) of matched pairs of patients in geriatric foster homes and nursing homes rated care provided to their relatives. Significantly more foster family patients had positive pre-placement attitudes than did nursing home patients. Upon follow-up, relatives of foster patients reported seeing more patient improvement, satisfaction,…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Coronel, Rona Denise V.; Chua, Kannerin O.; Constantino, Mariz G.; Cordova, Ericsann James C.
Geriatric nursing is a physically and emotionally demanding job in healthcare. It is a neglected field despite the growing population of the elderly, and the experiences of geriatric nurses are one of the unrecognized aspects of this field. This qualitative study purports to explore the successes and struggles of the lived experiences of a select…
Braga, Charlotte; Chansiaux, Christine; Raynaud-Simon, Agathe
In the wake of an experimental project, external mobile geriatric teams have been working in nursing homes in order to train the nursing teams in caring for geriatric pathologies. The mobile teams also give diagnostic and therapeutic recommendations in order to direct where necessary these dependent elderly people, often with multiple pathologies, towards geriatric care.
Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Shen, Jun; Wu, Haifeng; Ding, Fu; He, Xizhen; Zhu, Yueping
A lack of knowledge in registered nurses about geriatric conditions is one of the major factors that contribute to these conditions being overlooked in hospitalized older people. In China, an innovative geriatric continuing nursing education program aimed at developing registered nurses' understanding of the complex care needs of hospitalized…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Dangoy, Reena-Jane D.; David, Kathleen Christian V.; Dayo, Ken Jarrett H.; de Claro, Keisha A.; de Guzman, Giorgio von Gerri G.; de Jesus, Gerald Ian D.
Nurses play a significant role in geriatric care. However, as the aging population and demand for geriatric nurses increase worldwide, shortages of nurses seem to arise. This creates the need to assess and address the motivation and attitudes of nurses toward geriatric care. The intent of this qualitative study is to surface the essence or the…
Arroyo, Marta; Rocandio, Ana Ma; Ansotegui, Laura; Pascual, Estíbaliz; Martínez de la Pera, Concepción
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that cooperative learning strategies will help to increase nutrition knowledge of nurses and nursing assistants caring for the elderly in different institutional communities of the Basque Country, Spain. The target population was a sample of volunteers, 16 nurses and 28 nursing assistants. Training consisted of 12 nutrition education sessions using cooperative strategies conducted over a period of 3 consecutive weeks. The assessment instruments included two pretest and two posttest questionnaires with questions selected in multiple-choice format. The first questionnaire was about general knowledge of applied nutrition (0-88 point scale) and the second one on geriatric nutrition knowledge (0-18 point scale). Data were analyzed using SPSS vs. 11.0. The outcomes indicated a significant increase in general nutrition knowledge (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 14.5+/-10.1; P<0.001) and in geriatric nutrition knowledge for all participants (difference between the pre- and post-test mean score: 4.6+/-4.6; P<0.001). So the results indicated that cooperative learning strategies could improve the nutrition knowledge of nursing staff. Additionally, the results of this study provide direction to continuing nutrition education program planners regarding appropriate content and methodology for programs.
Lobstein, Annelise; Marinier, Françoise
Aromatherapy is a valuable complementary therapeutic tool which is increasingly being used in hospitals. Essential oils help to improve patients' quality of life. They can be used for well-being purposes as well in specific nursing procedures. Some services offer aromatherapy through diffusion, inhalation, massages or aromatic baths. The benefits for healthcare teams as well as for patients are undeniable. There is also a significant reduction in the consumption of certain drugs.
Kelly, Kathe; Thrane, Susan; Virani, Rose; Malloy, Pam; Ferrell, Betty
In the past decade, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's 2002 report Means to a Better End: A Report on Dying in America Today and other studies brought attention to deficiencies in care of the dying in the USA. Palliative care's mandate is to promote a 'good death' through expert symptom management and compassionate care that addresses the psychosocial needs and dignity of persons at the end of life. The End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium (ELNEC) Geriatric 'train-the-trainer' project was launched in 2007 to increase the knowledge and educational skills of nurses and unlicensed staff providing end-of-life care for older adults in nursing homes, skilled nursing facilities, long-term care, and hospices. From 2007 through 2009, 351 California-based nurses and nursing home staff attended one of four ELNEC Geriatric courses. This paper describes programme development, implementation, follow-up evaluations, and examples of participants' use of the ELNEC Geriatric curriculum.
Cherry, Barbara; Marshall-Gray, Paula; Laurence, Ann; Green, Alexia; Valadez, Ana; Scott-Tilley, Donna; Merritt, Pearl
Quality care for the rapidly growing number of older Americans is a major challenge facing the health care industry today. With the baby-boom generation "coming of age"--older age-the need for quality long-term care workers is on the rise. It is estimated that the number of persons needing assisted or alternative living arrangements will increase from 15 million in 2000 to 27 million in 2050 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2003). In response to the rising demand for quality long-term care workers, the Geriatric Education and Training Academy (the Academy) was created at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center (TTUHSC) to provide advanced geriatric education and training for certified nurse aides (CNA), licensed vocational nurses (LVN) and registered nurses (RN) who work in long-term care facilities. This article describes how the Academy is addressing the need for the recruitment, education, and retention of long-term care workers for the expanding geriatric population in West Texas.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Jimenez, Benito Christian B.; Jocson, Kathlyn P.; Junio, Aileen R.; Junio, Drazen E.; Jurado, Jasper Benjamin N.; Justiniano, Angela Bianca F.
Anchored on the key constucts of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (1985), this paper seeks to test a model that explores the influence of knowledge, attitude, and caring behavior on nursing students' behavioral intention toward geriatric care. A five-part survey-questionnaire was administered to 839 third and fourth year nursing students from a…
Wangmo, Tenzin; Nordström, Karin; Kressig, Reto W
This study explores how and why abuse and neglect occurs in geriatric institutions and presents practical prevention measures. Exploratory qualitative interviews were carried out with purposive sample of 23 nursing staff members. They were recruited from different institutions caring for older patients in the north-western region of Switzerland. These interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Participating nursing staff members reported several factors pertaining to the care provider, the older patient, and the institution that precipitated abuse and neglect. They mentioned different solutions that could help them address their responsibilities in a reasonable manner. The solutions included, for example, ensuring proper education and training, better management nursing care provider's responsibilities and timely intervention to address abuse and neglect, as well as rotating care provider. Implementing these suggestions will allow geriatric institutions, its managers, and nursing care providers to improve quality of care and reduce such negative occurrences in these settings.
Campbell-Detrixhe, Dia D; Grassley, Jane S; Zeigler, Vicki L
Examining the meanings of the experiences of advanced practice nurses (APNs) who chose to work with older adults and why they continue to work with this population was the focus of this hermeneutic qualitative research study. Twelve geriatric APNs currently practicing in two South Central states were interviewed using an open-ended interview guide. Using Gadamerian hermeneutics, the researchers identified Gerontology Found Me as the significant expression that reflected the fundamental meaning of the experience as a whole. Four themes emerged that further described the meanings of the participants' personal, educational, and professional experiences: Becoming a Gerontology Nurse, Being a Gerontology Nurse, Belonging to Gerontology, and Bringing Others to Gerontology. This study concluded that APNs' personal and professional experiences were more influential than educational experiences to become geriatric nurses, and having these personal and professional experiences of being in relationship with older individuals further contributed to their choice of gerontology.
Tolson, Debbie; Morley, John E; Rolland, Yves; Vellas, Bruno
Recognition of the urgent need to improve the provision of long-term care, as well as the known variations in standards of nursing home care around the world, prompted the International Association of Geriatrics and Gerontology (IAGG), in association with the World Health Organization (WHO), to form a task force. This task force was charged with the identification of the key concerns, research priorities, and actions that would enhance the care provided to older people in nursing homes. Nurses are equipped with the knowledge to take a leadership role in the IAGG/WHO initiative, and the task force eagerly seeks their input.
Jonker, J M; Smorenburg, C H; Schiphorst, A H; van Rixtel, B; Portielje, J E A; Hamaker, M E
To identify ways to improve cancer care for older patients, we set out to examine how older patients in the Netherlands are currently being evaluated prior to oncological treatment and to explore the potential obstacles in the incorporation of a geriatric evaluation, using a web-based survey sent to Dutch medical oncology specialists and oncology nursing specialists. The response rate was 34% (183 out of 544). Two-thirds of respondents reported that a geriatric evaluation was being used, although primarily on an ad hoc basis only. Most respondents expressed a desire for a routine evaluation or more intensive collaboration with the geriatrician and 86% of respondents who were not using a geriatric evaluation expressed their interest to do so. The most important obstacles were a lack of time or personnel and insufficient availability of a geriatrician to perform the assessment. Thus, over 30% of oncology professionals in the Netherlands express an interest in geriatric oncology. Important obstacles to a routine implementation of a geriatric evaluation are a lack of time, or insufficient availability of geriatricians; this could be overcome with policies that acknowledge that quality cancer care for older patients requires the investment of time and personnel.
Geriatric assessment in daily oncology practice for nurses and allied health care professionals: Opinion paper of the Nursing and Allied Health Interest Group of the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG).
Burhenn, Peggy S; McCarthy, Alexandra L; Begue, Aaron; Nightingale, Ginah; Cheng, Karis; Kenis, Cindy
The management of older persons with cancer has become a major public health concern in developed countries because of the aging of the population and the steady increase in cancer incidence with advancing age. Nurses and allied health care professionals are challenged to address the needs of this growing population. The International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) Nursing and Allied Health (NAH) Interest Group described key issues that nurses and allied health care professionals face when caring for older persons with cancer. The domains of the Geriatric Assessment (GA) are used as a guiding framework. The following geriatric domains are described: demographic data and social support, functional status, cognition, mental health, nutritional status, fatigue, comorbidities, polypharmacy, and other geriatric syndromes (e.g. falls, delirium). In addition to these geriatric domains, quality of life (QoL) is described based on the overall importance in this particular population. Advice for integration of assessment of these geriatric domains into daily oncology practice is made. Research has mainly focused on the role of treating physicians but the involvement of nurses and allied health care professionals is crucial in the care of older persons with cancer through the GA process. The ability of nurses and allied health care professionals to perform this assessment requires specialized training and education beyond standard oncology knowledge.
McBride, Angela Barron; Watman, Rachael; Escobedo, Marcus; Beilenson, John
This paper describes how the John A. Hartford Foundation sought to maximize the influence of its various geriatric nursing projects by organizing and managing them collectively as the Hartford Geriatric Nursing Initiative (HGNI). This initiative aimed to develop a shared identity, encouraged cross-pollination of efforts, convened project leaders to address opportunities and problems, launched across-project collaborations, and created tools and resources to support overall efforts. This paper ends with some reflections on the processes implemented to maximize HGNI effectiveness, particularly the importance of forging a common identity in order to encourage expanded solutions. The HGNI can serve as an example of how intersecting interests can fuel new ideas, thus helping others think more strategically about change efforts in the future.
Kaspar, Roman; Hartig, Johannes
The care of older people was described as involving substantial emotion-related affordances. Scholars in vocational training and nursing disagree whether emotion-related skills could be conceptualized and assessed as a professional competence. Studies on emotion work and empathy regularly neglect the multidimensionality of these phenomena and their relation to the care process, and are rarely conclusive with respect to nursing behavior in practice. To test the status of emotion-related skills as a facet of client-directed geriatric nursing competence, 402 final-year nursing students from 24 German schools responded to a 62-item computer-based test. 14 items were developed to represent emotion-related affordances. Multi-dimensional IRT modeling was employed to assess a potential subdomain structure. Emotion-related test items did not form a separate subdomain, and were found to be discriminating across the whole competence continuum. Tasks concerning emotion work and empathy are reliable indicators for various levels of client-directed nursing competence. Claims for a distinct emotion-related competence in geriatric nursing, however, appear excessive with a process-oriented perspective.
The future role of the nursing profession in providing health care for older people is considered. It is argued that, despite claims to holism, nursing has maintained a narrow focus, concentrating mainly on acute hospital care. The concepts of professional protectionism and professional reductionism are used to explain the manifest failure of nursing and other professions working with older people and their carers to place the needs of their clients at the top of their agendas. A reorientation of nursing practice is advocated in order that the profession fulfils its potential with respect to older people.
Scheffel, Sonja; Hantikainen, Virpi
Contractures constitute a health problem in mobility-restricted geriatric patients. Contractures are clinically important due to their impact on functional outcome. Prophylactic interventions seem to be indispensable. We performed a systematic review studying the interventions used to prevent immobility-related contractures in the geriatric long-term care. The efficacy and safety of preventive methods was assessed. Electronic literature searches covered the databases PubMed, PEDro, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library (May 2010). Eligibility criteria for studies were: Investigation of an intervention aimed to prevent contractures, conducted in a geriatric and long-term care setting, inclusion of participants aged>65 years. The primary search focused on RCTs, systematic reviews und meta-analysis published between 1990 and May 2010 in English or German. The included studies were analysed and evaluated by one author while a second author checked the results. Methodological quality was critically evaluated using internationally accepted criteria. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Prophylactic interventions comprise mobility-encouraging and position-supportive interventions. Mobility-encouraging interventions aim to prevent contractures and immobility, for example offering range-of-motion exercises. Position-supportive interventions are transformations of motion and position, which are conducted with nurses' support. Due to limited methodological quality of these studies, the efficacy of certain measures remains unclear. Further studies on contracture prophylaxis investigating patient-relevant outcomes, interventions' adverse effects and costs are required.
Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott
In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and strained healthcare systems. In response, geriatric emergency medicine clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations, equipment, policies, and protocols. These Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attributes of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors of each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce emergency medicine and geriatric healthcare providers to the guidelines while providing recommendations for continued refinement of these proposals through educational dissemination, formal effectiveness evaluations, cost-effectiveness studies, and eventually institutional credentialing.
Optimal older adult emergency care: introducing multidisciplinary geriatric emergency department guidelines from the American College of Emergency Physicians, American Geriatrics Society, Emergency Nurses Association, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Carpenter, Christopher R; Bromley, Marilyn; Caterino, Jeffrey M; Chun, Audrey; Gerson, Lowell W; Greenspan, Jason; Hwang, Ula; John, David P; Lyons, William L; Platts-Mills, Timothy F; Mortensen, Betty; Ragsdale, Luna; Rosenberg, Mark; Wilber, Scott
In the United States and around the world, effective, efficient, and reliable strategies to provide emergency care to aging adults is challenging crowded emergency departments (EDs) and a strained health care system. In response, geriatric emergency medicine (EM) clinicians, educators, and researchers collaborated with the American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), American Geriatrics Society (AGS), Emergency Nurses Association (ENA), and the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM) to develop guidelines intended to improve ED geriatric care by enhancing expertise, educational, and quality improvement expectations; equipment; policies; and protocols. These "Geriatric Emergency Department Guidelines" represent the first formal society-led attempt to characterize the essential attribute of the geriatric ED and received formal approval from the boards of directors for each of the four societies in 2013 and 2014. This article is intended to introduce EM and geriatric health care providers to the guidelines, while providing proposals for educational dissemination, refinement via formal effectiveness evaluations and cost-effectiveness studies, and institutional credentialing.
Onishi, Joji; Suzuki, Yusuke; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Hidetoshi; Kawamura, Takashi; Iguchi, Akihisa
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS)-15 was used in 607 adults aged 65+ years living in a community, nursing homes, and a general hospital to explore characteristics of depressive mood in different care settings. Factor analysis of GDS-15 extracted 4 factors labeled unhappiness, apathy and anxiety, loss of hope and morale, and energy loss. The scale scores labeled unhappiness, apathy and anxiety, and loss of hope and morale were negatively correlated with the Barthel Index and the Mini-Mental State Examination scores. The results classified the depressive patterns into 2 types, one fitting the nursing home residents and the other fitting the hospital patients. The dominant factors of the nursing-home type were unhappiness and loss of hope and morale, and the hospital type was highly related with apathy and anxiety. The results indicate an extended utility of the GDS-15 for a deeper understanding of depressive mood in various care settings.
Farley, Jason E; Stewart, Jennifer; Kub, Joan; Cumpsty-Fowler, Carolyn; Lowensen, Kelly; Becker, Kathleen
In response to the call to create an AIDS Education and Training Center for Nurse Practitioner Education by the Health Resources and Services Administration, The Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing embarked on a transformative curriculum overhaul to integrate HIV prevention, treatment, and care into the Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner Program. A six-step process outlined in the Curriculum Development for Medical Education was followed. A pilot cohort of Adult/Geriatric Nurse Practitioner students were enrolled, including 50% primary care setting and 50% HIV-focused primary care through a 12-month HIV continuity clinic experience. Through this pilot, substantive changes to the program were adopted. Programmatic outcomes were not compromised with the modification in clinical hours. The model of a 12-month HIV continuity clinical experience reduced the number of required preceptors. This model has important implications for the HIV workforce by demonstrating successful integration of HIV and primary care training for nurse practitioners.
Vrbanac, Zoran; Zecević, Iva; Ljubić, Marijana; Belić, Maja; Stanin, Damir; Bottegaro, Nika Brkljaca; Jurkić, Gabrijela; Skrlin, Branimir; Bedrica, Ljiljana; Zubcić, Damir
Use of animals for therapeutic purposes, animal assisted therapy or AAT is a method for improving quality of life for long-term inpatients. The object of this paper was to evaluate dog companionship as a form of AAT and its effects on perception of loneliness in geriatric nursing home residents. The participants were involved in a six-month program of dog companionship three times weekly for 90 minutes. There were 21 residents included in the program, with a mean age of 80 years. Loneliness was measured by the short version of the UCLA Scale of loneliness. Comparison of test results before and after participation in the program showed that dog companionship reduces the perception of loneliness.
Yardimci, Bulent; Aran, Sinan N.; Ozkaya, Ismail; Aksoy, Sevki M.; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Y.
Objectives: To determine the relation among the risk of falls, geriatric assessment, and anthropometric measurements, including the mini mental state examination, geriatric depression scale, handgrip test, and key pinch test. Methods: This prospective study included 89 residents hospitalized between May 2014 and September 2015 in the geriatric care unit of the Istanbul Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were followed-up for one year, and their falls were recorded. Medical records of the included patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: A total of 89 patients, comprising 37 men and 52 women with an average age of 75.8 ± 8.2 years were included in the study. The residents’ annual falling averages were 1.0 ± 1.5. The most significant factors were identified to be predicted muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, whole body bioimpedance, dominant arm muscle strength, dominant arm bioimpedance, and free fat mass. Conclusions: The mini mental test, geriatric depression scale and lawton-brody scale combined with the handgrip, 6-meters walking, and bioimpedance tests are favorable for detecting the risk of falls and recurrent falls in vulnerable elderly nursing home residents. PMID:27652361
Kiersma, Mary E.; Yehle, Karen S.; Plake, Kimberly S.
Background Nurses should be well-prepared to improve and address health-related needs of older adults, but students may have difficulty understanding and empathizing, as they may not yet have personally experienced aging-related challenges. Simulation games can be used to help students understand the experiences of others, but limited information is available on the impact of simulation experiences on student empathy. Objective The objective of this study was to examine the impact of participation in an aging simulation game on nursing students’ empathy and attitudes toward older adults as well as their understanding of patients’ experiences in the healthcare system. Design This study used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design. Setting A school of nursing in the Midwestern United States. Participants The convenience sample included 58 sophomore-level baccalaureate nursing students. Methods Students played the role of an older adult during a 3-hour laboratory aging simulation game, the Geriatric Medication Game® (GMG). Students completed the (1) Kiersma-Chen Empathy Scale (KCES, 15 items, 7-point Likert-type), (2) Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professions Students (JSE-HPS, 20 items, 7-point Likert-type), and (3) Aging Simulation Experience Survey (13 items, 7-point Likert-type) pre- and post-game to assess study objectives. Descriptive statistics and paired t-tests (were performed in SPSS v.21.0, as the data were normally distributed. Results Students’ empathy (N=58) toward older adults significantly improved overall (KCES p=0.015, JSE-HPS p<0.001). Improvements also were seen on seven out of 13 questions related to attitudes and healthcare understanding (p<0.05). In the post-test, students agreed that they experienced frustration and impatience during the GMG. Conclusions Students may not be aware of older adults’ feelings and experiences prior to experiencing aging-related changes themselves. Simulation activities, such as the GMG, can be
Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle
Aim of database The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Study population The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14–15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past 5 years. Main variables An important part of the geriatric approach is the interdisciplinary collaboration. Indicators, therefore, reflect the combined efforts directed toward the geriatric patient. The indicators include Barthel index, body mass index, de Morton Mobility Index, Chair Stand, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. Descriptive data Descriptive patient-related data include information about home, mobility aid, need of fall and/or cognitive diagnosing, and categorization of cause (general geriatric, orthogeriatric, or neurogeriatric). Conclusion The National Database of Geriatrics covers ∼90% of geriatric admissions in Danish hospitals and provides valuable information about a large and increasing patient population in the health care system. PMID:27822120
Tolson, Debbie; Rolland, Yves; Andrieu, Sandrine; Aquino, Jean-Pierre; Beard, John; Benetos, Athanase; Berrut, Gilles; Coll-Planas, Laura; Dong, Birong; Forette, Françoise; Franco, Alain; Franzoni, Simone; Salvà, Antoni; Swagerty, Daniel; Trabucchi, Marco; Vellas, Bruno; Volicer, Ladislav; Morley, John E
A workshop charged with identifying the main clinical concerns and quality of care issues within nursing homes was convened by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, with input from the World Health Organization. The workshop met in Toulouse, France, during June 2010. Drawing on the latest evidence and mindful of the international development agenda and specific regional challenges, consensus was sought on priority actions and future research. The impetus for this work was the known variation in the quality of nursing home care experiences of older people around the world. The resulting Task Force recommendations include instigation of sustainable strategies designed to enhance confidence among older people and their relatives that the care provided within nursing homes is safe, mindful of their preferences, clinically appropriate, and delivered with respect and compassion by appropriately prepared expert doctors, registered nurses, administrators, and other staff. The proposals extend across 4 domains (Reputational Enhancement and Leadership, Clinical Essentials and Care Quality Indicators, Practitioner Education, and Research) that, in concert, will enhance the reputation and status of nursing home careers among practitioners, promote effective evidence-informed quality improvements, and develop practice leadership and research capabilities.
Denham, Michael J
Doreen Norton was a delightful, widely respected nurse who devoted her life to improving the care of elderly people. She researched the neglected problem of pressure sores, revolutionised their nursing care, and thus achieved international fame. Her Pressure Sore Scale was established as a management tool and is still used today. She was a key member of the design team that produced the 'King's Fund Bed', researched equipment required on geriatric wards, assessed all geriatric long stay units in Scotland and established research as a valuable nursing tool within her profession and health authorities. She lectured extensively and her publications attracted worldwide acclamation. After her retirement, she was subsequently appointed to the world's first Chair of Gerontological Nursing in Cleveland, Ohio.
Swoboda, W; Hermens, T
Internal medicine specialists involved in primary care will have a leading part in the treatment of geriatric patients with complex healthcare needs in the future. Approved models like specialized geriatric practices, ambulant or mobile geriatric rehabilitation and special geriatric services for nursing homes are available. Essential is a geriatric qualification that fits with the tasks of an internist in primary care. An incentive payment system has to be created for this purpose to improve the treatment of elderly patients.
Huang, Fanpin; Chang, Polun; Hou, I-Ching; Tu, Ming-Hsiang; Lan, Chung-Fu
Long-term-care comprehensive geriatric assessments, such as the Minimum Data Set 3.0, are used to evaluate the clinical, psychological, and personal status of residents in long-term-care nursing facilities. Nursing staff conducts assessment interviews, thereby increasing the workload of nurses and the cost of patient care. This study explored the ability of nursing home residents to use two different mobile devices for a geriatric self-assessment. Study participants were residents of long-term-care nursing homes. A modified Minimum Data Set 3.0 was converted to a format for use with a 6-inch mobile pad and a 3.7-inch mobile smartphone. The survey completion rate and the response time were measured. A Technology Assessment Model questionnaire analyzed the participants' experience. All participants were able to use a 6-inch pad, with an average completion rate of 92.9% and an average time for completion of 21 minutes. Only 20% of the participants could complete the assessment with the 3.7-inch smartphone. The participants found the 6-inch pad easier to use than the 3.7-inch smartphone. This exploratory study suggests that nursing home residents are able to use a mobile device to perform a geriatric self-assessment and delineates the importance of the ergonomics of the device.
Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Niemi, Monica; Suomivuori, Lisbeth
A Finnish nursing home's team development process included brainstorming on the characteristics of good teams, profiling of team members' nursing skills, analysis of tasks, and identification of ways to improve work quality and information flow to residents. Team building required clarification of work structures, determination of the…
Heise, Barbara A; Johnsen, Vickie; Himes, Deborah; Wing, Debra
Despite the increase of the older adult population, there exists a shortage of health care professionals trained to help this population remain independent as long as possible. Ageism, common among younger adults, affects the capacity building of health care for older adults. Research has indicated that increased knowledge about older adults, as well as exposure to the elderly, may alter nursing students' attitudes regarding careers in gerontological nursing. However, questions remain as to what are the most effective ways to provide gerontological content in nursing programs and enhance attitudes toward older adults.With the understanding that younger adults see a need to balance work and play, a baccalaureate nursing program provides examples of ways to accomplish this through integration of courses, simulations, positive images of aging, and learning activities that enhance empathy for both frail and healthy older adults.
Kaspar, Roman; Hartig, Johannes
The care of older people was described as involving substantial emotion-related affordances. Scholars in vocational training and nursing disagree whether emotion-related skills could be conceptualized and assessed as a professional competence. Studies on emotion work and empathy regularly neglect the multidimensionality of these phenomena and…
de Guzman, Allan B.; Maravilla, Katrina N.; Maravilla, Veniza Anne M.; Marfil, Jomille D. V.; Marinas, Janine Angelica R.; Marquez, Jorelle Michael B.
Numerous studies have been conducted worldwide about loneliness in older adults living in nursing homes and the factors associated with it. However, only a few studies have focused on social factors that may predispose these older adults to experience loneliness. The purpose of this study was to examine the interplay between and among loneliness,…
Bonifas, Robin P.
Research has highlighted the challenges social services professionals face in providing quality psychosocial care to persons living in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs). A primary area of difficulty is addressing the needs of persons with mental health conditions, including problematic behaviors associated with dementia. This study evaluated the…
Zimber, A; Rudolf, A; Teufel, S
Caregivers of the residents in nursing homes are exposed to a high degree of physical and mental stress. The purpose of this study was to develop and to test the effects of skill training aimed at reducing occupational stress. The training consisting of 12 sessions of 90 minutes each was designed for nursing assistants and for care supervisors, respectively. Contents of the program are communicating with the demented, coping with job stress and cooperating with colleagues and subordinates, respectively. Eleven homes for the elderly and nursing homes were involved in the pilot study; 88 caregivers participated in the training, 34 of them were supervisors and 54 nursing assistants. The participants mainly appreciated the contents of the training. A controlled study design was applied to evaluate the training effects. 56 participants assessed their competencies, their job conditions and their health status at the beginning, at the end of the training as well as 12 weeks after the intervention had been finished. 56 persons completed the questionnaire receiving no training. Among the training participants, particularly the self-care skills improved. In addition, occupational stress could be reduced and the climate with the residents improved significantly, whereas the frequency of health problems did not change. Compared to the changes also observed in the control group, statistically significant effects were confined to the improvement of the climate with the residents. Care supervisors in general reported a higher benefit from the training than did nursing assistants. The results of the pilot study were used to adapt the training to the caregivers' needs.
Diggle-Fox, B. Suzy
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the most frequently utilized teaching strategy of lecturing followed by discussion and to compare it with lecturing followed by role playing to determine how to best prepare nursing students both in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy. The primary goal of the study was to learn how to…
González Ramírez, Alfonso; Calvo Aguirre, Juan José; Lekuona Ancizar, Pilar; González Oliveras, Juan Luis; Marcellán Benavente, Teresa; Ruiz de Gordoa Armendia, Ana; Salvá Casanovas, Antoni; Alcalde Tirado, Pablo; González Alonso, Teresa; Padilla Clemente, Reyes; Clerencia Sierra, Mercedes; Ubis Diez, Elena
The Workshop on Osteoporosis, Falls and Fractures (GCOF) of The Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society (SEGG) formed a committee in order to review the state of the art on the detection, risk factors and assessment tools for falls, and intervention protocols when falls occurs in nursing homes, long-term hospitals or medium-stay units. The different patient profiles are described in order to make a comprehensive approach to this heterogeneous topic and population, offering a risk classification and specific advice according to these categories.
Gardner, Davis L., Ed.; Hoekelman, Margaret C., Ed.
This document presents the proceedings of a conference on geriatric education. These papers are included: Promoting Healthy Aging: A Leadership Role for Geriatric Education; National Research Priorities in Aging; Aging with a Disability; Recent Advances in Clinical Strategies in Geriatric Education: The Role of the Geriatric Nurse in the Acute…
From the data of a multicentric investigation, performed in a French area (Alsace) using questionnaires filled by 800 geriatrics nurses, the author analyses their current knowledge and representations of Alzheimer's disease, their attitudes and practice concerning the disclosure of the diagnosis to the patients, and the influence of these data for the patients care. The results show three principal common aspects: first very important gaps, difficulties and contradictions concerning Alzheimer's disease knowledge; then heavy feelings of incompetence, loneliness, and therapeutic inanity with regard to the problems of their practice; last of all, their requests insisting on their need of information, formation, and aid, all missing for them. The nurses' language was devoid of specific and professional contents. It was similar to the general public, mediatic, and societal speeches, loaded with aprioristic assertions, reducing Alzheimer's disease to an organic process of humanity decline. This alarming picture calls to question its ground, mechanisms and solutions concerning the needs conveyed by the nurses, and the pertinency of the common concept of Alzheimer's disease. It enjoins to reconsider the nurses formation and a transdisciplinar further reflection about the notion of Alzheimer's disease and the messages which are transmitted by it.
After an introduction which defines the scope of geriatric nutrition, the current literature dealing with the subject is reviewed. Nutrition is seen as an important aspect of aging and health. The role of the practicing physician in the area of geriatric nutrition is discussed. The author relates personal experiences in this area. The concluding principle is that proper nutrition is an important tool in preventive medicine in the elderly in which the practicing physician can play a vital role. Imagesp803-a PMID:7401189
... team also focuses on health concerns common in older people such as incontinence, falls, memory problems, and managing multiple chronic conditions and medications. The geriatrics team: Evaluates the patient’s social supports and living situation Considers the person’s ability to ...
Markham, R W; Hodgkins, E M
In recent decades, veterinary medicine has become more successful in prolonging the healthy, useful lives of pets. As a result, the practitioner spends a greater part of each practice day caring for the geriatric animal, both healthy and unhealthy. Because of their longevity, older pets are typically regular family members, with owners who seek the finest health care possible for their pets. The practice of geriatric medicine most properly should begin not when the dog or cat reaches some specific "golden" age, but rather when the wiggly, robust puppy or kitten receives its first examination. Like all parts of a sound preventive program, geriatric nutrition best follows from a well-considered juvenile and adult nutrition program. Furthermore, once it becomes senior, the "well" geriatric is as much a candidate for a diet designed especially to accommodate old age changes as is his unhealthy contemporary. In fact, evidence suggests that appropriate dietary management of the healthy, but often subclinical, patient may help postpone the signs of dysfunction and increase quality and length of life. A knowledge of the most significant nutrients and the impact of each on aging systems is now, and will become increasingly more, important to the progressive, skillful veterinarian.
Paré, Jean A; Lentini, Andrew M
Although basic notions, such as life expectancy, and thus what constitutes old age, remain to be determined in the vast majority of reptile species, there is a tendency at least for captive reptiles to live longer now than in the past. Clinicians are expected to recognize signs of senescence or old age in reptile patients, to acquire a heightened index of suspicion for diseases likely to affect older individuals of a given species or taxon, and to provide sound advice on geriatric care of such patients. Reptiles are stoic and show few signs of aging, but subtle changes in behavior, mobility, reproduction, weight, or appetite may all signal the onset of senescence to the vigilant caregiver. Serial, for example, yearly or biannual physical examination, blood sampling, and imaging initiated at maturity or earlier are probably the most powerful tools in diagnosing, monitoring, and managing geriatric issues.
Kaspar, Roman; Döring, Ottmar; Wittmann, Eveline; Hartig, Johannes; Weyland, Ulrike; Nauerth, Annette; Möllers, Michaela; Rechenbach, Simone; Simon, Julia; Worofka, Iberé
Valid and reliable standardized assessment of nursing competencies is needed to monitor the quality of vocational education and training (VET) in nursing and evaluate learning outcomes for care work trainees with increasingly heterogeneous learning backgrounds. To date, however, the modeling of professional competencies has not yet evolved into…
Bonnel, Wanda; Fletcher, Kathy; Wingate, Anita
As the older adult population increases, nursing students at all levels need geriatric content and access to geriatric resources. The Virtual Tour (VT) assignment, a combination of Web-based geriatric resources and applied learning activities, provides a simple way to integrate Web-based resources into classroom learning. VTs provide students a guide or "road map" to practical Web-based resources for client care. Evaluation data support that students like VTs and gain useful information for practice. VTs provide an easy way to expand geriatric resources available to students and to complement classroom content.
Böhle, F; Brater, M; Maurus, A
In institutional care for the elderly effective and efficient professional action is needed as well as in acute care settings. That means rational-systematic acting. This includes the establishment of goals, systematic planning and realization of these plans, deductive-logical thinking, objective perception and gaining an unbiased objective relationship towards the work to be done. However, an explorative investigation of the ways, how successful and experienced nurses do their job-being viewed by their colleagues as qualitatively effective and efficient concerning their time budget-provides the following results. In direct care procedures which go beyond rational-systematic action prove to be more economic and successful. This type of action is characterized by interactive procedures of dialogical nature, the patterns of rationality tend to be associative, the perception of the elderly to be taken care of can be considered as intuitive-subjective and the relationship towards them as personal-empathic. Those patterns of professional action we refer to as "subjectifying" or "situative" patterns of action. They can also be found in the process of an artist's work. The consequences of this change of paradigma concerning training and cost-effective nursing are discussed in this paper.
The contribution of psychoanalysis to geriatric care in nursing home is discussed in three directions: its conception of care, specially on its negative sides; its implication in geriatric units, in their conception and in the analysis of their management of care; the holding of care-givers and nurses by making clear what we call transference and conter-transference and their reflection on their function.
Some of the important points in geriatric psychology and geriatric psychiatry (such as vocabulary and base line concepts, old myths in geriatrics, reference models, principle of action, therapeutic procedures, nasalgraphy, pluri, inter and transdisciplinarity) will be developed for the dentist practicing geriatric dentistry. Knowledge of these concepts should provide the basis for an effective association with the psychiatrist, in order to enhance better care for the elderly. Two types of approaches of the elderly, well known of the geriatric psychiatrist will be developed. The cognitive and motory approaches will be set as examples capable of helping the exchange between the two specialties.
Geriatric dogs and cats are an important group of patients in veterinary medicine. Healthy geriatric patients have similar physiology and presumably pharmacology as healthy adult animals. Geriatric patients with subclinical organ dysfunction are overtly healthy but have some organ dysfunction that may alter the clinical pharmacology of some drugs. Geriatric patients with an overt disease are expected to have altered drug pharmacology for some drugs based on the underlying disease. Diseases including cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, osteoarthritis, neurologic, and neoplastic are expected in the geriatric population and discussed, including the effects of the underlying disease and potential drug-drug interactions.
Baerga Duperoy, Rachel; Castro Rojas, Nydia; Orta Rodríguez, Brenda; González Caraballo, Enid; Cruz González, Angel; Vázquez Fernández, José; Oliver Vázquez, Marlén
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and identify the basic training needs of nursing home staff, in terms of attitudes, knowledge and skills required to work effectively with geriatric patients. Three focus groups were performed, two groups of employees, and a group of elderly residents of the institution, in order to explore issues pertaining to the following topics: personal attributes required to work with geriatric patients, basic knowledge and skills needed to provide effective services. Group discussions were transcribed and themes were extracted through consensus reached by the investigators. Results indicated that the interviewed staff lack of formal preparation or continuing education in gerontology or geriatrics. Needs identified were the following: the aging process, caring behaviors, management of common health conditions, administration of medications, transference and mobility of residents, among others. Finding were use to design an educational program aimed in assisting nursing home staff in providing an effective service to their geriatric patients.
Is patient-grouping on basis of condition on admission indicative for discharge destination in geriatric stroke patients after rehabilitation in skilled nursing facilities? The results of a cluster analysis
Background Geriatric stroke patients are generally frail, have an advanced age and co-morbidity. It is yet unclear whether specific groups of patients might benefit differently from structured multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs. Therefore, the aims of our study are 1) to determine relevant patient characteristics to distinguish groups of patients based on their admission scores in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and (2) to study the course of these particular patient-groups in relation to their discharge destination. Methods This is a longitudinal, multicenter, observational study. We collected data on patient characteristics, balance, walking ability, arm function, co-morbidity, activities of daily living (ADL), neuropsychiatric symptoms, and depressive complaints of 127 geriatric stroke patients admitted to skilled nursing facilities with specific units for geriatric rehabilitation after stroke. Results Cluster analyses revealed two groups: cluster 1 included patients in poor condition upon admission (n = 52), and cluster 2 included patients in fair/good condition upon admission (n = 75). Patients in both groups improved in balance, walking abilities, and arm function. Patients in cluster 1 also improved in ADL. Depressive complaints decreased significantly in patients in cluster 1 who were discharged to an independent- or assisted-living situation. Compared to 80% of the patients in cluster 2, a lower proportion (46%) of the patients in cluster 1 were discharged to an independent- or assisted-living situation. Conclusion Stroke patients referred for rehabilitation to SNFs could be clustered on the basis of their condition upon admission. Although patients in poor condition on admission were more likely to be referred to a facility for long-term care, this was certainly not the case in all patients. Almost half of them could be discharged to an independent or assisted living situation, which implied that also in patients in poor condition on
Cassel, C K
Departmental status for geriatrics offers many advantages, all of which are related to strengthening academic and clinical programs in aging. The training programs and the content of medical school curriculum in geriatrics remain inadequate under the current structures. A department of geriatrics can provide a stronger faculty base and allow effective interaction with other departments (including but not limited to internal medicine) that need geriatric training. A department of geriatrics also focuses on a model of care that involves working closely with other disciplines, such as nursing and social work. This interdisciplinary model helps expert providers work efficiently throughout the spectrum of care, strengthening continuity. The department can include other medical specialists, such as family practitioners, psychiatrists, and physiatrists, who work with caregivers and patients throughout a course of treatment to manage chronic illness and help maintain and enhance function and independence as long as possible. Comprehensive care and proper care management also substantially benefit institutions by expanding the patient population, reducing length of stay, and avoiding unnecessary hospitalization of older patients through effective discharge planning and transitional care. This requires strong relationships with long-term care providers, a characteristic strength of geriatricians. Although not all research in aging needs to be housed in a department of geriatric medicine, the presence of a critical mass of basic and clinical researchers creates an environment that can stimulate new initiatives and attract external funding. Additional research bridging basic translational and clinical phases relevant to the elderly population is best encouraged by maintaining relationships with other basic science and clinical departments.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Ching, Maria Ivana D.; Chiong, Edwin Mark L.; Chua, Charlene C.; Chua, Jason Eimer P.; Dumalasa, Michelle C.
Background: Registered nurses (RNs) with specific knowledge and skills in the care of the aged are an important component in the delivery of quality health-care (Venturato, Kellet, & Windsor, 2006). These nurses experience both fervors of being in service and labor that challenge them, but which contribute to their provision of quality health…
Hogan, David B.
Home visits have a long history in geriatrics. In this narrative review, the literature on home visits performed by specialists in geriatric medicine (or psychiatry) and/or specialized programs in geriatric medicine (or psychiatry) published between January 1988 and December 2008 was examined. The papers reviewed were few and inconsistent in their message. The lessons that can be derived from them are limited. Draft recommendations about the role of home visiting by specialized geriatric programs in Canada are presented. PMID:23251306
Nutritional problems and deficiencies are widespread in geriatric institutions. On the other hand, benefits of different interventions to improve the nutritional situation of elderly people--from amelioration of mealtime ambience to the use of artificial nutrition--have been shown in many studies. In recent years, several guidelines and standards have been developed to facilitate the transfer of this scientific knowledge into practice. These are in particular the medical Guidelines for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition in Geriatrics (DGEM/DGG and ESPEN), the DNQP Expert Standard for qualified nurses, the DGE Quality Standards for dietetic personnel, and the interdisciplinary BUKO-QS Standard. These guidelines and standards provide recommendations for adequate nutritional care and assistance for the institutionalized elderly person based on the scientific state of the art. They should be used as the basis for the development of local instructions for the management of nutritional problems and malnutrition. Elderly people will only profit, if these guidelines are used in daily routine.
Sipsma, D H
The method of social-geriatric examination is described. This type of examination by an ambulatory team takes place at the patient's home. The examination is firstly directed to the interactions in the human-environmental system. By means of a scheme as an aid the interactions can be analyzed. This analysis, how people are dealing with each other and with need for care and with care, precedes the analysis of the chain of interacting unfavourable conditions of social, mental and physical nature, which are responsible for the disturbance of the balance of the system. This disturbance is signaled by way of the primary health care system to the geriatric examination circuit of which the social-geriatric team functions as first receiver of those signals.
Goins, R. Turner; Gainor, Sara Jane; Pollard, Cecil; Spencer, S. Melinda
In a needs assessment of 84 rural health care professionals (44.1% physicians, 15.5% pharmacists, 14.3% nurses, 26.1% other), 39% considered their geriatrics knowledge above average. They were interested in learning more about Alzheimer's/dementia, medication use, and adverse effects. Preferred methods were videotapes, CD-ROM, and an…
Wong, Camilla L.; Al Atia, Raghda; McFarlan, Amanda; Lee, Holly Y.; Valiaveettil, Christina; Haas, Barbara
Background Proactive geriatric trauma consultation service (GTCS) models have been associated with better delivery of geriatric care and functional outcomes. Whether such collaborative models can be improved and sustained remains uncertain. We describe the sustainability and process improvements of an inpatient GTCS. Methods We assessed workflow using interviews and surveys to identify opportunities to optimize the referral process for the GTCS. Sustainability of the service was assessed via a prospective case series (July 2012–December 2013). Study data were derived from a review of the medical record and trauma registry database. Metrics to determine sustainability included volume of cases, staffing levels, rate of adherence to recommendations, geriatric-specific clinical outcomes, trauma quality indicators, consultation requests and discharge destination. Results Through process changes, we were able to ensure every eligible patient was referred for a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Compared with the implementation phase, volume of assessments increased and recommendation adherence rates were maintained. Delirium and/or dementia were the most common geriatric issue addressed. The rate of adherence to recommendations made by the GTCS team was 88.2%. Only 1.4% of patients were discharged to a nursing home. Conclusion Workflow assessment is a useful means to optimize the referral process for comprehensive geriatric assessment. Sustainability of a GTCS was shown by volume, staffing and recommendation adherence. PMID:27669402
Reviews recent histories of geriatrics which suggest that early physicians contributed to the degradation of old age by labeling it a disease. Records of the Boston Almshouse Hospital indicated that assessments of the elderly's morbidity were prompted as much by doctors' desires for self-advancement as by the elderly's needs. (JAC)
Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan
Geriatrics is a medical practice that addresses the complex needs of older patients and emphasizes maintaining functional independence even in the presence of chronic disease. Treatment of geriatric patients requires a different strategy and is very complex. Geriatric medicines aim to promote health by preventing and treating diseases and disabilities in older adults. Development of effective dietary interventions for promoting healthy aging is an active but challenging area of research because aging is associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, disability, and death. Aging populations are a global phenomenon. The most widespread conditions affecting older people are hypertension, congestive heart failure, dementia, osteoporosis, breathing problems, cataract, and diabetes to name a few. Decreased immunity is also partially responsible for the increased morbidity and mortality resulting from infectious agents in the elderly. Nutritional status is one of the chief variables that explains differences in both the incidence and pathology of infection. Elderly people are at increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies due to a variety of factors including social, physical, economic, and emotional obstacles to eating. Thus there is an urgent need to shift priorities to increase our attention on ways to prevent chronic illnesses associated with aging. Individually, people must put increased efforts into establishing healthy lifestyle practices, including consuming a more healthful diet. The present review thus focuses on the phytochemicals of nutraceutical importance for the geriatric population. PMID:26151003
Mason, W. Dean, Comp.
