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Sample records for gerli padarist saab

  1. 76 FR 81889 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will... Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of hydraulic accumulator failure. This proposed AD would require replacing certain hydraulic accumulators with stainless...

  2. 77 FR 73279 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Register on June 27, 2012 (77 FR 38224). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... received. The National Transportation Safety Board stated that it supports the NPRM (77 FR 38224, June 27... revise the NPRM (77 FR 38224, June 27, 2012) throughout to change the name of the Saab company...

  3. 76 FR 53301 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: Corrosion damage has been found on the aft pressure bulkhead of SAAB 2000... area can become the starting point for future crack initiation and propagation. This condition, if...

  4. Biosynthesis of dihydrochalcomycin: characterization of a deoxyallosyltransferase (gerGTI).

    PubMed

    Pageni, Binod Babu; Simkhada, Dinesh; Oh, Tae-Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2010-02-28

    Through an inactivation experiment followed by complementation, the gerGTII gene was previously characterized as a chalcosyltransferase gene involved in the biosynthesis of dihydochalcomycin. The glycosyltransferase gerGTI was identified as a deoxyallosyltransferase required for the glycosylation of D-mycinose sugar. This 6-deoxyhexose sugar was converted to mycinose, via bis-O-methylation, following attachment to the polyketide lactone during dihydrochalcomycin biosynthesis. Gene sequence alignment of gerGTI to several glycosyltransferases revealed a consensus sequence motif that appears to be characteristic of the enzymes in this sub-group of the glycosyltransferase family. To characterize its putative function, genetic disruption of gerGTI in the wild-type strain Streptomyces sp. KCTC 0041BP and in the gerGTII-deleted mutant (S. sp. Delta gerGTsss, as well as complementation of gerGTII in S. sp. Delta gerGTss-GTs, were carried out, and the products were analyzed by LC/MS. S. sp. Delta gerGTss-GTs mutant produced dihydrochalconolide macrolide. S. sp. Delta gerGTs and S. sp. Delta gerGTss-GTs complementation of gerGTII yielded dihydrochalconolide without the mycinose sugar. The intermediate shows that gerGTI encodes a deoxyallosyltransferase that acts after gerGTII. PMID:20069384

  5. Vibro-Acoustic FE Analyses of the Saab 2000 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Inge S.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element model of the Saab 2000 fuselage structure and interior cavity has been created in order to compute the noise level in the passenger cabin due to propeller noise. Areas covered in viewgraph format include the following: coupled acoustic/structural noise; data base creation; frequency response analysis; model validation; and planned analyses.

  6. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Theiss, Timothy J.; Graves, Ronald L.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.

  7. The Policy of Secondary Education about the Solution of GER Dropping in Pacitan Regency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryono, H.

    2015-01-01

    Education is an important aspect that determines the direction of a nation. The implication, it needs serious efforts in order to increase the participation in education; one of them is measured by the APK (GER). The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of GER in Pacitan and how the efforts of acceleration can be done to achieve the…

  8. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): a representative population study.

    PubMed

    Seifert, B; Becker, K; Hoffmann, K; Krause, C; Schulz, C

    2000-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale population study which has repeatedly been carried out in Germany. GerES I was conducted in 1985/1986 followed by GerES IIa in 1990/1991 (West Germany) and GerES IIb in 1991/1992 (East Germany). GerES III is currently run in both parts of Germany. The main goal of the surveys is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of the exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. Field work is conducted using a combination of several tools, including questionnaires, interviews, human biomonitoring, and indoor and outdoor environmental samplings. This paper describes the design of GerES II, and gives a general outline of the field work and the analytical procedures used. In GerES II, about 4000 adults were representatively selected from the German population with regard to age, gender and community size. Approximately 700 children were also included. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and mercury were determined in blood, morning urine and/or scalp hair. In addition, samples were taken and analysed to characterise exposure in the domestic environment (indoor air, house dust, drinking water). The contribution to exposure of food was also studied. Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was determined by personal sampling.

  9. Crystal Structure of the GerBC Component of a Bacillus Subtilis Spore Germinant Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Setlow, B; Setlow, P; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The nutrient germinant receptors (nGRs) of spores of Bacillus species are clusters of three proteins that play a critical role in triggering the germination of dormant spores in response to specific nutrient molecules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C protein of the GerB germinant receptor, so-called GerBC, of Bacillus subtilis spores at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The GerBC protein adopts a previously uncharacterized type of protein fold consisting of three distinct domains, each of which is centered by a beta sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices. Secondary-structure prediction and structure-based sequence alignment suggest that the GerBC structure represents the prototype for C subunits of nGRs from spores of all Bacillales and Clostridiales species and defines two highly conserved structural regions in this family of proteins. GerBC forms an interlocked dimer in the crystalline state but is predominantly monomeric in solution, pointing to the possibility that GerBC oligomerizes as a result of either high local protein concentrations or interaction with other nGR proteins in spores. Our findings provide the first structural view of the nGR subunits and a molecular framework for understanding the architecture, conservation, and function of nGRs.

  10. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  11. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  12. MAC Europe 1991: Evaluation of AVIRIS, GER imaging spectrometry data for the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, F.; Richter, R.; Rothfuss, H.; Werner, K.; Hausknecht, P.; Mueller, A.; Strobl, P.

    1992-01-01

    During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign, the area of Oberpfaffenhofen including the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen was flown by the AVIRIS imaging spectrometer, the GER 2 imaging spectrometer (63 band scanner), and two SAR systems (NASA/JPL AIRSAR and DLR E-SAR). In parallel to the overflights ground spectrometry (ASD, IRIS M IV) and atmospheric measurements were carried out in order to provide data for optical sensor calibration. Ground spectrometry measurements were carried out in the runway area of the DLR research center Oberpfaffenhofen. This area was used as well during the GER 2 European flight campaign EISAC 89 as a calibration target. The land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen is located 3 km north of the DLR research center. During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign a ground survey was carried out for documentation in the ground information data base (vegetation type, vegetation geometry, soil type, and soil mixture). Crop stands analyzed were corn, barley and rape. The DLR runway area and the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen were flown with the AVIRIS on 29 July and with the GER 2 on 12 and 23 July and 3 Sep. AVIRIS and GER 2 scenes were processed and atmospherically corrected for optical data analysis of optical and radar data. For the AVIRIS and the GER 2 scenes, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimates were calculated. An example of the reflectance of 6 calibration targets inside a GER 2 scene of Oberpfaffenhofen is given. SNR values for the GER 2 for a medium albedo target are given. The integrated analysis for the optical and radar data was carried out in cooperation with the DLR Institute for Microwave Technologies.

  13. Structure-function analysis of the Bacillus megaterium GerUD spore germinant receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Srishti; Zhou, Ke Xu; Bailey, David M D; Christie, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Germination of Bacillus spores is triggered by the interaction of germinant molecules with specialized receptor proteins localized to the spore inner membrane. Germinant receptors (GRs) are comprised typically of three interacting protein subunits, each of which is essential for receptor function. At least some GRs appear to have a fourth component, referred to as a D-subunit protein. A number of D-subunit proteins were shown previously to be capable of modulating the activity of associated GRs. Here, we investigate the topology and structure-function relationships of the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 GerUD protein, which is associated with the GerU GR. The presented data demonstrate that GerUD can be subjected to relatively extensive structural modifications while retaining function. Indeed, the presence of either of the two transmembrane spanning domains is sufficient to modulate an efficient GerU-mediated germinative response. The precise function of D-subunit proteins has yet to be established, although they may act as molecular chaperones within the spore inner-membrane environment.

  14. Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gareth R; Moir, Anne

    2011-05-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to c-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for Instituto de Biotecnología de León, INBIOTEC, Parque Científico de León, Av. Real, 1, 24006 León, Spain-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore.

  15. The GerW protein is essential for L-alanine-stimulated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu

    2013-11-01

    GerW (formerly called YtfJ) is a protein found in dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis. We have studied spore proteins in B. subtilis before, and here we report the characterization of GerW protein. Northern blot analysis revealed that gerW mRNA was transcribed by SigF-containing RNA polymerase beginning 1 h after the initiation of sporulation. Fluorescence was detected in forespores and dormant spores of B. subtilis recombinant strains expressing GerW-GFP. During germination in the presence of L-alanine or a mixture of L-asparagine, D-glucose, D-fructose and potassium ions (AGFK), normal spores of B. subtilis became darkened, stained positive with Hoechst 33342 and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and released dipicolinic acid (DPA). In the case of gerW-deficient spores, AGFK triggered germination in a manner similar to that seen in the wild-type spores, whereas spores stimulated by L-alanine remained refractive under the phase contrast microscope, failed to stain positive with Hoechst 33342 or CFDA-SE, and released almost no DPA. These results indicate that GerW is essential for the L-alanine-induced breakdown of spore dormancy followed by core rehydration and the resumption of enzymatic activity, and suggest that GerW is involved in the early stages of germination in the presence of l-alanine.

  16. Alternative Antriebe für Automobile: Hybridsysteme, Brennstoffzellen, alternative Energieträger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, Cornel

    Über die Realisierungsmöglichkeiten zukünftiger Antriebskonzepte - von Hybridsystemen Elektro-/Verbrennungsmotor über Brennstoffzellen bis zu alternativen Energieträgern wie Wasserstoff oder Alkohol - werden fundierte Kriterien der Qualität eines Antriebs entscheiden. Leistungsdichte, Drehmomentverlauf, Beschleunigungscharakteristik, spezifischer Energieverbrauch sowie Emission chemischer Stoffe und Geräusche sind dafür wichtige Merkmale zur Qualitätsbeurteilung. Die Verfügbarkeit und die Speicherfähigkeit vorgesehener Energieträger, die technische Komplexität, Kosten, Sicherheit, Infrastruktur und Service werden die Randbedingungen für die Einführung realisierbarer Konzepte alternativer Antriebe für Automobile stellen.

  17. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late. PMID:6161737

  18. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  19. Bowl-shaped Tröger's bases and their recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lorenzo; Čejka, Jan; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Jakubek, Milan; Kaplánek, Robert; Král, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-08-23

    The tris-Tröger's bases (TBs) are electron-rich fluorescent concave receptors due to the incorporation of naphthalene or triphenylene moieties (calix-1 and calix-2). The structures of the TBs were studied using SXRD to reveal the propensity to bind nitroaromatics. Titration with explosive-related nitro-compounds suggests that the TBs may be used for sensing explosives. PMID:27501993

  20. NASA's Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture Sensor Development and Its Applicability to the GER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Heather; Cryan, Scott; DSouza, Christopher; Strube, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper will address how a common Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture (AR&D/C) sensor suite can support Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) missions, and discuss how the model of common capability development to support multiple missions can enable system capability level partnerships and further GER objectives. NASA has initiated efforts to develop AR&D/C sensors, that are directly applicable to GER. NASA needs AR&D/C sensors for both the robotic and crewed segments of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). NASA recently conducted a commonality assessment of the concept of operations for the robotic Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) and the crewed mission segment using the Orion crew vehicle. The commonality assessment also considered several future exploration and science missions requiring an AR&D/C capability. Missions considered were asteroid sample return, satellite servicing, and planetary entry, descent, and landing. This assessment determined that a common sensor suite consisting of one or more visible wavelength cameras, a three-dimensional LIDAR along with long-wavelength infrared cameras for robustness and situational awareness could be used on each mission to eliminate the cost of multiple sensor developments and qualifications. By choosing sensor parameters at build time instead of at design time and, without having to requalify flight hardware, a specific mission can design overlapping bearing, range, relative attitude, and position measurement availability to suit their mission requirements with minimal nonrecurring engineering costs. The resulting common sensor specification provides the union of all performance requirements for each mission and represents an improvement over the current systems used for AR&D/C today. NASA's AR&D/C sensor development path could benefit the International Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) and support the GER mission scenario by providing a common sensor suite upon which GER objectives could be achieved while

  1. Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Huang, Qing-Hua

    1998-05-01

    Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, σ(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt) - q/ɛρ, where α is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ɛ, the dielectric constant and ρ, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time τ, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and -q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[ɛρ/(τ-ɛρ)](e-1/τ-e-1/σρ) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D‧ and the stress drop, Δσ give τ=D/D‧=(Δσ/σ 0)(α/β). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ‧ using ρ‧ of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

  2. Nonzonal Expressions of GAUSS-KRÜGER Projection in Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongmei; Bian, Shaofeng; Liu, Qiang; Li, Houpu; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Yanfeng

    2016-06-01

    With conformal colatitude introduced, based on the mathematical relationship between exponential and logarithmic functions by complex numbers, strict equation of complex conformal colatitude is derived, and then theoretically strict nonzonal expressions of Gauss projection in polar regions are carried out. By means of the computer algebra system, correctness of these expressions is verified, and sketches of Gauss-krüger projection without bandwidth restriction in polar regions are charted. In the Arctic or Antarctic region, graticule of nonzonal Gauss projection complies with people's reading habit and reflects real ground-object distribution. Achievements in this paper could perfect mathematical basis of Gauss projection and provide reference frame for polar surveying and photogrammetry.

  3. GEm-Related 5 (GER5), an ABA and stress-responsive GRAM domain protein regulating seed development and inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kevin N; Schroeder, Dana F; Stasolla, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    We have identified an abscisic acid (ABA) and stress-responsive GRAM (Glucosyltransferases, Rab-like GTPase activators and Myotubularins) domain protein GER5 (GEm-Related 5) closely related to GEM (GLABRA2 Expression Modulator), a novel regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in epidermal cells. A loss-of-function T-DNA line (ger5-2) and transgenic lines silencing (GER5(RNAi)) or overexpressing (GER5(OE)) GER5 displayed several defects in reproductive development affecting seed and embryo development. RNA in situ studies revealed GER5 and related GRAM genes (GEM and GEm-Related 1 (GER1)) have both overlapping and unique expression domains in male and female reproductive organs. Hormone immunolocalization experiments further indicate GER5 transcripts preferentially localize to reproductive tissues which accumulate ABA. Expression analysis revealed members of the GRAM family (GER5, GER1, GEM) display tissue-specific expression patterns and are responsive to phytohormones and abiotic stress, in addition to genetic lesions (aba1, aba2, ctr1) affecting ABA biosynthesis or ethylene signalling. Mature seeds of ger5-2 mutants also exhibit reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination assays. Microarray analysis of aborting and developing seeds isolated from ger5-2 mutants revealed underlying transcriptional changes in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signalling and catabolic processes (e.g. protein degradation, autophagy). Taken together, our results indicate ABA-responsive GRAM genes play a novel role in regulating the reproductive development of plants, and raise intriguing questions regarding the functional relationship between members of the GRAM gene family.

  4. NAGT-GER: A Community of Practice to Support the Emerging Field of Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, L.; LaDue, N.; Cheek, K.; Ryker, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the National Research Council noted in its 2012 report on discipline-based education research (DBER) in undergraduate science and engineering, in order to advance DBER as a field of inquiry, "a robust infrastructure is required to recognize and support [DBER] within professional societies." One way to develop such an infrastructure around geoscience education research is to create a community of practice within the broader geoscience education community. In recent years, the members of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) have created two divisions to support the geoscience education needs of specific subpopulations of the geoscience community: the 2YC division, focusing on community college issues, and TED, focusing on teacher education. This year marks the first year of a new division within the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) focused on geoscience education research. The Geoscience Education Research division (GER) is committed to the promotion of high quality, scholarly research in geoscience education that improves teaching and learning in K-12, higher education, and informal learning environments. High quality DBER in geoscience requires the ability to connect current theories of teaching and learning with deep content-specific conceptual understanding. A community of practice like NAGT GER, has the potential to improve the quality of scholarly efforts in geoscience education by providing a forum for improving the collective knowledge and expertise of the geoscience education research community. Current division initiatives and efforts will be highlighted and time for dialogue on future directions will be included.

  5. Highly Conductive Anion-Exchange Membranes from Microporous Tröger's Base Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Guo, Rui; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Carta, Mariolino; McKeown, Neil B; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-09-12

    The development of polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) combining high ion conductivity and long-term stability is a major challenge for materials chemistry. AEMs with regularly distributed fixed cationic groups, based on the formation of microporous polymers containing the V-shape rigid Tröger's base units, are reported for the first time. Despite their simple preparation, which involves only two synthetic steps using commercially available precursors, the polymers provide AEMs with exceptional hydroxide conductivity at relatively low ion-exchange capacity, as well as a high swelling resistance and chemical stability. An unprecedented hydroxide conductivity of 164.4 mS cm(-1) is obtained at a relatively a low ion-exchange capacity of 0.82 mmol g(-1) under optimal operating conditions. The exceptional anion conductivity appears related to the intrinsic microporosity of the charged polymer matrix, which facilitates rapid anion transport. PMID:27505421

  6. The performance of Dräger Oxylog ventilators at simulated altitude.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J G; Singh, B

    2008-07-01

    Ventilated patients frequently require transport by air in a hypobaric environment. Previous studies have demonstrated significant changes in the performance of ventilators with changes in cabin pressure (altitude) but no studies have been published on the function of modem ventilators at altitude. This experiment set out to evaluate ventilatory parameters (tidal volume and respiratory rate) of three commonly used transport ventilators (the Dräger Oxylog 1000, 2000 and 3000) in a simulated hypobaric environment. Ventilators were assessed using either air-mix (60% oxygen) or 100% oxygen and tested against models simulating a normal lung, a low compliance (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) lung and a high-resistance (asthma) lung. Ventilators were tested at a range of simulated altitudes between sea level and 3048 m. Over this range, tidal volume delivered by the Oxylog 1000 increased by 68% and respiratory rate decreased by 28%. Tidal volume delivered by the Oxylog 2000 ventilator increased by 29% over the same range of altitudes but there was no significant change in respiratory rate. Tidal volume and respiratory rate remained constant with the Oxylog 3000 over the same range of altitudes. Changes were consistent with each ventilator regardless of oxygen content or lung model. It is important that clinicians involved in critical care transport in a hypobaric environment are aware that individual ventilators perform differently at altitude and that they are aware of the characteristics of the particular ventilator that they are using. PMID:18714624

  7. Synthesis and Investigation of the V-shaped Tröger's Base Derivatives as Hole-transporting Materials.

    PubMed

    Braukyla, Titas; Sakai, Nobuya; Daskeviciene, Maryte; Jankauskas, Vygintas; Kamarauskas, Egidijus; Malinauskas, Tadas; Snaith, Henry J; Getautis, Vytautas

    2016-07-20

    V-shaped Tröger's base core has been investigated as a central linking unit in the synthesis of new charge-transporting materials for optoelectronic applications. The studied molecules have been synthesized in two steps from relatively inexpensive starting materials, and demonstrate high glass transition temperatures, good stability of the amorphous state, and comparatively high hole drift mobility (up to 0.011 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) ).

  8. Morphological and molecular taxonomic analysis of Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 (Araneae: Sparassidae: Heteropodinae) in Sichuan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Peter; Li, Shuqiang; Krehenwinkel, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudopoda Jäger, 2000 is revised from material collected in Sichuan province. A molecular analysis shows the utility of DNA markers to support taxonomic hypotheses in Sparassidae. Two new species are described: Pseudopoda coenobium spec. nov. from Emeishan (male, female) and Pseudopoda wu spec. nov. from Lugu Lake at the border to Yunnan (male, female). The latter species exhibits a unique reduction of the conductor and a strongly developed embolus. The female of Pseudopoda virgata (Fox, 1936) is described for the first time, the male is redescribed, the known range of the geographical distribution is considerably extended to the East (Baoxing and Tienqiang County), the vertical distribution range is extended from 300 m to slightly more than 2000 m. The male of Pseudopoda signata Jäger, 2001 is described for the first time, the female is redescribed, the known distribution range of this species is extended from Muge Cuo Lake over Kangding town to the valleys of Paomashan, Gonggashan and Yanzi. It shows a strong morphological variation, which may be interpreted as developing subspecies status in different valleys. However, according to results from a molecular analysis it is clearly considered intraspecific variability. Three further species are recorded from Sichuan: Pseudopoda emei Zhang et al., 2013, Pseudopoda sp. cf. yunnanensis (Yang & Hu, 2001) and Pseudopoda rivicola Jäger and Vedel, 2007. PMID:26623582

  9. Application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation to a general, scalable method for the resolution of 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Donald L; Field, Thomas; Schmidt, Monica R; DeStefano, Alyson K; Stiteler, Christopher J; Venditto, Vincent J; Krovic, Brooke; Hoffman, Christopher M; Ondisco, Matthew T; Belowich, Matthew E

    2013-11-15

    A general method for the gram scale resolution of 2-substituted and 2,8-disubstituted Tröger's base (TB) derivatives in 63-91% yield has been achieved through the application of crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT). Enantiomeric ratios of the resolved TB derivatives range from 99.1:0.9 to >99.5:0.5. Among the Tröger's base compounds resolved are four synthetically valuable bromo and iodo derivatives. PMID:24116701

  10. The destabilizing effect of external damping: Singular flutter boundary for the Pflüger column with vanishing external dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Mirko; Kirillov, Oleg N.; Misseroni, Diego; Bigoni, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Elastic structures loaded by non-conservative positional forces are prone to instabilities induced by dissipation: it is well-known that internal viscous damping destabilizes the marginally stable Ziegler's pendulum and Pflüger column (of which the Beck's column is a special case), two structures loaded by a tangential follower force. The result is the so-called 'destabilization paradox', where the critical force for flutter instability decreases by an order of magnitude when the coefficient of internal damping becomes infinitesimally small. Until now external damping, such as that related to air drag, is believed to provide only a stabilizing effect, as one would intuitively expect. Contrary to this belief, it will be shown that the effect of external damping is qualitatively the same as the effect of internal damping, yielding a pronounced destabilization paradox. Previous results relative to destabilization by external damping of the Ziegler's and Pflüger's elastic structures are corrected in a definitive way leading to a new understanding of the destabilizating role played by viscous terms.

  11. On the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for reflection coefficients in HTI media: implications for the determination of fracture density and orientation from seismic AVAZ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Aamir; Jakobsen, Morten

    2011-06-01

    We have investigated the accuracy of Rüger's approximation for PP reflection coefficients in HTI media (relative to an exact generalization of Zoeppritz to anisotropy derived by Schoenberg and Protazio) within the context of seismic fracture characterization. We consider the inverse problem of seismic amplitude-versus-angle and azimuth (AVAZ) inversion with respect to fracture density and azimuthal fracture orientation, as well as the forward problem of calculating PP reflection coefficients for different contrasts and anisotropy levels. The T-matrix approach was used to relate the contrast and anisotropy level to the parameters of the fractures (in the case of a single set of vertical fractures). We have found that Rüger's approximation can be used to recover the true fracture density with small uncertainty if, and only if, the fracture density and contrast are significantly smaller than the values that are believed to occur in many practically interesting cases of fractured (carbonate) reservoirs. In one example involving a minimal contrast and a fracture density in the range 0.05-0.1, Rüger's approximation performed satisfactorily for inversion, although the forward modelling results were not very accurate at high incident angles. But for fracture densities larger than 0.1 (which we believe may well occur in real cases), Rüger's approximation did not perform satisfactorily for forward or inverse modelling. However, it appears that Rüger's approximation can always be used to obtain estimates of the azimuthal fracture orientation with small uncertainty, even when the contrast and anisotropy levels are extremely large. In order to illustrate the significance of our findings within the context of seismic fracture characterization, we analysed a set of synthetic seismic AVAZ data associated with a fault facies model where the fracture density decreases exponentially with distance from the fault core, and a set of real seismic AVAZ data involving offset

  12. Recovery of drugs of abuse from Dräger DCD5000 oral fluid collection device in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ashley-Jane; Warner, Janet V; Henman, Michael G; Ferguson, Wendy E

    2015-03-01

    In Australia, it is a requirement of workplace oral fluid (OF) drugs of abuse testing that drug recovery from collection devices be verified by an accredited laboratory. Recovery data are used in conjunction with collection volume imprecision data and uncertainty of measurement to provide an estimation of drug concentration in neat OF. The manufacturer's product information for the DCD5000 collection device indicates that the collection volume of the swab is 380 µL. Recovery data for the swab when used with the isopropanol provided by the manufacturer are not available. A series of experiments using fortified drug-free OF were performed to assess the collection volume imprecision of the Dräger DCD5000 swab and the recovery of drugs from the swab using isopropanol. The fortified OF was collected with the swabs (n = 16), and swabs were discharged into vials of isopropanol as per the manufacturer's instructions. The mean collection volume of the DCD5000 swab was 487 µL with an imprecision of 1.3%. Recovery of drug from the device ranged from 86 to 98% for drugs listed in the Australian OF workplace testing standard. Recovery of methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine ranged from 93 to 102%. Recovery of 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidene was 45%, suggesting that urine is more suitable sample if methadone therapy is being monitored. Overall, drug recovery from the device using isopropanol was acceptable when the increased collection volume of the swab was taken into account.

  13. Recovery of drugs of abuse from Dräger DCD5000 oral fluid collection device in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ashley-Jane; Warner, Janet V; Henman, Michael G; Ferguson, Wendy E

    2015-03-01

    In Australia, it is a requirement of workplace oral fluid (OF) drugs of abuse testing that drug recovery from collection devices be verified by an accredited laboratory. Recovery data are used in conjunction with collection volume imprecision data and uncertainty of measurement to provide an estimation of drug concentration in neat OF. The manufacturer's product information for the DCD5000 collection device indicates that the collection volume of the swab is 380 µL. Recovery data for the swab when used with the isopropanol provided by the manufacturer are not available. A series of experiments using fortified drug-free OF were performed to assess the collection volume imprecision of the Dräger DCD5000 swab and the recovery of drugs from the swab using isopropanol. The fortified OF was collected with the swabs (n = 16), and swabs were discharged into vials of isopropanol as per the manufacturer's instructions. The mean collection volume of the DCD5000 swab was 487 µL with an imprecision of 1.3%. Recovery of drug from the device ranged from 86 to 98% for drugs listed in the Australian OF workplace testing standard. Recovery of methadone, buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine ranged from 93 to 102%. Recovery of 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidene was 45%, suggesting that urine is more suitable sample if methadone therapy is being monitored. Overall, drug recovery from the device using isopropanol was acceptable when the increased collection volume of the swab was taken into account. PMID:25342718

  14. Revision of the genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Neuroptera, Osmylidae) with a remarkable example of convergence in wing disruptive patterning

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The charismatic lance lacewing genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Osmylidae: Protosmylinae) from South East Asia is revised with a new species (Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n.) described from Malaysia. The genus is diagnosed and both species in the genus redescribed and figured. An extraordinary example of morphological convergence is presented, with disruptive camouflaging wing markings in Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n. being remarkably similar to the South American green lacewing Vieira leschenaulti Navás (Chrysopidae). PMID:27667953

  15. Revision of the genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Neuroptera, Osmylidae) with a remarkable example of convergence in wing disruptive patterning.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Shaun L; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    The charismatic lance lacewing genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Osmylidae: Protosmylinae) from South East Asia is revised with a new species (Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n.) described from Malaysia. The genus is diagnosed and both species in the genus redescribed and figured. An extraordinary example of morphological convergence is presented, with disruptive camouflaging wing markings in Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n. being remarkably similar to the South American green lacewing Vieira leschenaulti Navás (Chrysopidae). PMID:27667953

  16. A Tröger's base-derived microporous organic polymer: design and applications in CO2/H2 capture and hydrogenation of CO2 to formic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhang, Hongye; Yu, Bo; Zhao, Yanfei; Ji, Guipeng; Liu, Zhimin

    2015-01-25

    A Tröger's base-derived microporous organic polymer (TB-MOP) was designed, which could adsorb CO2 and coordinate with a Ru(III) complex. The resultant TB-MOP-Ru showed good CO2 and H2 adsorbing performances, and high efficiency for catalysing hydrogenation of CO2 to HCOOH with a turnover number up to 2254 at 40 °C.

  17. Revision of the genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Neuroptera, Osmylidae) with a remarkable example of convergence in wing disruptive patterning

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The charismatic lance lacewing genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Osmylidae: Protosmylinae) from South East Asia is revised with a new species (Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n.) described from Malaysia. The genus is diagnosed and both species in the genus redescribed and figured. An extraordinary example of morphological convergence is presented, with disruptive camouflaging wing markings in Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n. being remarkably similar to the South American green lacewing Vieira leschenaulti Navás (Chrysopidae).

  18. Resolution and Determination of the Absolute Configuration of a Twisted Bis-Lactam Analogue of Tröger's Base: A Comparative Spectroscopic and Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Rúnarsson, Ögmundur Vidar; Benkhäuser, Christian; Christensen, Niels Johan; Ruiz, Josep Artacho; Ascic, Erhad; Harmata, Michael; Snieckus, Victor; Rissanen, Kari; Fristrup, Peter; Lützen, Arne; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2015-08-21

    The first reported twisted bis-lactam, a racemic Tröger's base (TB) analogue (2), was resolved into its enantiomers on a chiral stationary phase HPLC column. The absolute configuration of (+)-2 was determined to be (R,R)-2 by comparing experimental and calculated vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The absolute configuration of (-)-2 was determined by comparing experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. The corresponding theoretical spectra were calculated using the lowest energy conformation of (R,R)-2 and (S,S)-2 at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The absolute configuration of (+)-2 was also determined to (R,R)-2 by anomalous X-ray diffraction (AXRD) in a chiral space group P212121 using Cu-irradiation resulting in a very low Flack parameter of -0.06(3), despite the heaviest element being an oxygen atom, thus unambiguously confirming the results from the spectroscopic studies. We conclude that, for the Tröger's base (TB) analogue (2), we may rank the reliability of the individual methods for AC determination as AXRD ≫ VCD > ECD, while the synergy of all three methods provides very strong confidence in the assigned ACs of (+)-(R,R)-2 and (-)-(S,S)-2. PMID:26244379

  19. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. PMID:24894458

  20. The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV): reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of German children.

    PubMed

    Conrad, André; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Quarcoo, David; Schlaud, Martin; Groneberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Children's time-location patterns are important determinants of environmental exposure and other health-relevant factors. Building on data of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV), our study aimed at deriving reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of 3-14-year-old German children. We also investigated if GerES IV data are appropriate for evaluating associations with children's health determinants by linking them to data of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Parents reported on the time their children usually spend at home, in other indoor environments, and outdoors. This information was characterized by statistical parameters, which were also calculated for different strata concerning socio-demography and the residential environment. Consequently, group differences were evaluated by t-tests and univariate ANOVA. Reference distributions were fitted to the time-location data by a Maximum Likelihood approach to make them also useable in probabilistic exposure modeling. Finally, associations between data on the children's physical activity as well as body weight and their outdoor time were investigated by bivariate correlation analysis and cross tabulation. On daily average, German children spend 15 h and 31 min at home, 4 h and 46 min in other indoor environments, and 3 h and 43 min outdoors. Time spent at home and outdoors decreases with age while time spent in other indoor environments increases. Differences in time-location patterns were also observed for the socio-economic status (SES) and immigration status. E.g., children with a high SES spend 24 min less outdoors than low SES children. Immigrants spend on daily average 20 min more at home and 15 min less outdoors than non-immigrant children. Outdoor time was associated with parameters of the residential environment like the building development. Children living in 1- or 2-family houses spend more time outdoors than

  1. The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV): reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of German children.

    PubMed

    Conrad, André; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Quarcoo, David; Schlaud, Martin; Groneberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Children's time-location patterns are important determinants of environmental exposure and other health-relevant factors. Building on data of the German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV), our study aimed at deriving reference values and distributions for time-location patterns of 3-14-year-old German children. We also investigated if GerES IV data are appropriate for evaluating associations with children's health determinants by linking them to data of the National Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Parents reported on the time their children usually spend at home, in other indoor environments, and outdoors. This information was characterized by statistical parameters, which were also calculated for different strata concerning socio-demography and the residential environment. Consequently, group differences were evaluated by t-tests and univariate ANOVA. Reference distributions were fitted to the time-location data by a Maximum Likelihood approach to make them also useable in probabilistic exposure modeling. Finally, associations between data on the children's physical activity as well as body weight and their outdoor time were investigated by bivariate correlation analysis and cross tabulation. On daily average, German children spend 15 h and 31 min at home, 4 h and 46 min in other indoor environments, and 3 h and 43 min outdoors. Time spent at home and outdoors decreases with age while time spent in other indoor environments increases. Differences in time-location patterns were also observed for the socio-economic status (SES) and immigration status. E.g., children with a high SES spend 24 min less outdoors than low SES children. Immigrants spend on daily average 20 min more at home and 15 min less outdoors than non-immigrant children. Outdoor time was associated with parameters of the residential environment like the building development. Children living in 1- or 2-family houses spend more time outdoors than

  2. 78 FR 33010 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not... gravity (CG) configuration, possibly resulting in reduced control of the aeroplane. To address...

  3. 77 FR 38224 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... operating in icing conditions, which if not corrected may result in loss of control of the airplane. DATES... corrected, could result in loss of control of the aeroplane. To address this potential unsafe condition, a... system includes stall warning curves optimized for operation in icing conditions, which are activated...

  4. 77 FR 26158 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on December 29, 2011 (76 FR 81889). That NPRM proposed to... that we revise the NPRM (76 FR 81889, December 29, 2011) to include a statement as follows: ``In... add the statement to the Discussion section of the NPRM (76 FR 81889, December 29, 2011). We...

  5. 78 FR 49982 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... (two units) are located under the floor, forward of the wing box. There is no fire detection or fire... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... holder is present. Align brush spring in center of brush groove. (13) Install terminal screw and...

  6. 77 FR 11791 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... certain electrical connectors and braids could cause corrosion damage. This proposed AD would require performing in certain locations a detailed inspection for corrosion of the electrical and...

  7. 77 FR 29855 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 11791). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The... the NPRM (77 FR 11791, February 28, 2012) or on the determination of the cost to the public... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  8. 78 FR 1731 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Register on October 2, 2012 (77 FR 60073). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... public the opportunity to participate in developing this AD. We received no comments on the NPRM (77 FR... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate...

  9. 77 FR 60073 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska; and 4. Will... bottom panel of the center cabin. This proposed AD would require doing a general visual inspection to... proposing this AD to detect and correct any chafing on the bottom panel of the center cabin, which...

  10. 77 FR 19565 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... some aeroplanes after extended time in service. Although properly installed, the locknut has been...

  11. 77 FR 38470 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Register on April 2, 2012 (77 FR 19565). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... the NPRM (77 FR 19565, April 2, 2012) or on the determination of the cost to the public. Conclusion We... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February...

  12. 77 FR 1 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... reference of certain other publications listed in this AD as of July 29, 2004 (69 FR 35235, June 24, 2004..., 2011 (76 FR 62656), and proposed to supersede AD 2004-12-03, Amendment 39-13662 (69 FR 35235, June 24... mandatory by SAD 1- 189 [which corresponds to FAA AD 2004-12-03 Amendment 39-13662 (69 FR 35235, June...

  13. 76 FR 19719 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... the full down-and-locked position, possibly resulting in MLG collapse upon landing or during roll-out... corrected, could prevent the MLG to extend to the full down-and-locked position, possibly resulting in...

  14. 76 FR 31508 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the products listed above. This proposed AD results from mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on an aviation product. The MCAI describes the unsafe condition...

  15. 76 FR 41665 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19719). That... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... where one of the two bolts attaching the actuator mounting bracket to the MLG [main landing gear]...

  16. 76 FR 13072 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... in the Federal Register on December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77796). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...) originated by an aviation authority of another country to identify and correct an unsafe condition on...

  17. Levels and predictors of urinary nickel concentrations of children in Germany: results from the German Environmental Survey on children (GerES IV).

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Seiwert, Margarete; Hünken, Andreas; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Schulz, Christine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2013-03-01

    Human biomonitoring of nickel has gained interest in environmental medicine due to its wide distribution in the environment and its allergenic potential. There are indications that the prevalence of nickel sensitization in children is increased by nickel exposure and that oral uptake of nickel can exacerbate nickel dermatitis in nickel-sensitive individuals. Urinary nickel measurement is a good indicator of exposure. However, data on nickel levels in urine of children are rare. For the first time, the German Environmental Survey on children (GerES IV) 2003-2006 provided representative data to describe the internal nickel exposure of children aged 3-14 years in Germany. Nickel was measured after enrichment in the organic phase of urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. Nickel levels (n=1576) ranged from <0.5 to 15 μg/l. Geometric mean was 1.26 μg/l. Multivariate regression analysis showed that gender, age, socio-economic status, being overweighted, consumption of hazelnut spread, nuts, cereals, chocolate and urinary creatinine were significant predictors for urinary nickel excretion of children who do not smoke. 20.2% of the variance could be explained by these variables. With a contribution of 13.8% the urinary creatinine concentration was the most important predictor. No influence of nickel intake via drinking water and second hand smoke exposure was observed. PMID:22503716

  18. 76 FR 3564 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... in the Federal Register on August 23, 2010 (75 FR 51696). That first supplemental NPRM proposed to... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3... the antennae installation, and repair if necessary. The first supplemental NPRM resulted from a...

  19. 75 FR 2829 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the antennae installation, and... extensive corrosion was found on one airplane. We are proposing this AD to detect and correct corrosion...

  20. 75 FR 51696 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Federal Register on January 19, 2010 (75 FR 2829). That original NPRM proposed to require inspecting the... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of a novel N-F reagent derived from the ethano-Tröger's base: (1)J(FN) coupling constants as a signature for the N-F bond.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Raul; Wolstenhulme, Jamie; Sandford, Graham; Claridge, Timothy D W; Gouverneur, Véronique; Cvengroš, Ján

    2016-01-28

    Methylation of 2,8-dimethyl-6H,12H-5,11-ethanodibenzo[b,f][1,5]-diazocine (ethano-Tröger's base) with methyl iodide followed by ion metathesis and fluorination with N-fluoro-2,3,4,5,6-pentachloropyridinium triflate affords a new electrophilic N-F reagent, that is more reactive than Selectfluor. 2D (19)F-(15)N HMQC experiments provide (1)JNF coupling constants which are diagnostic for the N-F functional group. PMID:26658721

  2. 76 FR 62656 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., Amendment 39-13662 (69 FR 35235, June 24, 2004)), perform an inspection of the MLG's separation bolt harness.... This condition, if not corrected, could inhibit the functioning of the separation bolt, preventing... November 25, 2011. ADDRESSES: You may send comments by any of the following methods: Federal...

  3. 76 FR 22007 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 3564). That second SNPRM proposed to require inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... above. This AD requires inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion and cracking behind the...

  4. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  5. A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the endangered Round Island boa Casarea dussumieri (Schlegel) (Serpentes: Bolyeridae) of Round Island, Mauritius: an endangered parasite?

    PubMed

    Daszak, Peter; Ball, Stanley J; Streicker, Daniel G; Jones, Carl G; Snow, Keith R

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), C. durelli n. sp., is described from the endangered Round Island boa Casarea dussumieri (Schlegel) (Serpentes: Bolyeridae) from Round Island, Mauritius. Six of 11 hosts were infected. Oöcysts are spherical to subspherical, 19.2 × 18.2 (17.5-21 × 16-21) μm, n = 20, and have a shape index (mean length/mean width) of 1.05 (1.02-1.09). The bi-layered wall is composed of an outer layer of c.0.6 μm thick and an inner layer of c.0.4 μm thick. A micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 14.7 × 11.0 (13-16 × 9.5-11.5) μm, n = 20, and have a shape index of 1.33. Both Stieda and substieda bodies are present. The sporocyst residuum measures c.12 × 4.5 μm, is surrounded by sporozoites and composed of numerous granules. Refractile bodies are present but not clearly visible. This is the first coccidian parasite reported from the family Bolyeridae and the first species of Caryospora durrelli [corrected] reported from the Mascarenes. Conservation issues concerning parasites of endangered host species are discussed.

  6. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-11-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients.

  7. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-11-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients. PMID:26341201

  8. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T.

    2015-01-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients. PMID:26341201

  9. 75 FR 19673 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Saab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... effective in reducing and deterring motor vehicle theft as compliance with the parts-marking requirements of... is equipped with a vehicle alarm system (VAS). The VAS consists of an ultrasonic sensor and vehicle... climatic, mechanical and chemical environments under the General Motors Corporation validation...

  10. Big(ger) Data as Better Data in Open Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, Paul; Archer, Elizabeth; Barnes, Glen; Chetty, Yuraisha; van Zyl, Dion

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the hype, promise and perils of Big Data and the currently dominant paradigm of data-driven decision-making, it is important to critically engage with the potential of Big Data for higher education. We do not question the potential of Big Data, but we do raise a number of issues, and present a number of theses to be seriously…

  11. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  12. Two new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.

    PubMed

    Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modrý, D

    2000-05-01

    Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Oöcysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated oöcysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites. PMID:10803432

  13. Mesoscale meteorology - Theories, observations and models; Proceedings of the Advanced Study Institute, Bonas, Gers, France, July 13-31, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilly, D. K. (Editor); Gal-Chen, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are mesoscale processes and variability, regional and cyclonic scale motions and their prediction modeling, fronts, mesoscale instabilities, buoyancy (gravity) waves and topographic forcing, buoyant convection, boundary layers, and observational technology. The specific issues investigated include methods for initializing mesoscale forecast models, an energy theory for the propagation of gravity currents, a theory for rain bands within extratropical cyclones, the morning glory as a nonlinear wave phenomenon, cumulus clouds, the prediction of severe convection, planetary boundary layer parameterization, and three-dimensional wind field analysis from Doppler radar data.

  14. 78 FR 51803 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Léger: Modern Art and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ...Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the authority vested in me by the Act of October 19, 1965 (79 Stat. 985; 22 U.S.C. 2459), Executive Order 12047 of March 27, 1978, the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681, et seq.; 22 U.S.C. 6501 note, et seq.), Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999, Delegation of Authority No.......

  15. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  16. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR-DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR-DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins.

    PubMed

    Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains.

  17. On the construction of a 2-metre mirror blank for the universal reflecting telescope in Tautenburg (German Title: Über die Fertigung eines 2-Meter-Spiegelträgers für das Universal-Spiegelteleskop in Tautenburg )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lödel, Wolfgang

    The astronomers' desire to penetrate deeper into space transforms into a demand for larger telescopes. The primary mirror constitutes the main part of a reflecting telescope, and it determines all subsequent activities. Already in the 1930s activities existed in the Schott company to manufacture mirror blanks up to diameters of 2 metres, which could not be pursued because of political constraints. This ambitious goal was again picked up a few years after the war. At a time when the procurement of raw materials was extremely difficult, the glass workers of Schott in Jena attacked this large project. After some failures, a good mirror blank could be delivered to the Carl Zeiss Company in 1951 for further processing and for the construction of the first 2-metre reflecting telescope. From 1960 to 1986, this mirror made from optical glass ZK7 served its purpose at the Karl Schwarzschild Observatory in Tautenburg. lt was then replaced by a zero expansion glass ceramics mirror.

  18. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR-DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR-DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins.

    PubMed

    Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains. PMID:18987995

  19. New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Saphonecrus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic, with a re-appraisal of known species world-wide.

    PubMed

    Schwéger, Szabina; Melika, George; Tang, Chang-Ti; Yang, Man-Miao; Stone, Graham N; Nicholls, James A; Sinclair, Frazer; Hearn, Jack; Bozsó, Miklós; Pénzes, Zsolt

    2015-12-08

    Fifteen new species of cynipid inquilines, Saphonecrus chinensis Tang & Schwéger, S. gilvus Melika & Schwéger, S. globosus Schwéger & Tang, S. leleyi Melika & Schwéger, S. lithocarpii Schwéger & Melika, S. longinuxi Schwéger & Melika, S. morii Schwéger & Tang, S. nantoui Tang, Schwéger & Melika, S. nichollsi Schwéger & Melika, S. pachylomai Schwéger, Tang & Melika, S. robustus Schwéger & Melika, S. saliciniai Melika, Tang & Schwéger, S. shanzhukui Melika & Tang, S. symbioticus Melika & Schwéger, and S. taitungi Schwéger, Tang & Melika, from the Eastern Palaearctic are described. Descriptions, diagnoses, biology, and host associations for the new species, and a key to Palaearctic Saphonecrus species are given. All new taxa form distinct units as demonstrated by the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Palaearctic Saphonecrus species. The status of some earlier described Saphonecrus species is discussed also. The Synergini genus Lithonecrus Nieves-Aldrey & Butterill, 2014 is synonymized with Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó, 2013. Three Saphonecrus species are transferred to Synergus: Synergus brevis (Weld) comb. nova, Synergus hupingshanensis (Liu, Yang & Zhu) comb. nova, and Synergus yukawai (Wachi, Ide & Abe) comb. nova. Synophrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno is transferred to Lithosaphonecrus: Lithosaphonecrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno), comb. nova. The current number of valid Saphonecrus species worldwide is 36.

  20. Overlap of dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux in the general population: one disease or distinct entities?

    PubMed Central

    Choung, Rok Seon; Locke, G. Richard; Schleck, Cathy D.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The overlap of dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is known to be frequent but whether the overlap group is a distinct entity or not remains unclear. Aims To evaluate whether the overlap of dyspepsia and GER (dyspepsia-GER overlap) occurs more than expected due to chance alone, and evaluate the risk factors for dyspepsia-GER overlap. Methods In 2008 and 2009, a validated Bowel Disease Questionnaire was mailed to a total of 8006 community sample from Olmsted County, MN. Overall, 3831 of the 8006 subjects returned surveys (response rate 48%). Dyspepsia was defined by symptom criteria of Rome III; GER was defined by weekly or more frequent heartburn and/or acid regurgitation. Results Dyspepsia and GER occurred together more commonly than expected by chance. The somatic symptom checklist score was significantly associated with dyspepsia-GER overlap vs. GER alone or dyspepsia alone (OR=1.9 [1.4, 2.5), and 1.6 [1.2, 2.1), respectively). Insomnia was also significantly associated with dyspepsia-GER overlap vs. GER alone or dyspepsia alone (OR=1.4 [1.1, 1.7], OR=1.3 [1.1, 1.6], respectively). Moreover, proton pump inhibitor use was significantly associated with dyspepsia-GER overlap vs. dyspepsia alone (OR=2.4 [1.5, 3.8]). Conclusions Dyspepsia-GER overlap is common in the population and is greater than expected by chance. PMID:22150874

  1. 24-hour esophageal pH-monitoring in children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Analysis of intraesophageal pH monitoring values recorded in distal and proximal channel at diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Semeniuk, Janusz; Kaczmarski, Maciej

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess values of 24-h esophageal pH-monitoring parameters with dual-channel probe (distal and proximal channel) in children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). METHODS: 264 children suspected of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were enrolled in a study (mean age χ = 20.78 ± 17.23 mo). The outcomes of this study, immunoallerrgological tests and positive result of oral food challenge test with a potentially noxious nutrient, enabled to qualify children into particular study groups. RESULTS: 32 (12.1%) infants (group 1) had physiological GER diagnosed. Pathological acid GER was confirmed in 138 (52.3%) children. Primary GER was diagnosed in 76 (28.8%) children (group 2) and GER secondary to allergy to cow milk protein and/or other food (CMA/FA) in 62 (23.5%) children (group 3). 32 (12.1%) of them had CMA/FA (group 4-reference group), and in remaining 62 (23.5%) children neither GER nor CMA/FA was confirmed (group 5). Mean values of pH monitoring parameters measured in distal and proximal channel were analyzed in individual groups. This analysis showed statistically significant differentiation of mean values in the case of: number of episodes of acid GER, episodes of acid GER lasting > 5 min, duration of the longest episode of acid GER in both channels, acid GER index total and supine in proximal channel. Statistically significant differences of mean values among examined groups, especially between group 2 and 3 in the case of total acid GER index (only distal channel) were confirmed. CONCLUSION: 24-h esophageal pH monitoring confirmed pathological acid GER in 52.3% of children with typical and atypical symptoms of GERD. The similar pH-monitoring values obtained in group 2 and 3 confirm the necessity of implementation of differential diagnosis for primary vs secondary cause of GER. PMID:17876877

  2. Numbers of individual nutrient germinant receptors and other germination proteins in spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Kerry-Ann V; Setlow, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Germination of dormant Bacillus subtilis spores with specific nutrient germinants is dependent on a number of inner membrane (IM) proteins, including (i) the GerA, GerB, and GerK germinant receptors (GRs) that respond to nutrient germinants; (ii) the GerD protein, essential for optimal GR function; and (iii) SpoVA proteins, essential for the release of the spore-specific molecule dipicolinic acid (DPA) during spore germination. Levels of GR A and C subunit proteins, GerD, and SpoVAD in wild-type spores were determined by Western blot analysis of spore fractions or total disrupted spores by comparison with known amounts of purified proteins. Surprisingly, after disruption of decoated B. subtilis spores with lysozyme and fractionation, ∼90% of IM fatty acids and GR subunits remained with the spores' insoluble integument fraction, indicating that yields of purified IM are low. The total lysate from disrupted wild-type spores contained ∼2,500 total GRs/spore: GerAA and GerAC subunits each at ∼1,100 molecules/spore and GerBC and GerKA subunits each at ∼700 molecules/spore. Levels of the GerBA subunit determined previously were also predicted to be ∼700 molecules/spore. These results indicate that the A/C subunit stoichiometry in GRs is most likely 1:1, with GerA being the most abundant GR. GerD and SpoVAD levels were ∼3,500 and ∼6,500 molecules/spore, respectively. These values will be helpful in formulating mathematic models of spore germination kinetics as well as setting lower limits on the size of the GR-GerD complex in the spores' IM, termed the germinosome.

  3. New amino acid germinants for spores of the enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates.

    PubMed

    Udompijitkul, Pathima; Alnoman, Maryam; Banawas, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens spore germination plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens-associated food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases. Germination is initiated when bacterial spores sense specific nutrient germinants (such as amino acids) through germinant receptors (GRs). In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize amino acid germinants for spores of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A. The polar, uncharged amino acids at pH 6.0 efficiently induced germination of C. perfringens spores; L-asparagine, L-cysteine, L-serine, and L-threonine triggered germination of spores of most FP and NFB isolates; whereas, L-glutamine was a unique germinant for FP spores. For cysteine- or glutamine-induced germination, gerKC spores (spores of a gerKC mutant derivative of FP strain SM101) germinated to a significantly lower extent and released less DPA than wild type spores; however, a less defective germination phenotype was observed in gerAA or gerKB spores. The germination defects in gerKC spores were partially restored by complementing the gerKC mutant with a recombinant plasmid carrying wild-type gerKA-KC, indicating that GerKC is an essential GR protein. The gerKA, gerKC, and gerKB spores germinated significantly slower with L-serine and L-threonine than their parental strain, suggesting the requirement for these GR proteins for normal germination of C. perfringens spores. In summary, these results indicate that the polar, uncharged amino acids at pH 6.0 are effective germinants for spores of C. perfringens type A and that GerKC is the main GR protein for germination of spores of FP strain SM101 with L-cysteine, L-glutamine, and L-asparagine.

  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux is Not Associated with Dental Erosion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Yvette K.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dalal, Deepal H.; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Clark, Ann L.; Rechmann, Beate; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Dental erosion is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adults; in children, it is not clear if GER has a role in dental pathologic conditions. Dietary intake, oral hygiene, high bacterial load, and decreased salivary flow might contribute independently to GER development or dental erosion, but their potential involvement in dental erosion from GER is not understood. We investigated the prevalence of dental erosion among children with and without GER symptoms, and whether salivary flow rate or bacterial load contribute to location-specific dental erosion. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 59 children (ages 9–17 y) with symptoms of GER and 20 asymptomatic children (controls); all completed a questionnaire on dietary exposure. Permanent teeth were examined for erosion into dentin, erosion locations, and affected surfaces. The dentist was not aware of GER status, nor was the gastroenterologist aware of dental status. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and salivary bacterial load was calculated for total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Results Controlling for age, dietary intake, and oral hygiene, there was no association between GER symptoms and dental erosion, by tooth location or affected surface. Salivary flow did not correlate with GER symptoms or erosion. Erosion location and surface were independent of total bacteria and levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Conclusions Location-specific dental erosion is not associated with GER, salivary flow, or bacterial load. Prospective studies are required to determine the pathogenesis of GER-associated dental erosion and the relationship between dental caries to GER and dental erosion. PMID:21820389

  5. Sedimentation upon different carrier liquid in giant electrorheological fluid and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yaying; Wen, Weijia

    2014-10-01

    When giant electrorheological (GER) fluid is settled after some time, particles can precipitate out of the oil in a multistep process that involves the formation of larger particles, the aggregation of colloids, and eventual sedimentation. Colloidal stability in giant electrorheological (GER) fluid can influence the GER performance and the fluid flow steadiness. We investigated the sedimentation effect of the GER particles suspended in various carrier liquid. Different from the existing electrorheological (ER) fluids, GER particles consisting of oxalate core with urea coating are found oil synergistic. The sedimentation effect of the particles suspended in oils from the family of synthetic oil and mineral oil were checked by direct observation. The rheological behavior of the GER fluid upon electric field application was also investigated. These experiments showed that stable colloidal suspension and good GER effect can be achieved coherently by favorable particle-oil interaction. The resultant high yield stress and low sedimentation rate achieved due to the instrumental linking of hydrogen bond is showed in the hydrogenated silicone oil carrier liquid. With the anti-sedimentation characteristic upon the new carrier oil, hydrogenated silicone oil-GER fluid, we investigated their GER effect in a modified mono tube damper and the experimental result showed wide controllability range. Our investigations may broaden engineering applications.

  6. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations. PMID:27606968

  7. Gastroesophageal reflux and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A long term relationship.

    PubMed

    Gnanapandithan, Karthik; Popkin, Joel H; Devadoss, Ramprakash; Martin, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a dreaded disease of uncertain etiology and no available cure. It is still unclear if a causal relationship exists between gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and IPF, but studies have shown an increased prevalence of acid reflux in patients with IPF. We describe a patient with achalasia and GER who went on to develop IPF. She underwent a rapidly worsening course punctuated by acute exacerbations of IPF, despite best efforts to manage the acid GER. We also reviewed the literature on the role of GER in the etiology and progression of IPF and the impact of antireflux measures on its course. PMID:27222783

  8. [Gastroesophageal reflux during pregnancy: 24-hour esophageal ph monitoring].

    PubMed

    Anton, C; Anton, E; Drug, V; Stanciu, C

    2001-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs in 30-50% of all pregnancies. The progressive rise in plasma progesterone has been suggested as a possible mediator of GER during pregnancy. Recent advances in technology have made it possible to detect GER through monitoring of esophageal pH for prolonged periods, including sleep. 24-hour pH monitoring is the proper method for diagnosing GER in pregnant women. If 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is to be a useful diagnostic tool, it must reliably discriminate GER patients despite daily variations in distal esophageal acid exposure. To address this issue, we studied 62 women (30 healthy non-pregnant women without GER symptoms and 32 pregnant women with GER symptoms-heartburn, acid regurgitation) with 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Intrasubject reproducibility of three pH parameters to discriminate the presence of abnormal acid reflux was determined (DeMeester score, Kaye score, circadian one hour diagram for pH < 4). Each patient was interviewed, using a reliable questionnaire detailing individual habits, life style characteristics and symptoms, at four time points during the first, second, third trimesters of pregnancy and post-partum period. Symptoms of GER are common in pregnancy and although GER rarely endangers maternal or fetal health, it can significantly affect patient comfort and quality of life. We conclude: 1. GER is almost constantly present during pregnancy, increasing with gestational age. 2. The most important pH--parameter is DeMcester score. 3. Heartburn disappear after delivery. 4. 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring is the gold standard for measuring acid exposure and is a reproducible test for the diagnosis of GER in pregnancy.

  9. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Characteristics and frequency of transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter in patients with reflux esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Mittal, R K; McCallum, R W

    1988-09-01

    Electromyogram of the submental muscles, esophageal manometry, and pH studies were simultaneously performed in an unselected group of 12 patients with subjective and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease to determine the frequency of transient relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and mechanisms of GER. Findings from these patients were compared with data from 10 asymptomatic healthy volunteers. Recordings were obtained for 1 h in the fasting state and 3 h after a standard 850-kcal meal. Transient relaxation of the LES was the only mechanism of acid reflux in normal subjects and accounted for 73.0% of the episodes of acid reflux in patients with GER disease. In both normal subjects and patients with GER, a large number of transient relaxations were associated at their onset with an attenuated submental EMG complex, a small pharyngeal contraction, and an esophageal contraction. The incidences of these associated events were similar in the two study populations. The frequency of transient relaxation of the LES in patients with GER was identical to that of controls. The frequency did not differ even in 9 patients with GER disease who had endoscopic esophagitis. Thirty-six percent of transient relaxations in the normal subjects were accompanied by pH evidence of reflux, but in the GER patients with endoscopic esophagitis 65% of the transient LES relaxations resulted in a reflux event. Acid reflux at the moment of deep inspiration was the second most common mechanism of GER in our patients. Four patients who demonstrated this mechanism had hiatal hernias and more severe esophagitis than the rest of the group. Our findings confirm that transient relaxation of the LES is the major mechanism of GER in patients with reflux esophagitis. However, the similar frequency of this relaxation in GER patients and in healthy asymptomatic subjects suggests that factors other than transient LES relaxation play an important role in the pathogenesis of

  11. Software: Where we are and what is required in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Jerry

    1990-01-01

    The current status and future direction of flight critical software are presented in the form of view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: the programmers environment; Saab Grippen Flight test program; present day tools; analysis tools (reverse engineering); automatic code generators; and future plans.

  12. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  13. The Role of Sleep in the Modulation of Gastroesophageal reflux and Symptoms in NICU Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Aslam; Malkar, Manish; Splaingard, Mark; Khuhro, Abdul; Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Background Newborns sleep about 80% of the time. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is prevalent in about 10% of NICU infants. Concurrent polysomnography and pH-impedance studies clarify relationship of GER with sleep. Aims To characterize spatio-temporal and chemical characteristics of impedance-positive GER and define symptom associations in sleep and wake states in symptomatic neonates. We hypothesized that frequency of impedance-positive GER events and their association with cardiorespiratory symptoms is greater during sleep. Methods Eighteen neonates underwent concurrent polysomnography with pH-impedance study. Impedance-positive GER events (weakly acidic or acidic) were categorized between sleep vs. wake states: Symptom Index = # of symptoms with GER/total symptoms*100, Symptom Sensitivity Index = # of GER with symptoms/Total GER*100 and Symptom Association Probability = [(1-Probability of observed association between reflux and symptoms)*100]). Results We analyzed 317 GER events during 116 hours of polysomnography. During wake vs. sleep respectively, the median (interquartile range) frequency of impedance-positive GER was 4.9(3.1–5.8) vs. 1.4(0.7–1.7)events/hour (P<0.001), proximal migration was 2.6(0.8–3.3) vs. 0.2(0.0–0.9)events/hour (P<0.001); Symptom Index for cardiorespiratory symptoms for impedance-positive events was 22.5 (0–55.3) vs. 6.1(0–13), P=0.04 while Symptom Sensitivity Index was 9.1(0–23.1) vs. 18.4 (0–50), P=0.04 though Symptom Association Probability was similar, (P=0.68). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, frequency of GER in sleep is lesser; however, spatio-temporal and chemical characteristics of GER and symptom generation mechanisms are distinct. For cardiorespiratory symptoms during sleep, lower Symptom Index entails evaluation for etiologies other than GER disease, higher Symptom Sensitivity Index implies heightened esophageal sensitivity and similar Symptom Association Probability indicates other mechanistic

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    PubMed

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy.

  15. Relationship between upper airway obstruction and gastroesophageal reflux in a dog model.

    PubMed

    Boesch, Richard Paul; Shah, Prashant; Vaynblat, Mikhail; Marcus, Michael; Pagala, Murali; Narwal, Shivinder; Kazachkov, Mikhail

    2005-01-01

    The association between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and upper airway obstruction in children is recognized but not well understood. Our objective was to determine if the creation of a model of upper airway obstruction in dogs would cause GER and to determine if the GER is related to intrathoracic pressure changes. Five dogs underwent evaluation with esophageal manometry and pH probe at baseline and 1 week after creation of an upper airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was created by placement of a fenestrated cuffed tracheostomy tube, which was then capped and the cuff was inflated, requiring the animals to breathe via the fenestrations. The negative inspiratory pressure (Pes) (+/- SD) increased from 11.8 +/- 4.8 cm H(2)O at baseline to 17.6 +/- 4.9 cm H(2)O 1 week after creation of an airway obstruction (p = .029). None of the dogs had GER at baseline with a reflux index (RI) value of 0.0; however, 1 week after creation of airway obstruction, three out of five dogs had GER, with a mean RI value of 21.2 +/- 21.2. There was a significant (p = .023) correlation (r = .928) of the changes in Pes and RI values following airway obstruction. Upper airway obstruction (UAO) does cause GER in this canine model. Severity of GER is significantly correlated with Pes changes. PMID:16249167

  16. [Function of oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Höhne, S; Wachter, R; Merkel, N; Hesse, V; Finke, R

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) has a special meaning for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twelve voluntary patients with CF up to the age of 25 underwent an oesophageal manometry and a 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring. These patients were without symptoms of GER. The examination proved an acid GER in 42 %. In the total population the frequency is ≤ 10 %. In 11 of 12 patients a pathologically low pressure of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) was found. No significant correlations between the DeMeester score and the pressure of the LES, the reflux and respiratory symptomatology, the lung function as well as the quality of life could be proven. However, there was a significant correlation between the DeMeester score and the acid clearance time. 37 % of the registered cough pushes were related to a GER, of which 78 % were associated with an acid GER. Therefore, coughing in patients with CF must not necessarily be caused by the underlying disease. The timely detection of a pathological GER in patients with CF, but without symptoms of GER, and its prompt therapy could protect the lung function. PMID:24718938

  17. Levels of germination proteins in Bacillus subtilis dormant, superdormant, and germinating spores.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Ray, W Keith; Helm, Richard F; Melville, Stephen B; Popham, David L

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial endospores exhibit extreme resistance to most conditions that rapidly kill other life forms, remaining viable in this dormant state for centuries or longer. While the majority of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores germinate rapidly in response to nutrient germinants, a small subpopulation termed superdormant spores are resistant to germination, potentially evading antibiotic and/or decontamination strategies. In an effort to better understand the underlying mechanisms of superdormancy, membrane-associated proteins were isolated from populations of B. subtilis dormant, superdormant, and germinated spores, and the relative abundance of 11 germination-related proteins was determined using multiple-reaction-monitoring liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays. GerAC, GerKC, and GerD were significantly less abundant in the membrane fractions obtained from superdormant spores than those derived from dormant spores. The amounts of YpeB, GerD, PrkC, GerAC, and GerKC recovered in membrane fractions decreased significantly during germination. Lipoproteins, as a protein class, decreased during spore germination, while YpeB appeared to be specifically degraded. Some protein abundance differences between membrane fractions of dormant and superdormant spores resemble protein changes that take place during germination, suggesting that the superdormant spore isolation procedure may have resulted in early, non-committal germination-associated changes. In addition to low levels of germinant receptor proteins, a deficiency in the GerD lipoprotein may contribute to heterogeneity of spore germination rates. Understanding the reasons for superdormancy may allow for better spore decontamination procedures.

  18. Prevalence and determinants of frequent gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the Australian community.

    PubMed

    Pandeya, N; Green, A C; Whiteman, D C

    2012-01-01

    Frequent gastroesophageal reflux (GER) causes chronic inflammation and damages esophageal mucosa, which can lead to Barrett's esophagus. It has also been consistently found to be a strong risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. The prevalence of GER appears to vary; however, population-based Australian studies investigating the symptoms are limited. This study aimed to estimate the population prevalence and identify the determinants of frequent GER symptoms in the Australian population. Self-reported information on the frequency of reflux symptoms were collected from 1,580 adults from a population register. We estimated age- and sex-standardized prevalence of occasional (GER symptoms in the Australian population. We also estimated adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for GER symptoms associated with demographic and lifestyle characteristics. The standardized prevalences of GER symptoms were 10.4% and 38.3% for frequent and occasional symptoms, respectively. Compared with participants with body mass index <25, those with body mass index ≥35 had almost 90% higher prevalence of frequent GER symptoms (PR 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-3.16). Similarly, the prevalence of frequent GER symptoms was significantly higher among regular users of aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs than never users (PR 1.71; 95%CI 1.08-3.16) and regular consumers of medium to well-done barbecued meat (PR 1.75; 95%CI 1.10-2.80) or fried food (PR 2.69; 95%CI 1.66-4.35). The prevalence of frequent GER symptoms was significantly lowered with regular physical activity (PR 0.46; 95%CI 0.32-0.66) and Helicobacter pylori infection (PR 0.53; 95%CI 0.35-0.80). We found no evidence that frequent GER symptoms were associated with smoking, alcohol, spicy food, or coffee consumption. Our results confirm that GER symptoms are common and that frequent GER symptoms are associated with a range of modifiable lifestyle factors. PMID:22128757

  19. Digestive Diseases A-Z

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Information Digestive Diseases English English Español Digestive Diseases The digestive system made up of the ... Upper GI Endoscopy Upper GI Series Virtual Colonoscopy Digestive Disease Topics Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) ...

  20. Elektromagnetische Strahlung. Informationen aus dem Weltall.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, H.

    Contents: Informationen aus dem Weltall. Neue und zukünftige Geräte. Wichtiges und Interessantes aus der Positionsastronomie. Die Helligkeit der Sterne und anderer astronomischer Objekte. Spektroskopie und Spektralanalyse. Beobachtungen außerhalb des optischen Bereiches.

  1. Evolution of the gain extinction ratio in dual-pump phase sensitive amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingyi; Inoue, Takashi; Kurosu, Takayuki; Namiki, Shu

    2012-05-01

    We have experimentally achieved a gain extinction ratio (GER) of 30 dB at 21.75 dBm pump power in a dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier based on highly nonlinear fiber, which is more efficient than what we predict with the conventional three-wave model. We point out that high-order sidebands play a key role. Then we scrutinize the trajectories of the output signal vector in the complex plane with increasing nonlinear phase shift and understand the roll-over behavior of GER versus pump power curve. We found that the phase "flip" of the output signal occurs around the largest GER. Adjusting design parameters, we show how to improve GER. PMID:22555697

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  3. Dihydrochalcomycin Production and Glycosyltransferase from Streptomyces SP. KCTC 0041BP

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Ta Thi Thu; Sohng, Jae Kyung; Pfeifer, Blaine

    2010-01-01

    The dihydrochalcomycin (GERI) synthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces sp. KCTC 0041BP has been isolated. Two open reading frames (ORFs), designated gerT1 and gerT2 as glycosyltransferase genes, has been identified by sequence analysis. GerT1 encodes for the protein function as dTDP-deoxyallosyltransferase and it is responsible to the attachment of dTDP-allose to the macrolide ring. Similarly, gerT2 encodes for peptide named as dTDP-chacosyltransferase which can transfers the dTDP-4,6-dideoxyglucose to macrolactone core. During process of compound isolation, a new compound has been isolated with molecular weight m/z 755 [M+Na+]. This compound could be the dihydrochalcomycin derivative. The compound has been shown the same antibacterial activity as GERI compound.

  4. Evolution of the gain extinction ratio in dual-pump phase sensitive amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mingyi; Inoue, Takashi; Kurosu, Takayuki; Namiki, Shu

    2012-05-01

    We have experimentally achieved a gain extinction ratio (GER) of 30 dB at 21.75 dBm pump power in a dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier based on highly nonlinear fiber, which is more efficient than what we predict with the conventional three-wave model. We point out that high-order sidebands play a key role. Then we scrutinize the trajectories of the output signal vector in the complex plane with increasing nonlinear phase shift and understand the roll-over behavior of GER versus pump power curve. We found that the phase "flip" of the output signal occurs around the largest GER. Adjusting design parameters, we show how to improve GER.

  5. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, Marcin A; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Urzykowska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Rachel, Marta; Sands, Dorota; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Albrecht, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies have indicated that gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is common in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to get insight into the incidence of GER and to characterize the nature of reflux episodes in children with cystic fibrosis. This was a multicenter, prospective study of children with cystic fibrosis older than 18 months. Forty four consecutive patients (22 boys, mean age 10.4 ± 3.6, range 3.0-17.8 years) were enrolled into the study. All patients underwent 24 h pH-impedance monitoring. GER were classified according to the widely recognized criteria as an acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. The pH-impedance trace was considered abnormal when acid exposure was >6 %. GER was diagnosed in 24/44 (54.5 %) children. A total of 1585 (median 35, range 7-128) reflux episodes were detected; 1199 (75.6 %) were acidic, 382 (24.1 %) weakly acidic, and 4 (0.3 %) weakly alkaline. Six hundred and ninety-one (43.6 %) reflux episodes reached the proximal esophagus. In 14/44 patients typical GER symptoms were present. We conclude that the incidence of GER in children with cystic fibrosis is very high. In the majority of patients typical GER symptoms are absent. Therefore, diagnostic procedures should be considered, regardless of lacking symptoms. Although acid reflux episodes predominate in children with cystic fibrosis, classical pH-metry may not constitute a sufficient diagnostic method in this population because of a relatively high number of proximal reflux episodes. Such episodes also indicate an increased risk for aspiration. The pH-impedance diagnostic measurement is advocated when suspecting GER in children with cystic fibrosis.

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in children with otitis media in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Kazerooni, Azadeh; Brejis, Nezamodin; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) is the most common cause of childhood hearing loss and reason to visit the pediatrician. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with a variety of upper aerodigestive tract symptoms or diseases, such as sinusitis, laryngitis, and otits. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of GER in children, aged 3 months to 7 years, with OM. Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted on 50 children with OM and 50 healthy children. Presence of GER as the main variables was diagnosed by clinical examination in all studied children using the questionnaires with 2 age-stratified versions of the pediatric GER disease symptoms for children 2 years old and younger, and children 3–7 years old. Results: The prevalence of GER in children with OM and controls was 58% and 22% respectively (P = 0.0005). The frequency of irritability, congestion, and feeding complex in children with OM were significantly more than in control groups. Among children with recurrent acute OM (AOM), and chronic serous OM (CSOM) the prevalence of GER was significantly more than controls (61.1%, vs. 22% for AOM, P = 0.004, and 72.7% vs. 22%, P= 0.003). In children with AOM, regurgitation, vomiting, irritability and congestion were significantly higher than controls included. In children with CSOM, regurgitation, vomiting, and congestion were significantly higher than controls. Conclusion: Results show a significant association between GER and OM, AOM and CSOM in children with OM compares to healthy children. This shows that looking for GER in children with OM may help improving treatments outcomes. PMID:27274496

  7. Gene expression-based risk score in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bret, Caroline; Klein, Bernard; Moreaux, Jérôme

    2012-12-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and displays heterogeneous clinical and molecular characteristics. In this study, high throughput gene expression profiling of DLBCL tumor samples was used to design a 12-gene expression-based risk score (GERS) predictive for patient's overall survival. GERS allowed identifying a high-risk group comprising 46,4% of the DLBCL patients in two independent cohorts (n=414 and n=69). GERS was shown to be an independent predictor of survival when compared to the previously published prognostic factors, including the International Prognostic Index (IPI). GERS displayed a prognostic value in germinal-center B-cell-like subgroup (GCB) and activated B cell-like (ABC) molecular subgroups of patients as well as in DLBCL patients treated with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) or rituximab-CHOP (R-CHOP) regimens. Combination of GERS and IPI lead to a potent prognostic classification of DLBCL patients. Finally, a genomic instability gene signature was highlighted in gene expression profiles of patients belonging to the high-risk GERS-defined group. PMID:23482333

  8. Role of the current young generation within the space exploration sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Diaz, A.; Dayas-Codina, M.; MacArthur, J. L.; Bielicki, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    The space sector gathers together people from a variety of fields who work in the industry on different levels and with different expertise. What is often forgotten is the impact and role of the current young generation. Their engagement is of great importance as undeniably today's young 'space generation' will be defining the direction of future space exploration. Today's vision of future human and robotic space exploration has been set out in the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). This focuses on sustainable, affordable and productive long-term goals. The strategy begins with the International Space Station (ISS) and then expands human presence into the solar system, including a human mission to Mars. This paper presents a general overview of the role of today's youth within the space exploration sector and the challenges to overcome. To complete this perspective, we present results from a survey made among students and young professionals about their levels of awareness of the GER. The respondents presented their opinion about current aspects of the GER and prioritised the GER's objectives. It is hoped that the paper will bring a new perspective into the GER and a contribution to the current GER strategy.

  9. Pharmacological Therapy of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Monari, Caterina; Martini, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Faldella, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe GER with clinical complications. Despite of this, a concerning pharmacological overtreatment has been increasingly reported. Most of the antireflux drugs, however, have not been specifically assessed in preterm infants; moreover, serious adverse effects have been noticed in association to their administration. This review mainly aims to draw the state of the art regarding the pharmacological management of GER in preterm infants, analyzing the best piecies of evidence currently available on the most prescribed anti-reflux drugs. Although further trials are required, sodium alginate-based formulations might be considered promising; however, data regarding their safety are still limited. Few piecies of evidence on the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors in preterm infants with GER are currently available. Nevertheless, a significantly increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and infections has been largely reported in association with their use, thereby leading to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. The efficacy of metoclopramide in GER's improvement still needs to be clarified. Other prokinetic agents, such as domperidone and erythromycin, have been reported to be ineffective, whereas cisapride has been withdrawn due to its remarkable cardiac adverse effects. PMID:23878533

  10. ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap: A Stepwise Approach to Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Goodliff, Kandyce; Whitley, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, ISECG released the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), advancing the "Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" by articulating the perspectives of participating agencies on exploration goals and objectives, mission scenarios, and coordination of exploration preparatory activities. The GER featured a stepwise development and demonstration of capabilities ultimately required for human exploration of Mars. In 2013 the GER was updated to reflect the ongoing evolution of agency's exploration policies and plans, informed by individual agency and coordinated analysis activities that are relevant to various elements of the GER framework as well as coordinated stakeholder engagement activities. For this release of version 2 of the GER in the mid 2013 timeframe, a modified mission scenario is presented, more firmly reflecting the importance of a stepwise evolution of critical capabilities provided by multiple partners necessary for executing increasingly complex missions to multiple destinations and leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the updated mission scenario, the changes since the release of version 1, the mission themes incorporated into the scenario, and risk reduction for Mars missions provided by exploration at various destinations.

  11. Gastroesophageal reflux: natural evolution, diagnostic approach and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a normal physiologic process occurring several times per day in healthy infants. Regurgitation is defined as the passage of refluxed gastric contents into the pharynx or mouth, sometimes with expulsion out of the mouth. There are only a few studies that have been performed to determine the prevalence of regurgitation and its natural course in infants, and some of them were cross-sectional and retrospective. However, evaluation of the natural evolution of GER becomes difficult, since the emergence of widespread self-treatment and/or therapeutic interventions. It is important to determine which children have GER disease to offer optimal treatment and to avoid costly and potentially invasive diagnostic testing. Symptoms due to GER are troublesome when they have an adverse effect on the well-being of the pediatric patient. In regurgitating infants, decreasing the amount of regurgitation is often seen by the parents as the most welcomed intervention that physicians can provide. Many medications have been attempted to overcome GER in infants, each with their own advantages and limitations.

  12. Validating an energy expenditure prediction equation in overweight and obese Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Olguín, Gabriela; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Saldaña-Morales, Maria Vianey; Gulias-Herrero, Alfonso; Guevara-Cruz, Martha

    2014-10-01

    Antecedentes: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en Mexico se situa aproximadamente en el 70%; asi, la obtencion de una medicion fiable del gasto energetico en reposo (GER) en estos pacientes tiene una importancia crucial. El objetivo del estudio consistio en obtener una ecuacion de prediccion de GER en pacientes ambulatorios con sobrepeso u obesidad en la poblacion mexicana. Métodos: El estudio fue realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico, D.F.). Se evaluo a pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos (18-70 anos) en el servicio de Nutriologia Clinica entre marzo de 2010 y agosto 2012 tras un diagnostico de sobrepeso u obesidad (indice de masa corporal [IMC] ≥ 25 kg/ m2). Los pacientes con cualquier enfermedad que pudiera afectar la medicion de intercambio de gases fueron excluidos. Los participantes fueron evaluados mediante calorimetria indirecta (CI), analisis de impedancia bioelectrica (AIB) y mediciones antropometricas para disenar la ecuacion de prediccion de GER. Fueron evaluados dos grupos: un grupo para diseno y otro para validacion. El GER tambien fue calculado empleando las ecuaciones de Harris-Benedict, Mifflin St-Jeor, Ireton-Jones, Carrasco, Kleiber y Owen, calculando el peso actual, el peso ideal y un peso ajustado. Se obtuvo una ecuacion GER mediante regresion lineal multiple basada en las variables evaluadas, y fueron seleccionadas aquellas que aportaron la mayor precision al modelo. Luego se compararon el GER real y el GER estimado, utilizando la prueba de t de student. Para destacar las diferencias entre pares de mediciones se utilizo el metodo de Bland & Altman. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlacion de Pearson y los coeficientes de determinacion entre valores GER medidos mediante valores de CI y GER con diversas formulas. Resultados: Un total de 77 pacientes fueron incluidos en el grupo de diseno: 38 hombres (49.4%) y 39 mujeres (50.6%). La edad media fue 48.5 } 13.9 anos, y el IMC

  13. Extraesophageal manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease: cough, asthma, laryngitis, chest pain.

    PubMed

    Saritas Yuksel, Elif; Vaezi, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    GER is a common condition affecting many patients in different parts of the world. It usually presents with the classic manifestations of heartburn and regurgitation; however, in some it can also present with extraesophageal manifestations such as chronic cough, laryngitis, asthma or chest pain. Commonly employed diagnostic tests such as EGD and ambulatory pH or impedance monitoring in GER, are less useful in extraesophageal syndromes due to their poor sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, empiric trials of PPI's are shown to be cost effective; however, patients may require long-term treatment to establish effectiveness. Diagnostic testing with pH and impedance monitoring are commonly reserved for patients with partial or poor response to the initial treatment with PPI's. Poor response to PPI therapy may be an important indicator for non-GER causes for patients' symptoms and should initiate a search for other potential causes.

  14. Magnitude estimation reveals temporal binding at super-second intervals.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Gruffydd R; Buehner, Marc J

    2009-10-01

    Several recent studies (e.g., Haggard, Aschersleben, Gehrke, & Prinz, 2002; Haggard & Clark, 2003; Haggard, Clark, & Kalogeras, 2002) have demonstrated a "Temporal Binding" effect in which the interval between an intentional action and its consequent outcome is subjectively shorter compared to equivalent intervals that do not involve intentional action. The bulk of the literature has relied on the "Libet Clock" (Libet, Gleason, Wright, & Pearl, 1983; but see also Engbert & Wohlschläger, 2007; Engbert, Wohlschläger, Thomas, & Haggard, 2007; Engbert, Wohlschläger, & Haggard, 2008). Here we demonstrate that Temporal Binding is a robust finding that can also be reliably achieved with a Magnitude Estimation procedure, and that occurs over intervals far greater than those previously explored. Implications for the underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  15. Discovering forgeries of modern art by the 14C Bomb Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caforio, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Mandò, P. A.; Minarelli, F.; Peccenini, E.; Pellicori, V.; Petrucci, F. C.; Schwartzbaum, P.; Taccetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the anomalous behaviour of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration in the years after 1955 (so-called "Bomb Peak"), an alleged painting by Fernard Léger was unambiguously proven to be a fake just by dating the canvas support. Some art historians had questioned the authenticity of the painting, and their suspicions were fuelled by some scientific examinations of the paint materials (X-ray radiography, SEM-EDS), compared to those of another work unquestionably attributed to Léger. The decisive argument to prove that it was a fake was provided by the radiocarbon date obtained from a sample of canvas of the painting, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the INFN-Labec laboratory in Florence. Beyond any doubt, the cotton plant from which the canvas was produced was cut no earlier than 1959, i.e. four years after Léger's death, thus definitely confirming the concerns of a fake.

  16. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  17. [Case of severely disabled child with refractive respiratory infection due to gastroesophageal reflux successfully controlled by using a button-shaped double lumen transgastric jejunal feeding tube].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kanako; Tomikashi, Koichi; Takashima, Hidetaka; Kanemitsu, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Kengo; Iwase, Akiko; Abe, Yoshiaki; Nozuchi, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    A 12-year-old severely disabled woman child had been suffering from the refractive respiratory infection due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in years. However two transnasal catheters inserted to control GER, one was for feeding to the jejunum and the other was for decompression of the stomach, they were not effective against respiratory infection. Then, to resolve the problems, a button-shaped double lumen transgastric jejunal catheter was inserted into her jejunum via PEG in two-stage. After the procedure, the refractive respiratory infection due to GER could be successfully controlled. Additionally, by using the button-shaped catheter, any position came to be acceptable in daily life, for example in rehabilitation, sleeping and so on. Her ADL (activity of daily life) was well preserved.

  18. The effects of heat activation on Bacillus spore germination, with nutrients or under high pressure, with or without various germination proteins.

    PubMed

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75 °C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation.

  19. Outlook of possible European contributions to future exploration scenarios and architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, M. A.; Fenoglio, F.; Pelle, S.; Couzin, P.; Thaeter, J.; Eilingsfeld, F.; Hufenbach, B.; Bergamasco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Building upon the important experience acquired with the development of the International Space Station, the major spacefaring countries are working within the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at the definition of a coordinated framework for expanding the human presence beyond the Low Earth Orbit, the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER defines a long-range strategy for global exploration and include three major elements. Common goals of ISECG participating agencies for space exploration. Notional mission scenarios which are technically feasible and programmatically implementable. Two mission scenarios were defined in the 1st iteration of the GER: the "Asteroid Next" and the "Moon Next" mission scenarios. Identification of near-term opportunities for coordination and cooperation related to e.g. the development of technologies, the implementation of robotic missions to destination of interest for closing strategic knowledge gaps which need to be addressed prior to human missions as well as the utilization of ISS for demonstration of exploration enabling capabilities. In 2009 two studies have been awarded by ESA to Industrial Teams led by Thales Alenia Space—Italy and by Astrium—Germany to define, analyze and assess optional European scenarios for future human spaceflight and exploration activities, and to derive the required capabilities for the investigated timeframe until the year 2033. Work on the European scenarios has been aligned with and informed by the international work on the GER. A conceptual design of different Building Block Elements, representing critical contributions to international Design Reference Missions (DRM's) included in the ISECG GER, has been performed and analyzed with respect to programmatic risks, budgets and required technologies. Key driving requirements for the analyzed Building Block elements have been derived from the international DRM's included in the GER. The interim outcomes of the human

  20. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine–glucose–fructose–K+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  1. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Novel Concepts of Proton Pump Inhibitors as Antifibrotic Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ghebre, Yohannes T; Raghu, Ganesh

    2016-06-15

    The prevalence of abnormal acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is higher in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) than in matched control subjects. Several studies demonstrated that more than one-third of patients with IPF have abnormal esophageal acid exposures. In addition, many of these studies indicate that the majority of patients with IPF have silent reflux with no symptoms of GER. Findings of abnormal reflux persist in a large proportion of patients with IPF placed on antacid therapy such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). This seemingly paradoxical observation suggests that either patients with IPF are somehow resistant to PPI-based intervention or PPIs are inherently unable to suppress acid GER. By contrast, patients with IPF who undergo Nissen fundoplication surgery are effectively relieved from the complications of GER, and retrospective studies suggest improved lung function. Retrospective, anecdotal data suggest a beneficial role of PPIs in IPF including stabilization of lung function, reduction in episodes of acute exacerbation, and enhanced longevity. The recent evidence-based guidelines for treatment of IPF approved conditional recommendation of PPIs for all patients with IPF regardless of their GER status. Recently, we have reported that PPIs possess antiinflammatory and antifibrotic activities by directly suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, profibrotic proteins, and proliferation of lung fibroblasts. Our study provides an alternative explanation for the beneficial effect of PPIs in IPF. In this Perspective, we reviewed emerging progress on antifibrotic effect of PPIs using IPF as a disease model. In addition, we summarized surgical and pharmacological interventions for GER and their downstream effect on lung physiology. PMID:27110898

  2. Mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in recumbent asymptomatic human subjects.

    PubMed

    Dent, J; Dodds, W J; Friedman, R H; Sekiguchi, T; Hogan, W J; Arndorfer, R C; Petrie, D J

    1980-02-01

    We investigated the mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in 10 health volunteer subjects. Continuous recordings of intraluminal esophageal pH and pressure were obtained on two consecutive nights from 6:00 p.m. to 6:30 a.m. in each subject. During each study, the subject remained recumbent, except to eat a standardized meal after 1 h of basal recording. A manometric assembly with seven recording lumens monitored: (a) lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure via a sleeve device 6.5 cm in length, (b) esophageal-body motor activity, (c) swallowing activity in the pharynx, and (d) gastric pressure. An electrode 5 cm above the LES recorded esophageal pH. Sleep was monitored by electroencephalogram. All subjects showed wide variations of basal LES pressure. GER was not related to low steady-state basal LES pressure, but rather occurred during transient 5-30 s episodes of inappropriate complete LES relaxation. The inappropriate LES relaxations were usually either spontaneous or immediately followed appropriate sphincter relaxation induced by swallowing. The majority of GER episodes occurred within the first 3 h after eating. During the night LES relaxation and GER occurred only during transient arousals from sleep or when the subjects were fully awake, but not during stable sleep. After GER the esophagus was generally cleared of refluxed acid by primary peristalsis and less frequently by secondary peristalsis. Nonperistaltic contractions were less effective than peristalsis for clearing acid from the esophagus. We conclude that in asymptomatic recumbent subjects GER is related to transient inappropriate LES relaxations rather than to low steady-state basal LES pressure and also, that primary perstalsis is the major mechanism that clears the esophagus of refluxed material.

  3. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    El gasto energetico (GE) puede disminuir en sujetos sometidos a dietas hipocaloricas, en una magnitud que excede la reduccion explicada por los cambios en la composicion corporal; dificultando la mantencion del peso perdido. Objetivo: verificar si el Gasto Energetico en Reposo (GER) y Total (GET) experimentan una disminucion mayor a lo atribuible a cambios en la composicion corporal y dependen de la adherencia al tratamiento dietario. Metodología: veintidos mujeres (23-44 anos) con Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC) entre 25 y 32 kg/m2 fueron sometidas a tres meses de restriccion calorica (20 kcal/kg de peso inicial) y motivadas a aumentar su actividad fisica. Al inicio y al final se evaluo: peso, masa grasa (MG) y masa libre de grasa (MLG) con DEXA, GER (calorimetria indirecta), Gasto Energetico por Actividad Fisica (GEAF) y GET (actigrafia). Las participantes que perdieron ≥ 5% del peso inicial fueron consideradas como adherentes a la dieta. Resultados: el grupo adherente tuvo una disminucion significativa del GER absoluto [-164 } 168 kcal/dia (10,6%) y -4,3 } 4,6 kcal/kg MLG (10,5%)]. Esta disminucion fue significativamente mayor que la observada en el grupo no adherente [-6,2 } 1.42 kcal/dia (0.16%) y -0,5 } 3,4/kg FFM (0.96%)]. La MLG no cambio en ninguno de los dos grupos. Existio asociacion significativa entre MLG y GER (r = 0,56; p < 0,05) solo al inicio en el grupo total. Conclusiones: las mujeres adherentes a la restriccion calorica mostraron una reduccion en el GER tanto absoluto como ajustado por la MLG, lo cual, junto con la perdida de correlacion entre el GER y la MLG al final de la intervencion, sugieren adaptacion metabolica.

  4. Reliability and validity of the German language version of Girls' Disinclination for Physical Activity Scale.

    PubMed

    Pedisic, Zeljko; Matouschek, Stefanie; Stückler, Martina; Basaric, Amir; Titze, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    The high prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA) among adolescents is an important public health issue. Studying reasons for disliking PA might help researchers better understand its underlying mechanisms, yet this psychological construct has been understudied. This study established the psychometric properties of the German language version of the Girls' Disinclination for Physical Activity Scale (G-DAS-Ger). Data were collected on a sample of 257 adolescent girls in Austria (mean age: 13.0 ± 0.7 years) using the G-DAS-Ger and the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. One week after the first assessment, the questionnaires were re-administered to 78 girls. Between two administrations, PA of 215 girls was monitored for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Confirmatory factor analysis of G-DAS-Ger showed good fit for a three-factor model (χ(2)/df = 2.025; Bollen-Stine (B-S) p = 0.159; root mean square error of approximation = 0.063; standardised root mean square residual = 0.054; comparative fit index = 0.950). Cronbach's alphas for G-DAS-Ger factors/subscales ranged 0.64-0.76. The test-retest reliability assessed by Spearman's rank correlation ranged 0.62-0.75. Only one subscale correlated significantly with vigorous-intensity PA (Spearman's rho = -0.16) and none with moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA, which indicated poor predictive validity of the G-DAS-Ger. Correlations between G-DAS-Ger subscales and enjoyment of PA ranged from -0.29 to -0.41, indicating satisfactory convergent validity. The G-DAS-Ger may be used in its present form to assess disinclination for PA among adolescent girls in German-speaking countries. However, our results put into question the stability of the originally proposed factor structure of the questionnaire and its predictive validity among German-speaking adolescent girls. Methodological refinements to the G-DAS-Ger may be required to improve its psychometric properties in this population.

  5. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  6. Third-order transport properties of ion-swarms from mobility and diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutselos, Andreas D.

    2005-08-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of third order transport properties of ions drifting in gases under the action of an electrostatic field with the use of mobility and ion-diffusion coefficients. The approach is based on a three-temperature treatment of the Boltzmann equation for the ion transport and follows the development of generalized Einstein relations (GER), between diffusion coefficients and mobility. The whole procedure is tested by comparison with numerical and molecular dynamics simulation results for three available alkali ion-noble gas systems. Extension to systems involving internal degrees of freedom and inelastic collisions is shown to follow the development of molecular GER.

  7. Activities of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration supporting the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) is driven by several goals and objectives that include space science, the search for life as well as preparatory science activities to enable human space exploration. The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), through its Commissions and Panels provides an international forum that supports and promotes space exploration worldwide. COSPAR's Panel on Exploration (PEX) investigates a stepwise approach of preparatory research on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to facilitate a future global space exploration program. We summarize recent activities and workshops of PEX in support of the GER.

  8. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  9. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  10. HABITAT ASSESSMENT USING A RANDOM PROBABILITY BASED SAMPLING DESIGN: ESCAMBIA RIVER DELTA, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  11. Watching for Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... before the age of 3 to 5 years. Gastroesophageal Reflux A condition known as gastroesophageal reflux (GER) occurs when the opening at the entrance ... that causes the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to work harder than they should, positioning an infant on ...

  12. Photoinitiated mediated transport of H3O+ and/or OH- across glycerol monooleate bilayers doped with magnesium octaethylporphyrin.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R C; Feldberg, S W

    1979-01-01

    Photogenerated magnesium octaethylporphyrin cation in glycerol monooleate bilayers is shown to mediate the transport of H3O+ and/or OH-. Data from voltage clamp and open-circuit experiments are consistent with the classic Markin or Laüger carrier model. Photoinitiated currents exhibit the expected transient and steady-state behavior. PMID:262434

  13. Feeding and Reflux: A Parent & Professional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Martorana, Pamela; Vitello, Louise; Eicher, Peggy S.; LaCour, Tricia

    2008-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as a cause of an infant or child's refusal to eat is becoming better recognized. However, the many more subtle influences that reflux can have on feeding are less often recognized. Although vomiting after meals is the classic presentation, infants and children may present with a variety of more subtle symptoms less…

  14. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  15. Validation of molecular markers for resistance among Pakistani chickpea germplasm to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA markers in chickpea have been identified against different races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (Foc), but validation of these markers is essential for their effective use in resistant breeding. In view of this, different simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were analysed in Pakistani ger...

  16. Demography and cultural ecology of the Atlas Mountains of Morocco: some new hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Bencherifa, A

    1988-11-01

    The hypothesis is developed that the concentration of population in the mountains of Morocco is due to the existence of considerable resources in the region, and not because of its attraction as a place of refuge. The need to include the mountain region in today's development process is stressed. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER)

  17. Opting for Migration: Is It Just an Economic Necessity?--A Comparison between German and Polish Highly Skilled Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alexandra; Barwinska-Malajowicz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration motives of German and Polish final semester students and university graduates in the partner cities of Bielefeld (GER) and Rzeszów (PL), who are on the threshold of their professional careers. The survey presented here was motivated by the question: are the current migration motives of highly-skilled graduates…

  18. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Critically Ill Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile. PMID:23431462

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:26759577

  20. Insights into Evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Complete Genome Sequence of Closely Related O55:H7 Precursor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In spite of this, only two EPEC genomes have been fully sequenced: the typical, model EPEC strain E2348/69 (O127:H6), and the contemporary, atypical EPEC strain CB9615 (O55:H7, Ger...

  1. [Special status of lateral clavicular fracture].

    PubMed

    Brunner, U; Habermeyer, P; Schweiberer, L

    1992-04-01

    Fractures of the lateral clavicle have different biomechanical conditions compared with fractures of the medial and central third; they therefore demand different therapy. Some 237 patients with fractures of the clavicle were followed, of which 75 (33%) were located in the lateral third of the clavicle. At the 5-year follow-up after exclusively conservative treatment, good results were found for Neer types I and III and 3 Jäger/Breitner type IIb fractures, while 4 out of 13 Jäger/Breitner type II a fractures ended in pseudarthroses (31%). Conservative treatment is recommended for Neer types I and III, as well as for the more stable Jäger/Breitner type II b and old II a fractures. Therefore, a new bandage is presented. It prevents the posterior and upward dislocation of the proximal fragment by vertical compression and rotation of the distal fragment by fixation of the arm. Open reduction and internal fixation by preferably extraarticular implants is recommended for unstable and dislocated Jäger/Breitner type II a fractures. For fractures of the lateral clavicle, good results can be achieved when the instability is recognized and adequately treated.

  2. SULFUR CYCLING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quarles, Robert L., Jessica A. Rivord and Richard Devereux. In press. Sulfur Cycling in Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed Sediments (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and S...

  3. Continuing the International Roadmapping Effort - An Introduction to the Evolution of the ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Laurini, Kathy; Spiero, Francois

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As ISECG agencies advance their individual planning, they also advance the mission themes and reference architecture of the GER to consolidate common goals, near-term mission scenarios and initial opportunities for collaboration. In this context, particular focus has been given to the Better understanding and further refinement of cislunar infrastructure and potential lunar transportation architecture Interaction with international science communities to identify and articulate the scientific opportunities of the near-term exploration mission themes Coordination and consolidation of interest in lunar polar volatiles prospecting and potential for in-situ resource utilisation Identification and articulation of the benefits from exploration and the technology transfer activities The paper discusses the ongoing roadmapping activity of the ISECG agencies. It provides an insight into the status of the above activities and an outlook towards the evolution of the GER that is currently foreseen in the 2017 timeframe.

  4. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  5. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  6. The association between reflux esophagitis and airway hyper-reactivity in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux

    PubMed Central

    Karbasi, Ashraf; Ardestani, Mohammad Emami; Ghanei, Mostafa; Harandi, Ali Amini

    2013-01-01

    Background: The association of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) with a wide variety of pulmonary disorders was recognized. We aimed to evaluate the effect of GER-induced esophagitis on airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) in patients and the response to treatment. Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, 30 patients attending the gastrointestinal clinic of a university hospital with acid reflux symptoms were included. All patients were evaluated endoscopically and divided into case group with esophagitis and control group without any evidence of esophagitis. Spirometry and methacholine test were done in all patients before and after treatment of GER with pantoprazole 40 mg daily for six months. Results: There was a significant difference in the rate of positive methacholine test between the cases (40%) and the controls (6.7%) prior to anti-acid therapy (P < 0.0001). After six months of treatment, the frequency of positive methacholine test diminished from 40 to 13.3% in the case group (P < 0.05) but did not change in the controls (P = 0.15). Conclusion: The presence of esophagitis due to GER would increase the AHR and treatment with pantoperazole would decrease AHR in patients with proved esophagitis and no previous history of asthma after six months. PMID:24250694

  7. Conservation of fern spores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  8. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    As undisturbed and/or growing peatlands store considerable amounts of carbon and are unique in their biodiversity and species assemblage, the knowledge of the current status of peatlands (growing with carbon sequestration, stagnating or degrading with carbon emissions) is crucial for landscape management and nature conservation. However, monitoring of peatland status requires long term measurements and is only feasible with expert knowledge. The latter determination is increasingly impeded in a scientific world, where taxonomic expert knowledge and funding of long term monitoring is rare. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes depth profiles in peatland soils have been shown to be a useful tool to monitor the degradation of peatlands due to permafrost thawing in Northern Sweden (Alewell et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2014), drainage in Southern Finland (Krüger et al., 2016) as well as land use intensification in Northern Germany (Krüger et al., 2015). Here, we tackle the questions if we are able to differentiate between growing and degrading peats with the use of a combination of carbon stable (δ13C) and radiogenic isotope data (14C) with peat stratification information (degree of humification and macroscopic plant remains). Results indicate that isotope data are a useful tool to approximate peatland status, but that expert taxonomic knowledge will be needed for the final conclusion on peatland growth. Thus, isotope tools might be used for landscape screening to pin point sites for detailed taxonomic monitoring. As the method remains qualitative future research at these sites will need to integrate quantitative approaches to determine carbon loss or gain (soil C balances by ash content or C accumulation methods by radiocarbon data; Krüger et al., 2016). Alewell, C., R. Giesler, J. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, and M. Rollog. 2011. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats. Biogeosciences, 8, 1769-1778. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J

  9. The ISECG Science White Paper - A Scientific Perspective on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, David B.; Worms, Jean-Claude; Spiero, Francois; Schlutz, Juergen; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As an element of this continued road mapping effort, the ISECG agencies are therefore soliciting input and coordinated discussion with the scientific community to better articulate and promote the scientific opportunities of the proposed mission themes. An improved understanding of the scientific drivers and the requirements to address priority science questions associated with the exploration destinations (Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its moons) as well as the preparatory activities in cis-lunar space is beneficial to optimize the partnership of robotic assets and human presence beyond low Earth orbit. The interaction has resulted in the development of a Science White Paper to: • Identify and highlight the scientific opportunities in early exploration missions as the GER reference architecture matures, • Communicate overarching science themes and their relevance in the GER destinations, • Ensure international science communities' perspectives inform the future evolution of mission concepts considered in the GER The paper aims to capture the opportunities offered by the missions in the GER for a broad range of scientific disciplines. These include planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and Earth science. The paper is structured around grand science themes that draw together and connect research in the various disciplines, and it will focus on

  10. Acoustic design criteria in a general system for structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brama, Torsten

    1990-01-01

    Passenger comfort is of great importance in most transport vehicles. For instance, in the new generation of regional turboprop aircraft, a low noise level is vital to be competitive on the market. The possibilities to predict noise levels analytically has improved rapidly in recent years. This will make it possible to take acoustic design criteria into account in early project stages. The development of the ASKA FE-system to include also acoustic analysis has been carried out at Saab Aircraft Division and the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden in a joint project. New finite elements have been developed to model the free fluid, porous damping materials, and the interaction between the fluid and structural degrees of freedom. The FE approach to the acoustic analysis is best suited for lower frequencies up to a few hundred Hz. For accurate analysis of interior cabin noise, large 3-D FE-models are built, but 2-D models are also considered to be useful for parametric studies and optimization. The interest is here focused on the introduction of an acoustic design criteria in the general structural optimization system OPTSYS available at the Saab Aircraft Division. The first implementation addresses a somewhat limited class of problems. The problems solved are formulated: Minimize the structural weight by modifying the dimensions of the structure while keeping the noise level in the cavity and other structural design criteria within specified limits.

  11. On wave radar measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

  12. Use of renewable sources of energy in Mexico case: San Antonio Agua Bendita

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Vera, J. )

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a project undertaken in Mexico to electrify the remote village of San Antonio Agua Bendita (SAAB) using a custom designed hybrid power system. The hybrid power system will provide grid quality electricity to this community which would otherwise not have been electrified via traditional distribution lines. The hybrid power system was designed to electrify the entire community, incorporate multiple sources of renewable power with on-demand power, operate autonomously, and be cost effective in dollars per watt of electricity generated over the system's usable life. A major factor in the success of this project is the use of renewable energy for economic development and community partnership. Many rural electrification projects have provided power for domestic use but few have successfully provided power to improve the economic condition of the people served by the system. The SAAB hybrid avoids this pitfall by providing 120 VAC power at 60 Hz to anticipated industrial loads in the village, as well as providing grid quality power for domestic use.

  13. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  14. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population. PMID:27068927

  15. Impact of nutritional rehabilitation on gastroesophageal reflux in neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D; Khoshoo, V; Pencharz, P B; Golladay, E S

    1994-02-01

    The impact of nutritional rehabilitation on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in 10 malnourished neurologically impaired children (NIC) was studied (mean age, 9.1 +/- 3.1 years). None of the children had an antireflux procedure (ARP), and all were fed exclusively through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Malnutrition was defined as triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) below the fifth percentile for age and sex. GER was established using standard criteria for a 24-hour pH probe study. All children were treated with an H2 antagonist and a prokinetic agent, along with aggressive nutritional rehabilitation. When TSF was > or = 50th percentile, medications were stopped, and the 24-hour pH probe study was repeated. The mean weight gain was 8.8 +/- 3.7 kg over 8.4 +/- 2.3 months. The 24-hour pH probe study showed marked improvement after nutritional rehabilitation in six of 10 children. These children remained asymptomatic throughout long-term follow-up, without the use of medications. Two children had abnormal pH probe results and worsening clinical symptoms when taken off medications after nutritional rehabilitation. They were reexamined after reinstituting the prokinetic drug; results of the pH probe study were normal, and there was no clinical symptomatology. The patients were then given long-term medication. Two children (one with erosive esophagitis and one with persistent symptoms) underwent ARP. We conclude that despite accompanying GER, successful nutritional rehabilitation can be achieved in malnourished NIC, using PEG feeding and antireflux medication. Although some NIC with GER may need an ARP or long-term medication, in most malnourished NIC nutritional rehabilitation is associated with resolution of GER.

  16. Efficacy and Safety of a Natural Remedy for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Double-Blinded Randomized-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Alecci, Umberto; Bonina, Francesco; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Inferrera, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum), on GER-related symptoms. Male/female 118 (intention to treat) subjects with moderate GER and having at least 2 to 6 days of GER episodes/week were treated with verum (6 g/day) or placebo for two months. The questionnaires Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQoL) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) were self-administered by participants before the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Verum produced statistically significant reduction of GERD-HRQoL and GSAS scores, −56.5% and −59.1%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. Heartburn and acid regurgitation episodes for week were significantly reduced by verum (p < 0.01). Results indicate that Mucosave formulation provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment for reducing the frequency and intensity of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux.

  17. [PROPOSAL FOR A NEW FORMULA FOR ESTIMATING RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR HEALTHY SPANISH POPULATION].

    PubMed

    de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, Ma Alicia; Carreño Enciso, Laura; Miján de la Torre, Alberto; Galgani Fuentes, José E; Redondo del Río, Ma Paz

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: aunque se dispone de técnicas precisas y exactas para la estimación del GER, como la calorimetría indirecta (CI), en la práctica diaria se precisan métodos rápidos, fáciles de aplicar y económicos, como los modelos predictivos. Objetivo: desarrollar una nueva ecuación predictiva del gasto energético en reposo (GER) para población española adulta sana. Métodos: se determinó el GER en 95 sujetos sanos con normopeso mediante CI. Se utilizó la regresión lineal múltiple para la obtención del modelo, empleando como criterios analíticos la Cp de Mallows y el R2 ajustado. Se estudió el comportamiento del modelo generado en una muestra de 39 sujetos con IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2 mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (ICC) y la prueba de Bland-Altman. La significación se alcanzó con p < 0,05. Resultados: la edad media fue de 42 años (rango: 23,0– 63,2). El valor medio del GER estimado fue de 1.589,1 kcal/d (312,0). La ecuación seleccionada fue: [GER (kcal/d) = 1.376,4 – 308 Sexo (V = 0; M = 1) + 11,1 Peso (kg) – 8 Edad (años)] (R2: 0,68; EE: 175,95). El CCI entre el nuevo modelo predictivo y la CI fue de 0,901 (IC del 95%: 0,851 – 0,934) en la muestra con normopeso. La aplicación del modelo en la muestra de sujetos con IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2 alcanzó una buena concordancia (CCI de 0,880; IC del 95%: 0,772 – 0,937). Conclusiones: se presenta un nuevo modelo de estimación del GER para población sana española fácilmente aplicable en la práctica diaria, que incluye las variables sexo, edad y peso. La ecuación propuesta presenta un comportamiento adecuado en sujetos con IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2.

  18. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2014-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for achalasia. Since the first modern human cases were published in 2008, around 2,000 cases have been performed worldwide. This technique requires advanced endoscopic skills and a learning curve of at least 20 cases. POEM is highly successful with over 90 % improvement in dysphagia while offering patients the advantage of a low impact endoscopic access. The main long-term complication is gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with an estimated incidence of 35 %, similar to the incidence of GER post-laparoscopic Heller with fundoplication. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia, more long-term data are clearly needed to further define its role in the treatment algorithm of this rare disease. PMID:24362953

  19. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Léa; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Chéreau, Sylvain; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Gibberella ear rot (GER), two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum. PMID:26492237

  20. Respiratory Pathogens Adopt a Chronic Lifestyle in Response to Bile

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Woods, David F.; Mooij, Marlies J.; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, most particularly in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The recent finding that gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in CF patients led us to investigate the impact of bile on the behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other CF-associated respiratory pathogens. Bile increased biofilm formation, Type Six Secretion, and quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa, all of which are associated with the switch from acute to persistent infection. Furthermore, bile negatively influenced Type Three Secretion and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa, phenotypes associated with acute infection. Bile also modulated biofilm formation in a range of other CF-associated respiratory pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, our results suggest that GER-derived bile may be a host determinant contributing to chronic respiratory infection. PMID:23049911

  1. Intensity fluctuations of flat-topped beam in non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence: comment.

    PubMed

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2012-09-01

    In J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 169 (2012), Gerçekcioğlu and Baykal presented an investigation of the dependence of the scintillation index of flat-topped Gaussian beams on the exponent α of the power-law-type spectra of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. In particular, they found that the scintillation index reaches a maximum at α≈3.2. We show that this conclusion is an artifact of their specific calculation, and depends on the choice of the length unit. Gerçekcioğlu and Baykal's calculations are made for the 3<α<5 range of the spectral exponent. We show that for the homogeneous and isotropic turbulence the correct range is 3<α<4, when Markov approximation is used.

  2. Ferenczi's collaboration with rank: on paradigm shift and the origins of complementarity in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Peter T

    2008-06-01

    The publication in 1923 of Sigmund Freud's The Ego and the Id is generally recognized as a watershed event in the history of psychoanalysis. The following year Ferenczi and Rank jointly published a book on psychoanalytic technique, The Development of Psychoanalysis (Ger: Entwicklungsziele der Psychoanalyse), concurrently with the independent publication of Ferenczi's Thalassa: A Theory of Genitality (Ger: Versuch einer Genitaltheorie) and Rank's The Trauma of Birth, the latter of which sparked a storm of controversy within the psychoanalytic community. The ensuing debate over technical and theoretical issues raised in these works signaled the emergence of two rival paradigms (following the model described by Thomas Kuhn) in psychoanalytic technique, the one based on ego psychology and drive-dynamics, the other on preoedipal ego development and object relations, which, when viewed from a present-day vantage point, may be considered complementary. The current crisis in psychoanalysis represents a continuation of this not yet completed paradigm shift. PMID:18509367

  3. Giant electrorheological effect: a microscopic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuyu; Huang, Xianxiang; van der Vegt, Nico F A; Wen, Weijia; Sheng, Ping

    2010-07-23

    Electrorheological fluids constitute a type of colloids that can vary their rheological characteristics upon the application of an electric field. The recently discovered giant electrorheological (GER) effect breaks the upper bound of the traditional ER effect, but a microscopic explanation is still lacking. By using molecular dynamics to simulate the urea-silicone oil mixture trapped in a nanocontact between two polarizable particles, we demonstrate that the electric field can induce the formation of aligned (urea) dipolar filaments that bridge the two boundaries of the nanoscale confinement. This phenomenon is explainable on the basis of a 3D to 1D crossover in urea molecules' microgeometry, realized through the confinement effect provided by the oil chains. The resulting electrical energy density yields an excellent account of the observed GER yield stress variation as a function of the electric field.