Written by experts in the field of geriatrics, this book is composed of a group of papers. Among the subjects covered in the papers are the news media, the values of the later years, the sciences and aging, and a history of the Home. Several of the articles are written by ministers connected with the religiously oriented facility. Additional…
Reviews the present status of geriatrics in academic medicine and suggests that an understanding of academic medicine is needed in order to secure the institutionalization of geriatric medicine. Offers some predictions on the future of geriatric medicine. (JAC)
Ramaswamy, Ravishankar; Leipzig, Rosanne M; Howe, Carol L; Sauvigne, Karen; Usiak, Craig; Soriano, Rainier P
The way students are taught and evaluated is changing, with greater emphasis on flexible, individualized, learner-centered education, including the use of technology. The goal of assessment is also shifting from what students know to how they perform in practice settings. Developing educational materials for teaching in these ways is time-consuming and can be expensive. The Portal of Geriatrics Online Education (POGOe) was developed to aid educators in meeting these needs and become quicker, better-prepared teachers of geriatrics. POGOe contains more than 950 geriatrics educational materials that faculty at 45% of allopathic and 7% of osteopathic U.S. medical schools and the Centers for Geriatric Nursing Excellence have created. These materials include various instructional and assessment methodologies, including virtual and standardized patients, games, tutorials, case-based teaching, self-directed learning, and traditional lectures. Materials with common goals and resource types are available as selected educational series. Learner assessments comprise approximately 10% of the educational materials. POGOe also includes libraries of videos, images, and questions extracted from its educational materials to encourage educators to repurpose content components to create new resources and to align their teaching better with their learners' needs. Web-Geriatric Education Modules, a peer-reviewed online modular curriculum for medical students, is a prime example of this repurposing. The existence of a robust compendium of instructional and assessment materials allows educators to concentrate more on improving learner performance in practice and not simply on knowledge acquisition. It also makes it easier for nongeriatricians to teach the care of older adults in their respective disciplines.
... comprehensive plans of care, of all participants in the program. (a) There must be at least one registered nurse on duty each day of operation of the adult day health care program. This nurse must be currently... that this nurse be a geriatric nurse practitioner or a clinical nurse specialist. (b) The number...
Campbell, L J; Cole, K D
In geriatric care, a form of teamwork is the recommended modality because of the complex biopsychosocial needs of the patient. The goal of geriatric assessment programs is to establish an intensive assessment of older adults which requires the competencies of several coordinated disciplines. Not only do teams have the capacity to assess patients in much greater depth but also patients share different information with different providers. The composition of the team is dictated by the needs of the patient population in accordance with resources available. Next, one must identify a method of team practice in order for interactions to take place. The method of functioning determines what kind of team it is, ranging from independent functioning with minimal formal interfacing to interdependent activity interspersed with formal and informal interactions. In initiating a geriatric assessment program, one needs to determine which tasks demand interdisciplinary collaboration, which require interdisciplinary consultation, and which can be performed using a matrix or extended team model. In this model, the core team is supplemented by other disciplines as determined by the team, predicated on patient problems. Teams can profit from training, which can help with choosing an appropriate model, establishing a manual of procedure, and managing interactive issues and problems. This can occur early in the team's formation, or when a team takes on new members. The minimal level of team development would include establishing program goals, delineating professional responsibilities and roles, and implementing a system for exchanging and documenting information about patient plans. Saving input to share only in team meeting is inefficient, so health care teams need to recognize the importance of informal interchanges. It is still a matter of conjecture about what team works best with which patients under what circumstances or conditions. Multiple randomized clinical trials with teams
Heppner, H J; Yapan, F; Wiedemann, A
Due to the demographic shift, increasing numbers of geriatric patients are admitted to acute care hospitals of all levels of care. This means that special challenges must be met in the medical care and management of these patients.Immunosenescence and multimorbidity make elderly patients vulnerable to infectious diseases. Urinary tract infections range from "simple" cystitis to pyelonephritis and urosepsis and, at 25%, are the second most common form of infection in geriatric patients. It is often difficult to make a diagnosis because typical symptoms do not always occur. Urosepsis, a hyperactive and uncontrolled immune response of the organism due to exogenous damage, is based on bacterial infection of the urogenital tract. Urinary retention, immunosuppressive medication, malignancy, diabetes mellitus and renal or prostatic processes promote the risk for urosepsis. Complicated urosepsis additionally comprises a structural or functional abnormality, including ureteral obstruction. Risk factors for urosepsis are urinary incontinence, an indwelling urinary catheter, hydronephrosis or ureteral calculi. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus are also at a higher risk for urosepsis. When diagnosing elderly patients, one has to consider that the classic symptoms can be masked by multimorbidity, or septic encephalopathy and acute confusion (delirium) may be the only symptoms. Body temperature is lower in elderly patients and does not necessarily rise to 38°C or more in the acute phase. In patients older than 75 years who are suspicious for sepsis, temperatures as low as 37.4°C should be rated as fever. Treatment of urosepsis basically includes clearing the focus, antimicrobial treatment, stabilisation of circulation and replacement of failed organ functions. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment, depending on local resistance, should be done with acylaminopenicilline and beta-lactamase inhibitors (e. g. piperacillin/combactam or tazobactam or group 3 cephalosporins
Ruiz, Jorge G; Teasdale, Thomas A; Hajjar, Ihab; Shaughnessy, Marianne; Mintzer, Michael J
This paper describes the activities of the Consortium of E-Learning in Geriatrics Instruction (CELGI), a group dedicated to creating, using, and evaluating e-learning to enhance geriatrics education. E-learning provides a relatively new approach to addressing geriatrics educators' concerns, such as the shortage of professionals trained to care for older people, overcrowded medical curricula, the move to transfer teaching venues to community settings, and the switch to competency-based education models. However, this innovative education technology is facing a number of challenges as its use and influence grow, including proof of effectiveness and efficiency. CELGI was created in response to these challenges, with the goal of facilitating the development and portability of e-learning materials for geriatrics educators. Members represent medical and nursing schools, the Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare system, long-term care facilities, and other institutions that rely on continuing streams of quality health education. CELGI concentrates on providing a coordinated approach to formulating and adapting specifications, standards, and guidelines; developing education and training in e-learning competencies; developing e-learning products; evaluating the effect of e-learning materials; and disseminating these materials. The vision of consortium members is that e-learning for geriatric education will become the benchmark for valid and successful e-learning throughout medical education.
Shah, Uday; Aung, Myo; Chan, Susanna; Wolfklein, Gisele
To evaluate whether formally trained geriatricians remain in the field of Geriatrics, and to determine their job satisfaction and perceived quality of life, we surveyed the 107 fellows trained over the last 25 years in one accredited geriatric program. Of the 88 physicians who consented to participate, 75% devoted at least half of their practice…
Diesfeldt, H F A
In 2008 the Dutch-language journal of gerontology and geriatrics goes into its 39th year of publication. Most of the scientific papers published by the Journal in 2007 serve a practical purpose. The Journal is oriented towards the scientific community of Dutch speaking geriatricians, nursing home physicians, psychologists, sociologists and other scientific professionals. Besides theory-driven empirical studies in gerontology and geriatrics, the Journal publishes comments and criticism on government policy on geriatric care and services for the elderly.
Beauvais, Audrey; Foito, Kim; Pearlin, Nina; Yost, Eileen
Relatively few nursing students choose to specialize in geriatric nursing. While increased clinical exposure and improved knowledge of the elderly have been proposed to manage this staffing dilemma, successful strategies have not been identified. This study examined nursing students' attitudes and knowledge about the elderly, before and after service learning experiences in Senior Citizen Centers. Through these interventions, students had significantly improved attitudes and knowledge about the elderly.
Sanford, Angela M; Orrell, Martin; Tolson, Debbie; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Arai, Hidenori; Bauer, Juergen M; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Dong, Birong; Ga, Hyuk; Goel, Ashish; Hajjar, Ramzi; Holmerova, Iva; Katz, Paul R; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Rolland, Yves; Visvanathan, Renuka; Woo, Jean; Morley, John E; Vellas, Bruno
There is much ambiguity regarding the term "nursing home" in the international literature. The definition of a nursing home and the type of assistance provided in a nursing home is quite varied by country. The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics and AMDA foundation developed a survey to assist with an international consensus on the definition of "nursing home."
Ganley, Barbara J; Sheets, Ingrid
This article describes one university's experience in creating a master's geriatric clinical nurse specialist-nurse educator program to address the nursing faculty shortage and the need for geriatric clinical nurse specialists. The successes and challenges are outlined, and curricular ideas that may be beneficial to other nursing programs also are presented. This program has enhanced the university's pool of clinical instructors, increased its ability to provide services to older adults, and allowed faculty to instruct and focus undergraduates in the distinctions of geriatric nursing care. The biggest challenges faced were marketing and recruitment of nurses; these challenges were addressed, and possible solutions are offered. The most immediate benefit of this program was the generation of geriatric clinical nurse specialists.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a significant difference in the following: (a) nurses' likelihood to remain in geriatrics between age groups (those over 40 years of age and those under 40 years of age); (b) nurses' likelihood to remain in geriatrics and personality traits; (c) nurses' likelihood to remain in geriatrics…
In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the 'smart-house' project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society.
Rosenbloom, Albert A.
Results of a survey of U.S. and Canadian optometry programs concerning curriculum design, clinical and residency training programs, continuing education, and research projects planned or under way in geriatric optometry are presented and discussed. (MSE)
Sennour, Youcef; Counsell, Steven R; Jones, Jerrlyn; Weiner, Michael
Acutely ill hospitalized older adults often experience a decline in function that may be preventable using a proactive, interdisciplinary, patient-centered approach. Hospitalists are treating an increasing number of these patients. A collaborative geriatrics consultation model to prevent functional decline and improve care for older patients with geriatrics syndromes was developed and implemented in partnership with a large hospitalist group in a community teaching hospital. A team of a geriatrician and a geriatrics nurse practitioner led the new consultation service. The team assisted with identifying cases, provided consultation early in the hospital stay, focused its evaluation on functional and psychosocial issues, and assisted in clinical management to optimize implementation of recommendations. In the first 4 years, the consultation service conducted 1,538 consultations in patients with a mean age of 81 (range 56-103). The most frequent geriatrics diagnoses were gait instability, delirium, and depression; recommendations usually included consulting physical therapy, increasing activity, and changing medications. The number of referrals and referring physicians grew steadily each year. Twenty-eight of 34 (82%) of the referring hospitalists completed a Web-based satisfaction questionnaire. All responding hospitalists agreed that proactive geriatrics consultation helped them provide better care; 96% rated the service as excellent. Analysis of hospital administrative data revealed a lower length of stay index and lower hospital costs in patients receiving a geriatrics consultation. The Proactive Geriatrics Consultation Service represents a promising model of collaboration between hospitalists and geriatricians for improving care of hospitalized older adults.
Hammond, Kenric W.; King, Carol A.; Date, Vishvanath V.; Prather, Robert J.; Loo, Lawrence; Siddiqui, Khwaja
GRAMPS (Geriatric Record and Multidisciplinary Planning System) is an interactive MUMPS system developed for VA outpatient use. It allows physicians to effectively document care in problem-oriented format with structured narrative and free text, eliminating handwritten input. We evaluated the system in a one-year controlled cohort study. When the computer, was used, appointment times averaged 8.2 minutes longer (32.6 vs. 24.4 minutes) compared to control visits with the same physicians. Computer use was associated with better quality of care as measured in the management of a common problem, hypertension, as well as decreased overall costs of care. When a faster computer was installed, data entry times improved, suggesting that slower processing had accounted for a substantial portion of the observed difference in appointment lengths. The GRAMPS system was well-accepted by providers. The modular design used in GRAMPS has been extended to medical-care applications in Nursing and Mental Health.
Weiss, Barry D; Fain, Mindy J
The world's population is aging and there is need for more geriatricians. Current training programs, however, are not producing a sufficient number of geriatricians to meet that need, largely because students and residents lack interest in a career in geriatrics. A variety of reasons have been suggested to explain that lack of interest, and several changes in geriatrics training might increase the number of medical trainees who choose a career in geriatrics. These changes include recruiting medical students who are predisposed to geriatrics, loan forgiveness programs for those who enter careers in geriatrics, increased reimbursement for geriatric care, providing geriatric education to physicians in all specialties throughout their training, and refocusing geriatrics training so it includes the care of healthy vigorous older adults, rather than an exclusive focus on those with debility and chronic or fatal illnesses.
Moshman, Jack; And Others
A survey of U.S. dental schools to determine the status of geriatric dentistry in the curriculum is discussed. Evidence of growing commitment is shown by deans who plan to give geriatric dentistry increasing priority in the future and by the fact that all schools now teach geriatric dentistry in some way. (MLW)
Katsoulis, Joannis; Huber, Sandra; Mericske-Stern, Regina
Dental undertreatment is often seen in the older population. This is particularly true for the elderly living in nursing homes and geriatric hospitals. The progression of chronic diseases results in loss of their independence. They rely on daily support and care due to physical or mental impairment. The visit of a dentist in private praxis becomes difficult or impossible and is a logistic problem. These elderly patients are often not aware of oral and dental problems or these are not addressed. The geriatric hospital Bern, Ziegler, has integrated dental care in the concept of physical rehabilitation of geriatric patients. A total of 139 patients received dental treatment in the years 2005/2006. Their mean age was 83 years, but the segment with > 85 years of age amounted to 46%. The general health examinations reveald multiple and complex disorders. The ASA classification (American Society of Anesthesiologists, Physical Status Classification System) was applied and resulted in 15% = P2 (mild systemic disease, no functional limitation), 47% = P3 (severe systemic disease, definite functional limitations) and 38% = P4 (severe systemic disease, constant threat to life). Eighty-seven of the patients exhibited 3 or more chronic diseases with a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, musculoskelettal disorders and dementia. Overall the differences between men and women were small, but broncho-pulmonary dieseases were significantly more frequent in women, while men were more often diagnosed with dementia and depression. Verbal communication was limited or not possible with 60% of the patients due to cognitive impairment or aphasia after a stroke. Although the objective treatment need is high, providing dentistry for frail and geriatric patients is characterized by risks due to poor general health conditions, difficulties in communication, limitations in feasibility and lack of adequate aftercare. In order to prevent the problem of undertreatment, elderly independently living
Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz; Holmes, Holly M.; Shahrokni, Armin
The world is experiencing aging of its population. Age-specific incidence rates of cancer are higher and cancer is now recognized as a part of aging. Treating older patients can be challenging. The clinical behavior of some tumors changes with age and the aging process itself brings physiological changes leading to decline in the function of organs. It is essential to identify those patients with longer life expectancy, potentially more likely to benefit from aggressive treatment vs. those that are more vulnerable to adverse outcomes. A primary determination when considering therapy for an older cancer patient is a patient’s physiologic, rather than chronologic age. In order to differentiate amongst patients of the same age, it is useful to determine if a patient is fit or frail. Frail older adults have multiple chronic conditions and difficulties maintaining independence. They may be more vulnerable to therapy toxicities, and may not have substantial lasting benefits from therapy. Geriatric assessment (GA) may be used as a tool to determine reversible deficits and devise treatment strategies to mitigate such deficits. GA is also used in treatment decision making by clinicians, helping to risk stratify patients prior to potentially high-risk therapy. An important practical aspect of GA is the feasibility of incorporating it into a busy oncology practice. Key considerations in performing the GA include: available resources, patient population, GA tools to use, and who will be responsible for using the GA results and develop care plans. Challenges in implementing GA in clinical practice will be discussed. PMID:26779363
Gálvez, Verònica; Ho, Kerrie-Anne; Alonzo, Angelo; Martin, Donel; George, Duncan; Loo, Colleen K
Depression is frequent in old age and its prognosis is poorer than in younger populations. The use of pharmacological treatments in geriatric depression is limited by specific pharmacodynamic age-related factors that can diminish tolerability and increase the risk of drug interactions. The possibility of modulating cerebral activity using brain stimulation techniques could result in treating geriatric depression more effectively while reducing systemic side effects and medication interactions. This may subsequently improve treatment adherence and overall prognosis in the older patient. Among clinically available neuromodulatory techniques, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) remains the gold standard for the treatment of severe depression in the elderly. Studies have proven that ECT is more effective and has a faster onset of action than antidepressants in the treatment of severe, unipolar, geriatric depression and that older age is a predictor of rapid ECT response and remission. The application of novel and more tolerable forms of ECT for geriatric depression is currently being examined. Preliminary results suggest that right unilateral ultrabrief ECT (RUL-UB ECT) is a promising intervention, with similar efficacy to brief-pulse ECT and fewer adverse cognitive effects. Overall findings in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) suggest that it is a safe intervention in geriatric depression. Higher rTMS stimulation intensity and more treatments may need to be given in the elderly to achieve optimal results. There is no specific data on vagus nerve stimulation in the elderly. Transcranial direct current stimulation, magnetic seizure therapy and deep brain stimulation are currently experimental, and more data from geriatric samples is needed.
Fitzgerald, James T.; Williams, Brent C.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Remington, Tami L.; Foulk, Mariko A.; Persky, Neal W.; Shay, Barbara R.
This study examines the impact of an interdisciplinary training program on knowledge and attitudes of learners from four health care programs: medicine, pharmacy, social work, and nursing. Sixty-two learners participated in a 4-day educational program (one day each week for 4 weeks) focusing on interdisciplinary geriatric care. After completing…
Summary: Background and Aims: Research dealing with occupational strain and burnout in geriatric care is generally focused on the behavioral problems of the patient and/or the psychological traits or attitudes of the carers rather than on organizational functionality. This paper describes data from a survey of all geriatric professions, using the Stressful Events Questionnaire (SEQ), a tool that takes into account multiple dimensions that can affect the genesis of burnout, including the patient, the geriatric health care professional, and the health care organization. The aim of this study is to compare patterns of answers among different roles in geriatric care. Method: Patterns of SEQ answers are described for the entire sample as well as for workers experiencing burnout and for each caring profession investigated: certified nursing assistants (CNAs), registered nurses and physicians/psychologists. Results; In general, carers refer more often as stressful the facility-related events; the only exception is that CNAs working in general hospital geriatric wards refer most often as stressful the patient-related events. The self-related events area seems to have a great importance for all professions. Discussion: The specificity of gerontological burnout has to be discussed, to better define the role played by caring problems, including psychological attitudes of carers versus the role played by the institution and by the social situation of each worker. For CNAs, the interaction between educational background and the length of time spent as a CNA seems to be a critical topic. PMID:20835358
Tan, Zaldy S.; Mulhausen, Paul L.; Smith, Stephen R.; Ruiz, Jorge G.
The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators…
... participate in AAGP's annual meeting. I really enjoyed learning about geriatric psychiatry as well as meeting such a warm and caring group of doctors and students. I could see that a lot of work went into the scholars program and I am ...
Verma, Satya B.
The curriculum design, philosophy, and innovation of four programs in geriatric optometry are described: the Pennsylvania College of Optometry and the colleges of Optometry at the State University of New York, University of Alabama at Birmingham, and University of Houston. (MSE)
About 10 % of community dwelling elderly people are chronically consuming benzodiazepines. This proportion rises to 30 % in nursing homes or hospitals. Particularly in older patients, this usage leads to a higher risk of adverse drug reactions. Exposure contributes to delirium and falls with subsequent femoral neck fractures. The WHO has classified the risk potential of the new z-drugs to be the same as that associated with benzodiazepines. It is recommended that benzodiazepines should be discontinued step by step under supervision of a doctor or the dosage should be reduced.
Fringer, André; Huth, Martina; Hantikainen, Virpi
In geriatric care, movement support skills of nurses are often limited, resulting in unnecessary functional decline of older adult residents and physical strain of nurses. Kinaesthetics training aims to improve movement competences of nurses and residents. The aim of this qualitative descriptive study is to describe nursing teams' experience with…
Nelson, Frank W.
Designed for training supervisors in nursing centers, this publication presents three units of study: (1) getting along with people in nursing centers, (2) supervision in nursing centers, and (3) communication in nursing centers. Each unit contains five types of material on separate, removable sheets: (1) sheets with unit objectives and suggested…
Geriatric nurse practitioners should be educated in the evaluation and treatment of common geriatric syndromes like urinary incontinence. However, many advanced-practice nursing programs do not place an educational emphasis on urinary incontinence management. The purpose of this project is to provide information that supports the need for…
Lynch, Mary Pat; Marcone, Dana; Kagan, Sarah H
Cancer is a disease of older adults, and with unprecedented growth in the number of people entering late adulthood, an increasing need exists for specialized services and programs to address the needs of older adults with cancer. Few examples in the literature detail development of a geriatric oncology program. This article describes a pilot project undertaken by a community cancer center to develop a specialized program for older adults with cancer by identifying local demographics and population needs. It also describes a replicable plan for the development of a geriatric oncology program, which demonstrates how nursing can benefit from collaboration with other disciplines such as social work and psychology in service provision.
Van Cleave, Janet H; Szanton, Sarah L; Shillam, Casey; Rose, Karen; Rao, Aditi D; Perez, Adriana; O'Connor, Melissa; Walker, Rachel; Buron, Bill; Boltz, Marie; Bellot, Jennifer; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa
In 2000, the John A. Hartford Foundation established the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program initiative, acknowledging nursing's key role in the care of the growing population of older adults. This program has supported 249 nurse scientists with pre- and postdoctoral awards. As a result of the program's success, several Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program awardees formed an alumni organization to continue to advance the quality care of older adults. This group of Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Program awardees joined others receiving support from the John A. Hartford Foundation nursing initiatives to grow a formal organization, the Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL). The purpose of this article is to present the development, accomplishments, and challenges of the HGNL, informing other professional nursing organizations that are experiencing similar accomplishments and challenges. This article also demonstrates the power of a funding initiative to grow an organization dedicated to impact gerontological health and health care through research, practice, education, and policy.
Lowder, M Q; Mueller, P O
The dental management of geriatric horses can be a rewarding challenge to the practitioner. Owners become dissatisfied when their expectations are unrealistic. Consequently, communication between the owner and the practitioner is essential prior to the start of any dental procedure in a geriatric horse. Owners often expect the practitioner to correct what has been neglected for years. It is critical that the owner understand the possible complications associated with dental procedures and that some procedures (e.g., trephination) may necessitate protracted care. Often, when a tooth has been removed, there is a need for more frequent masticatory examinations to curtail any potential problems (i.e., development of step mouth). The owner needs to be aware of the extra dental maintenance costs that must be included in the upkeep of the horse.
Pain is frequent in communicative or no-communicative, ambulatory, institutionalized or hospitalized veterans. It is associated with severe comorbidity so much more than chronic pain could be neglected and expressed of atypical manner or masked by the absence of classical symptoms in particular in case of dementia or of sensory disorders. Pain detection by clinic examination or by pain assessment's methods and adequate approach by pharmacological and non pharmacological therapies are essential for correct pain management. On pharmacological plan, the strategy of the O.M.S. landings is applicable owing to a more particular attention to secondary effects and drugs interactions. AINS must be manipulated with prudence. There are no reasons to exclude opioides from the therapeutic arsenal but with a reduction of the starting doses, a regular adaptation and a very attentive survey. In drugs of landing 2, tramadol reveals itself as efficient and better tolerated as the codeine and dextropropoxyphene has to be to avoid. The obtaining of a satisfactory result depends on a regular assessment of the pain in a context of polydisciplinar approach (physicians, nurses, paramedicals, other care givers).
Longhurst, Mark F.; Slade, Debra
The family doctor cares for many geriatric patients. Many of these patients enter the family practice for the first time, having either recently moved to the area or to a nearby long-term care facility. Obtaining a meaningful patient profile is essential to the physicians' care, allowing future medical decisions to be made in the best interest of that person. Patients' beliefs motivate their functioning in a system. Any system has its own history, structure, and function. PMID:21234029
Coumé, Mamadou; Touré, Kamadore; Faye, Atoumane; Moreira, Therese Diop
Senegal is dealing positively with its demographic transition. On September 1st 2006, the Senegalese government introduced the "Plan Sesame", a national free health care program for elderly people aged 60 years and over. The University of Dakar academic authorities support the Sesame plan through an innovative training program in geriatrics and gerontology. Such programs aim to address the challenge of ageing in a developing country.
Goldsmith, Joy; Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Rodriguez, Dariela; Sanchez-Reilly, Sandra
Despite the development and implementation of team training models in geriatrics and palliative care, little attention has been paid to the nature and process of teamwork. Geriatrics and palliative care in the clinical setting offer an interdisciplinary approach structured to meet the comprehensive needs of a patient and his or her family. Fellowship members of an interdisciplinary geriatric and palliative care team participated in semistructured interviews. Team members represented social work, chaplaincy, psychology, nursing, and medicine. A functional narrative analysis revealed four themes: voice of the lifeworld, caregiver teamwork, alone on a team, and storying disciplinary communication. The content-ordering function of narratives revealed a divergence in team members' conceptualization of teamwork and team effectiveness, and group ordering of narratives documented the collaborative nature of teams. The study findings demonstrate the potential for narratives as a pedagogical tool in team training, highlighting the benefits of reflective practice for improving teamwork and sustainability.
This study assesses how effective classroom sessions are at teaching geriatric competencies to medical students. At Stony Brook Medical School, most geriatric competencies are taught in the Ambulatory Care Clerkship during small-group educational sessions. Clinical exposure to reinforce these specialized skills varies with preceptor assignment. A student's ability to perform geriatric assessments was evaluated by scores on an Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) with a geriatric patient. Scores from students who received additional clinical practice of these skills were compared with scores from students who did not. No significant difference in OSCE scores were seen between the two groups.
Acute hospital has to have a good community relationship because of looking for a services and settings after discharge for elderly patients. In particular, physicians should have good relations with other physicians, visiting nurses, and care managers, because elderly patients had to go to facilities or nursing homes instead of their own homes. We must obtain information concerning care services and build networks between hospitals and the community in order to provide good services. To enable this we established a good discharge support team. We also have to educate the staff and care managers to take good care of patients. A comprehensive geriatrics and team approach is important for geriatric medicine in the community through care conference. So geriatricians must take part in care conferences and take a leadership role in networks for people with care needs. Finally our national center for geriatrics and gerontology has to take a role of the future achievement in geriatric field and provide information related research and clinical activity for the elderly.
Meyers, Barnett S; Jeste, Dilip V
The development of geriatric psychopharmacology was built on advances in geriatric psychiatry nosology and clinical pharmacology and on increased investment in aging research by the National Institute of Mental Health and by academic institutions. Application of the US Food and Drug Administration's geriatric labeling rule provided further impetus. Developments in the knowledge about 3 principal classes of medications (antidepressants, antipsychotics, and treatments for Alzheimer's disease) illustrate the trajectory of geriatric psychopharmacology research. Nonetheless, the loss of information about age effects that has resulted from applying age exclusion criteria in studies limited to either younger adults or geriatric patients is regrettable. Antidepressant trials have moved from studying younger and medically well "geriatric" samples to focusing on "older old" persons and those with significant medical comorbidity including coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and dementia. Increased specificity is reflected in studies of relationships between specific neuropsychological deficits, specific brain abnormalities, and antidepressant responsiveness. Clinical trials in older adults have demonstrated that the efficacy of antipsychotic medications continues across the lifespan, but that sensitivity to specific side effects changes in older age, with poor tolerability frequently mitigating the benefits of treatment. Treatments for Alzheimer's disease have fallen within the purview of geriatric psychopharmacology. The research focus is increasingly shifting from treatments to slow the course of cognitive decline to studies of early diagnosis and of interventions designed to prevent the development of deficits in vulnerable individuals. The importance of geriatric psychopharmacology will grow further as the average lifespan increases all over the world.
Saunders, Ralph H.; Yellowitz, Janet A.; Dolan, Teresa A.; Smith, Barbara J.
A survey of 46 United States and Canadian dental schools examined curriculum trends and assessed the effectiveness of educational initiatives and the value of American Association of Dental Schools and Administration on Aging geriatric dental curricular materials. An increasing number reported geriatric didactic courses, clinical rotations, and…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Geriatric parole. 2.78 Section 2.78 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... Geriatric parole. (a) Upon receipt of a report from the institution in which the prisoner is confined that...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Geriatric parole. 2.78 Section 2.78 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... Geriatric parole. (a) Upon receipt of a report from the institution in which the prisoner is confined that...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Geriatric parole. 2.78 Section 2.78 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS... Geriatric parole. (a) Upon receipt of a report from the institution in which the prisoner is confined that...
Kohlenberg, Eileen; Kennedy-Malone, Laurie; Crane, Patricia; Letvak, Susan
The inclusion of gerontology content in the nursing curriculum is paramount as our population of older adults grows. As one of 10 recipients of the John A. Hartford Foundation/AACN awards for Enhancing Gerontological and Geriatric Nursing Education for Advanced Practice Nursing Programs, we successfully integrated gerontological/ geriatric content throughout core courses for all concentrations taught at the master's level. The Nurse Practitioner and Clinical Nurse Specialist Competencies for Older Adult Care were used as a guide to integrate gerontological nursing content across the core courses. We present examples of content, strategies, and evaluation methods that demonstrate infusion of gerontology in a nursing theory course, research course, and healthcare law and policy course. Twenty-two of the competencies are addressed in these core courses and provide a foundation for further development in the support and specialty courses for the nurse practitioner, clinical nurse specialist, nursing administrator, nurse educator, and nurse anesthetist. We also present helpful Web-based resources for older adult care.
Singler, K; Goisser, S; Volkert, D
The prevalence of malnutrition or the risk of malnourishment is high among orthogeriatric patients and a poor nutritional status is associated with a negative outcome. A comprehensive management of preoperative and postoperative nutritional and fluid intake in these patients can help to improve the situation. The management includes identification of patients affected, a thorough assessment of the nutritional status, work-up of possible underlying causes, documentation of nutritional and fluid intake and, most importantly, procedures to improve the preoperative and postoperative nutritional situation. This article gives an overview of the recently updated recommendations on nutritional management in orthogeriatric patients as published by the orthogeriatric working group of the German Geriatric Society.
Hunt, Robert J
There are few diseases that instill a comparable sense of doom in the mind of a treating veterinarian as laminitis. There is a feeling of cautious optimism when a horse with laminitis responds favorably to treatment. Although this optimism all too often proves false when treating laminitic patients, management of the patient afflicted with chronic laminitis can be rewarding. Through diligent and careful client communication and instruction, many geriatric patients with chronic laminitis can be maintained for years as comfortable companions, for light riding use, or as productive breeding animals.
Burgio, Louis D.; Burgio, Kathryn L.
Asserts that, if long-term care is to progress from custodial model to therapeutic model of rehabilitation, role of nursing assistants must be redesigned. Reviews current methods of institutional staff training and management and proposes model for geriatric, long-term care facilities. Discusses organizational resistance and offers suggestions for…
Background Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. Methods The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain. Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database). Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p < 0.01, two-tailed) and a difference of at least 5 points in mean values were defined as the relevant threshold. Results In total 889 respondents from 36 institutions took part in the study. 412 worked in Home Care (HC), 313 in Geriatric Nursing Homes (GNH), 164 in other professions (e.g. administration). Comparison between HC and GNH showed more favourable values for the first group for the most scales, e.g. lower quantitative and emotional demands and less work-privacy conflict, better possibilities for development etc. Compared to external values from the German COPSOQ database for general hospital care (N = 1.195) and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168), the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the
Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.
Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…
Maust, Ann Parker
Most nurses employed in nursing homes today have little or no training in geriatrics and the special needs of the chronically ill patient. Community colleges can play a vital role in upgrading presently employed personnel and in producing a supply of trained manpower to meet the future projected demand. (DC)
Duckett, Ashley; Cuoco, Theresa; Pride, Pamela; Wiley, Kathy; Iverson, Patty J; Marsden, Justin; Moran, William; Caton, Cathryn
Geriatric education is a required component of internal medicine training. Work hour rules and hectic schedules have challenged residency training programs to develop and utilize innovative teaching methods. In this study, the authors examined the use of academic detailing as a teaching intervention in their residents' clinic and on the general medicine inpatient wards to improve clinical knowledge and skills in geriatric care. The authors found that this teaching method enables efficient, directed education without disrupting patient care. We were able to show improvements in medical knowledge as well as self-efficacy across multiple geriatric topics.
A number of RNs provide both direct care and leadership in geriatric-care facilities. In this specialized area of care, the contributions of the RN are not well recognized. In this issue, we focus on gerontological nursing and how NIC can be used to describe and communicate this highly specialized role.
Madeo, Jennifer; Li, Zhenhong; Frieri, Marianne
Asthma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Despite the rising incidence of asthma in people >65 years of age, the diagnosis is frequently missed in this population. Factors that contribute to this include respiratory changes caused by aging, immunosenescence, lack of symptoms, polypharmacy, clinician unawareness, and lack of evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management that target this population. This literature review addresses the current state of research in this area. Age-related changes influence the pathophysiology and role of allergy in elderly asthmatic patients. Specific obstacles encountered in caring for these patients are discussed. Asthma in the elderly and younger population are compared. We conclude with a broad set of goals to guide future management driven by a multidiscipline approach.
T.S. Eliot once proposed that there were two sorts of problems in life. One prompted the question, 'What are we going to do about it?' and the other provoked the questions, 'What does it mean? How does one relate to it?' Geriatric medicine, an eminently practical specialty, has concentrated with good effect on the former but with notable exceptions has yet to devote significant time to the latter. Into this breach has developed an innovative and exciting movement in gerontology to provide a deeper and more comprehensive insight into the meaning of ageing. Largely encompassed by the terms of cultural, humanistic and narrative gerontology, their intent and methodologies in many ways mirror the relationship between the medical humanities, narrative medicine and medicine.
Nicita-Mauro, V; Maltese, G; Nicita-Mauro, C; Basile, G
Advancing age is associated with changes in structure and function of different segments of the vascular system and is the dominant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The oxidative stress represents a key event of vascular aging, mainly characterized by endothelium dysfunction and reduced arterial elasticity. Age-related changes include intimal and medial thickening, arterial calcification, increased deposition of matrix substances, thus leading to a reduced compliance and increased wall stiffness, that significantly contributes to an increase in systolic blood pressure. Frail elderly patients, because of their complex clinical presentations and needs, require a special approach: the comprehensive geriatric assessment, a multidimensional process intended to determine medical, psychosocial and functional capabilities and problems in order to develop a plan for treatment and continued care. All physicians, and geriatricians in particular, must, therefore, educate their patients to healthy lifestyle to prevent or delay vascular aging, cardiovascular diseases, and to maintain a good quality of life and increase life expectancy.
Miller, Sally; Overstreet, Maria
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, patients age 65 and older account for 43% of hospital days. The complexity of caring for older adults affords nursing students opportunities to assess, prioritize, intervene, advocate, and experience being a member of an interdisciplinary health care team. However, these multifaceted hospital experiences are not consistently available for all students. Nursing clinical simulation (NCS) can augment or replace specific clinical hours and provide clinically relevant experiences to practice management and leadership skills while caring for older adults. This article describes a geriatric management and leadership NCS.
Palliative care and geriatrics share many ideas and concepts: both intend to imporve quality of life, both focus on more than the physical domain, and both work in a multiprofessional team. More and more the elderly person attracts notice by palliative care. In multimorbid geriatric patients intentions to cure and to care go alongside sometimes over years in a fragile equilibrium and with uncertain prognosis. Therefore principals of palliative care and geriatrics meet at its best in these patients: improving function plays a major role in any symptom management; how to deal with cognitively impaired patients can be learned from geriatrics; various approaches from curative, palliative and rehabilitative often go hand in hand; decision making is a permanent and sophisticated task in all patients due to prognosis and multimorbidity.
Robbins, Alan S.; Beck, John C.
Performance objectives, core content, training experiences, and clinical exposure and program evaluations are described for geriatric fellows and house staff members in internal medicine, family practice, neurology, and psychiatry. A modified Delphi study was used. (Author/MLW)
Terret, C; Droz, J-P
Geriatric oncology is the concept for management of elderly cancer patients. It is an equal approach of the health status problems and of cancer in a patient considered as a whole. Therefore it is not a subspecialty but a practice which can be translated in the elderly cancer patient's care. The treatment of cancer is based on the same principles than this of younger patients; recommendations used are those of the scientific oncological societies. Health problems of elderly patients are screened by specific tools. Patients without major health problems are managed by the oncological team in the routine; those for whom screening have demonstrated problems are first evaluated in the geriatrics setting and then oncological decisions are adapted to the patient situation. Decisions are made in specific geriatric oncology conferences. Specific clinical trials are required to build an Evidence Based Medicine background. Geriatric oncology teaching programs are warranted.
Rosenbloom, Albert A.
A model for a geriatric optometry curriculum that defines key content areas and addresses the values essential for effective practice and basic therapeutic modalities used in treatment regimens with older adults is outlined. (MSE)
Okeson, J P; Phillips, B A; Berry, D T; Cook, Y; Paesani, D; Galante, J
Thirty healthy geriatric subjects were studied during a single night of sleep in a sleep laboratory. Unilateral masseter muscle activity was recorded in addition to the standard polysomnographic study. The geriatric subjects in this study exhibited fewer bruxing events than other subjects reported in the literature. Certain conditions that have not been previously investigated, such as sleep position, type of bruxing event, and relationship to the state of the dentition, are reported.
Nguyen, Annie L.; Duthie, Elizabeth A.; Denson, Kathryn M.; Franco, Jose; Duthie, Edmund H.
Medical schools must consider innovative ways to ensure that graduates are prepared to care for the aging population. One way is to offer a geriatrics clerkship as an option for the fulfillment of a medical school's internal medicine rotation requirement. The authors' purpose was to evaluate the geriatrics clerkship's impact on internal medicine…
Pati, Soumyaranjan; Panda, S. K.; Acharya, A. P.; Senapati, S.; Behera, M.; Behera, S. S.
Aim: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart of different breeds was followed. The external characteristics such as hair coat texture, dental wear and tear, skin texture and glaucoma were taken as a marker of old age. Haematology, serum biochemistry and urine analysis were also included in the study. Results: External visible changes like greying of hair, dull appearance of hair coat, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, dental wear and tear were commonly encountered in the aged dogs. The haemoglobin, total erythrocyte count and packed cell volume showed a decreasing trend in the geriatric groups. Biochemical values like total protein, albumin, calcium level showed a decreasing trend while urea level with an increasing trend in geriatric dogs without any much alteration in serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminse, serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase, cholesterol and creatinine. Physical examination of urine revealed yellow, amber, red, deep red color with turbidity and higher specific gravity. Chemical examination revealed presence of protein, glucose, ketone bodies, blood and bilirubin on some cases. The culture and sensitivity test of the urine samples revealed presence of bacteria with sensitive and resistance to some antibiotics. Conclusion: External visible changes are still the golden standard of determining the old age in dogs. Haemato-biochemical evaluation can be useful for correlating with the pathophysiological status of the animal. Biochemical analysis of urine can be employed rightly as kidney dysfunction is being major
Medina-Walpole, Annette; Fonzi, Judith; Katz, Paul R
Career development is rarely formalized in the curricula of geriatric fellowship programs, and the training of new generations of academic leaders is challenging in the 1 year of fellowship training. To effectively prepare fellows for academic leadership, the University of Rochester's Division of Geriatrics, in collaboration with the Warner School of Graduate Education, created a yearlong course to achieve excellence in teaching and career development during the 1-year geriatric fellowship. Nine interdisciplinary geriatric medicine, dentistry, and psychiatry fellows completed the course in its initial year (2005/06). As participants, fellows gained the knowledge and experience to successfully develop and implement educational initiatives in various formats. Fellows acquired teaching and leadership skills necessary to succeed as clinician-educators in an academic setting and to communicate effectively with patients, families, and colleagues. Fellows completed a series of individual and group education projects, including academic portfolio development, curriculum vitae revision, abstract submission and poster presentation at national meetings, lay lecture series development, and geriatric grand rounds presentation. One hundred percent of fellows reported that the course positively affected their career development, with six of nine fellows choosing academic careers. The course provided opportunities to teach and assess all six of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies. This academic career development course was intended to prepare geriatric fellows as the next generation of academic leaders as clinician-teacher-scholars. It could set a new standard for academic development during fellowship training and provide a model for national dissemination in other geriatric and subspecialty fellowship programs.
Hempenius, Liesbeth; Slaets, Joris P. J.; van Asselt, Dieneke; de Bock, Truuske H.; Wiggers, Theo; van Leeuwen, Barbara L.
Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects after discharge of a hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention to prevent postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients treated with an elective surgical procedure for a solid tumour. In addition, the effect of a postoperative delirium on long term outcomes was examined. Methods A three month follow-up was performed in participants of the Liaison Intervention in Frail Elderly study, a multicentre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients were randomized to standard treatment or a geriatric liaison intervention. The intervention consisted of a preoperative geriatric consultation, an individual treatment plan targeted at risk factors for delirium and daily visits by a geriatric nurse during the hospital stay. The long term outcomes included: mortality, rehospitalisation, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) functioning, return to the independent pre-operative living situation, use of supportive care, cognitive functioning and health related quality of life. Results Data of 260 patients (intervention n = 127, Control n = 133) were analysed. There were no differences between the intervention group and usual-care group for any of the outcomes three months after discharge. The presence of postoperative delirium was associated with: an increased risk of decline in ADL functioning (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.02–6.88), an increased use of supportive assistance (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.02–5.87) and a decreased chance to return to the independent preoperative living situation (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07–0.49). Conclusions A hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention for the prevention of postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients undergoing elective surgery for a solid tumour did not improve outcomes 3 months after discharge from hospital. The negative effect of a postoperative delirium on late outcome was confirmed. Trial Registration Nederlands Trial Register, Trial ID NTR 823
Blundell, Adrian; Gordon, Adam; Gladman, John; Masud, Tahir
There has been recent international concern that the teaching of geriatrics may be in decline. Research has suggested that support for geriatrics in national undergraduate curricula is the key to effective delivery of teaching in the specialty. We set out to determine the geriatric medicine content in the U.K. generic curriculum, reviewing this in…
Clark, Elizabeth; Fitzgerald, James T.; Griffith, Jennifer; Weir, Charlene
Current geriatrics workforce projections indicate that clinicians who care for adults will need basic geriatrics knowledge and skills to address the geriatric syndromes and issues that limit functional independence and complicate medical management. This is most evident for the clinicians caring for veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs…
Puvill, Thomas; Lindenberg, Jolanda; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Craen, Anton J M; Slaets, Joris P J; Westendorp, Rudi G J
Self-rated health is routinely used in research and practise among general populations. Older people, however, seem to change their health perceptions. To accurately understand these changed perceptions we therefore need to study the correlates of older people's self-ratings. We examined self-rated, nurse-rated and physician-rated health's association with common disabilities in older people (the geriatric giants), mortality hazard and life satisfaction. For this, we used an age-representative population of 501 participant aged 85 from a middle-sized city in the Netherlands: the Leiden 85-plus Study. Participants with severe cognitive dysfunction were excluded. Participants themselves provided health ratings, as well as a visiting physician and a research nurse. Visual acuity, hearing loss, mobility, stability, urinal and faecal incontinence, cognitive function and mood (depressive symptoms) were included as geriatric giants. Participants provided a score for life satisfaction and were followed up for vital status. Concordance of self-rated health with physician-rated (k = .3 [.0]) and nurse-rated health (k = .2 [.0]) was low. All three ratings were associated with the geriatric giants except for hearing loss (all p < 0.001). Associations were equal in strength, except for depressive symptoms, which showed a stronger association with self-rated health (.8 [.1] versus .4 [.1]). Self-rated health predicted mortality less well than the other ratings. Self-rated health related stronger to life satisfaction than physician's and nurse's ratings. We conclude that professionals' health ratings are more reflective of physical health whereas self-rated health reflects more the older person's mental health, but all three health ratings are useful in research.
Ugboma, Ike; Syddall, Holly E; Cox, Vanessa; Cooper, Cyrus; Briggs, Roger; Sayer, Avan Aihie
High quality coding of hospital activity is important because the data is used for resource allocation and measuring performance. There is little information on the quality of coding of admissions of frail older people who have multiple diagnoses, co-morbidities and functional impairment. Presence or absence of four geriatric syndromes and eight medical conditions was noted on case note review (CNR). Discharge summaries (DS) and hospital coding (HC) were reviewed and compared with the CNR. Forty patients had at least one geriatric syndrome noted in the DS; 16 (40.0%) were captured by the HC. Of 57 patients with at least one medical condition noted in the DS, 52 (91.2%) were captured by the HC (p<0.0001 for difference in HC capture rates). We have demonstrated poor capture of information on geriatric syndromes compared to medical conditions in discharge summaries and hospital coding and propose a problem list bookmark approach to improve this. PMID:22003315
Ugboma, Ike; Syddall, Holly E; Cox, Vanessa; Cooper, Cyrus; Briggs, Roger; Sayer, Avan Aihie
High quality coding of hospital activity is important because the data is used for resource allocation and measuring performance. There is little information on the quality of coding of admissions of frail older people who have multiple diagnoses, co-morbidities and functional impairment. Presence or absence of four geriatric syndromes and eight medical conditions was noted on case note review (CNR). Discharge summaries (DS) and hospital coding (HC) were reviewed and compared with the CNR. Forty patients had at least one geriatric syndrome noted in the DS; 16 (40.0%) were captured by the HC. Of 57 patients with at least one medical condition noted in the DS, 52 (91.2%) were captured by the HC (p<0.0001 for difference in HC capture rates). We have demonstrated poor capture of information on geriatric syndromes compared to medical conditions in discharge summaries and hospital coding and propose a problem list bookmark approach to improve this.
Thielke, Stephen; Tumosa, Nina; Lindenfeld, Rivkah; Shay, Kenneth
The scope of geriatrics-related educational offerings in large health care systems, in either the target audiences or topics covered, has not previously been analyzed or reported in the professional literature. The authors reviewed the geriatrics-related educational sessions that were provided between 1999 and 2009 by the Geriatrics Research, Education, and Clinical Centers (GRECCs) and the Employee Education System (EES) of the United States' largest integrated health care system, the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using records of attendance and content at local training events and regional and national conferences, the authors estimated the number of attendees in different health disciplines and the number and types of lectures. During the past 11 years, GRECCs and EES provided geriatric-related educational sessions to about one third of a million attendees, most of them nurses and physicians, in about 15,000 lectures. About three-fourths of the educational events occurred through local, rather than regional or national, events. Lectures covered a wide variety of topics, with a particular emphasis on dementia and other mental health topics. A comparison of the number of potential learners in VHA with the number of geriatric-related educational presentations over this time period yields an average of one offering per VHA provider every 3 years; most providers likely never received any. Since 1999 the GRECCs have been the dominant source for geriatrics-related education for VHA health professionals, but given that about one half of VHA patients are older than age 65, there is still a large unmet need to provide geriatric education to VHA providers. Examination of the GRECC resources that have been put to use in the past to develop and deliver the face-to-face education experiences described sheds light on the magnitude of resources that might be required to address remaining unmet need in the future, and supports the prediction that there will need to be
González Hernández, Alina; Cuyá Lantigua, Magdalena; González Escudero, Hilda; Sánchez Gutiérrez, Ramón; Cortina Martínez, Rafael; Barreto Penié, Jesús; Santana Porbén, Sergio; Rojas Pérez, Alberto
The undernutrition rates observed in Cuban elders surveyed in three different geriatric scenarios: Community: coastal town of Cojímar (City of Havana); Geriatrics Service ("Hermanos Ameijeiras" Hospital, City of Havana); and Nursery Home (city of Cárdenas, province of Matanzas) by means of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) of the Elderly are presented. Undernutrition rates were 2.7% among elders surveyed in the coastal community of Cojímar, but increased to become 91.6% among those admitted to the hospital Geriatrics Service, and 95.3% for those institutionalized in the Nursery Home, respectively. The occurrence of undernutrition can be low among elders living freely in the community, but it might affect a vast number of those seeking medical assistance at the public health institutions. Extent of undernutrition among elders in geriatric assistance scenarios should lead to the adoption of the required measures for early identification, and timely treatment, of this health problem.
Bardach, Shoshana H.; Rowles, Graham D.
Purpose: Relative to the overall population, older adults consume a disproportionally large percentage of health care resources. Despite advocacy and efforts initiated more than 30 years ago, the number of providers with specialized training in geriatrics is still not commensurate with the growing population of older adults. This contribution provides a contemporary update on the status of geriatric education and explores how geriatric coverage is valued, how geriatric competence is defined, and how students are evaluated for geriatric competencies. Design and Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with curriculum representatives from 7 health profession disciplines in a case study of one academic medical center. Findings: Geriatric training varies across health professions’ disciplines. Although participants recognized the unique needs of older patients and valued geriatric coverage, they identified shortage of time in packed curricula, lack of geriatrics-trained educators, absence of financial incentive, and low student demand (resulting from limited exposure to older adults and gerontological stereotyping) as barriers to improving geriatric training. Implications: Progress in including geriatric training within curricula across the health professions continues to lag behind need as a result of the continuing presence of barriers identified several decades ago. There remains an urgent need for institutional commitment to enhance geriatric education as a component of health professions curricula. PMID:22394495
Although in geriatrics we are better than many other clinical disciplines in terms of providing interdisciplinary care to older adults, I hope that we will continue to recognize how much more could actually be done. Before addressing the relationship between advanced practice nurses (APNs) and consultant pharmacists in real world settings, I want to review teamwork in geriatrics in general. It is critical to define what we mean by team, what type of team, and what the goals are of this teamwork.
Blanchette, Patricia Lanoie; And Others
This issue includes 18 theme articles that examine clinical care, conditions, and practice as they relate to older adults. It contains articles on the following: men's and women's health, depression, dementia, hypertension, incontinence, bone pain, infections, preventive medicine, geriatric medicine, health care delivery, managed care, long-term…
Strain, G M; Rosado Martinez, A J; McGee, K A; McMillan, C L
Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were taken from 28 geriatric dogs aged 12.2 ± 2.2 years and 15 control dogs aged 5.9 ± 3.0 years (mean ± standard deviation) to demonstrate frequency-specific changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies of 2-12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made from geriatric dogs for comparison with DPOAE responses. Significant decreases in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at frequencies of 6-12 kHz in geriatric dogs compared to control dogs, reflecting loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. Significant decreases in response amplitudes were not seen at frequencies of 2 or 4 kHz. Decreases in BAER response amplitudes subjectively paralleled the depressed DPOAE amplitudes. No significant linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude vs. age despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss. The reductions in response at all frequencies starting at the age where dogs are considered geriatric indicate that age-related hearing loss begins earlier in the life span. DPOAE recordings provide a means to assess cochlear function across different portions of the auditory spectrum for assessing hearing loss associated with aging, and potentially for losses from other causes of decreased auditory function.
Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Health Professions.
This directory contains information on the nature and availability of curriculum guidelines for education and training programs in geriatrics and gerontology. The curriculum guidelines or model curricula were prepared by professional associations or with federal support, most notably through the Administration on Aging or the Health Resources and…
Pereles, Laurie R.M.; Boyle, Neil G.H.
Because of their increased incidence of illness and disability, geriatric patients require extra time and diligence to assess and track medical problems. This article describes a comprehensive geriatirc assessment, organized on a one-page, easily updated checklist, that can be used to generate a medical and functional problem list and a risk assessment. Imagesp2190-a PMID:21229091
Mancil, Gary L.; And Others
A survey of chief academic officers and faculty (n=27) in 16 schools of optometry found that, since 1986, there has been a 75% increase in institutions requiring coursework in geriatric optometry and an 83% increase in those offering continuing professional education in this field. However, 67% of faculty report no formal training. Three faculty…
Eschbach, Daphne; Bliemel, Christopher; Oberkircher, Ludwig; Aigner, Rene; Hack, Juliana; Bockmann, Benjamin; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Buecking, Benjamin
Purpose. Incidence of geriatric fractures is increasing. Knowledge of outcome data for hip-fracture patients undergoing intensive-care unit (ICU) treatment, including invasive ventilatory management (IVM) and hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), is sparse. Methods. Single-center prospective observational study including 402 geriatric hip-fracture patients. Age, gender, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, and the Barthel index (BI) were documented. Underlying reasons for prolonged ICU stay were registered, as well as assessed procedures like IVM and CVVHDF. Outcome parameters were in-hospital, 6-month, and 1-year mortality and need for nursing care. Results. 15% were treated > 3 days and 68% < 3 days in ICU. Both cohorts had similar ASA, BI, and age. In-hospital, 6-month, and 12-month mortality of ICU > 3d cohort were significantly increased (p = 0.001). Most frequent indications were cardiocirculatory pathology followed by respiratory failure, renal impairment, and infection. 18% of patients needed CVVHDF and 41% IVM. In these cohorts, 6-month mortality ranged > 80% and 12-month mortality > 90%. 100% needed nursing care after 6 and 12 months. Conclusions. ICU treatment > 3 days showed considerable difference in mortality and nursing care needed after 6 and 12 months. Particularly, patients requiring CVVHDF or IVM had disastrous long-term results. Our study may add one further element in complex decision making serving this vulnerable patient cohort. PMID:26881228
Dreher, H Michael; Cornelius, Fran; Draper, Judy; Pitkar, Harshad; Manco, Janet; Song, Il-Yeol
Phase I of our Gerontological Reasoning Informatics Project (GRIP) began in the summer of 2002 when all 37 senior undergraduate nursing students in our accelerated BSN nursing program were given PDAs. These students were oriented to use a digitalized geriatric nursing assessment tool embedded into their PDA in a variety of geriatric clinical agencies. This informatics project was developed to make geriatric nursing more technology oriented and focused on seven modules of geriatric assessment: intellect (I), nutrition (N), self-concept (S), physical activity (P), interpersonal functioning (I), restful sleep (R), and elimination (E)--INSPIRE. Through phase II and now phase III, the GRIP Project has become a major collaboration between the College of Nursing & Health Professions and College of Information Science and Technology at Drexel University. The digitalized geriatric nursing health assessment tool has undergone a second round of reliability and validity testing and is now used to conduct a 20 minute comprehensive geriatric health assessment on the PDA, making our undergraduate gerontology course the most high tech clinical course in our nursing curriculum.
de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth
Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice.
Benyahia, Amina; Abraham, Éliane
Backup territorial coordination provides accompaniment and support for professionals who work with the fragile elderly people in an area. It aligns the sanitary, medical-social and social approaches, and mobilizes useful resources to optimize the treatment pathway. It has been implemented in the Nancy urban area by an operational team including nurses and a geriatric physician.
Geriatric therapy is defined through interdisciplinarity, teamwork, and multiprofessionality. Besides questions of medical therapy, psychosocial dimensions of elderly are highly relevant. Social work is mostly described as an important profession in the process of geriatric therapy. This work refers to the presentation and discussion of the results of an interdisciplinary study to the role of social work in German geriatric hospitals. It shows that the role of social work is determined by the various perceptions of the professions. Another influence on it is by the structures of the hospital. Social workers defines their activities through the relationship to the client; the other professions recognize the tasks of social work in a very diffusely way, mostly reduced in connection with the management of dismission of the patient from hospital. The professional education of social workers is not well known by the nurses and doctors. The fact that social workers are mostly acting under the responsibility of doctors, leads to a definition of problems and aims from a medical point of view. In many of the hospitals there are distinct problems of communication and cooperation between the professions. If the profession of social workers wants to contribute to the reduction of these impediments of communication and cooperation, they must actively and constructively communicate with the other professions and become more clear about their own professional way of acting.
Education Foundation. The Geriatric Risk Assessment MedGuide™ (GRAM™) software19 specifically alerts prescribers and nursing facility staff to...developed and delivered inservice programs for nursing staff of the 13 facilities that received the intervention as part of the AHRQ-funded study. The in...Research and Education Foundation who have encouraged innovations in the delivery of quality pharmaceutical care to nursing home residents. Author
Wildiers, Hans; Heeren, Pieter; Puts, Martine; Topinkova, Eva; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L.G.; Extermann, Martine; Falandry, Claire; Artz, Andrew; Brain, Etienne; Colloca, Giuseppe; Flamaing, Johan; Karnakis, Theodora; Kenis, Cindy; Audisio, Riccardo A.; Mohile, Supriya; Repetto, Lazzaro; Van Leeuwen, Barbara; Milisen, Koen; Hurria, Arti
Purpose To update the International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) 2005 recommendations on geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with cancer. Methods SIOG composed a panel with expertise in geriatric oncology to develop consensus statements after literature review of key evidence on the following topics: rationale for performing GA; findings from a GA performed in geriatric oncology patients; ability of GA to predict oncology treatment–related complications; association between GA findings and overall survival (OS); impact of GA findings on oncology treatment decisions; composition of a GA, including domains and tools; and methods for implementing GA in clinical care. Results GA can be valuable in oncology practice for following reasons: detection of impairment not identified in routine history or physical examination, ability to predict severe treatment-related toxicity, ability to predict OS in a variety of tumors and treatment settings, and ability to influence treatment choice and intensity. The panel recommended that the following domains be evaluated in a GA: functional status, comorbidity, cognition, mental health status, fatigue, social status and support, nutrition, and presence of geriatric syndromes. Although several combinations of tools and various models are available for implementation of GA in oncology practice, the expert panel could not endorse one over another. Conclusion There is mounting data regarding the utility of GA in oncology practice; however, additional research is needed to continue to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:25071125
Objective To evaluate using an Internet-based social networking site within an elective geriatric pharmacotherapy course. Design Thirty pharmacy students enrolled in a geriatric pharmacotherapy elective course were invited to join a closed Facebook (Facebook Inc, Palo Alto, CA) group to enhance communication among students and faculty members within the course. Creating a discussion board was the primary activity in the course. Each week, 3 students were assigned to post a healthy aging topic, and other students in the class were expected to post their comments and reactions. The healthy aging topics also were discussed during class. Assessment Students wrote reflections about their experiences using Facebook for the activities within this course. A survey instrument also measured students' opinions about using Facebook for educational purposes. Conclusion Using Facebook allowed students to discuss topics more openly and encouraged classroom discussions of healthy aging topics. PMID:21179256
Beale, Brian S
Senior dogs and cats with orthopedic injuries and diseases often require a treatment plan that differs from that of younger patients. Injured bone and soft tissues tend to heal more slowly in the geriatric patient. The older animal is likely to have a less competent immune system and may have compromised metabolic and endocrine function. Pre-existing musculoskeletal problems may make ambulation difficult for an animal convalescing from a new orthopedic problem. Special attention is often needed when treating these patients for fractures, joint instability, infection, and neoplasia. In general, issues that should be addressed in the geriatric patient include reducing intraoperative and anesthesia time, enhancing bone and soft tissue healing, return to early function, control of postoperative pain, physical therapy, and proper nutrition.
Weaver, Donald F.; Purdy, R. Allan
The “geriatric headache” may be a unique clinical ailment. A change in a chronic headache pattern or a new onset headache should raise suspicion immediately in an elderly patient. Temporal arteritis occurs almost exclusively in the elderly population. Because of its grave prognosis and ease of treatment, this condition should always be considered a possibility in the elderly patient with headache. A throbbing non-migranous headache may indicate an impending cerebrovascular event. Other causes of headache, such as mass lesions (tumours, subdural hematomas), drugs (nitrates, estrogens) and depression, take on greater significance in the elderly. While migraine and cluster headaches are more common in young adults, they may begin in older persons; indeed, transient migraine accompaniments are “TIA mimics”. The authors hope that this overview of the “geriatric headache” will facilitate early recognition of this ailment which often leads to diagnostic confusion. PMID:20469461
Schenning, Katie J.; Deiner, Stacie G.
SYNOPSIS Postoperative delirium, a common complication in older surgical patients, is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Patients over the age of 65 years receive greater than 1/3 of the over 40 million anesthetics delivered yearly in the United States. This number is expected to increase with the aging of the population. Thus, it is increasingly important that perioperative clinicians who care for geriatric patients have an understanding of the complex syndrome of postoperative delirium. PMID:26315635
Development of Czech gerontology and geriatrics can be associated with the Prague gerontology, namely with the First Faculty of Medicine (formally the Faculty of General Medicine). Prague school of gerontology was established. The decisive events related to the subject are described. Paper is based on the already published information on the history of the specialization and on the personal memorials of personal observers in the last fifty years. Reflections on the origin and establishment of a new medical specialization conclude the paper.
Preston, Stephen D; Southall, Ashley RD; Nel, Mark; Das, Saroj K
Summary Maintaining life span and quality of life remains a valid aim of surgery in elderly people. Surgery can be an effective way of restoring both length and quality of life to older people. Minimally invasive techniques and surgery under local anaesthesia make fewer demands on geriatric physiology; given that co-morbidity is a stronger predictor of outcome from surgery than age, this is a significant consideration. PMID:18687864
Rosner, Mitchell; Abdel-Rahman, Emaad; Williams, Mark E
Changing demographics of the global population predict that the number of people age 65 years or greater will triple over the coming decades. Because the incidence and prevalence of kidney disease increase with advancing age, nephrologists will be increasingly confronted with a population of patients who are elderly and have a large number of comorbid conditions requiring ongoing care. Furthermore, it is increasingly understood that aging leads to its own unique aspects of nephrologic diagnosis and treatment. Although it is known that elderly patients constitute a group with special needs and present unique challenges to the nephrologist, traditional nephrology fellowship training has not included a focus on the geriatric population. In response to this need for greater education and awareness, the American Society of Nephrology has initiated a program of educational activities in geriatric nephrology and has chartered a specific advisory council. The priority being given to geriatric nephrology is a hopeful sign that issues such as treatment options, the efficacy of treatments, and their effect on quality of life for the elderly patient with kidney disease will be improved in the coming years.
Adelman, Ronald D; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E; Ehrlich, Amy R; Greene, Michele G; Greenberg, Debra F; Raik, Barrie L; Raymond, Joshua J; Clabby, John F; Fields, Suzanne D; Breznay, Jennifer B
Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area collaboratively created the New York Metropolitan Area Consortium to Strengthen Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships in 2007 to address this shortfall. The goal of the Consortium is to develop model educational programs for geriatrics fellows that highlight psychosocial issues affecting elder care, share interinstitutional resources, and energize fellowship program directors and faculty. In 2008, 2009, and 2010, Consortium faculty collaboratively designed and implemented a psychosocial educational conference for geriatrics fellows. Cumulative participation at the conferences included 146 geriatrics fellows from 20 academic institutions taught by interdisciplinary Consortium faculty. Formal evaluations from the participants indicated that the conference: a) positively affected fellows' knowledge of, interest in, and comfort with psychosocial issues; b) would have a positive impact on the quality of care provided to older patients; and c) encouraged valuable interactions with fellows and faculty from other institutions. The Consortium, as an educational model for psychosocial learning, has a positive impact on geriatrics fellowship training and may be replicable in other localities.
Kukreja, Deepti; Günther, Ulf; Popp, Julius
Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition seen relatively commonly in people aged 65 yr or older. The prevalence is estimated to be between 11 and 42 per cent for elderly patients on medical wards. The prevalence is also high in nursing homes and long term care (LTC) facilities. The consequences of delirium could be significant such as an increase in mortality in the hospital, long-term cognitive decline, loss of autonomy and increased risk to be institutionalized. Despite being a common condition, it remains under-recognised, poorly understood and not adequately managed. Advanced age and dementia are the most important risk factors. Pain, dehydration, infections, stroke and metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Delirium is preventable in a large proportion of cases and therefore, it is also important from a public health perspective for interventions to reduce further complications and the substantial costs associated with these. Since the aetiology is, in most cases, multifactorial, it is important to consider a multi-component approach to management, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. Detection and treatment of triggering causes must have high priority in case of delirium. The aim of this review is to highlight the importance of delirium in the elderly population, given the increasing numbers of ageing people as well as increasing geriatric age.
THE RISKS OF EPIDEMICS IN INSTITUTIONAL SETTINGS: An epidemic must be suspected when an increase in the number of cases of a same type of infection is observed. Numerous microorganisms are responsible for epidemics in geriatric facilities: viruses, bacteria and parasites. In the case of an epidemic, a certain number of specific measures must be taken in order to prevent the transmission of infection and eradicate the epidemic. IN THE CASE OF INFLUENZA: Other than the vaccination of elderly institutional residents, that of the nursing staff appears essential. If a severe epidemic occurs, specific antivirals can be used, three of which are already available. IN THE CASE OF PNEUMOCOCCI: Examples of epidemics of pneumococcal infections in elderly institutional residents in the United States underlines the interest of pneumococcal vaccines, particularly since the strain responsible corresponded to a serotype contained in the 23 valence vaccine. WITH REGARD TO SCABIES: All the patients and all the staff must be treated on the same day and at the same time their clothing and bed linen. All persons in contact with the patient, the families and friends of the staff, their clothes and the environement must be treated.
McCleary, Lynn; McGilton, Katherine; Boscart, Veronique; Oudshoorn, Abram
Across practice settings, most nursing care is provided to older adults. Yet most nurses receive limited education to care for older adults, especially those with complex needs. A Knowledge Exchange Institute for Geriatric Nursing Education brought together 31 Canadian nursing faculty members and nursing doctoral students and provided them with tools and resources to enhance teaching and curriculum in baccalaureate nursing programs. Guided by the Knowledge-to-Action Process model, participants received usable summaries of the best research evidence about care for older adults and tools to increase the likelihood of successful integration of these resources in their teaching and curriculum. Feedback from participants indicates that their personal goals and the goals of the Knowledge Exchange were met. Through a public interactive wiki, participants and others will continue the process of knowledge exchange to improve nursing education and nursing care for older persons.
Lee, Sang Heon; Suh, Jungyo; Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Sang Rim; Kim, Khae Hawn
Purpose We aimed to investigate the current management status of urologic diseases in geriatric hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods Questionnaire surveys and in-depth person-to-person interviews were conducted at 13 hospitals within the Seoul and Incheon areas. Results The study was carried out from July to December 2014; 75.6% of patients (1,858/2,458) and 77.5% (779/1,031) of medical personnel responded to our survey. All surveys and interviews were performed by urology specialists, fellows, residents, or nurses. The hospitals included in the study had an average of 215.2 beds (range, 110–367), 189.1 patients (range, 90–345), and 40.2 nurses (range, 10–83). The average number of physicians was 6.2 (range, 3–11), but none of these were certified urologists. Only 4 hospitals provided consultation services for urological disorders. In total, 64% of patients had urological disorders, although only 20.7% of patients were receiving medication. Most patients were being treated using urological interventions; diapers (49.7%), indwelling catheters (19.5%), clean intermittent catheters (12.2%), and external collection urinary drainage (7.9%). However, most interventions were inadequately implemented, and only 17% of the patients had been examined by a certified urologist. Urological complications were found in 20.2% of patients, and secondary complications occurred in 18.8%. Excluding redundant cases, the total prevalence of urological complications was 39.0%. Conclusions Urologic diseases are poorly managed, and no certified urologists work in geriatric hospitals. Therefore, more designated urologists are needed in geriatric hospitals. PMID:28097271
Hogan, D B; Fox, R A
Attempts to prove the usefulness of geriatric consultation teams (GCT) in acute-care settings have been inconclusive. We have completed a prospective, controlled trial of a GCT in an acute-care setting, aiming our interventions at a specific subgroup of elderly patients. One hundred and thirty-two out of 352 (37.5%) patients met the inclusion criteria with 66 each being assigned to the intervention and the control groups. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the two groups. Patients in the intervention group received follow-up after discharge from hospital by the geriatric service. We found that the intervention was associated with improved 6-month survival (p less than 0.01), improved Barthel Index at 1 year (p less than 0.01), and a trend towards decreased reliance on institutional care (hospital or nursing home) during the year of follow-up. The benefits occurred principally in patients who were discharged to a nursing home. Our findings support the utility of GCT and highlight the importance of focusing the intervention and providing follow-up after discharge from hospital.
Kerber, Cindy Sullivan; Dyck, Mary J; Culp, Kennith R; Buckwalter, Kathleen
Under-diagnosis and under-treatment of depression are major problems in nursing home residents. The purpose of this study was to determine antidepressant use among nursing home residents who were diagnosed with depression using three different methods: (1) the Geriatric Depression Scale, (2) Minimum Data Set, and (3) primary care provider assessments. As one would expect, the odds of being treated with an antidepressant were about eight times higher for those diagnosed as depressed by the primary care provider compared to the Geriatric Depression Scale or the Minimum Data Set. Men were less likely to be diagnosed and treated with antidepressants by their primary care provider than women. Depression detected by nurses through the Minimum Data Set was treated at a lower rate with antidepressants, which generates issues related to interprofessional communication, nursing staff communication, and the need for geropsychiatric role models in nursing homes.
Rivera, Veronica; Yukawa, Michi; Aronson, Louise; Widera, Eric
The entire healthcare workforce needs to be educated to better care for older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fellows are being trained to teach, to assess the attitudes of fellowship directors toward training fellows to be teachers, and to understand how to facilitate this type of training for fellows. A nine-question survey adapted from a 2001 survey issued to residency program directors inquiring about residents-as-teachers curricula was developed and administered. The survey was issued electronically and sent out three times over a 6-week period. Of 144 ACGME-accredited geriatric fellowship directors from geriatric, internal medicine, and family medicine departments who were e-mailed the survey, 101 (70%) responded; 75% had an academic affiliation, 15% had a community affiliation, and 10% did not report. Academic and community programs required their fellows to teach, but just 55% of academic and 29% of community programs offered teaching skills instruction as part of their fellowship curriculum; 67% of academic programs and 79% of community programs felt that their fellows would benefit from more teaching skill instruction. Program directors listed fellow (39%) and faculty (46%) time constraints as obstacles to creation and implementation of a teaching curriculum. The majority of fellowship directors believe that it is important for geriatric fellows to become competent educators, but only approximately half of programs currently provide formal instruction in teaching skills. A reproducible, accessible curriculum on teaching to teach that includes a rigorous evaluation component should be created for geriatrics fellowship programs.
This article describes the situation of academic study programs in gerontology and geriatrics in Austria. University formation in these areas is at the very beginning. Due to the lack of institutionalization of gerontology and geriatrics at the university level, the study programs were developed by non-university institutions. The studies are mostly at the post-gradual level and are practice-oriented.
McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.
This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…
Damron-Rodriguez, Joann; Lawrance, Frances P; Barnett, Diane; Simmons, June
Preparing social workers to effectively practice with the growing older population requires the identification of geriatric competencies for the profession. The John A. Hartford Geriatric Social Work Initiative provided the impetus and direction for a national strategy to improve the quality of preparation of geriatric social workers. The Geriatric Social Work Practicum Partnership Program (PPP) is the project with the Hartford Initiative that emphasizes field education. The Geriatric Social Work Education Consortium (GSWEC), one of the PPP programs, initiated the development of competencies for work with older adults. GSWEC utilized Geriatric Social Work White Papers and the pioneering work of the Council on Social Work Education's (CSWE) Strengthening Aging and Gerontology Education for Social Work's (SAGE-SW) comprehensive competency list as well as conducted focus groups locally to delineate key competencies for field education. The Coordinating Center for the PPP, located at the New York Academy of Medicine, led in collaboratively developing knowledge based skill competencies for geriatric social work across all 6 demonstration sites (11 universities). The competencies adopted across sites include skills in the following five major domains: values and ethics; assessment (individuals and families, aging services, programs and policies); practice and interventions (theory and knowledge in practice, individual and family, aging services, programs and practice) interdisciplinary collaboration; and evaluation and research. The identified competencies have proven effective in evaluating students (n = 190) pre- and post PPP field education. The implications for further development of competency driven education for geriatric social work are discussed.
Brown, Stanley P.; And Others
This article discusses the relevance of fitness programing for an aging population and provides parameters for a geriatric fitness program. Emphasized are physical activity as a preventive measure against age-related illness and management of a geriatric fitness program. (IAH)
Kates, Stephen L
Geriatric hip fracture is a common event associated with high costs of care and often with suboptimal outcomes for the patients. Ideally, a new care model to manage geriatric hip fractures would address both quality and safety of patient care as well as the need for reduced costs of care. The geriatric fracture center model of care is one such model reported to improve both outcomes and quality of care. It is a lean business model applied to medicine. This article describes basic lean business concepts applied to geriatric fracture care and information needed to successfully implement a geriatric fracture center. It is written to assist physicians and surgeons in their efforts to implement an improved care model for their patients.
Roush, Robert E.; And Others
This final report describes a Texas educational improvement project designed to: (1) increase the amount of geriatric content in the curricula of community college associate degree nursing (ADN) programs; (2) further the development of baccalaureate nursing faculty in a Historically Black College/University (HBCU); and (3) facilitate other Texas…
Mezey, Mathy D.; Mitty, Ethel L.; Burger, Sarah Green
To meet the special needs of and provide quality health care to nursing home residents, the health care workforce must be knowledgeable about the aging process. Health professionals are minimally prepared in their academic programs to care for older adults, and few programs have required rotations in geriatrics. Teaching nursing homes (TNHs) have…
Boltz, Marie; Parke, Belinda; Shuluk, Joseph; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Galvin, James E.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe nurses' views of the issues to be addressed to improve care of the older adult in the emergency department (ED). Design and Methods: An exploratory content analysis examined the qualitative responses of 527 registered nurses from 49U.S. hospitals who completed the Geriatric Institutional Profile.…
Franklin, Ruth H.
As part of a Geriatric Education and Health Management program, a model nurse-managed free clinic has been established at an urban senior center by faculty and students of the University of New Mexico College of Nursing. Funded by a 3-year grant from the Department of Health and Human Services, the weekly clinic is based on Orem's self-care theory…
Dias, N; Santos, C; Portela, M; Lima, N
Onychomycosis is a common fungal infection of the nail but few data of mycological features in geriatric Portuguese population are yet available. The aim of this study was to perform a mycological examination and characterization of fungal nail pattern of a geriatric population from the north of Portugal clinically suspected of onychomycosis. A total of 108 patients attending the Podology Service in the Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave (Portugal) from October 2007 to January 2009 were enrolled. All were suspected of having onychomycosis by the abnormal appearance of their nails. From these, 59.3% were diabetic. Distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis was the more common clinical pattern followed by total dystrophic onychomycosis. In 21.3% cases, every nail in both feet had an abnormal appearance. In 86%, the hallux was involved in at least one foot. Fifty samples were culture positive, and fifty-four isolates were reported regardless of the questionable pathogenicity of the infectious agent. In three cases, clinical feature of the nail, direct microscopy, and culture were consistent with Scopulariopsis infection. Fusarium spp. were identified in three cases; however, only one isolate was preceded by the observation of branching septate filaments by direct microscopy. No mixed infections with dermatophytes were reported. Trichophyton rubrum was the dermatophyte most frequently isolated (83.3%) followed by Trichophyton interdigitale. In Portugal, onychomycosis is still viewed by general population as a cosmetic condition. Health risk is enhanced in geriatrics that only perceived the severity of their condition when experiencing further foot complications that include bacterial infection and pain.
Martin-Vaquero, Paula; Moore, Sarah A; Wolk, Kendra E; Oglesbee, Michael J
An 11-year-old castrated male domestic medium hair cat was presented with neurological signs consistent with a right thalamocortical lesion. Computed tomography (CT) images revealed a heterogeneously, hyperattenuating, poorly contrast enhancing intra-axial mass within the right lateral ventricle. The histological diagnosis at post-mortem examination was vascular hamartoma with hemorrhage and necrosis. This is the first report of a vascular hamartoma affecting the thalamocortex in a geriatric cat. Also, this is the first time that CT images of a feline cerebral vascular hamartoma have been reported. PMID:21277244
Michel, J P; Loew, F; Brennenstuhl, P; Zelger, G; Courvoisier, B
The high frequency of infections in the elderly, at home as well as in institutions, raises the question of the place antibiotic therapy should occupy. Too often, unfortunately, antibiotic therapy is prescribed indiscriminately in cases of infection. Between therapeutic abstention and overtreatment there is room for a more rational and adapted medical decision which is the outcome of a clinical process integrating a rigorous biomedical approach, taking due account of the environment, the functionality and the quality of life of the elderly patient. The importance of human, ecological, pharmacological and economic constraints should lead to deeper consideration of the appropriateness of antibiotic therapy in geriatric practice.
Berg, S; Svensson, T
An assessment scale consisting of 10 questions was constructed from an initial 20 questions. The scale encompassed orientation to time, place and person and was intended for geriatric patients and patients suffering from psychogeriatric disorders who had been institutionalized for at least 14 days. The reliability according to the Kuder-Richardson formula number KR20 was 0.83 and the test-retest reliability was 0.84. The scale differentiated between patients with senile dementia and/or cerebral arteriosclerosis and patients without such disorders.
Hajjar, Ihab M.; Ruiz, Jorge G.; Teasdale, Thomas A.; Mintzer, Michael J.
In order to characterize use of the Internet in medical geriatrics education programs, 130 medical education programs in the U.S. that train medical students, interns, residents, fellows and practicing physicians were asked to complete a survey developed by the Consortium of E-Learning in Geriatrics Instruction (CELGI). Sixty-eight programs…
Somme, D; Lazarovici, C; Dramé, M; Blanc, P; Lang, P O; Gauvain, J B; Voisin, T; Gonthier, R; De Wazières, B; Jeandel, C; Couturier, P; Blanchard, F; Saint-Jean, O
We studied the factors influencing the choice of admission to Geriatrics units, instead of other acute hospital units after an emergency visit. We report the results from a cohort of 1283 randomly selected patients aged >75 years hospitalized in emergency and representative of the French University hospital system. All patients underwent geriatric assessment. Baseline characteristics of patients admitted to Geriatrics and other units were compared. A center effect influencing the use of Geriatrics units during emergencies was also investigated. Admission to a Geriatrics unit during the acute care episode occurred in 499 cases (40.3%). By multivariate analysis, 4 factors were related to admission to a Geriatrics unit: cognitive disorder: odds ratio (OR)=1.79 (1.38-2.32) (95% confidence interval=95% CI); "failure to thrive" syndrome OR=1.54 (1.01-2.35), depression: OR=1.42 (1.12-1.83) or loss of Activities of Daily Living (ADL): OR=1.35 (1.04-1.75). The emergency volume of the hospital was inversely related to the use of Geriatrics units, with high variation that could be explained by other unstudied factors. In the French University Emergency Healthcare system, the "geriatrics patient" is defined by the existence of cognitive disorder, psychological symptoms or installed loss of autonomy. Nevertheless, considerable nation-wide variation was observed underlining the need to clarify and reinforce this discipline in the emergency healthcare system.
Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M
In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications.
Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.
In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications. PMID:24381461
O’Brien, Jeremy; Baerlocher, Mark O.; Asch, Murray; Myers, Andy
Abstract OBJECTIVE To present family physicians with the options available for diagnosing and treating a selection of common diseases in the elderly using diagnostic and interventional radiology. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Articles providing level I or II evidence were included in our review. Most articles presented results from randomized or other case-controlled studies. MAIN MESSAGE Geriatric care has become a complicated, multidisciplinary effort, with the family physician often leading the team. The expanding cohort of patients is not only better informed than their predecessors, but also more demanding of better care through cutting-edge technology and treatment. Specifically, the role of radiology has expanded quickly in geriatric medicine. Because of complex clinical presentations and rising costs, it is essential for primary care physicians to understand the appropriate use of imaging and radiological intervention. CONCLUSION There are a number of new and innovative radiological techniques and procedures available for elderly patients. This review aims to inform primary care physicians of a selected number of these techniques. PMID:19155363
Chan, W M; Woo, J; Hui, E; Hjelm, N M
A residential nursing home in Hong Kong was linked to the community geriatric assessment team based in a regional hospital using videoconferencing equipment operating at 384 kbit/s. The feasibility of providing nursing services and their acceptability to users were evaluated over 12 months. There were 198 occupants of the nursing home and their mean age was 82 years (range 60-101). Services included patient education regarding the use of a metered dose inhaler, wound management and a falls prevention programme, together with assessment of clients' need for infirmary care and the risk of aspiration. The acceptability of the system to the clients and nursing home staff was also assessed. It was found that 89% of such services could be carried out via telemedicine, and only 11% required on-site visits. There was an increase in the proportion of patients correctly using inhalers as well as a reduction in the number of falls. More consultations were conducted by the nurse (an increase of 76% per month) and an additional 8.4 patients per month could be attended to by the nurse compared with 5 patients when on-site visits were used. Acceptability to clients and nursing home staff was good. The problem of lack of resources to support elderly residential care institutions makes service delivery via telemedicine appear economically attractive, as well as facilitating improvements in the quality of long-term care.
Greene, Meredith; Covinsky, Kenneth E.; Valcour, Victor; Miao, Yinghui; Madamba, Joy; Lampiris, Harry; Cenzer, Irena Stijacic; Martin, Jeffrey; Deeks, Steven G.
Background Geriatric syndromes such as falls, frailty, and functional impairment are multifactorial conditions used to identify vulnerable older adults. Limited data exists on these conditions in older HIV-infected adults and no studies have comprehensively examined these conditions. Methods Geriatric syndromes including falls, urinary incontinence, functional impairment, frailty, sensory impairment, depression and cognitive impairment were measured in a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults age 50 and older who had an undetectable viral load on antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined both HIV and non-HIV related predictors of geriatric syndromes including sociodemographics, number of co-morbidities and non-antiretroviral medications, and HIV specific variables in multivariate analyses. Results We studied 155 participants with a median age of 57 (IQR 54-62); (94%) were men. Pre-frailty (56%), difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (46%), and cognitive impairment (47%) were the most frequent geriatric syndromes. Lower CD4 nadir (IRR 1.16, 95% CI 1.06-1.26), non-white race (IRR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.74), and increasing number of comorbidities (IRR 1.09, 95%CI 1.03-1.15) were associated with increased risk of having more geriatric syndromes. Conclusions Geriatric syndromes are common in older HIV infected adults. Treatment of comorbidities and early initiation of ART may help to prevent development of these age related complications. Clinical care of older HIV-infected adults should consider incorporation of geriatric principles. PMID:26009828
Gray, Leonard C; Fatehi, Farhad; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Peel, Nancye M; Smith, Anthony C
Small rural hospitals admit and manage older adults who, in city hospitals, would usually be offered geriatrician-supported comprehensive geriatric assessment and coordinated subacute care if required. Distance and diseconomies of scale prohibit access to the conventional in-person approach. A telegeriatric service model involving a geriatrician consulting remotely using wireless, mobile, high-definition videoconferencing; a trained host nurse at the rural site; structured geriatric assessment configured on a web-based clinical decision support system; routine weekly virtual rounds; and support from a local multidisciplinary team was established to overcome these barriers. This was a prospective observational study to examine the feasibility and sustainability of the model. Patient characteristics were recorded using the interRAI Acute Care assessment system. Usage patterns were derived from health service data sets and a service statistics database. Patients had characteristics that are consistent with characteristics of individuals typically referred for geriatric assessment. Overall, 53% of patients had cognitive impairment, 75% had limitations with activities of daily living, and the average Frailty Index was 0.44 ± 0.12. Stable patterns of consultation occurred within 6 months of start-up and continued uninterrupted for the remainder of the 24-month observation period. The estimated overall rate of initial consultation was 1.83 cases per occupied bed per year and 2.66 review cases per occupied bed per year. The findings indicate that the model was feasible and was sustained throughout and beyond the study period. This telegeriatric service model appears suitable for use in small rural hospitals.
Mix, S; Borchelt, M; Nieczaj, R; Trilhof, G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E
Modern telecommunication technology has the potential to improve the quality of life for elders with physical and mental impairments as well as for their caregiving relatives. This can be viewed as an opportunity to establish and maintain instant and personalized access to various medical services in a situation where increasing needs are opposed to decreasing resources. However, it is not yet clear whether telematics is adequate, efficient, and effective in supporting care for geriatric patients. Results of a tele-rehabilitation project ("TeleReha", conducted at the Berlin Geriatric Center) which comprised mobility-impaired patients caregiving relatives and geriatric professionals, showed that participants regard telecommunicational and communicational needs.
Lyons, Stacie Salsbury; Specht, Janet Pringle; Karlman, Susan E.
Registered nurses make measurable contributions to the health and wellness of persons living in nursing homes. However, most nursing homes do not employ adequate numbers of professional nurses with specialized training in the nursing care of older adults to positively impact resident outcomes. As a result, many people never receive excellent geriatric nursing while living in a long-term care facility. Nurses have introduced various professional practice models into health care institutions as tools for leading nursing practice, improving client outcomes, and achieving organizational goals. Problematically, few professional practice models have been implemented in nursing homes. This article introduces an evidence-based framework for professional nursing practice in long-term care. The Everyday Excellence framework is based upon eight guiding principles: Valuing, Envisioning, Peopling, Securing, Learning, Empowering, Leading, and Advancing Excellence. Future research will evaluate the usefulness of this framework for professional nursing practice. PMID:20077966
Sharif-Abdullah, Sharifah Shafinaz Binti; Chong, Mei Chan; Surindar-Kaur, Surat Singh; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Ng, Kwan Hoong
INTRODUCTION Inadequate oral care has been implicated in the development of aspiration pneumonia in frail geriatric patients and is a major cause of mortality, due to the colonisation of microbes in vulnerable patients. This type of pneumonia has been associated with an increase in respiratory pathogens in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chlorhexidine compared to routine oral care in edentulous geriatric inpatients. METHODS A double-blind, parallel-group randomised controlled trial was carried out. The intervention group received oral care with chlorhexidine 0.2%, while the control group received routine oral care with thymol. Nurses provided oral care with assigned solutions of 20 mL once daily over seven days. Oral cavity assessment using the Brief Oral Health Status Examination form was performed before each oral care procedure. Data on medication received and the subsequent development of aspiration pneumonia was recorded. An oral swab was performed on Day 7 to obtain specimens to test for colonisation. RESULTS The final sample consisted of 35 (control) and 43 (intervention) patients. Chlorhexidine was effective in reducing oral colonisation compared to routine oral care with thymol (p < 0.001). The risk of oral bacterial colonisation was nearly three times higher in the thymol group compared to the chlorhexidine group. CONCLUSION The use of chlorhexidine 0.2% significantly reduced oral colonisation and is recommended as an easier and more cost-effective alternative for oral hygiene. PMID:27211885
Alexa, Ioana Dana; Ilie, Adina Carmen; Moroşanu, Anca; Voica, Ana
Ageing is inevitably associated with a decline in physiologic reserves. Frailty results from reaching a threshold of decline across multiple organ systems. By consequence, it is associated with a high vulnerability and reduced ability to maintain homeostasis. This vulnerability is not only age-related, but also related to disability and comorbidity, as illustrated by three clinical cases. Sarcopenia, which is defined as age-related loss of muscle mass, is considered to be a central manifestation of frailty. In addition to being highly prevalent in elderly population, frailty also exerts a substantial impact on quality of life. As it is extremely challenging by defying conventional medication and involving new therapeutically approaches, frailty fully qualifies as a new geriatric syndrome.
Fulmer, Terry; Flaherty, Ellen; Hyer, Kathryn
Geriatric interdisciplinary team training (GITT) is an initiative funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation since 1995. Building from the substantial knowledge gained from the Veteran's Administration project in interdisciplinary team training and lessons from the Pew Foundation initiative, GITT was reconceived by the Foundation to address the need for teams in the care of older adults in the new era of managed care and health care cost containment. This training program has served to help us understand attitudes toward teams, how teams function, and how teams should be trained in the changing health care environment, where length of stay is dramatically different from the earlier team training projects. This introductory paper provides an overview of GITT, and the companion papers give detail of the GITT curricula, measures and lessons learned.
Gordon, M E
An awareness of the journey's destination and the consequential events along the way will better enhance our diagnoses and in turn sustain our elder "homo turisticus," no longer an endangered species but worthy of our continued compassionate care while enjoying their longevity. All potential treacheries must be assessed by each elderly traveler. It may be the first of many trips or the last opportunity to view and relate to the sequoia's longevity, hike the Scottish highlands, view the game of the Serengeti, explore the Nordic fjords, indulge in the Patagonian scenes of the Iguazú falls, seek the habitats of the Galápagos tortoise, partake of the photograph opportunities of Papua-New Guinea, or finalize that "last" business contract in the Orient. With consideration of these many vulnerabilities and potential hazards, why then undertake the journey? Perhaps our geriatric globetrotters give credence to the age-old saying (of unknown origin) "Running water never freezes."
[Catalogue of learning goals for pregraduate education in geriatric medicine. A recommendation of the German Geriatric Society (DGG), the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics (DGGG), the Austrian Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (ÖGGG) and the Swiss Society of Geriatric Medicine (SFGG) on the basis of recommendations of the European Union of Medical Specialists Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) 2013].
Singler, K; Stuck, A E; Masud, T; Goeldlin, A; Roller, R E
Sound knowledge in the care and management of geriatric patients is essential for doctors in almost all medical subspecialties. Therefore, it is important that pregraduate medical education adequately covers the field of geriatric medicine. However, in most medical faculties in Europe today, learning objectives in geriatric medicine are often substandard or not even explicitly addressed. As a first step to encourage undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine, the European Union of Medical Specialists -Geriatric Medicine Section (UEMS-GMS) recently developed a catalogue of learning goals using a modified Delphi technique in order to encourage education in this field. This catalogue of learning objectives for geriatric medicine focuses on the minimum requirements with specific learning goals in knowledge, skills and attitudes that medical students should have acquired by the end of their studies.In order to ease the implementation of this new, competence-based curriculum among the medical faculties in universities teaching in the German language, the authors translated the published English language curriculum into German and adapted it according to medical language and terms used at German-speaking medical faculties and universities of Austria, Germany and Switzerland. This article contains the final German translation of the curriculum. The Geriatric Medicine Societies of Germany, Austria, and Switzerland formally endorse the present curriculum and recommend that medical faculties adapt their curricula for undergraduate teaching based on this catalogue.
Xakellis, George; Brangman, Sharon A; Hinton, W Ladson; Jones, Vida Y; Masterman, Donna; Pan, Cynthia X; Rivero, Jorge; Wallhagen, Margaret; Yeo, Gwen
Strategies to reduce the documented disparities in health and health care for the rapidly growing numbers of older patients from diverse ethnic populations include increased cultural competence of providers. To assist geriatric faculty in medical and other health professional schools develop cultural competence training for their ethnogeriatric programs, the University of California Academic Geriatric Resource Program partnered with the Ethnogeriatric Committee of the American Geriatrics Society to develop a curricular framework. The framework includes core competencies based on the format of the Core Competencies for the Care of Older Patients developed by the Education Committee of the American Geriatrics Society. Competencies in attitudes, knowledge, and skills for medical providers caring for elders from diverse populations are specified. Also included are recommended teaching strategies and resources for faculty to pursue the development of full curricula.