  4. [Effect of Stopangin mouth spray on blood alcohol levels measured by the Alcotest 7410 analyser made by Drager].

    PubMed

    Zelený, M; Mráz, J; Pexa, T; Mazura, I

    2000-10-01

    During a check-up of a driver by a police patrol in the Czech Republic by means of a breath analyzer of Dräger Co. an alcohol blood level of 0.50 g/kg was assessed. Later the driver reported that before the test he used at 30- and 5-minute intervals the drug Stopangin spray. In the Institute of Forensic Medicine the authors made an experiment which revealed that 22 minutes after administration of the drug the apparatus gave a negative result. Agreement with these conclusions was expressed also by a representative of Dräger Co. and the results were published as an expert opinion with a recommended procedure for the police of the Czech Republic in the South Moravian region. PMID:11378913

  5. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Zhiqi; Heron, John; Clarkson, James; Hong, Jeongmin; Ko, Changhyun; Biegalski, Michael; Aschauer, Ulrich; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Nowakowski, Mark; Wu, Junqiao; Christen, Hans; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Bokor, Jeffrey; Spaldin, Nicola; Schlom, Darrell; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a ``giant'' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities, and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behavior is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites, and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  6. Editorial: Reflux While Running: Something to Belch About.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D A; Hirano, I

    2016-07-01

    Running is the most popular form of exercise in the United States. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common during exercise and may affect performance. Previous studies have focused on increased intra-abdominal pressure as a major determinant of acid reflux during physical exertion. In this issue, Herregods et al. examined the mechanisms of GER in healthy volunteers using simultaneous high-resolution manometry and pH impedance testing performed while running. Novel observations afforded by the utilization of state-of-the-art technology include the importance of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation ("belch reflex") and transient formation of hiatal hernia during exercise. The findings are provocative and lend credence to commonsense strategies to minimize the consequences of belching in runners. PMID:27356820

  7. Generic Entity Resolution in Relational Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidló, Csaba István

    Entity Resolution (ER) covers the problem of identifying distinct representations of real-world entities in heterogeneous databases. We consider the generic formulation of ER problems (GER) with exact outcome. In practice, input data usually resides in relational databases and can grow to huge volumes. Yet, typical solutions described in the literature employ standalone memory resident algorithms. In this paper we utilize facilities of standard, unmodified relational database management systems (RDBMS) to enhance the efficiency of GER algorithms. We study and revise the problem formulation, and propose practical and efficient algorithms optimized for RDBMS external memory processing. We outline a real-world scenario and demonstrate the advantage of algorithms by performing experiments on insurance customer data.

  8. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Feng, Simin; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (E F) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule's vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10(-11) M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27532043

  9. Evaluation of the Portable Instantaneous Display Analysis Spectrometer (PIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Rubin, Tod; Ohashi, Makoto

    1988-01-01

    The Portable Instantaneous Display Analysis System (PIDAS) was evaluated by measuring 125 spectra of mineral specimens and rock samples under the following conditions: in the laboratory under artificial illumination and outdoors, on the building patio, while still using the line voltage electric power supplies. The PIDAS was compared and contrasted with the GEOSCAN PFS, Daedalus-Spectrafax 440, and the Geophysical Environmental Research (GER) IRIS Mark 4.

  10. Acquisition of diagnostic and surgical skills in otorhinolaryngology: a comparison of France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oker, Natalie; Escabasse, Virginie; Al-Otaibi, Naif; Coste, Andre; Albers, Andreas E

    2015-11-01

    With the coalescing of the European countries, among many others, official initiatives have been launched to propose minimum requirements for Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery (ORL) specialty training by creating an European log book. This study was initiated to assess and compare the acquisition of basic medical key diagnostic and surgical skills by residents and recent ORL specialists in France (FRA) and Germany (GER) and to determine whether gender-specific differences exist. For this, an anonymous questionnaire with questions to basic medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures specific to ORL was developed. 120 FRA and 125 GER questionnaires were returned from participants with a median training experience of 4 years. The female to male ratio was 1.3:1 and 78% of respondents were residents and 22% recent specialists. Concerning diagnostic procedures, there was no significant overall difference. Germans performed better in basic medical skills, while study participants from FRA had performed surgical procedures significantly more often in a more independent manner than German respondents in the areas of otology, rhinology and head and neck. Only in septoplasty, as part of rhinology, the Germans had a light advantage compared to the French. No difference was found for trauma surgery. No gender-specific difference became apparent. Taken together, in FRA, ORL training is far more surgically orientated than in GER. It remains unclear at what time, the Germans may catch up with their skills. Initiatives should be taken in GER to secure an adequate acquisition of surgical skill and experience to maintain a high level of ORL-specific competence.

  11. [Blood-oxygen analyzer boa 802 (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Folwaczny, H; Finsterer, U

    1976-08-01

    Experiences with a new blood oxygen analyzer (BOA 802, Dräger-Bio Marine) are reported. In the range up to 100 mm Hg data about 6 mm Hg to high were found compared with the AVL Gas Check. In the range between 100-300 mm Hg there was an increasing difference between values measured with the BOA 802 and a conventional oxygen electrode, however this does not seem to be of clinical relevance.

  12. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Simin; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R.; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (EF) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule’s vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10−11 M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27532043

  13. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Feng, Simin; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (E F) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule's vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10(-11) M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps.

  14. Laryngopharyngeal Reflux in Children with Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion

    PubMed Central

    Górecka-Tuteja, Anna; Jastrzębska, Izabela; Składzień, Jacek; Fyderek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the characteristic properties of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in children with otitis media with effusion (OME) using 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance combined with dual-probe (pharyngeal and esophageal) pH-metry. Methods Children aged 7–10 years of age with OME underwent 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance pH-metry. The upper pH sensor was situated 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter, and the lower pH sensor was placed 3–5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Parents were asked to complete the gastroesophageal reflux assessment of symptoms in a pediatrics questionnaire. Results Twenty-eight children were enrolled; LPR was detected in 19 (67.9%) children. The criteria of the LPR diagnosis was the presence of at least one supraesophageal episode with a pH < 5.0 and a change in the pH value measured from the initial level at the upper sensor of > 0.2. In total, 64 episodes were observed. Assessment of all LPR episodes showed the presence of 246 episodes in the entire study. A considerable predominance of weakly acidic episodes (87.8%) was noted; there were 6.5% acidic episodes, and weakly alkaline episodes reached 5.7%. Pathological GER was noted in 10 (35.7%) subjects. Acid GER was detected in 8 children, 2 of whom demonstrated non-acidic reflux. In the LPR-negative patients, no pathological GER was confirmed with the exception of a single case of non-acidic reflux. Conclusions LPR was frequently noted in the group of children with OME, and it might be an important risk factor in this common disease. PMID:27193974

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux: management guidance for the pediatrician.

    PubMed

    Lightdale, Jenifer R; Gremse, David A

    2013-05-01

    Recent comprehensive guidelines developed by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition define the common entities of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as the physiologic passage of gastric contents into the esophagus and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) as reflux associated with troublesome symptoms or complications. The ability to distinguish between GER and GERD is increasingly important to implement best practices in the management of acid reflux in patients across all pediatric age groups, as children with GERD may benefit from further evaluation and treatment, whereas conservative recommendations are the only indicated therapy in those with uncomplicated physiologic reflux. This clinical report endorses the rigorously developed, well-referenced North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines and likewise emphasizes important concepts for the general pediatrician. A key issue is distinguishing between clinical manifestations of GER and GERD in term infants, children, and adolescents to identify patients who can be managed with conservative treatment by the pediatrician and to refer patients who require consultation with the gastroenterologist. Accordingly, the evidence basis presented by the guidelines for diagnostic approaches as well as treatments is discussed. Lifestyle changes are emphasized as first-line therapy in both GER and GERD, whereas medications are explicitly indicated only for patients with GERD. Surgical therapies are reserved for children with intractable symptoms or who are at risk for life-threatening complications of GERD. Recent black box warnings from the US Food and Drug Administration are discussed, and caution is underlined when using promoters of gastric emptying and motility. Finally, attention is paid to increasing evidence of inappropriate prescriptions for proton pump inhibitors in the pediatric population.

  16. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of extended release gabapentin in provoked vestibulodynia and biological correlates of response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Candace S; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie; Bachmann, Gloria A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to establish evidence-based management protocols for provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a chronic vulvar pain condition affecting approximately 14 million women in the U.S. We describe the rationale and design of an NIH funded multicenter clinical trial utilizing an extended release formulation of gabapentin (G-ER), an intervention that preliminary data suggest may be efficacious for this condition. Objectives 1) to determine if pain from tampon insertion (primary outcome measure) is lower in PVD patients when treated with G-ER compared to when treated with placebo and 2) to determine if G-ER reduces vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia, vaginal muscle pain to palpation, the number and intensity of somatic tenderpoints, spontaneous and provoked pain to intradermal capsaicin with an accompanying increase in cardiac beat-to-beat variability and to identify mechanistically-based PVD subtypes. Additional outcomes include subject reported intercourse pain and summative 24-hour pain. Methods This 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study will enroll 120 women 18 years and older who report tenderness localized to the vulvar vestibule, pain with tampon insertion, and, when sexually active, insertional dyspareunia. Electronically entered daily diaries will be used to determine if pain is lower in PVD subjects when treated with G-ER (up to 3000 mg/d) compared to when treated with placebo. Psychophysiological measures will be obtained at baseline and after 2 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. Conclusion We will conduct the first multicenter RCT to confirm efficacy of an agent that is currently used in clinical practice for treating PVD. PMID:23816491

  17. Sinusoidal gratings for optimized light management in c-Si thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Klaus; Köppel, Grit; Barth, Carlo; Hammerschmidt, Martin; Herrmann, Sven; Burger, Sven; Schmidt, Frank; Becker, Christiane

    2016-04-01

    Hexagonal sinusoidal nanotextures are well suited to couple light into silicon on glass at normal incidence, as we have shown in an earlier publication [K. Jäger et al., Opt. Express 24, A569 (2016)]. In this manuscript we discuss how these nanotextures perform under oblique incidence illumination. For this numerical study we use a rigorous solver for the Maxwell equations. We discuss nanotextures with periods between 350 nm and 730 nm and an aspect ratio of 0.5.

  18. Effect of nitrogen supplementation and zilpaterol-HCl on urea kinetics in steers consuming corn-based diets.

    PubMed

    Brake, D W; Titgemeyer, E C; Jones, M L

    2011-08-01

    We studied effects of zilpaterol-HCl on steers consuming corn-based diets with nitrogen (N) supplementation provided by dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or urea. Two sets of six steers (approximately 350 kg) were used in two replicates of similarly designed trials. Within each replicate, three steers were fed 60 mg/day of zilpaterol-HCl throughout the trial and three steers received no zilpaterol-HCl. Within zilpaterol treatment, three corn-based dietary N treatments were offered in Latin square designs: control (9.6% crude protein), urea (UREA; 12.4% crude protein) or DDGS (13.7% crude protein). Total feed intake was unexpectedly greater (p < 0.01) with zilpaterol feeding but was not affected by dietary N (p = 0.76). Nitrogen intake was greater (p < 0.01) when zilpaterol was fed and was greater (p < 0.05) for DDGS and UREA than for control. Despite greater N intake, zilpaterol did not affect urea entry rate (p = 0.80) or urea-N recycled to the gastrointestinal tract (GER; p = 0.94). As a percentage of N intake, urea entry rate (p = 0.19) tended to be less when zilpaterol was fed (91 vs. 123% of N intake), and GER was numerically (p = 0.34) less (72 vs. 92% of N intake). Microbial N flow was greater (p = 0.02) for zilpaterol than for control but did not differ (p = 0.78) among dietary N treatments. As a percentage of N intake, microbial N flow was unaffected by zilpaterol (p = 0.97), but was greater (p < 0.05) for control than DDGS or UREA. The lack of change in urea entry and GER in response to zilpaterol, despite greater N intake, as well as lower urea entry and GER when expressed as proportions of N intake provide some evidence that the amount of N available for urea production and recycling was reduced by zilpaterol.

  19. Merging medical humanism and technology.

    PubMed

    Armentano, R; de Forteza, E

    2010-01-01

    Dr. René Gerónimo Favaloro (12 July 1923 to 29 July 2000) was an Argentinian cardiovascular surgeon who revolutionized the field with his pioneering contributions, the most remarkable being the standardization of the coronary artery bypass surgery, performed for the first time in 1967. This technique, today one of the most commonly performed major operations, improved and saved the lives of countless patients with ischemic heart disease throughout the world and gained him international recognition.

  20. Inspiratory muscle training improves antireflux barrier in GERD patients.

    PubMed

    Nobre e Souza, Miguel Ângelo; Lima, Maria Josire Vitorino; Martins, Giovanni Bezerra; Nobre, Rivianny Arrais; Souza, Marcellus Henrique Loiola Ponte; de Oliveira, Ricardo Brandt; dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar

    2013-12-01

    The crural diaphragm (CD) is an essential component of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ), and inspiratory exercises may modify its function. This study's goal is to verify if inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improves EGJ motility and gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Twelve GER disease [GERD; 7 males, 20-47 yr, 9 esophagitis, and 3 nonerosive reflex disease (NERD)] and 7 healthy volunteers (3 males, 20-41 yr) performed esophageal pH monitoring, manometry, and heart rate variability (HRV) studies. A 6-cm sleeve catheter measured average EGJ pressure during resting, peak inspiratory EGJ pressures during sinus arrhythmia maneuver (SAM) and inhalations under 17-, 35-, and 70-cmH2O loads (TH maneuvers), and along 1 h after a meal. GERD patients entered a 5-days-a-week IMT program. One author scored heartburn and regurgitation before and after IMT. IMT increased average EGJ pressure (19.7 ± 2.4 vs. 29.5 ± 2.1 mmHg; P < 0.001) and inspiratory EGJ pressure during SAM (89.6 ± 7.6 vs. 125.6 ± 13.3 mmHg; P = 0.001) and during TH maneuvers. The EGJ-pressure gain across 35- and 70-cmH2O loads was lower for GERD volunteers. The number and cumulative duration of the transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations decreased after IMT. Proximal progression of GER decreased after IMT but not the distal acid exposure. Low-frequency power increased after IMT and the higher its increment the lower the increment of supine acid exposure. IMT decreased heartburn and regurgitation scores. In conclusion, IMT improved EGJ pressure, reduced GER proximal progression, and reduced GERD symptoms. Some GERD patients have a CD failure, and IMT may prove beneficial as a GERD add-on treatment.

  1. Ein Framework für echtzeitfähige Ethernet-Netzwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopatka, Frank

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Entwicklung eines formalen Framewoks vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe zwischen der Kompatibilität zum verbreiteten baumförmigen Standard-Ethernet und der Einhaltung von Echtzeitanforderungen einer automatisierten Anlage variiert werden kann. Damit kann bereits vor der Auswahl einer bestimmten Technologie eine Schedule der Echtzeit-Übertragungen offline kalkuliert und simuliert werden, sobald die Anforderungen der Geräte im industriellen Echtzeit-Netzwerk bekannt sind.

  2. Factors Affecting the Weaning from Nasal CPAP in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shantanu; Rajasekhar, Hariprem; Gupta, Anju; Bhutada, Alok; Rastogi, Deepa; Wung, Jen-Tien

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Identification of the weight and postmenstrual age (PMA) at successful weaning of NCPAP in preterm neonates and the factors influencing the successful wean. Study Design. Retrospective review of 454 neonates ≤32 weeks of gestational age (GA) who were placed on NCPAP and successfully weaned to room air was performed. Results. Neonates had a mean birth weight (BW) of 1357 ± 392 grams with a mean GA of 29.3 ± 2.2 weeks. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. Univariate analysis showed that chorioamnionitis, intubation, surfactant use, PDA, sepsis/NEC, anemia, apnea, GER and IVH were significantly associated with the time to NCPAP wean. On multivariate analysis, among neonates that were intubated, BW was the only significant factor (P < 0.001) that was inversely related to time to successful NCPAP wean. Amongst non-intubated neonates, along with BW (P < 0.01), chorioamnionitis (P < 0.01), anemia (P < 0.0001), and GER (P < 0.02) played a significant role in weaning from NCPAP. Conclusion. Neonates were weaned off NCPAP at mean weight of 1611 ± 432 grams and mean PMA of 32.9 ± 2.4 weeks. BW significantly affects weaning among intubated and non-intubated neonates, though in neonates who were never intubated chorioamnionitis, anemia and GER also significantly affected the duration on NCPAP. PMID:22187570

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in 9/11 survivors and workers: insights gained from tragic losses.

    PubMed

    Sayuk, Gregory S; Drossman, Douglas A

    2011-11-01

    Survivors of the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks and the individuals who volunteered for the rescue and recovery efforts remain substantially burdened by psychological trauma and respiratory illnesses related to the environmental exposures. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) are also reported at higher rates than expected among this population. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and exposures to the caustic aerosolized debris of the WTC are explored in further detail as potential mechanisms underlying these GERS experiences in WTC Registry participants. Recent work by Li and colleagues suggests that the WTC experience is associated with increases in GER independent of asthma and PTSD diagnoses. However, this association may be more complex since over-representation of hypersensitive non-acid reflux subjects and failure to completely capture psychiatric comorbidity may also contribute to our understanding of these findings. Nonetheless, the WTC Registry offers a unique study population, and detailed psychologic profiling and physiologic testing of participants may promote greater insight into gastroesophageal reflux pathohysiology. PMID:22056575

  4. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  5. Developing the global exploration roadmap: An example using the humans to the lunar surface theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by 12 space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group broadly outlines a pathway to send humans beyond low Earth orbit for the first time since Apollo. Three themes have emerged: Exploration of a Near-Earth Asteroid, Extended Duration Crew Missions, and Humans to the Lunar Surface. The lack of detail within each of these themes could mean that realizing the goals of the GER would be significantly delayed. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many of the details needed to fully define and evaluate these themes in terms of scientific rationale, economic viability, and technical feasibility already exist and need to be mapped to the GER. Here, we use the Humans to the Lunar Surface theme as an example to illustrate how this process could work. By mapping documents from a variety of international stakeholders, this process can be used to cement buy-in from the current partners and attract new ones to this effort.

  6. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  7. The ISECG* Global Exploration Roadmap as Context for Robotic and Human Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) provides a broad international context for understanding how robotic missions and robotic assets can enable future human exploration of multiple destinations. This presentation will provide a brief high-level review of the GER with a focus on key robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide enabling technology advancements and that also raise interesting operational challenges in both the near-term and long-term. The GER presently features a variety of robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide important technology advancements as well as operational challenges and improvements, in areas ranging from: (a) leveraging the International Space Station, (b) planetary science robotic missions to potential human destinations, (c) micro-g body proximity operations (e.g. asteroids), (d) autonomous operations, (e) high and low-latency telerobotics, (f) human assisted sample return, and (g) contamination control. This presentation will highlight operational and technology challenges in these areas that have feed forward implications for human exploration.

  8. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  9. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  10. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  11. Emerging Geoscience Education Research at the University of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Harris, S.; Wieman, C.; Gilley, B.; Lane, E.; Caulkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience education research (GER) in UBC’s Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences (EOS) began due to a well funded 5-yr Faculty of Science project called the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative (CWSEI). This initiative takes an evidence-based, scientific approach to improving education by 1) establishing what students should learn; 2) scientifically measuring what students are learning; 3) adapting instruction and curricula using effective technologies and pedagogical research; and 4) disseminating and adopting what works. The presentation will discuss how this initiative has fostered a growing GER presence within our Department. CWSEI funding has enabled the EOS Department to hire 4 full-time Science Teaching and Learning Fellows (STLFs) who work directly with faculty to optimize courses and curricula. Much of the effort goes into developing active learning opportunities and rigorous ways to measure student learning and attitudes. Results serve as feedback for both students and instructors. Over 10 research projects have so far been initiated as a result of course and curriculum transformation. Examples include studies about: student attitudes towards Earth and Ocean Sciences; the effects of multiple instructors in courses; links between student in-class engagement and pedagogy; how certain instructional interventions promote metacognition; and others. Also, many modified courses use pre- and post-testing to measure learning gains. One undergraduate honors thesis, about assessing conceptual understanding of geological time, has been completed. Keys to fostering GER in our setting include: (1) faculty commitment to change, based on funding from CWSEI, (2) full-time Earth scientists (STLFs) who catalyze and support change, and (3) support from CWSEI science education experts. Specifically: - STLFs are trained Earth scientists but were not initially science education experts. Continuous support from CWSEI has been crucial for building expertise about how

  12. Commentary on "integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer." Weischenfeldt J, Simon R, Feuerbach L, Schlangen K, Weichenhan D, Minner S, Wuttig D, Warnatz HJ, Stehr H, Rausch T, Jäger N, Gu L, Bogatyrova O, Stütz AM, Claus R, Eils J, Eils R, Gerhäuser C, Huang PH, Hutter B, Kabbe R, Lawerenz C, Radomski S, Bartholomae CC, Fälth M, Gade S, Schmidt M, Amschler N, Haß T, Galal R, Gjoni J, Kuner R, Baer C, Masser S, von Kalle C, Zichner T, Benes V, Raeder B, Mader M, Amstislavskiy V, Avci M, Lehrach H, Parkhomchuk D, Sultan M, Burkhardt L, Graefen M, Huland H, Kluth M, Krohn A, Sirma H, Stumm L, Steurer S, Grupp K, Sültmann H, Sauter G, Plass C, Brors B, Yaspo ML, Korbel JO, Schlomm T, Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(2):159-70.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of>10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity of a characteristic "androgen-type" pathomechanism in EO-PCA.

  13. Independent and combined influence of the FTO rs9939609 and MC4Rrs17782313 polymorphisms on hypocaloric diet induced changes in body mass and composition and energy metabolism in non-morbid obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Labayen, Idoia; Margareto, Javier; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; Gorostegi, Ilargi; Illera, Maitane; Medrano, María; Barrenechea, Lurdes; Larrarte, Eider

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Examinar la influencia individual y combinada de los polimorfismos genéticos FTO rs9939609 y MC4R rs17782313 en los cambios en la masa grasa (MG), gasto energético en reposo (GER), leptina y tirotropina (TSH) tras una intervención de 12 semanas de duración con dieta hipocalórica en mujeres pre-menopáusicas con obesidad no mórbida. Métodos: Se evaluaron al inicio y al final de la intervención la MG (absorciometría dual de rayos X), el GER (calorimetría indirecta) y los niveles de leptina y TSH en sangre en 77 mujeres (edad: 36.8±7.0 años) obesas (IMC: 33.9±2.8kg/m2). Resultados: No se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (Ps>0.1) entre las portadores y las no portadoras del alelo A del FTOrs9939609 (TT vs. portadores del alelo) en los cambios en la masa corporal (-8.6±3.2% vs. -8.7±3.3 %), MG (12.8±4.7% vs. –12.9±6.3%), GER (-11.3±4.7 vs. -9.4±8.1%), leptina (-34.1±25.1% vs. -43.5±24.1%) y TSH (5.2±34.5% vs. -1.7±27.1%). Tampoco se observaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los cambios en la masa corporal (-8.6±3.6% vs. -8.9±2.6%), MG (-12.7±6.1% vs. -13.4±5.3%), GER (-9.8±7.4% -9.4±9.4%), leptina (-39.0±26.9% vs. -44.8±18.4%) y TSH (-1.0±30.0% vs. 1.5±26.5%) entre las participantes portadoras y no portadoras del alelo C del MC4Rrs17782313 (Ps>0.3). Finalmente, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los cambios en la masa y composición corporal, el GER, o los niveles de leptina y TSH entre mujeres no portadoras de alelos de riesgo, portadoras del alelo C del MC4Rrs17782313, portadoras del alelo A del FTOrs9939609 y portadoras de los dos alelos de riesgo (A y C) al final de las 12 semanas de intervención con dieta hipocalórica (Ps>0.1). Conclusión: Ser portador del alelo de riesgo A del FTOrs9939609 y/o del alelo de riesgo C del MC4Rrs17782313 no influye en la pérdida de masa grasa o en el descenso del GER en mujeres obesas tras 12 semanas de intervenci

  14. Developing the "Lunar Vicinity" Scenario of the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Neal, C. R.; Crawford, I. A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER, [1]) has been developed by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG - comprised of 14 space agencies) to define various pathways to getting humans beyond low Earth orbit and eventually to Mars. Such pathways include visiting asteroids or the Moon before going on to Mars. This document has been written at a very high level and many details are still to be determined. However, a number of important papers regarding international space exploration can form a basis for this document (e.g. [2,3]). In this presentation, we focus on developing the "Lunar Vicinity" scenario by adding detail via mapping a number of recent reports/documents into the GER. Precedence for this scenario is given by Szajnfarber et al. [4] who stated "We find that when international partners are considered endogenously, the argument for a "flexible path" approach is weakened substantially. This is because international contributions can make "Moon first" economically feasible". The documents highlighted here are in no way meant to be all encompassing and other documents can and should be added, (e.g., the JAXA Space Exploration Roadmap). This exercise is intended to demonstrate that existing documents can be mapped into the GER despite the major differences in granularity, and that this mapping is a way to promote broader national and international buy-in to the Lunar Vicinity scenario. The documents used here are: the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration report on developing a global space exploration program [5], the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) report from the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) [6], the Lunar Exploration Roadmap developed by LEAG [7], the National Research Council report Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon (SCEM) [8], the scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration [9], the astrobiological benefits of human space exploration [9,10].

  15. Insult of gastroesophageal reflux on airway: clinical significance of pharyngeal nozzle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhonggao; Hu, Zhiwei; Wu, Jimin; Ji, Feng; Wang, Hongtao; Lai, Yungang; Gao, Xiang; Ning, Yachan; Zhang, Chengchao; Li, Zhitong; Liang, Weitao; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-03-01

    At the very time of global paying the highest attention to the worst insults of smoking as well as haze on the airway, everybody knows both are exogenous and noticeable. However, people mostly, including many medical personnel, do not know how badly the gastroesophageal reflux (GER) insults on our own airway. Symptoms of GER are commonly seen as heartburn and regurgitation, which can be mostly tolerated. However, when the up going gastric content reversely passes the esophagus and then the distal pharynx, where it appears a beak like stricture, serving as a nozzle, so as to produce numerous micro-particles and reach the oro-nasal cavity and also the airway causing allergic rhinitis and asthmatic attacks, even pulmonary parenchyma lesions. It will reduce life quality or even jeopardize life. The point that the endogenous insult appears in the respiratory system, but originates from the digestive tract is not well known and often undiagnosed and not correctly treated. The GER induced airway challenge is a treatable and preventive entity, as soon as a diagnosis is made, a good relief could be expected by means of life style adjustment, medicine, or fixation of the patulous cardia through radiofrequency or fundoplication. The author Dr. Zhonggao Wang had suffered it for long and symptoms disappeared for 8 years after anti-reflux surgery. Here is a presentation of Dr. Zhonggao Wang and his team's work and would call attention to the public so as to recognize this relatively unknown entity - a treatable condition occurring from human itself, but not from outside surroundings as smoking or haze does. PMID:25034240

  16. Integrating in situ reflectance with satellite imagery to determine chlorophyll and turbidity for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Tina

    The overall objective of this study was to use hyperspectral field spectra to find possible spectral regions in which chlorophyll- a and turbidity could be identified to assist in the assessment and monitoring of water quality using satellite remote sensing technology. Using statistical analysis between the mean reflectance values measured with the GER1500 field spectroradiometer across the spectrum and the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (mug/L) and turbidity (NTU) acquired simultaneously, regression analyses were applied to determine the best wavelengths for determining the concentration of these parameters. Each regression model (512 in total) corresponded to a measured wavelength of the GER1500 field spectrometer. The achieved correlations presented as R2 values against wavelengths, indicated the regions with high correlation values, chlorophyll-a , and turbidity. Based on the results from this study and by matching the spectral bands of the field spectroradiometer with those of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite sensor, several suitable spectral regions were determined for monitoring water quality in Kentucky Lake. For chlorophyll- a, the spectral region of 0.45-0.52 mum (TM band 1), and for turbidity the region 0.52-0.60 mum (TM bands 1 and 2) were determined to be suitable wavelengths to determine such data. In this study, the wavelengths of 700 nm and 675 nm from the GER1500 spectroradiometer were found to be the most suitable wavelengths for predicting chlorophyll-a concentrations. Correlation analysis between remotely sensed data and chlorophyll- a data indicated the possibility of mapping chlorophyll- a concentrations accurately. The wavelengths that represented the difference of 770.82nm-742.60nm correlated best to turbidity (R2 = 0.74).

  17. Breath hydrogen responses in infants using lactose-rice formula and regular lactose formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, T C; Hwang, B; Lee, P S

    2001-01-01

    Starch thickened infant formulas have been shown to relieve regurgitation and increase caloric retention. We compared the completeness of digestion of the carbohydrates in lactose-rice formula (study formula) with routine infant formula in infants with GER. A prospective open study of 30 normal, well-nourished infants with simple regurgitation was conducted. The clinical history on regurgitation, stool pattern and baseline breath hydrogen (bH2) test were obtained at entry, with the infants still using their original routine infant formula, and after a wash out period of 7 days, during which they were fed only with study formula. Analysis of bH2 results showed lower levels of bH2 at 1, 2 and 3 hours with study formula compared with the original formula at the 2nd and 3rd hour (p<0.05). The effectiveness of the study formula in managing GER was demonstrated by the fact that 26 out of 30 had either "some improvement" or a "good response." Hardening of the stool pattern was reported in 13 of the 30 infants after 1 week of study formula. The mean of peak bH2 in study formula fed subjects with formed and firm/hard stool was significantly lower than in those with soft and pasty stool. In conclusion, this study has shown the effectiveness of rice thickened infant formulas in managing infants with GER. Rice-starch has an additional advantage of ease of digestion. The hardening of stool pattern was also frequently observed. PMID:11811219

  18. The ENGAGE Workshop: Encouraging Networks between Geoscientists and Geoscience Education Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; LaDue, N.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The geoscience education community has made great strides in the study of teaching and learning at the undergraduate level, particularly with respect to solid earth geology. Nevertheless, the 2012 National Research Council report, Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering suggests that the geosciences lag behind other science disciplines in the integration of education research within the discipline and the establishment of a broad research base. In January 2015, early career researchers from earth, atmospheric, ocean, and polar sciences and geoscience education research (GER) gathered for the ENGAGE workshop. The primary goal of ENGAGE was to broaden awareness of discipline-based research in the geosciences and catalyze relationships and understanding between these groups of scientists. An organizing committee of geoscientists and GERs designed a two-day workshop with a variety of activities to engage participants in the establishment of a shared understanding of education research and the development of project ideas through collaborative teams. Thirty-three participants were selected from over 100 applicants, based on disciplinary diversity and demonstrated interest in geoscience education research. Invited speakers and panelists also provided examples of successful cross-disciplinary collaborations. As a result of this workshop, participants indicated that they gained new perspectives on geoscience education and research, networked outside of their discipline, and are likely to increase their involvement in geoscience education research. In fact, 26 of 28 participants indicated they are now better prepared to enter into cross-disciplinary collaborations within the next year. The workshop evaluation revealed that the physical scientists particularly valued opportunities for informal networking and collaborative work developing geoscience education research projects. Meanwhile, GERs valued

  19. Effect of esomeprazole versus placebo on pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastro esophageal reflux (GER) is common in cystic fibrosis (CF) and may contribute to lung disease. Approximately 50% of patients with cystic fibrosis are being treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Methods In a randomized controlled study in adults, we compared treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily versus placebo in patients with CF and frequent respiratory exacerbations over a thirty-six week treatment period to determine effect on time to first exacerbation and other health related outcomes. Results 17 patients without symptoms of GER were randomized and 15 completed the study. 13 subjects underwent 24 hour ambulatory pH probe monitoring; 62% had pH probe evidence of GER. Forty one percent of subjects had a pulmonary exacerbation during the study. There was no significant difference in time to first pulmonary exacerbation (log rank test p = 0.3169). Five of nine subjects in the esomeprazole group compared with 2 of eight subjects in the placebo group experienced exacerbations (esomeprazole vs. placebo: odds ratio = 3.455, 95% CI = (0.337, 54.294), Fisher’s exact test: p = 0.334). There was no change in Forced Expiratory Volume in one second, Gastroesophageal Symptom Assessment Score or CF Quality of Life score between the two treatment groups. Conclusions There was a trend to earlier exacerbation and more frequent exacerbations in subjects randomized to esomeprazole compared with placebo. The effect of proton pump inhibitors on pulmonary exacerbations in CF warrants further investigation. Clinical trials registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01983774 PMID:24528942

  20. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  1. The effects of acid perfusion of the esophagus on ventilation and respiratory sensation.

    PubMed

    Field, S K; Evans, J A; Price, L M

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and asthma remains controversial. Asthma symptoms worsen with GER, but are not consistently related to changes in lung function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acid perfusion (AP) of the esophagus alters ventilation and causes respiratory symptoms. Nonasthmatic patients with normal lung function and esophageal disease (16 females and nine males, FEV1 %predicted = 99+/-9.6), underwent a Bernstein test after motility testing. Airflow, rib cage (Vrc), and abdominal (Vab) tidal volumes, esophageal (Pes) and gastric (Pga) pressure, and surface (Es) and esophageal (Edi) diaphragm electromyographic (EMG) signals were measured. Throat, swallowing, chest, and stomach discomfort and respiratory sensation were estimated with the Borg scale. Minute ventilation (VE) increased during AP and declined during recovery with saline perfusion of the esophagus (7.1+/-1.5 to 8.5+/-2.4 to 7.3+/-2.1 L/min; n = 25; p = 0.0002). Respiratory rate (RR) went from 13.6+/-2.6 to 15.8+/-3.4 to 15.3+/-3.1 breaths/min (n = 25; p = 0.0002) during AP. VE was greater in the Bernstein-positive patients during AP. Tidal volume (VT), Vrc, Vab, Pes, Pga, Es, and Edi did not change during AP. Chest discomfort (D) correlated with ventilation (VE = 0.7 + 0.8 D; r = 0.67; p < 0.001) and respiratory effort sensation (B) (B = 0.2 + 0.4 VE; r = 0.70; p < 0.001) during AP. AP did not inhibit diaphragm activity. Increased VE may explain the paradox of GER worsening respiratory symptoms without changing lung function.

  2. Training satisfaction and work environment in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery: a comparison between France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oker, Natalie; Escabasse, Virginie; Pensky, Helge; Alotaibi, Naif; Coste, Andre; Albers, Andreas E

    2014-09-01

    With the coalescing of Europe, increased mobility of professionals emerges. Initiatives to harmonize medical education were launched. In Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery (ORL) an European board examination was created to ensure standards. Quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL specialists were compared to assess different aspects of work and hierarchical relationships in France (FRA) and Germany (GER) by means of an anonymous questionnaire. 120 FRA and 125 GER questionnaires were included. 78 % of respondents were residents. 86 % would choose the same training again. In both countries, a majority felt well considered with responsibilities adapted to their level of training and with supportive supervisors. Germans reported average daily work hours of 9.6 versus 11 in FRA with compensated overtime (76 %) and a possibility of part-time work (62 %), both nearly inexistent in FRA. In GER, the day-off after duty was more often respected. French attributed their seniors better pedagogic skills, taking time for explanations and providing better teaching. Offering a good training was a more important objective in French training centers (77 vs. 51 %). In both countries, surgical training relied on coaching. Research activities were comparable. The overall satisfaction with ORL training was high. Differences concerned structure of training, guidance by senior doctors and the working conditions. The study results provide guidance before choosing a program and may help to improve current training by identifying positive aspects that, if combined could lead to a convergence of programs. However, present high standards of education must be maintained.

  3. Genotype-by-environment interaction of growth traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a continental scale study.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Kause, A; Mulder, H A; Martin, K E; Barfoot, A J; Parsons, J E; Davidson, J; Rexroad, C E; van Arendonk, J A M; Komen, H

    2013-12-01

    Rainbow trout is a globally important fish species for aquaculture. However, fish for most farms worldwide are produced by only a few breeding companies. Selection based solely on fish performance recorded at a nucleus may lead to lower-than-expected genetic gains in other production environments when genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction exists. The aim was to quantify the magnitude of G × E interaction of growth traits (tagging weight; BWT, harvest weight; BWH, and growth rate; TGC) measured across 4 environments, located in 3 different continents, by estimating genetic correlations between environments. A total of 100 families, of at least 25 in size, were produced from the mating 58 sires and 100 dams. In total, 13,806 offspring were reared at the nucleus (selection environment) in Washington State (NUC) and in 3 other environments: a recirculating aquaculture system in Freshwater Institute (FI), West Virginia; a high-altitude farm in Peru (PE), and a cold-water farm in Germany (GER). To account for selection bias due to selective mortality, a multitrait multienvironment animal mixed model was applied to analyze the performance data in different environments as different traits. Genetic correlation (rg) of a trait measured in different environments and rg of different traits measured in different environments were estimated. The results show that heterogeneity of additive genetic variances was mainly found for BWH measured in FI and PE. Additive genetic coefficient of variation for BWH in NUC, FI, PE, and GER were 7.63, 8.36, 8.64, and 9.75, respectively. Genetic correlations between the same trait in different environments were low, indicating strong reranking (BWT: rg = 0.15 to 0.37, BWH: rg = 0.19 to 0.48, TGC: rg = 0.31 to 0.36) across environments. The rg between BWT in NUC and BWH in both FI (0.31) and GER (0.36) were positive, which was also found between BWT in NUC and TGC in both FI (0.10) and GER (0.20). However, rg were negative between BWT

  4. History of anesthesia in Germany.

    PubMed

    Wawersik, J

    1991-01-01

    The first ether anesthetic was administered in Germany by J.F. Heyfelder (1798-1869) at the Erlangen University Hospital on January 24, 1847. Thereafter, famous discoveries occurred in the field of pharmacology. Albert Niemann isolated cocaine from the coca shrub in 1860; Emil Fischer synthesized the first barbiturate, Veronal, in 1902; and Helmut Weese promoted the first ultra-short-acting barbiturate, hexobarbital (Evipan), in 1932. The local anesthetic effect of cocaine was reported by Koller at the Congress of the German Society for Ophthalmology on September 15, 1884, in Heidelberg. Many new techniques were tried first in German hospitals. Friedrich Trendelenburg carried out, by tracheotomy, the first operation with endotracheal intubation in 1869, and Franz Kuhn promoted and clinically practiced endotracheal intubation in Heidelberg beginning in 1900. August Bier performed the first operation under spinal anesthesia at the Kiel University Hospital on August 16, 1898. Carl Ludwig Schleich (1859-1922) standardized the methods of infiltration anesthesia by using a cocaine solution in sufficient dilution. The development of anesthesia machines was greatly influenced by Heinrich Dräger (1847-1917) and his son Bernhard Dräger (1870-1928). The Dräger Company in Lübeck built the first anesthesia machine with a carbon dioxide (CO2) absorber and circle system in 1925. Paul Sudeck and Helmut Schmidt worked with this system at the Hamburg University Hospital and reported their results in 1926. The first Dräger anesthesia machine was produced in 1902 and introduced into clinical use by Otto Roth (1863-1944) in Lübeck. Before the Second World War, three universities in Germany carried out research in the field of anesthesia: the University of Freiburg with H. Killian, the University of Hamburg with P. Sudeck and H. Schmidt, and the University of Würzburg with C.G. Gauss. Killian and Gauss established the first journals, Der Schmerz and Narkose und Anaesthesie, in

  5. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  6. Trade restrictions, migration, and economic geography.

    PubMed

    Heller, D

    1995-09-01

    "This paper investigates why Third World cities have been growing in the last several decades much more quickly than cities in industrialized countries. For this purpose, we develop a Krugman-type model of economic geography with two continents, North and South, each of which consisting of two regions, East and West. We study the impact different levels of transport costs and tariffs exert on the distribution of economic activities among the regions. We find that lower costs for transport between the regions in the South, for instance, induced by an improved infrastructure, as well as lower tariffs on intercontinental trade tend to lead to less concentrated economies." (SUMMARY IN GER AND FRE)

  7. Doubtful outcome of the validation of the Rome II questionnaire: validation of a symptom based diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are used in research and clinical practice. For gastrointestinal complaints the Rome II questionnaire is internationally known but not validated. The aim of this study was to validate a printed and a computerized version of Rome II, translated into Swedish. Results from various analyses are reported. Methods Volunteers from a population based colonoscopy study were included (n = 1011), together with patients seeking general practice (n = 45) and patients visiting a gastrointestinal specialists' clinic (n = 67). The questionnaire consists of 38 questions concerning gastrointestinal symptoms and complaints. Diagnoses are made after a special code. Our validation included analyses of the translation, feasibility, predictability, reproducibility and reliability. Kappa values and overall agreement were measured. The factor structures were confirmed using a principal component analysis and Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency. Results and Discussion Translation and back translation showed good agreement. The questionnaire was easy to understand and use. The reproducibility test showed kappa values of 0.60 for GERS, 0.52 for FD, and 0.47 for IBS. Kappa values and overall agreement for the predictability when the diagnoses by the questionnaire were compared to the diagnoses by the clinician were 0.26 and 90% for GERS, 0.18 and 85% for FD, and 0.49 and 86% for IBS. Corresponding figures for the agreement between the printed and the digital version were 0.50 and 92% for GERS, 0.64 and 95% for FD, and 0.76 and 95% for IBS. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for GERS was 0.75 with a span per item of 0.71 to 0.76. For FD the figures were 0.68 and 0.54 to 0.70 and for IBS 0.61 and 0.56 to 0.66. The Rome II questionnaire has never been thoroughly validated before even if diagnoses made by the Rome criteria have been compared to diagnoses made in clinical practice. Conclusion The accuracy of the Swedish version of the Rome II is of

  8. Recent evidence on the effect of real earnings on net migration.

    PubMed

    Izraeli, O; Lin, A

    1984-04-01

    "This paper examines the effect of gross nominal earnings, gross real earnings, and net real earnings on net migration in a simultaneous-equation model of net migration and employment growth. Using US SMSA data for 1970-75, the study shows that nominal earnings are not a good proxy for real earnings. In addition, gross real earnings performed better than net real earnings, suggesting a possibility of 'tax illusion' on the part of the migrants. Besides, employment growth had a significant positive effect on net migration, whereas net migration affected employment growth positively but less significantly." (summary in FRE, GER)

  9. [Comparison of resting energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry and estimated by predictive formulas in women with obesity degrees I to III].

    PubMed

    Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Cherem-Cherem, Loren; Galindo-De Noriega, Daniela; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Mary Carmen; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La determinación del gasto energético en reposo (GER) se calcula cotidianamente a partir de fórmulas predictivas aunque el resultado varía dependiendo de la población. Objetivo: Comparar la determinación del GER mediante calorimetría indirecta y mediante las ecuaciones Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin (MF), Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), «Institute of Medicine» (IOM), Fórmula Rápida (FR) y Valencia (VA) en mujeres con grados de obesidad I a III. Métodos: Mujeres adultas mestizas mexicanas se incluyeron en el estudio y formaron 3 grupos a partir del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Obesidad grado I (IMC 30,0-34,9; n = 42), grado II (IMC 35,0-39,9; n = 38) y grado III (IMC > 40; n = 41). Se determinó el GER mediante calorimetría indirecta y mediante las ecuaciones antes señaladas. ANOVA de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba de Dunn se emplearon para el análisis estadístico (p < 0,05 se aceptó como diferencia). Resultados: No se observó diferencia estadística entre los valores de las fórmulas HB, OMS y VA respecto a la CI. La concordancia obtenida de dichas fórmulas fue 63%, 67% y 64%, respectivamente, al analizar los datos en un solo grupo de obesidad. Asimismo, las fórmulas IOM, ER y MF mostraron diferencia estadística significativa versus la CI, siendo la concordancia 58%, 53% y 54%, respectivamente. En el grado III de obesidad la concordancia de VA (78%) y FR (71%) fue la mayor obtenida. Discusión: Las fórmulas HB, OMS y VA fueron las mejores para estimar el GER en mujeres mexicanas con IMC>30. En el grado III VA y FR muestran el mejor desempeño.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, J C; Sobrino, F; Dopazo, J

    1993-10-01

    A phylogenetic tree based on the VPI sequences of type O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been derived. Direct sequencing of PCR products has been used to obtain the VP1 gene sequences of new isolates. The tree exhibits four main lineages that largely correlate with the geographical origin of isolates. The analysis supports a close relationship between European O1 field isolates and vaccine strains, with the exception of O Thalheim Aus/81 and O Wuppertal Ger/82 which were probably of non-European origin. Analysis of nucleotide substitutions indicates that synonymous mutations play a major role in FMDV evolution.

  11. En hommage à Barbara Kołaczek: Quelques beaux livres d'astronomie d'astronomes polonais de la Bibliothèque de l'Observatoire de Paris (XVIe et XVIIe siècles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segonds, A.; Lerner, M.-P.; Débarbat, S.

    En hommage à Barbara Kołaczek, nous présentons des ouvrages de la Bibliothèque de l'Observatoire de Paris dont les auteurs sont quatre astronomes polonais des XVIe et XVIIe siècles: Copernic (1473-1543) né à Torun et mort à Frombork, et trois astronomes du milieu de Gdansk - Peter Krüger (1580-1630) - Jean Hevelius (1611-1687), né et mort à Gdansk, et Jan Hecker (1625-1675), auteur d'éphémérides. On mentionne pour finir un ouvrage exceptionnel de Stanislas Lubieniecki.

  12. Astrophysik Lichtecho im Einhorn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bührke, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    Viele elektronische Geräte sind ohne Grafikdisplays nicht denkbar - idealer weise in Farbe. In den meisten Fällen basieren diese auf Flüssigkristallanzeigen (liquid crystal display, LCD). Diese sind allerdings im Dunkeln gar nicht und von der Seite nur eingeschränkt erkennbar. Organische Leuchtdioden (OLEDs) sind eine mögliche Alternative für die nächste Generation kleiner Displays. Kürzlich gelang es, eine neue chemische Substanzklasse herzustellen, die es erlaubt, hochaufgelöste OLED-Displays in den drei Grundfarben Rot, Grün und Blau (RGB) nasschemisch herzustellen [1].

  13. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  14. [100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bergovec, Mijo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

  15. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  16. Self-assembly of heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites from multivalent ligands via social self-sorting

    PubMed Central

    Benkhäuser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Tröger's base-derived racemic bis(1,10-phenanthroline) ligand (rac)-1 and a bis(2,2'-bipyridine) ligand with a central 1,3-diethynylbenzene unit 2 were synthesized. Each of these ligands acts as a multivalent entity for the binding of two copper(I) ions. Upon coordination to the metal ions these two ligands undergo selective self-assembly into heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites in a high-fidelity social self-sorting manner as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. PMID:26124873

  17. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  18. A model of end-expiratory lung impedance dependency on total extracellular body water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchomel, J.; Sobota, V.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an attractive method for clinical monitoring of patients during mechanical ventilation. This study evaluates lung impedance measurements using Dräger PulmoVista 500 EIT system on an animal model. Mechanically ventilated model was created. Vital signs were monitored as well as mechanical ventilation parameters. Extracellular fluid balance and blood volume were handled as follows: 30-40% of total blood volume were removed and returned back, 0.5 to 1 litre of Ringer's solution was injected afterwards. The quantity of injected fluids was recorded for each animal. During this process thoracic electrical impedance measurement was performed. Recorded data from PulmoVista 500 EIT system were analysed using the official Dräger EIT Data Analysis Tool. The dependency of end-expiratory lung impedance on the change of fluid balance was observed. The relation between end-expiratory (minimum impedance value) frames and changes of fluid balance is shown. Preliminary results strongly support the expectation that electrical impedance of thorax can be affected by total extracellular fluid change.

  19. A new remote sensing procedure for the estimation of crop water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, M.; Loukas, A.; Mylopoulos, N.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this work is the development of a new approach for the estimation of water requirements for the most important crops located at Karla Watershed, central Greece. Satellite-based energy balance for mapping evapotranspiration with internalized calibration (METRIC) was used as a basis for the derivation of actual evapotranspiration (ET) and crop coefficient (ETrF) values from Landsat ETM+ imagery. MODIS imagery has been also used, and a spatial downscaling procedure is followed between the two sensors for the derivation of a new NDVI product with a spatial resolution of 30 m x 30 m. GER 1500 spectro-radiometric measurements are additionally conducted during 2012 growing season. Cotton, alfalfa, corn and sugar beets fields are utilized, based on land use maps derived from previous Landsat 7 ETM+ images. A filtering process is then applied to derive NDVI values after acquiring Landsat ETM+ based reflectance values from the GER 1500 device. ETrF vs NDVI relationships are produced and then applied to the previous satellite based downscaled product in order to finally derive a 30 m x 30 m daily ETrF map for the study area. CropWat model (FAO) is then applied, taking as an input the new crop coefficient values with a spatial resolution of 30 m x 30 m available for every crop. CropWat finally returns daily crop water requirements (mm) for every crop and the results are analyzed and discussed.

  20. Differential screening of a human pancreatic adenocarcinoma lambda gt11 expression library has identified increased transcription of elongation factor EF-1 alpha in tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Grant, A G; Flomen, R M; Tizard, M L; Grant, D A

    1992-03-12

    A human pancreatic adenocarcinoma lambda gt11 expression library was differentially screened with mRNA derived from normal and cancerous pancreatic tissues. Five clones preferentially hybridized with pancreatic adenocarcinoma mRNA. cDNA inserts from 4 of these clones were amplified by PCR, labelled with alpha 32P and used in Northern blot analysis against mRNA prepared from a variety of tumour and normal tissues. lambda GER-4 identified a pancreas-associated mRNA (greater than 10 kb) with no homology with known sequences at either the nucleic or amino-acid level. lambda GER-2 identified a 1.7-kb mRNA transcript that was over-expressed in mRNA prepared from pancreas, colon, breast, lung and gastric tumours relative to normal tissues. Sequence analysis and restriction-enzyme mapping showed that this clone was completely homologous with the active form of human elongation factor EF-1 alpha. This high level of EF-1 alpha-mRNA expression in tumour tissues lends support to the increasing evidence that EF-1 alpha is an important regulator of the cell cycle. PMID:1544708

  1. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans ( Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  2. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans (Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  3. Detection of pulmonary aspiration in children with gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Orellana, P.; Olea, E.; Pino, C.; Rossel, M.; Ceresa, S.; Gonzalez, P.; Otarola, S.; Astudillo, S.

    1985-05-01

    The presence of pulmonary aspiration (PA) should be suspected in two groups of patients; those with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and pulmonary disease and patient's with pulmonary symptoms without signs of GER in whom other etiologies of pulmonary disease have been excluded. To determine if PA could be diagnosed in children using radionuclides 114 patients aged 3-12 months drank 500 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m sulfur colloid mixed with infant formula and an additional 1.5 mCi was administered in the evening. All medicine was suspended 24 hours before. Images of the chest in supine position (ant, post views) were acquired on computer in 32 x 32 (byte mode) during 5 min each view at 2 and 18 hours. No outside pressure was applied. None of the patients with digestive symptomatology alone had positive exam. Of 88 patients with bronchopulmonary symptomatology 35 had abnormal examination 35% with moderate symptom were (Abn) and 55% with severe disease were abnormal. The radionuclide method appears to be the ideal study in patients where PA is suspected. The positivity of the method depends on the group of patients selected. The sensitivity is highest in patients with marked symptomatology.

  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Methods Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Results Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. Conclusion The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA. PMID:27066445

  5. How to constrain the physical properties of very hot super-earths with the James Web Space Telescope?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, B.; Rouan, D.; Léger, A.; Cavarroc, C.

    2012-12-01

    Space missions dedicated to exoplanet transit detection led to the discovery of the first super-earths with a measured radius. Surprisingly, the two first rocky planets discovered, CoRoT-7b and Kepler 10b (Léger et al. 2009; Batalha et al. 2011) show very similar parameters: their radius is respectively 1.7 and 1.4 {R_{oplus}} and they orbitate around (resp.) a K and a G star in 0.85 days. The properties of this two objects are expected to be very exotic (Léger et al. 2011). We expect them to be phase locked, with a large lava ocean on the irradiated face (with T reaching 2500 K and 3000 K, respectively) and cold hemisphere with a temperature lower than 50-75 K. We look for observational tests to validate this model among a larger family of models. We suggest to make an observation with the instrument NIRCam on the futur JWST. We investigate the amount of information that such an observation would provide on the physical and dynamical properties of CoRoT-7b, and we focus in particular on two parameters that could influence the surface nature of the very hot super-earth: the albedo, and the phase-locking.