Geduldig, Emma T; Kellner, Charles H
This paper reviews recent research on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in elderly depressed patients. The PubMed database was searched for literature published within the past 4 years, using the search terms: "electroconvulsive elderly," "electroconvulsive geriatric," "ECT and elderly," and "ECT elderly cognition." The studies in this review indicate excellent efficacy for ECT in geriatric patients. Adverse cognitive effects of ECT in this population are usually transient and not typically severe. In addition, continuation/maintenance ECT (C/M-ECT) may be a favorable strategy for relapse prevention in the elderly after a successful acute course of ECT. ECT is an important treatment option for depressed geriatric patients with severe and/or treatment-resistant illness. New data add to the evidence demonstrating that ECT is a highly effective, safe, and well-tolerated antidepressant treatment option for geriatric patients.
Cicerchia, Marcella; Ceci, Moira; Locatelli, Carola; Gianni, Walter; Repetto, Lazzaro
Due to the expanding geriatric population and the high incidence of cancer in this age group, there is an increased burden on clinical oncologists. Elderly patients suffer from one or more chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases, COPD, or diabetes. Besides affecting life expectancy, comorbid conditions may complicate major surgery. Accurate prediction of surgical risk is of paramount importance. Numerous papers have documented that older patients can undergo surgery with similar cancer related survival to younger patients. It has been demonstrated that age related variables are associated with an increased risk in post-surgical complications. The term "geriatric syndrome" needs further clinical evaluation and understanding. It is used to capture those clinical conditions in older persons that do not fit into discrete disease categories. Geriatric syndromes including delirium, falls, frailty, dizziness, syncope and urinary incontinence, are among the most common conditions facing geriatricians. This article focuses on geriatric syndromes in post-surgical patients and their management.
López, Jorge H; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A
A recent dramatic increase in the elderly population has not been accompanied by a parallel increase in specialized health care professionals in Latin America. The main purpose of this work was to determine the stage of geriatrics teaching for undergraduate and graduate medical levels in Latin America. Using a questionnaire given in person and online, the authors surveyed geriatricians from 16 countries: eight from South America and eight from Central America. Among 308 medical schools, 35% taught undergraduate geriatrics, ranging from none in Uruguay, Venezuela, and Guatemala to 82% in Mexico. The authors identified 36 programs in 12 countries with graduate medical education in geriatrics, ranging from 2 to 5 years of training. The authors conclude that although the population is aging rapidly in Latin American countries, there has been a slow development of geriatrics teaching at undergraduate and postgraduate levels in the region.
Frank, Christopher; Martin, Ruth Elwood
Ageing is a common subject in arts and literature as it is a universal experience. The use of the humanities in medical education may have a positive effect on trainees’ attitude to caring for seniors and on geriatrics as a career choice. This paper summarizes the role of humanities in medical education and provides some examples and thoughts on how humanities curriculum can be used in geriatric teaching. PMID:25825611
Izzy, Manhal; Malieckal, Anju; Little, Erin; Anand, Sury
AIM: To study the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment of constipation in geriatrics. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, google scholar, and Ovid were searched to identify human studies performed on the use of laxatives in elderly with constipation, which were conducted between January 1990 and January 2013 using the specified keywords. Controlled studies that enrolled geriatric patients with a diagnosis of constipation and addressed the efficacy and/or the safety of pharmacological treatments were included. Studies were excluded from this review if they were non-controlled trials, case series, or case reports. RESULTS: Out of twenty three studies we initially retrieved in our search, only nine studies met the eligibility criteria of being controlled trials within geriatrics. The laxatives examined in the nine studies were senna, lactulose, sorbital, polyethylene glycol (PEG), lubiprostone, linaclotide, and prucalopride. In those studies, senna combinations had a higher efficacy than sorbitol or lactulose as well as, a very good adverse effect profile. PEG was also shown to be safe and effective in geriatric population. Furthermore, it has been shown that PEG is as safe in geriatrics as in general population. New agents like lubiprostone and prucalopride show promising results but the data about these agents in geriatrics are still limited which warrants further investigation. CONCLUSION: Senna combinations and PEG appear to have a more favorable profile over the other traditionally used laxatives in elderly patients with constipation. PMID:27158549
Suskind, Anne M.; Clemens, J. Quentin
Purpose of Review The U.S. healthcare system is undergoing fundamental changes in an effort to improve access to care, curtail healthcare spending, and improve quality of care. These efforts largely focused on Medicare, and therefore will have a fundamental impact on the care of geriatric patients. This article reviews contemporary health policy issues, with a focus on how these issues may impact the care of geriatric urology patients. Recent Findings The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has broadened the scope of Medicare coverage. Future Medicare reimbursement will be increasingly tied to care coordination, quality reporting, and demonstration of appropriate outcomes. Additional research is needed to better define the comparative effectiveness of urologic therapies in geriatric patients. Workforce projections indicate that there is a shortage of urologists in many areas of the country, and that this shortage will worsen over time unless a new funding model is instituted for graduate medical education. Summary Medicare spending drives many health policy decisions. Therefore, few health policy topics are unique to geriatrics or geriatric urology. However, certain health policy topics (e.g., care coordination, risk-stratification) are particularly germaine to the elderly patients. Urologists with a particular interest in geriatric urology should be familiar with these issues. PMID:26765043
Shay, Kenneth; And Others
Shay, Simpson, and Biernat describe geriatric dentistry training that included mentorship and shared experiences with physician trainees. Cohen and Lyles describe a fellowship program in which physicians care for older patients in unique settings and conduct research projects. (SK)
Annette Totten, PhD MPA, is director of the Geriatrics Framework Project at the Center for Home Care Policy and Research of the Visiting Nurse Service of New York, New York, NY. She has held a variety of policy, research, and project management positions in government, private foundations, and university-based research centers including the Ohio House of Representatives, the John A. Hartford Foundation, the New York State Department of Health, the New York University Department of Nursing, the Columbia University School of Nursing, the State Health Data Assistance Center (SHADAC) at the University of Minnesota, and the Veterans Administration. Before joining the Center for Home Care Policy & and Research, Annette was the Director of the Center for the Study of Aging and an Assistant Research Professor at Boise State University. She earned her doctorate in health services research from the University of Minnesota School of Public Health and also holds a Masters of Public Administration from the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University. Her research interests include the organization, financing, and quality of care for chronic conditions and long-term care. She co-authored the book, Meeting the Challenge of Chronic Illness (The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005) and has developed and taught graduate course on aging, health, and social policy; chronic disease epidemiology; and research methods.
Odelin, M-F; Ruel, N; Berthelot, P; Diana, M-C; Blanchon, M-A; Omar, S; Bourlet, T; Kohli, E; Gonthier, R; Pothier, P; Pozzetto, B
In aged-care facilities, gastroenteritis outbreaks are responsible for big trouble in the management of cares to the elderly. In November 2002, a gastroenteritis outbreak was observed in 5 of the 6 wards of the geriatric hospital La Charité, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne, France, with an attack rate of 38.5% in the elderly (70 infected from 182 patients) and of 26.0% in the nursing staff (40 infected from 154 agents). The outbreak lasted 30 days with a peak corresponding to 79.8% of the cases between the 11(th) and the 20(th) of November. The first cases were observed in the two short-term-care wards; then, the outbreak spread rapidly to 3 of the 4 long-term care units. Health care workers were contaminated later than the elderly (P < 0.001 by Kruskal-Wallis test). A self-administered questionnaire was documented by most of the nursing staff; the most frequently observed clinical symptoms in this population were nausea (82.5%), abdominal pain (80.0%), diarrhoea (70.5%), asthenia (67.5%) and vomiting (62.5%). Thirty-five percent of the health care workers ceased their work. The causative agent of the gastroenteritis was identified by RT-PCR in the stools of 5 aged persons as a norovirus close to the Lordsdale strain (genogroup II). These findings illustrate the respective role of elderly and health care workers in the spread of the gastroenteritis outbreak inside the geriatric hospital.
Pinheiro, Sandro O; White, Heidi K; Buhr, Gwendolen T; Elbert-Avila, Katja; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Heflin, Mitchell T
Geriatrician and nongeriatrician faculty need instruction as teachers to provide quality training for a broader community of physicians who can care for the expanding population of older adults. Educators at Duke University designed a program to equip geriatrician and nongeriatrician faculty to develop quality educational programs and teach medical learners about geriatrics. Eighty-three faculty representing 52 institutions from across the United States participated in mini-fellowship programs (2005-09) consisting of workshops and 1-year follow-up mentoring by Duke faculty. Participants attended 1-week on-campus sessions on curriculum development and teaching skills and designed and implemented a curriculum in their home institution. Participant specialties included general medicine (nearly 50%), family medicine, surgery, psychiatry, rehabilitation medicine, and emergency medicine. Pre- and postprogram self-efficacy surveys, program evaluation surveys, and 6- and 12-month progress reports on scholars' educational projects were used to assess the effect of the Duke mini-fellowship programs on participants' educational practices. Forty-four scholars (56%) completed the end-of-year self-efficacy survey and end-of-program evaluation. Self-efficacy results indicated significant gains (P < .001) in 12 items assessed at 1 week and 1 year. Scholars reported the largest average gains at 1 year in applying adult learning principles in the design of educational programs (1.72), writing measurable learning objectives (1.51), and identifying optimal instructional methods to deliver learning objectives (1.50). Participants described improved knowledge and skills in designing curricula, implemented new and revised geriatrics curricula, and demonstrated commitment to faculty development and improving learning experiences for medical learners. This faculty development program improved participants' self-efficacy in curriculum design and teaching and enhanced geriatrics education in
Mauk, Kristen L; Mauk, James M
Rehabilitation nurses, particularly those who work in geriatrics, recognize that the elderly have become increasingly heterogeneous, with many remaining active well into their 80s and beyond. As the baby boomers enter older adulthood, the senior healthcare market will be greatly affected. The areas of finance, economics, and marketing are seeing new trends that combine the expertise of financial planners with healthcare advisors and advocates for seniors. One emerging specialty area is financial gerontology. This article defines financial gerontology, presents emerging trends and certifications related to the field, and discusses implications for the rehabilitation nurse.
Lange, Jean W; Mager, Diana; Greiner, Philip A; Saracino, Katherine
The purpose of the ELDER (Expanded Learning and Dedication to Elders in the Region) Project was to address the needs of underserved older adults by providing worksite education to individuals who provide nursing care to older adults in community health centers, home health agencies, and long-term care facilities. Four agencies located in a Health Professional Shortage and Medically Underserved Area participated. Project staff conducted separate focus groups with administrators and staff at each agency to determine educational needs and preferences. Curricula from the Hartford Institute, End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium, and Geriatric Education Centers were adapted to design unique curricula for each agency and level of personnel (licensed nurse or unlicensed caregiver). Activities included focus group meetings to tailor content to the needs of each agency, on-site educational sessions, and identification of an agency champion to sustain the program after the funding ended. A case-based simulation-learning approach was used in the final year to validate application of knowledge and to facilitate teamwork and interprofessional communication. Over 100 nurses and nursing assistants and eight administrators and allied health professionals participated over the three-year period of the project. Retention over this period, independent evaluations, and simulations demonstrated participants' ability to integrate best practices into typical clinical scenarios and revealed improved communication among care providers. Tailored on-site education incorporating simulation was an effective model for translating gerontological knowledge into practice and improving the care of older adults in these multiple settings.
Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.
This workshop guide is a unit of study for teaching dietetic assistants to work with elderly persons. The objective of the unit is to enable the students to apply knowledge of the physiological and psychological effects of aging in providing nutritional care to the elderly in independent living and nursing home situations. Following the unit…
Shrader, Sarah; Hummel, Heather; Byrd, Lauren; Wiley, Kathy
Objective. To determine whether a required interprofessional geriatric medication activity within a senior mentor program changed pharmacy and medical students' attitudes regarding interprofessional collaboration.Design. Interprofessional teams, consisting of 1 third-year pharmacy student and 2 second-year medical students, conducted an in-home interview and medication history with a senior mentor (geriatric patient). The team members then collaboratively analyzed and discussed the patient's medication use and wrote an essay in which they identified the patient's medication problems and reflected on the interprofessional experience.Assessment. Students completed a validated survey instrument to measure pharmacist-physician attitudes about interprofessional collaboration before and after the experience. Pharmacy and medical students' already generally positive attitudes regarding interprofessional relationships were maintained and, in some instances, significantly improved. Students found the activity enhanced their geriatric training and increased their understanding of an interprofessional team.Conclusion. Incorporation of a geriatric medication activity within a senior mentor program maintained or improved pharmacy and medical students' positive attitudes about interprofessional collaboration and enhanced geriatric training within the curriculum.
Wang, Lihong; Chou, Ying-Hui; Potter, Guy G; Steffens, David C
Although major depression has been considered as a manifestation of discoordinated activity between affective and cognitive neural networks, only a few studies have examined the relationships among neural networks directly. Because of the known disconnection theory, geriatric depression could be a useful model in studying the interactions among different networks. In the present study, using independent component analysis to identify intrinsically connected neural networks, we investigated the alterations in synchronizations among neural networks in geriatric depression to better understand the underlying neural mechanisms. Resting-state fMRI data was collected from thirty-two patients with geriatric depression and thirty-two age-matched never-depressed controls. We compared the resting-state activities between the two groups in the default-mode, central executive, attention, salience, and affective networks as well as correlations among these networks. The depression group showed stronger activity than the controls in an affective network, specifically within the orbitofrontal region. However, unlike the never-depressed controls, geriatric depression group lacked synchronized/antisynchronized activity between the affective network and the other networks. Those depressed patients with lower executive function has greater synchronization between the salience network with the executive and affective networks. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the between-network analyses in examining neural models for geriatric depression.
Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie
General practitioners (GPs) need advanced skills in geriatric assessment to be competent to treat the increasing number of elderly patients. Continuing medical education in geriatrics for GPs is heterogeneous, and not assessed for effectiveness. In this study we compared the educational effects of three geriatric post-graduate training methods on…
Ebnezar, John; Bali, Yogita; John, Rakesh
Geriatric orthopedic problems poses different challenges in their management. Conventional treatment methods like drugs, physiotherapy and surgeries are inadequate. A Geriatric orthopedic patient suffers as a whole and not in isolation. This article highlights the importance of managing geriatric orthopedic patients as a whole and outlines the various steps of wholistic management. PMID:28149067
Ivry, Joann; Lawrance, Frances P.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Robbins, Virginia Cooke
The Geriatric Social Work Practicum Partnership Program was funded to attract graduate students to the field of aging and to strengthen field education in geriatric social work. Rotation was selected to achieve the program's goals to provide students with exposure to the spectrum of care in geriatric social work services. This paper describes the…
Denson, Steven; Simpson, Deborah; Denson, Kathryn; Brown, Diane; Manzi, Gabriel; Rehm, Judith; Wessel, Bambi; Duthie, Edmund H
Caring for the growing elderly population will require specialty and subspecialty physicians who have not completed geriatric medicine fellowship training to participate actively in patient care. To meet this workforce demand, a sustainable approach to integrating geriatrics into specialty and subspecialty graduate medical education training is needed. This article describes the use of a geriatrics education team (GET) model to develop, implement, and sustain specialty-specific geriatrics curricula using a systematic process of team formation and needs assessment through evaluation, with a unique focus on developing curricular interventions that are meaningful to each specialty and satisfy training, scholarship, and regulatory requirements. The GET model and associated results from 15 specialty residency and fellowship training programs over a 4-year period include 93% curriculum sustainability after initial implementation, more than half of the programs introducing additional geriatrics education, and more than 80% of specialty GETs fulfilling their scholarship requirements through their curriculum dissemination. Win-wins and barriers encountered in using the GET model, along with the model's efficacy in curriculum development, sustainability, and dissemination, are summarized.
Bell, Susan P; Orr, Nicole M; Dodson, John A; Rich, Michael W; Wenger, Nanette K; Blum, Kay; Harold, John Gordon; Tinetti, Mary E; Maurer, Mathew S; Forman, Daniel E
The population of older adults is expanding rapidly, and aging predisposes to cardiovascular disease. The principle of patient-centered care must respond to the preponderance of cardiac disease that now occurs in combination with the complexities of old age. Geriatric cardiology melds cardiovascular perspectives with multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, cognitive decline, and other clinical, social, financial, and psychological dimensions of aging. Although some assume that a cardiologist may instinctively cultivate some of these skills over the course of a career, we assert that the volume and complexity of older cardiovascular patients in contemporary practice warrants a more direct approach to achieve suitable training and a more reliable process of care. We present a rationale and vision for geriatric cardiology as a melding of primary cardiovascular and geriatrics skills, thereby infusing cardiology practice with expanded proficiencies in diagnosis, risks, care coordination, communications, end-of-life, and other competences required to best manage older cardiovascular patients.
Karasik, Rona J
More and more students and community partners in the areas of gerontology and geriatrics are participating in service-learning experiences. The types of service-learning projects are wide-ranging, as are the potential benefits to students and community agencies. Harvesting such benefits, however, requires careful consideration and participation both from the academic institution and the community agencies. Effective collaborations begin with a shared understanding of the approach, open discussion of the expected outcomes, and a willingness to address potential challenges. In addition, special considerations (eg, working with older adults, HIPAA) need to be taken into account when developing and maintaining service-learning in gerontology and geriatrics. The following examines essential elements in each of these areas, with the goal of promoting positive service-learning outcomes in gerontology and geriatrics. Particular attention is paid to service-learning in long-term care and similar settings.
Bell, Susan P.; Orr, Nicole M.; Dodson, John A.; Rich, Michael W.; Wenger, Nanette K.; Blum, Kay; Harold, John Gordon; Tinetti, Mary; Maurer, Mathew S.; Forman, Daniel E.
The population of older adults is expanding rapidly and aging predisposes to cardiovascular disease. The principle of patient-centered care must respond to the preponderance of cardiac disease that now occurs in combination with complexities of old age. Geriatric cardiology melds cardiovascular perspectives with multimorbidity, polypharmacy, frailty, cognitive decline, and other clinical, social, financial, and psychological dimensions of aging. While some assume a cardiologist may instinctively cultivate some of these skills over the course of a career, we assert that the volume and complexity of older cardiovascular patients in contemporary practice warrants a more direct approach to achieve suitable training and a more reliable process of care. We present a rationale and vision for geriatric cardiology as a melding of primary cardiovascular and geriatrics skills, and thereby infusing cardiology practice with expanded proficiencies in diagnosis, risks, care coordination, communications, end-of-life, and other competences required to best manage older cardiovascular patients. PMID:26361161
Drawing upon narrative data generated in a semi-structured interview with an 82-year-old female patient in geriatric physical rehabilitation, this clinical case study provides a detailed example of recognizing, assessing, and addressing spiritual distress as a symptom of physical pain. Data analysis focused on narrative content as well as on the interactive and performative aspects of narrating spiritual health issues in a close reading of two "attachment narratives." Results support the "narrative turn" in healthcare, including the therapeutic benefits of empathic listening as "narrative care" in geriatric rehabilitation and in healthcare in general.
The use of complementary and alternative veterinary medicine continues to grow within the veterinary community. As more clients seek out complementary and alternative medicine for their own health care, they begin to seek out these forms of therapy for their animals. For the equine practitioner, this includes those clients with geriatric animals. It is hoped that this article provides some insight into what conditions may be helped with CVM (complementary veterinary medicine) and when an equine practitioner may want to consider CVM as a form of therapy for the geriatric horse.
Karasik, Rona J
Internships and similar applied opportunities have long been valued for providing students with opportunities for practical experience, career preparation, and personal growth. The need for applied experiences in gerontology and geriatrics is particularly salient. Creating and sustaining effective internship experiences, however, requires careful attention to a variety of concerns. Using examples and illustrations from an ongoing gerontology internship component (undergraduate and graduate) this article examines ways to anticipate and address the challenges that are common to a broad range of internship experiences, as well as those that are unique to applied learning in gerontology and geriatrics.
Ocampo Chaparro, José Mauricio
Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible.
Vitamin B12 deficiency or cyanocobalamin is a common condition in the elderly. It is repeatedly overlooked due to multiple clinical manifestations that can affect the blood, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular systems, skin and mucous membranes. The various presentations of vitamin B12 deficiency are related to the development of geriatric syndromes like frailty, falls, cognitive impairment, and geriatric nutritional syndromes like protein-energy malnutrition and failure to thrive, in addition to enhancing aging anorexia and cachexia. Therefore, interventions must be developed to include their screening and diagnosis to make early and appropriate treatment to prevent its complications before they become irreversible. PMID:24892321
du Toit, Nicole; Rucker, Bayard A
Changes in normal equine dental anatomy with age result in dental disease specific to the geriatric horse. The culmination of dental disease throughout the life of a horse often results in advanced dental disease. Treatment of specific dental disease conditions has to be adapted for older horses to compensate for reduction in reserve crown and occlusal enamel. Ensuring oral comfort and maximizing masticatory ability are the mainstays of geriatric dental treatment. Recognition of dental disease common to older horses ensures that correct treatment is applied. Older patients often require long-term management changes, such as dietary modification, to manage dental disease effectively.
Maas, Meridean L; Specht, Janet P; Buckwalter, Kathleen C; Gittler, Josephine; Bechen, Kate
In the second article of this two-part series, research supporting the need for more RNs and assisting staff (licensed practical nurses [LPNs] and certified nursing assistants [CNAs]) with gerontological nursing training in nursing homes is reviewed. Using the literature, time studies, the judgments of experts, and the expected quality and quantity of care older adults should rightfully receive, recommended standards are set forth for RN and assisting staff hours per resident day, their training, and compensation. Leadership training is recommended for RNs and increased gerontological nursing training is recommended for RNs and assisting staff. Finally, to address the shortage of RNs with gerontological nursing and leadership training in nursing homes, a program to prepare RNs as geriatric nursing long-term care specialists is proposed.
Schäfer, Ursi Barandun; Hirsbrunner, Therese; Jäger, Susanne; Näf, Ernst; Römmich, Sabine; Horlacher, Kathrin
At the Solothurn Hospitals (soH), 13 academically educated nurses are responsible for the development of nursing care with the goal to improve patient-oriented, effective, appropriate, and economic care. The strategy contains three priorities: a) expert care of single patients in demanding situations, b) sustained application of organisational methods such as primary nursing, nursing process, and skill/grade mix, and c) design and management of practice development projects related to specific patient groups. A first evaluation with qualitative and quantitative methods showed that the exemplary care of single patients by expert nurses was evaluated as positive for the patients as well as for the teams on two wards by nurses who were interviewed. After the introduction of primary nursing, the application rate was 81 to 90 % and the introduction of fall prevention methods in geriatric rehabilitation decreased the fall rate from 8.2 to 5.5 per 1000 patient days. A comparision with the literature shows that the expert nurses of soH perform both, working at the bedside and being responsible for practice development projects, as specialised Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs). APNs at the Solothurn Hospitals work also as generalists when organisational methods need to be consolidated. Their successes depend from their integration into the hierarchy and both, into the nursing as well as into the interprofessional teams. Competencies in Transformational Leadership also are essential at all management levels.
Camina-Martín, María Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, José Antonio; Redondo-Del-Río, María Paz
Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, as elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología [SEGG]) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition, or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories is intended to help in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment, combined with laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is for further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status, which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics.
Camina-Martín, M Alicia; de Mateo-Silleras, Beatriz; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Lopez-Mongil, Rosa; Niño-Martín, Virtudes; López-Trigo, J Antonio; Redondo-del-Río, M Paz
Ongoing population ageing is one of the factors influencing the increase in the prevalence of undernutrition, because elderly people are a vulnerable group due to their biological, psychological and social characteristics. Despite its high prevalence, undernutrition is underdiagnosed in the geriatric sphere. For this reason, the aim of this consensus document is to devise a protocol for geriatric nutritional assessment. A multidisciplinary team has been set up within the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (in Spanish Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología, SEGG) in order to address undernutrition and risk of undernutrition so that they can be diagnosed and treated in an effective manner. The MNA-SF is a practical tool amongst the many validated methods for nutritional screening. Following suspicion of undernutrition or after establishing the presence of undernutrition, a full assessment will include a detailed nutritional history of the patient. The compilation of clinical-nutritional and dietetic histories seeks to aid in identifying the possible risk factors at the root of a patient's undernutrition. Following this, an anthropometric assessment associated to laboratory data, will describe the patient's physical and metabolic changes associated to undernutrition. Currently, the tendency is to further nutritional assessment through the use of non-invasive techniques to study body composition in association with functional status. The latter is an indirect index for nutritional status which is very interesting from a geriatrician's point of view. To conclude, correct nutritional screening is the fundamental basis for an early undernutrition diagnosis and to assess the need for nutritional treatment. In order to achieve this, it is fundamental to foster research in the field of nutritional geriatrics, in order to expand our knowledge base and to increasingly practice evidence-based geriatrics.
Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès
From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same
Steinman, Theodore I
The geriatric population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is placed at risk with regards to the quality and extent of medical coverage because of the rapidly changing financial environment. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are generally for-profit companies that must focus on the bottom line. While the verbal commitment to quality care is voiced, the financial pressures on MCOs have led to a decrease in coverage of many services and outright denial for some necessary treatments. While denying services, the MCOs have also reduced payments to providers for services rendered. The coverage crisis is compounded by health maintenance organizations (HMOs) quitting Medicare because the reimbursement from the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) is less than their costs. Because of the above issues which can potentially impact on the quality of care delivered to the ESRD geriatric population, a new approach to disease management has created the opportunity to improve total patient care to a level not yet achieved in the United States. Disease management encompasses integrated care across all disciplines. Every component of care can be tracked by a dedicated information system. Improvement in outcomes has far exceeded the U.S. Renal Data System (USRDS) benchmark performance measurements with a disease management model approach. The key to success is the health service coordinator (HSC), a senior nurse with many years of ESRD experience. This individual coordinates care across all disciplines and expedites necessary referrals. With rapid attention to patient needs there has been a significant reduction in hospital admissions, hospital length of stay, and emergency room visits. Patient care will steadily improve as the disease management system matures as a consequence of understanding the patients total physical and psychosocial needs.
... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Nursing Supplies Page Content Article Body Throughout most of ... budget. (Nursing equipment also makes wonderful baby gifts.) Nursing Bras A well-made nursing bra that comfortably ...
Doshi, H. K.; Selvaraj, Dahshaini; Chan, William; Naidu, G.; Ramason, R.
Introduction: Although there is evidence of improved functional outcomes with our “integrated care pathway” for geriatric hip fractures, we do not know if there is a significant difference in functional recovery of activities of daily living and attainment of independence in self-care between patients who underwent fixation and those treated with arthroplasty. Objective: To determine whether such a difference exists in surgically fixed hip fractures. Materials and Methods: Patients with hip fracture treated surgically were divided into group A (internal fixation, n = 213) and group B (arthroplasty, n = 199). Demographic data, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score, time to surgery, and length of stay were recorded. Inpatient complications and mortality rates were also documented. Modified Barthel Index (MBI) scores were recorded for the following intervals: prefall, discharge, 6-month, and at 1-year follow-up. Results: The mean age (A: 80 years and B: 81years), CCI (A: 5.41 and B: 5.43), and length of stay (A: 13.6 days and B: 15.2 days) were not significantly different. However, there was a significant difference (P < .05) in time to surgery (A: 102.2 hours and B: 86.6 hours). Complication rates were about 6% in both groups (A = 6.57%: urinary infections = 13, wound infections = 1 and B = 6.03%: urinary infections = 10, wound infections = 1, pressure ulcer = 1). The preinjury MBI scores were significantly different (P < .05; A: 91.65 and B: 88.19), however, there was no significant difference in scores measured at discharge (A: 60.79 and B: 59.39), 6 months (A: 77.65 and B: 77.47) and 1 year (A: 80.71 and B: 83.03). Patients who underwent surgery for hip fracture had overall recovered 90.9% of their preinjury function (overall MBI at 1 year: 81.83). Conclusion: The MBI scores reflect the extent of attainment of independence in self-care, and actual functional recovery is gauged from the percentage of recovery of preinjury function at 1 year postsurgery. We
Kitagawa, Noboru; Sato, Yuji; Komabayashi, Takashi
Geriatric dentistry and its instruction are critical in a rapidly aging population. Japan is the world’s fastest-aging society, and thus geriatric dentistry education in Japan can serve as a global model for other countries that will soon encounter the issues that Japan has already confronted. This study aimed to evaluate geriatric dental education with respect to the overall dental education system, undergraduate geriatric dentistry curricula, mandatory internships, and graduate geriatric education of a selected dental school in Japan. Bibliographic data and local information were collected. Descriptive and statistical analyses (Fisher and Chi-square test) were conducted. Japanese dental schools teach geriatric dentistry in 10 geriatric dentistry departments as well as in prosthodontic departments. There was no significant differences found between the number of public and private dental schools with geriatric dentistry departments (p = 0.615). At Showa University School of Dentistry, there are more didactic hours than practical training hours; however, there is no significant didactic/practical hour distribution difference between the overall dental curriculum and fourth-year dental students’ geriatric dental education curriculum (p=0.077). Graduate geriatric education is unique because it is a four-year Ph.D. course of study; there is neither a Master’s degree program nor a certificate program in Geriatric Dentistry. Overall, both undergraduate and graduate geriatric dentistry curricula are multidisciplinary. This study contributes to a better understanding of geriatric dental education in Japan; the implications of this study include developing a clinical/didactic curriculum, designing new national/international dental public health policies, and calibrating the competency of dentists in geriatric dentistry. PMID:21985207
Francisco, George E., Jr.
A one week rotation in home health care for the aged, included in a required clinical clerkship, provided students with exposure to medical, social, and economic influences on the elderly and provided the patient with nondispensing pharmaceutical services. Improved communication skills and knowledge of geriatric drugs and diseases resulted. (MSE)
Kelley, Amy S; Back, Anthony L; Arnold, Robert M; Goldberg, Gabrielle R; Lim, Betty B; Litrivis, Evgenia; Smith, Cardinale B; O'Neill, Lynn B
Expert communication is essential to high-quality care for older patients with serious illness. Although the importance of communication skills is widely recognized, formal curricula for teaching communication skills to geriatric and palliative medicine fellows is often inadequate or unavailable. The current study drew upon the educational principles and format of an evidence-based, interactive teaching method to develop an intensive communication skills training course designed specifically to address the common communication challenges that geriatric and palliative medicine fellows face. The 2-day retreat, held away from the hospital environment, included large-group overview presentations, small-group communication skills practice, and development of future skills practice commitment. Faculty received in-depth training in small-group facilitation techniques before the course. Geriatric and palliative medicine fellows were recruited to participate in the course and 100% (n = 18) enrolled. Overall satisfaction with the course was very high (mean 4.8 on a 5-point scale). After the course, fellows reported an increase in self-assessed preparedness for specific communication challenges (mean increase 1.4 on 5-point scale, P < .001). Two months after the course, fellows reported a high level of sustained skills practice (mean 4.3 on 5-point scale). In sum, the intensive communication skills program, customized for the specific needs of geriatric and palliative medicine fellows, improved fellows' self-assessed preparedness for challenging communication tasks and provided a model for ongoing deliberate practice of communication skills.
Levkoff, Sue; And Others
Describes 10 modules for primary care practitioners on health promotion/disease prevention for the elderly on these topics: Alzheimer's disease in minorities, dehydration, diabetes, elder abuse, geriatric nutrition, oncology, oral health in long-term care, incontinence, injury prevention, and physical activity. These areas are significant for…
Bardach, Shoshana H.; Rowles, Graham D.
Purpose: Relative to the overall population, older adults consume a disproportionally large percentage of health care resources. Despite advocacy and efforts initiated more than 30 years ago, the number of providers with specialized training in geriatrics is still not commensurate with the growing population of older adults. This contribution…
Lloyd, Patrick M.; Shay, Kenneth
The predoctoral dental curriculum cannot provide the depth of experience and knowledge needed for the increasing representation of geriatric patients in family dental practices. A curriculum model designed to enhance knowledge and refine clinical skills in caring for the elderly is proposed. (MSE)
O'Donovan, A.; Mohile, S.G.; Leech, M.
Introduction Despite consensus guidelines on best practice in the care of older patients with cancer, geriatric assessment (GA) has yet to be optimally integrated into the field of oncology in most countries. There is a relative lack of consensus in the published literature as to the best approach to take, and there is a degree of uncertainty as to how integration of geriatric medicine principles might optimally predict patient outcomes. The aim of the current study was to obtain consensus on GA in oncology to inform the implementation of a geriatric oncology programme. Methods A four round Delphi process was employed. The Delphi method is a structured group facilitation process, using multiple iterations in order to gain consensus on a given topic Results Consensus was reached on the optimal assessment method and interventions required for the commonly employed domains of GA. Other aspects of GA, such as screening methods and age cutoff for assessment represented a higher degree of disagreement. Discussion The expert panel employed in this study clearly identified the criteria that should be included in a clinical geriatric oncology programme. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines, this may prove useful in the care of older cancer patients. PMID:25757457
Bernard, Marie A; Blanchette, Patricia L; Brummel-Smith, Kenneth
The United States is establishing new medical schools and increasing class size by 30% in response to the predicted increased needs of the baby boom generation, which will retire soon and live longer than prior generations. Society in general and the medical profession in particular are ill equipped to care for the special needs of the elderly. Since the early 1980s, departments of geriatric medicine have been developed in the United States. However, the prevailing U.S. system for the training of physicians in geriatrics is through sections, divisions, or institutes. This article reviews the advantages and disadvantages of departments of geriatrics, using case examples from three (University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine, and University of Hawaii at Mãnoa John A. Burns School of Medicine) of the extant 11 medical schools in the United States with departments of geriatrics. Commonalities among the three departments include a seat at the planning table in academic life, equal treatment and collaboration with other departments in academic and research program development, and direct access to key decision makers and opportunities for negotiation for funds. Each department has outreach to all undergraduate medical students through its training program. All three departments were launched through the investment of significant resources obtained both internally and externally. The challenge for the future will be to definitively demonstrate the efficacy of the department model versus the more prevalent section, division, and institute approach to training physicians to care for the elderly.
Clausen, G; Borchelt, M; Janssen, C; Loos, S; Mull, L; Pfaff, H
Patients' satisfaction has become a central concept in quality assurance. Despite progress in research in this area is still a lack of data for geriatric patients. Referring to the consumer model, satisfaction can be described as a difference between expectations and assessed performance. The aim of this study is to analyze satisfaction among geriatric patients in an in-patient setting. A personal interview was performed 1-2 days before discharge. Patients suffering for dementia or with problems to communicate were excluded. 124 of 268 geriatric patients who were discharged in 2003 were included (inclusion rate 46.3%). 119 were willing to participate (response rate 96.0%). Respondents were between 61 and 96 years old, 39% were male and 42% had serious functional limitations at time of admission. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of a combined index of satisfaction and expectations: a) quality of hotel services; b) experience of neglect; c) provision of medical information and skills. In summary, standardized personal questionnaires can provide valid and reliable data of geriatric patients. Satisfaction of elderly patients is negatively affected by neglect and positively influenced by provision of medical information and a good hotel services.
Calleja-Sordo, Elisa Constanza; de Hoyos, Adalberto; Méndez-Jiménez, Jorge; Altamirano-Bustamante, Nelly F; Islas-Andrade, Sergio; Valderrama, Alejandro; García-Peña, Carmen; Altamirano-Bustamante, Myriam M
The purpose of this study is to determine empirically the state of the art of the medical care, when healthcare personal is confronted with ethical dilemmas related with the care they give to the geriatric population. An observational, longitudinal, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice with geriatric patients. Mexican healthcare personnel with current active practices were asked to write up an ethical dilemma that arose frequently or that had impacted their medical practice. From the narrative input, we were able to draw up a database with 421 dilemmas, and those corresponding to patients 60 years and older were selected (n = 54, 12.8 %). The axiological analysis of the narrative dilemmas of geriatric patients was made using dialectical empiricism. The axiological analysis values found most frequently were classified into three groups: the impact of healthcare, the roles of the physician, and refusal of therapy; the healthcare role of educator, caring for the patients' life and the risk of imminent death where the values found more often. The persistence and universality of certain dilemmas in geriatrics calls for awareness and requires a good training in the ethical discernment of these dilemmas. This would help to improve substantially the care and the life quality of this population.
Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Wexler, Bruce E.; Alexopoulos, George S.
Objective This article describes a novel treatment model designed to target specific neurocognitive deficits in geriatric depression with neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive remediation (NBCCR). Method The recent National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) report “From Discovery to Cure” calls for studies focusing on mechanisms of treatment response with the goal of arriving at new interventions for those who do not respond to existing treatments. We describe the process that led to the identification of specific executive deficits and their underlying neurobiology, as well as the rationale for targeting these symptoms as a part of a strategy intended to improve both executive dysfunction and depression. We then propose a strategy for further research in this emerging area Results and Conclusions Despite significant developments, conventional antidepressant treatments leave many older adults still depressed and suffering (Thase, Entsuah et al. 2001). Psychotherapy may be effective in some depressed elders, although a recent review concluded that none of the available treatment studies meets stringent criteria for efficacy in the acute treatment of geriatric depression(Kiosses, Leon et al.). Appropriately developed and targeted NBCCR, has the potential to serve as a novel treatment intervention for geriatric depression. Pathophysiological changes associated with executive dysfunction may be an appropriate target for NBCCR. Examining both behavioral changes and indices of structural integrity and functional change of networks related to cognitive and emotional regulation may lead to a novel treatment and elucidate the role of specific cerebral networks in geriatric depression. PMID:22451346
Vaughan, Camille P; Fowler, Rachel; Goodman, Richard A; Graves, Taylor R; Flacker, Jonathan M; Johnson, Theodore M
Landmark articles from the peer-reviewed literature can be used to teach the fundamental principles of geriatric medicine. Three approaches were used in sequential combination to identify landmark articles as a resource for geriatricians and other healthcare practitioners. Candidate articles were identified first through a literature review and expert opinion survey of geriatric medicine faculty. Candidate articles in a winnowed list (n = 30) were then included in a bibliometric analysis that incorporated the journal impact factor and average monthly citation index. Finally, a consensus panel reviewed articles to assess each manuscript's clinical relevance. For each article, a final score was determined by averaging, with equal weight, the opinion survey, bibliometric analysis, and consensus panel review. This process ultimately resulted in the identification of 27 landmark articles. Overall, there was weak correlation between articles that the expert opinion survey and bibliometric analysis both rated highly. This process demonstrates a feasible method combining subjective and objective measures that can be used to identify landmark papers in geriatric medicine for the enhancement of geriatrics education and practice.
Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A
Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings.
Karasik, Rona J.
Internships and similar applied opportunities have long been valued for providing students with opportunities for practical experience, career preparation, and personal growth. The need for applied experiences in gerontology and geriatrics is particularly salient. Creating and sustaining effective internship experiences, however, requires careful…
Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly
Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…
Campbell, R L; Smith, P B
Two hundred geriatric patients ranging from age 65 to 92 yr (mean age 72 yr) were evaluated for office oral surgery and intravenous sedation. Surgical time ranged from 6 to 129 min. Monitored anesthesia care was utilized for the administration of fentanyl, midazolam or diazepam, and methohexital. No serious complications were seen and no patients were hospitalized.
Orton, Eric; Mulhausen, Paul
Computer-based virtual patients (VPs) are an emerging medium for medical education that addresses barriers faced by geriatrics educators. Research has shown VPs to be as effective in changing knowledge and behavior as more traditional forms of teaching. This paper presents a descriptive study of the development of the University of Iowa's…
Atchison, Kathryn A.; Dolan, Teresa A.
This paper describes the rationale for and the development of the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI). The GOHAI has demonstrated a high level of internal consistency and reliability. Poor GOHAI scores were significantly correlated to having fewer teeth, wearing a removable denture, and perceiving the need for dental treatment.…
Zweig, Steven; Ingman, Stanley
Focuses on the supports and impediments inherent in the provision of geriatric medical care by family physicians. Addresses providing a good educational program for medical students and residents who will be caring for the elderly and developing uniform access to quality care for the elderly, the community, and community institutions. (Author/ABB)
Lohr, K N
The Boston Working Group on Improving Health Care Outcomes Through Geriatric Rehabilitation was structured around four major themes: (1) defining disability or disablement; (2) the patient's experience of the processes and outcomes of care; (3) the role and value of clinical practice guidelines; and (4) the need for casemix and severity or risk adjustment procedures and measures. These discussions produced opening statements of policy or empiric issues and recommendations about the best means of demonstrating the benefits of geriatric rehabilitation and, in particular, how to measure, ensure, and improve the quality of rehabilitation services, especially for the elderly. This article summarizes the reports from the work groups and identifies some common themes. Critical points include: (1) the need to define and describe geriatric rehabilitation better for nonexperts in the health field and for patients and consumers in general; (2) the need for more research to link rehabilitation processes with measurable and clinically important outcomes; (3) the breadth and depth of domains of processes and outcomes of care that ideally could and should be measured; and (4) the need to reach many audiences with a clear message about the importance of geriatric rehabilitation in ensuring high quality of care and good health status and functional outcomes for all elderly patients.
de Guzman, Allan B.; Dalay, Naihra Jae Z.; De Guzman, Anthony Joe M.; de Jesus, Luigi Lauren E.; de Mesa, Jacqueline Barbara C.; Flores, Jan Derick D.
Spirituality is an aspect of holistic care delivery by health team members. However, despite the established relationship of spirituality and health, there had been little evidence of ways of assessing spirituality for nurses' clinical practice in Asia, particularly in regard to geriatric patients. This study aimed to establish an eiditic…
Hattstaedt, Mary Jane; Isaac, Margaret M.
The report describes the development of a set of equivalency tests for students in Nursing 2 who have had prior clinical laboratory training or experience in pediatrics, obstetrics, or geriatrics. For each of the three areas the examination packet includes: the course clinical objectives, the challenge examination objectives, a self-study guide, a…
Fisher, Elisa; Hasselberg, Michael; Conwell, Yeates; Weiss, Linda; Padrón, Norma A; Tiernan, Erin; Karuza, Jurgis; Donath, Jeremy; Pagán, José A
Health care delivery and payment systems are moving rapidly toward value-based care. To be successful in this new environment, providers must consistently deliver high-quality, evidence-based, and coordinated care to patients. This study assesses whether Project ECHO(®) (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes) GEMH (geriatric mental health)-a remote learning and mentoring program-is an effective strategy to address geriatric mental health challenges in rural and underserved communities. Thirty-three teleECHO clinic sessions connecting a team of specialists to 54 primary care and case management spoke sites (approximately 154 participants) were conducted in 10 New York counties from late 2014 to early 2016. The curriculum consisted of case presentations and didactic lessons on best practices related to geriatric mental health care. Twenty-six interviews with program participants were conducted to explore changes in geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Health insurance claims data were analyzed to assess changes in health care utilization and costs before and after program implementation. Findings from interviews suggest that the program led to improvements in clinician geriatric mental health care knowledge and treatment practices. Claims data analysis suggests that emergency room costs decreased for patients with mental health diagnoses. Patients without a mental health diagnosis had more outpatient visits and higher prescription and outpatient costs. Telementoring programs such as Project ECHO GEMH may effectively build the capacity of frontline clinicians to deliver high-quality, evidence-based care to older adults with mental health conditions and may contribute to the transformation of health care delivery systems from volume to value.
Matsubayashi, Kozo; Okumiya, Kiyohito
It is only during the last half century that aging came to be truly thought of as a societal issue rather than simply a personal one, as well as a challenge to be tackled by science and medicine. Diseases used to be studied only in hospitals and laboratories, centering on patients treated there. However, caring for elderly people in hospitals provides only a small glimpse into their world. With an advancing aged population, the reality of old age and age-related chronic illnesses takes place in homes and communities. To truly understand the health issues of the elderly, we ventured into communities and visited elderly persons in their homes and cultural environments in Kochi prefecture. The Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kochi Medical School, was the first in Japan to incorporate the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in preventive intervention and evaluation of the medical problems of elderly people in field settings, which could not be completely resolved in the hospital. Geriatric findings in field settings in Kochi before (1990-2000) and after (2000-2010) the introduction of the nationwide long-term care insurance system throughout Japan were reviewed. Field medicine also enables us to explore the aging of people living not only in Japan but also in several Asian communities and, further, into those living in atypical environments such as the Himalayan highlands. Based on the geriatric findings of field medicine carried out in sites with different ecology and cultures, we reconsidered the optimal aging situation based on the activities of daily living and quality of life, as well as chronic diseases of elderly people throughout the world. In this review article, we would like to highlight the importance of field medicine as a new paradigm of geriatric medical research.