  6. Combining Evidence of Preferential Gene-Tissue Relationships from Multiple Sources

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Hammar, Mårten; Öberg, Lisa; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S.; Bjäreland, Marcus; Dalevi, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    An important challenge in drug discovery and disease prognosis is to predict genes that are preferentially expressed in one or a few tissues, i.e. showing a considerably higher expression in one tissue(s) compared to the others. Although several data sources and methods have been published explicitly for this purpose, they often disagree and it is not evident how to retrieve these genes and how to distinguish true biological findings from those that are due to choice-of-method and/or experimental settings. In this work we have developed a computational approach that combines results from multiple methods and datasets with the aim to eliminate method/study-specific biases and to improve the predictability of preferentially expressed human genes. A rule-based score is used to merge and assign support to the results. Five sets of genes with known tissue specificity were used for parameter pruning and cross-validation. In total we identify 3434 tissue-specific genes. We compare the genes of highest scores with the public databases: PaGenBase (microarray), TiGER (EST) and HPA (protein expression data). The results have 85% overlap to PaGenBase, 71% to TiGER and only 28% to HPA. 99% of our predictions have support from at least one of these databases. Our approach also performs better than any of the databases on identifying drug targets and biomarkers with known tissue-specificity. PMID:23950964

  7. The nutritional status in adolescent Spanish cyclists.

    PubMed

    Julián-Almárcegui, C; Gómez-Cabello, A; González-Agüero, A; Olmedillas, H; Gómez-Bruton, A; Matute-Llorente, A; Casajús, J A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La adolescencia es un periodo importante de vulnerabilidad nutricional dados las mayores demandas alimentarias. Objetivo: Describir el estado nutritivo de ciclistas adolescentes y de un grupo de controles con actividad normal. Métodos: Se utilizó la Herramienta de Evaluación Alimentaria HELENA para evaluar la ingesta nutricional de 20 ciclistas adolescentes y 17 controles. Se registraron la ingesta total de energía, el gasto de energía en reposo (GER), el gasto de energía total (GET), los macronutrientes y diversos micronutrientes y se compararon con las guías dietéticas. Resultados: El GER fue menor y el GTE mayor en los ciclistas que en los controles (ambos P < 0,01). Se observaron diferencias significativas en el fósforo y la vitamina B1, siendo mayores en los ciclistas (P < 0,05). La mayor parte de los participantes, tanto ciclistas como controles, no alcanzó los requerimientos en macronutrientes, vitaminas ni minerales. Conclusión: El estado nutritivo de los adolescentes ciclistas y de los controles parece no adecuarse a las recomendaciones de cantidad y calidad. Deberían investigarse las posibles implicaciones de la salud actual y futura, especialmente en los adolescentes atletas.

  8. Influence of ethanol on the pharmacokinetic properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Schneider, Kirsten; Wunder, Cora; Kauert, Gerold F; Moeller, Manfred R; Theunissen, Eef L; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2013-04-01

    Oral fluid (OF) tests aid in identifying drivers under the influence of drugs. In this study, 17 heavy cannabis users consumed alcohol to achieve steady blood alcohol concentrations of 0 to 0.7 g/L and smoked cannabis 3 h afterward. OF samples were obtained before and up to 4 h after smoking and on-site tests were performed (Dräger DrugTest 5000 and Securetec DrugWipe 5+). Maximum concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) immediately after smoking (up to 44,412 ng/g) were below 4,300 (median 377) ng/g 1 h after smoking and less than 312 (median 88) ng/g 3 h later with 5 of 49 samples negative, suggesting that recent cannabis use might occasionally not be detectable. An influence of alcohol was not observed. Drinking 300 mL variably influenced THC concentrations (median only -29.6%), which suggests that drinking does not markedly affect on-site test performance. Many (92%) Dräger tests performed 4 h after smoking were still positive, indicating sufficient sensitivity for recent cannabis use. Differences in the results of a roadside study with DrugTest 5000 (sensitivity 84.8%, specificity 96.0%, accuracy 84.3%) could be explained by a higher number of true negatives, differences between OF and serum and differences between occasional and chronic users.

  9. Vitis vinifera terpenoid cyclases: functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (-)-germacrene D synthase and expression of mono- and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries.

    PubMed

    Lücker, Joost; Bowen, Pat; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-10-01

    Valencene is a volatile sesquiterpene emitted from flowers of grapevine, Vitis vinifera L. A full-length cDNA from the cultivar Gewürztraminer was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode valencene synthase (VvVal). The two major products formed by recombinant VvVal enzyme activity with farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) as substrate are (+)-valencene and (-)-7-epi-alpha-selinene. Grapevine valencene synthase is closely related to a second sesquiterpene synthase from this species, (-)-germacrene D synthase (VvGerD). VvVal and VvGerD cDNA probes revealed strong signals in Northern hybridizations with RNA isolated from grapevine flower buds. Transcript levels were lower in open pre-anthesis flowers, flowers after anthesis, or at early onset of fruit development. Similar results were obtained using a third probe, (-)-alpha-terpineol synthase, a monoterpenol synthase. Sesquiterpene synthase and monoterpene synthase transcripts were not detected in the mesocarp and exocarp during early stages of fruit development, but transcripts hybridizing with VvVal appeared during late ripening of the berries. Sesquiterpene synthase transcripts were also detected in young seeds. PMID:15464152

  10. Bronchial reacutization and gastroesophageal reflux: is there a potential clinical correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Mauroner, Luisa; Paiano, Simona; Assante, Luca Rosario; Bertolaccini, Luca; Ruffo, Giacomo; Mainardi, Paride; Bocus, Paolo; Geccherle, Andrea; Albanese, Sergio Ivan; Ciaffoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background Pepsin plays a role in gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Aims of this study were to verify if pepsin could be the cause of frequent bronchial exacerbations and to check if the persistence of chronic respiratory symptoms were correlated with pre-existing respiratory diseases. Methods From January to May 2016, 42 patients underwent a diagnostic bronchoscopy. All patients had a history of at least one bronchial exacerbation during the previous year. Bronchial lavage fluid specimens were obtained. A semiquantitative assessment of pepsin in the samples was carried out based on the intensity of the test sample. Results Pepsin was present in 37 patients (88%), but in patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the finding of pepsin in the bronchoalveolar fluid was 100%. There was a strong positive statistical correlation between pepsin detection and radiological signs of GER (ρ=0.662), and between pepsin detection and diagnosis (ρ=0.682). No correlation was found between the bacteriology and the presence of pepsin in the airways (ρ=0.006). Conclusions The presence of pepsin in the airways shows the occurrence of reflux. The persistence of respiratory symptoms by at least 2 months suggest an endoscopic bronchial examination. This straightforward test confirms the cause possible irritation of the airways and may prevent further diagnostic tests, such as an EGD or pH monitoring esophageal. PMID:27668224

  11. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z. Q.; Heron, J. T.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, J.; Ko, C.; Biegalski, M. D.; Aschauer, U.; Hsu, S. L.; Nowakowski, M. E.; Wu, J.; Christen, H. M.; Salahuddin, S.; Bokor, J. B.; Spaldin, N. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Ramesh, R.

    2015-01-01

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a ‘giant’ electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  12. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z Q; Heron, J T; Clarkson, J D; Hong, J; Ko, C; Biegalski, M D; Aschauer, U; Hsu, S L; Nowakowski, M E; Wu, J; Christen, H M; Salahuddin, S; Bokor, J B; Spaldin, N A; Schlom, D G; Ramesh, R

    2015-01-01

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation. PMID:25564764

  13. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for LOx/Methane Propulsion Systems for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Whitley, Ryan; Klem, Mark D.; Johnson, Wesley; Alexander, Leslie; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Ruault, Jean-Marc; Manfletti, Chiara; Caruana, Jean-Noel; Ueno, Hiroshi; Asakawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two technology gap assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. The participating agencies were ASI, CNES, DLR, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion. LOx/Methane propulsion systems are enabling for future human missions Mars by significantly reducing the landed mass of the Mars ascent stage through the use of in-situ propellant production, for improving common fluids for life support, power and propulion thus allowing for diverse redundancy, for eliminating the corrosive and toxic propellants thereby improving surface operations and resusabilty, and for inceasing the performance of propulsion systems. The goals and objectives of the international team are to determine the gaps in technology that must be closed for LOx/Methane to be used in human exploration missions in cis-lunar, lunar, and Mars mission applications. An emphasis is placed on near term lunar lander applications with extensibility to Mars. Each agency provided a status of the substantial amount of Lox/Methane propulsion system development to date and their inputs on the gaps in the technology that are remaining. The gaps, which are now opportunities for collaboration, are then discussed.

  14. Anatomy of reflux: a growing health problem affecting structures of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Lipan, Michael J; Reidenberg, Joy S; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2006-11-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) are sibling diseases that are a modern-day plague. Millions of Americans suffer from their sequelae, ranging from subtle annoyances to life-threatening illnesses such as asthma, sleep apnea, and cancer. Indeed, the recognized prevalence of GERD alone has increased threefold throughout the 1990s. Knowledge of the precise etiologies for GERD and LPR is becoming essential for proper treatment. This review focuses on the anatomical, physiological, neurobiological, and cellular aspects of these diseases. By definition, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus; when excessive and damaging to the esophageal mucosa, GERD results. Reflux that advances to the laryngopharynx and, subsequently, to other regions of the head and neck such as the larynx, oral cavity, nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and even middle ear results in LPR. While GERD has long been identified as a source of esophageal disease, LPR has only recently been implicated in causing head and neck problems. Recent research has identified four anatomical/physiological "barriers" that serve as guardians to prevent the cranial incursion of reflux: the gastroesophageal junction, esophageal motor function and acid clearance, the upper esophageal sphincter, and pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosal resistance. Sequential failure of all four barriers is necessary to produce LPR. While it has become apparent that GER must precede both GERD and LPR, the head and neck distribution of the latter clearly separates these diseases as distinct entities warranting specialized focus and treatment.

  15. CLEAN SEA project: the test in Lake Vättern (Sweden)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locritani, Marina; Carmisciano, Cosmo

    2016-04-01

    The CLEAN SEA (Continuous Long-term Environmental and Asset iNtegrity monitoring at SEA) project has been realized by eni e&p and its subsidiary Eni Norge in cooperation with Tecnomare in 2012. The aim of the project is to use a commercially available AUV properly upgraded, installed and operated by SAAB AUV, for the execution of environmental monitoring in offshore zone. We participated to the project performing the environmental characterization of site (Lake Vättern, Sweden) selected for the field test of Clean Sea project, and to providing support to processing the collected data by the payload installed. In detail, in the first phase of the project, we characterized the site of interest analyzing the clime, the morphology, and the principal chemical and physical water and environmental parameters on the basis of historical data (meteorology, hydrology, hydrodynamic, wind, ice cover and natural resources of the lake). In the second phase of the project, we processed the oceanographic and environmental data acquired in Lake Vättern during the AUV tests. The tests have been performed in two different areas in the East and West side of the lake. In detail Temperature, Salinity, Methane, Turbidity, Chlorophyll, Colored Dissolved Organic Matter, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Oxygen, pH, Oxidation Reduction Potential, Refined Oil and Crude Oil have been acquired in 21 different tests with 4 different mission types, and successively processed and evaluated. The analysis highlights the spatial and temporal variability for each parameter, and allows the comparison with the available historical data.

  16. Depth-sounding lidar: performance and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Koppari, Kurt R.; Lejdebrink, Ulf; Winell, Johan; Nilsson, Magnus; Ellsen, Rutger; Gjellan, Einar

    1996-06-01

    This paper describes the depth surrounding activities in Sweden. These include the development of a helicopter borne lidar called FLASH as well as instrumentation for in situ measurement of the optical water parameters. The FLASH system has been further developed into two operational systems called Hawk Eye with Saab Dynamics as the main contractor and Optech Inc. as the main subcontractor. Data collection and evaluation from Hawk Eye will be discussed. The Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA) is member of the Hawk Eye project team together with the National Maritime Administration, the Royal Swedish Navy and the Defence Material Administration. Together with the Swedish Maritime Administration, FOA has been engaged in analysis of lidar data to determine system performance and possible ways to optimize that in relation to lidar parameters and anticipated bottom depth and topography. Examples from that analysis will be presented. The test analysis so far strongly supports the depth sounding lidar technology as being a rapid and accurate sounder fulfilling the requirement by International Hydrographic Office on depth accuracy.

  17. Depth sounding lidar: an overview of Swedish activities and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Koppari, Kurt R.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the depth sounding activities in Sweden. These include the development of a helicopter borne lidar called FLASH as well as instrumentation for in situ measurement of the optical water parameters as well as modeling efforts of depth sounding lidar performance. The FLASH system has been further developed into two operational systems called Hawk Eye with Saab Dynamics as the main contractor and Optech Inc. as the main subcontractor. Data collection and evaluation from Hawk Eye will be discussed. The Swedish Defence Research Establishment (FOA) was a member of the Hawk Eye project team together with the National Maritime Administration, the Royal Swedish Navy and the Defence Material Administration. Together with the Swedish Maritime Administration, FOA has been engaged in analysis of lidar data to determine system performance and possible ways to optimize that in relation to lidar parameters and anticipated bottom depth and topography. Examples from that analysis will be presented. The test analysis so far strongly supports the depth sounding lidar technology as being a rapid and accurate sounder fulfilling the requirement by International Maritime Office on depth accuracy.

  18. Flying Quality Analysis of a JAS 39 Gripen Ministick Controller in an F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.; Stoliker, P. C.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Dryden conducted a handling qualities experiment using a small displacement centerstick controller that Saab-Scania developed for the JAS 39 Gripen aircraft. The centerstick, or ministick, was mounted in the rear cockpit of an F/A-18 aircraft. Production support flight control computers (PSFCC) provided a pilot-selectable research control system. The objectives for this experiment included determining whether the mechanical characteristics of the centerstick controller had any significant effect on the handling qualities of the F/A-18, and determining the usefulness of the PSFCCs for this kind of experiment. Five pilots evaluated closed-loop tracking tasks, including echelon and column formation flight and target following. Cooper-Harper ratings and pilot comments were collected for each maneuver. This paper describes the test system, including the PSFCCs, the Gripen centerstick, and the flight test experiment. The paper presents results of longitudinal handling qualities maneuvers, including low order equivalent systems, Neal-Smith, and controls anticipation parameter analyses. The experiment showed that, while the centerstick controller provided a different aircraft feel, few handling qualities deficiencies resulted. It also demonstrated that the PSFCCs were useful for this kind of investigation.

  19. Temporary threshold shift in military pilots measured using conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry after one flight.

    PubMed

    Kuronen, Pentti; Sorri, Martti J; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Muhli, Arto

    2003-01-01

    Noise of such a high level that it can result in hearing deterioration is an inherent characteristic of military flying. Susceptibility to hearing impairment was studied using 51 Finnish Air Force military personnel as subjects. The test persons flew missions on a British Aerospace Hawk 51 advanced jet trainer, Boeing F-18 Hornet, Mikoyan & Gurevich MiG-21bis and Saab 35 Draken interceptors, and a Valmet Redigo turboprop liaison aircraft. The duration of noise exposure was one flight mission, which varied from 30 to 60 min. Noise doses and levels were measured using a miniature microphone at the inlet of the ear canal, while a second microphone was located at the level of the subject's shoulder. Hearing thresholds were measured before each flight using conventional (0.125-8 kHz) and extended high-frequency (EHF) (8.20 kHz) audiometry. The measurements were repeated as soon as possible after the flight. The study showed that the pre-flight threshold levels of the subjects were good. Both conventional and EHF audiometry revealed statistically significant temporary threshold shifts (TTS) at several frequencies and with all aircraft types involved. The changes were, however, minor. The risk of noise-induced hearing impairment at the studied exposure levels is, in all probability, rather small. The role of extended high-frequency audiometry would be in research, and it might be performed for flying personnel upon entering service and every fifth year thereafter. PMID:12564513

  20. Investigation on the movement of vortex burst position with dynamically changing angle of attack for a schematic deltawing in a watertunnel with correlation to similar studies in windtunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolffelt, Karl W.

    1987-06-01

    The requirements for modern military aircraft to maintain good handling qualities at very high angles of attack is one of many reasons why an increased knowledge is necessary regarding the aerodynamic behavior of vortex flows at nonstationary conditions. Linearized theory as it has been utilized in flight mechanics simulation using damping derivatives derived from forced oscillation technique, for example, may no longer be valid at such conditions. With this background some investigations have been made by SAAB-SCANIA with the aim to study the hysteresis effects for nonstationary vortex flows. A schematic delta-wing model which could also be equipped with a similar canard wing has been tested in a water tunnel. The model was supported in the tunnel by a simple mechanism by which it could be forced to move in one of four different modes, pitching or plunging with either ramp or harmonic motion. The flow over the model was visualized with air bubbles and sequences were recorded on videotape. The sequences were analyzed and the movements of the leading edge vortex burst have been studied with the main interest focused on the hysteresis effects.

  1. Identification and characterization of high affinity antisense PNAs for the human unr (upstream of N-ras) mRNA which is uniquely overexpressed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huafeng; Yue, Xuan; Li, Xiaoxu; Taylor, John-Stephen

    2005-01-01

    We have recently shown that an MCF-7 tumor can be imaged in a mouse by PET with 64Cu-labeled Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) tethered to the permeation peptide Lys4 that recognize the uniquely overexpressed and very abundant upstream of N-ras or N-ras related gene (unr mRNA) expressed in these cells. Herein we describe how the high affinity antisense PNAs to the unr mRNA were identified and characterized. First, antisense binding sites on the unr mRNA were mapped by an reverse transcriptase random oligonucleotide library (RT-ROL) method that we have improved, and by a serial analysis of antisense binding sites (SAABS) method that we have developed which is similar to another recently described method. The relative binding affinities of oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) complementary to the antisense binding sites were then qualitatively ranked by a new Dynabead-based dot blot assay. Dissociation constants for a subset of the ODNs were determined by a new Dynabead-based solution assay and were found to be 300 pM for the best binders in 1 M salt. PNAs corresponding to the ODNs with the highest affinities were synthesized with an N-terminal CysTyr and C-terminal Lys4 sequence. Dissociation constants of these hybrid PNAs were determined by the Dynabead-based solution assay to be about 10 pM for the highest affinity binders. PMID:16314303

  2. In-flight interior sound field mapping in propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Auweraer, H.; Gielen, L.; Otte, D.

    Interior noise in propeller aircraft is currently an important issue in the aerospace industry. Efficient noise control measures require a thorough understanding of the in-flight response of the vibro-acoustic system, formed by fuselage, trim panels and cabin cavity, to the propeller excitation. The cabin interior noise is dominated by the lower order blade pass tones of the propellers. It is therefore important to map the acoustic sound field and the trimpanel and fuselage vibration responses at these frequencies. It is further advantageous to estimate the separated contributions of the two propellers because it allows a better understanding of the coupling between the propeller sound fields, the fuselage and the cabin cavity. It also provides a convenient means to compare different flight tests, regardless of the synchrophasor setting or stability. This paper discusses the acquisition and analysis of operating data on a fully trimmed Saab 340, a twin-engine commuter aircraft. The estimation of each propeller's contribution by means of cross-spectrum and coherence analysis techniques is further explored, in relation with signal processing issues, as windowing and leakage. Some resulting in-flight cabin cavity sound field shapes and trimpanel deformations are presented and discussed.

  3. Mechanism of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Airway Obstruction or Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Kelly; Orr, William

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: This is the first study to compare reflux events during wake and sleep in obese and non-obese individuals with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obese individuals without OSA. The primary aim of the study was to investigate any additive effect of OSA on gastroesophageal reflux (GER) above that of obesity. Methods: Twenty obese individuals (body mass index, BMI > 30 kg/m2), 9 non-obese individuals (BMI < 30 kg/m2) with moderate-to-severe OSA, and 17 obese control subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2) underwent high-resolution esophageal manometry, 24-h esophageal pH-impedance monitoring, and in-laboratory polysomnography. Results: Mean body mass index was 40 ± 6 and 27 ± 4 kg/m2 for the obese and non-obese OSA groups, respectively, and 34 ± 5 kg/m2 for the obese control group. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 50 ± 30 and 30 ± 25 per hour for the obese and non-obese OSA groups (p > 0.05), significantly higher than that of the obese control group (3 ± 3 per hour, p < 0.05). The two obese groups did not show any significant differences in the total number of acidic reflux events (41 ± 20 vs 28 ± 16); however, the obese OSA group had a greater number of acidic reflux events compared to the non-obese OSA group (22 ± 12 events, p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, BMI significantly predicted number of acidic reflux events (r2 = 0.16, p = 0.01) during the 24-h period; however, AHI showed no significant association with any measure of GER severity. Conclusions: This study confirms an important role for obesity, rather than OSA per se in the relationship between OSA and GER. Citation: Shepherd K, Orr W. Mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux in obstructive sleep apnea: airway obstruction or obesity? J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(1):87–94. PMID:26446244

  4. Performance evaluation of on-site oral fluid drug screening devices in normal police procedure in Germany.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Hokamp, Eva Große; Bott, Ulrich; Madea, Burkhard

    2014-05-01

    There is a need for quick and reliable methods for rapid screening of drug-influenced drivers on the roadside by police. Because the window of detection in oral fluid is more similar to blood than to urine, this matrix should therefore be appropriate for screening procedures. The performance of the Rapid STAT(®) (Mavand Solution GmbH, Mössingen, Germany), DrugWipe5/5+(®) (Securetec Detektions-Systeme AG, Brunnthal, Germany) and Dräger DrugTest(®) 5000 (Draeger Safety AG & Co. KGaA, Luebeck, Germany) on-site oral fluid devices was evaluated with random oral fluid specimens from car drivers in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany). Additionally, some drivers were checked using an on-site urine device (DrugScreen(®), NAL von Minden, Regensburg, Germany). During a 11-month period, 1.212 drivers were tested. Both OF and urine on-site tests were compared to serum results. The following sensitivities were obtained by the oral fluid devices: THC 71% (DrugWipe(®)), 87% (Dräger), 91% (RapidSTAT); opiates 95% (Dräger), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); amphetamine 84% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 90% (RapidSTAT(®)), 100% (DrugTest(®) 5000); methamphetamine 50% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (RapidSTAT(®)); cocaine 76% (DrugTest(®) 5000), 100% (DrugWipe(®), RapidSTAT(®)); methadone 33-63%, and benzodiazepines 0-33% (both with a low number of positives). THC specificity was especially low (29% [DrugWipe(®)] and 47% [DrugTest(®) 5000]) due to low cut-off concentrations. These data were similar to those obtained from the literature (e.g., DRUID project). The urine screening device showed a good sensitivity (THC 93%, opiate 94%, amphetamine 94%, methamphetamine 75% (low number of positives), cocaine 100%) and also an acceptable specificity (39%, 86%, 63%, 77%, 47%, respectively). Although oral fluid may be a useful matrix for on-site testing of drugged drivers, it is evident that oral fluid devices still show a lack of sensitivity (methamphetamine, benzodiazepines) and

  5. Performance of Healthy Braced Participants During Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Rishiraj, Neetu; Taunton, Jack E.; Niven, Brian; Lloyd-Smith, Robert; Regan, William; Woollard, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Context: Knee braces were introduced in sports approximately 30 years ago. However, the effects of a functional knee brace (FKB) on aerobic and anaerobic performance after fatigue are unknown. Objective: To investigate whether FKB use in noninjured participants hindered performance during aerobic (Léger beep test) and anaerobic (repeated high-intensity shuttle test [RHIST]) tasks. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-seven healthy male provincial and national basketball and field hockey athletes (age = 19.4 ± 3.0 years, range, 17–26 years; height = 182.6 ± 6.8 cm, range, 168–196 cm; mass = 80.0 ± 9.1 kg, range, 66–108 kg). Interventions : Each participant was provided a custom-fitted FKB and performed 5 nonbraced (NBR) testing sessions over 3 days, followed by 5 braced (BR) testing sessions over 3 days, for a total of 17.5 hours of testing per condition. During each testing session, participants performed 1 trial of the Léger beep test and 1 trial of the RHIST in each condition. Main Outcome Measure(s): Predicted maximal oxygen consumption (V˙o2max) and time performance measures were recorded for each NBR and BR trial. Results: Initial performance levels were lower for BR than NBR for both the Léger beep test (BR = 44.3 mL/kg/min, NBR = 47.3 mL/kg/min; F1,26 = 8.726; P = .007) and the RHIST (BR = 16.5 seconds, NBR = 16.2 seconds; F1,26 = 13.98, P = .001). However, with continued FKB use, the aerobic performance measure remained higher for only the first 2 BR testing sessions (NBR = 46.9 mL/kg/min, BR = 42.4 mL/kg/min; F3.0,79.8 = 4.95, P = .003). For the anaerobic test, no performance difference was noted between the testing conditions (NBR = 16.2 seconds, BR = 16.4 seconds; P = .7), whereas fatigue levels were lower during BR testing sessions (NBR = 33%, BR = 31%). After 14.0 hours of FKB use, performance levels were almost equal between the testing conditions (NBR = 47.6 mL/kg/min, BR = 46.1 m

  6. [AGREEMENT BETWEEN INDIRECT CALORIMETRY AND PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS IN A SAMPLE OF SPANISH HEALTHY ADULTS].

    PubMed

    de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; dee Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, Ma Alicia; Carreño Enciso, Laura; Miján de la Torre, Alberto; Galgani, José E; Redondo del Río, Ma Paz

    2015-08-01

    Objetivo: estudiar la concordancia entre el gasto energético en reposo (GER) obtenido mediante calorimetría indirecta (CI), y las ecuaciones de estimación más utilizadas en población adulta sana española. Métodos: estudio transversal en el que se determinó el GER en 95 sujetos sanos con normopeso mediante calorimetría indirecta y modelos predictivos (se seleccionaron 45 fórmulas desarrolladas en adultos de características similares a la muestra estudiada que incluían peso, talla, sexo y/o composición corporal). La concordancia entre ambos métodos se analizó mediante el Coeficiente de Correlación Intraclase (CCI) y la prueba de Bland-Altman. La significación se alcanzó con p < 0,05. Resultados: la edad media fue de 42 años (rango: 23,0– 63,2). El GER medio estimado por CI en la muestra fue de 1589 (312) kcal/día [1822,3 (224,3) kcal/día en varones y 1379,3 (216,1) kcal/día en mujeres; p < 0,05]. Las fórmulas que mejor se ajustaron a la muestra fueron las de De-Lorenzo, Harris-Benedict, Schofield y, especialmente, Korth. Conclusiones: existen grandes variaciones en la estimación del gasto energético en reposo en función de la ecuación predictiva utilizada. Las fórmulas de De-Lorenzo, Harris-Benedic y Schofield se comportan adecuadamente en la muestra evaluada; sin embargo, la de Korth demostró ser la más apta. Los modelos que incluyen peso y/o talla obtuvieron mejores resultados que los que contienen variables de composición corporal.

  7. Asthma: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and other dysfunctional breathing disorders.

    PubMed

    Balkissoon, Ron; Kenn, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and dysfunctional breathing (DB) disorders may mimic or coexist with asthma, leading to overtreatment with corticosteroids with consequent morbidity. Iatrogenic complications can be averted by early and correct diagnosis. VCD, also termed paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD), is characterized by intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords, mainly during inspiration, leading to airflow obstruction and dyspnea. Patients with VCD may have repetitive emergency room visits due to acute dyspnea (mimicking exacerbations of asthma). In the seminal descriptions of VCD, young women (often with psychiatric issues) predominated; however, other groups at increased risk for developing VCD include elite athletes, military recruits, and individuals exposed to irritants (inhaled or aspirated). Chronic postnasal drip, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may lead to laryngeal hyperresponsiveness. The diagnosis of VCD may be difficult because physical exam and spirometry may be normal between episodes. During symptomatic episodes, spirometry typically reveals variable extrathoracic airway obstruction (truncated inspiratory flow volume loop). The gold standard for identifying VCD is flexible fiberoptic rhinolaryngoscopy. Management of VCD includes identification and treatment of underlying disorders (eg, chronic postnasal drip, LPR, GER, anxiety, depression) and a multidisciplinary approach (including highly trained speech therapists). Speech therapy and biofeedback play a critical role in teaching techniques to override various dysfunctional breathing habits. When postnasal drip, LPR, or GER coexist, these disorders should be aggressively treated. With successful therapy, corticosteroids can often be discontinued. During severe, acute episodes of VCD, therapeutic strategies include heliox (80% helium/20% oxygen), topical lidocaine, anxiolytics, and superior laryngeal blocks with Clostridium botulinum toxin

  8. The otolaryngologic manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): a clinical investigation of 225 patients using ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring and an experimental investigation of the role of acid and pepsin in the development of laryngeal injury.

    PubMed

    Koufman, J A

    1991-04-01

    Occult (silent) gastroesophageal reflux disease (GER, GERD) is believed to be an important etiologic factor in the development of many inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the upper aerodigestive tract. In order ot test this hypothesis, a human study and an animal study were performed. The human study consisted primarily of applying a new diagnostic technique (double-probe pH monitoring) to a population of otolaryngology patients with GERD to determine the incidence of overt and occult GERD. The animal study consisted of experiments to evaluate the potential damaging effects of intermittent GER on the larynx. Two hundred twenty-five consecutive patients with otolaryngologic disorders having suspected GERD evaluated from 1985 through 1988 are reported. Ambulatory 24-hour intraesophageal pH monitoring was performed in 197; of those, 81% underwent double-probe pH monitoring, with the second pH probe being placed in the hypopharynx at the laryngeal inlet. Seventy percent of the patients also underwent barium esophagography with videofluoroscopy. The patient population was divided into seven diagnostic subgroups: carcinoma of the larynx (n = 31), laryngeal and tracheal stenosis (n = 33), reflux laryngitis (n = 61), globus pharyngeus (n = 27), dysphagia (n = 25), chronic cough (n = 30), and a group with miscellaneous disorders (n = 18). The most common symptoms were hoarseness (71%), cough (51%), globus (47%), and throat clearing (42%). Only 43% of the patients had gastrointestinal symptoms (heartburn or acid regurgitation). Thus, by traditional symptomatology, GER was occult or silent in the majority of the study population. Twenty-eight patients (12%) refused or could not tolerate pH monitoring. Of the patients undergoing diagnostic pH monitoring, 62% had abnormal esophageal pH studies, and 30% demonstrated reflux into the pharynx. The results of diagnostic pH monitoring for each of the subgroups were as follows (percentage with abnormal studies): carcinoma (71

  9. Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy for the Treatment of Achalasia: An Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dennis; Wagh, Mihir S.

    2013-01-01

    Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus, characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Treatment of achalasia is currently aimed at decreasing the resting pressure in the LES. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an emerging novel endoscopic procedure for the treatment of achalasia with initial data suggesting an acceptable safety profile, excellent short-term symptom resolution, low incidence of postprocedural gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and improvement in manometric outcomes. Further prospective randomized trials are required to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of this promising technique compared to other treatment modalities for achalasia. In this review we outline the technical aspects of POEM, summarize the available data on safety and outcomes, and suggest future directions for further advancement of this minimally invasive approach for the treatment of achalasia. PMID:24282373

  10. Scandium pentafluorobenzoate-catalyzed unexpected cascade reaction of 2-aminobenzaldehydes with primary amines: a process for the preparation of ring-fused aminals.

    PubMed

    Mao, Dan; Tang, Jun; Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Shengying; Liu, Xin; Yu, Jianjun; Wang, Limin

    2013-12-20

    An unexpected cascade reaction of 2-aminobenzaldehydes with arylamines catalyzed by scandium pentafluorobenzoate [Sc(Pfb)3] was reported as a facile strategy for the efficient synthesis of a novel class of polycyclic ring-fused aminals N-substituted-6,7,11b,13-tetrahydro-6,12-[1,2]benzenoquinazolino[3,4-a]quinazolin-13-amines 1. Under similar conditions, a series of the analogues of Tröger's base, 13-substituted-5,6,11,12-tetrahydro-6,12-epiminodibenzo[b,f][1,5]diazocines 2 were obtained when the arylamines were replaced by methanamines. A possible mechanism for the formation of 1 and 2 was proposed.

  11. Hydration of Kr(aq) in dilute and concentrated solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Sabo, Dubravko; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2014-10-13

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr–Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr–Kr distributions, analyzed with the extrapolation procedure of Krüger et al., yield a modestly attractive osmotic second virial coefficient, B2 ≈ -60 cm3/mol. Moreover, the thermodynamic analysis interconnecting these two approaches shows that they are closely consistent with each other, providing support for both approaches.

  12. A facile method to determine the absolute structure of achiral molecules: supramolecular-tilt structures.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Rosa María; Uriel, Santiago; Graus, Sara; Sierra, Teresa; Serrano, José Luis; Claramunt, Rosa M; López, Concepción; Pérez-Torralba, Marta; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2013-05-01

    Achiral compounds 4-methoxy-4-(p-methoxyphenyl)cyclohexanoneethylene ketal (2), 4-hydroxy-4-(p-methoxy phenyl)cyclohexanoneethylene ketal (3), and 3,5-dimethyl-4-nitropyrazole (4) crystallized in chiral structures and the samples showed an enantiomeric excess. We have determined the absolute structures of these compounds by using X-ray diffraction with copper radiation at low temperatures. Moreover, we have also established the prevalent absolute structures in these samples, by comparing their calculated and solid-state vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. The consistency of this method was confirmed by using (R,R)-2,8-diiodo-4,10-dimethyl-6 H,12H-5,11-methano-dibenzo[b,f][1,5]diazocine, Tröger's base, (R,R)-1, as a chiral compound of known absolute configuration.

  13. Ganzheitliche Produktionssysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korge, Axel; Lentes, Hans-Peter; Wengler, Michael; Hartmann, Thorsten; Röhrle, Josef; Kammüller, Mathias

    Erfolgreiche Unternehmer machen es vor: Mit einem Ganzheitlichen Produktionssystem (GPS) haben sie ihre Produktivität mehr als verdoppelt, die Durchlaufzeit bei verbesserter Termintreue halbiert und die Fehlerquote in den Promille-Bereich gedrückt [1]. Der Ansatz ist: Innovative Organisationsmethoden, die sich als Best-practice-Lösungen bewährt haben, werden zu einem in sich abgestimmten Gesamtsystem konfiguriert. Durch eine geeignete Auswahl und die gezielte Abstimmung geeigneter Methoden aufeinander können die drei Erfolgsfaktoren Qualität, Zeit und Kosten gleichzeitig erfüllt werden. Ein Ganzheitliches Produktionssystem versetzt die Produktionsmitarbeiter und Führungskräfte in die Lage, bessere Leistungsergebnisse mit weniger Stress zu erbringen. "Das ist nicht wirklich schwierig“, betont Josef Röhrle, der Werkleiter von Siemens Erlangen, Preisträger der Besten Fabrik 2004 und 2006, "denn alle Methoden sind bekannt und beschrieben.“

  14. Pilot study of longitudinal ultrasonic sensor for dynamic volumetric assessment of gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuexin; Sadowski, Daniel C; Mintchev, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    In patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal symptoms are traditionally diagnosed by monitoring the contact time between the reflux content and the esophagus using multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH (MII-pH) catheters. However, esophageal catheter for quantifying the volume of reflux content is still lacking. The present work proposes an innovative method to develop a longitudinal ultrasonic catheter and an information extraction system for reflux event detection and reflux volume estimation. Gastroesophageal model that mimics reflux events was developed to test the proposed catheter. Ultrasonic sensing was evaluated by simulating different volumes of reflux. The obtained signals showed good consistency in detecting reflux events and measuring reflux volume. During an in vivo human testing, a MII-pH catheter was used simultaneously to compare the ultrasonic output. Both in vitro and in vivo human testing results demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing the proposed method for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) detection and reflux volume estimation. PMID:21097205

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux diagnosed by occlusal splint tintion.

    PubMed

    Cebrián-Carretero, José Luis; López-Arcas-Calleja, José María

    2006-01-01

    The gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is a very frequent digestive disorder, mainly characterised by the reflux of the gastric acidic content to the esophage in abnormal quantities. There are different situations that favour this situation but almost in all of them rely an incompetence of the esophagic sphincter. The clinical consequences are many, including oral manifestations. Among all of them the most frequent is the esophagitis followed by symptoms at the pharynx or larynx and finally, the oral cavity. At this level fundamentally we will find enamel and oral mucosa erosions. We report the case of a patient who was indirectly diagnosed of her esophague disease by the observation of the alterations in the occlusal splint induced by the gastric reflux. We review the literature concerning the above topic and its possible association with the miofascial syndrome.

  16. Comparison of preliminary results from Airborne Aster Simulator (AAS) with TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannari, Yoshiaki; Mills, Franklin; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ezaka, Teruya; Narita, Tatsuhiko; Chang, Sheng-Huei

    1992-01-01

    The Japanese Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), being developed for a NASA EOS-A satellite, will have 3 VNIR, 6 SWIR, and 5 TIR (8-12 micron) bands. An Airborne ASTER Simulator (AAS) was developed for Japan Resources Observation System Organization (JAROS) by the Geophysical Environmental Research Group (GER) Corp. to research surface temperature and emission features in the MWIR/TIR, to simulate ASTER's TIR bands, and to study further possibility of MWIR/TIR bands. ASTER Simulator has 1 VNIR, 3 MWIR (3-5 microns), and 20 (currently 24) TIR bands. Data was collected over 3 sites - Cuprite, Nevada; Long Valley/Mono Lake, California; and Death Valley, California - with simultaneous ground truth measurements. Preliminary data collected by AAS for Cuprite, Nevada is presented and AAS data is compared with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data.

  17. Long-run migration incentives and migration effects: the case of different fertility rates.

    PubMed

    Meier, V

    1994-05-01

    "In this paper the direction of the long-run migration incentive in the presence of closed borders and the long-run welfare effects of a regime change from 'autarky' to 'free permanent migration' are studied. A difference in birth-country specific fertility rates is treated as the final cause for the creation of migration incentives in a two-country model where the standard overlapping-generations framework is used.... Opening the borders for permanent migration can always lead to the equalization of labour force growth rates. A continuum of such equilibria with migration does exist, but the application of the concept of migration-stability, introduced in this paper, gives reason to the suspicion that free migration can also lead to a collapse of the emigration country's economy." (SUMMARY IN GER) PMID:12291063

  18. Distal Esophageal Duplication Cyst with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease: A Rare Association and a Management Challenge.

    PubMed

    Jan, Iftikhar Ahmad; Al Nuaimi, Asma; Al Hamoudi, Basma; Al Naqbi, Khalid; Bilal, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Esophageal duplication cysts are rare congenital abnormalities of the foregut and may be associated with other conditions. Association of esophageal duplication with Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) has not been reported in children. We are reporting a case of a 16 months baby who had antenatal diagnosis of diaphragmatic hernia. Postnatal CTchest, however, suggested a distal esophageal duplication cyst and a contrast esophagogram showed grade-IV GER. A thoracoscopy in another hospital excluded esophageal duplication at that time. Later, he presented with hematemesis in our department and was re-evaluated. Repeat CTconfirmed a persistent 2.5 x 1.3 cm cyst in distal esophagus. Upper GI endoscopy suggested grade-II esophagitis with a wide patent gastro-esophageal junction. The child was treated with left thoracotomy, excision of the duplication cyst and thoracic fundoplication. He had an uneventful post-operative recovery and is doing well at 6 months follow-up. PMID:26876405

  19. Vibration-mediated interactions in a host–parasitoid system

    PubMed Central

    Meyhöfer, R.; Casas, J.; Dorn, S.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to obtain behavioral evidence of vibration mediated interactions between the apple tentiform leafminer Phyllonorycter malella (Ger.) (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) and its parasitoid Sympiesis sericeicornis Nees (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae). The experimental set-up allowed the simultaneous recording on video film of both the parasitoids and the hosts behavior, thus enabling us to contrast their respective responses to the leaf vibrations produced by the other party. We analysed the one step transition probabilties from one behavioral state to the following. Active larval movements had a marked influence on the parasitoid's behavior, while feeding and still had no detectable effect. We found no evidence for vibrotaxis on the part of the parasitoid. While parasitoid searching behavior on the leaf surface did not seem to alter the leafminers behavior, ovipositor insertions triggered a characteristic avoidance response. The described interactions are discussed in the context of the 'princess and monster' model developed in search and game theory.

  20. Oral fluid as an alternative matrix to determine ethanol for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Laís Helena Picolo; da Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves; Azenha, Aline Vieira; de Souza Dias, Mariane Cristine; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa

    2014-09-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate whether it is possible to use oral fluid to monitor alcohol in drivers. In a control experiment the subjects ingested beer with an alcoholic percentage of 4.7%, in an amount that furnished 0.5 g ethanol per kg of body weight. Volunteer's urine, oral fluid, and breath were collected at 10, 30, 60, and 90 min after alcohol intake. Urine and oral fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography with FID (Flame Ionization Detector); breath was analyzed by Alcotest 7410 (Dräger). The absorption profiles correlated well. The Pearson correlation value between samples of oral fluid and urine, and oral fluid and exhaled air, was close to 1, showing that oral fluid is a promising matrix to monitor drivers in traffic or involved in accidents. PMID:25047219

  1. Hydration of Kr(aq) in dilute and concentrated solutions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I.; Sabo, Dubravko; Pratt, Lawrence R.; Rempe, Susan B.

    2014-10-13

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr–Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr–Kr distributions, analyzed with the extrapolation procedure of Krüger et al., yield a modestly attractive osmotic second virial coefficient, B2 ≈ -60 cm3/mol. Moreover, the thermodynamic analysismore » interconnecting these two approaches shows that they are closely consistent with each other, providing support for both approaches.« less

  2. Migration and marital status. The case of Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Priester, T; Haug, W

    1995-06-01

    "The present study describes...a part of the interrelation of living arrangements and migration: The connection between marital status and spatial mobility. Moreover, the significance of the reasons for family migration will be assessed. [Section] 2 covers the relationship between family or household structure and change of residence and refers to the findings of other studies. The third [section] presents the empirical findings which are to be seen against the background of changing household and family patterns in Switzerland over the last 20 to 30 years. With the aid of aggregated data from censuses and population registration offices, the differences in migratory behaviour by socio-demographic characteristics are first shown: by age, sex, marital status and nationality. In addition, a distinction is made between intercommune, intercantonal and international migration. The initial findings of the descriptive analysis are followed by multivariate statistics produced with the aid of microdata from the Swiss Labour Force Survey." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER)

  3. [Morphological changes in the liver of rats subjected to deficient diet and bromex administration].

    PubMed

    Krustev, L; Tasheva, M; Kaloianova-Simeonova, F

    1982-01-01

    An experiment was carried out with male albino rats, with a mean body weight 165 g, grouped into 4 groups: on protein deficiency diet (with 3.8% protein in food), 4-week treatment with 1/50 LD50 bromex and a control group (not treated). It was established that the separate bromex treatment of the animals or their putting on a 6-week deficiency diet led to moderate changes in hepatocyte organelles. The combined effect of both factors--bromex and deficiency diet--sums the effect leading to the reduction of chromatin inclusions of the nuclei, reduces the amount of GER, Ser and mitochondria, dystrophic changes in mitochondria, increase of secondary lysozyomes and build up of fatty acids in hepatocytes. PMID:7178068

  4. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar.

  5. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrument beherrscht. Schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker und an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle von wissenschafltichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material und ein Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar und Annotationen von Fachleuten in jedem der drei Bände.

  6. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrument beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker und an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material und ein Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar im ersten Band, und Annotationen von Fachleuten in jedem der drei Bände.

  7. Composites in energy generation and storage systems - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulmer, R. W.

    Applications of glass-fiber reinforced composites (GER) in renewable and high-efficiency energy systems which are being developed to replace interim, long-term unacceptable energy sources such as foreign oil are reviewed. GFR are noted to have design flexibility, high strength, and low cost, as well as featuring a choice of fiber orientation and type of reinforcement. Blades, hub covers, nacelles, and towers for large and small WECS are being fabricated and tested and are displaying satisfactory strength, resistance to corrosion and catastrophic failure, impact tolerance, and light weight. Promising results have also been shown in the use of GFR as flywheel material for kinetic energy storage in conjunction with solar and wind electric systems, in electric cars, and as load levellers. Other applications are for heliostats, geothermal power plant pipes, dam-atoll tidal wave energy systems, and intake pipes for OTECs.

  8. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team: Lunar Surface Exploration Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob P.

    2012-01-01

    NASA s agency wide Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing Design Reference Missions (DRMs) to support the ongoing effort to characterize NASA s future human exploration strategy. The DRM design effort includes specific articulations of transportation and surface elements, technologies and operations required to enable future human exploration of various destinations including the moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars as well as interim cis-lunar targets. In prior architecture studies, transportation concerns have dominated the analysis. As a result, an effort was made to study the human utilization strategy at each specific destination and the resultant impacts on the overall architecture design. In particular, this paper considers various lunar surface strategies as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return, and demonstrates their alignment with the internationally developed Global Exploration Roadmap (GER).

  9. Plasma cryogenic etching of silicon: from the early days to today's advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussart, R.; Tillocher, T.; Lefaucheux, P.; Boufnichel, M.

    2014-03-01

    The evolution of silicon cryoetching is reported in this topical review, from its very first introduction by a Japanese team to today's advanced technologies. The main advances in terms of the performance and comprehension of the mechanisms are chronologically presented. After presenting the principle of silicon cryoetching, the main defects encountered in cryoetching (such as undercut, bowing and crystal orientation dependent etching) are presented and discussed. Mechanisms involved in SiOxFy passivation layer growth in standard cryoetching are investigated through several in situ characterization experiments. The STiGer process and alternative cryoetching processes for high-aspect-ratio structures are also proposed to enhance the process robustness. The over-passivation regime, which can provide self-organized columnar microstructures, is presented and discussed. Finally, advanced technologies, such as the cryoetching of sub-20 nm features and porous OSG low-k cryoetching, are described.

  10. Gamma Convergence of a Family of Surface-Director Bending Energies with Small Tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lussardi, Luca; Röger, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    We prove a Gamma-convergence result for a family of bending energies defined on smooth surfaces in R^3 equipped with a director field. The energies strongly penalize the deviation of the director from the surface unit normal and control the derivatives of the director. Such types of energies arise, for example, in a model for bilayer membranes introduced by Peletier and Röger (Arch Ration Mech Anal 193(3), 475-537, 2009). Here we prove in three space dimensions in the vanishing-tilt limit a Gamma-liminf estimate with respect to a specific curvature energy. In order to obtain appropriate compactness and lower semi-continuity properties we use tools from geometric measure theory, in particular the concept of generalized Gauss graphs and curvature varifolds.

  11. Ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in Porcellio scaber under stress.

    PubMed

    Znidaršič, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2003-04-01

    Cellular ultrastructure varies in accordance with physiological processes, also reflecting responses to environmental stress factors. Ultrastructural changes of the hepatopancreatic cells in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber exposed to sublethal concentrations of zinc or cadmium in their food were identified by transmission electron microscopy. The exclusive structural characteristic of the hepatopancreas of animals exposed to metal-dosed food was grain-like electrondense deposits (EDD) observed in the intercellular spaces and in vesicles of B cells. In addition, hepatopancreatic cells of metal-exposed animals displayed non-specific, stress-indicating alterations such as cellular disintegration, the reduction of energetic reserves (lipid droplets, glycogen), electron dense cytoplasm, ultrastructural alterations of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER), the Golgi complex and mitochondria.

  12. Protective effects of D-002 on experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Zullyt; Molina, Vivian; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Perez, Yohany; Oyarzabal, Ambar

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of beeswax alcohols (D-002) on the esophageal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in rats. METHODS: Sixty male rats were randomized into six groups (10 rats/group): a negative control and five groups with experimentally induced GER: a positive vehicle control, three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively), and one with omeprazole 10 mg/kg. All treatments were given by gastric gavage. One hour after dosing, GER was produced by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and the forestomach. Esophageal lesions index (ELI), gastric secretion volume and acidity, and esophageal malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations were measured. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. RESULTS: As compared to the negative control, the positive control group exhibited increased ELI (5.2 ± 0.33 vs 0 ± 0, P = 0.0003), gastric secretion volume (2.69 ± 0.09 vs 0.1 ± 0.0, P = 0.0003) and acidity (238 ± 19.37 vs 120.0 ± 5.77, P = 0.001), and esophageal concentrations of MDA (2.56 ± 0.1 vs 1.76 ± 0.28, P = 0.001) and SH groups (1.02 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.08, P = 0.0003). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced ELI (3.36 ± 0.31, 2.90 ± 0.46 and 2.8 ± 0.23, respectively) vs the positive control (5.2 ± 0.33) (P = 0.004; P = 0.002; P = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant changes in acidity with D-002 treatment, and only the highest dose reduced the volume of the gastric secretion (1.92 ± 0.25) vs the positive control (2.69 ± 0.09, P = 0.013). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) lowered the esophageal MDA (2.05 ± 0.16, 1.98 ± 0.22 and 1.93 ± 0.22, respectively) (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.03, respectively) and SH group concentration (0.87 ± 0.06, 0.79 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ± 0.06, respectively) (P = 0.04; P = 0.04; P = 0.02) vs the positive control (2.56 ± 0.10 and 1.02 ± 0.05, respectively). Omeprazole decreased ELI (2.54 ± 0.47), gastric secretion volume (1.97 ± 0.14) and acidity

  13. Automatic Generation of Building Models with Levels of Detail 1-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguatem, W.; Drauschke, M.; Mayer, H.

    2016-06-01

    We present a workflow for the automatic generation of building models with levels of detail (LOD) 1 to 3 according to the CityGML standard (Gröger et al., 2012). We start with orienting unsorted image sets employing (Mayer et al., 2012), we compute depth maps using semi-global matching (SGM) (Hirschmüller, 2008), and fuse these depth maps to reconstruct dense 3D point clouds (Kuhn et al., 2014). Based on planes segmented from these point clouds, we have developed a stochastic method for roof model selection (Nguatem et al., 2013) and window model selection (Nguatem et al., 2014). We demonstrate our workflow up to the export into CityGML.

  14. International Coordination of Exploring and Using Lunar Polar Volatiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Fourteen international space agencies are participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together to advance a long-range strategy for human and robotic space exploration beyond low earth orbit. The ISECG is a voluntary, non-binding international coordination mechanism through which individual agencies may exchange information regarding interests, objectives, and plans in space exploration with the goal of strengthening both individual exploration programs as well as the collective effort. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit, beginning with the Moon and cis-lunar space, and continuing to near-Earth asteroids, and Mars.

  15. Multiphysics Model of Palladium Hydride Isotope Exchange Accounting for Higher Dimensionality

    SciTech Connect

    Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Eliassi, Mehdi; Bon, Bradley Luis

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes computational model developm ent and simulations results for a series of isotope exchange dynamics experiments i ncluding long and thin isothermal beds similar to the Foltz and Melius beds and a lar ger non-isothermal experiment on the NENG7 test bed. The multiphysics 2D axi-symmetr ic model simulates the temperature and pressure dependent exchange reactio n kinetics, pressure and isotope dependent stoichiometry, heat generation from the r eaction, reacting gas flow through porous media, and non-uniformities in the bed perme ability. The new model is now able to replicate the curved reaction front and asy mmetry of the exit gas mass fractions over time. The improved understanding of the exchange process and its dependence on the non-uniform bed properties and te mperatures in these larger systems is critical to the future design of such sy stems.

  16. Fall in inspired oxygen and anaesthetic agent concentrations during change of soda lime absorber.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Byrappa; Gopalakrishna, Kadarapura Nanjundaiah; Umamaheswara Rao, Ganne S

    2015-06-01

    Following an episode of reduction in inspired oxygen concentration (FiO(2)) and inhalational agent concentration (Fi agent) during the changing of a soda lime absorber, We conducted an in vitro experiment to understand the impact of disconnection of the absorber on inspired gas dilution at different fresh gas flows. We found that both in Dräger Fabius GS and Primus anaesthesia work stations, disconnection of the absorber caused progressive reduction in FiO(2) and Fi agent as the FGF was decreased. The operating principle of fresh gas decoupling (FGD) valve is a potential source of this complication, which must be kept in mind while changing the soda lime during the course of surgery where an anaesthetic work stations utilizing FGD valves are used.

  17. Hydration of Kr(aq) in Dilute and Concentrated Solutions.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Mangesh I; Sabo, Dubravko; Pratt, Lawrence R; Rempe, Susan B

    2015-07-23

    Molecular dynamics simulations of water with both multi-Kr and single Kr atomic solutes are carried out to implement quasi-chemical theory evaluation of the hydration free energy of Kr(aq). This approach obtains free energy differences reflecting Kr-Kr interactions at higher concentrations. Those differences are negative changes in hydration free energies with increasing concentrations at constant pressure. The changes are due to a slight reduction of packing contributions in the higher concentration case. The observed Kr-Kr distributions, analyzed with the extrapolation procedure of Krüger et al., yield a modestly attractive osmotic second virial coefficient, B2 ≈ -60 cm(3)/mol. The thermodynamic analysis interconnecting these two approaches shows that they are closely consistent with each other, providing support for both approaches.

  18. Final report. Defects and transport in mixed oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, R {umlt u}diger

    2001-12-13

    New results on the point defect chemistry of (Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}){sub 3-delta}O{sub 4} and on the cation tracer diffusion in this spinel solid solution are presented and discussed. The equation system for the defect chemistry of perovskites of the type A{sub 1-x}B{sub 1+x}O{sub 3-delta} have been worked out and used to derive Kr{umlt o}ger-Vink diagrams. The deviation from stoichiometry, delta, in LA{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 1+x}O{sub 3-delta} has been measured at 1100, 1200, and 1300 degrees Celsius as a function of the oxygen activity and the composition variable x. At high and low oxygen activities, the data were fit by taking into account the electrostatic interaction between the charge defects by making use of the Debye H{umlt u}ckel theory.

  19. Case report: automated machine checkout leaves an internal gas leak undetected: the need for complete checkout procedures.

    PubMed

    Eng, Timothy S; Durieux, Marcel E

    2012-01-01

    We report a complete internal fresh gas flow disconnect within a Dräger Fabius GS anesthesia machine without any alarms being triggered. This was undetected primarily because of an incomplete machine checkout in which the step of ensuring proper gas flows by using a "test lung" was omitted. Machine-specific factors, however, also contributed to prevent diagnosis: (1) the machine passed its leak test because the flowmeter bobbin (i.e., floating ball) sealed the flowmeter when back pressure was applied; (2) the mechanical ventilator entrains room air, thus functioning in the absence of fresh gas flow; and (3) the electronic flow sensors functioned "appropriately" because the leak was downstream. Despite the advent of highly automated machines, manual checkout procedures remain crucial to minimizing undiagnosed failures.

  20. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2016-01-01

    Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.

  1. A simple method to estimate vegetation indices and crop canopy factors using field spectroscopy for solanum tuberosum during the whole phenological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikou, S.; Papadavid, G.; Hadjimitsis, M.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Neofytou, N.

    2013-08-01

    Field spectroscopy is a part of the remote sensing techniques and very important for studies in agriculture. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data of the spring potatoes for estimating spectral vegetation indices (SVI's). A field campaign was undertaken from September to the end of November 2012 for the collection of spectro-radiometric measurements. The study area was in the Mandria Village in Paphos district in Cyprus. This paper demonstrates how crop canopy factors can be statistically related to remotely sensed data, namely vegetation indices. The paper is a part of an EU cofounded project regarding estimating crop water requirements using remote sensing techniques and informing the farmers through 3G smart telephony.