Wojszel, Beata; Bień, Barbara
As the giants of geriatrics are considered: immobility, instability, incontinence, intellectual impairment, depression, visual and auditory impairment. They have multiple causation, chronic course, no simple cure and make the elderly person dependent on others for care. The paper presents the results of the study on the prevalence of the giants of geriatrics in community dwelling elderly people 75 yers old +. The study design: cross-sectional questionnaire study, survey. Population studied lived in two chosen areas (the urban and the rural one) with the high percentages of the demographic senility. The interviewers were doctors and nurses serving the studied areas. 463 randomly selected elderly people (233 from the rural and 230 from the urban area) took part in the study. The serious locomotive disability (III/IV group according to J. Piotrowski) was observed in 17.1% of the probands (20.4% in the urban and 13.7% in the rural area; the worse locomotive ability was observed in women and in the older age groups.). Falls were reported by 45.1% of the group (more frequently by women and in the rural area--58.3% vs. 31.9% in the city). Visual impairment reported 21.1% of probands in the urban area and above 50% in rural one and auditory impairment respectively 30.8% and 53.9% of them (in both cases positive correlation with the age was noticed). Incontinence of urine was found in 31.7% of cases in the city and in 46% of them in the rural area (more frequently in women) and incontinence of faeces in 6% (without urban/rural differences). The pathologic result of the Geriatric Depression Scale was observed in 49.2% of the elderly (more frequently in women) and of the Cognitive Impairment Test by Katzman in 20.5% (more frequently in women and in the older age groups). Only 18.4% of the studied group of the elderly maintained the community nurse visited their home during the last 12 months (27.8% in the city and 9% in the rural area) and more frequently--34.3%--general
Warshaw, Gregg A; Bragg, Elizabeth J; Shaull, Ruth W; Goldenhar, Linda M; Lindsell, Christopher J
This report documents the development and growth of geriatric medicine fellowship training in the United States through 2002. A cross-sectional survey of geriatric medicine fellowship programs was conducted in the fall 2001. All allopathic (119) and osteopathic (7) accredited geriatric medicine fellowship-training programs in the United States were involved. Data were collected using self-administered mailed and Web-based survey instruments. Longitudinal data from the American Medical Association (AMA) and the Association of American Medical Colleges' (AAMC) National Graduate Medical Education (GME) Census, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), and the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) were also analyzed. The survey instrument was designed to gather data about faculty, fellows, program curricula, and program directors (PDs). In addition, annual AMA/AAMC data from 1991 to the present was compiled to examine trends in the number of fellowship programs and the number of fellows. The overall survey response rate was 76% (96 of 126 PDs). Most (54%) of the PDs had been in their current position 4 or more years (range: <1-20 years), and 59% of PDs reported that they had completed formal geriatric medicine fellowship training. The number of fellowship programs and the number of fellows entering programs has slowly increased over the past decade. During 2001-02, 338 fellows were training in allopathic programs and seven in osteopathic programs (all years of training). Forty-six percent (n = 44) of responding programs offered only 1-year fellowship-training experiences. PDs reported that application rates for fellowship positions were stable during the academic years (AYs) 1999-2002, with the median number of applications per first year position available in AY 2000-01 being 10 (range: 1-77). In 2001-02, data from the AMA/AAMC National GME Census indicated a fill rate for first-year geriatric medicine fellowship positions of 69% (259 first
Whitehead, Jocelyne C; Gambino, Sara A; Richter, Jeffrey D; Ryan, Jennifer D
Objective This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools. Methods Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed. Results Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition. Conclusion The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training. PMID:26109860
Rose, Lesele H.
As technology continues to transform education from the status quo of traditional lecture-style instruction to an interactive engaging learning experience, students' experiences within the learning environment continues to change as well. This dissertation addressed the need for continuing research in advancing implementation of technology in higher education. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to discover more about the experiences of undergraduate nursing students using standardized geriatric evaluation tools when interacting with scripted geriatric patient bots tools in a simulated instructional intake setting. Data was collected through a Demographics questionnaire, an Experiential questionnaire, and a Reflection questionnaire. Triangulation of data collection occurred through an automatically created log of the interactions with the two bots, and by an automatically recorded log of the participants' movements while in the simulated geriatric intake interview. The data analysis consisted of an iterative review of the questionnaires and the participants' logs in an effort to identify common themes, recurring comments, and issues which would benefit from further exploration. Findings revealed that the interactions with the bots were perceived as a valuable experience for the participants from the perspective of interacting with the Geriatric Evaluation Tools in the role of an intake nurse. Further research is indicated to explore instructional interactions with bots in effectively mastering the use of established Geriatric Evaluation Tools.
Mahoney, Diane Feeney; Ladd, Elissa
The purpose of this study was to gain understanding about nurse practitioners' (NPs') prescriptive decision making for geriatric patients with attention to pharmaceutical marketing influences. Prior research has focused on physician prescribers and identified suboptimal practices. Because the majority of medications are prescribed to older adults, NPs in geriatric practice were targeted as an information-rich group to interview about prescribing issues. Given the exploratory nature of this research, qualitative focus group methods were employed using content analysis. Fifteen NPs were recruited at an annual national geriatric NP conference. They worked in all regions of the United States, had an average of 9 years prescribing experience, and participated in 1 of the 2 focus groups. The key theme that emerged was that they were more than a prescriber. Findings revealed overwhelming consistency among the NP participants that their nursing background instilled a holistic approach that encompassed both nondrug and therapeutic drug options and skepticism about drug marketing, as well as offered a positive difference by tailoring to their patients' biophysical, psychological, and economic needs with an involvement in the interplay of geriatric care issues not typically addressed by physicians. The participants' reported approaches were in alignment with geriatric prescribing recommendations.
Reneker, Jennifer C; Weems, Kyra; Scaia, Vincent
This study was aimed at determining the effect of an integrated group balance class for community-dwelling older adults within entry-level physical therapist coursework on student perceptions of geriatric physical therapy and geriatric physical therapy education. Twenty-nine Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students, 21-33 years old, in their second year of coursework in 2012, participated in an integrated clinical experience with exposure to geriatric patients at an outpatient facility at the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Akron, Ohio, USA. Student perceptions were collected before and after participation in the 8-week balance class. The Wilcoxon sign-ranked test was used to identify differences in perceptions after participation in the group balance class. Cohen's d values were calculated to measure the size of the pre-participation to post-participation effect for each measure. At the conclusion of the group class, the DPT students demonstrated an increase in positive perceptions of geriatric physical therapy in 8 measures, with small effect sizes (d=0.15-0.30). Two perceptions of geriatric physical therapy demonstrated a significant positive increase (P<.05) with moderate effect sizes (d=0.47 and d=0.50). The students' perceptions of geriatric education in the curriculum demonstrated a large positive effect for quality (d=1.68) and enjoyment (d=1.96). Positive changes were found in most of the perceptions of geriatrics and geriatric education after participation, suggesting that integrated clinical experiences with geriatric patients are an effective way to positively influence perceptions of physical therapist practice with older adults.
Courty, Bénédicte; Bouisson, Jean; Compagnone, Philippe
From a person-centered perspective, this study investigates the relationship between burn out and anxiety-depression, among geriatric caregivers, according to the helplessness-hopelessness theory. The population studied consists of 150 caregivers, drawn from different geriatric facilities throughout France. Data was collected from three self-administered questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) measures burn out, whereas the STAI measures anxiety and the CES-D assesses symptoms of depression. These tools have been used to analyze the effects of several potential vulnerability factors. Three distinct groups have been identified by cluster analysis on the MBI's dimensions. Subjects from the first cluster (n = 88) did not suffer from burn out, whereas subjects from group 2 (n = 46) and group 3 (n = 16) have been rated "at risk" and "at high risk" of developing burn out. The three groups have significantly different levels of anxiety and depression. Age, profession and type of facility appeared as vulnerability factors for professional burn out.
It is widely assumed that geriatric medicine was an invention of the twentieth century. However, from the time of Hippocrates, there has been interest in the prolongation of the lifespan, the maintenance of health in old age and agerelated disease patterns. The debate about whether old age was a natural phenomenon or a disease state was not resolved until the nineteenth century. Calls for medicine relating to old age to be recognised as a discrete entity at the time when medical specialisation was developing were disregarded until the second half of the twentieth century. This review discusses the history of the theories of ageing and of disease and the practice of medicine for older people from the classical period up to Marjory Warren's initiative in London in 1935 and the development of geriatrics as a medical specialty.
Kates, S L
The world's population is aging resulting in changes in the way we manage geriatric care. Furthermore, this population has a considerable risk of fragility fractures, most notably hip fractures. Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and have large economic consequences. It is due to these factors that the concept of an elderly trauma center was developed. These trauma centers utilize the expertise in orthopedic and geriatric disciplines to provide coordinated care to the elderly hip fracture patient. As a result, studies have demonstrated improvements in clinical outcomes within the hospital stay, a reduction in iatrogenic complications, and improvements in 1-year mortality rates compared to the usual care given at a similar facility. Furthermore, economic models have demonstrated that there is a role for regionalized hip fracture centers that can be both profitable and provide more efficient care to these patients.
Ribera Casado, José Manuel
The aim of this review is to offer an updated survey about the relationship between old age, vitamin D and different clinical conditions. Two third of people over 65 years has insufficient serum levels of vitamin D (<30 ng/ml). Almost half of them present deficiency (<20 ng/ml), severe in many cases (<15 ng/ml). This proportion increases when we analyze non-white populations, women, and people with obesity, diabetes mellitus or diets poor in Vitamin D. Low serum vitamin D concentration has been linked to mortality, osteoporosis, falls propensity, fractures, frailty, and cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Several epidemiological studies open the possibility to a relationship between low levels of the vitamin D and many other diseases. Among them with different cancer, diabetes, some types of dementia, Parkinson's disease, macular degeneration or periodontitis. Also with muscle strength, mobility and physical performance. Vitamin D supplementation has beneficial clinical effects, with a significant reduction of risks, specially in subjects living in nursing-homes and in those treated with corticoids or antireabsortive drugs. These effects are doses dependent. Risk of intoxication is minimal, even with high doses of vitamin.
Wood, Joan B
This article serves as an introduction to the special issue on learner-centered education in gerontology and geriatrics. The author discusses the origin of the special issue in a preconference workshop sponsored by the Association for Gerontology in Higher Education at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Gerontological Society of America in 2006, introduces the concept of learner-centered education, and briefly describes the articles in the special issue.
Mikhal'skiĭ, A I
Current challenges facing theory and practice in ageing sciences need new methods of experimental data investigation. This is a result as of experimental basis developments in biological research, so of information technology progress. These achievements make it possible to use well proven in different fields of science and engineering data mining methods for tasks in gerontology and geriatrics. Some examples of data mining methods implementation in gerontology are presented.
Biggers, Thompson; And Others
In response to the current crisis in the field of nursing, a study examined nursing students' perceived work-related stress and differences among associate degree, diploma, and baccalaureate nursing programs in their preparation of nursing students. The 171 subjects, representing the three different nursing programs, completed a questionnaire…
Benedict, R H; Goldstein, M Z; Dobraski, M; Tannenhaus, J
This study examined the degree to which demographic variables, psychiatric diagnosis, depression rating, and neuropsychological test performance predict adaptive kitchen behavior in geriatric psychiatry patients and normal elderly volunteers. Amixed group of 27 participants including 8 normal volunteers and 19 geriatric psychiatry inpatients underwent psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and a kitchen skills assessment conducted in a natural setting. Both depression and dementia were prevalent among patients. The kitchen skills assessment was abnormal in 69% of patients, compared to none of the normal volunteers. Estimated premorbid IQs, psychiatric diagnosis, and neuropsychological test scores significantly predicted the pass/fail status on the kitchen skills assessment, but there was no effect for age, education, gender, or depression. The discriminant function analysis classified 92% of cases, and the canonical correlation coefficient was .84. Of the neuropsychological tests employed in the study, two tests involving visuospatial processing and attention were retained in the discriminant function analysis. The results are consistent with previous studies that suggest that visuospatial tasks are more predictive of instrumental activities of daily living than are cognitive tasks emphasizing verbal and memory abilities. In addition, we conclude that neuropsychological test data are useful and valid for the purpose of guiding clinical judgments regarding activities of daily living in geriatric psychiatry patients.
Rutherford, Bret R; Taylor, Warren D; Brown, Patrick J; Sneed, Joel R; Roose, Steven P
Advances in understanding the biological bases of aging have intellectually revitalized the field of geriatric psychiatry and broadened its scope to include promoting successful aging and studying resilience factors in older adults. To describe the process by which this paradigm shift has occurred and illustrate its implications for treatment and research of late-life brain disorders, late-life depression is discussed as a prototype case. Prior phases of geriatric psychiatry research were focused on achieving depressive symptom relief, outlining pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between older and younger adults, and identifying moderators of treatment response. Building on this work, current geriatric psychiatry researchers have begun to disentangle the etiologic complexity in late-life depression by focusing on the causative aging-related processes involved, identifying both neurobiological and behavioral intermediates, and finally delineating depression subtypes that are distinguishable by their underlying biology and the treatment approach required. In this review, we discuss several age-related processes that are critical to the development of late-life mood disorders, outline implications of these processes for the clinical evaluation and management of later-life psychiatric disorders, and finally put forth suggestions for better integrating aging and developmental processes into the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria.
Chikkaramanjegowda, Vidyashree; de Leon, Jose
Venlafaxine is not usually associated with risk of orthostatic hypotension. A 65-year-old US Caucasian female taking 225 mg/day of venlafaxine extended-release developed symptomatic orthostatic hypotension. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure dropped by 25 and 18 mm Hg, respectively, from supine position to standing position within 3 minutes. The patient was otherwise healthy and the orthostatic hypotension resolved with venlafaxine discontinuation. This was a probable venlafaxine adverse drug reaction according to the Naranjo scale. This case contributes to the scarce literature that indicates that clinicians need to be aware that occasionally venlafaxine can induce clinically significant orthostatic hypotension, particularly in geriatric patients. Our patient did not have orthostatic hypotension when she was taking venlafaxine at 60 years of age in higher venlafaxine doses (300 mg/day) but developed this adverse drug reaction when venlafaxine was restarted at the geriatric age. This case indicates that a history of prior tolerance to venlafaxine does not guarantee tolerance after 65 years of age. If a clinician decides to use venlafaxine in geriatric patients, the clinician should warn the patient about the risk of orthostatic hypotension and consider very slow titration and low doses. PMID:23984153
Butler, James P; Fujii, Masahiko; Sasaki, Hidetada
Our new lessons of nurturing life to make happiness and well-being of geriatric patients suggest comprise several important steps. First, geriatric patient care should not be delegated to specialists who focus on individual organ system. Instead, we should respond to the patient's condition based on comprehensive assessment to identify the single pathogenesis. Second, we should appreciate that the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) often reflect the behavioral and psychological symptoms of the caregiver (BPSC), and in particular the caregiver's attitude. Third, pleasant stimulations to the limbic system should receive more emphasis than attempting brain training in atrophied portions of the neocortex. Fourth, we should aim not for "successful aging," but for "balanced aging." Fifth, we should rely less on drug-based therapy and utilize more non-pharmacologic approaches to appropriate therapy. Geriatric patients should be cared for based on our new lessons of nurturing life rather than the heavily medicalized treatment modalities that are in wide use today.
McNicoll, Lynn; Fulton, Ana Tuya; Ritter, Dale; Besdine, Richard W
The objective of this study was to develop an educational program introducing geriatrics to medical students during anatomy. Observational study of an educational intervention in medical school was the design utilized. First-year medical students in an anatomy laboratory were participants. The program consists of a lecture and a workshop. First, a geriatrics lecture early in the course presents demographic data on the cadavers, followed by comparison with national data on leading causes of death. Second, there is a "treasure hunt" in the anatomy laboratory conducted by geriatricians. Each geriatrician spends 45 minutes with one-four-student cadaver group at a time, reviewing anatomical findings and facilitating a discussion of clinical correlations and implications. A list of common anatomical findings, aging- and disease-related, is distributed to the students as an aid in identifying findings of interest. Students have been surprised to learn that the mean age of the 24 cadavers exceeded 80 years (mean 81, median 85 for 2 years), and that causes of death mirrored national data. The students begin understanding aging and appreciate the valuable resource of cadavers. The students acquire a new holistic perspective regarding their cadavers that is not apparent during the dissections. Students and faculty find the experience valuable in understanding the interplay of disease and aging. Evaluations have been mostly positive (82-87% positive responses). The anatomy lecture and "treasure hunt" experience are unique strategies for using cadavers to introduce geriatrics principles into the medical school.
Maggiore, Ronald J; Gorawara-Bhat, Rita; Levine, Stacie K; Dale, William
The aging of the U.S. population continues to highlight emerging issues in providing care generally for older adults and specifically for older adults with cancer. The majority of patients with cancer in the U.S. are currently 65 years of age or older; therefore, training and research in geriatrics and geriatric oncology are viewed to be integral in meeting the needs of this vulnerable population. Yet, the ways to develop and integrate best geriatrics training within the context of hematology/oncology fellowship remain unclear. Toward this end, the current study seeks to evaluate the prior and current geriatric experiences and perspectives of hematology/oncology fellows. To gain insight into these experiences, focus groups of hematology/oncology fellows were conducted. Emergent themes included: 1) perceived lack of formal geriatric oncology didactics among fellows; 2) a considerable amount of variability exists in pre-fellowship geriatric experiences; 3) shared desire to participate in a geriatric oncology-based clinic; 4) differences across training levels in confidence in managing older adults with cancer; and 5) identification of specific criteria on how best to approach older adults with cancer in a particular clinical scenario. The present findings will help guide future studies in evaluating geriatrics among hematology/oncology fellows across institutions. They will also have implications in the development of geriatrics curricula and competencies specific to hematology/oncology training.
Martinez, Iveris L; Mora, Jorge Camilo
Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences. This approach is intended to expose students to older adults from diverse communities and adequately prepare students to address the complex and individual needs of these patients. Initial results indicate proficiency in the minimum geriatric competencies covered. The growth and diversity of the older adult population makes it important to integrate and evaluate geriatrics education in undergraduate medical education.
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Nursing Homes Basic Facts & Information Nursing homes have changed ... physical health and/or mental disabilities. Is a Nursing Home Right for You? Almost half of all ...
Politynska, Barbara; van Rijsselt, René J T; Lewko, Jolanta; Philp, Ian; Figueiredo, Daniella; De Sousa, Lilliana
Quality assurance (QA) in gerontological and geriatric education programs is regarded as essential to maintain standards, strengthen accountability, improve readability of qualifications, and facilitate professional mobility. In this article the authors present a summary of international developments in QA and elaborate four international trends, including the pros and cons of QA. Furthermore, the authors focus on accreditation and credit transfer opportunities in vocational and academic education programs for primary care practitioners, including nurses, home care workers, social workers, physiotherapists, and family doctors involved in the care of older people in nine European countries and highlight changes that have occurred over the last decade. Vocational education and professional training in elderly care at the basic and postgraduate specialization level remains extremely diversified, reflecting the lack of standardization for programs outside the higher education sector. The situation is ripe for the implementation of the European Qualifications Framework, which is intended to promote transparency, comparability and portability of qualifications at different levels and the introduction of a credit transfer system for vocational education to be established in 2012.
Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Weidner, Julia A.; Bales, Connie W.
The global prevalence of obesity in the older adult population is growing, an increasing concern in both the developed and developing countries of the world. The study of geriatric obesity and its management is a relatively new area of research, especially pertaining to those with elevated health risks. This review characterizes the state of science for this “fat and frail” population and identifies the many gaps in knowledge where future study is urgently needed. In community dwelling older adults, opportunities to improve both body weight and nutritional status are hampered by inadequate programs to identify and treat obesity, but where support programs exist, there are proven benefits. Nutritional status of the hospitalized older adult should be optimized to overcome the stressors of chronic disease, acute illness, and/or surgery. The least restrictive diets tailored to individual preferences while meeting each patient’s nutritional needs will facilitate the energy required for mobility, respiratory sufficiency, immunocompentence, and wound healing. Complications of care due to obesity in the nursing home setting, especially in those with advanced physical and mental disabilities, are becoming more ubiquitous; in almost all of these situations, weight stability is advocated, as some evidence links weight loss with increased mortality. High quality interdisciplinary studies in a variety of settings are needed to identify standards of care and effective treatments for the most vulnerable obese older adults. PMID:27153084
Fisher, Susan E.; Burgio, Louis D.; Thorn, Beverly E.; Hardin, J. Michael
Purpose: We developed and evaluated an explicit procedure for obtaining self-report pain data from nursing home residents across a broad range of cognitive status, and we evaluated the consistency, stability, and concurrent validity of resident responses. Design and Methods: Using a modification of the Geriatric Pain Measure (GPM-M2), we…
Cipriani, Luca; And Others
In an Italian university, a multidisciplinary course in nursing home care focused on use of the Resident Assessment Instrument. Students learned to use it effectively and developed decision-making and problem-solving abilities using concepts of comprehensive geriatric assessment and multidisciplinary teamwork. (SK)
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Golden, Adam G; Silverman, Michael A; Issenberg, S Barry
Physicians' career interest in geriatric medicine continues to wane at a time when the health care needs of older adults are increasing. Nurse practitioners have helped fill the U.S. physician gap by delivering outpatient care to older adults and can practice with full autonomy in many states. Nursing graduate school programs are preparing adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioners to successfully deliver outpatient care services using a model of training with fewer requirements that is more flexible and of shorter duration compared with the training model for geriatricians. Nurse practitioners can also obtain initial certification and recertification with less time commitment and at lower cost than geriatricians. Whether the outpatient care provided by nurse practitioners is comparable to the care provided by physicians remains a subject of debate. However, as nurse practitioners' scope of practice expands, the perception exists that the outpatient clinical roles of adult-gerontology primary care nurse practitioners and geriatricians are similar. This raises questions about whether there are too many educational and certification requirements for geriatricians. The authors encourage medical educators to learn from the success of the nurse practitioner education model for training large numbers of primary care providers. They propose decreasing the duration of medical school and graduate medical education training for geriatricians and providing educational debt repayment programs as potential incentives to stimulate career interest in geriatric medicine.
Bagri, Anita S.; Zaw, Khin M.; Milanez, Marcos N.; Palacios, Juan J.; Qadri, Syeda S.; Bliss, Linda A.; Roos, Bernard A.; Ruiz, Jorge G.
A total of 8 geriatric medicine fellows participated in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) assessing communication skills and clinical reasoning in common geriatric syndromes. To determine their perceptions about the experience, we conducted surveys and semistructured interviews. We analyzed the survey data using descriptive…
Harris, Clarke S.; Ivory, Peter B. C. B.
Reality Orientation (RO) Therapy, a recently developed mode of treatment for use with geriatric patients was discussed. A controlled study was conducted comparing the effects of RO with those of traditional hospital care. The results indicated that RO is a promising technique for use with a chronic geriatric patient population. (Author)
Natali, Jean-Philippe; Schwald, Nathalie; Bach, Frédérique; Bourgouin, Gaëlle; Chiffray, Dominique; Bloch, Frédéric
A geriatric mobile team was created in the emergency department of Cochin Hospital in Paris, in 2005. This key player in the multi-disciplinary management of elderly patients in the emergency department and in the geriatric care pathway, showed, during its 10-year of existence, its utility.
Price, Rachel M.; Alkema, Gretchen E.; Frank, Janet C.
A logic model is a communications tool that graphically represents a program's resources, activities, priority target audiences for change, and the anticipated outcomes. This article describes the logic model development process undertaken by the California Geriatric Education Center in spring 2008. The CGEC is one of 48 Geriatric Education…
Schrader, Susan L.; Blue, Rebecca; Miller, Doreen; Jensen, Gwenneth; Zawada, Edward T., Jr.; Hill, Paula; Johannsen, Gail; Elsberry, Dorothy Anne; Nelson, Debralee; Lockwood, Dean
In a three-year collaborative venture between a hospital and a university, an interdisciplinary team trained 684 allied health professionals and students in geriatrics. Outcomes included increased geriatric knowledge, more graduates serving rural underserved areas, and more interdisciplinary clinical initiatives. (SK)
... palliative care, and performance and oversight of the VA Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Centers... Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, update on VA's geriatric workforce (to...
... advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of VA Geriatric Research, Education, and... capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical, psychological, and social needs of... Centers. The meeting will feature presentations and discussions on VA's geriatrics and extended...
Schigelone, Amy Schiller; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit
This paper provides insight into the reasons underlying medical students' interest in geriatrics. Semi-structured interviews, informed by attitude theory, were conducted with first-year medical students who indicated that they were not interested in geriatric medicine ( n =10) and those who indicated that they were moderately to very interested in…
Schigelone, Amy Schiller; Ingersoll-Dayton, Berit
This paper provides insight into the reasons underlying medical students' interest in geriatrics. Semi-structured interviews, informed by attitude theory, were conducted with first-year medical students who indicated that they were not interested in geriatric medicine and those who indicated that they were moderately to very interested in…
... VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight... pertaining to geriatrics and gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities... feature presentations and discussions on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs, aging...
Martinez, Iveris L.; Mora, Jorge Camilo
Medical school accreditation requirements require educational opportunities in geriatrics. Twenty-six minimum graduating competencies in geriatrics have recently been identified for medical students. The authors describe how these competencies are being integrated into a new medical curriculum through coursework and community-based experiences.…
To assess the basic knowledge of medical trainees, in the absence of a structured geriatrics curriculum, around a variety of geriatric medicine components that are considered essential for the care of the rapidly increasing elderly population. Eighty-three trainees at different levels of training in internal medicine were asked about a variety of common geriatric conditions. Those included: delirium, falls, geriatric syndromes, pain, cognitive impairment, and medications. The trainees' knowledge about common geriatric condition was overall poor. The most pronounced deficits included: the lack of familiarity in diagnosing geriatric syndromes (63 %) or managing them (67 %), the underestimation of the prevalence of delirium (49 %), and the tendency to undertreat pain (64 %). Poor familiarity with polypharmacy and its impact, as well as inappropriate prescription practices in the elderly were also observed. In the absence of a structured geriatric medicine curriculum, internal medicine trainees' knowledge about important geriatric conditions is poor, even if their internal medicine knowledge is overall adequate. This would translate into suboptimal care for this vulnerable and rapidly expanding segment of the population.
Morimoto, Sarah Shizuko; Alexopoulos, George S.
Synopsis The purpose of this article is to identify the cognitive deficits commonly associated with geriatric depression, and describe their clinical significance. We then summarize the complex relationship between geriatric depression and dementia and discuss possible shared mechanisms. Last, we present evidence regarding whether the cognitive deficits in depression may be mitigated with medication or with computerized cognitive remediation. PMID:24229654
Ran, Mao-Sheng; Chan, Cecilia Lai-Wan; Chen, Eric Yu-Hai; Tang, Cui-Ping; Lin, Fu-Rong; Li, Li; Li, Si-Gan; Mao, Wen-Jun; Hu, Shi-Hui; Schwab, Gerhard; Conwell, Yeates
Little is known about the differences in mortality among non-institutionalized geriatric and younger patients with schizophrenia. In this study long-term mortality and suicidal behavior of all the geriatric (age greater than or equal to 65 years), middle-age (age 41-64 years), and young (age 15-40 years) subjects with schizophrenia living in a…
Tumosa, Nina; Horvath, Kathy J.; Huh, Terri; Livote, Elayne E.; Howe, Judith L.; Jones, Lauren Ila; Kramer, B. Josea
The Geriatric Scholar Program (GSP) is a Department of Veterans Affairs' (VA) workforce development program to infuse geriatrics competencies in primary care. This multimodal educational program is targeted to primary care providers and ancillary staff who work in VA's rural clinics. GSP consists of didactic education and training in geriatrics…
Shield, Renee R.; Farrell, Timothy W.; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan E.; Wetle, Terrie
Purpose of the study: The Alpert Medical School of Brown University began to integrate geriatrics content into all preclerkship courses and key clerkship cases as part of a major medical school curriculum redesign in 2006. This study evaluates students' responses to geriatrics integration within the curriculum using journals kept by volunteer…
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…
The legal foundations for provision and realization of geriatric rehabilitation benefits are contained in particular in Book 9 of the German social code, SGB IX (covering rehabilitation and participation of people with disabilities). This paper discusses claims foundations and benefit prerequisites of geriatric rehabilitation taking into consideration the relations between Book 5 (on health insurance) and Book 9 of the social code. The article includes a definition of "geriatric rehabilitation" in light of the SGB IX, describes the benefit carriers' obligations as well as the procedure in place for determining geriatric rehab need, in this context appraising the designation as "geriatric patient" in terms of its appropriateness as an identifying criterion in determining need. Provision of geriatric rehab benefits is contingent on a potential for attaining rehab goals as specified by SGB IX as well as on fulfillment of the benefit prerequisites. Responsibility for the content, extent and quality of geriatric rehabilitation lies with the benefit carriers, as is the case for the obligation to secure availability of the required numbers and quality of rehabilitation facilities and services. The article specifies the legal foundations of the various benefit types (ambulatory, mobile rehab, under a Personal Budget, integrated benefit provision, or early rehab), and discusses geriatric rehabilitation in the framework of an insurance-based medical care system as well as of activating care.
Rollins, Lisa K.; Martirosian, Tovia; Gazewood, John D.
Approximately 19% to 20% of all family medicine office visits involve care to patients older than age 65, yet limited research addresses family medicine geriatric education in the outpatient setting. This study explored how geriatric content is incorporated into resident/attending precepting encounters, using direct observation. An observer…
Barbas, Andrew S; Haney, John C; Henry, Brandon V; Heflin, Mitchell T; Lagoo, Sandhya A
Despite the growth of the elderly population, most surgical training programs lack formalized geriatric education. The authors' aim was to implement a formalized geriatric surgery curriculum at an academic medical center. Surgery residents were surveyed on attitudes toward the care of elderly patients and the importance of various geriatric topics to daily practice. A curriculum consisting of 16 didactic sessions was created with faculty experts moderating. After curriculum completion, residents were surveyed to assess curriculum impact. Residents expressed increased comfort in accessing community resources. A greater percentage of residents recognized the significance of delirium and acute renal failure in elderly patients. Implementing a geriatric surgery curriculum geared toward surgery residents is feasible and can increase resident comfort with multidisciplinary care and recognition of clinical conditions pertinent to elderly surgical patients. This initiative also provided valuable experience for geriatric surgery curriculum development.
Medication management is an important component of medical education, particularly in the field of geriatrics. The Association of American Medical Colleges has put forth 26 minimum geriatrics competencies under eight domains for graduating medical students; medication management is one of these domains. The Portal of Geriatric Online education (www.POGOe.org) is an online public repository of geriatrics educational materials and modules developed by geriatrics educators and academicians in the United States, freely available for use by educators and learners in the field. The three POGOe materials presented in this review showcase pearls of medication management for medical and other professional students in novel learning formats that can be administered without major prior preparation. The review compares and contrasts the three materials in descriptive and tabular formats to enable its appropriate use by educators in promoting self-learning or group learning among their learners.
DeCaporale-Ryan, Lauren N; Cornell, Ann; McCann, Robert M; McCormick, Kevin; Speice, Jenny
There has been increased attention on the needs of the burgeoning older adult population, with focus on the limited education and training experiences available in geriatric care. Older adults transitioning between levels of care often require increased attention, and the American Geriatrics Society (AGS) Task Force on the Future of Geriatric Medicine has encouraged greater training opportunities be provided to better understand the needs of this population. The Hospital to Home Program is one model of geriatric training emphasizing many of the AGS recommendations. Through qualitative analyses of 51 internal medicine residents' reflections, the authors report how this educational program is meeting the above need and share how Hospital to Home is enhancing residents' skills in creating a safe discharge for geriatric patients and their families.
Thapa, D P; Jha, A K; Kharel, C; Shrestha, S
Geriatric health care has become a major issue worldwide. There are no data regarding geriatric dermatologic diseases are available from Nepal. Patients of 60 years and above were enrolled in the Nepali fiscal year 2067(April 2010-April 2011). The data included age, sex, place, and diagnosis. The aim of the study is to determine the characteristic pattern and frequency of dermatoses in dermatologic patients aged 60 years and above. There were total of 6442 patients who visited out patients department. Out of which frequency of geriatric patients were 330, which constitute about 5.1%. The male to female ratio was 50% each. The most common cutaneous dermatoses was eczema 35.8%, fungal infection 13.6%, viral infection 7%, followed by pruritus 7.3%, scabies and photodermatitis 4.5% each, Inflammatory papulosquamous disorder 3.3%, Bacterial infection and Icthyosis 2.1% each, vesiculobullous 1.8%, tumors and pigmentary disorder 0.6% and Miscellaneous group (keratoderma, callus, urticaria, diabetic ulcer, burgers disease, burning feet syndrome, Rosacea, Drug rash-amoxicillin, senile acne, prurigo nodularis, hansens disease, pellagra, Actinic cheilitis) 15.8%. Few patients had more than one dermatoses which constitute < 1% .Photodermatitis was found to be statistically significant. The most common dermatoses were Eczema in females followed by Photodermatitis and comparatively in males viral and fungal infections were common. This study depicts various characteristic patterns of dermatoses seen in elderly. Eczema and infections was found to be most common diseases seen in elderly. Further epidemiologic studies including treatment, follow-up of elderly patients has to be carried out to know the burden of the disease and decrease morbidity and psychological concern associated with diseases.
George, Jim; Adamson, John; Woodford, Henry
Joint geriatric/psychiatric wards are a potential solution to improving care of older patients with both psychiatric and medical illnesses in acute hospitals. A literature search using Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and CINAHL between 1980 and 2010 was carried out for information about joint wards for older people. Thirteen relevant papers were identified. These wards share common characteristics and there is evidence that they may reduce length of stay and be cost-effective, but there are no high-quality randomised controlled trials. Further research is needed, particularly regarding cost-effectiveness.
Kadowaki, Laura; Chow, Helen; Metcalfe, Sarah; Friesen, Kathleen
As the Canadian population ages, healthcare systems have become increasingly interested in exploring new ways to deliver services to frail older adults, and in particular older adults with dementia. The Specialized Seniors Clinics (SSCs) are an innovative integrated network of six outpatient clinics in BC's Fraser Health Authority that utilize interprofessional teams to provide comprehensive geriatric assessments and care planning for frail older adults. The SSCs provided approximately 19,000 appointments in the past fiscal year, and clients and primary care physicians are highly satisfied with the model. This article describes the SSC model and provides reflection on the model development, implementation and standardization processes.
Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients.
Baijens, Laura WJ; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret
This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization’s classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies
Baijens, Laura Wj; Clavé, Pere; Cras, Patrick; Ekberg, Olle; Forster, Alexandre; Kolb, Gerald F; Leners, Jean-Claude; Masiero, Stefano; Mateos-Nozal, Jesús; Ortega, Omar; Smithard, David G; Speyer, Renée; Walshe, Margaret
This position document has been developed by the Dysphagia Working Group, a committee of members from the European Society for Swallowing Disorders and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, and invited experts. It consists of 12 sections that cover all aspects of clinical management of oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) related to geriatric medicine and discusses prevalence, quality of life, and legal and ethical issues, as well as health economics and social burden. OD constitutes impaired or uncomfortable transit of food or liquids from the oral cavity to the esophagus, and it is included in the World Health Organization's classification of diseases. It can cause severe complications such as malnutrition, dehydration, respiratory infections, aspiration pneumonia, and increased readmissions, institutionalization, and morbimortality. OD is a prevalent and serious problem among all phenotypes of older patients as oropharyngeal swallow response is impaired in older people and can cause aspiration. Despite its prevalence and severity, OD is still underdiagnosed and untreated in many medical centers. There are several validated clinical and instrumental methods (videofluoroscopy and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing) to diagnose OD, and treatment is mainly based on compensatory measures, although new treatments to stimulate the oropharyngeal swallow response are under research. OD matches the definition of a geriatric syndrome as it is highly prevalent among older people, is caused by multiple factors, is associated with several comorbidities and poor prognosis, and needs a multidimensional approach to be treated. OD should be given more importance and attention and thus be included in all standard screening protocols, treated, and regularly monitored to prevent its main complications. More research is needed to develop and standardize new treatments and management protocols for older patients with OD, which is a challenging mission for our societies.
The opinions expressed in the abstracts are those of the authors and are not to be construed as the opinion of the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) or the organizers of the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society. Although the publisher (Canadian Geriatrics Society) has made every effort to accurately reproduce the abstracts, the Canadian Geriatrics Society and the 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the Canadian Geriatrics Society assumes no responsibility and/or liability for any errors and/or omissions in any abstract as published.
Background Disease management programmes (DMPs) have been shown to reduce hospital readmissions and mortality in adults with heart failure (HF), but their effectiveness in elderly patients or in those with major comorbidity is unknown. The Multicenter Randomised Trial of a Heart Failure Management Programme among Geriatric Patients (HF-Geriatrics) assesses the effectiveness of a DMP in elderly patients with HF and major comorbidity. Methods/Design Clinical trial in 700 patients aged ≥ 75 years admitted with a primary diagnosis of HF in the acute care unit of eight geriatric services in Spain. Each patient should meet at least one of the following comorbidty criteria: Charlson index ≥ 3, dependence in ≥ 2 activities of daily living, treatment with ≥ 5 drugs, active treatment for ≥ 3 diseases, recent emergency hospitalization, severe visual or hearing loss, cognitive impairment, Parkinson's disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), anaemia, or constitutional syndrome. Half of the patients will be randomly assigned to a 1-year DMP led by a case manager and the other half to usual care. The DMP consists of an educational programme for patients and caregivers on the management of HF, COPD (knowledge of the disease, smoking cessation, immunizations, use of inhaled medication, recognition of exacerbations), diabetes (knowledge of the disease, symptoms of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia, self-adjustment of insulin, foot care) and depression (knowledge of the disease, diagnosis and treatment). It also includes close monitoring of the symptoms of decompensation and optimisation of treatment compliance. The main outcome variables are quality of life, hospital readmissions, and overall mortality during a 12-month follow-up. Discussion The physiological changes, lower life expectancy, comorbidity and low health literacy associated with aging may influence the effectiveness of DMPs in HF. The HF-Geriatrics study will provide direct
Background The geriatric nursing home population is vulnerable to acute and deteriorating illness due to advanced age, multiple chronic illnesses and high levels of dependency. Although the detriments of hospitalising the frail and old are widely recognised, hospital admissions from nursing homes remain common. Little is known about what alternatives exist to prevent and reduce hospital admissions from this setting. The objective of this study, therefore, is to summarise the effects of interventions to reduce acute hospitalisations from nursing homes. Methods A systematic literature search was performed in Cochrane Library, PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science in April 2013. Studies were eligible if they had a geriatric nursing home study population and were evaluating any type of intervention aiming at reducing acute hospital admission. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials, quasi randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series were eligible study designs. The process of selecting studies, assessing them, extracting data and grading the total evidence was done by two researchers individually, with any disagreement solved by a third. We made use of meta-analyses from included systematic reviews, the remaining synthesis is descriptive. Based on the type of intervention, the included studies were categorised in: 1) Interventions to structure and standardise clinical practice, 2) Geriatric specialist services and 3) Influenza vaccination. Results Five systematic reviews and five primary studies were included, evaluating a total of 11 different interventions. Fewer hospital admissions were found in four out of seven evaluations of structuring and standardising clinical practice; in both evaluations of geriatric specialist services, and in influenza vaccination of residents. The quality of the evidence for all comparisons was of low or very low quality, using the GRADE approach. Conclusions Overall, eleven
Lee, Daniel K; Mulder, Gerit D
The growing number of lower-extremity abnormalities that are seen in inpatient and outpatient settings has paralleled the increased number of elderly in the population. Foot and ankle deformities, disorders, and arthritis, which are not manifested until late in life, have become more common as more individuals attain longer lifespans. Although conservative therapies are a priority when addressing the geriatric population, surgical options may be overlooked secondary to a misunderstanding of their ability to overcome perioperative management. Advanced minimally invasive surgical procedures for the foot and ankle have decreased the complications associated with foot surgery, making surgical intervention a viable option for many of the elderly. The newer procedures do not, however, minimize strict perioperative management, including pharmacological and nutritional assessment, and cardiopulmonary precautions. Outpatient surgical intervention may effectively address many ongoing problems associated with pain, decreased ambulation, and decreased quality of life. Current techniques in joint reconstruction in the forefoot and midfoot allow weight bearing from the day of surgery. Most hindfoot and ankle surgeries now permit minimal bone resection and incision through arthroscopy, resulting in improved muscle and tendon repair and early weight bearing. The changes in surgical approaches for the geriatric foot have permitted more effective and rapid intervention in problems affecting ambulation and quality of life in our aged population.
Saratzis, Athanasios; Mohamed, Saif
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a relatively common pathology among the elderly. More people above the age of 80 will have to undergo treatment of an AAA in the future. This review aims to summarize the literature focusing on endovascular repair of AAA in the geriatric population. A systematic review of the literature was performed, including results from endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) registries and studies comparing open repair and EVAR in those above the age of 80. A total of 15 studies were identified. EVAR in this population is efficient with a success rate exceeding 90% in all cases, and safe, with early mortality and morbidity being superior among patients undergoing EVAR against open repair. Late survival can be as high as 95% after 5 years. Aneurysm-related death over long-term follow-up was low after EVAR, ranging from 0 to 3.4%. Endovascular repair can be offered safely in the geriatric population and seems to compare favourably with open repair in all studies in the literature to date. PMID:23097659
Schäfer, D; Moog, F P
300 years ago, the lawyer Theodosius Schöpffer coined the notion gerontology. On this occasion, this paper offers terms and corresponding concepts of gerontology which arose in the western tradition: 1. From the Graeco-Roman antiquity until 1750, gerocomy (the care for the elderly) was defined as a branch of medicine, but in practice almost did not exist. Basically, it provided instructions for a way of life in conformity with the physiological circumstances of elderly people. Its implementation was left to the patient. Furthermore, in the early modern times medical treatises dealt more frequently with diseases of the elderly and their therapy. The gerokomia succeeded in evolving a specific technical literature. Yet it failed to get institutionalized. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ignaz Nascher interpreted geriatrics as a counterpart to pediatrics and opposed it to a clinical-pathological consideration of old age before 1900. He aimed at the exploration and treatment of old age as an autonomous physiological entity. Under the influence of the demographic transformation the institutionalization of geriatrics as a interdisciplinary branch within medicine could be realized relatively soon. 3. Around 1930, we experience the recreation of the notion gerontology, initially restricted to medical gerontology. However, with the integration of the non-medical sciences of old age the spectrum and the objectives changed. Today gerontology signifies on a international level a generic term or independent scientific discipline beside medicine. This evolution corresponds with the intentions pursued 300 years ago.
Navarro, Albert; Lynd, Frances E
The International Plan of Action on Aging 2002 emphasized the need to promote and develop research on aging, especially in underdeveloped countries. This article aims at describing the current situation with regard to the international scientific production in the field of geriatrics and gerontology. All articles published in journals included in the categories "Geriatrics and Gerontology" of the Science Citation Index or "Gerontology" of the Social Science Citation Index in 2002 were analyzed. There is unquestionable predomination by the United States, which participates in 53.8% of the articles analyzed, followed by the United Kingdom (9.66%) and Canada (6.66%). The production of the 15 European Union countries together is 31.2%. When adjustments are made for economic or population factors, other countries show their importance: Israel and Sweden, for example. Authors from richer countries participate in more than 95% of the articles, whereas those in less-developed countries tend to publish less, and when they do so, it is through collaboration with more-developed countries. In general, only 10.5% of the articles are written in collaboration with institutions from different countries. One of the keys to stimulating research in less wealthy countries would seem to be precisely through collaboration. This would aid the transfer of knowledge and experience, allowing researchers in these countries to obtain autonomy to perform their own studies independently and to provide them with the ability to gain access for their publications at the international level.
Kottner, J; Beeckman, D
The key characteristics of geriatric patients are advanced age, multimorbidity, a decrease of psychical performance and care dependency. In addition, advanced age, chronic and acute diseases and treatments (e.g. polypharmacy) lead, either directly or indirectly, to a wide range of skin and tissue problems. Incontinence-associated dermatitis and pressure ulcers (PUs) belong to the most prevalent in geriatric settings. Prolonged exposure of the skin to urine and/or stool can cause an irritant contact dermatitis. Skin surface 'wetness', increased skin surface pH, digestive intestinal enzymes, repeated skin cleansing activities, and a possible occlusive environment contribute to irritation and inflammation. Prevention and treatment includes activities to maintain and to enhance continence and to limit, to reduce exposure of the skin to urine and stool, and to promote healing and reepithelialisation. In frail aged skin, it is recommended to use incontinence products with smooth and breathable materials with maximum absorption capacity. Immediate skin cleansing after soiling using mild cleansers and protective and caring leave-on products are recommended. PUs are localized injuries to the skin and/or underlying tissue caused by sustained deformations of skin and underlying soft tissues. PUs management includes risk assessment, repositioning and mobilization, and the use of appropriate support surfaces. Patients must be never positioned directly on an existing PU. Especially at end of life, the PU closure and wound healing may not be the primary therapeutic goal.
Ellis, Kristen; Rubal-Peace, Georgina; Chang, Victoria; Liang, Eva; Wong, Nicolas; Campbell, Stephanie
Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern. Antimicrobial stewardship and multi-disciplinary intervention can prevent inappropriate antimicrobial use and improve patient care. Special populations, especially older adults and patients with mental health disorders, can be particularly in need of such intervention. The purpose of this project was to assess the impact of pharmacist intervention on appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit (GPU). Patients ≥18 years old prescribed oral antibiotics during GPU admission were included. Antimicrobial appropriateness was assessed pre- and post-pharmacist intervention. During the six-month pre- and post-intervention phase, 63 and 70 patients prescribed antibiotics were identified, respectively. Subjects in the post-intervention group had significantly less inappropriate doses for indication compared to the pre-intervention group (10.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.02), and significantly less antibiotics prescribed for an inappropriate duration (15.8% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.01). There were no significant differences for use of appropriate drug for indication or appropriate dose for renal function between groups. Significantly more patients in the post intervention group had medications prescribed with appropriate dose, duration, and indication (51% vs. 66%, p = 0.04). Pharmacist intervention was associated with decreased rates of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit. PMID:27025523
Man-Son-Hing, M.; Power, B.; Byszewski, A.; Dalziel, W. B.
PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: As the Canadian population ages, family physicians encounter increasing numbers of elderly people with medical, functional, psychological, and social difficulties. In the past two decades, most regions of Canada have developed systems of specialized geriatric services, available on a consultative basis, to assist family physicians evaluating and managing elderly patients with these difficulties. For many family physicians, however, it is often unclear which of their elderly patients are likely to benefit from referral to these geriatric services. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: Using an interdisciplinary approach, specialized geriatric services seek to optimize health, maximize function, promote independence, and prevent or delay institutionalization of elderly people. Yet not all elderly people benefit from referral to specialized geriatric services. This article offers a clear and clinically practical framework to help family physicians identify elderly patients in their practices who are likely to benefit from referral to specialized geriatric services. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: By synthesizing previous work on the concept of frail elderly persons into a 2 x 2 matrix, the level and intensity of geriatric intervention most appropriate for different segments of the elderly population is clarified. CONCLUSIONS: Using the simple approach described in this article, family physicians should be able to use available geriatric resources easily and efficiently to optimize the health and function of their elderly patients. PMID:9154364
Evans, Tracy; Gross, Brian; Rittenhouse, Katelyn; Harnish, Carissa; Vellucci, Ashley; Bupp, Katherine; Horst, Michael; Miller, Jo Ann; Baier, Ron; Chandler, Roxanne; Rogers, Frederick B
Geriatric living facilities have been associated with a high rate of falls. We sought to develop an innovative intervention approach targeting geriatric living facilities that would reduce geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center. In 2011, a Trauma Prevention Taskforce visited 5 of 28 local geriatric living facilities to present a fall prevention protocol composed of three sections: fall education, risk factor identification, and fall prevention strategies. To determine the impact of the intervention, the trauma registry was queried for all geriatric fall admissions attributed to patients living at local geriatric living facilities. The fall admission rate (total fall admissions/total beds) of the pre-intervention period (2010-2011) was compared with that of the postintervention period (2012-2013) at the 5 intervention and 23 control facilities. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. From 2010 to 2013, there were 487 fall admissions attributed to local geriatric living facilities (intervention: 179 fall admissions; control: 308 fall admissions). The unadjusted fall rate decreased at intervention facilities from 8.9 fall admissions/bed pre-intervention to 8.1 fall admissions/bed postintervention, whereas fall admission rates increased at control sites from 5.9 to 7.7 fall admissions/bed during the same period [control/intervention odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32, 1.05-1.67; period OR, 95%CI = 1.55, 1.18-2.04, P = 0.002; interaction of control/intervention group and period OR 95% CI = 0.68, 0.46-1.00, P = 0.047]. An aggressive intervention program targeting high-risk geriatric living facilities resulted in a statistically significant decrease in geriatric fall admissions to our Level II trauma center.
Vered, Y; Adut, R
The world's population is in transition, but there is an inevitable move in all societies towards an aging population. There is an agreement that the ability of the geriatric population to adjust to the "third age" depends on the will of the society and the community to provide services and to support this vulnerable and dependent population. The preponderance of oral health issues and their impact upon general health and quality of life have prompted a variety of geriatric related efforts over the last 20 years. Predoctoral and postdoctoral education and training efforts have been initiated, geriatric research agendas have started to yield important findings, and a few service programs have marginally helped improve dental care access for the geriatric population. Past discoveries have enabled large portions of the world's population to enjoy far better oral health than their forebears a century ago. Although different patterns of dental needs emerge throughout the world, the "silent epidemic" of oral diseases is affecting the most vulnerable parts of the population: the poor children, the elderly and many members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The review of the literature of community aspects of geriatric dentistry in the past twenty-five years will be introduced in two articles. The first article summarizes the important issues of demography, oral health condition, changes in attitude towards oral health of the geriatric population, oral health services given in geriatric institutions and mobile dentistry. The issues of law and ethics, development of public and community oral health programs for the geriatric population and plans as well as trends for the future will be discussed in the second article. Setting goals and presenting data are steps in the right direction but are not enough; the success will be measured by the ability to make things happen. The continuing anticipated growth of the geriatric population will, hopefully, be translated into a
Vered, Y; Adut, R
The world's population is in transition, but there is an inevitable move in all societies towards an aging population. There is an agreement that the ability of the geriatric population to adjust to the "third age" depends on the will of the society and the community to provide services and to support this vulnerable and dependent population. The preponderance of oral health issues and their impact upon general health and quality of life have prompted a variety of geriatric related efforts over the last 20 years. Predoctoral and postdoctoral education and training efforts have been initiated, geriatric research agendas have started to yield important findings, and a few service programs have marginally helped improve dental care access for the geriatric population. Past discoveries have enabled large portions of the world's population to enjoy far better oral health than their forebears a century ago. Although different patterns of dental needs emerge throughout the world, the" silent epidemic" of oral diseases is affecting the most vulnerable parts of the population: the poor children, the elderly and many members of racial and ethnic minority groups. The review of the literature of community aspects of geriatric dentistry in the past twenty five years will be introduced in two articles. The first article summarizes the important issues of demography, oral health condition, changes in attitude towards oral health of the geriatric population, oral health services given in geriatric institutions and mobile dentistry. The issues of law and ethics, development of public and community oral health programs for the geriatric population and plans as well as trends for the future will be discussed in the second article. Setting goals and presenting data are steps in the right direction but are not enough; the success will be measured by the ability to make things happen. The continuing anticipated growth of the geriatric population will, hopefully, be translated into a
Schulkes, Karlijn J G; Hamaker, Marije E; van den Bos, Frederiek; van Elden, Leontine J R
Lung cancer is predominantly a disease of the elderly: one half of all newly diagnosed patients will be > 70 years old. In the Netherlands, > 12,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. We sought to assemble all available evidence on the relevance of a geriatric assessment for lung cancer patients. A systematic Medline and Embase search was performed for studies in which a geriatric assessment was used to detect health issues or that had addressed the association between a baseline geriatric assessment (composed of ≥ 2 of the following domains: cognitive function, mood/depression, nutritional status, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, polypharmacy, objectively measured physical capacity, social support and frailty) and outcome. A total of 23 publications from 18 studies were included. The median age of patients was 76 years (range, 73-81 years). Despite generally good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, the prevalence of geriatric impairments was high, with the median ranging from 29% for cognitive impairment to 70% for instrumental activities of daily living impairment. Objective physical capacity and nutritional status, as items of the geriatric assessment, had a consistent association with mortality. The information revealed by a geriatric assessment led to changes in oncologic treatment and nononcologic interventions. The present review has demonstrated that a geriatric assessment can detect multiple health issues not reflected in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. Impairments in geriatric domains have predictive value for mortality and appear to be associated with treatment completion. It would be useful to develop and validate an individualized treatment algorithm that includes these geriatric domains.
Lin, Lianjun; Lv, Liping; Wang, Yuchuan; Zha, Xiankui; Tang, Fei; Liu, Xinmin
Purpose To analyze the clinical features of foreign-body aspiration into the lower airway in geriatric patients. Patients and methods The clinical data of 17 geriatric patients with foreign-body aspiration were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 26 nongeriatric adult patients. The data were collected from Peking University First Hospital and Anhui Chest Hospital between January 2000 and June 2014. Results (1) In the geriatric group, the most common symptoms were cough and sputum (15 cases, 88%), dyspnea (six cases, 35%), and hemoptysis (four cases, 24%). Five patients (29%) in the geriatric group could supply the history of aspiration on their first visit to doctor, a smaller percentage than in the nongeriatric group (13 cases, 50%). Only three cases in the geriatric group were diagnosed definitely without delay. Another 14 cases were misdiagnosed as pneumonia or lung cancer, and the time of delayed diagnosis ranged from 1 month to 3 years. Complications due to delay in diagnosis included obstructive pneumonitis, atelectasis, lung abscess, and pleural effusion. (2) Chest computed tomography demonstrated the foreign body in three cases (21%) in the geriatric group, which was lower than the positive proportion of detection in the nongeriatric group (nine cases, 35%). The most common type of foreign body in the geriatric group was food, such as bone fragments (seven cases, 41%) and plants (seven cases, 41%), and the foreign body was most often lodged in the right bronchus tree (eleven cases, 65%), especially the right lower bronchus (seven cases, 41%). Flexible bronchoscopy removed the foreign body successfully in all patients. Conclusion The clinical features of foreign-body aspiration in geriatric patients are usually more obscure than in nongeriatric adults, which may lead to long delay in diagnosis. Flexible bronchoscopy is safe and useful for early diagnosis and effective management in geriatric patients. We suggest flexible bronchoscopy as the first
Undergraduate students need to gain more exposure to communicating, assessing, and planning appropriate care and evaluating outcomes of care with diverse critically ill geriatric patients. This project developed teaching strategies that facilitated additional opportunities for gaining these valuable learning experiences for students. Nurse educators can use the Guidelines for Caring for Diverse Critically Ill Older Adults, the case study and simulation examples, and topical outline to assist them in teaching critical care students and nurses about diverse critically ill older adults.
Peters, Claudia; Dulon, Madeleine; Kleinmüller, Olaf; Nienhaus, Albert; Schablon, Anja
Introduction The increase of multidrug-resistant organisms in hospitals causes problems in nursing homes. Staff in geriatric nursing homes are at greater risk of MRSA colonisation. The aim of the study was to describe the occupational exposure to MRSA among health personnel in geriatric nursing. Methods A point prevalence survey was conducted among health personnel and residents of geriatric nursing homes within the greater Hamburg district. Nasal swabs and, where relevant, wound swabs were collected for the screening survey. Risk factors for MRSA colonisation were identified by means of a questionnaire and using the files held on the residents. Where tests on nursing staff were positive, a control swab was taken; when the results were confirmed positive, decolonisation was performed. The responsible general practitioners were notified of positive MRSA findings among residents. A molecular biological examination of the MRSA samples was performed. Results A total of 19 institutions participated in the study. Nasal swabs were taken from 759 nursing staff and 422 residents. Prevalence of MRSA was 1.6% among staff and 5.5% among residents. MRSA colonisation among health personnel indicated a correlation with male gender (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4–14.1). Among the residents, chronic skin diseases (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.0–10.3) and indwelling devices (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.2–8.1) were identified as risk factors. No link between MRSA in residents and in health personnel could be established. Conclusion The number of MRSA colonisations among nursing staff and residents of geriatric nursing homes in Hamburg was rather low at 1.6% and 5.5% respectively and equates to the results of other surveys in non-outbreak scenarios. PMID:28068356
Nursing home checklist Name of nursing home: ____________________________________________________ Address: ________________________________________________________________ Phone number: __________________________________________________________ Date of visit: _____________________________________________________________ Basic information Yes No Notes Is the nursing home Medicare certified? Is the nursing ...
De Spiegeleer, Bart; Wynendaele, Evelien; Bracke, Nathalie; Veryser, Lieselotte; Taevernier, Lien; Degroote, Agnes; Stalmans, Sofie
Geriatric patients represent the main users of medicines, but are historically often minimally included in clinical trials, resulting in a gap in the knowledge of the benefit/risk balance of medicines in this heterogeneous population. As the worldwide population is aging, the need for safe and effective medicines for older patients is proportionally increasing. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current regulatory status of the development of geriatric medicines, the encountered challenges and the view of the involved stakeholders, coming to the conclusion whether it is necessary or not to implement a Geriatric Investigation Plan (GIP), by analogy with pediatrics.
Filinson, Rachel; Clark, Phillip G; Evans, Joann; Padula, Cynthia; Willey, Cynthia
In 2007, the Health Resources Services Administration introduced new mandates that raised the standards on program evaluation for Geriatric Education Centers. Described in this article are the primary and secondary evaluation efforts undertaken for one program within the Rhode Island Geriatric Education Center (RIGEC), the findings from these efforts, and the modifications to assessment that ensued in response to the increased accountability requirements. The evaluation focused on RIGEC's series of continuing education, day-long workshops for health and social service professionals, the completion of all seven of which leads to a Certificate in Interdisciplinary Practice in Geriatrics.
Background Older patients are at high risk for poor outcomes after acute hospital admission. The mortality rate in these patients is approximately 20%, whereas 30% of the survivors decline in their level of activities of daily living (ADL) functioning three months after hospital discharge. Most diseases and geriatric conditions that contribute to poor outcomes could be subject to pro-active intervention; not only during hospitalization, but also after discharge. This paper presents the design of a randomised controlled clinical trial concerning the effect of a pro-active, multi-component, nurse-led transitional care program following patients for six months after hospital admission. Methods/Design Three hospitals in the Netherlands will participate in the multi-centre, double-blind, randomised clinical trial comparing a pro-active multi-component nurse-led transitional care program to usual care after discharge. All patients acutely admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine who are 65 years and older, hospitalised for at least 48 hours and are at risk for functional decline are invited to participate in the study. All patients will receive integrated geriatric care by a geriatric consultation team during hospital admission. Randomization, which will be stratified by study site and cognitive impairment, will be conducted during admission. The intervention group will receive the transitional care bridge program, consisting of a handover moment with a community care Care Nurse (CN) during hospital admission and five home visits after discharge. The control group will receive 'care as usual' after discharge. The main outcome is the level of ADL functioning six months after discharge compared to premorbid functioning measured with the Katz ADL index. Secondary outcomes include; survival, cognitive functioning, quality of life, and health care utilization, satisfaction of the patient and primary care giver with the transitional care bridge program. All outcomes
In Japan nurses have found a somewhat drastic way of ensuring high standards of professional practice it would seem. For, according to a report in the current edition of the International Nursing Review, Fumiko Ohmori, retiring President of the Japanese Nursing Association, is famed for a number of visable achievements.
... is a big part of the pediatric NP's role. Pediatric and family practice NPs can treat acute ( ... Nurse Practitioners (NAPNAP) and through local hospitals or nursing schools. Also, many doctors share office space with ...
Honda, Miwako; Ito, Mio; Ishikawa, Shogo; Takebayashi, Yoichi; Tierney, Lawrence
Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) is a key challenge in geriatric dementia care. A multimodal comprehensive care methodology, Humanitude, with eye contact, verbal communication, and touch as its elements, was provided to three geriatric dementia patients for whom conventional nursing care failed in an acute care hospital. Each episode was evaluated by video analysis. All patients had advanced dementia with BPSD. Failure of care was identified by patient's shouting, screaming, or abrupt movements of limbs. In this case series, conventional care failed for all three patients. Each element of care communication was much shorter than in Humanitude care, which was accepted by the patients. The average of the elements performed during the care was eye contact 0.6%, verbal communication 15.7%, and touch 0.1% in conventional care and 12.5%, 54.8%, and 44.5% in Humanitude care, respectively. The duration of aggressive behavior of each patient during care was 25.0%, 25.4%, and 66.3% in conventional care and 0%, 0%, and 0.3% in Humanitude, respectively. In our case series, conventional care was provided by less eye contact, verbal communication, and touch. The multimodal comprehensive care approach, Humanitude, decreased BPSD and showed success by patients' acceptance of care. PMID:27069478
Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth A
Effective staff interdependence is needed to improve care of older adults in nursing homes. We synthesized research about nursing management practices that help nursing home staff members manage their relationships for better care. We searched PubMed for studies of relationship-oriented management in nursing homes, published in English between 2000 and 2010. We evaluated and synthesized findings from the literature. Thirty-three articles met the inclusion criteria. Analyzing these studies, we identified 3 themes: (a) managing relationships between managers and staff, (b) staff participation in decision-making, and (c) work designs that foster staff interactions. Most studies were descriptive and suggested that relationship-oriented management practices will promote better outcomes. Future intervention research that combines relationship-oriented management and evidenced-based clinical practices will help staff to skillfully manage problems in nursing home care, including complex geriatric syndromes.
Patterson, C; Turpie, I D; Benger, A M
Of patients referred to a geriatric service, 66 were identified who were clearly anemic (hemoglobin less than 12 g in men, less than 11 g in women) but whose cause of anemia was not readily identifiable by noninvasive measures. The difficulty in distinguishing iron deficiency from chronic disease as a cause of anemia by noninvasive means (serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation ratio, and serum ferritin), is highlighted by the poor power of these investigations when compared with bone marrow iron stores. A transferrin saturation ratio of less than 11% and a serum ferritin of less than 45 pg/L serve better than currently accepted values to identify iron deficiency in this population.
Ikpeze, Tochukwu C; Omar, Adan; Elfar, John H
Foot pathologies are common in nearly 80% of all elderly patients, and studies have indicated inappropriate footwear as one of the major underlying cause. It has been postulated that ill-fitting shoe wear affects plantar pressure, thus exacerbating weak balance. Complications arising from foot pathologies, which include difficulty in maintaining balance, have increased the risk of falls that can result in fractures and other serious injuries. The link between footwear and the onset or progression of certain foot pathologies has emphasized the need to explore and promote preventative measures to combat the issue. Wider and higher toe boxed shoes, along with sneakers, are examples of footwear documented to evenly distribute plantar pressure, increase comfort, and facilitate appropriate balance and gait. Ultimately, the use of appropriate footwear can help to better stabilize the foot, thus reducing the risk of sustaining debilitating physical injuries known to drastically decrease the quality of life among the geriatric population.
Ikpeze, Tochukwu C.; Omar, Adan
Foot pathologies are common in nearly 80% of all elderly patients, and studies have indicated inappropriate footwear as one of the major underlying cause. It has been postulated that ill-fitting shoe wear affects plantar pressure, thus exacerbating weak balance. Complications arising from foot pathologies, which include difficulty in maintaining balance, have increased the risk of falls that can result in fractures and other serious injuries. The link between footwear and the onset or progression of certain foot pathologies has emphasized the need to explore and promote preventative measures to combat the issue. Wider and higher toe boxed shoes, along with sneakers, are examples of footwear documented to evenly distribute plantar pressure, increase comfort, and facilitate appropriate balance and gait. Ultimately, the use of appropriate footwear can help to better stabilize the foot, thus reducing the risk of sustaining debilitating physical injuries known to drastically decrease the quality of life among the geriatric population. PMID:26623172
Bellelli, Giuseppe; Bruni, Adriana; Malerba, Mara; Mazzone, Andrea; Aliberti, Stefano; Pesci, Alberto; Annoni, Giorgio
The case of an 87-year-old woman who falls at home and is admitted to the Emergency Department of an acute hospital with delirium exemplify a common situation that physicians face in their everyday clinical practice. We describe the typical context of frailty in which acute illnesses frequently present in frail elderly patients and, in particular, the relationship between comorbidity, disability and frailty. We also report the current knowledge about frailty theories and we focus on the "atypical" presentation of many acute illnesses. Major attention is devoted on delirium and on mobility impairment, two of the most common atypical symptoms of elderly frail subjects. Finally we describe the evidence on the comprehensive geriatric assessment, i.e., the method that is required to identify and understand the ultimate needs of elderly complex subjects.
On 12 and 13 July, the 2010 IADR General Session satellite meeting of the IADR - Geriatric Oral Research Group (GORG) - was attended by around 60 participants in the beautiful surroundings of Sitges in the outskirts of Barcelona, Spain. The speakers reflected on the main topics 'Disparities and Expectations in Oral Healthcare: An Elderly Focus' and 'Risks and Benefits of Ageing with a Natural Dentition', which was followed by fruitful discussions in the auditorium and the jointly enjoyed meals. The Sitges meeting comprised lectures of distinguished speakers as well as poster presentations, which discussed and defined the situation of research in the field of gerodontology today as well as the development since the last GORG satellite symposium held on Vancouver Island in 1999. Despite enormous progress over the last 10 years, many important questions concerning economics, regulation, the implementation of oral health care, treatment protocols as well as general health implications of oral disease in the frail and elderly remain still unanswered.
Thacker, Simon; Skelton, Mike; Harwood, Rowan
Integrating mental and physical healthcare is difficult to achieve because of professional and organisational barriers. Psychiatrists recognise the problems resulting from fragmentation of services and want continuity of care for patients, but commissioning and service structures perpetuate these problems. One way forward may be to follow the syndromic model employed by geriatricians as a means of avoiding over-emphasis on diagnosis above the pragmatics of implementing multi-component, coordinated care. Commissioners need to be made aware of the overlap and complementarity of skills possessed by old age psychiatry and geriatric medicine to create joint services for people vulnerable to dementia and delirium. A re-forged alliance between the two specialties will be necessary to turn integrated care for frail, elderly people from rhetoric into reality.
Palermo, Karen R.
A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…
Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Dehghan-Nayeri, Nahid; Navabi, Nasrin; Seylani, Khatereh
Background Improving the quality of health care and rehabilitation for the elderly is one of the most important priorities of the health care system. Given the importance of evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of any program after its implementation, this study was conducted to identify the advantages and weaknesses of a geriatric nursing program at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods This was a qualitative study, and the study population comprised students, graduates, and professors of geriatric nursing at the Master of Science level. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Sixteen interviews were conducted. The interview guide was used as a research tool. Interviews continued until data saturation was reached. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Three main themes including “motivation to enter geriatric nursing”, “lack of employment groundwork”, and “lack of practical implementation of the curriculum” were the main findings of the study. Conclusion Efforts to restructure the administrative system and employment can deter geriatric nursing students from simply earning a degree and actually encourage them to learn the required content. Appraisal and improvement of education facilities for student recruitment can guarantee the practical implementation of the curriculum. Drafting policies to attract graduates in clinical environments, opening up employment opportunities, providing organizational positions for the recruitment of this group, as well as dedicating some wards for elderly special care and providing nursing care to elderly people only can increase students’ motivation to learn and their hopes of good job prospects. PMID:27713624
Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Rudolf, Matthias
We investigated how two types of care setting (home care and nursing home) and type of ownership (for-profit vs. public/non-profit) of geriatric care services interacted in influencing registered nurses' intention to give up their profession. In prior research, employment in for-profit-organizations, high job demands, and low job control were important antecedents of nurses' intent to leave. However, the impact of care setting on these associations was inconclusive. Therefore, we tested a mediated moderation model predicting that adverse work characteristics would drive professional leaving intentions, particularly in for-profit services and in nursing homes. A representative German sample of 304 registered nurses working in 78 different teams participated in our cross-sectional study. As predicted, lower job control and higher job demands were associated with higher professional leaving intentions, and nurses reported higher job demands in public/non-profit care than in for-profit care, and in nursing homes compared to home care. Overall, RNs in nursing homes and home care reported similar intent to leave, but in for-profit settings only, nurses working in nursing homes reported higher professional leaving intentions than did nurses in home care, which was linked to lower job control in the for-profit nursing home setting, supporting mediated moderation. Taken together, our results indicate that the interplay of care setting and type of ownership is important when explaining nurses' intentions to give up their profession. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Jin Won; Kim, Se-Hyun; Kim, Yu Jung; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Kwang-Il; Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Jee Hyun
Geriatric assessment (GA) is resource-consuming, necessitating screening tools to select appropriate patients who need full GA. The objective of this study is to design a novel geriatric screening tool with easy-to-answer questions and high performance objectively selected from a large dataset to represent each domain of GA. A development cohort was constructed from 1284 patients who received GA from May 2004 to April 2007. Items representing each domain of functional status, cognitive function, nutritional status, and psychological status in GA were selected according to sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP). Of the selected items, the final questions were chosen by a panel of oncologists and geriatricians to encompass most domains evenly and also by feasibility and use with cancer patients. The selected screening questions were validated in a separate cohort of 98 cancer patients. The novel screening tool, the Korean Cancer Study Group Geriatric Score (KG)-7, consisted of 7 items representing each domain of GA. KG-7 had a maximal area under the curve (AUC) of 0.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.95) in the prediction of abnormal GA, which was higher than that of G-8 (0.87, 95% CI 0.85-0.89) within the development cohort. The cut-off value was decided at ≤ 5 points, with a SE of 95.0%, SP of 59.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 82.6%. In the validation cohort, the AUC was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.90), and the SE, SP, PPV, and NPV were 89.5%, 48.6%, 77.3%, and 75.0%, respectively. Furthermore, patients with higher KG-7 scores showed significantly longer overall survival (OS) in the development and validation cohorts. In conclusions, the KG-7 showed high SE and NPV to predict abnormal GA. The KG-7 also predicted OS. Given the results of our studies, the KG-7 could be used effectively in countries with high patient burden and low resources to select patients in need of full GA and intervention.
Bonifas, Robin P.; Gray, Amanda K.
Although several interprofessional education projects have addressed training allied health students for effective teamwork in geriatrics, few curriculum evaluation studies have examined differences in learning outcomes between interprofessional and traditional uniprofessional approaches, especially for social work students. This paper compares…
Yanamadala, Mamata; Kaprielian, Victoria S; O'Connor Grochowski, Colleen; Reed, Tiffany; Heflin, Mitchell Tod
A geriatrics curriculum delivered to medical students was evaluated in this study. Students were instructed to review real patient cases, interview patients and caregivers, identify community resources to address problems, and present a final care plan. Authors evaluated the course feedback and final care plans submitted by students for evidence of learning in geriatric competencies. Students rated the efficacy of the course on a 5-point Likert scale as 3.70 for developing clinical reasoning skills and 3.69 for interdisciplinary teamwork skills. Assessment of an older adult with medical illness was rated as 3.87 and ability to perform mobility and functional assessment as 3.85. Reviews of written final care plans provided evidence of student learning across several different geriatric competencies such as falls, medication management, cognitive and behavior disorders, and self-care capacity. Assessment of the curriculum demonstrated that medical students achieved in-depth learning across multiple geriatric competencies through contact with real cases.
This study focused on verbal and physical aggression against nursing staff, in real time, by elderly patients. The aggressive incidents were recorded at the end of each shift when they were more likely to be accurately remembered. Before beginning the study, nursing staff were taught how to use the Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS) to identify aggressive acts. High rates of verbal and physical aggression among the elderly were observed by nurses, and data show that 75% of nursing staff experienced aggression on their shift. They either experienced aggression themselves or observed aggression on every single shift; that is at least five violent incidents in a work-week. Even if one is not the target of aggression, such observation is associated with elevated levels of stress.
Cordato, Nicholas J; Saha, Sabari; Price, Michael A
Specialist geriatric services apply a comprehensive, multidisciplinary evaluation and management approach to the multidimensional and usually interrelated medical, functional and psychosocial problems faced by at-risk frail elderly people. This paper examines currently available data on geriatric interventions and finds ample evidence supporting both the efficacy and the cost-effectiveness of these specialist interventions when utilised in appropriately targeted patients. It is proposed that substantial investment in these programs is required to meet the future demands of Australia's ageing population.
Anderson, Robert S; Hallen, Sarah A M
Generalized weakness in the geriatric patient is a vexing chief compliant to address in any setting, especially in the hectic emergency department. Studies suggest that it is associated with poor outcomes, although the ideal workup is elusive. A minimum of laboratory and imaging testing is recommended with the addition of neuroimaging if focal weakness is discovered. Considering a wide differential with attention to geriatric-specific concerns is labor intensive but necessary for this presentation.
Toussaint, Nicole; de Roon, Margot; van Campen, Jos P C M; Kremer, Stefanie; Boesveldt, Sanne
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the association of olfactory function and nutritional status in vital older adults and geriatric patients. Three hundred forty-five vital (mean age 67.1 years) and 138 geriatric older adults (mean age 80.9 years) were included. Nutritional status was assessed using the mini nutritional assessment-short form. The Sniffin' Sticks was used to measure olfactory function. Eleven percentage of the vital older adults were at risk of malnutrition, whereas 60% of the geriatric participants were malnourished or at risk. Only 2% of the vital older adults were anosmic, compared with 46% of the geriatric participants. Linear regression demonstrated a significant association (P = 0.015) between olfactory function and nutritional status in the geriatric subjects. However, this association became insignificant after adjustment for confounders. Both crude and adjusted analysis in the vital older adults did not show a significant association. The results indicate that, in both groups of elderly, there is no direct relation between olfactory function and nutritional status. We suggest that a decline in olfactory function may still be considered as one of the risk-factors for malnutrition in geriatric patients-once co-occurring with other mental and/or physical problems that are more likely to occur in those patients experience.
Norman, Linda; Buerhaus, Peter I; Donelan, Karen; McCloskey, Barbara; Dittus, Robert
This study assessed the characteristics of nursing students currently enrolled in nursing education programs, how students finance their nursing education, their plans for clinical practice and graduate education, and the rewards and difficulties of being a nursing student. Data are from a survey administered to a national sample of 496 nursing students. The students relied on financial aid and personal savings and earnings to finance their education. Parents, institutional scholarships, and government loans are also important sources, but less than 15% of the students took out bank loans. Nearly one quarter of the students, particularly younger and minority students, plan to enroll in graduate school immediately after graduation and most want to become advanced nursing practitioners. Most of the nursing students (88%) are satisfied with their nursing education and nearly all (95%) provided written answers to two open-ended questions. Comments collapsed into three major categories reflecting the rewards (helping others, status, and job security) and three categories reflecting the difficulties (problems with balancing demands, quality of nursing education, and the admissions process) of being a nursing student. Implications for public policymaking center on expanding the capacity of nursing education programs, whereas schools themselves should focus on addressing the financial needs of students, helping them strike a balance among their school, work, and personal/family responsibilities and modifying certain aspects of the curriculum.
Dyck, Mary J; Schumacher, Julie Raeder
Weight loss is common among nursing home residents. Food intake is often inadequate for elderly residents but is only one of several factors contributing to potential weight loss. Three common issues resulting in weight loss include starvation (or wasting), cachexia, and sarcopenia. Significant weight loss leads to increased mortality, increased morbidity, and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this article is to discuss the geriatric syndrome of weight loss in elderly nursing home residents and provide recommendations to decrease and prevent weight loss. A list of available evidence-based protocols related to weight loss issues is provided.
Borrie, M J; Campbell, K; Arcese, Z A; Bray, J; Hart, P; Labate, T; Hesch, P
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for urinary retention (UR) in frail, elderly patients, to determine its prevalence, and to assess the validity of the use of the BladderScan BVI 2500+ ultrasound scanner to measure postvoid residual urine volumes of > or = 150 ml. Probable UR was defined as two consecutive ultrasound scans with postvoid residual urine estimations of > or = 150 ml. The estimates were confirmed by in- and out-catheterization of actual postvoid residual urine (PVR). Risk factors for UR were the independent variables used in the regression analysis. Nineteen of the 167 people (11%) had UR. The risk of UR was greatest among patients who were older, or who were on anticholinergic medication, or who had diabetes of long standing, or who had fecal impaction. The correlation between paired scans and catheter volumes of > or = 150 ml was 0.87. The results suggest that the BladderScan BVI 2500+ ultrasound scanner, when used by trained nursing staff, provides conservative and valid estimates of PVR of > or = 150 ml in people undergoing geriatric rehabilitation.
MacMillan, M.; Cummins, K.
Summary Introduction Since the 1990s, a number of weight loss medications have been removed from the USA and or European market because of adverse events associated with these medications. These medications include fenfluramine (heart valve thickening), sibutramine (cardiovascular risk) and rimonabant (depression). This history may affect a patient's desire to consider weight loss medications as an option for weight management. Objective This descriptive study was designed to observe what treatment options the geriatric patient (age 65 or higher) seeking weight loss would like to consider, as well as the reasons they felt they struggled with overweight or obesity. Methods A questionnaire was given to 102 geriatric patients with overweight or obesity before starting a weight loss programme at a weight management centre. The questionnaire asked the patient why they felt they were overweight or obese and what treatment options they wished to consider. The geriatric patients were matched with younger patients in body mass index and sex. Results The three most common perceptions that geriatric patients felt were causes of their increased weight were ‘lack of exercise’ (76.2%), ‘poor food choices’ (59.4%) and ‘cravings’ (47.5%). When geriatric patients were asked what treatment options they would like to discuss, the four most common options requested were ‘diet and healthy eating’ (67.3%), weight loss medications (57.4%), a request for a ‘metabolic work up’ (55.4%) and ‘exercise’ (53.5%). These responses were no different from their younger cohorts. When geriatric patients with a body mass index of 35 or higher were given bariatric surgery as a treatment option, 21.9% marked it as a treatment option they would like to consider. Conclusions Over half of geriatric patients desired to discuss weight loss medications as a treatment option. Diet and exercise were also of strong interest, which is in line with current weight management guidelines. PMID
Gardner, Davis L., Ed.; Patzwald, Gari-Anne, Ed.
Papers in these proceedings are organized into four sections: (1) Research Studies in Aging; (2) Innovative Approaches in Geriatric Education; (3) Faculty Development Models; and (4) "The Publication Process: Perils and Pearls" (Workshop). Clinical Experiences: Design Not Chance" (Matzo); "The Development of a Collaborative Gerontological Research…
Harden, J Taylor; Watman, Rachael A
The mission of the John A. Hartford Foundation is to improve the health of older Americans. This mission has been realized throughout the evolution of the National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence-an international collaboration between Schools of Nursing and Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing-whose goal is to support research, education, and practice to provide better nursing care for our aging society. The National Hartford Center is the focus of this supplement and an example of the Foundation's grant-making to prepare the nursing workforce to be competent to care for our aging society. This article traces the innovative origin and inception of the National Hartford Center, first as the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity (BAGNC) Initiative in 2000 under the leadership of two groundbreaking scholars in nursing and aging sciences: Claire M. Fagin, PhD, RN, and Patricia G. Archbold, DNSc. We continue through to today's leadership and culminate by describing the Center's influence on the gerontological nursing workforce and clinical practice; the paper also includes a brief introduction to the articles, highlighting advances in gerontological nursing science. With funding from the John A. Hartford Foundation, The Atlantic Philanthropies, The Mayday Fund, and a number of creative public and nonprofit partnerships, the National Hartford Center celebrates two decades and its greatest asset-the nearly 300 gerontological nursing leaders, including Archbold nursing pre-docs, Fagin nursing post-docs, and expert faculty, along with its Hartford Centers of Gerontological Nursing Excellence across the country. We trace the transition of BAGNC to the membership-based National Hartford Center and its move to The Gerontological Society of America to become a self-sustaining, autonomous unit. Current needs, challenges, lessons learned, and strategies of the National Hartford Center are examined within the context of sustainability
Parham, Kourosh; Kuchel, George A
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common cause of vertigo in older adults. Beyond the unpleasant sensation of vertigo, BPPV also negatively affects older adults' gait and balance and increases their risk of falling. As such it has a profound effect on function, independence, and quality of life. Otoconia are the inner ear structures that help detect horizontal and vertical movements. Aging contributes to the fragmentation of otoconia, whose displacement into the semicircular, most commonly posterior canals, can produce rotatory movement sensations with head movement. BPPV is more commonly idiopathic in older adults than in younger individuals, can present atypically, and has a more-protracted course and higher risk of recurrence. Medications such as meclizine that are commonly prescribed for BPPV can be associated with significant side effects. Dix-Hallpike and Head Roll tests can generally identify the involved canal. Symptoms resolve as otoconia fragments dissolve into the endolymph, but appropriate canalith repositioning (e.g., Epley maneuver) can expedite recovery and reduce the burden of this disorder. Observations suggesting an association between idiopathic BPPV and vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis indicate that BPPV may share risk factors with other common geriatric conditions, which highlights the importance of moving beyond purely otological considerations and addressing the needs of older adults with vertigo through a systems-based multidisciplinary approach.
Jagtap, Madhavi V.; Deole, Yogesh S.; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B.
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension. PMID:23723671
Godard, Maxime; Barrou, Zina; Verny, Marc
Sleep complaints and disorders are frequent in geriatric patients, with a prevalence of 57%. They result in increased morbidity and mortality. In this population, the primary goal is to search for a cause of secondary insomnia, such as organic or psychiatric diseases, or medications. In those cases, sleep will improve with the treatment of the cause. In the cases of primary insomnia, behavioral and sleep hygiene therapy are essential. Hypnotics have frequent side effects and should be avoided when possible. Prescription of small doses of benzodiazepines or related drugs should only be for a short period of time. Molecules with a short half life are to be preferred. Other sleep disorders include sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements, which are the most frequent diagnoses in an elderly population. In the restless legs syndrome, diagnostic workup must include the search for a cause and treatment should favor hygienic measures. The use of dopamine agonists must be cautious, as their tolerance is poor in the elderly. Periodic limb movements are also frequent but there is no particular therapeutic recommendation.
Cizginer, Sevdenur; Ordulu, Zehra; Kadayifci, Abdurrahman
The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and its complications increase with age. The majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic throughout the life but 10%-20% develops peptic ulcer disease and 1% gastric malignancies. The incidence of ulcers and their complications are more common in the older population resulting in higher hospitalization and mortality rates. The increased use of medications causing gastric mucosal damage and the decreased secretion of protective prostaglandins in elderly are major factors increasing gastric mucosal sensitivity to the destructive effects of H. pylori. Due to higher prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies, upper GI endoscopy is mostly preferred in elderly for the diagnosis of infection. Therefore, "endoscopy and treat" strategy may be more appropriate instead of "test and treat" strategy for dyspeptic patients in older age. Urea breath test and stool antigen test can be used for control of eradication, except for special cases requiring follow-up with endoscopy. The indications for treatment and suggested eradication regimens are similar with other age groups; however, the eradication failure may be a more significant problem due to high antibiotic resistance and low compliance rate in elderly. Multidrug usage and drug interactions should always be considered before starting the treatment. This paper reviews briefly the epidemiology, diagnosis, disease manifestations, and treatment options of H. pylori in the geriatric population.
Sabesan, Priyadharshini; Lankappa, Sudheer; Khalifa, Najat; Krishnan, Vasudevan; Gandhi, Rahul; Palaniyappan, Lena
As the global population gets older, depression in the elderly is emerging as an important health issue. A major challenge in treating geriatric depression is the lack of robust efficacy for many treatments that are of significant benefit to depressed working age adults. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a novel physical treatment approach used mostly in working age adults with depression. Many TMS trials and clinics continue to exclude the elderly from treatment citing lack of evidence in this age group. In this review, we appraise the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of rTMS in the elderly. A consistent observation supporting a high degree of tolerability and safety among the elderly patients emerged across the Randomised Controlled Trials and the uncontrolled trials. Further, there is no reliable evidence negating the utility of rTMS in the elderly with depression. We also identified several factors other than age that moderate the observed variations in the efficacy of rTMS in the elderly. These factors include but not limited to: (1) brain atrophy; (2) intensity and number of pulses (dose-response relationship); and (3) clinical profile of patients. On the basis of the current evidence, the practice of excluding elderly patients from TMS clinics and trials cannot be supported. PMID:26110119
Pedreira, Rhaine Borges Santos; Rocha, Saulo Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Clarice Alves; Vasconcelos, Lélia Renata Carneiro; Reis, Martha Cerqueira
ABSTRACT Objective Assess the content validity of the Elderly Health Assessment Tool with low education. Methods The data collection instrument/questionnaire was prepared and submitted to an expert panel comprising four healthcare professionals experienced in research on epidemiology of aging. The experts were allowed to suggest item inclusion/exclusion and were asked to rate the ability of individual items in questionnaire blocks to encompass target dimensions as “not valid”, “somewhat valid” or “valid”, using an interval scale. Percent agreement and the Content Validity Index were used as measurements of inter-rater agreement; the minimum acceptable inter-rater agreement was set at 80%. Results The mean instrument percent agreement rate was 86%, ranging from 63 to 99%, and from 50 to 100% between and within blocks respectively. The Mean Content Validity Index score was 93.47%, ranging from 50 to 100% between individual items. Conclusion The instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties for application in geriatric populations with low levels of education. It enabled identifying diseases and assisted in choice of strategies related to health of the elderly. PMID:27462889
Jagtap, Madhavi V; Deole, Yogesh S; Chandola, Harimohan; Ravishankar, B
Hypertension is the most common psychosomatic disorder affecting 972 million people worldwide being more prevalent in old age. The present survey of hypertensive patients fulfilling the standard diagnostic criteria of WHO/ISH (2004) is carried out in geriatric age group from the Saurashtra region of Gujarat in India to observe the dietary pattern and provocative factors. Total 120 patients of 50 to 80 years of age having systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and ≤180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure >90 mm Hg and ≤110 mm Hg irrespective of gender and religion were selected for the present study. They were interviewed for list of provocative factors enlisted in Ayurveda. As observed, the study supported the facts described in Ayurveda that dietary etiological factors, such as excess intake of Lavana (salty), Amla (sour), Katu (pungent), Tikshna, Ushna (hot), Vidahi (producing burning sensation), Viruddha (incompatible), Snigdha (unctuous), Abhishyandi (leading to obstruction), Madhura (sweet), Guru (heavy to digest) dietary articles, Ajirnashana (taking diet before complete digestion of previous meal), Adhyashana (repeated eating at short intervals), will vitiate Rakta dhatu as well as Pitta dosha in the body leading to disorders like hypertension. Hypertension in old age is found to be a disease of Vata-Pitta dominant vitiation with the involvement of Rasa, Rakta, Meda as main Dushya (vitiated factors) and dietary factors can contribute to worsening of the disease. The etiological factors having role in the pathogenesis can also be applied for preventive guidelines for the management of hypertension.
Khattri, Jai Bahadur; Nepal, Mahendra Kumar
Depression is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders among the elderly patients attending the outpatient department of the tertiary care hospital. The consequence of unrecognized and untreated depression in the elderly population may include excessive use of health care services, decreased treatment compliance and increased morbidity and mortality related to underlying medical illness and from suicide. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of depression according to Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and to find out the association of GDS with ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research (ICD-10 DCR) among older adults in the Nepalese population. A study group of 100 elderly patients aged 65 years and above were randomly selected from the psychiatry, medicine and general practice outpatient departments of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Nepal. MMSE scale is administered and the patients scoring more then 24 were administered the GDS and clinical diagnosis was made according to ICD-10 DCR. 53.2% of the samples were found to experience depressive illness according to GDS which includes 34.2% of mild and 19% of severe depression. 83.3% of the patients diagnose with probable depression with GDS were also diagnose clinically with ICD-10 DCR (p<0.001). This study concludes that significant number of elderly patients attending OPD of tertiary care hospital suffers from depression and GDS is a reliable tool to screen depression in the Nepalese patients.
Magnuson, Allison; Wallace, James; Canin, Beverly; Chow, Selina; Dale, William; Mohile, Supriya G; Hamel, Lauren M
We present the case of a 92-year-old man, MH, who was given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. His primary care physician, surgeon, geriatric oncologist, and family members all played important roles in his care. MH's case is an example of a lack of explicit shared goal setting by the health care providers with the patient and family members and how that impeded care planning and health. This case demonstrates the importance of explicitly discussing and establishing shared goals in team-based cancer care delivery early on and throughout the care process, especially for older adults. Each individual member's goals should be understood as they fit within the overarching shared team goals. We emphasize that shared goal setting and alignment of individual goals is a dynamic process that must occur several times at critical decision points throughout a patient's care continuum. Providers and researchers can use this illustrative case to consider their own work and contemplate how shared goal setting can improve patient-centered care and health outcomes in various team-based care settings. Shared goal setting among team members has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in other contexts. However, we stress, that little investigation into the impact of shared goal setting on team-based cancer care delivery has been conducted. We list immediate research goals within team-based cancer care delivery that can provide a foundation for the understanding of the process and outcomes of shared goal setting.
MacEntee, Michael I; Pruksapong, Matana; Wyatt, Chris C L
Little is known about how dental students respond to dental geriatrics. This article describes a qualitative analysis of reflective journals submitted over two years by ninety-two senior students who participated in a brief clinical rotation in long-term care facilities. We used an inductive interpretive approach to analyze the journals. Eight themes emerged from the analysis: 1) complexity of the institutional environment; 2) heterogeneity of the resident population; 3) multidisciplinary environment; 4) record keeping; 5) interactions with residents; 6) the difficulty of oral health care for frail residents; 7) bridging the gap between theory and practice; and 8) the emotional impact of the clinical experiences. Apparently, the students appreciated the opportunity to witness the complexity of care in a multidisciplinary context and to observe a practical program of oral health care. They described the rotations as unique and emotionally challenging but very worthwhile. Overall, they wrote positively about their experiences with the elderly residents, acknowledged the contribution of the rotation as important to their clinical maturation, and reported that the experience enhanced their appreciation of a dentist's professional responsibilities.