  2. Mapping of an ophiolite complex by high-resolution visible-infrared spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combe, Jean-Philippe; Launeau, Patrick; Pinet, Patrick; Despan, Daniela; Harris, Esther; Ceuleneer, Georges; Sotin, Christophe

    2006-08-01

    The Sumail massif of the Oman peridotite has been surveyed by the high spectral resolution imager HyMap. The field measurements have been taken simultaneously to the HyMap campaign with a GER 3700 spectrometer. To compare the two data sets, further calibration and atmospheric correction are made through empirical line corrections. A continuum removal by a modified Gaussian model on reflectance is then performed for each pixel to minimize atmospheric scattering and shadowing effects. Classification from spectral distance is established using field observations and comparisons at full spectral resolution to identify peridotite subunits (harzburgites and dunites) and to distinguish plagioclase-wehrlites from gabbros. Detections of hydrothermal transformations of olivine in serpentines and their alteration in carbonates along fracture networks, characterized by narrow spectral signatures, validate the classification. This demonstrates the utility of the high spectral resolution and the development of appropriate processing methods for geological identifications.

  3. Comparison of two field tests to estimate maximum aerobic speed.

    PubMed

    Berthoin, S; Gerbeaux, M; Turpin, E; Guerrin, F; Lensel-Corbeil, G; Vandendorpe, F

    1994-08-01

    The measurement of maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and the prediction of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) by means of field tests were carried out on 17 students studying physical education. The subjects underwent a continuous multi-stage track test (Léger and Boucher, 1980), shuttle test (Léger et al., 1984) and VO2 max measurement on a treadmill. The VO2 max values estimated using the track test (56.8 +/- 5.8 ml kg-1 min-1) were not significantly different from the values measured in the treadmill test (56.8 +/- 7.1 ml kg-1 min-1), but were higher than those estimated using the shuttle test (51.1 +/- 5.9 ml kg-1 min-1). The maximal nature of the tests was checked by measurement of heart rate and lactate concentration, taken within 2 min post-test. The means of the MAS observed in the track test (15.8 +/- 1.9 km h-1) and in the treadmill test (15.9 +/- 2.6 km h-1) were not significantly different (P > 0.10). The mean of the shuttle test MAS (13.1 +/- 1 km h-1) was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those of the other tests. However, the MAS of the shuttle test and track test are linked. The equation for linear regression between MAS values in these two tests is MAStrack = 1.81 x MASshuttle -7.86 (r = 0.91), allowing estimation of one of these MAS values when the other is known. Thus these values may be used within diversified training.

  4. Adverse effects reported in the use of gastroesophageal reflux disease treatments in children: a 10 years literature review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shlomi; Bueno de Mesquita, Mirjam; Mimouni, Francis B

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is commonly observed in children, particularly during the first year of life. Pharmacological therapy is mostly reserved for symptomatic infants diagnosed with GER disease (GERD), usually as defined in a recent consensus statement. The purpose of the present article was to review the reported adverse effects of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of paediatric GERD. We conducted this review using the electronic journal database Pubmed and Cochrane database systematic reviews using the latest 10-year period (1 January 2003 to 31 December 2012). Our search strategy included the following keywords: omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole, rantidine, cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, domperidone, metoclopramide, betanechol, erythromycin, baclofen, alginate. We used Pubmed’s own filter of: ’child: birth–18 years’. All full articles were reviewed and we only included randomized controlled trials retrieved from our search. We addressed a summary of our search on a drug-by-drug basis with regard to its mechanism of action and clinical applications, and reviewed all of the adverse effects reported and the safety profile of each drug. Adverse effects have been reported in at least 23% of patients treated with histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and 34% of those treated with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), and mostly include headaches, diarrhoea, nausea (H2RAs and PPIs) and constipation (PPIs). Acid suppression may place immune-deficient infants and children, or those with indwelling catheters, at risk for the development of lower respiratory tract infections and nosocomial sepsis. Prokinetic agents have many adverse effects, without major benefits to support their routine use. PMID:25752807

  5. FGF21 signalling pathway and metabolic traits – genetic association analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaess, Bernhard M; Barnes, Timothy A; Stark, Klaus; Charchar, Fadi J; Waterworth, Dawn; Song, Kijoung; Wang, William Y S; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Samani, Nilesh J; Hengstenberg, Christian; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel master regulator of metabolic profile. The biological actions of FGF21 are elicited upon its klotho beta (KLB)-facilitated binding to FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1), FGFR2 and FGFR3. We hypothesised that common polymorphisms in the FGF21 signalling pathway may be associated with metabolic risk. At the screening stage, we examined associations between 63 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes of this pathway (FGF21, KLB, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3) and four metabolic phenotypes (LDL cholesterol – LDL-C, HDL-cholesterol – HDL-C, triglycerides and body mass index) in 629 individuals from Silesian Hypertension Study (SHS). Replication analyses were performed in 5478 unrelated individuals of the Swiss CoLaus cohort (imputed genotypes) and in 3030 directly genotyped individuals of the German Myocardial Infarction Family Study (GerMIFS). Of 54 SNPs that met quality control criteria after genotyping in SHS, 4 (rs4733946 and rs7012413 in FGFR1; rs2071616 in FGFR2 and rs7670903 in KLB) showed suggestive association with LDL-C (P=0.0006, P=0.0013, P=0.0055, P=0.011, respectively) and 1 (rs2608819 in KLB) was associated with body mass index (P=0.011); all with false discovery rate q<0.5. Of these, only one FGFR2 polymorphism (rs2071616) showed replicated association with LDL-C in both CoLaus (P=0.009) and men from GerMIFS (P=0.017). The direction of allelic effect of rs2071616 upon LDL-C was consistent in all examined populations. These data show that common genetic variations in FGFR2 may be associated with LDL-C in subjects of white European ancestry. PMID:20717167

  6. Germination of Spores of Bacillus Species: What We Know and Do Not Know

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus species can remain in their dormant and resistant states for years, but exposure to agents such as specific nutrients can cause spores' return to life within minutes in the process of germination. This process requires a number of spore-specific proteins, most of which are in or associated with the inner spore membrane (IM). These proteins include the (i) germinant receptors (GRs) that respond to nutrient germinants, (ii) GerD protein, which is essential for GR-dependent germination, (iii) SpoVA proteins that form a channel in spores' IM through which the spore core's huge depot of dipicolinic acid is released during germination, and (iv) cortex-lytic enzymes (CLEs) that degrade the large peptidoglycan cortex layer, allowing the spore core to take up much water and swell, thus completing spore germination. While much has been learned about nutrient germination, major questions remain unanswered, including the following. (i) How do nutrient germinants penetrate through spores' outer layers to access GRs in the IM? (ii) What happens during the highly variable and often long lag period between the exposure of spores to nutrient germinants and the commitment of spores to germinate? (iii) What do GRs and GerD do, and how do these proteins interact? (iv) What is the structure of the SpoVA channel in spores' IM, and how is this channel gated? (v) What is the precise state of the spore IM, which has a number of novel properties even though its lipid composition is very similar to that of growing cells? (vi) How is CLE activity regulated such that these enzymes act only when germination has been initiated? (vii) And finally, how does the germination of spores of clostridia compare with that of spores of bacilli? PMID:24488313

  7. Thermoregulatory effects of swaddling in Mongolia: a randomised controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Tsogt, Bazarragchaa; Manaseki-Holland, Semira; Pollock, Jon; Blair, Peter S; Fleming, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate thermal balance of infants in a Mongolian winter, and compare the effects of traditional swaddling with an infant sleeping-bag in apartments or traditional tents (Gers). Design A substudy within a randomised controlled trial. Setting Community in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Subjects A stratified randomly selected sample of 40 swaddled and 40 non-swaddled infants recruited within 48 h of birth. Intervention Sleeping-bags and baby outfits of total thermal resistance equivalent to that of swaddled babies. Outcome measure Digital recordings of infants’ core, peripheral, environmental and microenvironmental temperatures at 30-s intervals over 24 h at ages 1 month and 3 months. Results In Gers, indoor temperatures varied greatly (<0–>25°C), but remained between 20°C and 22°C, in apartments. Despite this, heavy wrapping, bed sharing and partial head covering, infant core and peripheral temperatures were similar and no infants showed evidence of significant heat or cold stress whether they were swaddled or in sleeping-bags. At 3 months, infants in sleeping-bags showed the ‘mature’ diurnal pattern of a fall in core temperature after sleep onset, accompanied by a rise in peripheral temperature, with a reverse pattern later in the night, just before awakening. This pattern was not related to room temperature, and was absent in the swaddled infants, suggesting that the mature diurnal pattern may develop later in them. Conclusions No evidence of cold stress was found. Swaddling had no identifiable thermal advantages over sleeping-bags during the coldest times, and in centrally heated apartments could contribute to the risk of overheating during the daytime. Trial registration number ISRTN01992617. PMID:26515228

  8. [Energy expenditure prediction equations in burn patients; bibliographic review].

    PubMed

    Núñez-Villaveirán, Teresa; Sánchez, Manuel; Millán, Pablo; Martínez-Méndez, Jose Ramón; Iglesias, Carmen; Casado-Pérez, César; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: La valoración de las necesidades calóricas del paciente quemado se ha basado en la medición del gasto energético en reposo (GER) mediante calorimetría indirecta, no siempre disponible en las unidades de quemados, o en su estimación mediante el uso de ecuaciones predictivas. Objetivos: analizar la historia y estado del arte del uso de las ecuaciones predictivas de GER en el paciente quemado crítico, y determinar su validez. Métodos: revisión bibliográfica de estudios y revisiones en español y en inglés entre 1989 y 2013. Resultados: Se han diseñado más de 190 ecuaciones para estimar el gasto energético que pueden ser imprecisas por estar basadas en mediciones con metodología heterogénea y en grupos heterogéneos. Describimos los distintos parámetros que aplican las distintas fórmulas predictivas (factores de estrés y de actividad, superficie corporal quemada, tiempo desde la lesión, masa corporal magra), la influencia de la edad en el cálculo de las necesidades calóricas y las fórmulas más utilizadas en el momento actual. También describimos los artículos que evalúan exactitud de las fórmulas cuando se comparan con mediciones mediante calorimetría indirecta. Conclusiones: Las ecuaciones predictivas son poco precisas en general en el paciente quemado. Hasta que se desarrollen ecuaciones predictivas más precisas, recomendamos calcular los requerimientos nutricionales de los pacientes quemados basándose en la medición del gasto energético por calorimetría indirecta.

  9. Validation of an incremental field test for the direct assessment of peak oxygen uptake in wheelchair-dependent athletes.

    PubMed

    Vinet, A; Bernard, P L; Poulain, M; Varray, A; Le Gallais, D; Micallef, J P

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this study was to validate an incremental field test performed by wheelchair-dependent (WD) athletes. Nine male paraplegic subjects (mean age 28.9 +/- 4.2 years) performed an incremental field test (FT) and a comparable laboratory test (LT) with their own usual wheelchairs. Both tests started with an initial speed of 4 km.hr(-1) and increased by increments of 1 km.hr(-1) every minute until volitional exhaustion. The FT was an adapted Léger and Boucher test (ALBT) and was conducted on a 400 m tartan field marked-off every 50 m with pylons. Ventilatory data were collected every 15 s using a portable telemetric system (Cosmed K2, JFB International, Italy). The LT was performed on an adapted treadmill (Sopur, Germany) and ventilatory data were collected every minute using a breath-by-breath automated system (CPX, Medical Graphics, MN, USA). The LT and the FT were not significantly different for duration (8 min 50 +/- 1 min 24 vs 9 min 55 +/- 29 s), percentage of maximal heart rate (HR, 86.2 +/- 3.9 vs 89.7 +/- 5.3%), maximal minute ventilation (VE, 101.6 +/- 28.5 vs 96.8 +/- 28.2 1.min(-1)) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak, 39.7 + 7.3 vs 36.1 + 5.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) assessed with the CPX and the K2, respectively. We concluded that the FT proposed in the present study is a valid test for direct VO2 peak assessment in wheelchair athletes using a portable VO2 telemetric system. Nonetheless, the Léger and Mercier model equation did not accurately predict VO2 max and further investigation is needed to determine a valid VO2 max prediction equation for these subjects during the FT.

  10. Ultrastructural changes in the tegument and gut of adult Fasciola hepatica following in vivo treatment with artesunate.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, J F; Johnston, R C; Halferty, L; Brennan, G P; Fairweather, I

    2015-07-01

    An in vivo study in the laboratory rat model has been carried out to monitor changes to the tegument and gut of adult Fasciola hepatica following treatment with artesunate. Rats infected with the triclabendazole-resistant Oberon isolate were dosed orally with artesunate at a concentration of 200 mg/kg and flukes recovered 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-treatment (pt). The flukes were processed for scanning and transmission electron microscope examination. Changes to the external surface were limited to swelling and blebbing of the interspinal tegument. There was one exception, a specimen recovered 72 h pt, which had completely lost the syncytium over the posterior region of the fluke. Internal changes to the tegumental syncytium and cell bodies were more severe and were apparent from 48 h pt onwards. Increased numbers of secretory bodies were present in the apical region of the syncytium, the basal infolds were swollen and sloughing of the apical plasma membrane was seen at 96 h pt. In the cell bodies, there was swelling and vesiculation of the cisternae of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (ger), swelling of the mitochondria and a decrease in secretory body production. Changes to the gastrodermal cells were evident from 24 h onwards. They comprised swelling and vesiculation of the ger cisternae, swelling and lysis of the mitochondria and accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and lipid droplets. The nuclei of the cells were karyopyknotic by 96 h pt. The gut was consistently more severely affected than the tegument at all time points pt, pointing to an oral route of uptake for artesunate. This study has provided information on the primary subcellular targets for drug action in the fluke.

  11. Gastro-esophageal reflux time parameters and esophagitis in children

    SciTech Connect

    Baulieu, F.; Baulieu, J.; Maurage, C.; Casset, D.; Itti, R.

    1985-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the correlation between the reflux timing and the presence of esophagitis, an inconstant but serious complication of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). The hypothesis was that reflux occurring late after meal can be incriminated more than early reflux in esophagitis genesis. 32 children with GER (mean age = 10.5 months, 2 to 30 months) had esophagoscopy and scintigraphy in the same week. The children were classified in two groups according to esophagoscopy: group 1 (n = 18) no esophagitis, group 2 (n = 14) esophaqgitis. The scintigraphy involved the ingestion of 0.5 mCi Tc-99m sulfur colloid milk mixture, followed by esophageal and gastric activity recording (one image per minute for 1 hour). The reflux was assessed from contrast enhanced images and esophageal time activity curves. Reflux intensity was quantitated by reflux index (Re). Mean reflux time was calculated as the mean esophageal activity peaks time (t-bar). Finally a composite parameter was calculated as the mean reflux time weighted by the relative intensity of each reflux peak (t-barw). Re was not found to be different between the two groups. t-bar was significantly higher in group 2: t-bar = 29.6 +- 3.0 mn (mean +- SD) than in group 1: t-bar = 24.5 +- 6.8 mn; rho <0.02. The difference between the two groups was enhanced by intensity weighting: group 1: t-barw = 16.6 +- 6.3 mn, group 2: t-barw = 33.5 +- 7.1 mn rho <0.001. t-barw value was not correlated to esophagitis grade. These results suggest that late reflux is more likely responsible of esophagitis.

  12. Anorexigenic effects of miglitol in concert with the alterations of gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kaku, H; Tajiri, Y; Yamada, K

    2012-04-01

    Although the α-glucosidase inhibitor miglitol (MG) has been reported to have anorexigenic effects, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of MG on appetite in relation to concomitant changes in postprandial gut hormone levels. This randomized open-label crossover study included 20 healthy volunteers. The effects of 50 mg MG on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin levels were assessed in conjunction with a simultaneous determination of appetite scores using visual analogue scales (VAS) over 3 h after the ingestion of a 592 kcal test cookie. Additionally, the gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using breath ¹³CO₂ appearance in 10 subjects. 12 subjects were administered 50 mg MG thrice a day for 1 week, and alterations of the gut hormone levels and the VAS scores for appetite were evaluated. MG pre-administration resulted in a significant enhancement of GLP-1 and PYY responses induced by the cookie ingestion. Following MG administration, ghrelin level declined at 1 h, with a persistent suppression during the postprandial phase in contrast to the restoration to the basal level without MG. Furthermore, MG pre-administration suppressed appetite and maintained satiety evaluated using a VAS rating with concomitant inhibition of GER after cookie ingestion. One-week administration of MG did not influence either gut hormone levels before a meal or VAS rating during a whole day. These observations suggest that MG exerts an anorexigenic effects with concomitant alterations of gut hormone secretions and gastric emptying after meal ingestion. PMID:22351480

  13. Using videogrammetry and 3D image reconstruction to identify crime suspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    The anthropometry and movements are unique for every individual human being. We identify persons we know by recognizing the way the look and move. By quantifying these measures and using image processing methods this method can serve as a tool in the work of the police as a complement to the ability of the human eye. The idea is to use virtual 3-D parameterized models of the human body to measure the anthropometry and movements of a crime suspect. The Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science in cooperation with SAAB Military Aircraft have developed methods for measuring the lengths of persons from video sequences. However, there is so much unused information in a digital image sequence from a crime scene. The main approach for this paper is to give an overview of the current research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group where methods to measure anthropometrical data and movements by using virtual 3-D parameterized models of the person in the crime scene are being developed. The length of an individual might vary up to plus or minus 10 cm depending on whether the person is in upright position or not. When measuring during the best available conditions, the length still varies within plus or minus 1 cm. Using a full 3-D model provides a rich set of anthropometric measures describing the person in the crime scene. Once having obtained such a model the movements can be quantified as well. The results depend strongly on the accuracy of the 3-D model and the strategy of having such an accurate 3-D model is to make one estimate per image frame by using 3-D scene reconstruction, and an averaged 3-D model as the final result from which the anthropometry and movements are calculated.

  14. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Suites of closely-spaced minor moraines may help further understanding of glacier retreat and predict its geomorphological effects through the observations of moraine formation on short timescales. This research is common in lowland, maritime settings (Sharp, 1984; Boulton, 1986; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013), but remains sparse in high-mountain settings (Hewitt, 1967; Ono, 1985; Beedle et al., 2009; Lukas, 2012). This research presents detailed sedimentological and geomorphological research on minor moraines at two high-mountain settings in the Alps: Silvrettagletscher, Switzerland, as a modern setting and Schwarzensteinkees, Austria, as a historical setting. Geomorphological investigations included mapping and measurements through field observations and assessing aerial imagery. Additionally, terrestrial laser scanning and ground-penetrating radar data were collected in the Schwarzensteinkees foreland. Detailed sedimentological investigations followed excavation of seven moraines at Silvrettagletscher and five moraines at Schwarzensteinkees and include multiple scales of observation and measurements to support interpretations of sediment transport and deposition (e.g. Evans and Benn, 2004). The modern moraines at Silvrettagletscher, in the immediately proglacial foreland, have been forming since before 2003. Four mechanisms of formation show distinct sedimentological signatures: formerly ice-cored moraines (e.g. Kjær & Krüger, 2001; Lukas, 2012; Reinardy et al., 2013) , push moraine formation on a reverse bedrock slope (e.g. Lukas, 2012), push moraine formation incorporating sediments deposited in a former proglacial basin, and basal freeze-on (e.g. Andersen & Sollid, 1971; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013). Schwarzensteinkees still exists but is currently restricted to steeply-dipping bedrock slabs above the main valley. This study therefore investigates the moraines in the foreland that formed between approximately 1850 and 1930. The minor

  15. Detailed sedimentology and geomorphology elucidate mechanisms of formation of modern and historical sequences of minor moraines in the European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyshnytzky, Cianna; Lukas, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Suites of closely-spaced minor moraines may help further understanding of glacier retreat and predict its geomorphological effects through the observations of moraine formation on short timescales. This research is common in lowland, maritime settings (Sharp, 1984; Boulton, 1986; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013), but remains sparse in high-mountain settings (Hewitt, 1967; Ono, 1985; Beedle et al., 2009; Lukas, 2012). This research presents detailed sedimentological and geomorphological research on minor moraines at two high-mountain settings in the Alps: Silvrettagletscher, Switzerland, as a modern setting and Schwarzensteinkees, Austria, as a historical setting. Geomorphological investigations included mapping and measurements through field observations and assessing aerial imagery. Additionally, terrestrial laser scanning and ground-penetrating radar data were collected in the Schwarzensteinkees foreland. Detailed sedimentological investigations followed excavation of seven moraines at Silvrettagletscher and five moraines at Schwarzensteinkees and include multiple scales of observation and measurements to support interpretations of sediment transport and deposition (e.g. Evans and Benn, 2004). The modern moraines at Silvrettagletscher, in the immediately proglacial foreland, have been forming since before 2003. Four mechanisms of formation show distinct sedimentological signatures: formerly ice-cored moraines (e.g. Kjær & Krüger, 2001; Lukas, 2012; Reinardy et al., 2013) , push moraine formation on a reverse bedrock slope (e.g. Lukas, 2012), push moraine formation incorporating sediments deposited in a former proglacial basin, and basal freeze-on (e.g. Andersen & Sollid, 1971; Krüger, 1995; Reinardy et al., 2013). Schwarzensteinkees still exists but is currently restricted to steeply-dipping bedrock slabs above the main valley. This study therefore investigates the moraines in the foreland that formed between approximately 1850 and 1930. The minor

  16. Oceanic contributions from tropical upwelling systems to atmospheric halogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziska, Franziska; Hepach, Helmke; Stemmler, Irene; Quack, Birgit; Atlas, Elliot; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Bracher, Astrid; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin

    2014-05-01

    transport in sea water, and gas-exchange with the atmosphere (Stemmler et al., 2013 a, b). Fuhlbrügge, S., Krüger, K., Quack, B., Atlas, E. L., Hepach, H., and Ziska, F.: Impact of the marine atmospheric boundary layer on vsls abundances in the eastern tropical and subtropical north atlantic ocean, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 13, 6345-6357, 10.5194/acp-13-6345-2013, 2013. Hepach, H., Quack, B., Ziska, F., Fuhlbrügge, S., Atlas, E. L., Peeken, I., Krüger, K., and Wallace, D. W. R.: Drivers of diel and regional variations of halocarbon emissions from the tropical North East Atlantic, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 19701-19750, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-19701-2013, 2013. Stemmler, I., Rothe, M., Hense, I., and Hepach, H.: Numerical modelling of methyl iodide in the eastern tropical Atlantic, Biogeosciences, 10, 4211-4225, doi:10.5194/bg-10-4211-2013, 2013. Stemmler, I., Hense, I., Quack, B., and Maier-Reimer, E.: Methyl iodide production in the open ocean, Biogeosciences Discuss., 10, 17549-17595, doi:10.5194/bgd-10-17549-2013, 2013. Ziska, F., Quack, B., Abrahamsson, K., Archer, S. D., Atlas, E., Bell, T., Butler, J. H., Carpenter, L. J., Jones, C. E., Harris, N. R. P., Hepach, H., Heumann, K. G., Hughes, C., Kuss, J., Krüger, K., Liss, P., Moore, R. M., Orlikowska, A., Raimund, S., Reeves, C. E., Reifenhäuser, W., Robinson, A. D., Schall, C., Tanhua, T., Tegtmeier, S., Turner, S., Wang, L., Wallace, D., Williams, J., Yamamoto, H., Yvon-Lewis, S., and Yokouchi, Y.: Global sea-to-air flux climatology for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 5601-5648, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-5601-2013, 2013.

  17. Resting energy expenditure; assessment methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Blasco Redondo, Raquel

    2015-02-26

    El gasto energético total diario de un individuo (GETD) representa la energía que el organismo consume. Está constituido por la suma de: tasa metabólica basal (TMB), termogénesis endógena (TE) y gasto energético ligado a la actividad física (GEAF). La determinación del GETD considerando la actividad física y el estado de salud de una persona, es muy importante para ajustar el cálculo de la necesidad nutricional para cada individuo. La TMB es la mínima cantidad de energía que un organismo requiere para estar vivo. Constituye del 60 al 70% del GETD en la mayoría de los adultos sedentarios, en tanto, en los individuos físicamente muy activos es de aproximadamente el 50%. Varía dependiendo de la composición corporal, especialmente de la masa corporal magra. El metabolismo basal expresado como TMB, es diferente a la tasa metabólica en reposo (TMR) o Gasto Energético en Reposo (GER); este último se obtiene cuando la determinación se hace en reposo y en las condiciones descritas para la TMB pero no en ayuno, incluyendo por tanto la energía utilizada para el aprovechamiento biológico de los alimentos. Habitualmente, el GER se determina por medio de diferentes técnicas como la calorimetría indirecta, la bioimpedancia eléctrica, el agua doblemente marcada, las ecuaciones predictivas, entre otras. Estos métodos son utilizados en la práctica clínica y en estudios científicos. Sin embargo, debido a la inconsistencia de los resultados de estas investigaciones, todavía no hay un consenso respecto a su aplicabilidad aunque la evidencia señala que la medición del consumo de oxígeno, es el método de mayor precisión. Objetivos: Esta revisión tiene como objetivo exponer los componentes del gasto energético en reposo, así como las técnicas para su determinación y estimación, señalando sus ventajas, limitaciones y aplicaciones prácticas. Resultados: Parte de las técnicas de evaluación del gasto energético descritas en esta revisión, quedan

  18. Detrital geochronology of unroofing magmatic complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusà, Marco Giovanni; Villa, Igor Maria; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2010-05-01

    Tectonic reconstructions performed in recent years are increasingly based on petrographic (Dickinson & Suczek, 1979; Garzanti et al., 2007) and geochronological (Brandon et al., 1998; DeCelles et al., 2004) analyses of detrital systems. Detrital age patterns are traditionally interpreted as a result of cooling induced by exhumation (Jäger, 1967; Dodson, 1973). Such an approach can lead to infer extremely high erosion rates (Giger & Hurford 1989) that conflict with compelling geological evidence (Garzanti & Malusà, 2008). This indicates that interpretations solely based on exhumational cooling may not have general validity (Villa, 2006). Here we propose a new detrital geochronology model that takes into account the effects of both crystallization and exhumational cooling on geochronometers, from U-Pb on zircon to fission tracks on apatite. This model, specifically designed for unroofing magmatic complexes, predicts both stationary and moving mineral-age peaks. Because its base is the ordinary interaction between endogenic and exogenic processes, it is applicable to any geological setting. It was tested on the extremely well-studied Bregaglia-Bergell pluton in the Alps, and on the sedimentary succession derived from its erosion. The consistency between predicted and observed age patterns validates the model. Our results demonstrate that volcanoes were active on top of the growing Oligocene Alps, and resolve a long-standing paradox in quantitative erosion-sedimentation modelling, the scarcity of sediment during apparently fast erosion. Dickinson, W. R. & Suczek, C. A. Plate tectonics and sandstone composition. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol. Bull. 63, 2164-2172 (1979). Garzanti, E., Doglioni, C., Vezzoli. G. & Andò, S. Orogenic belts and orogenic sediment provenance. J. Geol. 115, 315-334 (2007). Brandon, M. T., Roden-Tice, M. K. & Garver, J. I. Cenozoic exhumation of the Cascadia accretionary wedge in the Olympic Mountains, northwest Washington State. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull

  19. Occurrence and environmental implications of the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater treatment plants of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, Yolanda; Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Drugs of abuse are continuously discharged into wastewaters due to human excretion as parent compounds and/or secondary metabolites after consumption or accidental disposal into the toilets. (Boles and Wells,2010). Incomplete removal of these compounds during wastewater treatment results in their release to the environment. Pollution by illicit drug residues at very low concentrations is generalized in populated areas, with potential risks for human health and the environment. The impact of treated wastewater effluent on the quality of receiving waters can be evaluated performing an investigated performing an ecotoxicological risk assessment calculating the risk quotient (RQ) of the drugs of abuse level observed. In addition, back-calculation from the concentration of illicit drug in the influents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) provides an important tool for estimating its local consumption (Daughton 2001). Sampling campaigns were in three years, 2011 (March 9th to 15th), 2012 (April 17th to May 1st) and 2013 (March 6th to 12th) in influents and effluents from 3 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger, that treats most of the wastewater of Valencia City and its surrounding towns. Cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), ecstasy (MDMA) and ketamine (KET), Benzoylecgonine (BE), 6-acethylmorphine (6-MAM), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques such as liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) Illicit drugs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive ionization with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). The determination of drugs of abuse in the influent of the selected WWTP shows that all compounds were detected in 100% of influents from Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger in samples analyzed during three years

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux in pregnancy: a systematic review on the benefit of raft forming agents.

    PubMed

    Quartarone, G

    2013-10-01

    during the weeks of observation; the symptoms monitored in all studies were: heartburn, regurgitation, pain (chest). After four weeks of treatment little or no change was observed in maternal mean sodium or potassium concentrations. No sodium restriction diet has been adopted. No edema of lower limbs or weight gain occurred. No adverse reactions related to the testing drug had been reported and all the authors concluded that alginate was safe for the unborn baby. Nowadays pharmacological treatments for GER are available as OTC drugs, including antacids, antisecretive agents, PPIs and H2RAs, and as medical devices, such as alginate raft forming antireflux agents (i.e.: Reflubloc™, Novartis NCH Italy). On this last product, considering the specific indication in pregnancy and the safety profile, without restrictions of administration during the whole pregnancy period, furthermore the physical mode of action, it gives the gynecologists a very important option in treating GER in pregnancy, taking care of both pregnant and fetus. Raft-forming-antireflux agents are safe and effective in GER treatment during pregnancy.

  1. Multispectral Digital Image Analysis of Varved Sediments in Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, K.; Rein, B.; Dietrich, S.

    2006-12-01

    An update of the recently developed method COMPONENTS (Rein, 2003, Rein & Jäger, subm.) for the discrimination of sediment components in thin sections is presented here. COMPONENTS uses a 6-band (multispectral) image analysis. To derive six-band spectral information of the sediments, thin sections are scanned with a digital camera mounted on a polarizing microscope. The thin sections are scanned twice, under polarized and under unpolarized plain light. During each run RGB images are acquired which are subsequently stacked to a six-band file. The first three bands (Blue=1, Green=2, Red=3) result from the spectral behaviour in the blue, green and red band with unpolarized light conditions, and the bands 4 to 6 (Blue=4, Green=5, Red=6) from the polarized light run. The next step is the discrimination of the sediment components by their transmission behaviour. Automatic classification algorithms broadly used in remote sensing applications cannot be used due to unavoidable variations of sediment particle or thin section thicknesses that change absolute grey values of the sediment components. Thus, we use an approach based on band ratios, also known as indices. By using band ratios, the grey values measured in different bands are normalized against each other and illumination variations (e.g. thickness variations) are eliminated. By combining specific ratios we are able to detect all seven major components in the investigated sediments (carbonates, diatoms, fine clastic material, plant rests, pyrite, quartz and resin). Then, the classification results (compositional maps) are validated. Although the automatic classification and the analogous classification show high concordances, some systematic errors could be identified. For example, the transition zone between the sediment and resin filled cracks is classified as fine clastic material and very coarse carbonates are partly classified as quartz because coarse carbonates can be very bright and spectra are partly

  2. The natural flux of greenhouse gases in the case of monitoring the flux of juvenile carbon dioxide in the Hranice Karst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geršl, Milan; Stepišnik, Uroš; Mareček, Jan; Geršlová, Eva; Hammerschmiedt, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Located in the Teplice nad Bečvou district 40 km SE of Olomouc (Czech Republic), the hydrothermal Hranice Karst with the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves has been developed in the sequence of Palaeozoic limestones as a result of deep influx of thermal water charged with subcrustal carbon dioxide (CO2). This area of discharge of juvenile carbon dioxide is a unique place where one can study the long-term natural production of a greenhouse gas and confront it with the anthropogenic production. As a result, the continuous measurements of the properties of the cave microclimate with additional seasonal measurements of flux of carbon dioxide give rise to a rare pool of data that cover natural routes of greenhouse gases. Repeated seasonal analysis of the ratio of stable carbon isotopes in carbon dioxide (d13C around -5 ) (Meyberg - Rinne, 1995)has suggested the juvenile (mantle) origin of this gas. Isotopic analyses in the mineral water of dissolved gases (He) show that some part of these gases come from the upper mantle of the Earth. The lower floors of the caves are filled with carbon dioxide producing so-called gas lakes in the area. Concentrations of the gas commonly reach 40 % by volume. In 1999, for example, the average concentration in the Gallas dome was 84.9 % by volume. Flux of CO2 (g.m-2.d-1) was measured on the surface and in the cave. The homogenisation chamber and the pumping test were applied to evaluate the CO2 flux. The average CO2 flux in the soil ranged from 74 to 125 g.m-2.d-1, reflecting the venting of subcrustal CO2 in the Hranice area (Geršl et al., 2012). In the Zbrašov Aragonite Caves the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere fluctuates from 0,X to 85 % with the measured constant flux being 32 894 g.m-2.d-1. Since 2005, the CO2 concentrations in the cave area have been reported by an automatic monitoring system at 10 cave sites. CO2 concentrations are recorded in 5-min intervals. Interpretation can be put into the context of measuring concentrations of

  3. Effectiveness of voice therapy in reflux-related voice disorders.

    PubMed

    Vashani, K; Murugesh, M; Hattiangadi, G; Gore, G; Keer, V; Ramesh, V S; Sandur, V; Bhatia, S J

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with laryngopharyngeal reflux plays a significant role in voice disorders. A significant proportion of patients attending ear, nose, and throat clinics with voice disorders may have gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). There is no controlled study of the effect of voice therapy on GERD. We assessed the effect of voice therapy in patients with dysphonia and GERD. Thirty-two patients with dysphonia and GERD underwent indirect laryngoscopy and voice analysis. Esophageal and laryngeal symptoms were assessed using the reflux symptom index (RSI). At endoscopy, esophagitis was graded according to Los Angeles classification. Patients were randomized to receive either voice therapy and omeprazole (20 mg bid) (n=16, mean [SD] age 36.1 [9.6] y; 5 men; Gp A) or omeprazole alone (n=16, age 31.8 [11.7] y; 9 men; Gp B). During voice analysis, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR) and normalized noise energy (NNE) were assessed using the Dr. Speech software (version 4 1998; Tigers DRS, Inc). Hoarseness and breathiness of voice were assessed using a perceptual rating scale of 0-3. Parameters were reassessed after 6 weeks, and analyzed using parametric or nonparametric tests as applicable. In Group A, 9 patients had Grade A, 3 had Grade B, and 1 had Grade C esophagitis; 3 had normal study. In Group B, 8 patients had Grade A, 2 had Grade B esophagitis, and 6 had normal study. Baseline findings: median RSI scores were comparable (Group A 20.0 [range 14-27], Group B 19.0 [15-24]). Median rating was 2.0 for hoarseness and breathiness for both groups. Values in Groups A and B for jitter 0.5 (0.6) versus 0.5 (0.8), shimmer 3.1 (2.5) versus 2.8 (2.0), HNR 23.0 (5.6) versus 23.1 (4.2), and NNE -7.3 (3.2) versus -7.2 (3.4) were similar. Post-therapy values for Groups A and B: RSI scores were 9.0 (5-13; P<0.01 as compared with baseline) and 13.0 (10-17; P<0.01), respectively. Ratings for hoarseness and breathiness were 0.5 (P<0.01) and 1.0 (P<0

  4. Dynamical downscaling of warming scenarios with NEMO-Nordic setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, Matthias; Almroth Rosell, Elin; Anderson, Helén; Axell, Lars; Dieterich, Christain; Edman, Moa; Eilola, Kari; Höglund, Anders; Hordoir, Robinson; Hieronymus, Jenny; Karlsson, Bengt; Liu, Ye; Meier, Markus; Pemberton, Per; Saraiva, Sofia

    2016-04-01

    The North Sea and Baltic Sea constitute one of the most complex and challenging areas in the world. The oceanographic setting ranges from quasi open ocean conditions in the northern North Sea to more brackish conditions in the Baltic Sea which is also affected by sea ice in winter. The two seas are connected by narrow straits which sporadically allow the important inflow of salt and oxygen rich bottom waters into the Baltic Sea. For this, the high resolution regional model NEMO-Nordic has recently been developed. Here, the model is applied on hindcast simulations and used to downscale several climate warming scenarios. The model can be interactively coupled to the regional atmosphere model RCA4 by exchanging air sea fluxes of mass and energy (Wang et al., 2015). Comparison with well established models and newly compiled observational data sets (Bersch et al., 2013) indicates NEMO-Nordic performs well on climate relevant time scales. Emphasis is laid on thermal dynamics. Hindcast simulations demonstrate that simulated winter temperatures in the Baltic Sea can benefit from interactive air sea coupling by allowing interactive feedback loops to take place between the ocean and the atmosphere (Gröger et al. 2015). Likewise, a more realistic dynamical behaviour makes the interactive coupled model suitable for dynamic downscaling of climate warming scenarios. Depending on the driving global climate model and IPCC representative concentration pathway scenario NEMO-Nordic shows an average warming of the North Sea between 2 and 4 K at the end of the 21st century. However the warming pattern is spatially inhomogeneous showing strong east west gradients. Involved processes such as circulation changes and changes in radiative forcing will be discussed. Bersch, M., Gouretski, V., Sadikni, R., Hinrichs, I., 2013. Hydrographic climatology of the North Sea and surrounding regions. Centre for Earth System Research and Sustainability, University of Hamburg, www

  5. 32 Years of Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1976-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trickl, T.; Giehl, H.; Jäger, H.; Scheel, H. E.

    2009-04-01

    In 1973, a powerful backscatter lidar was installed at Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany) and has almost continually delivered backscatter coefficients of the stratospheric aerosol since 1976. The lidar was first operated with a ruby laser (694 nm), since 1990 with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532) nm. A 0.52-m-diameter Cassegrain telescope collects the backscattered light. The time series is dominated by signals from the particles injected into the stratosphere by major volcanic eruptions, in particular those of El Chichon (Mexico, 1982) and Mt. Pinatubo (Philippines, 1991). The volcanic aerosol disappears within about five years, the removal from the stratosphere being modulated by the phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation [Jäger, 2005]. During the long-lasting background period since the late 1990s the stratospheric backscatter coefficients have reached a level even below that observed in the late 1970s. This suggests that the predicted potential influence of the strongly growing air traffic on the stratospheric aerosol loading is very low. Some correlation may be found with strong forest fires [Fromm et al., 2008]. Therefore, we plan to intensify investigations on the impact of the increasing number of fires on the stratospheric background aerosol. An interesting temporary aerosol event was observed in December 2006. Up to 30 km the stratosphere was loaded with aerosols for a few days. No volcanic eruption or wild fires could be identified during the two months preceding these observations. Since very cold temperatures prevailed, we tentatively suggest the presence of a vertically highly extended polar stratospheric cloud as the most likely explanation. This interpretation is further supported by the rather short period during which this observation could be made, and its confinement to Central Europe where the lowest stratospheric temperatures were reported. More work is needed to harden this conclusion. References: H. Jäger, J. Geophys. Res. 110 (2005

  6. Galileo in-situ dust measurements in Jupiter’s gossamer rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Moissl, Richard; Grün, Eberhard

    2009-09-01

    with inclinations up to 20°. Finally, the faint Thebe ring extension was detected out to at least 5 RJ, indicating that grains attain higher eccentricities than previously thought. The drop interior to Thebe, the excess of submicron grains at Amalthea, and the faint ring extension indicate that grain dynamics is strongly influenced by electromagnetic forces. These findings can all be explained by a shadow resonance as detailed by Hamilton and Krüger [Hamilton, D.P., Krüger, H., 2008. Nature 453, 72-75].

  7. Galileo in-situ dust measurements and the sculpting of Jupiter's gossamer rings by its shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Moissl, Richard; Grün, Eberhard

    2008-09-01

    Galileo was the first articfiial satellite to orbit Jupiter. During its late orbital mission the spacecraft made two passages through the giant planet's gossamer ring system. The highly sensitive impact-ionization dust detector on board successfully recorded dust impacts during both ring passages and provided the first in-situ measurements from a dusty planetary ring. During the first passage { on 5 November 2002 while Galileo was approaching Jupiter - dust measurements were collected until a spacecraft anomaly at 2:33RJ (Jupiter radii) just 16 min after a close flyby of Amalthea put the spacecraft into a safing mode. The second ring passage on 21 September 2003 provided ring dust measurements down to about 2:5RJ and the Galileo spacecraft was destroyed shortly thereafter in a planned impact with Jupiter. In all, a few thousand dust impacts were counted with the instrument accumulators during both ring passages, but only a total of 110 complete data sets of dust impacts were transmitted to Earth (Krüger et al, Icarus, submitted). Detected particle sizes range from about 0.2 to 5 μm, extending the known size distribution by an order of magnitude towards smaller particles than previously derived from optical imaging (Showalter et al., Icarus 2008). The grain size distribution increases towards smaller particles and shows an excess of these tiny motes in the Amalthea gossamer ring compared to the Thebe ring. The size distribution for the Amalthea ring derived from our in-situ measurements for the small grains agrees very well with the one obtained from images for large grains. Our analysis shows that particles contributing most to the optical cross-section are approximately 5 μm in radius, in agreement with imaging results. The measurements indicate a large drop in particle ux immediately interior to Thebe's orbit and some detected particles seem to be on highly-tilted orbits with inclinations up to 20°. Finally, the faint Thebe ring extension was detected out to

  8. Problématique de l'utilisation des Moustiquaires Imprégnées d'insecticide à Longue Durée (MILD) chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans en République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Cilundika Mulenga; Odile, Nyota Nsenga; Numbi, Oscar Luboya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le paludisme est une maladie parasitaire à transmission vectorielle qui constitue un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays tropicaux, particulièrement les pays de l'Afrique Subsaharienne. La présente étude avait pour objectif d'identifier le niveau d'utilisation de la MILD chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans dans la zone de santé de Mumbunda. Méthodes L’étude, de type transversal, a été mené du 25 au 27 octobre 2013 et a porté sur un échantillon de 410 ménages tirés au hasard et ayant au moins un enfant de moins de 5 ans. Résultats Parmi les ménages qui avaient déclaré possédaient la MILD 13,1% (n=54) des répondant avaient déclaré les utilisé chez les enfants de moins de 5ans et 80,2% pour tout le monde. Dans 22,0% des cas, les répondants ont évoqué le manque d'argent comme motif de la non possession de la MILD. Les répondants savaient déclarer à 79,8% avoir utilisé la MILD pour se protéger contre la malaria et à 66,3% pour se protéger contre les piqures des moustiques. La MILD a été étalée à l'ombre pendant 24h avant d’être utilisée pour la première fois par 77,9% des ménages. Les répondants avaient déclaré à 15,3% (n=63) avoir reçu les conseils par les médias pour l'usage de la moustiquaire. Et le personnel médical était la source la plus importante pour expliquer le mode d'emploi de la MILD pour 51,2% des ménages. Conclusion La réussite pour faire reculer le paludisme doit nécessairement passer par la prévention, le suivi et l’évaluation de l'utilisation des moustiquaires imprégnées au niveau de la zone de santé de Mumbunda. PMID:27222690

  9. Analysis of kinetoplast cytochrome b gene of 16 Leishmania isolates from different foci of China: different species of Leishmania in China and their phylogenetic inference

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmania species belong to the family Trypanosomatidae and cause leishmaniasis, a geographically widespread disease that infects humans and other vertebrates. This disease remains endemic in China. Due to the large geographic area and complex ecological environment, the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationship of Chinese Leishmania isolates remain uncertain. A recent internal transcribed spacer 1 and cytochrome oxidase II phylogeny of Chinese Leishmania isolates has challenged some aspects of their traditional taxonomy as well as cladistics hypotheses of their phylogeny. The current study was designed to provide further disease background and sequence analysis. Methods We systematically analyzed 50 cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences of 19 isolates (16 from China, 3 from other countries) sequenced after polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a special primer for cyt b as well as 31 sequences downloaded from GenBank. After alignment, the data were analyzed using the maximum parsimony, Bayesian and netwok methods. Results Sequences of six haplotypes representing 10 Chinese isolates formed a monophyletic group and clustered with Leishmania tarentolae. The isolates GS1, GS7, XJ771 of this study from China clustered with other isolates of Leishmania donovani complex. The isolate JS1 was a sister to Leishmania tropica, which represented an L. tropica complex instead of clustering with L. donovani complex or with the other 10 Chinese isolates. The isolates KXG-2 and GS-GER20 formed a monophyletic group with Leishmania turanica from central Asia. In the different phylogenetic trees, all of the Chinese isolates occurred in at least four groups regardless of geographic distribution. Conclusions The undescribed Leishmania species of China, which are clearly causative agents of canine leishmaniasis and human visceral leishmaniasis and are related to Sauroleishmania, may have evolved from a common ancestral parasite that came from the Americas and may have

  10. Esophageal and small intestinal manifestations of progressive systemic sclerosis. A clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Hendel, L

    1994-09-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a systemic disease with a high frequency of gastro-intestinal involvement. The present thesis deals with the occurrence of, the complications to, and the treatment of the esophageal manifestations combined with more experimental studies on small intestine manifestations. The conclusions in this thesis are based on results achieved in 9 original previously published papers. The pattern of esophageal dysmotility is thoroughly evaluated in 156 consecutive PSS patients and is found to be identical to what is found in other large series of PSS patients. In paper no. I dysmotility variables are correlated to the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and it is shown that also in this group of patients with well defined dysmotility problems the only reliable GER test is pH-metry. Esophageal dysmotility furthers esophageal candidosis, which is further facilitated by anti-reflux treatment. This problem is evaluated in paper no. V. Progression of esophageal dysmotility in spite of D-penicillamine treatment is shown in paper no. VII and confirms the non-stable condition of the PSS patient in regard to esophageal manifestations and complications. This point is also outlined in paper no. IX concerning surveillance and continuous treatment of esophageal PSS. Esophageal stricturing is a well-known entity in PSS. The etiologic question of esophageal stricturing being a manifestation of PSS and/or a peptic complication, is approached in paper no. VIII. PSS manifestations of the small intestine are not as frequent as in the esophagus, in the present material only 19% presented with X-ray changes. However, bacterial count of duodenal juice as an indirect measurement of small intestinal dysmotility in paper no. VI indicates a much larger percentage of small intestinal involvement than revealed by X-ray. In paper no. VI the exocrine pancreatic function was assessed in 16 PSS patients. It is shown that the endogenous stimulation capacity is

  11. ACUTE CHANGES IN PASSIVE GLENOHUMERAL ROTATION FOLLOWING TENNIS PLAY EXPOSURE IN ELITE FEMALE PLAYERS

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, W. Ben; Myers, Natalie L.; Smith, Belinda J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alterations in glenohumeral (GH) rotation especially internal rotation and total range of motion have been associated with altered GH kinematics and susceptibility to injury. Researchers have evaluated long-term change in baseball and tennis players, and short-term changes in baseball players. However, acute (short-term) changes in GH rotation have not been evaluated in tennis players. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of this study was to quantify short-term glenohumeral rotational changes within a group of professional women's tennis players following competitive play. It was hypothesized that there would be acute alterations in passive glenohumeral internal rotation and total range of motion following episodes of tennis play. Study Design Cohort Study Methods Passive glenohumeral external rotation (GER), glenohumeral internal rotation (GIR), and total range of motion (TROM) were evaluated in a cohort of 79 professional adult female tennis players. Measurements were taken at three different time points (TP): baseline before match play (TP1), immediately after match play (TP2), and 24-hours after baseline (TP3). Results There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean GIR from TP1 (43 ± 11 °) to TP2 (39 ± 9 °) (p=0.002) and from TP1 to TP3 (38 ± 10 °) (p=0.001). All measures were at the level of minimal detectable change (MDC) (4 °) indicating clinical significance. There was a decrease in mean TROM from TP1 (146 ± 11 °) to TP2 (142 ± 12 °) (p=0.04), which was not above MDC (7 °). Subgroup analysis showed that 47% of the players demonstrated a decrease in GIR beyond MDC, and 37% demonstrated a decrease in TROM beyond MDC. GER remained unchanged across all time points (p>0.05). Conclusion Both GIR and TROM were reduced after acute exposure to tennis play. In a large subgroup of the cohort, the changes were clinically significant and approached values previously demonstrated to be associated with

  12. Endmember detection in marine environment with oil spill event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreou, Charoula; Karathanassi, Vassilia

    2011-11-01

    Oil spill events are a crucial environmental issue. Detection of oil spills is important for both oil exploration and environmental protection. In this paper, investigation of hyperspectral remote sensing is performed for the detection of oil spills and the discrimination of different oil types. Spectral signatures of different oil types are very useful, since they may serve as endmembers in unmixing and classification models. Towards this direction, an oil spectral library, resulting from spectral measurements of artificial oil spills as well as of look-alikes in marine environment was compiled. Samples of four different oil types were used; two crude oils, one marine residual fuel oil, and one light petroleum product. Lookalikes comprise sea water, river discharges, shallow water and water with algae. Spectral measurements were acquired with spectro-radiometer GER1500. Moreover, oil and look-alikes spectral signatures have been examined whether they can be served as endmembers. This was accomplished by testifying their linear independence. After that, synthetic hyperspectral images based on the relevant oil spectral library were created. Several simplex-based endmember algorithms such as sequential maximum angle convex cone (SMACC), vertex component analysis (VCA), n-finder algorithm (N-FINDR), and automatic target generation process (ATGP) were applied on the synthetic images in order to evaluate their effectiveness for detecting oil spill events occurred from different oil types. Results showed that different types of oil spills with various thicknesses can be extracted as endmembers.

  13. Sonication-based isolation and enrichment of Chlorella protothecoides chloroplasts for illumina genome sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Angelova, Angelina; Park, Sang-Hycuk; Kyndt, John; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Brown, Judith K

    2013-09-01

    With the increasing world demand for biofuel, a number of oleaginous algal species are being considered as renewable sources of oil. Chlorella protothecoides Krüger synthesizes triacylglycerols (TAGs) as storage compounds that can be converted into renewable fuel utilizing an anabolic pathway that is poorly understood. The paucity of algal chloroplast genome sequences has been an important constraint to chloroplast transformation and for studying gene expression in TAGs pathways. In this study, the intact chloroplasts were released from algal cells using sonication followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, resulting in a 2.36-fold enrichment of chloroplasts from C. protothecoides, based on qPCR analysis. The C. protothecoides chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing platform and found to be 84,576 Kb in size (8.57 Kb) in size, with a GC content of 30.8 %. This is the first report of an optimized protocol that uses a sonication step, followed by sucrose gradient centrifugation, to release and enrich intact chloroplasts from a microalga (C. prototheocoides) of sufficient quality to permit chloroplast genome sequencing with high coverage, while minimizing nuclear genome contamination. The approach is expected to guide chloroplast isolation from other oleaginous algal species for a variety of uses that benefit from enrichment of chloroplasts, ranging from biochemical analysis to genomics studies.

  14. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen (O₂) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O₂ measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) generated by the introduction of O₂ in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O₂ sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O₂ versus CO₂ (each 0-15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O₂ measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO₂. For the O₂ in situ measurement in silage, all O₂ sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O₂ depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O₂ penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O₂ concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  15. Performance Evaluation of New-Generation Pulse Oximeters in the NICU: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Greenwood, Kim; Barrowman, Nick; Harrold, JoAnn

    2015-09-01

    This crossover observational study compares the data characteristics and performance of new-generation Nellcor OXIMAX and Masimo SET SmartPod pulse oximeter technologies. The study was conducted independent of either original equipment manufacturer (OEM) across eleven preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The SmartPods were integrated with Dräger Infinity Delta monitors. The Delta monitor measured the heart rate (HR) using an independent electrocardiogram sensor, and the two SmartPods collected arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR). All patient data were non-Gaussian. Nellcor PR showed a higher correlation with the HR as compared to Masimo PR. The statistically significant difference found in their median values (1% for SpO2, 1 bpm for PR) was deemed clinically insignificant. SpO2 alarms generated by both SmartPods were observed and categorized for performance evaluation. Results for sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy and false alarm rates were Nellcor (80.3, 50, 44.5, 50%) and Masimo (72.2, 48.2, 40.6, 51.8%) respectively. These metrics were not statistically significantly different between the two pulse oximeters. Despite claims by OEMs, both pulse oximeters exhibited high false alarm rates, with no statistically or clinically significant difference in performance. These findings have a direct impact on alarm fatigue in the NICU. Performance evaluation studies can also impact medical device purchase decisions made by hospital administrators. PMID:26577369

  16. Optimal performance of single-column chromatography and simulated moving bed processes for the separation of optical isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medi, Bijan; Kazi, Monzure-Khoda; Amanullah, Mohammad

    2013-06-01

    Chromatography has been established as the method of choice for the separation and purification of optically pure drugs which has a market size of about 250 billion USD. Single column chromatography (SCC) is commonly used in the development and testing phase of drug development while multi-column Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) chromatography is more suitable for large scale production due to its continuous nature. In this study, optimal performance of SCC and SMB processes for the separation of optical isomers under linear and overloaded separation conditions has been investigated. The performance indicators, namely productivity and desorbent requirement have been compared under geometric similarity for the separation of a mixture of guaifenesin, and Tröger's base enantiomers. SCC process has been analyzed under equilibrium assumption i.e., assuming infinite column efficiency, and zero dispersion, and its optimal performance parameters are compared with the optimal prediction of an SMB process by triangle theory. Simulation results obtained using actual experimental data indicate that SCC may compete with SMB in terms of productivity depending on the molecules to be separated. Besides, insights into the process performances in terms of degree of freedom and relationship between the optimal operating point and solubility limit of the optical isomers have been ascertained. This investigation enables appropriate selection of single or multi-column chromatographic processes based on column packing properties and isotherm parameters.

  17. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-May, Elisa; Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans-Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-06-01

    Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM-CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM-CFs, German Bio-Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM-CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463-479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  18. Analytical evaluation of four on-site oral fluid drug testing devices.

    PubMed

    Vanstechelman, Sylvie; Isalberti, Cristina; Van der Linden, Trudy; Pil, Kristof; Legrand, Sara-Ann; Verstraete, Alain G

    2012-03-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) as an alternative matrix for the detection of drugs of abuse has increased over the last decade, leading to the need for a rapid, simple, and reliable on-site OF testing device. Four on-site OF drug testing devices (Dräger DrugTest 5000, Cozart DDS, Mavand Rapid STAT, and Innovacon OrAlert) were evaluated on 408 volunteers at drug treatment centers. UPLC-MS-MS results were used as reference to determine sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each device, applying Belgian legal confirmation cutoffs for benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and THC (10 ng/mL); morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (5 ng/mL); and amphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (25 ng/mL). Sensitivity for cocaine was 50%, 50%, 27%, and 11% for DrugTest, OrAlert, Rapid STAT, and DDS 806, respectively. For opiates, sensitivities were 84%, 73%, 77%, and 65%, respectively. For THC, the sensitivities were 81%, 23%, 43%, and 28%, respectively. For amphetamines, the sensitivities were 75%, 33%, 17%, and 67%, respectively. Specificity was >88% for opiates and THC, > 90% for amphetamines, and > 97% for cocaine. All tests showed good specificity. DrugTest had the highest sensitivity, although it was still low for some analytes. PMID:22337784

  19. Locust bean gum safety in neonates and young infants: an integrated review of the toxicological database and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Leo; Garthoff, Jossie A; Schaafsma, Anne; Krul, Lisette; Schrijver, Jaap; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Speijers, Gerrit; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2014-10-01

    Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivation of health based guidance values, the present integrated safety review aimed to compile all the relevant preclinical toxicological studies and to combine them with substantial evidence gathered from the clinical paediatric use as part of the weight of evidence supporting the safety in young infants below 12weeks of age. LBG was demonstrated to have very low toxicity in preclinical studies mainly resulting from its indigestible nature leading to negligible systemic bioavailability and only possibly influencing tolerance. A standard therapeutic level of 0.5g/100mL in thickened infant formula is shown to confer a sufficiently protective Margin of Safety. LBG was not associated with any adverse toxic or nutritional effects in healthy term infants, while there are limited case-reports of possible adverse effects in preterms receiving the thickener inappropriately. Altogether, it can be concluded that LBG is safe for its intended therapeutic use in term-born infants to treat uncomplicated regurgitation from birth onwards.

  20. Sequence motifs and prokaryotic expression of the reptilian paramyxovirus fusion protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, J.; Batts, W.N.; Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen reptilian paramyxovirus isolates were chosen to represent the known extent of genetic diversity among this novel group of viruses. Selected regions of the fusion (F) gene were sequenced, analyzed and compared. The F gene of all isolates contained conserved motifs homologous to those described for other members of the family Paramyxoviridae including: signal peptide, transmembrane domain, furin cleavage site, fusion peptide, N-linked glycosylation sites, and two heptad repeats, the second of which (HRB-LZ) had the characteristics of a leucine zipper. Selected regions of the fusion gene of isolate Gono-GER85 were inserted into a prokaryotic expression system to generate three recombinant protein fragments of various sizes. The longest recombinant protein was cleaved by furin into two fragments of predicted length. Western blot analysis with virus-neutralizing rabbit-antiserum against this isolate demonstrated that only the longest construct reacted with the antiserum. This construct was unique in containing 30 additional C-terminal amino acids that included most of the HRB-LZ. These results indicate that the F genes of reptilian paramyxoviruses contain highly conserved motifs typical of other members of the family and suggest that the HRB-LZ domain of the reptilian paramyxovirus F protein contains a linear antigenic epitope. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  1. Levels of heavy metals in adolescents living in the industrialised area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (northern Sicily).

    PubMed

    Interdonato, Monica; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Pallio, Giovanni; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12-14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population.

  2. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions. PMID:12307194

  3. CO and CO2 analysis in the diving gas of the fishermen of the Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Chin, Walter; Huchim, Oswaldo; Wegrzyn, Grace H; Sprau, Susan E; Salas, Silvia; Markovitz, Gerald H

    2015-01-01

    It is reported that more than 75% of 400 artisanal fisherman divers working off the Yucatan Peninsula experience decompression sickness (DCS) each year, making DCS an epidemic in this region. These divers use primitive hookah diving support systems (HDSS). Breathing air is supplied from inadequately filtered and poorly maintained gasoline-powered air compressors. We hypothesized that air supplies could be contaminated. Air contamination could produce symptoms consistent with some presentations of DCS. This could confound and falsely elevate the true incidence of DCS. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in a fishing community. Ten fishermen from a single cohort participated. Fishermen were instructed not to drain volume tanks following their last dive of the day before their diving air was sampled. Dräger carbon monoxide (CO) 5/a-P and carbon dioxide (CO2) 100/a Short-term Tubes were used to measure 1.0 liters (L) of gas through a Visi-Float flow meter at 0.2 L/minute. Average CO value was 42 ppm (8-150 ppm). Average CO2 was 663 ppm (600-800). Measurements exceeded recommended diving norms for CO of 20 ppm. CO2 exceeded one diving organization recommendation of 500 ppm. Separation of engine exhaust from compressor intake could decrease CO values in HDSS to acceptable standards thus eliminating one possible confounder from this DCS epidemic. PMID:26403015

  4. Cooling rate of an active Hawaiian lava flow from nighttime spectroradiometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    1992-09-01

    A narrow-band spectroradiometer has been used to make nighttime measurements of the Phase 50 eruption of Pu'u O'o, on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. On February 19, 1992, a GER spectroradiometer was used to determine the cooling rate of an active lava flow. This instrument collects 12-bit data between 0.35 to 3.0 microns at a spectral resolution of 1-5 nm. Thirteen spectra of a single area on a pahoehoe flow field were collected over a 59 minute period (21:27-22:26 HST) from which the cooling of the lava surface has been investigated. A two-component thermal mixing model (Flynn, 1992) applied to data for the flow immediately on emplacement gave a best-fit crustal temperature of 768 C, a hot component at 1150 C, and a hot radiating area of 3.6 percent of the total area. Over a 52-minute period (within the time interval between flow resurfacings) the lava flow crust cooled by 358 to 410 C at a rate that was as high as 15 C/min. The observations have significance both for satellite observations of active volcanoes and for numerical models of the cooling of lava flows during their emplacement.

  5. Geochemistry of quaternary shoshonitic lavas related to the Calama-Olacapato-El Toro Lineament, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, U.; Schwab, K.

    Along the NW/SE-trending Calama-Olacapato-El Toro Lineament, Cenozoic volcanics occur far to the east of the main volcanic chain of the Central Andes. The petrochemical data of Quaternary shoshonitic lava flows of Cerro San Gerónimo and Cerro Negro de Chorrillos, situated on this lineament, are discussed in comparison with the data of presumably late Tertiary lavas and pyroclastics of the same area. The presence of foids and high temperature quartz crystals rimmed by pyroxene in the study samples indicates magma mixing. The REE patterns of the shoshonites are steep, with LREE enrichment up to 200 times that of chondritic values. This points to garnet as a constituent mineral in the residual phase during magma generation. The influence of fractionation of plagioclase can be ignored. The petrochemical data point to a basanitic alkali basaltic primordial magma. It is suggested that this magma could pass the very thick crust (>60km) along the deep-reaching Calama-Olacapato-El Toro Lineament. On the way up the magma was contaminated by mixing of up to 25% with a silicic magma to produce the shoshonitic lavas.

  6. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-May, Elisa; Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans-Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-06-01

    Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM-CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM-CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM-CFs, German Bio-Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM-CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463-479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    PubMed

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  8. Cybergrooming: risk factors, coping strategies and associations with cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Sebastian; Wolf, Karsten D; Pan, Ching-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The use of information and communication technologies has become ubiquitous among adolescents. New forms of cyber aggression have emerged, cybergrooming is one of them. However, little is known about the nature and extent of cybergrooming. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of being cybergroomed, to identify various coping strategies and to explore the associations between being cyberbullied and cybergroomed. The sample consisted of 518 students in 6th to 10th grades. The computer assisted personal interview method (CAPI method) was implemented. The «Mobbing Questionnaire for Students» by Jäger et al. (2007) was further developed for this study and served as the research instrument. While being a girl, being cyberbullied and willingness to meet strangers could be identified as risk factors; no significant age differences were found. Furthermore, three types of coping strategies - aggressive, cognitive-technical and helpless - with varied impacts were identified. The findings not only shed light on understanding cybergrooming, but also suggest worth noting associations between various forms of cyber aggression. PMID:23079362

  9. [The history of anesthesia apparatus: basic principles].

    PubMed

    Wawersik, J

    1982-10-01

    The beginnings of modern anesthetic equipment date back to Morton's inhalation flagon in 1846. The numerous devices developed and introduced subsequently can be divided into four groups: 1. Simple ether and chloroform masks for open inhalation anesthesia, from Simpson (1847) to Brown (1928). 2. Vapour inhalators according to the "draw over" principle of Snow (1847) up to the Oxford vaporizer (1941). 3. Closed or half-closed inhalation equipment for ether or chloroform with to and fro breathing, from Clover (1877) to Ombredanne (1908). 4. Equipment for anaesthesia with nitrous oxide. From 1868 onwards this led to the incorporation of gas bottles in anaesthetic equipment and between 1885 and 1890 to the construction of mixing-valves for nitrous oxide and oxygen. In addition, reducing valves, flow meters and vaporizers were developed. The first anaesthetic apparatus with circle system and CO2-absorber was constructed in 1925 by the Dräger factory in Lübeck. Sudeck and Schmidt introduced this technique of anaesthesia in the university hospital of Hamburg-Eppendorf between 1920 and 1925. PMID:6758628

  10. Physikalische Bilder - Besinnung auf eine fachdidaktische Aufgabe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Are

    Physiker arbeiten an Darstellungen der Natur, d.h. sie suchen mit physikalischen Mitteln Bilder zu schaffen, die ihnen Naturzusammenhänge klarer und eindringlicher vor Augen führen. Schulunterricht soll jedem die Möglichkeit eröffnen, Physik in solchem Sinne - wenn auch in bescheidenem Rahmen - selbst zu treiben. Allzuoft bleibt diese Wissenschaft jedoch den Schülern ein kahles Gerüst und führt sie nicht zu inhaltsreichen Bildern. Es wird vorgeschlagen, Schulphysik mehr unter dem Gesichtspunkt einer Kunst zu sehen, die wirklich zu betreiben aber Muße erfordert.Translated AbstractPictures in Physics - Contemplation on a Teaching TaskPhysicists work on representations, i.e. they create mental pictures which help them to see and understand the intricate web of connections in nature. On a humble scale, school education should enable students to practice physics in this same sense. But far too often the results are unsatisfactory. It is suggested that one should try alternative viewpoints: looking at physics as an art and convince students that doing physics requires leisure.

  11. Honeybee-collected pollen from five Portuguese Natural Parks: palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Morais, Margarida; Moreira, Leandro; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the palynological origin, phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of pollen from five Portuguese Natural-Parks [Parque Nacional Peneda Gerês (PNPG); Parque Natural do Montesinho (PNM); Parque Natural do Alvão (PNA); Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela (PNSE) and Parque Natural do Douro Internacional (PNDI)]. Eight families were found in the mixture of bee pollen: Rosaceae, Cistaceae, Boraginaceae, Asteraceae, Fagaceae, Ericaeae, Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. The phenolic compounds content, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied between 10.5 and 16.8 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of extract (mg GAE/g) found in bee pollen from PNM and PNDI, respectively. The free radical scavenging measured showed the highest effective extract - PNM with EC(50) 2.16, followed by PND with 2.24 mg/mL. In the β-carotene bleaching assay the same behaviour as in the DPPH method was verified. We also verified that the presence of pollen differentially affected the growth of bacteria Gram-positive, Gram-negative and yeasts under study, depending this on the microorganism and the pollen used. This is an important study since, as far we know, it is the first time that Portuguese bee pollen from Natural Parks was studied, and their characterization can increase their economic value.

  12. Zeaxanthin and the Induction and Relaxation Kinetics of the Dissipation of Excess Excitation Energy in Leaves in 2% O2, 0% CO21

    PubMed Central

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Krüger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the carotenoid zeaxanthin, formed by violaxanthin de-epoxidation, and nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching (qNP) in the light was investigated in leaves of Glycine max during a transient from dark to light in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 100 to 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second. (a) Up to a qNP (which can vary between 0 and 1) of about 0.7, the zeaxanthin content of leaves was linearly correlated with qNP as well as with the rate constant for radiationless energy dissipation in the antenna chlorophyll (kD). Beyond this point, at very high degrees of fluorescence quenching, only kD was directly proportional to the zeaxanthin content. (b) The relationship between zeaxanthin and kD was quantitatively similar for the rapidly relaxing quenching induced in 2% O2, 0% CO2 at 200 micromoles of photons per square meter per second and for the sustained quenching induced by long-term exposure of Nerium oleander to drought in high light (B Demmig, K Winter, A Krüger, F-C Czygan [1988] Plant Physiol 87: 17-24). These findings suggest that the same dissipation process may be induced by very different treatments and that this particular dissipation process can have widely different relaxation kinetics. (c) A rapid induction of strong nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching within about 1 minute was observed exclusively in leaves which already contained a background level of zeaxanthin. PMID:16666893

  13. > Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spath, Dieter; Pischetsrieder, Bernd

    Rund 40 Prozent aller Fahrzeuge fahren elektrisch. Ein Zustand, der aus heutiger Sicht noch in weiter Ferne liegt, war vor über 100 Jahren bereits Realität. Um 1900, einige Jahre nach der Erfindung des Automobils, wurden Fahrzeuge durch unterschiedliche Antriebskonzepte angetrieben. Die drei wichtigsten waren Dampfantrieb, Elektroantrieb und der Benzinmotor. Durch die überlegene Energiedichte und eine kostengünstige sowie scheinbar unendliche Verfügbarkeit des Energieträgers Öl entwickelte sich der Verbrennungsmotor zum dominanten Antriebskonzept. Der Einsatz von Elektrofahrzeugen beschränkte sich im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts auf wenige Nischenanwendungen. Der verbrennungsmotorbasierte Antriebsstrang ist dem Elektroantrieb auch heute noch technisch und ökonomisch überlegen. Die Randbedingungen ändern sich jedoch. Die Verknappung des fossilen Brennstoffs Öl und die stetige Verschärfung der CO2-Emissionsziele in Verbindung mit einer starken Zunahme individueller Mobilität im asiatischen Raum und vielen weiteren Regionen der Welt stellen den Verbrennungsmotors als die dominante Antriebstechnologie in Frage. Trotz des Optimierungspotentials, welches auch nach über 120-jähriger Entwicklung noch im Verbrennungsmotor liegt, ist diese Technologie immer mit lokalen Schadstoff- und Lärmemissionen verbunden. Die Notwendigkeit der Reduktion von Treibhausgasen verbunden mit einem steigenden Urbanisierungsgrad wird in Zukunft einen Technologiewechsel vom Verbrennungsmotor zum elektrischen Antrieb attraktiv machen. Dieser Technologiewechsel bedeutet jedoch weit mehr als das Austauschen des Antriebsstranges, Elektromobilität ist ein komplexes Themengebiet mit unterschiedlichen Dimensionen.

  14. Correlation of penicillin-binding protein composition with different functions of two membranes in Bacillus subtilis forespores.

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, C E; Neyman, S L

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) within different membranes of sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis was examined in an effort to correlate the location of individual PBPs with their proposed involvement in either cortical or vegetative peptidoglycan synthesis. The PBP composition of forespores was determined by two methods: examination of isolated forespore membranes and assay of the in vivo accessibility of the PBPs to penicillin. In both cases, it was apparent that PBP 5*, the major PBP synthesized during sporulation, was present primarily, but not exclusively, in the forespore. The membranes from mature dormant spores were prepared by either chemically stripping the integument layers of the spores, followed by lysozyme digestion, or lysozyme digestion alone of coat-defective gerE spores. PBP 5* was detected in membranes from unstripped spores but was never found in stripped ones, which suggests that the primary location of this PBP is the outer forespore membrane. This is consistent with a role for PBP 5* exclusively in cortex synthesis. In contrast, vegetative PBPs 1 and 2A were only observed in stripped spore preparations that were greatly enriched for the inner forespore membrane, which supports the proposed requirement for these PBPs early in germination. The apparent presence of PBP 3 in both membranes of the spore reinforces the suggestion that it catalyzes a step common to both cortical and vegetative peptidoglycan synthesis. Images PMID:3080407

  15. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of the llama (Lama glama)

    PubMed Central

    Heath, D.; Smith, P.; Williams, D.; Harris, P.; Arias-Stella, J.; Krüger, H.

    1974-01-01

    Heath, D., Smith, P., Williams, D., Harris, P., Arias-Stella, J., and Krüger, H. (1974).Thorax, 29, 463-471. The heart and pulmonary vasculature of the llama (Lama glama). A qualitative and quantitative histological study was made of the pulmonary trunk and muscular pulmonary arteries of a male and a pregnant female llama born and living at an altitude of 4,720 m above sea-level in the Peruvian Andes. A similar study was made on the fetal llama. The individual cardiac chambers of the two adults were weighed. Our results show that in the adult llama there is no hypertrophy of the right ventricle or of the media of the pulmonary trunk or small pulmonary arteries. This appears to be of evolutionary significance in respect of survival at high altitude and suggests that the llama does not have a sustained significant pulmonary hypertension. The pulmonary arteries of the fetal llama are thick-walled and we associate this with the physiological pulmonary hypertension of fetal life. Images PMID:4854860

  16. Canine neosporosis: clinical and pathological findings and first isolation of Neospora caninum in Germany.

    PubMed

    Peters, M; Wagner, F; Schares, G

    2000-01-01

    Neosporosis was diagnosed in an 11-week-old puppy of the breed Kleiner Münsterländer with progressive hindlimb paresis. Pathohistological and immunohistological examinations revealed a disseminated infection with Neospora caninum. Parasitic stages were demonstrated in the brain, spinal cord, retina, muscles, thymus, heart, liver, kidney, stomach, adrenal gland, and skin. Immunohistochemistry investigations were carried out using polyclonal rabbit antisera developed against N. caninum tachyzoites and the recombinant bradyzoite-specific antigen BAG-5 of Toxoplasma gondii, which is known to cross-react with N. caninum bradyzoites. BAG-5 antibodies recognized tissue cysts within the CNS and some protozoan stages that were not surrounded by a visible cyst wall. All parasite clusters in the retina and some in muscle tissue stained positively with the BAG-5 antiserum. N. caninum was isolated in cell culture and mice inoculated with brain and spinal cord of the puppy. The new isolate is the first reported in Germany and is designated NC-GER1. PMID:10669128

  17. [Violence and discrimination in the workplace. The effects on health and setting-related approaches to prevention and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Nienhaus, Albert; Drechsel-Schlund, Claudia; Schambortski, Heike; Schablon, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Violence in the workplace is a widespread problem that manifests itself in very different forms. The consequences for victims and companies are equally diverse. Sexual harassment is a special form of violence at the workplace. Violence may come from external perpetrators (attacks on cashiers) or from persons inside a company or establishment (colleagues, patients, people in care). Statutory accident insurance institutions in Germany (UV, "Unfallversicherungsträger") receive approximately 16,000 occupational injury reports per year that resulted from violence and led to extended incapacity to work. The numbers are increasing steadily. Particularly affected by violence are people working in healthcare and social welfare. Both psychological and physical violence can lead to severe disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To avoid violence, technical, organisational, and personal protective measures are needed. The training of de-escalation officers in the areas affected can be helpful. For victims of psychological and physical violence in the workplace, the UV offers special psychotherapeutic support and recommends the training of first-aiders. PMID:26497815

  18. Understanding Thermal Conductivity in Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kommandur, Sampath; Yee, Shannon

    2014-03-01

    Current energy technologies such as thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, and LEDs make extensive use of amorphous materials and are limited by heat transfer. Device improvements necessitate a better understanding of the thermal conductivity in amorphous materials. While there are basic theories that capture the trends in thermal conductivity of a select set of amorphous materials, a general framework is needed to explain the fundamental transport of heat in all amorphous materials. One empirical theory that has been successful at describing the thermal conductivity in some materials is the k-min model, however, assumptions in that model limit its generalizability. Another theory defines the existence of propagons, diffusons, and locons, which constitute vibrational modes that carry heat. Our work first presents a summary of literature on the thermal conductivity in amorphous materials and then compares those theories to a breadth of experimental data. Based upon those results, a generic model is proposed that is widely applicable with the ultimate goal of this work being to describe the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of polymers. -/abstract- Sampath Kommandur and Shannon K. Yee 21.1.1: Thermoelectric Phenomena, Materials, Devices, and Applications (GER

  19. Investigation of spatial relationships between crop coefficients and specific ground based vegetation indices for Karla watershed, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiliotopoulos, M.; Loukas, A.; Mylopoulos, N.; Toulios, L.; Stancalie, G.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this work is the investigation of the specific relationships between actual evapotranspiration based crop coefficients and vegetation indices adapted to Karla Watershed, central Greece. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to derive monthly actual evapotranspiration (ET) and ETrF values during the growing season of 2012. The methodology was developed using medium resolution Landsat 7 ETM+ images. Meteorological data from the archive of the Institute for Research and Technology, Thessaly (I.RE.TE.TH) have also been used. Fields with cotton, wheat, alfalfa, corn and sugar beets are utilized. During the same period, in-situ radiometric measurements were generated with the use of the field spectro-radiometer GER1500 giving specific spectral signatures for each crop. Filtering of reflectance values with the use of relative spectral responses (RSR) gives the opportunity to match the spectral measurements with Landsat ETM+ bands and compute VI like NDVI, SAVI, EVI and EVI2 using the same remote sensing formulas as the ETM+ conventional procedures. New relationships are derived and NDVI, SAVI, EVI and EVI2 are tested separately for each crop. Special attention is given to the constant L inside the SAVI relationship. The main advantage of the new approach is that is more crop specific and it less time consuming because there is no need for atmospheric correction.

  20. A DFT study on the correlation between topology and Bader charges: Part IV, on the change of atomic charges in polymorphic transitions - A case study on CaCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Horst P.

    2016-02-01

    Referring to the experimental results of high pressure experiments of Léger et al. (1998) we have calculated the energies of all phases observed for CaCl2 within the DFT formalism using the VASP package, and we have retrieved enthalpies and transition pressures. All phases can be considerably compressed or dilated without much change in energy. This energetic "softness" could even be quantified. We classify the high temperature TiO2-type structure and the PbCl2-type one at highest pressures as the energetically "softest" ones and the SrI2-type one as the "hardest". We furthermore discuss the energy density (E/V) of the different phases and redefine it as a fictive cohesive pressure within these structures. Pursuing our earlier approaches we have analysed the charges of the atoms in the different CaCl2 phases and their change on compression or dilation. On comparing the gradients of the charge curves we define a sort of "charge hardness" which will generally depend on the type of cation-anion pair but also on their topological connection in the respective structures. We speculate that exhausting the "charge softness or hardness" of individual ions in such arrangements may initiate the structural reorganization at the transition pressures.

  1. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketron, T.; Hsu, W.; Kuss, A. M.; Nguyen, A.; Remar, A. C.; Newcomer, M. E.; Fleming, E.; Bebout, L.; Bebout, B.; Detweiler, A. M.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  2. Metacognition for Spelling in Higher Education Students with Dyslexia: Is There Evidence for the Dual Burden Hypothesis?

    PubMed Central

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Desoete, Annemie; Stevens, Michaël; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether academic and professional bachelor students with dyslexia are able to compensate for their spelling deficits with metacognitive experience. Previous research suggested that students with dyslexia may suffer from a dual burden. Not only do they perform worse on spelling but in addition they are not as fully aware of their difficulties as their peers without dyslexia. According to some authors, this is the result of a worse feeling of confidence, which can be considered as a form of metacognition (metacognitive experience). We tried to isolate this metacognitive experience by asking 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students to rate their feeling of confidence in a word spelling task and a proofreading task. Next, we used Signal Detection Analysis to disentangle the effects of proficiency and criterion setting. We found that students with dyslexia showed lower proficiencies but not suboptimal response biases. They were as good at deciding when they could be confident or not as their peers without dyslexia. They just had more cases in which their spelling was wrong. We conclude that the feeling of confidence in our students with dyslexia is as good as in their peers without dyslexia. These findings go against the Dual Burden theory (Krüger & Dunning, 1999), which assumes that people with a skills problem suffer twice as a result of insufficiently developed metacognitive competence. As a result, there is no gain to be expected from extra training of this metacognitive experience in higher education students with dyslexia. PMID:25192428

  3. Level variations in speech: Effect on masking release in hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Reed, Charlotte M; Desloge, Joseph G; Braida, Louis D; Perez, Zachary D; Léger, Agnès C

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic speech is marked by time-varying changes in the amplitude envelope that may pose difficulties for hearing-impaired listeners. Removal of these variations (e.g., by the Hilbert transform) could improve speech reception for such listeners, particularly in fluctuating interference. Léger, Reed, Desloge, Swaminathan, and Braida [(2015b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 389-403] observed that a normalized measure of masking release obtained for hearing-impaired listeners using speech processed to preserve temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues was larger than that for unprocessed or envelope-based speech. This study measured masking release for two other speech signals in which level variations were minimal: peak clipping and TFS processing of an envelope signal. Consonant identification was measured for hearing-impaired listeners in backgrounds of continuous and fluctuating speech-shaped noise. The normalized masking release obtained using speech with normal variations in overall level was substantially less than that observed using speech processed to achieve highly restricted level variations. These results suggest that the performance of hearing-impaired listeners in fluctuating noise may be improved by signal processing that leads to a decrease in stimulus level variations. PMID:27475136

  4. Messen, Kalibrieren, Eichen in der Radiologie: Prinzipien und Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Siegfried R.

    Nach einleitender Erläuterung der unterschiedlichen Meßbedingungen in der Strahlentherapie und im Strahlenschutz werden die metrologischen Probleme am Beispiel der Größenkategorie Äquivalentdosis diskutiert. Als spezielle Größen werden effektive Äquivalentdosis und Umgebungs-Äquivalentdosis eingeführt. Es wird gezeigt, wie richtiges Messen durch ein konsistentes System von Bauartanforderungen an Meßgeräte, durch Kalibrieren und durch Eichen gewährleistet werden kann. Die Bedeutung von Meßunsicherheiten und Fehlergrenzen wird erläutert und ihre Auswirkung auf die Interpretation von Meßergebnissen behandelt.Translated AbstractMeasurements, Calibration, Verification in Radiology: Principles and PracticeThe different measuring conditions in radiotherapy and in radiation protection are discussed in the introduction. Then, the metrological problems are discussed exemplarily with the dose equivalent as a category of quantity. Effective dose equivalent and ambient dose equivalent are introduced as special quantities. It is demonstrated, how correct measurements can be secured by a consistent system of instrument pattern requirements, by calibration and verification. The importance of uncertainties of measurements and of error limits is illustrated and their influence on the interpretation of the results of measurements is treated.

  5. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  6. Performance Evaluation of New-Generation Pulse Oximeters in the NICU: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Greenwood, Kim; Barrowman, Nick; Harrold, JoAnn

    2015-09-01

    This crossover observational study compares the data characteristics and performance of new-generation Nellcor OXIMAX and Masimo SET SmartPod pulse oximeter technologies. The study was conducted independent of either original equipment manufacturer (OEM) across eleven preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The SmartPods were integrated with Dräger Infinity Delta monitors. The Delta monitor measured the heart rate (HR) using an independent electrocardiogram sensor, and the two SmartPods collected arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR). All patient data were non-Gaussian. Nellcor PR showed a higher correlation with the HR as compared to Masimo PR. The statistically significant difference found in their median values (1% for SpO2, 1 bpm for PR) was deemed clinically insignificant. SpO2 alarms generated by both SmartPods were observed and categorized for performance evaluation. Results for sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy and false alarm rates were Nellcor (80.3, 50, 44.5, 50%) and Masimo (72.2, 48.2, 40.6, 51.8%) respectively. These metrics were not statistically significantly different between the two pulse oximeters. Despite claims by OEMs, both pulse oximeters exhibited high false alarm rates, with no statistically or clinically significant difference in performance. These findings have a direct impact on alarm fatigue in the NICU. Performance evaluation studies can also impact medical device purchase decisions made by hospital administrators.

  7. [Without risks and side effects? Product advertisements in dental journals].

    PubMed

    Lauer, Christian D; Türp, Jens C

    2006-01-01

    We examined number, size, design, and scientific approach of advertisements published in three dental journals between 1970 and 2004. For this purpose, the Schweizer Monatsschrift für Zahnmedizin (SMfZ), Zahnärztliche Mitteilungen (ZM; Ger many), and The Journal of the American Dental Association (JADA) were chosen. The January and July issues of each of the 35 volumes were analyzed. Of 28,711 pages, 7265.5 were identified as advertisements (JADA: 29.9%, SMfZ: 24.8%, ZM: 13.7%). While whole-page ads dominated in JADA (87.2%) and SMfZ (68.9%), ad-sizes were more balanced in ZM. During the observation period, the use of photographs increased, while that of drawings decreased. Images of products dominated as compared to pictures of the orofacial region. Citations from study results (SMfZ 3.3%: ZM 2.5%; JADA 5.5%) and diagrams/tables (SMfZ: 3.2%; ZM: 1.0%; JADA: 4.5%) were rarely used, and an appreciable number of cited references could not be identified (SMfZ: 16%, ZM: 18%). More than 80% of the identifiable cited references corroborated the claim made in the advertisement. However, a critical attitude towards ads in dental journals appears justified. PMID:16900992

  8. Cell Yields of Vibrio succinogenes growing with formate and fumarate as sole carbon and energy sources in chemostat culture.

    PubMed

    Mell, H; Bronder, M; Kröger, A

    1982-05-01

    Vibrio succinogenes which gains all the ATP by anaerobic electron transport phosphorylation, was grown in continuous culture on a defined medium with formate and fumarate as sole energy sources. The growth yield at infinite dilution rate (Ymax) was obtained by extrapolation from the growth yields measured at various dilution rates. With formate as the growth limiting substrate, Ymax was found as 14 g dry cells/mol formate. Under these conditions growth was limited by the rate of energy supply, because formate is used only as a catabolic substrate (Bronder et al. 1982). The YmaxATP calculated from the ATP requirement for cell synthesis was 18 g dry cells/mol ATP. This gives an ATP/2e ratio of 0.8. The ATP/2e ratio in vitro had been measured as 1 (Kröger and Winkler 1981). It is concluded that growing V. succinogenes gain at least 80% the stoichiometrically possible amount of ATP, when growth is limited by energy supply. PMID:7103661

  9. Cooling rate of an active Hawaiian lava flow from nighttime spectroradiometer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Luke P.; Mouginis-Mark, Peter J.

    1992-01-01

    A narrow-band spectroradiometer has been used to make nighttime measurements of the Phase 50 eruption of Pu'u O'o, on the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. On February 19, 1992, a GER spectroradiometer was used to determine the cooling rate of an active lava flow. This instrument collects 12-bit data between 0.35 to 3.0 microns at a spectral resolution of 1-5 nm. Thirteen spectra of a single area on a pahoehoe flow field were collected over a 59 minute period (21:27-22:26 HST) from which the cooling of the lava surface has been investigated. A two-component thermal mixing model (Flynn, 1992) applied to data for the flow immediately on emplacement gave a best-fit crustal temperature of 768 C, a hot component at 1150 C, and a hot radiating area of 3.6 percent of the total area. Over a 52-minute period (within the time interval between flow resurfacings) the lava flow crust cooled by 358 to 410 C at a rate that was as high as 15 C/min. The observations have significance both for satellite observations of active volcanoes and for numerical models of the cooling of lava flows during their emplacement.

  10. Digital Terrestrial Video Broadcast Interference Suppression in Forward-Looking Ground Penetrating Radar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rial, F. I.; Mendez-Rial, Roi; Lawadka, Lukasz; Gonzalez-Huici, Maria A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we show how radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by digital video broadcasting terrestrial and digital audio broadcasting transmitters can be an important noise source for forward-looking ground penetrating radar (FLGPR) systems. Even in remote locations the average interference power sometimes exceeds ultra-wideband signals by many dB, becoming the limiting factor in the system sensitivity. The overall problem of RFI and its impact in GPR systems is briefly described and several signal processing approaches to removal of RFI are discussed. These include spectral estimation and coherent subtraction algorithms and various filter approaches which have been developed and applied by the research community in similar contexts. We evaluate the performance of these methods by simulating two different scenarios submitted to real RFI acquired with a FLGPR system developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR), (GER). The effectiveness of these algorithms in removing RFI is presented using some performance indices after suppression.

  11. The influence of image reconstruction algorithms on linear thorax EIT image analysis of ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Frerichs, Inéz; Pulletz, Sven; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut

    2014-06-01

    Analysis methods of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) images based on different reconstruction algorithms were examined. EIT measurements were performed on eight mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. A maneuver with step increase of airway pressure was performed. EIT raw data were reconstructed offline with (1) filtered back-projection (BP); (2) the Dräger algorithm based on linearized Newton-Raphson (DR); (3) the GREIT (Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT) reconstruction algorithm with a circular forward model (GR(C)) and (4) GREIT with individual thorax geometry (GR(T)). Individual thorax contours were automatically determined from the routine computed tomography images. Five indices were calculated on the resulting EIT images respectively: (a) the ratio between tidal and deep inflation impedance changes; (b) tidal impedance changes in the right and left lungs; (c) center of gravity; (d) the global inhomogeneity index and (e) ventilation delay at mid-dorsal regions. No significant differences were found in all examined indices among the four reconstruction algorithms (p > 0.2, Kruskal-Wallis test). The examined algorithms used for EIT image reconstruction do not influence the selected indices derived from the EIT image analysis. Indices that validated for images with one reconstruction algorithm are also valid for other reconstruction algorithms.

  12. Levels of Heavy Metals in Adolescents Living in the Industrialised Area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Northern Sicily)

    PubMed Central

    Interdonato, Monica; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12–14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

  13. Levels of heavy metals in adolescents living in the industrialised area of Milazzo-Valle del Mela (northern Sicily).

    PubMed

    Interdonato, Monica; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Irrera, Natasha; Pallio, Giovanni; Mecchio, Anna; Cuspilici, Antonino; Minutoli, Letteria; Altavilla, Domenica; Squadrito, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In the Milazzo-Valle del Mela area, the presence of industrial plants and the oil refinery make local residents concerned for their health. For this reason, we evaluated the levels of heavy metals in 226 children aged 12-14 years, living in the 7 municipalities of the area. A control age-matched population (n = 29) living 45 km far from the industrial site was also enrolled. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, and vanadium were analysed in 24 h urine samples, while lead concentration was evaluated in blood samples. A questionnaire regarding life style and risk perception was also administered. Adolescents from Milazzo-Valle del Mela had cadmium levels significantly higher compared to either controls  (P < 0.0001) or the reference values of the European Germany Environmental Survey (GerES-IV) and the American National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Furthermore, children had higher perception of living in a high-risk environment. The present data, for the first time, clearly indicate that adolescents living in Milazzo-Valle del Mela have increased body concentration of cadmium, which may be harmful to human health. These results deserve particular attention by the local and regional government to initiate prevention programmes in this susceptible population. PMID:25328531

  14. Description of two final stadium platystictid larvae from Borneo, including that of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, identified using DNA barcoding (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    PubMed

    Orr, Albert G; Dow, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    The final stadium larva of Drepanosticta ?attala Lieftinck, is described and illustrated based on a single male specimen collected at Kuala Belalong Field Studies Centre, Brunei. The larva was identified by matching the mitochondrial marker COI with that of known adult specimens. The larva presented a good match with both D. attala and D. barbatula Lieftinck in this gene, but as adults of only the former species had been collected at the locality, it is presumed more likely to be that species. Another, unidentified platystictid larva, Platystictidae A, collected at the same general locality is also described. The two larvae show significant differences from each other and from D. sundana Krüger, the only other Oriental region member of the family for which larval morphology is known. The three species are also compared with the larvae of the Neotropical genus Palaemnema, which they closely resemble, despite being currently placed in different subfamilies. Based on this known material, Oriental and Neotropical forms differ significantly in details of mandibular morphology, especially the armature of the molar field. PMID:26250164

  15. Bacterial diversity in water samples from uranium wastes as demonstrated by 16S rDNA and ribosomal intergenic spacer amplification retrievals.

    PubMed

    Radeva, Galina; Selenska-Pobell, Sonja

    2005-11-01

    Bacterial diversity was assessed in water samples collected from several uranium mining wastes in Ger many and in the United States by using 16S rDNA and ribosomal intergenic spacer amplification retrievals. The results obtained using the 16S rDNA retrieval showed that the samples collected from the uranium mill tailings of Schlema/Alberoda, Germany, were predominated by Nitrospina-like bacteria, whereas those from the mill tailings of Shiprock, New Mexico, USA, were predominated by gamma-Pseudomonas and Frauteria spp. Additional smaller populations of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group and alpha- and delta-Proteobacteria were identified in the Shiprock samples as well. Proteobacteria and Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides were also found in the third uranium mill tailings studied, Gittersee/Coschütz, Germany, but the groups of the predominant clones were rather small. Most of the clones of the Gittersee/Coschütz samples represented individual sequences, which indicates a high level of bacterial diversity. The samples from the fourth uranium waste studied, Steinsee Deponie B1, Germany, were predominantly occupied by Acinetobacter spp. The ribosomal intergenic spacer amplification retrieval provided results complementary to those obtained by the 16S rDNA analyses. For instance, in the Shiprock samples, an additional predominant bacterial group was identified and affiliated with Nitrosomonas sp., whereas in the Gittersee/Coschütz samples, anammox populations were identified that were not retrieved by the applied 16S rDNA approach.

  16. Measuring the social recreation per-day net benefit of the wildlife amenities of a national park: a count-data travel-cost approach.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be 194 (range 116 to 448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  17. A comparative study of reflectance spectral indices and digital camera imagery to quantify in-vivo foliar chlorophyll concentration in common New England forest species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Michael T.

    Quantifying foliar chlorophyll content is an important procedure in ecosystem studies. Established extraction techniques for quantifying chlorophyll concentration were compared to hyperspectral reflectance indices collected with a GER2600 spectroradiometer, and digital image indices derived from digital camera imagery. Findings show REIP:(R 2=0.52) is a strong indicator reflectance changes associated with plant stress, but RE3/RE2:(R2=0.72), FD715/FD705:(R2=0.77) and CRI red-edge(d) :(R2=0.73) predicted differences in chlorophyll concentration across a range of species more accurately. Many spectral indices predict chlorophyll concentrations more accurately than the REIP, but fail to document the blue-shift associated with foliar stress. Camera imagery results show gray card normalized percent red (R-GC)/( R+GC):(R2=0.63) and percent green (G-GC)/(G+GC):(R 2=0.68) to be strong predictors of chlorophyll concentration across multiple species. For individual species (%Red-%Blue)/(%Red+%Blue) or ( RvB:%R) is a reliable camera index that tracks phenological changes in chlorophyll accurately. Pearson's r across the 2008 growing season for black oak (N=40) was (R2=-0.95), and sugar maple (N=33) was (R2=-0.64).

  18. Local membrane length conservation in two-dimensional vesicle simulation using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, I.; Lishchuk, S. V.; Spencer, T. J.; Pontrelli, G.; Evans, P. C.

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for applying a class of velocity-dependent forces within a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation simulation that is designed to recover continuum regime incompressible hydrodynamics. This method is applied to the problem, in two dimensions, of constraining to uniformity the tangential velocity of a vesicle membrane implemented within a recent multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation method, which avoids the use of Lagrangian boundary tracers. The constraint of uniform tangential velocity is carried by an additional contribution to an immersed boundary force, which we derive here from physical arguments. The result of this enhanced immersed boundary force is to apply a physically appropriate boundary condition at the interface between separated lattice fluids, defined as that region over which the phase-field varies most rapidly. Data from this enhanced vesicle boundary method are in agreement with other data obtained using related methods [e.g., T. Krüger, S. Frijters, F. Günther, B. Kaoui, and J. Harting, Eur. Phys. J. 222, 177 (2013), 10.1140/epjst/e2013-01834-y] and underscore the importance of a correct vesicle membrane condition.

  19. Influence of reflux and central obesity on intercellular space diameter of esophageal squamous epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Christopher H; Sharma, Anamay N; Johnson, Michele L; Geno, Deborah; Gupta, Milli; Bharucha, Adil E; Katzka, David A

    2015-01-01

    Background While central obesity increases gastroesophageal reflux (GER) by mechanically disrupting the anti-reflux barrier, limited data exist on pathways by which central obesity may potentiate esophageal injury by non-mechanical means. Obesity has been associated with an impaired epithelial intestinal barrier. Objective We aimed to assess the influence of central obesity and reflux on the squamous esophageal epithelial intercellular space diameter (ICSD). Methods The ICSD was measured using electron microscopy in esophageal biopsies from individuals who underwent ambulatory pH monitoring and endoscopy. Anthropometric measurements were obtained on all participants. Participants were classified into four groups: with and without central obesity and reflux. Results Sixteen individuals were studied with four in each study group. The mean ICSD was almost three-fold greater (p < 0.001) in the group with central obesity without reflux, compared to controls without central obesity and reflux. It was also comparable to the ICSD in groups with acid reflux only and those with both reflux and central obesity. Conclusions There is evidence of esophageal squamous ICSD increase in individuals with central obesity who do not have evidence of acid and nonacid reflux on ambulatory pH monitoring. This may reflect a mechanism by which central obesity potentiates reflux-induced esophageal injury and inflammation. PMID:27087944

  20. A description of a proposed space-based high resolution ozone imaging instrument (HIROIG)

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, J.; Gutierrez, D.; Rossano, G.; Sivjee, M.; Skinner, W.J.; McKenzie, D.; Ross, M.; Warren, D.

    1994-12-31

    The authors propose to measure the effect of rocket exhaust on stratospheric ozone and aerosol profiles by deploying a space-based mid-UV spectrograph capable of making measurements at high spatial resolution (1--2 km) of the intensity and state of polarization of solar light backscattered by the atmosphere. This paper describes the design of an instrument called HIROIG (HIgh Resolution Ozone ImaGer) which is expected to be deployed in a sun synchronous orbit sometime after 1995. The instrument consists of three identical spectrographs, each one sensitive to light that is plane-polarized in one direction. Each spectrograph uses a frame-transfer CCD which images the entire, 270--370 nm spectrum at {approx} 1 nm spectral resolution. Images are exposed for 140 msec, in the push broom mode, providing an effective spatial resolution of better than 2 km for typical orbital velocities. The HIROIG field of view is 100 km cross-track. A ground-based prototype consisting of a single spectrograph has been constructed, and the characterization of this instrument will be discussed.

  1. [Degradation of halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane by dry soda lime to give carbon monoxide].

    PubMed

    Strauss, J M; Baum, J; Sümpelmann, R; Krohn, S; Callies, A

    1996-09-01

    In the presence of completely dry soda lime volatile anaesthetics will decompose to carbon monoxide (CO). In an in vitro study, the absorbent (soda lime, ICI) was dried with a constant gas flow of 11/min oxygen for 120 h. The weight loss during the drying was 17.1%. Two vol% of halothane, enflurane or isoflurane in oxygen was administered with a constant flow of 0.51/min oxygen through the completely dry absorbent. Concentrations of gases were measured before and after the absorbent using mass spectrometry (MGA 1100, Perkin-Elmer) and an electrochemical NO monitor (Mini PAC CO, Dräger). The temperature inside the soda lime was monitored continuously. Shortly after adding the anaesthetic to the oxygen passing through the absorbent, carbon monoxide appeared in the outlet of the soda lime container. The measured peak concentrations varied around 450 ppm (halothane), 3500 ppm (enflurane) and 3800 ppm (isoflurane). The temperature inside the absorbent rose from the ambient temperature (19.8 degrees C) to a maximum of 52.1 degrees C during CO production and decreased when the CO production lowered after approximately 1 h (all anaesthetics). During CO production no measurable concentration of halothane left the absorber. After passing through the absorbent the concentrations of isoflurane and enflurane were slightly lower than the corresponding concentrations in the fresh gas measured before absorption.

  2. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  3. Extraction of ozone and chlorophyll-A distribution from AVIRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, M.; Itten, K. I.; Schlaepfer, D.; Kurer, U.; Veraguth, S.; Keller, J.

    1995-01-01

    The potential of airborne imaging spectrometry for assessing and monitoring natural resources is studied. Therefore, an AVIRIS scene of the NASA's MacEurope 1991 campaign - acquired in Central Switzerland - is used. The test site consists of an urban area, the Lake Zug with its surrounding fields, the Rigi mountain in the center of the test site, and the Lake of Four Cantons. The region is covered by the AVIRIS flight #910705, run 6 and 7 of the NASA ER-2 aircraft resulting in an average nominal pixel size of about 18 m. Simultaneous to the ER-2 overflight spectroradiometric measurements have been taken in various locations. Preselected reference targets were measured in the field with a GER Mark V spectroradiometer, and radiance measurements were taken to the lake using a Li-Cor LI 1800UW specroradiometer below and above the water surface. A comprehensive meteorological data set was obtained by joining the POLLUMET experiment which carried out measurements to investigate the summer smog in Switzerland on the same day. The quality assessment for the actual data set can be found in detail in Meyer et al. A parametric approach calculating the location of the airplane was used to simulate the observation geometry. This parametric preprocessing procedure, which takes care of effects of flight line and attitude variations as well as the pixel-by-pixel topographic corrections is described in Meyer.

  4. The New Payload Handling System for the G erman On- Orbit Verification Satellite TET with the Sensor Bus as Example for Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, H.-V.; Föckersperger, S.; Lattner, K.; Moldenhauer, W.; Schmolke, J.; Turk, M.; Willemsen, P.; Schlicker, M.; Westerdorff, K.

    2008-08-01

    The technology verification satellite TET (Technologie ErprobungsTräger) is the core element of the German On-Orbit-Verification (OOV) program of new technologies and techniques. The goal of this program is the support of the German space industry and research facilities for on-orbit verification of satellite technologies. The TET satellite is a small satellite developed and built in Germany under leadership of Kayser-Threde. The satellite bus is based on the successfully operated satellite BIRD and the newly developed payload platform with the new payload handling system called NVS (Nutzlastversorgungs-system). The NVS can be detailed in three major parts: the power supply the processor boards and the I/O-interfaces. The NVS is realized via several PCBs in Europe format which are connected to each other via an integrated backplane. The payloads are connected by front connectors to the NVS. This paper describes the concept, architecture, and the hard-/software of the NVS. Phase B of this project was successfully finished last year.

  5. Kinematically complete study of low-energy electron-impact ionization of argon: Internormalized cross sections in three-dimensional kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xueguang; Amami, Sadek; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Pflüger, Thomas; Weyland, Marvin; Dorn, Alexander; Madison, Don; Bartschat, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    As a further test of advanced theoretical methods to describe electron-impact single-ionization processes in complex atomic targets, we extended our recent work on Ne (2 p ) ionization [X. Ren, S. Amami, O. Zatsarinny, T. Pflüger, M. Weyland, W. Y. Baek, H. Rabus, K. Bartschat, D. Madison, and A. Dorn, Phys. Rev. A 91, 032707 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032707] to Ar (3 p ) ionization at the relatively low incident energy of E0=66 eV. The experimental data were obtained with a reaction microscope, which can cover nearly the entire 4 π solid angle for the secondary electron emission. We present experimental data for detection angles of 10, 15, and 20∘ for the faster of the two outgoing electrons as a function of the detection angle of the secondary electron with energies of 3, 5, and 10 eV, respectively. Comparison with theoretical predictions from a B -spline R -matrix (BSR) with pseudostates approach and a three-body distorted-wave (3DW) approach, for detection of the secondary electron in three orthogonal planes as well as the entire solid angle, shows overall satisfactory agreement between experiment and the BSR results, whereas the 3DW approach faces difficulties in predicting some of the details of the angular distributions. These findings are different from our earlier work on Ne (2 p ), where both the BSR and 3DW approaches yielded comparable levels of agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Design of an acoustic telemetry system for rebreathers.

    PubMed

    Egi, S M

    2009-01-01

    Despite the abundance of telemetric applications for ecology, behavior and physiology of marine life, few efforts were reported about the use of acoustic telemetry for SCUBA divers. The objective of this study is to design and test an acoustic telemetry system for monitoring breathing gases of a Dräger Dolphin semi-closed circuit rebreather as well as the depth of the diver. The system is designed around a PC based surface unit and a microcontroller based diver carried module that digitizes the output of CO2 and O2 sensors located in the inhalation side of the canister. One pair of acoustic modems establishes the data link between the microcontroller and the topside PC. The graphical user interface is written in C# and enables the recording of the diving session as well. The system is calibrated in a hyperbaric chamber and tested successfully with four dives in three different environments using 100% O2 and Nitrox (47.9% O2 - 52.1% N2) up to 15 m depth and a distance of 40 m between acoustic modems. The telemetry data cannot be used only for recording physiological data but also provides an important operational safety tool to monitor the rebreather user. The future designs will include actuators for controlling the diluent and oxygen flow to closed circuit mix gas rebreathers.

  7. Review article: supra-oesophageal manifestations of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and the role of night-time gastro-oesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Fass, R; Achem, S R; Harding, S; Mittal, R K; Quigley, E

    2004-12-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been associated with a variety of supra-oesophageal symptoms, including asthma, laryngitis, hoarseness, chronic cough, frequent throat clearing and globus pharyngeus. GERD may be overlooked as the underlying mechanism for these symptoms because typical GERD symptoms may be absent, despite abnormal oesophageal acid exposure. Two basic mechanisms linking GERD with laryngeal symptoms have been proposed: direct contact of gastric acid with the upper airway, in some cases due to micro-aspiration, and a vagovagal reflex triggered by acidification of the distal portion of the oesophagus. Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) during sleep is believed to be an important mechanism for the development of supra-oesophageal complications of GERD, such as asthma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Several physiological changes during sleep, including prolonged oesophageal acid contact time, decreased upper oesophageal sphincter pressure, increased gastric acid secretion, decreased salivation, decreased swallowing and a decrease in conscious perception of acid, render an individual more susceptible to reflux-induced injury. Supra-oesophageal symptoms often improve in response to aggressive acid-suppressive therapy. However, many unanswered questions remain regarding the appropriate approach to diagnosis and treatment of patients with GERD-related supra-oesophageal symptoms. In this article we review the relationship between supra-oesophageal symptoms and GERD and, where possible, highlight the evidence supporting the role of night-time reflux as a contributing factor to these symptoms. PMID:15527462

  8. Nanoflares, Spicules, and Other Small-Scale Dynamic Phenomena on the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James

    2010-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of highly dynamic phenomena occurring on very small scales in the solar atmosphere. For example, the observed pr operties of many coronal loops can only be explained if the loops are bundles of unresolved strands that are heated impulsively by nanoflares. Type II spicules recently discovered by Hinode are an example of small-scale impulsive events occurring in the chromosphere. The exist ence of these and other small-scale phenomena is not surprising given the highly structured nature of the magnetic field that is revealed by photospheric observations. Dynamic phenomena also occur on much lar ger scales, including coronal jets, flares, and CMEs. It is tempting to suggest that these different phenomena are all closely related and represent a continuous distribution of sizes and energies. However, this is a dangerous over simplification in my opinion. While it is tru e that the phenomena all involve "magnetic reconnection" (the changin g of field line connectivity) in some form, how this occurs depends s trongly on the magnetic geometry. A nanoflare resulting from the interaction of tangled magnetic strands within a confined coronal loop is much different from a major flare occurring at the current sheet form ed when a CME rips open an active region. I will review the evidence for ubiquitous small-scale dynamic phenomena on the Sun and discuss wh y different phenomena are not all fundamentally the same.

  9. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Gert; Eichberg, Carsten

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  10. [Injuries of the acromioclavicular joint].

    PubMed

    Meeder, P J; Dannöhl, C

    1988-07-01

    The injuries of the acromio-clavicular joint require a differentiated diagnosis and treatment. The classification of the acromio-clavicular dislocations from grade I to grade III according to Tossy is proved. The diagnosis of a complete acromio-clavicular dislocation (Tossy III) is an indication for a surgical repair. Many and different methods are reported in the literature. 178 patients with a fresh acromio-clavicular dislocation (Typ Tossy II and III) were treated at the BG-Unfallklinik Tübingen from 1970 to 1987 by suturing the ligaments, inserting pins across the joint and tension wire bending. In old cases with Tossy III dislocation of the acromio-clavicular joint an oblique osteotomy combined with the reduction of the clavicle is recommended as a method of choice. The results of these procedures and there possible intra- and postoperative complications are reported. The incision along the clavicle quite often gives scar problems. Therefore the advantages of an arched incision across the acromio-clavicular joint is pointed out. Because of there biomechanical relationship fractures in the lateral third of the clavicle are similar to dislocations of the acromio-clavicular joint. The classification of these fractures according to Jäger, Buschle and Breitner allows a differentiated management of these lesions.

  11. Toward an International Lunar Polar Volatiles Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Suzuki, N. H.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen international space agencies are participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG is a voluntary, non-binding international coordination mechanism through which individual agencies may exchange information regarding interests, objectives, and plans in space exploration with the goal of strengthening both individual exploration programs as well as the collective effort. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the Moon and cis-lunar space, and continuing to near-Earth asteroids, and Mars. Space agencies agree that human space exploration will be most successful as an international endeavor, given the challenges of these missions. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public.

  12. Empirical methods of reducing the observations in geodetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadaj, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents empirical methodology of reducing various kinds of observations in geodetic network. A special case of reducing the observation concerns cartographic mapping. For numerical illustration and comparison of methods an application of the conformal Gauss-Krüger mapping was used. Empirical methods are an alternative to the classic differential and multi-stages methods. Numerical benefits concern in particular very long geodesics, created for example by GNSS vectors. In conventional methods the numerical errors of reduction values are significantly dependent on the length of the geodesic. The proposed empirical methods do not have this unfavorable characteristics. Reduction value is determined as a difference (or especially scaled difference) of the corresponding measures of geometric elements (distances, angles), wherein these measures are approximated independently in two spaces based on the known and corresponding approximate coordinates of the network points. Since in the iterative process of the network adjustment, coordinates of the points are systematically improved, approximated reductions also converge to certain optimal values.