Bally, Klaus W; Nickel, Christian
Nursing home residents are often referred by their general practitioners to the emergency department or to a geriatric hospital. Hospitalization is mainly perceived as a burden by elderly people; it may also contribute to a reduction of their mental abilities and functional decline. Reasons for admitting patients from nursing homes include infections, exacerbation of pre-existing cardiovascular disease and falls. GP presence in the nursing home, qualified nursing staff, early diagnosis of infections or acute on chronic episodes of e. g. heart failure and appropriate management of chronic diseases are essential to avoid unnecessary hospitalizations. Furthermore, physicians should identify palliative situations in a timely manner and should be familiar with the patients' preferences regarding hospitalization and place of death.
Kues, John R.; And Others
The Game of Institutional Long-Term Care helps health care students learn to solve patient-management problems in nursing homes by (1) teaching problem solving and identification of goals and motivations of decision makers; (2) teaching negotiation, compromise, and cooperation; and (3) exposing students to the feelings and frustrations involved in…
Richeson, Nancy E.; White, Paula; Nadeau, Kathy K.; Chessa, Frank; Dreher, George K.; Frost, Cindy; Hurwitz, Craig; Nesbitt, Marylou; Scotton, David W.; Todorich, Patricia
The purpose of this paper was to examine the outcomes from the William Randolph Hearst Scholars Program (HSP) conducted at Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine from September 2005 to September 2006. The HSP was an interdisciplinary (nursing, rehabilitation therapies, social work, clergy, pharmacy, physicians, respiratory therapy, physician's…
Spandau, Dan F; Lewis, Davina A; Somani, Ally-Khan; Travers, Jeffrey B
Non-melanoma skin cancer is a disease primarily afflicting geriatric patients as evidenced by the fact that 80% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are diagnosed in patients over the age of 60 years. As such, geriatric skin responds to cancer-inducing UVB irradiation in a manner that allows the establishment of tumor cells. Currently, the only effective treatment for non-melanoma skin cancer is the removal of the tumors after they appear, indicating the need for a more cost-effective prophylactic therapy. Geriatric volunteers were treated with fractionated laser resurfacing therapy on either sun-protected (upper buttocks) or chronically sun-exposed (dorsal forearm) skin. Fractionated laser resurfacing therapy was shown to decrease the occurrence of senescent fibroblasts in geriatric dermis, increase the dermal expression of IGF-1, and correct the inappropriate UVB response observed in untreated geriatric skin. These responses to fractionated laser resurfacing were equal to the effects seen previously using the more aggressive wounding following dermabrasion. Furthermore, fractionated laser resurfacing was equally effective in both sun-protected and sun-exposed skin. The ability of fractionated laser resurfacing treatment to protect against the occurrence of UVB-damaged proliferating keratinocytes indicates the potential of fractionated laser resurfacing to reduce or prevent aging-associated non-melanoma skin cancer.
Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis
There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.
Johnson, Cleverick D; Shynett, Betty; Johnson, Claudette D; Maldonado, Barbara J
This article reviews the clinical issues regarding adverse drug reactions in geriatric dental patients. Accurate clinical observations and diagnosis are complicated in geriatric patients because they are predisposed to chronic illnesses, various prescribing physicians, and a decreased ability to metabolize and detoxify multiple medications. The authors have further reviewed neurological motor reactions with a detailed review of the physical presentations of Parkinson's disease. As such, the dental professional has a unique opportunity to provide observational feedback to other healthcare providers concerning the health status of their geriatric patients. In this case report, the changes in the patient's physical status and mental well-being were not a result or associated with a catastrophic event (eg, stroke, cardiovascular event, or head injury). The patient's rapid degeneration was anecdotally associated with a recently prescribed group of medications, which shows the need for healthcare professionals to be aware of changes in medications when assessing patients' health.
Barón-Esquivias, Gonzalo; Manito, Nicolás; López Díaz, Javier; Martín Santana, Antonio; García Pinilla, José Manuel; Gómez Doblas, Juan José; Gómez Bueno, Manuel; Barrios Alonso, Vivencio; Lambert, José Luis
In the present article, we review publications from the previous year in the following 3 areas: clinical cardiology, geriatric cardiology, and heart failure and transplantation. Among the new developments in clinical cardiology are several contributions from Spanish groups on tricuspid and aortic regurgitation, developments in atrial fibrillation, syncope, and the clinical characteristics of heart disease, as well as various studies on familial heart disease and chronic ischemic heart disease. In geriatric cardiology, the most relevant studies published in 2014 involve heart failure, degenerative aortic stenosis, and data on atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population. In heart failure and transplantation, the most noteworthy developments concern the importance of multidisciplinary units and patients with preserved systolic function. Other notable publications were those related to iron deficiency, new drugs, and new devices and biomarkers. Finally, we review studies on acute heart failure and transplantation, such as inotropic drugs and ventricular assist devices.
Wei, Junmin; Chen, Wei; Zhu, Mingwei; Cao, Weixin; Wang, Xinying; Shi, Hanping; Dong, Birong; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Huaihong; Zhou, Yeping; Zhou, Suming; Xu, Jingyong
The mortality and morbidity of geriatric patients is much higher than for younger patients, especially when critically ill. This may be attributed to a lower reserve capacity in most organs and systems, reduced ability to deal with physical stress and the presence of acute or chronic co-mobidities. Parenteral and enteral nutrition support can improve the clinical condition of the elderly patient and result in better outcomes, such as lower mortality, reduced hospital stay and reduced medical costs. There is a need to standardize nutrition screening and assessment, and the implementation of appropriate evidence based nutritional support of geriatric patients in China. The Chinese Medical Association's Group of Geriatric Nutrition Support has developed guidelines by researching the present situation in Chinese hospitals and by referring to the guidelines from both American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN).
Owusu, Cynthia; Berger, Nathan A
Cancer care at the extremes of life, in the young and the old, is characterized by unique issues associated with pediatrics and geriatric medicine, accentuated by the special vulnerabilities of these groups. In response to these needs, the field of pediatric oncology has been well honed to deal with the special problems associated with juvenile cancer patients. While most adult oncologists consider themselves well prepared to deal with older cancer patients, the current expansion of the geriatric population – their variable levels of fitness, frailty and vulnerability, the fact that cancer is primarily a disease of older adults, the significant expansion of agents and approaches to treat cancer, as well as their resultant toxicities and complications – has led to the development of specialized geriatric oncologists. Moreover, the special characteristics and needs of these patients have led to the evolution of new guidelines for evaluation, management and the conduct of research in older patients with cancer. PMID:25642321
Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J; Triana, Federico Cuesta; Gómez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; López-Soto, Alfonso; Masanés, Ferran; Martín, Pilar Matía; Rexach, José Antonio Serra; Hidalgo, Domingo Ruiz; Salvà, Antoni; Viña, José; Formiga, Francesc
Sarcopenia is a common and prominent geriatric syndrome, of major interest for daily clinical practice of professionals working with older people. The number of affected individuals and its relation with disability, frailty, many chronic diseases, lifestyle and adverse outcomes are extremely relevant for geriatric care. Moreover, biological changes that lead to the loss of muscle mass and strength are intrinsically related to the mechanisms of aging. It is not therefore surprising that research in this field is growing exponentially in recent years, and sarcopenia has been placed in recent years in the forefront of research in geriatric medicine and gerontology. The Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology has recently created an Observatory of Sarcopenia, which aims to promote educational and research activities in this field. The first activity of the Observatory has been to offer the Spanish speaking scientific community a review of the current status of sarcopenia, that may allow unifying concepts and fostering interest in this promising field of geriatrics.
Weston, Jerry L.
The author sees a need for the nursing profession to evaluate the extended role of the nurse to determine differences in the patient care provided by nurse practitioners and physician's assistants. From the data, appropriate nursing education and nursing practice planning can follow. (EA)
Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong
Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources.
Background Demographic development is accompanied by an increasingly aging society. Concerning medical education, the treatment of older people as well as the scientific research and exploration of ageing aspects in the coming years need to be considered. Aim of the study was to ascertain medical students’ knowledge, interest, and attitudes regarding older patients and geriatric medicine. Methods Each participant completed a self-designed questionnaire. This questionnaire was based on three validated internationally recognised questionnaires (“Facts on Aging Quiz – FAQ”, “Expectations Regarding Aging – ERA” and the “Aging Semantic Differential – ASD”). The inquiry and survey were performed at the beginning of the summer term in 2012 at the University of Regensburg Medical School. Results A total of n = 184/253 (72.7%) students participated in this survey. The results of the FAQ 25+ showed that respondents were able to answer an average of M = 20.4 of 36 questions (56.7%) correctly (Median, Md = 21; SD ±6.1). The personal attitudes and expectations of ageing averaged M = 41.2 points on the Likert-scale that ranged from 0 to 100 (Md = 40.4; SD ±13.7). Respondents’ attitudes towards the elderly (ASD 24) averaged M = 3.5 points on the Likert-scale (range 1–7, Md 3.6, SD ±0.8). Conclusions In our investigation, medical students’ knowledge of ageing was comparable to previous surveys. Attitudes and expectations of ageing were more positive compared to previous studies. Overall, medical students expect markedly high cognitive capacities towards older people that can actively prevent cognitive impairment. However, medical students’ personal interest in medicine of ageing and older people seems to be rather slight. PMID:25062568
Lepetit, Alexis; Lavigne, Benjamin; Legros, Emilie; Herrmann, Mathieu; Sebbane, Déborah
Aging of the population is a growing concern in developed countries. Therefore, geriatric psychiatry has gradually emerged from general psychiatry. Many names have been proposed to term this sub-specialty: old age psychiatry (OAP), psychogeriatrics, geropsychiatry. A working group of the French federation of psychiatric trainees (AFFEP) set up an inventory of the theoretical instruction and clinical practice of OAP during the training of psychiatrists in France. Methods. A survey of both academic teaching and practical training for OAP was carried out in the 28 local AFFEP representatives of every French medical residency district, including overseas. We assessed the supply of general courses and seminars devoted to OAP during the training of French residents in psychiatry, and the offer of university or inter-university degrees as well as the possibility of specialized internship in every residency district. Results. 96% of French medical residency districts offered general courses of OAP with a mean volume of 11.5 hours along the four years of psychiatric training in France. Fifty percent of medical residency districts proposed at least one seminar devoted to OAP. Half of medical residency districts also offer a specialized university or inter-university degree. Concerning clinical practice, 86% of medical residency districts had one internship dedicated to OAP, in 39% of cases in teaching hospitals. Conclusion. Nationwide, there is an overall effort to make OAP available to French psychiatric residents by general courses and internship, but some disparity appeared in academic teaching (i.e. offering seminars and university/inter-university degrees) according to various residency districts.
Background: As the population ages and pressure increases to reduce adverse drug reactions and drug-related hospitalizations in the elderly, there will be a growing demand for pharmacists to competently take on shared responsibility for effective and safe prescribing in older adults. Methods: A cross-sectional postal survey was distributed to 3927 hospital and community pharmacists across Québec about their educational needs and practice patterns in geriatric care. Perceptions of different quality performance indicators were sought. Modifiable factors associated with higher performance were determined using univariate logistic regression. Results: Seven hundred six pharmacists (18%) completed the survey. Less than 50% were aware of the prevalence of polypharmacy, inappropriate prescribing, drug-related hospitalizations or falls in the geriatric population. Forty-one percent of community pharmacists and 74% of hospital pharmacists acknowledged familiarity with the Beers criteria of drugs to avoid in the elderly. The likelihood of screening for inappropriate prescriptions was 2.96 (95% confidence interval = 1.97-4.47) among pharmacists familiar with the Beers criteria and 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.50-3.34) among those who received continuing geriatric education in the workplace. On average, pharmacists reported having time to conduct detailed medication reviews in 30% of their older patients. The 2 quality indicators of geriatric care that were ranked most pertinent were being able to track the number of patients requiring hospitalization for drug-related problems and monitoring rates of inappropriate prescriptions. Ninety-six percent of respondents desired continuing education about geriatric care. Conclusion: Exposure to continuing education in geriatric pharmacotherapy in the workplace is the most consistent determinant of professional performance to improve drug outcomes in the elderly. PMID:24660011
Otremba, Iwona; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan
Background Delirium remains a major nosocomial complication of hospitalized elderly. Predictive models for delirium may be useful for identification of high-risk patients for implementation of preventive strategies. Objective Evaluate specific factors for development of delirium in a geriatric ward setting. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study comprised 675 consecutive patients aged 79.2±7.7 years (66% women and 34% men), admitted to the subacute geriatric ward of a multiprofile university hospital after exclusion of 113 patients treated with antipsychotic medication because of behavioral disorders before admission. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including a structured interview, physical examination, geriatric functional assessment, blood sampling, ECG, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray, Confusion Assessment Method for diagnosis of delirium, Delirium-O-Meter to assess delirium severity, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale to assess sedation or agitation, visual analog scale and Doloplus-2 scale to assess pain level were performed. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed five independent factors associated with development of delirium in geriatric inpatients: transfer between hospital wards (odds ratio [OR] =2.78; confidence interval [CI] =1.54–5.01; P=0.001), preexisting dementia (OR =2.29; CI =1.44–3.65; P<0.001), previous delirium incidents (OR =2.23; CI =1.47–3.38; P<0.001), previous fall incidents (OR =1.76; CI =1.17–2.64; P=0.006), and use of proton-pump inhibitors (OR =1.67; CI =1.11–2.53; P=0.014). Conclusion Transfer between hospital wards, preexisting dementia, previous delirium incidents, previous fall incidents, and use of proton-pump inhibitors are predictive of development of delirium in the geriatric inpatient setting. PMID:27103793
Clerencia-Sierra, Mercedes; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Martínez-Velilla, Nicolás; Vergara-Mitxeltorena, Itziar; Aldaz-Herce, Pablo; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Machón-Sobrado, Mónica; Egüés-Olazabal, Nerea; Abellán-van Kan, Gabor; Prados-Torres, Alexandra
Background/Objectives The clinical status of older individuals with multimorbidity can be further complicated by concomitant geriatric syndromes. This study explores multimorbidity patterns, encompassing both chronic diseases and geriatric syndromes, in geriatric patients attended in an acute hospital setting. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting Unit of Social and Clinical Assessment (UVSS), Miguel Servet University Hospital (HUMS), Zaragoza (Spain). Year, 2011. Participants A total of 924 hospitalized patients aged 65 years or older. Measurements Data on patients’ clinical, functional, cognitive and social statuses were gathered through comprehensive geriatric assessments. To identify diseases and/or geriatric syndromes that cluster into patterns, an exploratory factor analysis was applied, stratifying by sex. The factors can be interpreted as multimorbidity patterns, i.e., diseases non-randomly associated with each other within the study population. The resulting patterns were clinically assessed by several physicians. Results The mean age of the study population was 82.1 years (SD 7.2). Multimorbidity burden was lower in men under 80 years, but increased in those over 80. Immobility, urinary incontinence, hypertension, falls, dementia, cognitive decline, diabetes and arrhythmia were among the 10 most frequent health problems in both sexes, with prevalence rates above 20%. Four multimorbidity patterns were identified that were present in both sexes: Cardiovascular, Induced Dependency, Falls and Osteoarticular. The number of conditions comprising these patterns was similar in men and women. Conclusion The existence of specific multimorbidity patterns in geriatric patients, such as the Induced Dependency and Falls patterns, may facilitate the early detection of vulnerability to stressors, thus helping to avoid negative health outcomes such as functional disability. PMID:26208112
... United States. The first program used public health registered nurses who had been educated in England. These nurses ... Applicants for nurse-midwife programs usually must be registered nurses and have at least 1 to 2 years ...
Mundinger, Mary O'Neil
Primary nursing means that each patient has an individual nurse who is responsible for assessing his nursing needs and planning and evaluating his nursing care. The article describes the advantages and problems connected with this approach to patient care. (AG)
Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Ping-Yi
gerontological nursing. 2. Describe the results of using music therapy to create positive attitudes toward older adults. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the authors have any conflicts of interest to disclose. Nursing students generally have a negative attitude toward older adults. Preparing nurses to meet the care needs of an expanding aging population is a challenge for nursing educators. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether incorporating music therapy into a practical geriatric nursing course at a nursing home cultivates positive attitudes toward older adults, raises students' willingness to work with older adults, and increases their interest in specializing in gerontological nursing after graduation. Focus groups were conducted to collect data from three participant groups (N = 20). Verbatim transcripts of audiorecorded interviews were analyzed using content analysis, which revealed four themes: (a) better appreciation and understanding of music therapy, (b) role modeling instructors' successful experience and positive attitude toward older adults, (c) changing attitudes toward older adults, and (d) improving interaction skills with older adults. Results suggested music can be integrated into a gerontological nursing course to enhance students' motivation to learn, empathize, and approach older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 25-31.].
Over the last 30 years, major advances in the provision of services for frail older people in Australasia have taken place. This has been spurred on by the accumulation of the evidence for benefits of the multidisciplinary team model of comprehensive geriatric assessment and management. Current research is now uncovering mechanisms of frailty associated with the ageing process and will lead to further interventions in the management of the health problems of older people. These interventions will almost certainly include both medical and lifestyle strategies. Although there have been major improvements in the education of health professionals in aspects of geriatrics, more concerted efforts are required for the ageing population.
Bellantonio, Sandra; Kuchel, George A
In planning for the medical needs of our growing population of older adults, it has been assumed that modern pharmacology of common geriatric conditions includes strategies not considered in previous decades. However, examination of the 1899 edition of the Merck Manual demonstrates that many important contributors to geriatric disability had already started to be recognized in the 19th century. Moreover, some of the medications recommended for these conditions in 1899 were based on the same pharmacological principles as 'state-of-the-art' management options available in 2002.
... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ... a mother. As you become more used to breastfeeding your baby, you can try different positions or ...
... at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital, one of Harvard's teaching hospitals. more info Irene Moore, MSSW, LISW University ... because I wanted to care for a specific group of people -- frail older people -- but I also ...
Nikolaus, T; Specht-Leible, N; Bach, M; Wittmann-Jennewein, C; Oster, P; Schlierf, G
In this ongoing randomized controlled trial the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary team implementing hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and home intervention is being studied. All patients admitted from home showing functional decline with impairment of any basic activity of daily living are randomly assigned to one of the following courses of treatment: CGA with in-hospital and post discharge management by a home intervention team (HIT), where necessary (group 1): CGA with recommendations and usual care at home (group 2); or usual hospital and home care (group 3). The HIT consists of 3 nurses, 1 geriatrician, 1 physiotherapist, 1 occupational therapist, and 1 social worker. 540 patients will be recruited for the trial, which will assess the effects of GEM-HIT on the following outcomes: health status, functional status, survival, hospital readmission, nursing home placement and costs. The purpose of the GEM-HIT trial is to answer many of the current questions concerning treatment and health care delivery for frail older persons under the specific conditions found in Germany. The large sample size and the broad range of diagnoses included in the study will allow the evaluation of effects of GEM-HIT for subgroups and may help to identify the most effective assessment tools for use within our particular context.
O'Loughlin, G; Shanley, C
Various studies suggest that between 50% and 75% of nursing home residents have some difficulty in swallowing. Some of these residents are assessed and treated by speech pathologists, but many are managed by nursing staff without specialist input. A training program called Swallowing ... on a Plate (SOAP) has been developed by the Centre for Education and Research on Ageing and the Inner West Geriatrics and Rehabilitation Service to help address swallowing-related problems in local nursing homes (Inner West of Sydney, Australia). The training program teaches nursing staff how to identify, assess, and manage swallowing problems, including making appropriate referrals. Several new instruments were developed specifically for this program including two assessment checklists, a set of management guidelines, and a swallowing care plan. Evaluation of the program--including 3 months follow-up--showed it to be highly successful. A stand-alone training resource has been produced for wide distribution to help staff implement the program as a permanent aspect of their nursing care. This paper describes the development, content, presentation, resource, and evaluation of the above program.
Pileggi, Claudia; Manuti, Benedetto; Costantino, Rosa; Bianco, Aida; Nobile, Carmelo G. A.; Pavia, Maria
Objectives To adapt the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders Quality Indicators (ACOVE QIs) for use in Italy, to assess the adherence to these indicators as reported in the medical records of residents in a nursing home (NH), to compare this adherence for general medical and geriatric conditions, and eventually, to identify the relationships between patients' characteristics and reported processes of care. Methods Two physicians collected the data by reviewing medical records of all NH residents in the previous 5 years, for a period of one year. Patients aged <65 years were excluded. A total of 245 patients were reviewed during the study period. The ACOVE QIs set, developed for NH processes of care, was used to assess the quality of care. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify and to assess the role of patients' characteristics on quality of processes of care by several domains of care in general medical and geriatric conditions. Results With the exception of diabetes management, quality of processes of care for general medical conditions approached adequate adherence. Care falls substantially short of acceptable levels for geriatric conditions (pressure ulcers, falls, dementia). On the contrary, the recommended interventions for urinary incontinence were commonly performed. Adherence to indicators varied for the different domains of care and was proven worse for the screening and prevention indicators both for geriatric and general medical conditions. Statistical analysis showed disparities in provision of appropriate processes of care associated with gender, age, co-morbidities, level of function and mobility, length of stay and modality of discharge by NHs. Conclusions Adherence to recommended processes of care delivered in NH is inadequate. Substantial work lies ahead for the improvement of care. Efforts should focus particularly on management of geriatric conditions and on preventive healthcare. PMID:24675745
Gillette, V A
The perioperative nursing role has evolved from that of task-oriented specialists to patient-centered professionals. The concept of caring is significant to perioperative nurses and is manifested by the many caring behaviors perioperative nurses demonstrate toward surgical patients. This article describes how the element of caring is an essential function of perioperative nursing and relates the perioperative nursing role to the work of three nursing theorists (le, Florence Nightingale; Virginia Henderson, RN, AM; Carol L. Montgomery, RN, PhD).
Unger, A.C; Dirksen, B; Renken, F. G; Wilde, E; Willkomm, M; Schulz, A.P
Purpose : The Direct Anterior Approach (DAA) is well established as a minimal access approach in elective orthopaedic hip surgery. For the growing number of elderly patients with femoral neck fractures treated with Bipolar Hip Hemiarthroplasty (BHH), only a few results do exist. The study shows the clinical and radiological outcome for 180 patients treated by a modified DAA with BHH. Materials and Methods : The data of 180 geriatric patients with medial femoral neck fractures were evaluated retrospectively. The general and surgical complications, mobilisation using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG), the social environment pre- and postoperative and the radiological results have been compared with established approaches for geriatric hip surgery. Results : After joint replacement, 18 (10%) patients were developed pneumonia, of which 3 (1.7%) died during hospitalisation. In 7 cases (4%), surgical revision had to be carried out: three times (1.7%) because of a seroma, three times (1.7%) because of subcutaneous infection, and one time (0.6%) because the BHH was removed, owing to deep wound infection. One dislocation (0.6%) occurred, as well as one femoral nerve lesion (0.6%) occured. 88.3% of patients were mobilised on walkers or crutches; the Timed Up and Go Test showed a significant improvement during inpatient rehabilitation. 83% were discharged to their usual social environment, 10% were transferred to a short-term care facility and 7% were relocated permanently to a nursing home. 3/4 of patients had a cemented stem alignment in the range between -5° and 5°, while 2/3 of patients had a maximum difference of 1 cm in leg length. Conclusion : Using the modified DAA, a high patient satisfaction is achieved after implantation of a BHH. The rate of major complications is just as low as in conventional approaches, and rapid mobilisation is possible. PMID:25136389
Kafetz, K; O'Farrell, J; Parry, A; Wijesuriya, V; McElligott, G; Rossiter, B; Lugon, M
This study was carried out to find out how many patients aged 75 and over admitted to hospital as medical emergencies had features appropriate to care by physicians in geriatric medicine and to examine the extent of use of specialist facilities by these patients. The purpose was to examine criticisms of age-related admission policies which have focused on misplacement of patients with single diagnoses and lack of access to specialist care. An analysis was made of admission, process and discharge characteristics relevant to the special skills of geriatric medicine, multiple pathology and use of specialist services by 554 patients aged 75 and over. These were collected prospectively, consecutively admitted as medical emergencies via the accident and emergency department of a large district general hospital with an age-related (75 and over) medical admissions policy. 84 patients (15%) had single pathology and no characteristics suggesting the need for specialist geriatric care. 177 (32%) had single pathology and one or more specialized characteristics. 66 (12%) had multiple pathology alone. 227 (41%) had multiple pathology and specialized characteristics. There were 142 specialist referrals in 121 patients (22% of the whole sample). We concluded that the special skills of general physicians specializing in the medical and associated community problems of elderly people are highly relevant to patients aged 75 and over presenting as medical emergencies. There was no evidence of lack of involvement of specialists in their care. PMID:8544147
Kafetz, K; O'Farrell, J; Parry, A; Wijesuriya, V; McElligott, G; Rossiter, B; Lugon, M
This study was carried out to find out how many patients aged 75 and over admitted to hospital as medical emergencies had features appropriate to care by physicians in geriatric medicine and to examine the extent of use of specialist facilities by these patients. The purpose was to examine criticisms of age-related admission policies which have focused on misplacement of patients with single diagnoses and lack of access to specialist care. An analysis was made of admission, process and discharge characteristics relevant to the special skills of geriatric medicine, multiple pathology and use of specialist services by 554 patients aged 75 and over. These were collected prospectively, consecutively admitted as medical emergencies via the accident and emergency department of a large district general hospital with an age-related (75 and over) medical admissions policy. 84 patients (15%) had single pathology and no characteristics suggesting the need for specialist geriatric care. 177 (32%) had single pathology and one or more specialized characteristics. 66 (12%) had multiple pathology alone. 227 (41%) had multiple pathology and specialized characteristics. There were 142 specialist referrals in 121 patients (22% of the whole sample). We concluded that the special skills of general physicians specializing in the medical and associated community problems of elderly people are highly relevant to patients aged 75 and over presenting as medical emergencies. There was no evidence of lack of involvement of specialists in their care.
Vos, Alinda G.; Smorenburg, Carolien H.; de Rooij, Sophia E.; van Munster, Barbara C.
Background. Awareness of the use of geriatric assessments for older patients with cancer is increasing. The aim of this review is to summarize all available evidence on the association between geriatric assessments and relevant oncologic outcomes. Method. A systematic search was conducted in Medline and Embase of studies on geriatric assessment in oncology, focusing on the association between baseline assessment and outcome. Results. The literature search identified 2008 reports; 51 publications from 37 studies were selected for inclusion in the review. The quality of studies was heterogeneous and generally poor. A median of five geriatric conditions were assessed per study (interquartile range: 4–8). Little consistency was found in the results of the studies. Furthermore, different tools appear to be predictive depending on the outcome measure: frailty, nutritional status, and comorbidity assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale for Geriatrics were predictive for all-cause mortality; frailty was predictive for toxicity of chemotherapy; cognitive impairment and activities of daily living impairment were predictive for chemotherapy completion; and instrumental activities of daily living impairment was predictive for perioperative complications. Conclusion. Although various geriatric conditions appear to be of some value in predicting outcome in elderly patients with cancer, the results are too inconsistent to guide treatment decisions. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of geriatric assessments in the oncologic decision-making process for these patients. PMID:22941970
Bahrmann, P; Wehling, M; Ropers, D; Flohr, J; Leischker, A; Röther, J
The present position paper summarises the outcomes of an expert panel discussion held by hospital-based and office-based physicians with ample experience in the treatment of geriatric patients. The optimal approach to stroke prevention in geriatric patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been adequately clarified. Despite their high risk of stroke and clear indication for anticoagulation according to established risk scores, in practice geriatric AF patients often are withheld treatment because of comorbidities and comedications, concerns about low treatment adherence or fear of bleeding events, in particular due to falls. The panel agreed that geriatric patients should receive oral anticoagulation as a rule, unless a comprehensive neurological and geriatric assessment (including clinical examination, gait tests and validated instruments such as Modified Rankin Scale, Mini-mental state examination or Timed Test of Money Counting) provides sound reasons for refraining from treatment. All patients with a history of falls should be thoroughly evaluated for further evaluation of the causes. Patients with CHADS2 score ≥ 2 should receive anticoagulation even if at high risk for falls. The novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) facilitate management in the geriatric population with AF (no INR monitoring needed, easier bridging during interventions) and have, based on available data, an improved benefit-risk ratio compared to vitamin K antagonists. Drugs with predominantly non-renal elimination are safer in geriatric patients and should be preferred.
Senn, Nicolas; Monod, Stéfanie
According to demographic projections, a significant increase in the proportion of the elderly population is anticipated worldwide. This aging of the population will lead to an increase in the prevalence of chronic diseases and functional impairment. This expected increase will result in growing use of the health care system that societies are largely unprepared to address. General practitioners (GPs) are at the front line of this huge epidemiological challenge, but appropriate tools to diagnose and manage elderly patients in routine general practice are lacking. Indeed, while primary prevention and the management of common chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiac ischemic diseases, are routinely and mostly adequately performed in primary care, the management of geriatric syndromes is often incomplete. In order to address these shortcomings, this theoretical work aims to first develop, based on the best available evidence, a brief assessment tool (BAT) specifically designed for geriatric syndromes identification in general practice and, second, to propose a conceptual framework for the management of elderly patients in general practice that integrates the BAT instrument into the usual care of GPs. To avoid proposing unachievable goals for the care of elderly patients in general practice (for example, performing all the best screening tools for geriatric conditions identification and care), this work proposes an innovative way to combine geriatric assessment with the management of common chronic diseases. PMID:26636085
Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah
On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle…
Priyadarshini, Smita R; Sahoo, Pradyumna Ku; Bhuyan, Sanat Ku; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Pati, Abhishek Rajan
Growing old is an inevitable process and aging graciously requires a healthy body where oral cavity occupies an important place. Geriatric dentistry is a specialized multidisciplinary branch of general dentistry designed to provide dental services to elderly patients. The rise in life expectancy has attributed to the substantial reduction in mortality which brought about by improved health care facilities, sanitation, environmental and public health reforms coupled with better hygiene and living conditions. The goal of geriatric treatment is to achieve optimal oral health, thus enhancing overall health. This begins with a concerted effort between the patient and the healthcare and dental teams. When medical problems exist, the physician and other involved healthcare professionals should be consulted, as these diseases can affect the safety and efficacy of various dental treatments. Thus a unified approach should be followed to assist geriatric patients to maintain optimal oral health and a high quality of life. Here in, this article we have reviewed the categories geriatric patients are divided to, various aging theories, changes occurring in various systems with their effects on system along with the various dental effects and age changes in them and treatment needs and strategies' concerning the elderly population.
Duke, Pamela; Cohen, Diane; Novack, Dennis
This study examined first-year medical student attitudes concerning the elderly before and after instituting a geriatric mentoring program. The program began and ended with a survey designed to assess students' attitudes toward the elderly. During the mentoring program, students visited the same senior for four visits throughout the academic year.…
Sophrology is a non medication-based method which involves both the body and mind. It combines relaxing the muscles, increasing awareness of breathing and positive thinking, and leads to the search for improved well-being through the integration of the body percept. It generates a feeling of "letting go" and helps to relieve physical, psychological and spiritual suffering, in particular in geriatrics.
Politynska, Barbara; van Rijsselt, Rene J. T.; Lewko, Jolanta; Philp, Ian; Figueiredo, Daniella; De Sousa, Lilliana
Quality assurance (QA) in gerontological and geriatric education programs is regarded as essential to maintain standards, strengthen accountability, improve readability of qualifications, and facilitate professional mobility. In this article the authors present a summary of international developments in QA and elaborate four international trends,…
Ruiz, Jorge G.; Qadri, Syeda S.; Karides, Marina; Castillo, Carmen; Milanez, Marcos; Roos, Bernard A.
Electronic portfolios (ePortfolios) can be useful for evaluating and documenting mastery of competencies. We investigated geriatric medicine fellows' perceptions of an ePortfolio. We conducted surveys and focus groups followed by quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Our study revealed that fellows considered the ePortfolio acceptable and…
Polo, Isabel; And Others
A clinical geriatric pharmacy clerkship containing three separate practice areas (long-term, acute, and ambulatory care) is described. The program follows the medical education clerkship protocol, with a clinical pharmacy specialist, pharmacy practice resident, and student. Participation in medical rounds, interdisciplinary conferences, and…
Higbee, Martin D.
A three-component geriatric-gerontology program developed at the University of Utah is described that consists of a lecture course, clinical clerkships, and a gerontology certificate program. This multidisciplinary approach enables students to gain a broad perspective in the complex health care of the elderly. (Author/MLW)
Johnson, Helen Arleen
Distance education technologies may be applied to academic settings, continuing education/continuing medical education settings or in combination to both. This article provides an overview of what we have learned about academic and continuing education/continuing medical education in geriatrics and gerontology. It includes information on the scope…
... extended care; recent VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care; and... gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the... on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs; aging research activities; training, recruitment...
... dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of the VA Geriatric... Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, update on VA's employee staff working in...
... VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight... gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the... on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs, aging research activities, updates on VA's...
... dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of VA Geriatric Research.... The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, updates on VA's employee staff working in...
... dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight of VA Geriatric Research.... The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the medical... and extended care programs, aging research activities, updates on VA's employee staff working in...
... VHA efforts regarding dementia and program advances in palliative care, and performance and oversight... gerontology. The Committee assesses the capability of VA health care facilities and programs to meet the... on VA's geriatrics and extended care programs, aging research activities, update on VA's...
Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.
Onsite workplace education was provided for employees of the Geriatric Authority of Holyoke (GAH), Massachusetts. Instructional programs in English as a Second Language, adult basic education, and General Educational Development (GED) preparation were offered. The union and supervisors assisted in a broad recruitment effort. Individualized…
Sahoo, Pradyumna KU; Bhuyan, Sanat KU; Misra, Satya Ranjan; Pati, Abhishek Rajan
Growing old is an inevitable process and aging graciously requires a healthy body where oral cavity occupies an important place. Geriatric dentistry is a specialized multidisciplinary branch of general dentistry designed to provide dental services to elderly patients. The rise in life expectancy has attributed to the substantial reduction in mortality which brought about by improved health care facilities, sanitation, environmental and public health reforms coupled with better hygiene and living conditions. The goal of geriatric treatment is to achieve optimal oral health, thus enhancing overall health. This begins with a concerted effort between the patient and the healthcare and dental teams. When medical problems exist, the physician and other involved healthcare professionals should be consulted, as these diseases can affect the safety and efficacy of various dental treatments. Thus a unified approach should be followed to assist geriatric patients to maintain optimal oral health and a high quality of life. Here in, this article we have reviewed the categories geriatric patients are divided to, various aging theories, changes occurring in various systems with their effects on system along with the various dental effects and age changes in them and treatment needs and strategies’ concerning the elderly population. PMID:25654057
Peñafiel Marfil, R; García Rospide, V; Moreno Padilla, F; González Ríos, F J; Ros Die, E
Results of a study about the chronic ischaemia of the lower limbs and its correlation with age, sex and previous diagnosis, are presented. Also, a comparison between previous diagnosis and results following the methodology exposed, was made. Study group included 433 older patients, randomizadely selected and permanent residents of some geriatric centers of the Oriental Andalucy.
Pinheiro, Sandro O; Heflin, Mitchell T
Geriatricians need to acquire skills in teaching and curriculum development to educate physicians caring for the growing population of adults aged 65 and older. To meet this challenge, educators in the Duke University Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development introduced a monthly seminar series to promote the development of geriatrics faculty and fellows as clinician educators. Ten educational skills development seminars were incorporated into geriatrics grand rounds in the first year of the program. These sessions were implemented using a variety of active learning strategies to expose participants to innovative adult learning-centered approaches for enhancing learning and instruction in medical education. Participants assessed all sessions using a feedback form and were surveyed at the end of the series to measure their overall satisfaction with the program and ascertain its effect on their roles as educators. Participants rated individual sessions highly, and respondents to the survey at the end of the course agreed that the Geriatrics Excellence in Teaching Series provided them with resources for use in their teaching practices and attested to having already applied knowledge and skills learned in the series in their teaching practices. Key elements for the program's success included an upfront needs assessment to prioritize topics, interactive sessions promoting skill development through actual practice of various strategies, open discussions to identify challenges and solutions, and a convenient and customary time slot. This format can be replicated with other geriatrics programs, providing a needed opportunity for faculty and fellows to learn about education principles.
Erber, Joan T.
An overview is presented of several areas of deprivation research (animal, child, young adult) and methods of conceptualizing and measuring deprivation is applied to institutionalized geriatric patients. Suggestions are made for more precise approaches to studying and treating deprivation in this population. (Author/SS)
Howe, Judith L.; Sherman, Deborah Witt
Despite the increasing public demand for enhanced care of older patients and those with life-threatening illness, health professionals have had limited formal education in geriatrics and palliative care. Furthermore, formal education in interdisciplinary team training is limited. In order to remedy this situation, proactive interventions are being…
Warshaw, Gregg A.; Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Layde, Joseph B.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Brewer, David E.
Objective: The authors describe the current characteristics of geriatrics training within general psychiatry training programs. Methods: In the fall of 2006, a survey was mailed and made available online to all U.S. psychiatric residency program directors (N=181). Results: The response rate was 54% (n=97). Of the responding psychiatry programs,…
Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Flores Cerqueda, Sergio; García Ramírez, José Carlos
Life expectancy is increasing in Mexico, creating new opportunities and challenges in different areas, including gerontology and geriatric education and research. Although in the European Union there are more than 3,000 institutions that focus on aging research, in Latin America there are only 250 programs where theoretical and practical knowledge is taught. In Mexico, the number of institutions that offer gerontology and geriatric education is relatively small. One of the major concerns is that Mexico is not adequately prepared to optimally deal with the aging of its population. Thus, the main challenge that Mexico faces is to train practitioners, researchers, and policy makers to be able to respond to the aging priorities of this country. The goal of this review is to investigate the literature regarding 60 years in the fields of gerontology and geriatrics in Mexico. Even when programs have evolved within the past decades, there are some challenges to gerontological and geriatric education and aging research in Mexico. The implications for Mexico are discussed, as well as opportunities for moving these fields forward.
Romero-Hall, Enilda; Scott, JoAnne
Cultural stereotypes rooted in both antiquated data and misinterpretation of data have long perpetuated the belief that older adults are unable to learn new concepts because they are doomed to lose brain cells at an alarming rate during their geriatric years. However, advances in neurophysiological technologies that allow researchers to observe…
Lowe, Shari; Durrell, Kelly
The Geriatric Function Score Scale was developed for the elderly. It is an objective tool that examines physical, cognitive, and motivational components of functioning. Results of a preliminary study revealed that the score patients received was able to discriminate the level of placement they would need upon hospital discharge. (Author/CH)
Fry, P. S.
Evaluated hopelessness, depression, and self-esteem among depressed elderly people (N=78) and developed a Geriatric Hopelessness Scale (GHS). As predicted, elderly subjects who scored high on the GHS showed significantly higher depression and lower self-esteem scores. (JAC)
Gomez, Fernando; Curcio, Carmen Lucia
The underlying rationale to support interdisciplinary collaboration in geriatrics and gerontology is based on the complexity of elderly care. The most important characteristic about interdisciplinary health care teams for older people in Latin America is their subjective-basis framework. In other regions, teams are organized according to a…
Corwin, Sara J.; Frahm, Kathryn; Ochs, Leslie A.; Rheaume, Carol E.; Roberts, Ellen; Eleazer, G. Paul
In 2000, the Senior Mentor Program was implemented as an innovative, instructional method in the University of South Carolina's medical school curriculum designed to enhance and strengthen student training in geriatrics. This study qualitatively analyzed second-year medical students' and senior participants' perceptions of and attitudes towards…
Marquez, David X.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Jerome, Gerald J.; Kramer, Arthur F.
This study examined the validity of Geriatric Depression Scale--5 (GDS-5) scores among older sedentary adults based on its structural properties and relationship with external criteria. Participants from two samples (Ns = 185 and 93; M ages = 66 and 67 years) completed baseline assessments as part of randomized controlled exercise trials.…
Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur
The objective was to identify the predictors of length of stay--the impact of age, comorbidity, and stroke subtype--on the outcome of geriatric stroke patients. One hundred and seventy stroke patients (129 first-ever ischemic, 25 hemorrhagic, and 16 ischemic second strokes) were included in the study. The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project…
Lang, Valerie J.; Clark, Nancy S.; Medina-Walpole, Annette; McCann, Robert
Geriatric patients are at increased risk for complications from delirium or falls during hospitalization. Medical education, however, generally places little emphasis on the hazards of hospitalization for older inpatients. Geriatricians conducted a faculty development workshop for hospitalists about the hazards of hospitalization for geriatric…
Barolin, G. S.
This discussion of geriatric rehabilitation stresses the importance of holistic and permanent rehabilitation with a fluent transition from the acute phase to the rehabilitation phase under one specialist's care and in one institution. Recommendations include mixed age groups in one ward; systematic education of relatives; follow-up rehabilitation…
Murphy-Southwick, Colleen; McBride, Melen
Montana, a predominantly rural state, with a unique blend of geography and history, low population density, and cultural diversity represents the challenges for program development and implementation across remote areas. The paper discusses two statewide multidisciplinary geriatric education programs for health professionals offered by the…
Behrman, Gary; Mancini, Michael; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Rizzo, Victoria M.; Baskind, Frank; Valentine, Carl
Changing U.S. demographics and family composition are challenging social work education programs to reposition and reconsider how to prepare students for practice in the field of geriatrics. Implications for future social service and health care needs include ongoing training and education of students with competencies in serving geriatric…
Hooyman, Nancy R.
This book, celebrating the Geriatric Social Work Initiative's 10th Anniversary, documents the effect that its educational programs have had on shaping gerontological social work education as a whole. Each chapter highlights various aspects of this John A. Hartford Foundation-funded initiative--its competency-based education, model for curricular…
Heath, John M.; Brown, Merle; Kobylarz, Fred A.; Castano, Susan
Purpose: We sought to determine the prevalence of remediable health conditions from in-home geriatric assessments of referred adult protective service (APS) clients suffering elder mistreatment. Design and Methods: We used a retrospective cohort study of 211 APS clients (74% female; age, M = 77 years) in two central New Jersey counties. Results:…
Bragg, Elizabeth J.; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Shay, Kenneth; Gilman, Stuart C.; Zeiss, Robert A.; Hettler, Debbie L.
The education mission of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is to train health professionals to benefit VA and the United States. One approach for achieving that mission, along with VA's research and clinical missions, was the establishment of Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers (GRECCs) in 1975. These were developed at VA…
Kramer, B Josea; Creekmur, Beth; Howe, Judith L; Trudeau, Scott; Douglas, Joseph R; Garner, Kimberly; Bales, Connie; Callaway-Lane, Carol; Barczi, Steven
The Veterans Affairs Geriatric Scholars Program (GSP) is a continuing professional development program to integrate geriatrics into the clinical practices of primary care providers and select associated health professions that support primary care teams. GSP uses a blended program educational format, and the minimal requirements are to attend an intensive course in geriatrics, participate in an interactive workshop on quality improvement (QI), and initiate a local QI project to demonstrate application of new knowledge to benefit older veterans. Using a retrospective post/pre survey design, the effect of GSP on clinical practices and behaviors and variation of that effect on clinicians working in rural and nonrural settings were evaluated. Significant improvement was found in the frequency of using evidence-based brief standardized assessments, clinical decision-making, and standards of care. Significant subgroup differences were observed in peer-to-peer information sharing between rural and nonrural clinicians. Overall, 77% of the sample reported greater job satisfaction after participating in GSP. The program is a successful model for advancing postgraduate education in geriatrics and a model that might be replicated to increase access to quality health care, particularly in rural areas.