  13. Dataset on FAP-induced emergence of spontaneous metastases and on the preparation of activatable FAP-targeting immunoliposomes to detect the metastases.

    PubMed

    Tansi, Felista L; Rüger, Ronny; Böhm, Claudia; Kontermann, Roland E; Teichgraeber, Ulf K; Fahr, Alfred; Hilger, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    The underlying data demonstrates that fibroblast activation protein (FAP) paves the way for fibrosarcoma cells, which require the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membranes to intravasate from implanted subcutaneous primary tumors into blood vessels, be transported to distant organs where they extravasate from the blood vessels, reattach and proliferate to metastases. The data additionally shows that FAP, when overexpressed on fibrosarcoma cells induces their invasion and formation of spontaneous metastases in multiple organs, particularly after subcutaneous co-implantation of the FAP-expressing and wildtype fibrosarcoma. The raw and processed data presented herein is related to a research article entitled "Potential of activatable FAP-targeting immunoliposomes in intraoperative imaging of spontaneous metastases" (F.L. Tansi, R. Rüger, C. Böhm, R.E. Kontermann, U.K. Teichgraeber, A. Fahr, I. Hilger, 2016) [1]. Furthermore, evidence for the detection of FAP-expressing tumor cells and cells of the tumor stroma by activatable FAP-targeting liposomes is presented in this dataset. PMID:27642620

  14. [Ferredoxin from Bumilleriopsis filiformis Vischer].

    PubMed

    Böger, P

    1970-06-01

    Ferredoxin from the alga Bumilleriopsis filiformis Vischer (Xanthophyceae) is characterized by comparing some of its properties with spinach ferredoxin.It is similar to the known plant ferredoxins in the following points: a) Absorption spectrum. b) Molecular weight. c) Amino acid composition (approx. 100 amino acid residues). d) Uptake of 1 electron upon complete reduction and a 50 per cent decrease of the optical density at 420 nm. e) 2 non-heme iron atoms per molecule, which do not exchange with an iron isotope. f) SH-groups of the native protein do not react with DTNB. Bumilleriopsis ferredoxin differs from known plant ferredoxins in the following points: a) Greater stability towards atmospheric oxygen when gently heated. b) Only 1 detectable acid-labile sulfur atom per molecule. c) Dialysis against EDTA: by this procedure a part of the iron but none of the acid-labile sulfur is removed. With spinach ferredoxin a part of both elements is removed simultaneously. d) Greater reactivity with ferredoxin-NADP reductase from Bumilleriopsis than with that from spinach. With spinach ferredoxin no substantial difference between the reaction rates of the two reductases is observed (see Böger, 1969 b). The results may indicate an active center in Bumilleriopsis ferredoxin consisting of 1 atom iron and 1 atom acid-labile sulfur.

  15. Space life and biomedical sciences in support of the global exploration roadmap and societal development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evetts, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    The human exploration of space is pushing the boundaries of what is technically feasible. The space industry is preparing for the New Space era, the momentum for which will emanate from the commercial human spaceflight sector, and will be buttressed by international solar system exploration endeavours. With many distinctive technical challenges to be overcome, human spaceflight requires that numerous biological and physical systems be examined under exceptional circumstances for progress to be made. To effectively tackle such an undertaking significant intra- and international coordination and collaboration is required. Space life and biomedical science research and development (R & D) will support the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by enabling humans to 'endure' the extreme activity that is long duration human spaceflight. In so doing the field will discover solutions to some of our most difficult human health issues, and as a consequence benefit society as a whole. This space-specific R&D will drive a significant amount of terrestrial biomedical research and as a result the international community will not only gain benefits in the form of improved healthcare in space and on Earth, but also through the growth of its science base and industry.

  16. A new analysis of Galileo dust data near Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, R. H.; Hamilton, D. P.; Altobelli, N.

    2015-05-01

    The Galileo Dust Detection System (DDS) detected a population of micron-sized grains in and amongst the orbits of Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Previous studies, using roughly 50% of the data now available, concluded that the dominant sources for the impacts were magnetospherically captured interplanetary particles largely on retrograde orbits (Colwell et al., 1998b; Thiessenhusen et al., 2000) and impact-generated ejecta from the Galilean satellites (Krüger et al., 1999b; Krivov et al., 2002a). Here we revisit the problem with the full data set and broaden our consideration to include four additional source populations: debris from the outer satellites, interplanetary and interstellar grains and particles accelerated outwards from Io and the jovian rings. We develop a model of detectable orbits at each Galileo position and we find that about 10% of the impact data require non-circular orbits with eccentricities greater than 0.1. In addition, ~3% of impacts require orbital solutions with eccentricities in excess of 0.7. Using the spatial distribution of particles, we are able to exclude, as dominant sources, all the additional source populations except for outer satellite particles. A study of DDS directional information demonstrates that none of the six standard sources fit the data well and thus a combination of sources is necessary. There are insufficient data to uniquely identify the relative strengths of the various contributions. However, we find an excess of large particles that is consistent with retrograde trajectories.

  17. Large-scale simulations of a polymer melt/brush interface: Adhesion enhancement due to surface-tethered chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sides, Scott; Grest, Gary; Stevens, Mark

    2000-03-01

    Many important adhesives consist of polymeric materials, that are used to bind together flat, hard surfaces. Experiments like the JKR pull test are able to measure the work needed to separate a polymer melt in contact with a flat substrate. Ignoring macroscopic dissipation mechanisms due to viscoelastic effects within the polymer melt, the work of adhesion is related to van der Waals forces between the substrate and melt. Recent experiments have shown that polymer chains tethered to the substrate enhance adhesion due to entanglements with the polymer melt. (L. Léger, E. Raphaël and H. Hervet, in Advances In Polymer Science), edited by S. Granick (Springer, Berlin, 1999), v. 138, p. 185. This increase in the work of adhesion (W_A) is a non-monotonic function of both the length (N) and surface density (σ) of the tethered chains. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations we study the dependence of WA on N, σ and the pulling rate. In our simulations, we also observe the various microscopic dissipation mechanisms such as pull-out and scission of the end-tethered chains, which is difficult to observe directly in an experiment. These large simulations are made possible by using a massively-parallel MD code run on Sandia's teraflop machine.

  18. Remote sensing techniques for mining waste characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, M. A.; Savastru, R. S.; Savastru, D. M.; Miclos, S. I.; Tautan, M. N. M.

    2009-09-01

    Environmental monitoring is essential information routinely required by the mining industry and regulators to demonstrate that the environment is not adversely impacted by exploration and mining. New mining technologies can not only exploit low-grade ores but also produce high volumes of tailings as mining wastes. Satellite remote sensing imagery provided by Landsat TM and ETM sensors is an important investigation tool of mining waste cover screening, mapping and monitoring at local and regional scales of areas containing multiple sources of mining-related heavy metals. By this, satellite remote sensing data can help to rapidly assess the dimension of mining waste risk and therefore better manage such a geohazard as well as for remediation programs. Based on Landsat TM, ETM satellite data over 1989-2007 period, was possible to be achieved a discrimination between weathered materials and other prone to acidification as well as to perform a spatio temporal landcover change detection analysis in some mining waste areas in Maramures County, Romania. Accuracy of image processing results (mineralogical classification) was confirmed through ground sampling and analysis of reflectance spectra with portable GER 2600 spectroradiometer.

  19. Investigation of potential integration of spectroradiometer data with GIS technology: The Spectro-GIS tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salleh, S. A.; Hamid, J. R. A.; Ariffin, I. M.

    2014-02-01

    The Earth's surface consists of different ground cover types. The spectral signature of these ground cover targets is unique and can be determined in the field through quantitative measurement of radiance and reflectance response by portable spectroradiometers. In this study, a field portable spectroradiometer, the GER 1500, covering the Ultraviolet, Visible and Near-infrared wavelengths from 350 nm to 1050 nm was used to record the spectral response reading of different ground cover types. The measurements were made at the time when the Sun was at several instant positions to find out the influences and impacts on the spectroradiometer observations. These instant positions of the Sun were determined via spherical computation. The outcome from the measurements made against selected target features by the spectroradiometer is an output file containing signature plot data that was generated in .sig and/or ASCII format. The attempt of the study was to convert that spectroradiometer data into a GIS-enable format. The development of a Spectro-GIS tool was customized using Visual Basic. Net programming language that enables the tools to run independently and automate the process of the conversion and generation of spectral library of the surface targets is highlighted. The results of this study will be benefited to the earth observation community in a way of providing alternative automation of spatial data archiving as well as the data integration and fusion of the land spectral signatures.

  20. Influence of weight classification on walking and jogging energy expenditure prediction in women.

    PubMed

    Heden, Timothy D; LeCheminant, James D; Smith, John D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of weight classification on predicting energy expenditure (EE) in women. Twelve overweight (body mass index [BMI] = 25-29.99 kg/m(2)) and 12 normal-weight (BMI = 18.5-24.99 kg/m(2)) women walked and jogged 1,609 m at 1.34 ms(-1) and 2.23 ms(-1), respectively, while EE was assessed using indirect calorimetry and compared to several other prediction methods (American College of Sports Medicine [ACSM], 2010; Heyward, 2006; Léger & Mercier, 1984; McArdle, Katch, & Katch, 2006; Pandolf Givoni, & Goldman, 1978; van der Walt & Wyndham, 1973). More error occurred with overweight EE prediction compared to normal-weight EE prediction. The ACSM and Heyward methods for walking and the McArdle et al. method for jogging most accurately predicted EE for both groups. Weight classification influences EE prediction accuracy and, thus, is important to consider when using these prediction methods.

  1. Fresh Biomass Estimation in Heterogeneous Grassland Using Hyperspectral Measurements and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A. K.; Mirzaie, M.; Atzberger, C.; Schlerf, M.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of grassland biomass at their peak productivity can provide crucial information regarding the functioning and productivity of the rangelands. Hyperspectral remote sensing has proved to be valuable for estimation of vegetation biophysical parameters such as biomass using different statistical techniques. However, in statistical analysis of hyperspectral data, multicollinearity is a common problem due to large amount of correlated hyper-spectral reflectance measurements. The aim of this study was to examine the prospect of above ground biomass estimation in a heterogeneous Mediterranean rangeland employing multivariate calibration methods. Canopy spectral measurements were made in the field using a GER 3700 spectroradiometer, along with concomitant in situ measurements of above ground biomass for 170 sample plots. Multivariate calibrations including partial least squares regression (PLSR), principal component regression (PCR), and Least-Squared Support Vector Machine (LS-SVM) were used to estimate the above ground biomass. The prediction accuracy of the multivariate calibration methods were assessed using cross validated R2 and RMSE. The best model performance was obtained using LS_SVM and then PLSR both calibrated with first derivative reflectance dataset with R2cv = 0.88 & 0.86 and RMSEcv= 1.15 & 1.07 respectively. The weakest prediction accuracy was appeared when PCR were used (R2cv = 0.31 and RMSEcv= 2.48). The obtained results highlight the importance of multivariate calibration methods for biomass estimation when hyperspectral data are used.

  2. O-Toluic Acid Monomer and Monohydrate: Rotational Spectra, Structures, and Atmospheric Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzler, Elijah G.; Zenchyzen, Brandi L. M.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2015-06-01

    Clusters of carboxylic acids with water, sulfuric acid, and other atmospheric species potentially increase the rate of new particle formation in the troposphere. Here, we present high-resolution pure rotational spectra of o-toluic acid and its complex with water in the range of 5-14 GHz, measured with a cavity-based molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. In both the monomer and the complex, the carboxylic acid functional group adopts a syn- conformation, with the acidic proton oriented away from the aromatic ring. In the complex, water participates in two hydrogen bonds, forming a six-membered intermolecular ring. Despite its large calculated c-dipole moment, no c-type transitions were observed for the complex, because of a large amplitude "wagging" motion of the unbound hydrogen of water, similar to the case of the benzoic acid-water complex. No methyl internal rotation splittings were observed, consistent with a high barrier (7 kJ mol-1) calculated for the monomer at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Using statistical thermodynamics, experimental rotational constants were combined with a theoretical frequency analysis and binding energy to give an estimate of the percentage of hydrated acid in the atmosphere under various conditions. F. Riccobono, et al., Science, 344, 717 (2014). R. Zhang, et al., Science, 304, 1487 (2004). E. G. Schnitzler and W. Jäger, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 16, 2305 (2014).

  3. Physiologic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic monitoring systems monitor vital physiologic parameters so that clinicians can be informed of changes in a patient's condition. For this study, we evaluated systems from six monitoring suppliers--Dräger Medical, GE Healthcare, Nihon Kohden, Philips Medical Systems, Spacelabs Medical, and Welch Allyn. The intent of this study is to help facilities choose not just the most appropriate system, but also the most appropriate version of that system--the combination of components that will best suit the facility's needs. Our testing focused primarily on adaptability, alarm implementation, and human factors design. We rated the systems based on their capabilities and performance for each of seven care settings: critical care unit, emergency department, intermediate care unit and general medical/surgical floor, operating room (with separate ratings for use during conscious sedation and general anesthesia), postanesthesia care unit, and transport. The systems performed well against the majority of our criteria. Nevertheless, we found notable differences in specific features and performance areas. These differences will have varying levels of significance for different hospitals. PMID:15794523

  4. History of Physics Education Research as a Model for Geoscience Education Research Community Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Discipline-based Education Research (DBER) is a research field richly combining a deep understanding of how to teach a particular discipline with an evolving understanding how people learn that discipline. At its center, DBER has an overarching goal of improving the teaching and learning of a discipline by focusing on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms learners use as they develop expertise. Geoscience Education Research, or GER, is a young but rapidly advancing field which is poised to make important contributions to the teaching and learning of earth and space science. Nascent geoscience education researchers could accelerate their community's progress by learning some of the lessons from the more mature field of Physics Education Research, PER. For the past three decades, the PER community has been on the cutting edge of DBER. PER started purely as an effort among traditionally trained physicists to overcome students' tenaciously held misconceptions about force, motion, and electricity. Over the years, PER has wrestled with the extent to which they included the faculty from the College of Education, the value placed on interpretive and qualitative research methods, the most appropriate involvement of professional societies, the nature of its PhD programs in the College of Science, and how to best disseminate the results of PER to the wider physics teaching community. Decades later, as a more fully mature field, PER still struggles with some of these aspects, but has learned important lessons in how its community progresses and evolves to be successful, valuable, and pertinent.

  5. Structure and Absolute Configuration of Pseudohygrophorones A(12) and B(12), Alkyl Cyclohexenone Derivatives from Hygrophorus abieticola (Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Otto, Alexander; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Brandt, Wolfgang; Wessjohann, Ludger; Arnold, Norbert

    2016-01-22

    Pseudohygrophorones A(12) (1) and B(12) (2), the first naturally occurring alkyl cyclohexenones from a fungal source, and the recently reported hygrophorone B(12) (3) have been isolated from fruiting bodies of the basidiomycete Hygrophorus abieticola Krieglst. ex Gröger & Bresinsky. Their structures were assigned on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as ESI-HRMS measurements. The absolute configuration of the three stereogenic centers in the diastereomeric compounds 1 and 2 was established with the aid of (3)JH,H and (4)JH,H coupling constants, NOE interactions, and conformational analysis in conjunction with quantum chemical CD calculations. It was concluded that pseudohygrophorone A(12) (1) is 4S,5S,6S configured, while pseudohygrophorone B(12) (2) was identified as the C-6 epimer of 1, corresponding to the absolute configuration 4S,5S,6R. In addition, the mass spectrometric fragmentation behavior of 1-3 obtained by the higher energy collisional dissociation method allows a clear distinction between the pseudohygrophorones (1 and 2) and hygrophorone B(12) (3). The isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited pronounced activity against phytopathogenic organisms. PMID:26722697

  6. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions.

  7. Locust bean gum safety in neonates and young infants: an integrated review of the toxicological database and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Leo; Garthoff, Jossie A; Schaafsma, Anne; Krul, Lisette; Schrijver, Jaap; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Speijers, Gerrit; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2014-10-01

    Locust bean gum (LBG) is a galactomannan polysaccharide used as thickener in infant formulas with the therapeutic aim to treat uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Since its use in young infants below 12weeks of age is not explicitly covered by the current scientific concept of the derivation of health based guidance values, the present integrated safety review aimed to compile all the relevant preclinical toxicological studies and to combine them with substantial evidence gathered from the clinical paediatric use as part of the weight of evidence supporting the safety in young infants below 12weeks of age. LBG was demonstrated to have very low toxicity in preclinical studies mainly resulting from its indigestible nature leading to negligible systemic bioavailability and only possibly influencing tolerance. A standard therapeutic level of 0.5g/100mL in thickened infant formula is shown to confer a sufficiently protective Margin of Safety. LBG was not associated with any adverse toxic or nutritional effects in healthy term infants, while there are limited case-reports of possible adverse effects in preterms receiving the thickener inappropriately. Altogether, it can be concluded that LBG is safe for its intended therapeutic use in term-born infants to treat uncomplicated regurgitation from birth onwards. PMID:24997231

  8. The IMOMM (Integrated Molecular Orbitals/Molecular Mechanics) Approach for Ligand-Stabilized Metal Clusters. Comparison to Full Density Functional Calculations for the Model Thiolate Cluster Cu13(SCH2CH3)8.

    PubMed

    Genest, Alexander; Woiterski, André; Krüger, Sven; Shor, Aleksey M; Rösch, Notker

    2006-01-01

    To validate the IMOMM (integrated molecular orbitals/molecular mechanics) method for ligand-stabilized transition metal clusters, we compare results of this combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach, as implemented in the program ParaGauss (Kerdcharoen, T.; Birkenheuer, U.; Krüger, S.; Woiterski, A.; Rösch, N. Theor. Chem. Acc. 2003, 109, 285), to a full density functional (DF) treatment. For this purpose, we have chosen a model copper ethylthiolate cluster, Cu13(SCH2CH3)8 in D4h symmetry. The evaluation is based on 16 conformers of the cluster which exhibit single and bridging coordination of the ligands at the Cu13 cluster as well as various ligand orientations. For corresponding isomers, we obtained moderate deviations between QM and QM/MM results:  0.01-0.06 Å for pertinent bond lengths and up to ∼15° for bond angles. Ligand binding energies of the two approaches deviated less than 6 kcal/mol. The largest discrepancies between full DF and IMOMM results were found for isomers exhibiting short Cu-H and H-H contacts. We traced this back to the localization of different minima, reflecting the unequal performance of the DF and the force-field methods for nonbonding interactions. Thus, QM/MM results can be considered as more reliable because of the well-known limitations of standard exchange-correlation functionals for the description of nonbonding interactions for this class of systems.

  9. Surface slope and roughness measurement using ICESat/GLAS elevation and laser waveform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Kai; Xu, Lijun

    2016-09-01

    Surface slope and roughness are important geomorphological variables which have been used in the Earth and planetary sciences to infer material properties. For the ICESat/GLAS measurement, roughness and slope are two surface properties for broadening the width of the returned pulse. Based on this, a new method (GLAS waveform-derived roughness, GWR in short) is investigated to invert roughness from waveform broadening after excluding slope effect. Surface slope is estimated from the repeat tracks elevation of ICESat/GLAS, which is verified to be coincidence with geography facts (Landsat-7 images). Extensive experiments are performed using the proposed methods to evaluate the performance of surface properties (roughness, slope and elevation) in the Jakobshavn area. The experimental results demonstrate that, compared with the elevation-derived roughness method (GER in short), GWR is more sensitive to local surface properties in the gentle slope zone because it is a small-scale estimation. Additionally, GWR is a more stable roughness estimation which is immune to a strong elevation change.

  10. Metacognition for spelling in higher education students with dyslexia: is there evidence for the dual burden hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Tops, Wim; Callens, Maaike; Desoete, Annemie; Stevens, Michaël; Brysbaert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether academic and professional bachelor students with dyslexia are able to compensate for their spelling deficits with metacognitive experience. Previous research suggested that students with dyslexia may suffer from a dual burden. Not only do they perform worse on spelling but in addition they are not as fully aware of their difficulties as their peers without dyslexia. According to some authors, this is the result of a worse feeling of confidence, which can be considered as a form of metacognition (metacognitive experience). We tried to isolate this metacognitive experience by asking 100 students with dyslexia and 100 matched control students to rate their feeling of confidence in a word spelling task and a proofreading task. Next, we used Signal Detection Analysis to disentangle the effects of proficiency and criterion setting. We found that students with dyslexia showed lower proficiencies but not suboptimal response biases. They were as good at deciding when they could be confident or not as their peers without dyslexia. They just had more cases in which their spelling was wrong. We conclude that the feeling of confidence in our students with dyslexia is as good as in their peers without dyslexia. These findings go against the Dual Burden theory (Krüger & Dunning, 1999), which assumes that people with a skills problem suffer twice as a result of insufficiently developed metacognitive competence. As a result, there is no gain to be expected from extra training of this metacognitive experience in higher education students with dyslexia.

  11. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-14

    Oxygen (O₂) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O₂ measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) generated by the introduction of O₂ in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O₂ sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O₂ versus CO₂ (each 0-15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O₂ measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO₂. For the O₂ in situ measurement in silage, all O₂ sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O₂ depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O₂ penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O₂ concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations.

  12. Local membrane length conservation in two-dimensional vesicle simulation using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation method.

    PubMed

    Halliday, I; Lishchuk, S V; Spencer, T J; Pontrelli, G; Evans, P C

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for applying a class of velocity-dependent forces within a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation simulation that is designed to recover continuum regime incompressible hydrodynamics. This method is applied to the problem, in two dimensions, of constraining to uniformity the tangential velocity of a vesicle membrane implemented within a recent multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation method, which avoids the use of Lagrangian boundary tracers. The constraint of uniform tangential velocity is carried by an additional contribution to an immersed boundary force, which we derive here from physical arguments. The result of this enhanced immersed boundary force is to apply a physically appropriate boundary condition at the interface between separated lattice fluids, defined as that region over which the phase-field varies most rapidly. Data from this enhanced vesicle boundary method are in agreement with other data obtained using related methods [e.g., T. Krüger, S. Frijters, F. Günther, B. Kaoui, and J. Harting, Eur. Phys. J. 222, 177 (2013)10.1140/epjst/e2013-01834-y] and underscore the importance of a correct vesicle membrane condition. PMID:27627411

  13. Phenoxyethanol as a nontoxic substitute for formaldehyde in long-term preservation of human anatomical specimens for dissection and demonstration purposes.

    PubMed

    Frølich, K W; Andersen, L M; Knutsen, A; Flood, P R

    1984-02-01

    Formaldehyde has recently been declared a potential carcinogen. Occupational health authorities throughout the world are therefore likely to put stricter regulations to its use also within anatomical disciplines. We have been able to reduce the atmospheric concentration of formaldehyde in our dissection rooms to below the detection limit of a conventional Dräger tube multigas analyzer (i.e., below 0.5 ppm or 0.6 mg formaldehyde/m3 air), by extracting previously formaldehyde-fixed material for more than 3 months in 1% phenoxyethanol in tap water. In this fluid our material has remained soft and flexible with a consistency and color retention suitable for dissection and demonstration purposes for up to 10 years. Fungal attacks are rare and we have been unable to raise bacteria from such specimens. Even the microscopical structure of most tissues remains satisfactory after 5 years in 1% phenoxyethanol. The unpleasant and irritating smell traditionally felt in dissection rooms is almost absent in our facilities, but some of our students still mention slight odor, headache, drowsiness, and mild eye, nose, and throat irritation during their dissection practice periods.

  14. Advanced light microscopy core facilities: Balancing service, science and career

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Hella; Reymann, Jürgen; Ansari, Nariman; Utz, Nadine; Fried, Hans‐Ulrich; Kukat, Christian; Peychl, Jan; Liebig, Christian; Terjung, Stefan; Laketa, Vibor; Sporbert, Anje; Weidtkamp‐Peters, Stefanie; Schauss, Astrid; Zuschratter, Werner; Avilov, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Core Facilities (CF) for advanced light microscopy (ALM) have become indispensable support units for research in the life sciences. Their organizational structure and technical characteristics are quite diverse, although the tasks they pursue and the services they offer are similar. Therefore, throughout Europe, scientists from ALM‐CFs are forming networks to promote interactions and discuss best practice models. Here, we present recommendations for ALM‐CF operations elaborated by the workgroups of the German network of ALM‐CFs, German Bio‐Imaging (GerBI). We address technical aspects of CF planning and instrument maintainance, give advice on the organization and management of an ALM‐CF, propose a scheme for the training of CF users, and provide an overview of current resources for image processing and analysis. Further, we elaborate on the new challenges and opportunities for professional development and careers created by CFs. While some information specifically refers to the German academic system, most of the content of this article is of general interest for CFs in the life sciences. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:463–479, 2016. © 2016 THE AUTHORS MICROSCOPY RESEARCH AND TECHNIQUE PUBLISHED BY WILEY PERIODICALS, INC. PMID:27040755

  15. Gastric emptying of solid food in patients with gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, S.; Eggli, D.; Van Nostrand, D.; Johnson, L.

    1985-05-01

    While delayed solid gastric emptying (GE) has been reported in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), the relationship of GE to daytime and/or nighttime reflux patterns, and the severity of endoscopic esophagitis are unknown. The authors measured GE in a study population of symptomatic patients (n=33) with abnormal 24 hour pH monitoring (24 hr pH). The study population was divided into two groups by esophagoscopy; those with (E+=22); and 2) those without (E-=11) erosive esophagitis and/or Barrett's esophagus. GE was measured in all patients and in 15 normal volunteers (NL) by the in vivo labelling of chicken liver with Tc-99m-SC, which was in turn diced into 1 cm. cubes and given in 7 1/2 oz. of beef stew. Upright one minute anterior and posterior digital images were obtained every 15 min. for 2.5 hours. 24 hour pH was divided into daytime (upright) and nighttime (supine) segments, and acid exposure was defined as % time pH < 4 for that posture. There was no correlation between GE T 1/2 and acid exposure, daytime or nighttime, for the patient population as a whole. However, patients with the longest GE T1/2 tended to have severe daytime reflux. The authors rarely found delayed solid food gastric emptying in patients with reflux; moreover, they found no association between GE and either diurnal reflux patterns on 24 hr pH or the severity of endoscopic esophagitis.

  16. Mining metastasis related genes by primary-secondary tumor comparisons from large-scale databases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Lee, Doheon

    2009-01-01

    Background Metastasis is the most dangerous step in cancer progression and causes more than 90% of cancer death. Although many researchers have been working on biological features and characteristics of metastasis, most of its genetic level processes remain uncertain. Some studies succeeded in elucidating metastasis related genes and pathways, followed by predicting prognosis of cancer patients, but there still is a question whether the result genes or pathways contain enough information and noise features have been controlled appropriately. Methods We set four tumor type classes composed of various tumor characteristics such as tissue origin, cellular environment, and metastatic ability. We conducted a set of comparisons among the four tumor classes followed by searching for genes that are consistently up or down regulated through the whole comparisons. Results We identified four sets of genes that are consistently differently expressed in the comparisons, each of which denotes one of four cellular characteristics respectively – liver tissue, colon tissue, liver viability and metastasis characteristics. We found that our candidate genes for tissue specificity are consistent with the TiGER database. And we also found that the metastasis candidate genes from our method were more consistent with the known biological background and independent from other noise features. Conclusion We suggested a new method for identifying metastasis related genes from a large-scale database. The proposed method attempts to minimize the influences from other factors except metastatic ability including tissue originality and tissue viability by confining the result of metastasis unrelated test combinations. PMID:19344478

  17. Hyperspectral Biofilm Classification Analysis for Carrying Capacity of Migratory Birds in the South Bay Salt Ponds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Wei-Chen; Kuss, Amber Jean; Ketron, Tyler; Nguyen, Andrew; Remar, Alex Covello; Newcomer, Michelle; Fleming, Erich; Debout, Leslie; Debout, Brad; Detweiler, Angela; Skiles, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Tidal marshes are highly productive ecosystems that support migratory birds as roosting and over-wintering habitats on the Pacific Flyway. Microphytobenthos, or more commonly 'biofilms' contribute significantly to the primary productivity of wetland ecosystems, and provide a substantial food source for macroinvertebrates and avian communities. In this study, biofilms were characterized based on taxonomic classification, density differences, and spectral signatures. These techniques were then applied to remotely sensed images to map biofilm densities and distributions in the South Bay Salt Ponds and predict the carrying capacity of these newly restored ponds for migratory birds. The GER-1500 spectroradiometer was used to obtain in situ spectral signatures for each density-class of biofilm. The spectral variation and taxonomic classification between high, medium, and low density biofilm cover types was mapped using in-situ spectral measurements and classification of EO-1 Hyperion and Landsat TM 5 images. Biofilm samples were also collected in the field to perform laboratory analyses including chlorophyll-a, taxonomic classification, and energy content. Comparison of the spectral signatures between the three density groups shows distinct variations useful for classification. Also, analysis of chlorophyll-a concentrations show statistically significant differences between each density group, using the Tukey-Kramer test at an alpha level of 0.05. The potential carrying capacity in South Bay Salt Ponds is estimated to be 250,000 birds.

  18. Female labour force participation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, M B

    1974-01-01

    The levels of labor force participation by women in selected Asian countries were recorded in a series of censuses taken over a period of years. These levels were less influenced than male employment levels by economic conditions and more influenced by cultural traits of the country. Postwar trends seem to have fallen in Korea, risen in Singapore and the Philippines, and remained steady in Japan, Malaya, and Thailand. The limitations of these data are mentioned. In Thailand and West Malaysia greater percentages of women worked in agricultural than non-agricultural employment; in the Philippines, where women did not work so much in agricultural pursuits, their jobs were still in traditional rather than in development industries. In the cities of Bangkok, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur, fertility was lower for working than for non-working women. In rural agricultural areas, the fertility of working women was minimally higher, probably due to economic need of lar ger families. It is concluded that urban life separates the employment and the family roles of working women, leading to lowered fertility; this does not occur in rural areas. The creation of new roles for women alternative or supplementary to marriage and motherhood would result in lowered fertility. In high fertility Asian countries, policies directed toward greater participation of women in non-agricultural work and great er exposure to an urban lifestyle might achieve fertility reductions.

  19. Impact of Hfq on the Bacillus subtilis Transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Hämmerle, Hermann; Amman, Fabian; Večerek, Branislav; Stülke, Jörg; Hofacker, Ivo; Bläsi, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The RNA chaperone Hfq acts as a central player in post-transcriptional gene regulation in several Gram-negative Bacteria, whereas comparatively little is known about its role in Gram-positive Bacteria. Here, we studied the function of Hfq in Bacillus subtilis, and show that it confers a survival advantage. A comparative transcriptome analysis revealed mRNAs with a differential abundance that are governed by the ResD-ResE system required for aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Expression of resD was found to be up-regulated in the hfq− strain. Furthermore, several genes of the GerE and ComK regulons were de-regulated in the hfq− background. Surprisingly, only six out of >100 known and predicted small RNAs (sRNAs) showed altered abundance in the absence of Hfq. Moreover, Hfq positively affected the transcript abundance of genes encoding type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Taken the moderate effect on sRNA levels and mRNAs together, it seems rather unlikely that Hfq plays a central role in RNA transactions in Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24932523

  20. A study on the biosynthesis of hygrophorone B(12) in the mushroom Hygrophorus abieticola reveals an unexpected labelling pattern in the cyclopentenone moiety.

    PubMed

    Otto, Alexander; Porzel, Andrea; Schmidt, Jürgen; Wessjohann, Ludger; Arnold, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    The hitherto unknown natural formation of hygrophorones, antibacterial and antifungal cyclopentenone derivatives from mushrooms, was investigated for hygrophorone B(12) in Hygrophorus abieticola Krieglst. ex Gröger & Bresinsky by feeding experiments in the field using (13)C labelled samples of D-glucose and sodium acetate. The incorporation of (13)C isotopes was extensively studied using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as ESI-HRMS analyses. In the experiment with [U-(13)C6]-glucose, six different (13)C2 labelled isotopomers were observed in the 2D INADEQUATE spectrum due to incorporation of [1,2-(13)C2]-acetyl-CoA. This labelling pattern demonstrated that hygrophorone B(12) is derived from a fatty acid-polyketide route instead of a 1,4-α-D-glucan derived anhydrofructose pathway. The experiment with [2-(13)C]-acetate revealed an unexpected incorporation pattern in the cyclopentenone functionality of hygrophorone B(12). Four single-labelled isotopomers, in particular [1-(13)C]-, [2-(13)C]-, [3-(13)C]-, and [4-(13)C]-hygrophorone B(12), were detected that showed only half enrichment in comparison to the respective labelled alkyl side chain carbons. This labelling pattern indicates the formation of a symmetrical intermediate during hygrophorone B(12) biosynthesis. Based on these observations, a biogenetic route via a 4-oxo fatty acid and a chrysotrione B homologue is discussed.

  1. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, P. J.; Johansen, M. R.; Olsen, R. C.; Raines, M. G.; Phillips, J. R., III; Pollard, J. R. S.; Calle, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) has chosen dust mitigation technology as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. NASA has also included Particulate Contamination Prevention and Mitigation as a cross-cutting technology to be developed for contamination prevention, cleaning and protection. This technology has been highlighted due to the detrimental effect of dust on both human and robotic missions. During manned Apollo missions, dust caused issues with both equipment and crew. Contamination of equipment caused many issues including incorrect instrument readings and increased temperatures due to masking of thermal radiators. The astronauts were directly affected by dust that covered space suits, obscured face shields and later propagated to the cabin and into the crew's eyes and lungs. Robotic missions on Mars were affected when solar panels were obscured by dust thereby reducing the effectiveness of the solar panels. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has been developing an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. This technology has been tested in lab environments and has evolved over several years. Tests of the technology include reduced gravity flights (one-sixth g) in which Apollo Lunar dust samples were successfully removed from glass shields while under vacuum (10(exp -6) kPa).

  2. Occupational exposure and indoor air quality monitoring in a composting facility.

    PubMed

    Heida, H; Bartman, F; van der Zee, S C

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate indoor air quality in a completely covered enclosure used for the aerobic composting of organic wastes originating from vegetable, fruit, and garden refuse. Samples of gases and vapors were taken in the ventilation exhaust ducts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected on Tenax absorbent; after thermal desorption they were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Hydrogen sulfide was determined using Dräger test tubes. Microbial samplings were conducted on four sites inside the hall. Microbes were collected using a modified Anderson high-volume sampler, consisting of two impactor stages. Results indicate that the concentrations of VOCs were rather low; only the limonene level was elevated, but it was still well below the current Dutch provisional threshold limit value. Hydrogen sulfide levels found were also far less than the Dutch threshold limit value. Both total bacteria and gram-negative bacterial counts exceeded the provisional Dutch guideline of 10,000 cfu/m3 for indoor air in the work environment. Furthermore, the number of fungi, for the larger part consisting of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium, which are known to cause respiratory tract disorders, approached the hazardous exposure level.

  3. Mathematical analysis of spontaneous emergence of cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wing-Cheong; Park, Hay-Oak; Chou, Ching-Shan

    2014-08-01

    Cell polarization, in which intracellular substances are asymmetrically distributed, enables cells to carry out specialized functions. While cell polarity is often induced by intracellular or extracellular spatial cues, spontaneous polarization (the so-called symmetry breaking) may also occur in the absence of spatial cues. Many computational models have been used to investigate the mechanisms of symmetry breaking, and it was proved that spontaneous polarization occurs when the lateral diffusion of inactive signaling molecules is much faster than that of active signaling molecules. This conclusion leaves an important question of how, as observed in many biological systems, cell polarity emerges when active and inactive membrane-bound molecules diffuse at similar rates while cycling between cytoplasm and membrane takes place. The recent studies of Rätz and Röger showed that, when the cytosolic and membrane diffusion are very different, spontaneous polarization is possible even if the membrane-bound species diffuse at the same rate. In this paper, we formulate a two-equation non-local reaction-diffusion model with general forms of positive feedback. We apply Turing stability analysis to identify parameter conditions for achieving cell polarization. Our results show that spontaneous polarization can be achieved within some parameter ranges even when active and inactive signaling molecules diffuse at similar rates. In addition, different forms of positive feedback are explored to show that a non-local molecule-mediated feedback is important for sharping the localization as well as giving rise to fast dynamics to achieve robust polarization.

  4. Neonatal life support during magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Groenendaal, F; Leusink, C; Nijenhuis, M; Janssen, M J H

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance techniques are required frequently for the assessment of the brain of ill neonates. In the present study, the effects of a 1.5 T MR scanner on devices for life support were assessed. A ventilator (Dräger Babylog 2000) was tested in the 1.5 T magnet, using a neonatal ventilation tester and 1.5-5 m tubes. In a special MR incubator, temperature and humidity were measured at 1-min intervals. Infusion was tested with the pump outside the magnet room: infusion rates and time to alarm were tested with 7-m tubes. The ventilator performed normally at a magnetic field line of 2 mT, although the alarms failed. The incubator created a temperature of 35.9 degrees C and humidity of 40.7%, which was acceptable for examinations of 45 min. The alarm limits of the infusion pump placed outside the magnet at 7 m were within company limits. The study indicates that magnetic resonance examinations can be performed safely in ill preterm neonates who require life-support devices.

  5. Thermoelectric standardisation - Reference materials and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, P.; Blaschkewitz, P.; Stiewe, C.; Karpinski, G.; Müller, E.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials for working temperatures between 300 K and 1000 K become continuously more important for energy recuperation applications. The efficiency is determined by the transport properties (electrical and thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient), which form the known thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. The thorough determination of ZT represents the basis for the assessment of thermoelectric materials research. Due to different continuing difficulties measurement errors distinctly higher than 15% can be observed repeatedly, which is still too high for an industrial benchmark and deficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. Against this background a project was launched in 2011 together with the Fraunhofer Institute of Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM, Freiburg), the Department Temperature of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Berlin) and the company Netzsch Gerätebau GbmH (Selb). The aim of the project "Thermoelectric Standardisation" (TEST) is to minimise the measurement uncertainties and to develop traceable, high-accurate thermoelectric characterisation techniques and thermoelectric reference materials for the mentioned temperature range. Here we initially present the project to the thermoelectric society and want to give a survey on the planned activities and the current status of the contributions of the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne).

  6. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R M

    1990-07-01

    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  7. NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team Lunar Destination Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, J. F.; Mueller, R. P.; Whitley, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) Lunar Destination Team has been developing a number of "Design Reference Missions" (DRM) to inform exploration architecture development, transportation approaches, and destination elements and operations. There are four destinations being considered in the HAT studies: Cis-Lunar, Lunar, Near Earth Asteroids and Mars. The lunar destination includes all activities that occur on the moon itself, but not low lunar orbit operations or Earth Moon LaGrange points which are the responsibility of the HAT Cis-Lunar Team. This paper will review the various surface DRMs developed as representative scenarios that could occur in a human lunar return. The approaches have been divided into two broad categories: a seven day short stay mission with global capabilities and a longer extended duration stay of 28 days which is limited to the lunar poles as a landing zone. The surface elements, trade studies, traverses, concept of operations and other relevant issues and methodologies will be presented and discussed in the context and framework of the HAT ground rules and assumptions which are constrained by NASA's available transportation systems. An international collaborative effort based on the 2011 Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) will also be examined and evaluated.

  8. Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) riouxi: a synonym of Phlebotomus chabaudi without any proven vectorial role in Tunisia and Algeria.

    PubMed

    Tabbabi, A; Rhim, A; Ghrab, J; Martin, O; Aoun, K; Bouratbine, A; Ready, P D

    2014-08-01

    Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) riouxi Depaquit, Léger & Killick-Kendrick (Diptera: Psychodidae) was described as a typological species based on a few morphological characters distinguishing it from Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) chabaudi Croset, Abonnenc & Rioux. The naming of P. riouxi coincided with its incrimination as a rural vector of Leishmania tropica Wright (junior synonym: Leishmania killicki Rioux, Lanotte & Pratlong) in Tataouine governorate, an arid region of southern Tunisia. The current report finds insufficient evidence to incriminate either phlebotomine sandfly as a vector of L. tropica in North Africa. Phlebotomus riouxi was found not to have the characteristics of a phylogenetic or biological species, and therefore it is synonymized with P. chabaudi. Both taxa were recorded together for the first time in Tunisia, in Tataouine, where three of 12 males showed intermediate morphology and both sexes of each taxon were not characterized by specific lineages of the nuclear gene elongation factor-1α or the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, for which a long 3' terminal fragment is recommended for phlebotomine phylogenetics. This case study indicates that the eco-epidemiology of leishmaniasis should focus more on identifying key components of vectorial transmission that are susceptible to interventions for disease control, rather than on defining sibling species of vectors.

  9. Cybergrooming: risk factors, coping strategies and associations with cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Sebastian; Wolf, Karsten D; Pan, Ching-Ching

    2012-11-01

    The use of information and communication technologies has become ubiquitous among adolescents. New forms of cyber aggression have emerged, cybergrooming is one of them. However, little is known about the nature and extent of cybergrooming. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors of being cybergroomed, to identify various coping strategies and to explore the associations between being cyberbullied and cybergroomed. The sample consisted of 518 students in 6th to 10th grades. The computer assisted personal interview method (CAPI method) was implemented. The «Mobbing Questionnaire for Students» by Jäger et al. (2007) was further developed for this study and served as the research instrument. While being a girl, being cyberbullied and willingness to meet strangers could be identified as risk factors; no significant age differences were found. Furthermore, three types of coping strategies - aggressive, cognitive-technical and helpless - with varied impacts were identified. The findings not only shed light on understanding cybergrooming, but also suggest worth noting associations between various forms of cyber aggression.

  10. Dataset on FAP-induced emergence of spontaneous metastases and on the preparation of activatable FAP-targeting immunoliposomes to detect the metastases.

    PubMed

    Tansi, Felista L; Rüger, Ronny; Böhm, Claudia; Kontermann, Roland E; Teichgraeber, Ulf K; Fahr, Alfred; Hilger, Ingrid

    2016-12-01

    The underlying data demonstrates that fibroblast activation protein (FAP) paves the way for fibrosarcoma cells, which require the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and basement membranes to intravasate from implanted subcutaneous primary tumors into blood vessels, be transported to distant organs where they extravasate from the blood vessels, reattach and proliferate to metastases. The data additionally shows that FAP, when overexpressed on fibrosarcoma cells induces their invasion and formation of spontaneous metastases in multiple organs, particularly after subcutaneous co-implantation of the FAP-expressing and wildtype fibrosarcoma. The raw and processed data presented herein is related to a research article entitled "Potential of activatable FAP-targeting immunoliposomes in intraoperative imaging of spontaneous metastases" (F.L. Tansi, R. Rüger, C. Böhm, R.E. Kontermann, U.K. Teichgraeber, A. Fahr, I. Hilger, 2016) [1]. Furthermore, evidence for the detection of FAP-expressing tumor cells and cells of the tumor stroma by activatable FAP-targeting liposomes is presented in this dataset.

  11. Variations of spectral signature profiles of wet and dry targets for supporting the detection of water-leakages using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Kourtis, Nikolas; Sarris, Apostolos; Perdikou, Skevi; Clayton, Chris R. I.; Phinikaridou, Helena; Manoli, Andreas; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-10-01

    Satellite data can be used as a valuable tool for the detection of water pipeline leakages in semiarid areas. However the use of multi-temporal satellite images for this purpose can be problematic since reflectance values may change due to phenological changes of plants, radiometric errors during the pre-processing of satellite data, etc. It is therefore important to establish a spectral signature library with "ground truth data" for different scenarios of water leakages in a control site minimizing other potential errors. For this purpose, the GER 1500 spectroradiometer was used for measuring the reflectance values of three different targets: soil, vegetation and asphalt. The targets were saturated with a specific amount of water and then several spectroradiometric measurements were taken. The narrowband reflectance values were then re-scaled to spectral bands of Landsat 5 TM and spectral signature variations were highlighted for all targets before and after moisture level were increased. Using these data, threshold values were defined in order to be used for multispectral satellite data analysis. Specifically, this data was used for detection of water leakages in pipelines in Cyprus using Landsat 5 TM images,.

  12. Observation of monolayer Guinier-Preston zones in Al-at 1.7 % Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouffrey, Bernard; Dorignac, Dominique

    1992-06-01

    The formation of Guinier-Preston zones (GP zones), after quenching then followed by annealing (in this paper 20 hours at 130^{circ} C), explains the hardening of aluminum-copper light alloys, which is at the origin of their usefulness in metallurgy. In this paper recent results in transmission electron microscopy (400 kV) are presented. Atomic resolution observations show that many GP zones appear as monolayers (GP1). Contrast simulations show that the observed contrasts can be interpreted as due to zones rich in copper. Ordering can be observed inside some of them. La présence de zones de Guinier-Preston (zone GP) aprés trempe et recuit (ici 20 heures à 130^{circ}C), explique le durcissement des alliages léger d'aluminium-cuivre, qui est à l'origine de leur intérêt pratique. Nous présentons dans l'article qui suit, des observations menées en microscopie à haute résolution (400 kV), qui permettent d'affirmer que les zones observées (GP1) sont des monocouches atomiques, plus riches en cuivre que la matrice. Une structure ordonnée peut être observée à l'interieur de certaines zones.

  13. Light pollution: Assessment of sky glow on two dark sky regions of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raul Cerveira; Pinto da Cunha, José; Peixinho, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Artificial light at night (ALAN), producing light pollution (LP), is not a matter restricted to astronomy anymore. Light is part of modern societies and, as a consequence, the natural cycle day-night (bright-dark) has been interrupted in a large segment of the global population. There is increasing evidence that exposure to certain types of light at night and beyond threshold levels may produce hazardous effects to humans and the environment. The concept of "dark skies reserves" is a step forward in order to preserve the night sky and a means of enhancing public awareness of the problem of spread of light pollution worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the skyglow at two sites in Portugal, the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PNPG) and the region now known as Dark Sky Alqueva Reserve. The latter site was classified as a "Starlight Tourism Destination" by the Starlight Foundation (the first in the world to achieve this classification) following a series of night sky measurements in situ described herein. The measurements at PNPG also contributed to the new set of regulations concerning light pollution at this national park. This study presents the first in situ systematic measurements of night sky brightness, showing that at the two sites the skies are mostly in levels 3 to 4 of the Bortle 9-level scale (with level 1 being the best achievable). The results indicate that the sources of light pollution and skyglow can be attributed predominantly to contamination from nearby urban regions. PMID:27029512

  14. Rotationally Resolved Spectroscopy of the Electronically Excited C and D States of {XeKr} and {XeAr}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piticco, Lorena; Schäfer, Martin; Merkt, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    Informations on excited electronic states of the heteronuclear rare-gas dimers XeRg (Rg=Kr, Ar) available in the literature are limited to the vibrational structure of several band systems in the VUV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Using a near-Fourier-transform-limited vacuum-ultraviolet laser system spectra of the C ← X and D ← X band systems of several isotopomers of XeKr and XeAr were recorded at high resolution in the wavenumber range from 77 000 cm^{-1} to 77 350 cm^{-1} by resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy. The rotational and vibrational structures of the C ← X and D ← X band systems could be fully resolved and assigned on the basis of isotopic shifts, combination differences and the ground state microwave spectra. The orbital hyperfine structure of the C1 state could be resolved for the ^{129}Xe^{40}Ar and ^{131}Xe^{40}Ar isotopomers. Potential energy functions and a full set of spectroscopic parameters were derived for the ground and excited states. D. M. Mao, X. K. Hu, S. S. Dimov, R. H. Lipson}, J. Phys. B 29, L89 (1996). O. Zehnder, F. Merkt, Mol. Phys. 106, 1215 (2008). KrXe+ O. Zehnder, F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 014306 (2008). ArXe+ U. Hollenstein, H. Palm and F. Merkt, Rev. Sci. Instr. 71, 4023 (2000). W. Jäger, Y. Xu, M. C. L. Gerry, J. Chem. Phys. 99, 919 (1993).

  15. Multispectral studies of western limb and farside maria from Galileo Earth-Moon Encounter 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David A.; Greeley, Ronald; Neukum, Gerhard; Wagner, Roland; Kadel, Steven D.

    1995-11-01

    New visible and near-infrared multispectral images of the Moon obtained by the Galileo solid-state imaging system, along with lunar orbiter images (for crater counts), and spectral mixing analyses were used to characterize western limb and eastern farside maria and determine compositional and age relationships in selected regions. Results indicate that (1) western limb mare deposits have less variability in titanium content (<2-7 wt% TiO2) and age (2.79-3.86 Ga) than areally extensive maria on the nearside; (2) areally extensive basin-filling maria generally have higher titanium contents than smaller, crater-filling mare patches and ponds; (3) ancient maria covered by highland material (cryptomaria) may be present in the Mendel-Rydberg and South Pole-Aitken basins; and (4) maria with compositional and age variations occur in the Grimaldi, Crüger, Mendel-Rydberg, and Apollo regions. No extensive high-titanium (>6 wt% TiO2) mare basalts were observed on the western limb and farside, which may reflect the inability of such denser magmas to penetrate the thicker farside crust.

  16. Feasibility study of a layer-oriented wavefront sensor for solar telescopes: comment.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, Aglaé

    2014-11-10

    The future generation of telescopes will be equipped with multi-conjugate adaptive-optics (MCAO) systems in order to obtain high angular resolution over large fields of view. MCAO comes in two flavors: star- and layer-oriented. Existing solar MCAO systems rely exclusively on the star-oriented approach. Earlier we suggested a method to implement the layer-oriented approach, and in view of recent concerns by Marino and Wöger [Appl. Opt.53, 685 (2014)10.1364/AO.53.000685APOPAI1559-128X], we now explain the proposed scheme in further detail. We note that in any layer-oriented system one sensor is conjugated to the pupil and the others are conjugated to higher altitudes. For the latter, not all the sensing surface is illuminated by the entire field of view. The successful implementation of nighttime layer-oriented systems shows that the field reduction is no crucial limitation. In the solar approach the field reduction is directly noticeable because it causes vignetting of the Shack-Hartmann subaperture images. It can be accounted for by a suitable adjustment of the algorithms to calculate the local wavefront slopes. We discuss a further concern related to the optical layout of a layer-oriented solar system.

  17. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  18. Effects of carob-bean gum thickened formulas on infants’ reflux and tolerance indices

    PubMed Central

    Georgieva, Miglena; Manios, Yannis; Rasheva, Niya; Pancheva, Ruzha; Dimitrova, Elena; Schaafsma, Anne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of carob-bean gum (CBG) thickened-formulas on reflux and tolerance indices in infants with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). METHODS: Fifty-six eligible infants (1-6 mo old) were randomly allocated to receive for two weeks a formula with either 0.33 g/100 mL (Formula A) or 0.45 g/100 mL (Formula B) of cold soluble CBG galactomannans respectively, or a formula with 0.45 g/100 mL of hot soluble CBG galactomannans (Formula C). No control group receiving standard formula was included in the study. Data on the following indices were obtained both at baseline and follow-up from all study participants: 24 h esophageal pH monitoring indices, anthropometrical indices (i.e., body weight and length) and tolerance indices (i.e., frequency of colics; type and frequency of defecations). From the eligible infants, forty seven were included in an intention-to-treat analysis to examine the effects of the two-week trial on esophageal 24 h pH monitoring, growth and tolerance indices. Repeated Measures ANOVA was used to examine the research hypothesis. RESULTS: Regarding changes in 24 h pH monitoring indices, significant decreases from baseline to follow-up were observed in the “Boix Ochoa Score” (i.e., an index of esophageal acid exposure), in the total number of visible refluxes and in all symptoms related indices due to acid reflux only for infants provided with Formula A, while no significant changes were observed for infants provided with Formulas B and C. In addition, the significant decreases observed in two symptoms related pH monitoring indices (i.e., “Symptom index for reflux” and “Percentage of all reflux”) for infants provided with Formula A were also found to differentiate significantly compared to the changes observed in the other two groups (P = 0.048 and P = 0.014 respectively). Concerning changes in anthropometric indices, body weight significantly increased among infants provided with Formulas A and C, but not for infants provided

  19. Surging glaciers in Iceland - research status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, Olafur

    2013-04-01

    ólfsson, Ó. 2010: The 1890 surge end moraine at Eyjabakkajökull, Iceland: a re-assessment of a classic glaciotectonic locality. Quaternary Science Reviews 29, 484-506. Benediktsson, I.Ö., Ingólfsson, Ó., Schomacker, A. & Kjær, K.H. 2009: Formation of sub-marginal and proglacial end moraines: implications of ice-flow mechanism during the 1963-64 surge of Brúarjökull, Iceland. Boreas 38. 440-457. Benediktsson, Í.Ö., Möller, P., Ingólfsson, Ó., van der Meer, J.J.M., Kjær, K. & Krüger, J. 2008: Instantaneous end moraine and sediment wedge formation during the 1890 glacier surge of Brúarjökull, Iceland. Quaternary Science Reviews 27, 209-234. Brynjólfsson, S., Ingólfsson, Ó. & Schomacker, A. 2012. Surge fingerprinting of cirque glaciers at the Tröllaskagi peninsula, Iceland. Jökull 62, 153-168. Johnson, M.D., Schomacker, A.,Benediktsson, I.O., Geiger, A.D., Ferguson, A. & Ingólfsson, Ó. 2010. Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: A surge-type glacier. Geology 38, 943-946. Kjær, K.H., Larsen, E., van der Meer, J., Ingólfsson, Ó., Krüger, J., Benediktsson, I.Ö., Knudsen, C. & Schumacher, A. 2006: Subglacial decoupling at the sediment/bedrock interface: a new mechanism for rapid flowing ice. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25: 2704-2712. Striberger, J., Björck, S., Benediktsson, I.Ö., Snowball. I., Uvo, C., Ingólfsson, Ó. & Kjær, K. 2011. Climatic control of the surge periodicity of an Icelandic outlet glacier. Journal of Quaternary Science 26, 561-565.