Meissner, Paul; And Others
Compared patients (N=103) admitted to inpatient geriatric care unit focusing on restoration of functional status to control-unit patients (N=75). Found greater improvement in basic functional capabilities of study-unit than control-unit patients. Found mixed picture when length of stay and total charges of study- and control-unit patients were…
Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi
Background With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Results Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18–13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35–1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42–2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92–3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09–4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. Conclusion High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang
Liu, Zhonghui; Lin, Lianjun; Liu, Xinmin
Background The diagnosis and assessment of COPD rely mainly on the use of spirometry, which is an effort-dependent test and requires good patient cooperation. Impulse oscillometry (IOS) is a non-volitional method that requires less effort and cooperation and presents advantages for geriatric patients. However, the clinical application value of IOS in geriatric patients with COPD remains unclear. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical application value of IOS in geriatric patients with COPD. Subjects and methods A total of 234 subjects were retrospectively enrolled in this study, including 133 patients with COPD and 101 healthy volunteers. All the participants underwent IOS and spirometry examination. The data were collected and analyzed in the overall group, the geriatric group (aged ≥65 years), and the advanced elderly group (aged ≥80 years). Results 1) In COPD patients, a significant increase in respiratory impedance (Z5), resonant frequency (Fres), and respiratory resistance (R5, R20, R5–R20) and a decrease in respiratory reactance (X5) were observed in the overall group, the geriatric group, and the advanced elderly group compared with the healthy control subjects. 2) The IOS parameters correlated well with spirometry in COPD. In particular, R5–R20 showed the best correlation with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) in the different age groups. 3) Fres and R5–R20 had the best diagnostic efficiency for COPD. The area under the curve (AUC) values for Fres, expressed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, were 0.905, 0.909, and 0.914, for the different age groups, respectively. 4) The optimal cutoff values for Fres to diagnose airflow obstruction from ROC curves was 17.715 in the COPD patients. Its sensitivity and specificity were 0.789 and 0.931, respectively, and the cutoff values were similar in geriatric and advanced elderly patients. Conclusion IOS demonstrated good relevance compared with spirometry for
Nurse transformational leaders can serve in academic settings and at local, national, international professional nursing organizations and community-based groups. As a transformational leader, nurses can lead in any workplace. According to a study by Stanley (2012), clinical leaders are not sought for their capacity to outline a vision, but for their values and beliefs on display that are easily recognized in their actions. This encompasses the moral component of transformational leadership. It is the APRNs duty to continue to strive towards a better vision for the well-being of all nurses, patients, and colleagues. Autonomous APRNs are happier, healthier, and better prepared to provide the best patient care to their patients. We should not be happy to sit back and let others fight this fight. APRNs need to be on the frontline, leading the way. This is only an insight that I have gained after many frustrating years of cheering our profession and then being made to feel inferior at the same time. Only nurses, who have that nurturing spirit, would hold back if they felt it might hurt others. Don't back off or hold back! It might hurt those that follow!
Wirth, R; Volkert, D; Bauer, J M; Schulz, R J; Borchelt, M; Fleischhauer, C; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Sieber, C C
The placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a safe and widely accepted method of artificial enteral nutrition. In Germany, PEG placement is performed approximately 140,000 times a year, about 65% of them in elderly patients. Yet indications for PEG placement in the elderly, as well as the health and functional status of these patients are unexplored in Germany. To draw conclusions about the indication for PEG placement, the health status and the further development of patients undergoing PEG in acute geriatric wards, we performed an analysis of the 2004 annual data set of the German Gemidas database. The Gemidas database is an instrument of voluntary quality assurance, where the treatment data of patients in German geriatric hospital units are registered. Data of 40 acute geriatric hospital units with 27,775 patients and 393 PEG tube placements were analyzed. According to the database items, we received information about the incidence of PEG placement, nutrition-relevant treatment diagnosis, patients age, functional and mental status, length of hospital stay, where patients were admitted from and discharged to and the hospital mortality of geriatric patients with and without PEG placement. In 1.4% of all treatment cases, a PEG was inserted. PEG placement was mainly performed in patients with the treatment diagnosis stroke (65.1%) and dysphagia (64.1%). The functional status of patients with PEG tube placement was very poor, with an Barthel Index of 8.2 (+/- 14.6) points at admission. Due to the severity of the disease and in concordance with existing data the overall hospital mortality of patients undergoing PEG placement was 17.6%, which is higher than in patients without PEG placement (4.3%). In all 27 775 analyzed geriatric patients, a diagnosis related to malnutrition was coded in only 7.0%, although sufficient data show a prevalence of about 50% in elderly hospital patients.
Geriatric rehabilitation is a multidisciplinary set of evaluative, diagnostic, and therapeutic interventions whose purpose is to restore functional ability or enhance residual functional capability in elderly people with disabling impairments. The Boston Working Group on Improving Health Care Outcomes Through Geriatric Rehabilitation was convened to begin a dialogue among experts in rehabilitation, quality of care, and health services research to consider ways to measure, improve, and ensure the quality of geriatric rehabilitation services. The conference centered around four major themes: the definition of disability/disablement; the patient's experience of rehabilitative care; the role of clinical practice guidelines; and the need for casemix and severity or risk-adjustment procedures and measures. The plenary speaker discussed potential new directions in each of these areas and reviewed the contribution of these innovations to improved means of outcomes assessment. Each of the four themes was addressed in the form of a paper by an expert in the field. Two reactors with different viewpoints responded to these papers, and small working groups of participants, convened by topic, contributed to discussions later summarized and presented in plenary session by a spokesperson for each group. In one small group, two reporters represented the majority and minority opinions. A summary speaker presented an overview of the conference deliberations and focused on four of the critical points raised by the working groups: (1) the need to define and describe geriatric rehabilitation in lay terms; (2) the need for more research to link process with outcome; (3) the need to balance long-term measurement of process and outcome with short-term analysis that facilitates creative response to accelerating changes in the health care sector; and (4) the need to convince a diverse audience of the role of geriatric rehabilitation in providing high quality care, good health status, and
Bień-Barkowska, Katarzyna; Doroszkiewicz, Halina; Bień, Barbara
Objectives The aim of this article was to identify the best predictors of distress suffered by family carers (FCs) of geriatric patients. Methods A cross-sectional study of 100 FC-geriatric patient dyads was conducted. The negative impact of care (NIoC) subscale of the COPE index was dichotomized to identify lower stress (score of ≤15 on the scale) and higher stress (score of ≥16 on the scale) exerted on FCs by the process of providing care. The set of explanatory variables comprised a wide range of sociodemographic and care-related attributes, including patient-related results from comprehensive geriatric assessments and disease profiles. The best combination of explanatory variables that provided the highest predictive power for distress among FCs in the multiple logistic regression (LR) model was determined according to statistical information criteria. The statistical robustness of the observed relationships and the discriminative power of the model were verified with the cross-validation method. Results The mean age of FCs was 57.2 (±10.6) years, whereas that of geriatric patients was 81.7 (±6.4) years. Despite the broad initial set of potential explanatory variables, only five predictors were jointly selected for the best statistical model. A higher level of distress was independently predicted by lower self-evaluation of health; worse self-appraisal of coping well as a caregiver; lower sense of general support; more hours of care per week; and the motor retardation of the cared-for person measured with the speed of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Conclusion Worse performance on the TUG test was only the patient-related predictor of distress among the variables examined as contributors to the higher NIoC. Enhancing the mobility of geriatric patients through suitably tailored kinesitherapeutic methods during their hospital stay may mitigate the burden endured by FCs. PMID:28203067
Cowell, Julia Muennich
To cut costs, many districts are replacing certified school nurses with uncertified nurses or undereducated health aides. Never has the role of school nurse been more important. Besides attending to sick children and handling emergencies, today's school nurses are active in health education, physical fitness programs, and disease prevention.…
Hopkinson, Jane B
Cancer in the geriatric population is a growing problem. Malnutrition is common in cancer. A number of factors increase the risk for malnutrition in older people with cancer, including chronic comorbid conditions and normal physiological changes of aging. Nurses have an important role in the nutritional support of older cancer patients. To contribute to the improvement of nutritional support of these patients, nurses need appropriate training to be able to identify risk for malnutrition and offer a range of interventions tailored to individual need. Factors to consider in tailoring interventions include disease status, cancer site, cancer treatment, comorbidity, physiological age, method of facilitating dietary change, and family support. This article identifies ways in which nurses can contribute to the nutritional support of older cancer patients and thus help mitigate the effects of malnutrition.
Tucker, Paula W; Evans, Dian Dowling; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Ardisson, Michelle; Hwang, Ula
Gait speed assessment is a rapid, simple and objective measure for predicting risk of unfavorable outcomes which may provide better prognostic and reliable information than existing geriatric ED (Emergency Department) screening tools. This descriptive pilot project was designed to determine feasibility of implementing gait speed screening into routine nursing practice by objectively identifying patients with sub-optimal gait speeds. Participants included community-dwelling adults 65 years and older with plans for discharge following ED treatment. Patients with a gait speed <1.0 m/s were identified as "high-risk" for an adverse event, and referred to the ED social worker for individualized resources prior to discharge. Thirty-five patients were screened and nurse initiated gait speed screens were completed 60% of the time. This project demonstrates ED gait speed screening may be feasible. Implications for practice should consider incorporating gait speed screening into routine nursing assessment to improve provider ED decision-making and disposition planning.
Harwood, Catherine Hoe; Van Hofwegen, Lynn
Camps can meet or supplement their health care delivery needs by using student nurses. Three models for student nurse internships, basic information about nursing education, and tips for negotiating student nurse internships are described. Sidebars present resources for camp health centers, nursing student competence characteristics, types of…
Saliba, Debra; Kwan, Lorna; Moore, Alison A.; Litwin, Mark S.
Purpose Most malignancies are diagnosed in older adults who are potentially susceptible to aging-related health conditions; however, the manifestation of geriatric syndromes during surgical cancer treatment is not well quantified. Accordingly, we sought to assess the prevalence and ramifications of geriatric events during major surgery for cancer. Patients and Methods Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2009 to 2011, we examined hospital admissions for major cancer surgery among elderly patients (ie, age ≥ 65 years) and a referent group age 55 to 64 years. From these observations, we identified geriatric events that included delirium, dehydration, falls and fractures, failure to thrive, and pressure ulcers. We then estimated the collective prevalence of these events according to age, comorbidity, and cancer site and further explored their relationship with other hospital-based outcomes. Results Within a weighted sample of 939,150 patients, we identified at least one event in 9.2% of patients. Geriatric events were most common among patients age ≥ 75 years, with a Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 2, and who were undergoing surgery for cancer of the bladder, ovary, colon and/or rectum, pancreas, or stomach (P < .001). Adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, those patients who experienced a geriatric event had a greater likelihood of concurrent complications (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 3.55 to 3.92), prolonged hospitalization (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 5.16 to 5.80), incurring high cost (OR, 4.97; 95% CI, 4.58 to 5.39), inpatient mortality (OR, 3.22; 95% CI, 2.94 to 3.53), and a discharge disposition other than home (OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 3.46 to 3.84). Conclusion Many older patients who receive cancer-directed surgery experience a geriatric event, particularly those who undergo major abdominal surgery. These events are linked to operative morbidity, prolonged hospitalization, and more expensive health care. As our population ages, efforts focused on
... and professional practice in nursing." Demonstration of professional development support and clinical advancement programs are hallmarks of a professional nursing practice environment and critical components of Nursing Magnet status. The ...
Healthcare managers must monitor the nursing workload and back up their arguments when requesting resources. A study was carried out based on a tool which measures whether nursing staff provision meets the nursing care workload.
Sousa, Karen H; Weiss, Jason; Welton, John; Reeder, Blaine; Ozkaynak, Mustafa
Nurses in the present health care environment have been reduced too often to being providers of safe, competent care rather than quality care. In response, the Institute of Medicine has recommended that nurses become more involved in making changes to the health care system and use data more effectively. If nursing intends to follow these recommendations, the profession needs (a) fresh perspectives to assist in making health care system changes, (b) partnerships between nurse scientists and nurse clinicians to generate and implement data, and (c) capture of the proper value of nursing as distinct from other elements of health care delivery. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research is an effort to meet the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research has a three-arm structure: a research forum where nurse academicians and nurse clinicians can launch collaborative projects; a research support services arm from which nurse collaborators can obtain help with modeling, statistics, writing, and funding; and a data extraction/data sharing mechanism to inform the decision making of nurse leaders.
Varteresian, Taya; Lavretsky, Helen
Numerous geriatric patients are using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for late-life mood and cognitive disorders. Natural products and supplements are a common CAM intervention which have risks and benefits of which patients should be appropriately advised. The data for omega-3 fatty acids, ginkgo biloba, SAMe, St John's wort, B vitamins and vitamin D, huperzine, caprylidene, and coconut oil will be evaluated. Since the evidence basis for natural products and supplements is limited, especially for the geriatric population, studies involving the general adult population are included to infer effects in the aging population. Despite the data available, more rigorous studies with larger sample sizes over longer periods of time are still needed. Regardless of a physician's preference to recommend various natural supplements and products, a physician could protect their patients by having an understanding of the side effects and indications for various natural products.
Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T
Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS), in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region (IAGG-ER), the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS), the International Osteoporosis Foundation - European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.
Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T
Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.
Reddy, Ravi Shankar; Alahmari, Khalid A
Background and Objective The purpose of this study was to find “Effect of lower extremity stretching exercises on balance in the geriatric population. Method 60 subjects (30 male and 30 female) participated in the study. The subjects underwent 10 weeks of lower limb stretching exercise program. Pre and post 10 weeks stretching exercise program, the subjects were assessed for balance, using single limb stance time in seconds and berg balance score. These outcome measures were analyzed. Results Pre and post lower extremity stretching on balance was analyzed using paired t test. Of 60 subjects 50 subjects completed the stretching exercise program. Paired sample t test analysis showed a significant improvement in single limb stance time (eyes open and eyes closed) (p<0.001) and berg balance score (p<0.001). Conclusion Lower extremity stretching exercises enhances balance in the geriatric population and thereby reduction in the number of falls. PMID:27610062
Andrews, B C; Kaye, J; Bowcutt, M; Campbell, J
This study examines the consequences of adding a geriatric subacute unit to the traditional health care mix offered by a nonprofit hospital. Historically, geriatric health care offerings have been limited to either acute care units or long-term care facilities. The study's findings demonstrate that the addition of a subacute unit that is operated by an interdisciplinary team is a competitively rational move for two reasons. First, it provides a continuum of care that integrates services and departments, thereby reducing costs. Second, it provides a supportive environment for patients and their families. As a consequence patients have a higher probability of returning home than patients who are assigned to more traditional modes of care.
Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh; Sehgal, Vishal; Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash Pratim
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased exponentially throughout the world and there is rapid increase in elderly diabetics. DM is associated with increased mortality and considerable morbidity including stroke, heart disease, and diminished quality of life in the elderly. However, the unique features of geriatric diabetes have not been given due a prominence in medical literature. Hypoglycemia remains the biggest complicating factor and needs to be avoided in the elderly. Most people in the geriatric age group have some degree of renal insufficiency and medications need to be adjusted wisely with changing renal profile. Because safer and more effective pharmacological therapy is available, an individual approach to DM in the elderly is essential.
Varteresian, Taya; Lavretsky, Helen
Numerous geriatric patients are using Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for late-life mood and cognitive disorders. Natural products and supplements are a common CAM intervention which have risks and benefits of which patients should be appropriately advised. The data for omega-3 fatty acids, ginkgo biloba, SAMe, St John’s wort, B Vitamins and Vitamin D, huperzine, caprylidene and coconut oil will be evaluated. Since the evidence basis for natural products and supplements is limited, especially for the geriatric population. Studies involving the general adult population are included to infer effects in the aging population. Despite the data available, more rigorous studies with larger sample sizes over longer periods of time are still needed. Regardless of a physician’s preference to recommend various natural supplements and products, a physician could protect their patients by having an understanding of the side effects and indications for various natural products. PMID:24912606
Yu, Xiao; Weller, Peter; Grattan, Kenneth T V
This paper investigates an enhanced WSN based monitoring system for elderly people in geriatric facilities. Apart from general physical monitoring functionalities, we explore the potential of using a wireless audio module to perform mental health monitoring. The telephone version of the mini mental status examination (T-MMSE) was adopted in the mental health monitoring and the RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) localization algorithm was implemented in this system to track elderly people's the real-time location and send alerts based on their inactivity/activity levels, movement history and entry into restricted zones. Experimental test was performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system. With results obtained and studied, this work can be extended to perform detection and rehabilitation function for elderly people with mental illness. This kind of monitoring system would be expected to make an important impact on many application scenarios for geriatric facilities.
Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu
Introduction The concept of integration, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. It must be linked with ‘coordination’, which is the base of most French public policies applied to geriatrics since the 1960s. Herein, we report the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology working group's findings according to three axes: definition of integration, objectives of this organisational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Discussion Integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, financing, interventions and action-reports on the latter. Integration must be accompanied by a local dedicated professional (the ‘pilot’). Results of recent experiments showed that it is possible to implement integrative dynamics in France. PMID:24868197
Johnson, Helen Arleen
Distance education technologies may be applied to academic settings, continuing education/continuing medical education settings or in combination to both. This article provides an overview of what we have learned about academic and continuing education/continuing medical education in geriatrics and gerontology. It includes information on the scope of distance education, the strengths and challenges of distance education, and discusses issues related to technology, intellectual property, instructional design and curriculum development, collaborative effort, marketing, evaluation, and research.
Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah
On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle function and activity restriction in the geriatric age group, through grip and pinch measurements and a set of questionnaires. Twenty-four geriatric (aged 65-79 years) volunteers participated in the study. Bilateral grip and pinch strengths have been recorded. To document impairment of manual functions, self-estimated hand function, Duruöz and Dreiser hand indices, Geriatrics-Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (GERI-AIMS) manual dexterity questionnaires have been completed. Activity restriction and quality of life of these patients were inquired with short form (SF)-36 and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores. Grip and pinch strengths correlated best with Duruöz and Dreiser indices. Similarly, SF-36 and IADL had higher correlation coefficients for Duruöz and Dreiser indices. A very good correlation between IADL and SF-36 was calculated too. Male and female participants revealed statistically significant differences for grip and pinch strengths as well as self-estimated hand function and SF-36. Another result was that none of our parameters, including grip strength and SF-36 had differed significantly between the 65-70 and 70-79 years age subgroups. However, grip strength displayed statistically significant lower values when compared with young adult mean values of a previous study. Our data in this study support the hypothesis that hand-muscle function correlates with functional dependency in the elderly. Manual function can be determined by grip strength in addition to multiple available functional tools. In this study, Dreiser and Duruöz hand function indices were the best to correlate with ADL and
Patterson, J. E.
The pre-travel medical evaluation of elderly patients and patients with chronic illness requires special assessment and advice. Screening and special precautions are reviewed for traveling patients with respiratory disease, cardiac disease, sinusitis, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, and other chronic medical conditions. Current guidelines for empiric therapy and prophylaxis of travelers' diarrhea are reviewed, with emphasis on concerns in geriatric or chronically ill travelers. Special considerations such as potential drug-drug interactions and insurance coverage are also discussed. PMID:1290273
Geriatric care mostly consists not in curingthe patient, but supportingthem to the end of their life, giving meaning to care procedures and actions through speech, touch or look and maintaining a connection.The helping relationship is omnipresent and the role of the speech therapist is therefore essential in helping to maintain or re-establish elderly patients' abilityto communicate. However, todaythis role is struggling to define itself between that of the technician-researcher and that of caregiver.
McGilton, Katherine S; Bowers, Barbara J; Heath, Hazel; Shannon, Kay; Dellefield, Mary Ellen; Prentice, Dawn; Siegel, Elena O; Meyer, Julienne; Chu, Charlene H; Ploeg, Jenny; Boscart, Veronique M; Corazzini, Kirsten N; Anderson, Ruth A; Mueller, Christine A
In response to the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics' global agenda for clinical research and quality of care in long-term care homes (LTCHs), the International Consortium on Professional Nursing Practice in Long Term Care Homes (the Consortium) was formed to develop nursing leadership capacity and address the concerns regarding the current state of professional nursing practice in LTCHs. At its invitational, 2-day inaugural meeting, the Consortium brought together international nurse experts to explore the potential of registered nurses (RNs) who work as supervisors or charge nurses within the LTCHs and the value of their contribution in nursing homes, consider what RN competencies might be needed, discuss effective educational (curriculum and practice) experiences, health care policy, and human resources planning requirements, and to identify what sustainable nurse leadership strategies and models might enhance the effectiveness of RNs in improving resident, family, and staff outcomes. The Consortium made recommendations about the following priority issues for action: (1) define the competencies of RNs required to care for older adults in LTCHs; (2) create an LTCH environment in which the RN role is differentiated from other team members and RNs can practice to their full scope; and (3) prepare RN leaders to operate effectively in person-centered care LTCH environments. In addition to clear recommendations for practice, the Consortium identified several areas in which further research is needed. The Consortium advocated for a research agenda that emphasizes an international coordination of research efforts to explore similar issues, the pursuit of examining the impact of nursing and organizational models, and the showcasing of excellence in nursing practice in care homes, so that others might learn from what works. Several studies already under way are also described.
Tse, Mimi M Y; Ho, Suki S K
Because the prevalence of chronic pain among the elderly in nursing homes is high and decreases their quality of life, effective nonpharmacologic pain management should be promoted. The purpose of this quasiexperimental pretest and posttest control design was to enhance pain management in nursing homes via an integrated pain management program (IPMP) for staff and residents. Nursing staff and residents from the experimental nursing home were invited to join the 8-week IPMP, whereas staff and residents from the control nursing home did not receive the IPMP. Baseline data were collected from nursing staff and residents in both groups before and after the IPMP. The IPMP consisted of eight lectures on pain assessment, drug knowledge,and nondrug strategies for the nursing staff, and 8 weeks of activities, including gardening therapy and physiotherapy exercise, for the residents. There were 48 and 42 older people in the experimental and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found in their educational level, sleep quality, bowel habits, past and present health conditions, pain conditions and psychologic well-being parameters (p > .05) at baseline. After the IPMP, the experimental nursing staff showed a significant improvement in their knowledge of and attitudes to pain management (p < .05), and the experimental residents reported significantly lower pain scores and used more nondrug strategies for pain relief compared with the control group (p < .05). Moreover, the psychologic well-being parameters, including happiness, loneliness, life satisfaction, and geriatric depression, had significantly improved among the experimental residents (p < .05). The IPMP was effective in enhancing the knowledge and attitudes of nursing staff, as well as reducing pain conditions and enhancing psychologic well-being for older persons in nursing homes.
Fitch, Margaret I; Mings, Deborah
The delivery of cancer care in Ontario is facing unprecedented challenges. Shortages in nursing, as in all professional disciplines, are having an impact on the delivery of cancer care. Oncology nurses have a major role to play in the delivery of optimum cancer care. Oncology nursing, when adequately defined and supported, can benefit the cancer delivery system, patients, and families. A primary nursing model is seen as being key to the delivery of optimum cancer care. Primary nursing as a philosophy facilitates continuity of care, coordination of a patient's care plan, and a meaningful ongoing relationship with the patient and his/her family. Primary nursing, when delivered in the collaboration of a nurse-physician team, allows for medical resources to be used appropriately. Defined roles enable nurses to manage patients within their scope of practice in collaboration with physicians. Enacting other nursing roles, such as nurse practitioners and advanced practice nurses, can also enable the health care system to manage a broader number of patients with more complex needs. This article presents a position paper originally written as the basis for an advocacy and education initiative in Ontario. It is shared in anticipation that the work may be useful to oncology nurses in other jurisdictions in their efforts to advance oncology nursing and improvement of patient care.
Charles, Lesley; Triscott, Jean A.C.; Dobbs, Bonnie M.; McKay, Rhianne
Background There is a growing mandate for Family Medicine residency programs to directly assess residents’ clinical competence in Care of the Elderly (COE). The objectives of this paper are to describe the development and implementation of incremental core competencies for Postgraduate Year (PGY)-I Integrated Geriatrics Family Medicine, PGY-II Geriatrics Rotation Family Medicine, and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE for COE Diploma residents at a Canadian University. Methods Iterative expert panel process for the development of the core competencies, with a pre-defined process for implementation of the core competencies. Results Eighty-five core competencies were selected overall by the Working Group, with 57 core competencies selected for the PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and an additional 28 selected for the PGY-III COE residents. The core competencies follow the CanMEDS Family Medicine roles. Both sets of core competencies are based on consensus. Conclusions Due to demographic changes, it is essential that Family Physicians have the required skills and knowledge to care for the frail elderly. The core competencies described were developed for PGY-I/II Family Medicine residents and PGY-III Enhanced Skills COE, with a focus on the development of geriatric expertise for those patients that would most benefit. PMID:24883163
Karakas, Emel Yigit; Yetisgin, Alpaslan; Cadirci, Dursun; Sezen, Hatice; Altunbas, Rıza; Kas, Fehmi; Demir, Mehmet; Ulas, Turgay
[Purpose] To evaluate serum ceruloplasmin levels in geriatric patients with osteoporosis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy geriatric patients over 65 years of age were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (‘OP’, n=35) consisted of patients with osteoporosis, and group 2 (n=35) consisted of patients without osteoporosis. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanning was used in the measurement of bone mineral density in all cases. Inflammatory parameters, including C-reactive protein, sedimentation rate, and serum ceruloplasmin levels were analyzed in blood samples. [Results] No statistical differences in inflammatory parameters were observed between the two groups, however, serum ceruloplasmin levels were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2. In Pearson analysis, serum ceruloplasmin levels were not found to be correlated with any biochemical parameters. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis revealed that serum ceruloplasmin levels were predictive of osteoporosis with 85.7% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity over the level of 830.15. [Conclusion] Our study demonstrated that measurement of serum ceruloplasmin levels may have potential as a screening methodology for geriatric patients with osteoporosis. PMID:26957765
Clinical discourses of frailty are central both to the construction of the social category of the fourth age and to the role and identity of hospital geriatric medicine. However, the influence of such clinical discourses is not just from science to the social sphere and nor do these discourses have their source in a putative truth of the old body but emerge from an interplay between physiological facts, discourses of governmentality, productive processes associated with late modern capitalism and the professional ambitions of geriatric medicine. The article explores this interplay in the two key discourses of frailty that have emerged in the clinical literature during the past 15 years, that of the phenotype and the accumulation of deficits, respectively. Outlining the development of the discourse of senescence from its origins to the more recent emergence of a nosological category of frailty the article explores how these key discourses capture the older body according to particular sets of norms. These norms link physiological understanding with broader discourses of governmentality, including the professional project of geriatric medicine. In particular, metaphorical representations in the discourses of frailty convey key cultural and clinical assumptions concerning both older bodies and old age more generally.
White, Heidi K; Buhr, Gwendolen; McConnell, Eleanor; Sullivan, Robert J; Twersky, Jack; Colon-Emeric, Cathleen; Heflin, Mitchell; Cutson, Toni M; Logan, William; Lyles, Kenneth; Pinheiro, Sandro O
Long term care deserves focused attention within a geriatric medicine fellowship curriculum to ensure that graduates are prepared not only for clinical care but also for the leadership, administrative, educational, quality improvement, and health policy aspects of their future roles. This report describes the curriculum development and program evaluation of an advanced course in long term care for geriatric medicine fellows and other graduate/post-graduate health professionals at Duke University. Course evaluation had 4 goals: (1) to determine how well the learning objectives were met; (2) to evaluate individual components of the course to improve subsequent offerings; (3) to determine whether additional topics needed to be added; and (4) to evaluate the effectiveness of the discussion forum component of the course. Learner self-efficacy improved within all competency areas but especially those of practice-based learning and system-based practice. Evaluation results led to curriculum revision that has maintained course relevance and sustained it within the larger geriatrics fellowship curriculum. Components of this course can be easily adapted to other curricular settings for fellows and residents.
Papamichael, D; Audisio, R A; Glimelius, B; de Gramont, A; Glynne-Jones, R; Haller, D; Köhne, C-H; Rostoft, S; Lemmens, V; Mitry, E; Rutten, H; Sargent, D; Sastre, J; Seymour, M; Starling, N; Van Cutsem, E; Aapro, M
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Europe and worldwide, with the peak incidence in patients >70 years of age. However, as the treatment algorithms for the treatment of patients with CRC become ever more complex, it is clear that a significant percentage of older CRC patients (>70 years) are being less than optimally treated. This document provides a summary of an International Society of Geriatric Oncology (SIOG) task force meeting convened in Paris in 2013 to update the existing expert recommendations for the treatment of older (geriatric) CRC patients published in 2009 and includes overviews of the recent data on epidemiology, geriatric assessment as it relates to surgery and oncology, and the ability of older CRC patients to tolerate surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy, treatment of their metastatic disease including palliative chemotherapy with and without the use of the biologics, and finally the use of adjuvant and palliative radiotherapy in the treatment of older rectal cancer patients. An overview of each area was presented by one of the task force experts and comments invited from other task force members.
Ford, Channing R; Brown, Cynthia J; Sawyer, Patricia; Rothrock, Angela G; Ritchie, Christine S
To improve the health care of older adults, a faculty development program was created to enhance geriatric knowledge. The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Geriatric Education Center leadership instituted a one-year, 36-hour curriculum focusing on older adults with complex health care needs. Content areas were chosen from the Institute of Medicine Transforming Health Care Quality report and a local needs assessment. Potential preceptors were identified and participant recruitment efforts began by contacting UAB department chairs of health care disciplines. This article describes the development of the program and its implementation over three cohorts of faculty scholars (n = 41) representing 13 disciplines, from nine institutions of higher learning. Formative and summative evaluation showed program success in terms of positive faculty reports of the program, information gained, and expressed intent by each scholar to apply learned content to teaching and/or clinical practice. This article describes the initial framework and strategies guiding the development of a thriving interprofessional geriatric education program.
Della Pepa, Chiara; Cavaliere, Carla; Rossetti, Sabrina; Di Napoli, Marilena; Cecere, Sabrina C; Crispo, Anna; De Sangro, Carlo; Rossi, Emanuela; Turitto, Dino; Germano, Domenico; Iovane, Gelsomina; Berretta, Massimiliano; D'Aniello, Carmine; Pisconti, Salvatore; Maiorino, Luigi; Daniele, Bruno; Gridelli, Cesare; Pignata, Sandro; Facchini, Gaetano
The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) represents the future of the geriatric oncology to reduce toxicities and treatment-related hospitalization in the elderly. Most patients receiving docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer are in their seventies or older. We explored the efficacy of the CGA in predicting chemotherapy feasibility and response to docetaxel in a cohort of 24 patients aged at least 70. This was an observational, prospective study involving 24 patients who were 70 years of age or older and about to start chemotherapy with docetaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer; we performed a CGA including five domains and divided our patients into 'healthy' and 'frail'; the relations between general condition and (i) early chemotherapy discontinuation and (ii) response to docetaxel were explored. We found a statistically significant relationship between frailty assessed by CGA and early docetaxel discontinuation; we also found an association between frailty and response to chemotherapy, but this did not reach statistical significance. A geriatric assessment before starting chemotherapy may help clinicians to recognize frail patients, and hence to reduce toxicities and early treatment discontinuation. Further analyses are required to simplify the CGA tools and to facilitate its incorporation into routine clinical practice.
Slovak, Karen; Pope, Natalie D; Brewer, Thomas W
It has been suggested that clinical screening for suicide, along with firearm assessment and safety counseling, are important in service provision to older adults. It is unclear, however, how geriatric case managers respond to these issues. This study surveyed geriatric case managers (n=161) from Area Agencies on Aging in Ohio on their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to suicide, firearm assessment, and safety counseling. Results indicated that the majority of respondents (70%) agree their clients are at risk for suicide. However, few (30%) in this study reported that they assess for firearms and less than half (48%) discuss firearms with their clients/family members when specifically assessing for suicide. Analyses identified barriers that contribute to the decreased likelihood that routine firearm assessment and safety counseling would occur, such as lack of training and time. Implications include the need for training with geriatric case managers that addresses barriers to suicide, firearm assessment and safety counseling as a means to decrease these population risks.
Chang, Anna; Fernandez, Helen; Cayea, Danelle; Chheda, Shobhina; Paniagua, Miguel; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Day, Hollis
Internal medicine residents today face significant challenges in caring for an increasingly complex patient population within ever-changing education and health care environments. As a result, medical educators, health care system leaders, payers, and patients are demanding change and accountability in graduate medical education (GME). A 2012 Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) retreat identified medical education as an area for collaboration between internal medicine and geriatric medicine. The authors first determined a short-term research agenda for resident education by mapping selected internal medicine reporting milestones to geriatrics competencies, and listing available sample learner assessment tools. Next, the authors proposed a strategy for long-term collaboration in three priority areas in clinical medicine that are challenging for residents today: (1) team-based care, (2) transitions and readmissions, and (3) multi-morbidity. The short-term agenda focuses on learner assessment, while the long-term agenda allows for program evaluation and improvement. This model of collaboration in medical education combines the resources and expertise of internal medicine and geriatric medicine educators with the goal of increasing innovation and improving outcomes in GME targeting the needs of our residents and their patients.
Yigit, Irem Pembegul; Ulu, Ramazan; Celiker, Huseyin; Dogukan, Ayhan
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is common among hemodialysis patients and is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritional status of geriatric hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Total of 163 hemodialysis patients were initially screened, and 55 patients (28 males, 27 females; mean age: 72.9±8.4 years) met the criteria for inclusion. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) scores: Group I (n=22) normal nutrition, Group II (n=20) mild-to-moderate malnutrition, and Group III (n=13) severe malnutrition. RESULTS: When we assessed the correlation between MQSGA nutrition score and data of malnourished patients (n=33), positive significant correlation was found between age, C-reactive protein level, and malnutrition-inflammation score. Negative significant correlation was found between body mass index, bicep skinfold, tricep skinfold, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, and phosphate and albumin levels. CONCLUSION: Malnutrition is very common and increasing with aging in geriatric hemodialysis patients. MQSGA score and anthropometric measurements can be used to assess nutritional status in geriatric hemodialysis patients. PMID:28058399
Yaghoubian, Arezou; Ge, Phillip; Tolan, Amy; Saltmarsh, Guy; Kaji, Amy H; Neville, Angela L; Bricker, Scott; De Virgilio, Christian
Clinical predictors of perioperative mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergent general surgery have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients and factors associated with mortality. A retrospective review of patients 65 years of age or older undergoing emergent general surgery at a public teaching hospital was performed over a 7-year period. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, laboratory studies, perioperative morbidities, and mortality. Descriptive statistics and predictors of morbidity and mortality are described. The mean age was 74 years. Indications for surgery included small bowel obstruction (24%), diverticulitis (20%), perforated viscous (16%), and large bowel obstruction (9%). The overall complication rate was 41 per cent with six cardiac complications (14%) and seven perioperative (16%) deaths. Mean admission serum creatinine was significantly higher in patients who died (3.6 vs 1.5 mg/dL, P = 0.004). Mortality for patients with an admission serum creatinine greater than 2.0 mg/dL was 42 per cent (5 of 12) compared with 3 per cent (2 of 32) for those 2.0 mg/dL or less (OR, 10.7; CI, 1.7 to 67; P = 0.01). Morbidity and mortality in geriatric patients undergoing emergency surgery remains high with the most significant predictor of mortality being the presence of renal insufficiency on admission.
Pilotto, Alberto; Cella, Alberto; Pilotto, Andrea; Daragjati, Julia; Veronese, Nicola; Musacchio, Clarissa; Mello, Anna Maria; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Prete, Camilla; Panza, Francesco
Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process that identifies medical, psychosocial, and functional capabilities of older adults to develop a coordinated plan to maximize overall health with aging. Specific criteria used by CGA programs to evaluate patients include age, medical comorbidities, psychosocial problems, previous or predicted high healthcare utilization, change in living situation, and specific geriatric conditions. However, no universal criteria have been agreed upon to readily identify patients who are likely to benefit from CGA. Evidence from randomized controlled trials and large systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggested that the healthcare setting may modify the effectiveness of CGA programs. Home CGA programs and CGA performed in the hospital were shown to be consistently beneficial for several health outcomes. In contrast, the data are conflicting for posthospital discharge CGA programs, outpatient CGA consultation, and CGA-based inpatient geriatric consultation services. The effectiveness of CGA programs may be modified also by particular settings or specific clinical conditions, with tailored CGA programs in older frail patients evaluated for preoperative assessment, admitted or discharged from emergency departments and orthogeriatric units or with cancer and cognitive impairment. CGA is capable of effectively exploring multiple domains in older age, being the multidimensional and multidisciplinary tool of choice to determine the clinical profile, the pathologic risk and the residual skills as well as the short- and long-term prognosis to facilitate the clinical decision making on the personalized care plan of older persons.
Wieck, K Lynn; Dols, Jean; Northam, Sally
Today's nurse executives are struggling with leadership challenges of managing the multigenerational workforce, financial imperatives to deliver better care for lower costs, and competition to provide the optimal work environment to retain nurses. The purpose of the Nurse Incentives Project was to determine satisfaction with current employment incentives and potential managerial actions which might decrease or delay turnover by registered nurses. This study spawned recommendations regarding the role of incentives in designing an environment where benefits and perks will be seen as incentives to stay and thrive in the current nursing workplace. The results show that nurses know what they want. Attention to generational priorities and flexible benefits programs may help to create the cohesive work environment that nurses seek. Investment into creating delivery arenas where satisfied nurses are caring for satisfied patients is a worthwhile goal.
Eichenbaum, Joseph W
The major causes of impaired vision in the elderly population of the United States are cataracts, macular degeneration, and open-angle glaucoma. Cataracts and macular degeneration usually reduce central vision, especially reading and near activities, whereas chronic glaucoma characteristically attacks peripheral vision in a silent way, impacting balance, walking, and driving. Untreated, these visual problems lead to issues with regard to taking medications, keeping track of finances and personal information, walking, watching television, and attending the theater, and often create social isolation. Thus, visually impaired individuals enter nursing homes 3 years earlier, have twice the risk of falling, and have 4× the risk of hip fracture. Consequently, many elderly with low vision exercise greater demands on community services. With the prospect of little improvement and sustained visual loss, in the face of poor tolerance of low-vision services and not accepting magnification as the only way to read, clinical depression is common. In many instances, however, early and accurate diagnosis can result in timely treatment and can preserve quality of life. This review will look at current diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Currently, about 20.5 million people in the United States have cataracts. The number will reach 30 million by 2020. About 1.75 million Americans currently have some form of macular degeneration, and the number is estimated to increase to 2.95 million in 2020. Approximately 2.2 million Americans have glaucoma, and by 2020 that number is estimated to be close to 3.4 million people. It is projected that by 2030 there will be 72.1 million seniors. With some overlap of the above 3 groups conservatively estimated (if you add the 2030 cataract group to the macular degeneration and glaucoma groups), then about 1 in 2 senior individuals by 2030 may have some significant ocular disease, which could account for about 50% of the healthcare budget for the
Laming, Eleanor; Stewart, Angela
This article explains the concept of parish nursing and provides a historical perspective of this service. It describes the development of a parish nursing service in Heartsease, Norwich, which complements community nursing practice by focusing on the importance of providing spiritual care alongside physical, psychological and social care. Case studies are provided to illustrate the benefits of a parish nursing service to individuals and the community.
Roth, Carol P; Ganz, David A; Nickles, Lorraine; Martin, David; Beckman, Robin; Wenger, Neil S
We evaluated the quality of care provided to older patients with complex needs in a dual-eligible, community-based Medicare Special Needs Plan that used a nurse care manager model. Care provided by physicians was substantially supplemented by nurse care managers, as measured by Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders quality indicators. We describe selected nurse care manager activities for six geriatric conditions (falls, dementia, depression, nutrition, urinary incontinence, and end-of-life care) during provision of patient care coordination and management for patients in the highest decile of clinical complexity. We identify areas of high nurse performance (i.e., falls screening, functional assessment, behavioral interventions for dementia problems, advance care planning) and areas of potential missed opportunities (i.e., follow up for new memory problems, targeted dementia counseling, nutrition, and behavioral approaches to urinary incontinence). Increasing the collaborative interaction between nurses providing care in this model and physicians has the potential to enhance nurses' contributions to primary care for vulnerable older adults.
Torpey, Elka Maria
The need for practical nurses who focus on caring for older people is growing. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the number of people ages 65 and older is expected to increase from 40 million to 72 million between 2010 and 2030. And the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) projects that this increasing population will result in job growth for…
Mallory, Virginia; And Others
This manual, which is intended for use in conducting individualized inservice training sessions for certified nurse aides employed in nursing homes and boarding homes throughout Maine, contains six learning modules designed to help health care workers better meet the needs of elderly nursing home residents who are challenged with mental illness.…
Tse, Hoi Nam; Tseng, Cee Zhung Steven; Wong, King Ying; Yee, Kwok Sang; Ng, Lai Yun
Introduction Performing lung function test in geriatric patients has never been an easy task. With well-established evidence indicating impaired small airway function and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD, utilizing forced oscillation technique (FOT) as a supplementary tool may aid in the assessment of lung function in this population. Aims To study the use of FOT in the assessment of airflow limitation and air trapping in geriatric COPD patients. Study design A cross-sectional study in a public hospital in Hong Kong. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01553812. Methods Geriatric patients who had spirometry-diagnosed COPD were recruited, with both FOT and plethysmography performed. “Resistance” and “reactance” FOT parameters were compared to plethysmography for the assessment of air trapping and airflow limitation. Results In total, 158 COPD subjects with a mean age of 71.9±0.7 years and percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 53.4±1.7 L were recruited. FOT values had a good correlation (r=0.4–0.7) to spirometric data. In general, X values (reactance) were better than R values (resistance), showing a higher correlation with spirometric data in airflow limitation (r=0.07–0.49 vs 0.61–0.67), small airway (r=0.05–0.48 vs 0.56–0.65), and lung volume (r=0.12–0.29 vs 0.43–0.49). In addition, resonance frequency (Fres) and frequency dependence (FDep) could well identify the severe type (percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second <50%) of COPD with high sensitivity (0.76, 0.71) and specificity (0.72, 0.64) (area under the curve: 0.8 and 0.77, respectively). Moreover, X values could stratify different severities of air trapping, while R values could not. Conclusion FOT may act as a simple and accurate tool in the assessment of severity of airflow limitation, small and central airway function, and air trapping in patients with geriatric COPD who have difficulties performing conventional lung function test. Moreover, reactance
Cho, Hyungjin; Yu, Hoon; Shin, Eunhye; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Su-Kil; Jo, Min-Woo
Background Population aging is a major health concern in Asian countries and it has affected the age distribution of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). As a consequence, the need for kidney transplantation in the geriatric population has increased, but the shortage of donors is an obstacle for geriatric renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for graft failure and death in geriatric renal transplantation. Methods Kidney transplantations performed in a tertiary hospital in South Korea from May 1995 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Recipients younger than 60 years of age or who underwent other organ transplantations were excluded. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to assess patient and graft survival. A Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors for graft failure and patient death. Results A total of 229 kidney transplantation patients were included. Graft survival at 1, 5, and 10 years were 93.2%, 82.9%, and 61.2% respectively. Patient survival at 1, 5, and 10 years were 94.6%, 86.9%, and 68.8%, respectively. According to the Cox multivariate analysis, ABO incompatibility (hazard ratio [HR] 3.91, p < 0.002), DGF (HR 3.544, p < 0.004), CMV infection (HR 2.244, p < 0.011), and HBV infection (HR 6.349, p < 0.015) were independent risk factors for graft survival. Recipient age (HR 1.128, p < 0.024), ABO incompatibility (HR 3.014, p < 0.025), CMV infection (HR 2.532, p < 0.010), and the number of HLA mismatches (HR 1.425, p < 0.007) were independent risk factors for patient death. Conclusion Kidney transplantation in the geriatric population showed good clinical outcomes. ABO incompatibility, DGF, CMV infection, and HBV infection were risk factors for graft failure and the recipient age, ABO incompatibility, CMV infection, and the number of HLA mismatches were risk factors for patient death in geriatric renal transplantation. PMID:27074003
Background Work-related musculoskeletal pain- particularly back pain - is an important individual and socioeconomic problem. The Back College for the insurance holders of the Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services (BGW) is based on a multimodal concept and has been evaluated with respect to pain relief and continuing in the nursing profession. Methods In a retrospective cohort study, the participants in the Back College from 2009 to 2011 were surveyed in writing. Besides demographic data, the survey covered information on qualification, length of employment, institution, employment status, periods of inability to work, applicability of working techniques and continuation in the profession. Back pain was recorded at three time points - T1 (before the Back College), T2 (directly after the Back College) and T3 (at the time of the survey). Pain changes were submitted to tests for paired samples. Multivariate logistic analysis was applied to determine potential factors influencing unfavourable changes in pain or leaving nursing due to back pain. Results The survey covered 1,282 insurance holders, with a response rate of 80%. Statistically significant reductions in pain were found for the whole group and for all subgroups. For persons who predominantly worked in old people’s homes and who did not take part in refresher services, an increased odds ratio was found for unfavourable changes in pain (OR: 1.9 or 1.4, respectively). Persons with a qualification in geriatric nursing or in intensive care/OP/anaesthesia had an increased risk of leaving nursing due to back pain (OR: 2.5 in each case). An increased risk of leaving was also found for persons who did not take part in workplace support (OR: 2.9). Conclusion Within the context of the study design, the multimodal concept of the Back College is clearly related to relief of back pain. The Back College appears to be less successful for geriatric nurses and persons
Woolley, Alma S.
In studying the nurse's image at a liberal arts college, it was found that faculty and administrators view nurses as long-suffering drones. On the whole, the image of nursing was positive, with those who had the most contact with the nursing program having a more enlightened image. (CT)
Speer, Rita D.
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M
The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.