  20. Effect of land abandonment on soil organic carbon fractions along a precipitation gradient in Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabarron-Galeote, Miguel A.; Trigalet, Sylvain; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment has been the main land use change in rural European Mediterranean areas over the last decades. The secondary succession process following land abandonment is strongly affected by precipitation, which in consequence determines the parallel change of soil organic carbon (SOC) and other soil properties. SOC is usually assumed to increase due to the intensification of plant residues inputs to soil, above as well below ground. However, SOC is composed of different fractions with contrasting resistance to decomposition that can have different responses to land abandonment. The objectives of this study are: i) to determine the net effect of land abandonment on the different soil organic carbon fractions; ii) to assess the relation between vegetation evolution and SOC fractions; iii) to establish the conditions with the greater potential to store stable SOC along a precipitation gradient. Three field sites with contrasting annual precipitation (GAU: 1080.5 mm yr-1- ALM: 650 mm yr-1- GER: 350 mm yr-1) were selected. On each site Fields abandoned in different periods, as verified on aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001, 2004 and 2009, were selected using a chronosequence approach. The fractionation protocol implemented was based on the separation of different soil particle sizes, which are associated to SOC pools with different degree of stability. Samples of the first 10 cm of soil were added to a sodium-hexametaphosphate (HMP) solution (40 g L-1) and shaken horizontally for 1h (150 r.p.m.). The soil solution was then sieved consecutively through two meshes of 250 µm and 50 µm, obtaining the following fractions: i) >250 µm (coarse fraction), it contains coarse particles (coarse sand) and plant residues (particulate organic matter, POM), easily decomposable, that constitute the more labile SOC pool; ii) 50 - 250 µm (mid fraction), it contains fine sand, fine POM easily decomposable and stable microaggregates, that contains SOC

  1. Drift Tube Measurements of Mobilities and Longitudinal Diffusion Coefficients of Ions in Gases.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelf, Roger Dale

    The zero-field mobilities of Br('-) and NH(,4)('+) in O(,2) were determined as a function of gas temperature in a high pressure drift tube mass spectrometer. The mobilities and longitudinal diffusion coefficients of the ion-gas combinations Br('-) in Ne and Kr, Li('+) in Xe, and Tl('+) in Kr and Xe were determined as a function of E/N, where E is the electric field strength and N is the gas number density in a low pressure drift tube mass spectrometer. The measured longitudinal diffusion coefficients were used for a test and comparison of the generalized Einstein relations of Viehland-Mason and Waldman-Mason theories. The measured mobilities of Br('-) in Kr and Tl('+) in Kr were used in an iterative-inversion scheme from which the ion-neutral interaction potentials were determined. The zero-field reduced mobility of Br('-) in O(,2) ranged from 2.6 cm('2)/(V-sec) at 297(DEGREES)K to 3.0 cm('2)/(V-sec) at 600(DEGREES)K. The zero-field reduced mobility of NH(,4)('+) in O(,2) ranged from 3.4 cm('2)/(V -sec) at 418(DEGREES)K to 3.7 cm('2)/(V-sec) at 561(DEGREES)K. The zero-field values of the reduced mobilities measured as a function of E/N in units of cm('2)/(V-sec) are as follows: Br('-) in Kr (1.47 (+OR-) .03), Br('-) in Ne (6.94 (+OR -) .14), Li('+) in Xe (2.68 (+OR-) .05), Tl('+) in Kr (1.15 (+OR-) .03), and Tl('+) in Xe (.78 (+OR-) .02). The ion -gas combinations of Br('-) in Kr, Li('+) in Xe, and Tl('+) in Kr displayed the typical mobility peaks. The peak values in cm('2)/(V-sec) are for Br('-) in Kr, Li('+) in Xe, and Tl('+) in Kr respectively: (1.81 (+OR-) 0.4) at 130 Td, 4.47 (+OR-) .09 at 135 Td, and 1.42 (+OR-) .04 at 285 Td. The measured longitudinal diffusion coefficients were compared to the Einstein values in the low-field limit. Comparisons between the experimental values and the generalized Einstein relations (GER) of Viehland-Mason and Waldman-Mason were made at all E/N values. All comparisons were favorable within the error ranges. In general, the

  2. Five years of Ulysses dust data: 2000 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, H.; Altobelli, N.; Anweiler, B.; Dermott, S. F.; Dikarev, V.; Graps, A. L.; Grün, E.; Gustafson, B. A.; Hamilton, D. P.; Hanner, M. S.; Horányi, M.; Kissel, J.; Landgraf, M.; Lindblad, B. A.; Linkert, D.; Linkert, G.; Mann, I.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Polanskey, C.; Schwehm, G.; Srama, R.; Zook, H. A.

    2006-08-01

    The Ulysses spacecraft has been orbiting the Sun on a highly inclined ellipse ( i=79∘, perihelion distance 1.3 AU, aphelion distance 5.4 AU) since it encountered Jupiter in 1992. Between January 2000 and December 2004, the spacecraft completed almost an entire revolution about the Sun, passing through perihelion in May 2001 and aphelion in July 2004. In this five-year period the dust detector on board recorded 4415 dust impacts. We publish and analyse the complete data set of both raw and reduced data for particles with masses 10-16g⩽m⩽10-7g. Together with 1695 dust impacts recorded between launch of Ulysses and the end of 1999 published earlier (Grün, E., Baguhl, M., Divine, N., Fechtig, H., Hamilton, D.P, Hanner, M.S., Kissel, J., Lindblad, B.A., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Mann, I., McDonnell, J.A.M., Morfill, G.E., Polanskey, C., Riemann, R., Schwehm, G.H., Siddique, N., Staubach, P., Zook, H.A., 1995a. Two years of Ulysses dust data. Planetary Space Sci. 43, 971-999, Paper III; Krüger, H., Grün, E., Landgraf, M., Baguhl, M., Dermott, S.F., Fechtig, H., Gustafson, B.A., Hamilton, D.P., Hanner, M.S., Horányi, M., Kissel, J., Lindblad, B., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Mann, I., McDonnell, J.A.M., Morfill, G.E., Polanskey, C., Schwehm, G.H., Srama, R., Zook, H.A., 1995. Three years of Ulysses dust data: 1993 to 1995. Planetary and Space Sci. 47, 363-383, Paper V; Krüger, H., Grün, E., Landgraf, M., Dermott, S.F., Fechtig, H., Gustafson, B.A., Hamilton, D.P., Hanner, M.S., Horányi, M., Kissel, J., Lindblad, B., Linkert, D., Linkert, G., Mann, I., McDonnell, J.A.M., Morfill, G.E., Polanskey, C., Schwehm, G.H., Srama, R., Zook, H.A., 2001b. Four years of Ulysses dust data: 1996 to 1999. Planetary Space Sci. 49, 1303-1324, Paper VII), a data set of 6110 dust impacts detected with the Ulysses sensor between October 1990 and December 2004 is now available. The impact rate measured between 2000 and 2002 was relatively constant with about 0.3 impacts per day

  3. Tissue damage by laser radiation: an in vitro comparison between Tm:YAG and Ho:YAG laser on a porcine kidney model.

    PubMed

    Huusmann, Stephan; Wolters, Mathias; Kramer, Mario W; Bach, Thorsten; Teichmann, Heinrich-Otto; Eing, Andreas; Bardosi, Sebastian; Herrmann, Thomas R W

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of tissue damage by laser radiation is very important for the safety in the application of surgical lasers. The objective of this study is to evaluate cutting, vaporization and coagulation properties of the 2 µm Tm:YAG laser (LISA Laser Products OHG, GER) in comparison to the 2.1 µm Ho:YAG laser (Coherent Medical Group, USA) at different laser power settings in an in vitro model of freshly harvested porcine kidneys. Laser radiation of both laser generators was delivered by using a laser fiber with an optical core diameter of 550 µm (RigiFib, LISA Laser GER). Freshly harvested porcine kidneys were used as tissue model. Experiments were either performed in ambient air or in aqueous saline. The Tm:YAG laser was adjusted to 5 W for low and 120 W for the high power setting. The Ho:YAG laser was adjusted to 0.5 J and 10 Hz (5 W average power) for low power setting and to 2.0 J and 40 Hz (80 W average power) for high power setting, accordingly. The specimens of the cutting experiments were fixed in 4 % formalin, embedded in paraffin and stained with Toluidin blue. The laser damage zone was measured under microscope as the main evaluation criteria. Laser damage zone consists of an outer coagulation zone plus a further necrotic zone. In the ambient air experiments the laser damage zone for the low power setting was 745 ± 119 µm for the Tm:YAG and 614 ± 187 µm for the Ho:YAG laser. On the high power setting, the damage zone was 760 ± 167 µm for Tm:YAG and 715 ± 142 µm for Ho:YAG. The incision depth in ambient air on the low power setting was 346 ± 199 µm for Tm:YAG, 118 ± 119 µm for Ho:YAG. On the high power setting incision depth was 5083 ± 144 µm (Tm:YAG) and 1126 ± 383 µm (Ho:YAG) respectively. In the saline solution experiments, the laser damage zone was 550 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 447 ± 65 µm (Ho:YAG), on the low power setting and 653 ± 137 µm (Tm:YAG) versus 677 ± 134 µm (Ho

  4. Validation of satellite data through the remote sensing techniques and the inclusion of them into agricultural education pilot programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Georgios; Kountios, Georgios; Bournaris, T.; Michailidis, Anastasios; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the remote sensing techniques have a significant role in all the fields of agricultural extensions as well as agricultural economics and education but they are used more specifically in hydrology. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of field spectroscopy for validation of the satellite data and how combination of remote sensing techniques and field spectroscopy can have more accurate results for irrigation purposes. For this reason vegetation indices are used which are mostly empirical equations describing vegetation parameters during the lifecycle of the crops. These numbers are generated by some combination of remote sensing bands and may have some relationship to the amount of vegetation in a given image pixel. Due to the fact that most of the commonly used vegetation indices are only concerned with red-near-infrared spectrum and can be divided to perpendicular and ratio based indices the specific goal of the research is to illustrate the effect of the atmosphere to those indices, in both categories. In this frame field spectroscopy is employed in order to derive the spectral signatures of different crops in red and infrared spectrum after a campaign of ground measurements. The main indices have been calculated using satellite images taken at interval dates during the whole lifecycle of the crops by using a GER 1500 spectro-radiomete. These indices was compared to those extracted from satellite images after applying an atmospheric correction algorithm -darkest pixel- to the satellite images at a pre-processing level so as the indices would be in comparable form to those of the ground measurements. Furthermore, there has been a research made concerning the perspectives of the inclusion of the above mentioned remote satellite techniques to agricultural education pilot programs.

  5. Optical component of the European Airborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrere, Veronique; Oertel, Dieter; Verdebout, Jean; Maracci, G.; Schmuck, Guido; Sieber, Alois J.

    1995-06-01

    The European Ariborne Remote Sensing Capabilities (EARSEC) is a program of the Commission of the European Union in coordination with the European Space Agency. Its goal is to establish an independent European state-of-the-art capability in remote sensing for a wide range of applications. The core instrument of the 'Optical' component of EARSEC is an Imaging Spectrometer (the Digital Airborne Imaging Spectrometer 7915 or DIAS 7915) built by Geophysical & Environmental Research Corporation (GER) and operated by DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, in collaboration with JRC. The 79 channel high resolution Imaging Spectrometer (IS) covers the 0.4 to 12.3 micrometers wavelength range with a spectral resolution varying from 16 to 2000 nm. Operated from a Dornier 228 aircraft, the spatial resolution can vary between 3 and 15 m. The instrument is calibrated and improved at DLR and should be operational in 1995 for campaigns over Europe. The 'Optical' component of EARSEC also includes ground facilities, mainly an electro-optical (EO) processor developed for JRC by Earth Observation Sciences Limited in the United Kingdom for DAIS 7915 data processing. This processor will generate four levels of products, from simple ingestion, to calibration into physical units of radiance, to geolocation and geocoding. Collaborations are foreseen with European groups operating other advanced optical sensors such as the Italian LARA project, operating the MIVIS (IS comparable to the DAIS), and DLR, operating the ROSIS (developed for marine applications, covering the 430-850 nm region). The EO processor could be adapted in the future to handle other IS data for a more universal use.

  6. A knowledge- and model-based system for automated weaning from mechanical ventilation: technical description and first clinical application.

    PubMed

    Schädler, Dirk; Mersmann, Stefan; Frerichs, Inéz; Elke, Gunnar; Semmel-Griebeler, Thomas; Noll, Oliver; Pulletz, Sven; Zick, Günther; David, Matthias; Heinrichs, Wolfgang; Scholz, Jens; Weiler, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    To describe the principles and the first clinical application of a novel prototype automated weaning system called Evita Weaning System (EWS). EWS allows an automated control of all ventilator settings in pressure controlled and pressure support mode with the aim of decreasing the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation. Respiratory load takes inspired fraction of oxygen, positive end-expiratory pressure, pressure amplitude and spontaneous breathing activity into account. Spontaneous breathing activity is assessed by the number of controlled breaths needed to maintain a predefined respiratory rate. EWS was implemented as a knowledge- and model-based system that autonomously and remotely controlled a mechanical ventilator (Evita 4, Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany). In a selected case study (n = 19 patients), ventilator settings chosen by the responsible physician were compared with the settings 10 min after the start of EWS and at the end of the study session. Neither unsafe ventilator settings nor failure of the system occurred. All patients were successfully transferred from controlled ventilation to assisted spontaneous breathing in a mean time of 37 ± 17 min (± SD). Early settings applied by the EWS did not significantly differ from the initial settings, except for the fraction of oxygen in inspired gas. During the later course, EWS significantly modified most of the ventilator settings and reduced the imposed respiratory load. A novel prototype automated weaning system was successfully developed. The first clinical application of EWS revealed that its operation was stable, safe ventilator settings were defined and the respiratory load of mechanical ventilation was decreased.

  7. Integrin-Mediated Adhesion and Proliferation of Human MCs Elicited by A Hydroxyproline-Lacking, Collagen-like Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Ohm D.; Jha, Amit K.; Jia, Xinqiao; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the competence of a rationally designed collagen-like peptide (CLP-Cys) sequence - containing the minimal essential Glycine-Glutamic acid-Arginine (GER) triplet but lacking the hydroxyproline residue - for supporting human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Cellular responses to the CLP-Cys sequence were analyzed by conjugating the peptide to two different substrates – a hard, planar glass surface and a soft hyaluronic acid (HA) particle-based hydrogel. Integrin-mediated cell spreading and adhesion were observed for hMSCs cultivated on the CLP-Cys functionalized surfaces, whereas on control surfaces lacking the peptide motif, cells either did not adhere or maintained a round morphology. On the glass surface, CLP-Cys-mediated spreading led to the formation of extended and well developed stress fibers composed of F-actin bundles and focal adhesion complexes while on the soft gel surface, less cytoskeletal reorganization was observed. The hMSCs proliferated significantly on the surfaces presenting CLP-Cys, compared to the control surfaces lacking CLP-Cys. Competitive binding assay employing soluble CLP-Cys revealed a dose-dependent inhibition of hMSC adhesion to the CLP-Cys-presenting surfaces. Blocking the α2β1 receptor on hMSC also resulted in a reduction of cell adhesion on both types of CLP-Cys surfaces, confirming the affinity of CLP-Cys to α2β1 receptors. These results established the competence of the hydroxyproline-free CLP-Cys for eliciting integrin-mediated cellular responses including adhesion, spreading and proliferation. Thus, CLP-Cys-modified HA hydrogels are attractive candidates as bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. PMID:21658756

  8. Pore-structure models of hydraulic conductivity for permeable pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, X.; Sansalone, J.; Ying, G.; Ranieri, V.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryPermeable pavement functions as a porous infrastructure interface allowing the infiltration and evaporation of rainfall-runoff while functioning as a relatively smooth load-bearing surface for vehicular transport. Hydraulic conductivity ( k) of permeable pavement is an important hydraulic property and is a function of the pore structure. This study examines k for a cementitious permeable pavement (CPP) through a series of pore-structure models. Measurements utilized include hydraulic head as well as total porosity, ( ϕ t), effective porosity ( ϕ e), tortuosity ( L e/ L) and pore size distribution (PSD) indices generated through X-ray tomography (XRT). XRT results indicate that the permeable pavement pore matrix is hetero-disperse, with high tortuosity and ϕ t ≠ ϕ e. Power law models of k- ϕ t and k- ϕ e relationships are developed for a CPP mix design. Results indicate that the Krüger, Fair-Hatch, Hazen, Slichter, Beyer and Terzaghi models based on simple pore-structure indices do not reproduce measured k values. The conventional Kozeny-Carman model (KCM), a more parameterized pore-structure model, did not reproduce measured k values. This study proposes a modified KCM utilizing ϕ e, specific surface area (SSA) pe and weighted tortuosity ( L e/ L) w. Results demonstrate that such permeable pavement pore-structure parameters with the modified KCM can predict k. The k results are combined with continuous simulation modeling using historical rainfall to provide nomographs examining permeable pavement as a low impact development (LID) infrastructure component.

  9. A Comparison of Solar Image Restoration Techniques for SST/CRISP Data (Summary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, M.

    2016-04-01

    Solar images from high-resolution, ground-based telescopes are corrected for the blurring effects of atmospheric turbulence by use of adaptive optics and post-facto image restoration. Two classes of image restoration methods are regularly used today, those based on Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution (MFBD; Löfdahl 2002) and those based on Speckle Interferometry (SI; von der Luhe &Dunn 1987). In a recently started project, we will compare and evaluate such methods for use with spectropolarimetric data from the CRisp Imaging SpectroPolarimeter (CRISP; Scharmer et al. 2008) of the Swedish 1-meter Solar Telescope (SST; Scharmer et al. 2003). For SST/CRISP data we routinely use the Multi-Object MFBD (MOMFBD; van Noort et al. 2005) technique to jointly restore images collected from a wideband camera and from the narrowband cameras behind the CRISP FPI and polarimetry optics. This crucial step in the data reduction pipeline of CRISP (CRISPRED; de la Cruz Rodríguez et al. 2015) is carefully integrated with the application of various procedures that are designed to reduce effects of imperfections in the instruments. In order to make the comparison as fair as possible, we have extended CRISPRED so that the Kiepenheuer-Institut Speckle Interferometry Package (KISIP; Wöger & von der Lühe 2008), together with Speckle Deconvolution (SD; Keller & von der Luehe 1992; Mikurda et al. 2006), can serve as a drop in replacement for MOMFBD. The adaption of SI and SD to CRISPRED will allow us to make fair comparisons not only of the restored images, but also of derivative data like Stokes maps and further on to evaluate the consequences of remaining errors and artifacts for the interpretation of physical quantities inferred through atmospheric model inversions.

  10. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects.

  11. Evaluation of on-site oral fluid screening using Drugwipe-5(+), RapidSTAT and Drug Test 5000 for the detection of drugs of abuse in drivers.

    PubMed

    Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Ramírez-Fernández, Maria del Mar; De Boeck, Gert

    2010-05-20

    Driving under the influence of drugs is a major problem worldwide. At the moment, several countries have adopted a 'per se' legislation to address this problem. One of the key elements in the enforcement process is the possibility of rapid on-site screening tests to take immediate administrative measures. In this study, the reliability of three oral fluid screening devices (Mavand RapidSTAT, Securetec Drugwipe-5(+), and Dräger DrugTest 5000) was assessed by comparing their on-site results with confirmatory GC-MS plasma analysis. Our results demonstrate that for amphetamine screening, the oral fluid on-site devices on the market today are certainly sensitive enough. RapidSTAT, Drugwipe-5(+), and DrugTest 5000 demonstrated respectively a sensitivity of 93%, 100% and 92% for amphetamine/MDMA. For cocaine screening, sensitivities of 75%, 78% and 67% were obtained for the RapidSTAT, Drugwipe-5(+), and DrugTest 5000 devices, respectively. The studied devices were able to detect about 70% of all cannabis users in a roadside setting. However, a newer version of the DrugTest 5000 test cassette demonstrated a sensitivity of 93%, indicating an increased detection of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol using 'new generation' oral fluid screening tests with lowered cut-offs. Due to these promising results police officers and judicial experts are keen to use oral fluid screening devices. They believe that their ease of use and diminished amount of false positive results in comparison with urine screening will lead to more roadside tests and more appropriate juridical measures.

  12. How to model the interaction of charged Janus particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hieronimus, Reint; Raschke, Simon; Heuer, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the interaction of charged Janus particles including screening effects. The explicit interaction is mapped via a least square method on a variable number n of systematically generated tensors that reflect the angular dependence of the potential. For n = 2 we show that the interaction is equivalent to a model previously described by Erdmann, Kröger, and Hess (EKH). Interestingly, this mapping is for n = 2 not able to capture the subtleties of the interaction for small screening lengths. Rather, a larger number of tensors has to be used. We find that the characteristics of the Janus type interaction plays an important role for the aggregation behavior. We obtained cluster structures up to the size of 13 particles for n = 2 and 36 and screening lengths κ-1 = 0.1 and 1.0 via Monte Carlo simulations. The influence of the screening length is analyzed and the structures are compared to results for an electrostatic-type potential and for the multipole-expanded Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. We find that a dipole-like potential (EKH or dipole DLVO approximation) is not able to sufficiently reproduce the anisotropy effects of the potential. Instead, a higher order expansion has to be used to obtain cluster structures that are compatible with experimental observations. The resulting minimum-energy clusters are compared to those of sticky hard sphere systems. Janus particles with a short-range screened interaction resemble sticky hard sphere clusters for all considered particle numbers, whereas for long-range screening even very small clusters are structurally different.

  13. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  14. Microbial mats in the Black Sea that anaerobically oxidise methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauhaus, K.; Knittel, K.; Krüger, M.; Boetius, A.; Michaelis, W.; Widdel, F.

    2003-04-01

    Reef-forming microbial mats were recovered from methane seeps in anoxic waters of the northwestern Black Sea (BS) shelf. The microbial mats consist mainly of archaea (ANME-1 cluster) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group). Laboratory incubations with homogenized subsamples of the mats revealed their ability for the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The phylogentic relationship of the sulfate reducing partner is the same as in the AOM consortia studied in sediment samples from a methane hydrate area (Hydrate Ridge (HR), Oregon, USA (1,2)). The archaeal partner however belongs to a different cluster than in the HR samples (ANME-2). Methane oxidation is coupled to sulfate reduction in a 1:1 stoichiometry. Elevated methane partial pressures (0.1 to 1.1 MPa) increased the sulfate reduction rates in the Black Sea samples only two-fold in contrast to 5-fold in HR samples. The optimal temperature for the BS samples is between 10 and 25^oC. In both samples AOM was not taking place if typical inhibitors for sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis were added, thus indicating a syntrophic relationship between the partner organisms. The intermediate that is exchanged between the methane oxidizing archaea and the sulfate-reducing bacterium is still unknown. Additions of the possible intermediates (Acetate, Formate, Hydrogen) did not result in higher sulfate reduction rates in the absence of methane. (1) Boetius, A. et al. (2000) A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane. Nature. 407: 623--626 (2) Nauhaus, K., Boetius, A., Krüger, M., Widdel, F. (2002) In vitro demonstration of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulphate reduction in sediment from a marine gas hydrate area. Environ. Microbiol. 4 (5): 296--305

  15. Systematics of the Neotropical genus Catharylla Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae s. l., Crambinae)

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Théo; Landry, Bernard; Nuss, Matthias; Mally, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Catharylla Zeller, 1863 (type species: Crambus tenellus Zeller, 1839) is redescribed. Catharylla contiguella Zeller, 1872, C. interrupta Zeller, 1866 and Myelois sericina Zeller, 1881, included by Munroe (1995) in Catharylla, are moved to Argyria Hübner. Catharylla paulella Schaus, 1922 and C. tenellus (Zeller, 1839) are redescribed. Six new species are described by Léger and Landry: C. bijuga, C. chelicerata, C. coronata, C. gigantea, C. mayrabonillae and C. serrabonita. The phylogenetic relationships were investigated using morphological as well as molecular data (COI, wingless, EF-1α genes). The median and subterminal transverse lines of the forewing as well as the short anterior and posterior apophyses of the female genitalia are characteristic of the genus. The monophyly of Catharylla was recovered in all phylogenetic analyses of the molecular and the combined datasets, with three morphological apomorphies highlighted. Phylogenetic analyses of the morphology of the two sexes recovered three separate species groups within Catharylla: the chelicerata, the mayrabonillae, and the tenellus species groups. The possible position of Micrelephas Schaus, 1922 as sister to Catharylla, based on both morphological and molecular data, and the status of tribe Argyriini are discussed. The biogeographical data indicate that the chelicerata species group is restricted to the Guyanas and the Amazonian regions whereas the tenellus group is restricted to the Atlantic Forest in the South-Eastern part of Brazil. The mayrabonillae group is widespread from Costa Rica to South Bolivia with an allopatric distribution of the two species. COI barcode sequences indicate relatively strong divergence within C. bijuga, C. mayrabonillae, C. serrabonita and C. tenellus. PMID:24526844

  16. Spectral Discrimination and Reflectance Properties of Various Vine Varieties from Satellite, UAV and Proximate Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakizi, C.; Oikonomou, M.; Karantzalos, K.

    2015-04-01

    An assessment of the spectral discrimination between different vine varieties was undertaken using non-destructive remote sensing observations at the veraison period. During concurrent satellite, aerial and field campaigns, in-situ reflectance data were collected from a spectroradiometer, hyperspectral data were acquired from a UAV and multispectral data from a high-resolution satellite imaging sensor. Data were collected during a three years period (i.e, 2012, 2013 and 2014) over five wine-growing regions, covering more than 1000ha, in Greece. Data for more than twenty different vine varieties were processed and analysed. In particular, reflectance hyperspectral data from a spectroradiometer (GER 1500, Spectra Vista Corporation, 350-1050nm, 512 spectral bands) were calculated from the raw radiance values and then were correlated with the corresponding reflectance observations from the UAV and satellite data. Reflectance satellite data (WorldView-2, 400nm-1040nm, 8 spectral bands, DigitalGlobe), after the radiometric and atmospheric correction of the raw datasets, were classified towards the detection and the discrimination of the different vine varieties. The concurrent observations from in-situ hyperspectral, aerial hyperspectral and satellite multispectral data over the same vines were highly correlated. High correlations were, also, established for the same vine varieties (e.g., Syrah, Sauvignon Blanc) cultivated in different regions. The analysis of in-situ reflectance indicated that certain vine varieties, like Merlot, Sauvignon Blanc, Ksinomavro and Agiorgitiko possess specific spectral properties and detectable behaviour. These observations were, in most cases, in accordance with the classification results from the high resolution satellite data. In particular, Merlot and also Sauvignon Blanc were detected and discriminated with high accuracy rates. Surprisingly different clones from the same variety could be separated (e.g., clones of Syrah), while they

  17. Driving under the influence of drugs -- evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Kauert, Gerold F; Steinmeyer, Stefan; Moeller, Manfred R

    2005-09-10

    A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling/testing device (Dräger DrugTest System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms. Analysis for cannabinoids, amphetamine and its derivatives, opiates and cocaine was performed in urine using the Mahsan Kombi/DOA4-test, in serum using immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmation and in oral fluid by GC-MS. Police and medical officer observations of impairment symptoms were rated and evaluated using a threshold value for the classification of driving inability. Accuracy in correlating drug detection in oral fluid and serum were >90% for all substances and also >90% in urine and serum except for THC (71.0%). Of the cases with oral fluid positive for any drug 97.1% of corresponding serum samples were also positive for at least one drug; of drug-positive urine samples this were only 82.4%. In 119 of 146 cases, impairment symptoms above threshold were observed (81.5%). Of the cases with drugs detected in serum, 19.1% appeared not impaired which were the same with drug-positive oral fluid while more persons with drug-positive urine samples appeared uninfluenced (32.7%). The data demonstrate that oral fluid is superior to urine in correlating with serum analytical data and impairment symptoms of drivers under the influence of drugs of abuse.

  18. The Respiratory Chain of Chlorella protothecoides

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Neil G.; Hommersand, Max H.

    1974-01-01

    The respiration and cytochrome properties of “glucose-bleached” Chlorella protothecoides Krüger, Indiana strain 25, were studied. This organism, when grown heterotrophically with high glucose and a low organic nitrogen source, has no chlorophyll, little carotenoid, and diminished chloroplast structure—factors which make it suitable for respiration studies. Whole cell endogenous oxygen uptake rates are either stimulated or only slightly inhibited by cyanide, azide, CO, and antimycin. When these inhibitors are used with m-chlorobenz-hydroxamic acid (mCLAM), an inhibitor of higher plant mitochondrial alternate oxidase, O2 uptake is inhibited. There is little effect of mCLAM by itself on the rate of oxygen uptake. The inhibition by CO of O2 uptake in the presence of mCLAM is reversed by light. The cytochrome chain of C. protothecoides consists of cytochromes aa3, b, and c, as revealed by room temperature difference spectra. In common with mitochondria of higher plants, there is a further reduction of cytochrome b with dithionite. In the presence of antimycin, the cytochromes aa3 and c are oxidized and cytochrome b is reduced. Cyanide causes a partial reduction of cytochromes aa3 and c while cytochrome b remains oxidized. This general response is characteristic of higher plant mitochrondria having large amounts of cyanide-resistant respiration. Carbon monoxide spectra reveal one CO-combining pigment. The cytochrome b region differs from that of higher plants in that the typical complex spectrum does not appear at low temperature (−190 C). The concentration of cytochrome aa3 per cell volume was observed during the greening of “glucose-bleached” cells. The concentration of these cytochromes nearly tripled during the 24 hours of the initial stages of greening. PMID:16658836

  19. Retention of 99mTc-DMSA(III) and 99mTc-nanocolloid in different syringes affects imaging quality.

    PubMed

    Bauwens, Matthias; Pooters, Ivo; van der Pol, Jochen; Mottaghy, Felix M; van Kroonenburgh, Marinus

    2014-04-01

    (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid [DMSA(III)] and colloidal human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-nanocolloid) are widely used radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, in our institution we encountered image quality problems in DMSA scans after changing the brand of syringes we were using, which triggered us to look into the adsorption properties of syringes from different brands for (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid. We also describe a clinical case in which adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) caused inferior imaging quality. DMSA and nanocolloid were labeled with (99m)Tc following manufacturer guidelines. After synthesis, syringes with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid were stored for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. We evaluated Luer Lock syringes manufactured by different brands such as Artsana, Henke-Sass-Wolf, B. Braun Medical N.V., CODAN Medizinische Geräte GmbH & Co KG, Becton Dickinson and Company, and Terumo Europe. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid was acceptably low for all syringes (<13%), except for two brands with (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) adsorption rates of 36 and 30%, respectively, and for one brand with a (99m)Tc-nanocolloid adsorption rate of 27%. Adsorption of (99m)Tc-DMSA(III) and (99m)Tc-nanocolloid reaches critical levels in syringes produced by two brands, potentially causing poor image quality--for example, in DMSA scans using pediatric radiopharmaceutical doses. It is advised to check the compatibility of any radiopharmaceutical with syringes as an integral part of the quality assurance program.

  20. Conservation planning for biodiversity and wilderness: a real-world example.

    PubMed

    Ceauşu, Silvia; Gomes, Inês; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Several of the most important conservation prioritization approaches select markedly different areas at global and regional scales. They are designed to maximize a certain biodiversity dimension such as coverage of species in the case of hotspots and complementarity, or composite properties of ecosystems in the case of wilderness. Most comparisons between approaches have ignored the multidimensionality of biodiversity. We analyze here the results of two species-based methodologies-hotspots and complementarity-and an ecosystem-based methodology-wilderness-at local scale. As zoning of protected areas can increase the effectiveness of conservation, we use the data employed for the management plan of the Peneda-Gerês National Park in Portugal. We compare the approaches against four criteria: species representativeness, wilderness coverage, coverage of important areas for megafauna, and for regulating ecosystem services. Our results suggest that species- and ecosystem-based approaches select significantly different areas at local scale. Our results also show that no approach covers well all biodiversity dimensions. Species-based approaches cover species distribution better, while the ecosystem-based approach favors wilderness, areas important for megafauna, and for ecosystem services. Management actions addressing different dimensions of biodiversity have a potential for contradictory effects, social conflict, and ecosystem services trade-offs, especially in the context of current European biodiversity policies. However, biodiversity is multidimensional, and management and zoning at local level should reflect this aspect. The consideration of both species- and ecosystem-based approaches at local scale is necessary to achieve a wider range of conservation goals.

  1. Hyperspectral Mapping of the Invasive Species Pepperweed and the Development of a Habitat Suitability Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A.; Gole, A.; Randall, J.; Dlott, G. A.; Zhang, S.; Alfaro, B.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive plant species is central to habitat management, however difficult to implement at landscape and regional scales. Remote sensing techniques can reduce the cost of field campaigns and can provide a regional and multi-temporal view of invasive species spread. Invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is now widespread in fragmented estuaries of the South San Francisco Bay, and is shown to degrade native vegetation in estuaries and adjacent habitats, thereby reducing forage and shelter for wildlife. The purpose of this study is to map the current distribution of pepperweed in estuarine areas of the South San Francisco Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, and create a habitat suitability model to predict future spread. Pepperweed reflectance data were collected in-situ with a GER 1500 spectroradiometer along with 88 corresponding pepperweed presence and absence points used for building the statistical models. The spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification algorithm was used to distinguish the reflectance spectrum of pepperweed and map its distribution using an EO-1 Hyperion satellite image. To map pepperweed, a supervised classification was performed on an ASTER image with a resulting classification accuracy of 71.8%. We generated a weighted overlay analysis model within a geographic information system (GIS) framework to predict areas in the study site most susceptible to pepperweed colonization. Variables for the model included propensity for disturbance, status of pond restoration, proximity to water channels, and terrain curvature. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was also used to generate a probability map and investigate the statistical probability that each variable contributed to predict pepperweed spread. Results from the GAM revealed distance to channels, distance to ponds and curvature were statistically significant (p < 0.01) in determining the locations of suitable pepperweed habitats.

  2. Creation of an Accurate Algorithm to Detect Snellen Best Documented Visual Acuity from Ophthalmology Electronic Health Record Notes

    PubMed Central

    French, Dustin D; Gill, Manjot; Mitchell, Christopher; Jackson, Kathryn; Kho, Abel; Bryar, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual acuity is the primary measure used in ophthalmology to determine how well a patient can see. Visual acuity for a single eye may be recorded in multiple ways for a single patient visit (eg, Snellen vs. Jäger units vs. font print size), and be recorded for either distance or near vision. Capturing the best documented visual acuity (BDVA) of each eye in an individual patient visit is an important step for making electronic ophthalmology clinical notes useful in research. Objective Currently, there is limited methodology for capturing BDVA in an efficient and accurate manner from electronic health record (EHR) notes. We developed an algorithm to detect BDVA for right and left eyes from defined fields within electronic ophthalmology clinical notes. Methods We designed an algorithm to detect the BDVA from defined fields within 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes with visual acuity data present. About 5668 unique responses were identified and an algorithm was developed to map all of the unique responses to a structured list of Snellen visual acuities. Results Visual acuity was captured from a total of 295,218 ophthalmology clinical notes during the study dates. The algorithm identified all visual acuities in the defined visual acuity section for each eye and returned a single BDVA for each eye. A clinician chart review of 100 random patient notes showed a 99% accuracy detecting BDVA from these records and 1% observed error. Conclusions Our algorithm successfully captures best documented Snellen distance visual acuity from ophthalmology clinical notes and transforms a variety of inputs into a structured Snellen equivalent list. Our work, to the best of our knowledge, represents the first attempt at capturing visual acuity accurately from large numbers of electronic ophthalmology notes. Use of this algorithm can benefit research groups interested in assessing visual acuity for patient centered outcome. All codes used for this study are currently

  3. Comparative analysis of different uni- and multi-variate methods for estimation of vegetation water content using hyper-spectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaie, M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Shakiba, A.; Matkan, A. A.; Atzberger, C.; Skidmore, A.

    2014-02-01

    Assessment of vegetation water content is critical for monitoring vegetation condition, detecting plant water stress, assessing the risk of forest fires and evaluating water status for irrigation. The main objective of this study was to investigate the performance of various mono- and multi-variate statistical methods for estimating vegetation water content (VWC) from hyper-spectral data. Hyper-spectral data is influenced by multi-collinearity because of a large number of (independent) spectral bands being modeled by a small number of (dependent) biophysical variables. Therefore, some full spectrum methods that are known to be suitable for analyzing multi-collinear data set were chosen. Canopy spectral reflectance was obtained with a GER 3700 spectro-radiometer (400-2400 nm) in a laboratory setting and VWC was measured by calculating wet/dry weight difference per unit of ground area (g/m2) of each plant canopy (n = 95). Three multivariate statistical methods were applied to estimate VWC: (1) partial least square regression, (2) artificial neural network and (3) principal component regression. They were selected to minimize the problem related to multi-collinearity. For comparison, uni-variate techniques including narrow band ratio water index (RWI), normalized difference water index (NDWI), second soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI2) and transferred soil adjusted vegetation index (TSAVI) were applied. For each type of vegetation index, all two-band combinations were evaluated to determine the best band combination. Validation of the methods was based on the cross validation procedure and using three statistical indicators: R2, RMSE and relative RMSE. The cross-validated results identified PLSR as the regression model providing the most accurate estimates of VWC among the various methods. The result revealed that this model is highly recommended for use with multi-collinear datasets (RCV2=0.94, RRMSECV = 0.23). Principal component regression exhibited the lowest

  4. History of respiratory gas exchange.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2011-07-01

    As early as the 6th century B.C. the Greeks speculated on a substance pneuma that meant breath or soul, and they argued that this was essential for life. An important figure in the 2nd century A.D. was Galen whose school developed an elaborate cardiopulmonary system that influenced scientific thinking for 1400 years. A key concept was that blood was mixed with pneuma from the lung in the left ventricle thus forming vital spirit. It was also believed that blood flowed from the right to the left ventricle of the heart through pores in the interventricular septum but this view was challenged first by the Arab physician Ibn al-Nafis in the 13th century and later by Michael Servetus in the 16th century. The 17th century saw an enormous burgeoning of knowledge about the respiratory gases. First Torricelli explained the origin of atmospheric pressure, and then a group of physiologists in Oxford clarified the properties of inspired gas that were necessary for life. This culminated in the work of Lavoisier who first clearly elucidated the nature of the respiratory gases, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. At that time it was thought that oxygen was consumed in the lung itself, and the fact that the actual metabolism took place in peripheral tissues proved to be a very elusive concept. It was not until the late 19th century that the issue was finally settled by Pflüger. In the early 20th century there was a colorful controversy about whether oxygen was secreted by the lung. During and shortly after World War II, momentous strides were made on the understanding of pulmonary gas exchange, particularly the role of ventilation-perfusion inequality. A critical development in the 1960s was the introduction of blood gas electrodes, and these have transformed the management of patients with severe lung disease. PMID:23733651

  5. Mikrostrukturtechnik und Biomaterialien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, Andreas E.; Saile, Volker; Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich

    In der Biomedizintechnik zeichnet sich derzeit ein Trend zu einer verstärkten Miniaturisierung des operativen Instrumentariums und der Peripheriegeräte ab, da zur sicheren Durchführung vieler minimal invasiv auszuführender chirurgischer Eingriffe sehr kleine Instrumente und Zusatzgeräte benötigt werden. Weiterhin werden für verschiedene Anwendungen im Life-Sciences-Bereich, wie z. B. innerhalb der klinischen Diagnostik und der pharmazeutischen Chemie, in zunehmendem Masse Komponenten mit eingearbeiteten Mikrostrukturen benötigt. Mit den inzwischen verfügbaren mikrotechnischen Herstellungsverfahren (siehe Kapitel 40.2) ist man in der Lage, unterschiedliche geometrische Formen von kleinen dreidimensionalen Bauteilen und Baugruppen im Mikrometerbereich zu fertigen. Für spezielle Anwendungen können aber auch Strukturen im Bereich von einigen 100 nm erzeugt werden. Mikrostrukturierte Komponenten und Baugruppen können entweder in Form von Implantaten in den menschlichen Körper gelangen oder in extrakorporal einsetzbaren Geräten zum Einsatz kommen (siehe Kapitel 40.3). Dabei ist zwischen Kurzzeit- und Langzeitimplantaten zu unterscheiden. Typische Kurzzeitimplantate sind beispielsweise Operationsinstrumente während eines operativen Eingriffes und für kurze Zeiträume gelegte Spezialkatheter zur gezielten Entnahme von Körpersäften oder zur temporären Medikamentenapplikation. Zur Kategorie der Langzeitimplantate gehören beispielsweise auf Dauer eingesetzte Gefässendoprothesen (Stents), Herzschrittmacher, Cochleaimplantate, miniaturisierte Medikamentendosiersysteme auf Basis mikrofluidischer Baugruppen (Mikropumpen, Mikrokanäle, etc.), implantierbare Arrays von Mikroelektroden, welche innerhalb der Neurobionik verstärkt Anwendung finden werden, sowie in der Zukunft auch künstliche Organe.

  6. A comparison of migrants to, and women born in, urban Mongolia: demographic, reproductive, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ganmaa, Davaasambuu; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Frazier, Lindsay A.; Davaalkham, Dambadarjaa; Oyunbileg, Gankhuyag; Janes, Craig; Potischman, Nancy; Hoover, Robert; Troisi, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Background Mongolia has experienced vast migration from rural to urban areas since the 1950s. We hypothesized that women migrating to Ulaanbaatar, the capital, would differ in factors related to future chronic disease risk compared with women who were born in Ulaanbaatar. Methods Premenopausal mothers (aged <44 years) of children attending two schools (one in the city centre and one in the outskirts) in Ulaanbaatar were recruited for the study. During April and May 2009, 420 women were interviewed about migration, reproductive history and lifestyle factors and anthropometric measurements were taken. Results Women born in (n=178) and outside (n=242) Ulaanbaatar were similar in education and marital status, but the latter appeared to have a more traditional lifestyle including being more likely to have lived as a nomadic herder (22.3% vs 5.6%; p<0.001) and to currently live in a traditional yurt or ger (40.1% vs 29.2%). Ever-use of hormonal contraception was more common in women born outside Ulaanbaatar (52.1% vs 38.2%; p=0.005) and their age at first live birth was older (26.0% vs 20.8% for ≥25 vs <25 years). Although the number of pregnancies was similar, the number of live births was greater for those born outside Ulaanbaatar (p=0.002). Women born in Ulaanbaatar were more likely to have smoked cigarettes (24.7% vs 11.2%; p<0.001). Women born outside Ulaanbaatar were more likely to consume the traditional meat and dairy diet. Conclusion Rural migrants to Mongolia's capital have retained a traditional lifestyle in some, but not all, respects. Internal migrant populations may provide the opportunity to assess the effect of changes in isolated risk factors for subsequent chronic disease. PMID:24021762

  7. Application de la diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température pour l'identification d'une nouvelle phase lors de l'oxydation à 900circC de l'acier 304

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffard, F.; Buscail, H.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.; Issartel, C.; El Messki, S.; Perrier, S.

    2004-11-01

    Une nouvelle interprétation du comportement atypique couramment appelé "breakaway" observé lors de l'oxydation à haute température d'alliages chromino-formeurs est proposée grâce à l'utilisation de la diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température. L'acier chromino-formeur AISI 304 doit établir une couche d'oxyde superficielle généralement dense et majoritairement, constituée de chromine, dont la vitesse de croissance est lente, afin d'assurer sa protection contre la corrosion à haute température. Cette faible vitesse de croissance de la couche d'oxyde est effectivement observée à 1000circC. Elle serait favorisée par l'établissement d'une couche de chromine induite par la présence d'une sous-couche continue de silice à l'interface interne. Cette dernière limiterait la diffusion du fer. Le phénomène du "breakaway" est observé à la température de 900circC après 40 heures d'oxydation. Ce phénomène serait lié à la croissance initiale d'oxydes contenant du fer. L'oxyde Fe{7}SiO{10, }a été identifié{ }pour la première fois grâce à la technique de diffraction des rayons X in situ à haute température. Cet oxyde semble piéger le silicium dans la couche d'oxyde, empêchant son accumulation à l'interface interne et la formation d'une couche continue de silice.

  8. Remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 above the Atlantic from aboard the research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klappenbach, Friedrich; Kostinek, Julian; Bertleff, Marco; Hase, Frank; Butz, Andrè

    2015-04-01

    Global measurements of the column average dry air mole fractions of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and methane (XCH4) are of great interest for inferring information on sources and sinks of these two major anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Satellite remote sensing of XCO2 and XCH4 is an emerging tool which promises to supplement the traditional ground-based in-situ sampling approach by vast data coverage. The usefulness of XCO2 and XCH4 measured by satellites such as GOSAT and OCO-2, however, crucially depends on precision and accuracy. Therefore, validation by ground-based remote sensing observations is of major importance. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) has been designed to meet these validation needs. It covers a few tens of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers operating at very high spectral resolution. Most of these instruments are located on continental regions especially in the northern hemisphere. However, oceanic regions are sparsely validated. In the framework of the development of a robust, small and versatile spectrometer for harsh environments and mobile applications, we operated two instruments, a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (EM27/SUN by Bruker) and a custom-built grating spectrometer aboard the German research vessel Polarstern. Both instruments are modified such, that the solar tracking system can compensate for the ships movement. Here, we will present and discuss instrument performance of the EM27/SUN instrument and the solar tracking device. The retrieved north to south gradient of XCO2 and XCH4 mixing ratios along the ship track from Capetown (SA) to Bremerhaven (GER) during the 5-week cruise in March 2014 will be presented and discussed. We assess the usefulness of the dataset for validating GOSAT ocean glint observations as well as an comparison with the global CO2 and CH4 model data.

  9. Glucosinolate profiling and antimicrobial screening of Aurinia leucadea (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Blažević, Ivica; Radonić, Ani; Skočibušić, Mirjana; De Nicola, Gina R; Montaut, Sabine; Iori, Renato; Rollin, Patrick; Mastelić, Josip; Zekić, Marina; Maravić, Ana

    2011-12-01

    Glucosinolates (GLs) were characterized in various aerial parts (stems, leaves, and flowers) of Aurinia leucadea (Guss.) C. Koch and quantified according to the ISO 9167-1 official method based on the HPLC analysis of desulfoglucosinolates. Eight GLs, i.e., glucoraphanin (GRA), glucoalyssin (GAL; 1), gluconapin (GNA; 2), glucocochlearin (GCC), glucobrassicanapin (GBN; 3), glucotropaeolin (GTL), glucoerucin (GER), and glucoberteroin (GBE) were identified. The total GL contents were 57.1, 37.8, and 81.3 μmol/g dry weight in the stems, leaves, and flowers, respectively. The major GL detected in all parts of the plant was 2, followed by 1 and 3. GC/MS Analysis of the volatile fractions extracted from the aerial parts of fresh plant material either by hydrodistillation or CH(2) Cl(2) extraction showed that these fractions mostly contained isothiocyanates (ITCs). The main ITCs were but-3-enyl- (55.6-71.8%), pent-4-enyl- (7.6-15.3%), and 5-(methylsulfinyl)pentyl ITC (0-9.5%), originating from the corresponding GLs 2, 3, and 1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the volatile samples was investigated by determining inhibition zones with the disk-diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) with the microdilution method. They were found to inhibit a wide range of bacteria and fungi, with MIC values of 2.0-32.0 μg/ml, indicating their promising antimicrobial potential, especially against the fungi Candida albicans and Rhizopus stolonifer as well as against the clinically important pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  10. Two distinct etiologies of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: interactions among pH, Helicobacter pylori, and bile acids.

    PubMed

    Mukaisho, Ken-Ichi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer can be classified as cardia and non-cardia subtypes according to the anatomic site. Although the gastric cancer incidence has decreased steadily in several countries over the past 50 years, the incidence of cardia cancers and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) continue to increase. The etiological factors involved in the development of both cardia cancers and EACs are associated with high animal fat intake, which causes severe obesity. Central obesity plays roles in cardiac-type mucosa lengthening and partial hiatus hernia development. There are two distinct etiologies of cardia cancer subtypes: one associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which predominantly occurs in patients without Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and resembles EAC, and the other associated with H. pylori atrophic gastritis, which resembles non-cardia cancer. The former can be developed in the environment of high volume duodenal content reflux, including bile acids and a higher acid production in H. pylori-negative patients. N-nitroso compounds, which are generated from the refluxate that includes a large volume of bile acids and are stabilized in the stomach (which has high levels of gastric acid), play a pivotal role in this carcinogenesis. The latter can be associated with the changing colonization of H. pylori from the distal to the proximal stomach with atrophic gastritis because a high concentration of soluble bile acids in an environment of low acid production is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori in the distal stomach. The manuscript introduces new insights in causative factors of adenocarcinoma of the cardia about the role of bile acids in gastro-esophageal refluxate based upon robust evidences supporting interactions among pH, H. pylori, and bile acids. PMID:26029176

  11. Comparison of Human Exploration Architecture and Campaign Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Shyface, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    As part of an overall focus on space exploration, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). In addition, various external organizations are studying options for beyond LEO exploration. Recent studies include NASA's Evolvable Mars Campaign and Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0, JPL's Minimal Mars Architecture; the Inspiration Mars mission; the Mars One campaign; and the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). Each of these potential exploration constructs applies unique methods, architectures, and philosophies for human exploration. It is beneficial to compare potential approaches in order to better understand the range of options available for exploration. Since most of these studies were conducted independently, the approaches, ground rules, and assumptions used to conduct the analysis differ. In addition, the outputs and metrics presented for each construct differ substantially. This paper will describe the results of an effort to compare and contrast the results of these different studies under a common set of metrics. The paper will first present a summary of each of the proposed constructs, including a description of the overall approach and philosophy for exploration. Utilizing a common set of metrics for comparison, the paper will present the results of an evaluation of the potential benefits, critical challenges, and uncertainties associated with each construct. The analysis framework will include a detailed evaluation of key characteristics of each construct. These will include but are not limited to: a description of the technology and capability developments required to enable the construct and the uncertainties associated with these developments; an analysis of significant operational and programmatic risks associated with that construct; and an evaluation of the extent to which exploration is enabled by the construct, including the destinations

  12. Compositional analyses of small lunar pyroclastic deposits using Clementine multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hawke, B. Ray; Robinson, Mark S.; Coombs, Cassandra

    2000-02-01

    Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) data are used to examine the compositions of 18 pyroclastic deposits (15 small, three large) at 13 sites on the Moon. Compositional variations among pyroclastic deposits largely result from differing amounts of new basaltic (or juvenile) material and reworked local material entrained in their ejecta upon eruption. Characterization of pyroclastic deposit compositions allows us to understand the mechanisms of lunar explosive volcanism. Evidence for compositional differences between small pyroclastic deposits at a single site is observed at Atlas crater. At all sites, compositional variation among the small pyroclastic deposits is consistent with earlier classification based on Earth-based spectra: three compositional groups can be observed, and the trend of increasing mafic absorption band strength from Group 1 to Group 2 to Group 3 is noted. As redefined here, Group 1 deposits include those of Alphonsus West, Alphonsus Southeast, Alphonsus Northeast 2, Atlas South, Crüger, Franklin, Grimaldi, Lavoisier, Oppenheimer, Orientale, and Riccioli. Group 1 deposits resemble lunar highlands, with weak mafic bands and relatively high UV/VIS ratios. Group 2 deposits include those of Alphonsus Northeast 1, Atlas North, Eastern Frigoris East and West, and Aristarchus Plateau; Group 2 deposits are similar to mature lunar maria, with moderate mafic band depths and intermediate UV/VIS ratios. The single Group 3 deposit, J. Herschel, has a relatively strong mafic band and a low UV/VIS ratio, and olivine is a likely juvenile component. Two of the deposits in these groups, Orientale and Aristarchus, are large pyroclastic deposits. The third large pyroclastic deposit, Apollo 17/Taurus Littrow, has a very weak mafic band and a high UV/VIS ratio and it does not belong to any of the compositional groups for small pyroclastic deposits. The observed compositional variations indicate that highland and mare materials are also present in many large and

  13. Involvement of Coat Proteins in Bacillus subtilis Spore Germination in High-Salinity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Katja; Setlow, Peter; Reineke, Kai; Driks, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The germination of spore-forming bacteria in high-salinity environments is of applied interest for food microbiology and soil ecology. It has previously been shown that high salt concentrations detrimentally affect Bacillus subtilis spore germination, rendering this process slower and less efficient. The mechanistic details of these salt effects, however, remained obscure. Since initiation of nutrient germination first requires germinant passage through the spores' protective integuments, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the proteinaceous spore coat in germination in high-salinity environments. Spores lacking major layers of the coat due to chemical decoating or mutation germinated much worse in the presence of NaCl than untreated wild-type spores at comparable salinities. However, the absence of the crust, the absence of some individual nonmorphogenetic proteins, and the absence of either CwlJ or SleB had no or little effect on germination in high-salinity environments. Although the germination of spores lacking GerP (which is assumed to facilitate germinant flow through the coat) was generally less efficient than the germination of wild-type spores, the presence of up to 2.4 M NaCl enhanced the germination of these mutant spores. Interestingly, nutrient-independent germination by high pressure was also inhibited by NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that (i) the coat has a protective function during germination in high-salinity environments; (ii) germination inhibition by NaCl is probably not exerted at the level of cortex hydrolysis, germinant accessibility, or germinant-receptor binding; and (iii) the most likely germination processes to be inhibited by NaCl are ion, Ca2+-dipicolinic acid, and water fluxes. PMID:26187959

  14. Uranyl Solvation by a Three-Dimensional Reference Interaction Site Model.

    PubMed

    Matveev, Alexei; Li, Bo; Rösch, Notker

    2015-08-13

    We report an implementation of the three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D RISM) that in particular addresses the treatment of the long-range Coulomb field of charged species, represented by point charges and/or a distributed charge density. A comparison of 1D and 3D results for atomic ions demonstrates a reasonable accuracy, even for a moderate size of the unit cell and a moderate grid resolution. In an application to uranyl complexes with 4-6 explicit aqua ligands and an implicit bulk solvent modeled by RISM, we show that the 3D technique is not susceptible to the deficiencies of the 1D technique exposed in our previous work [Li, Matveev, Krüger, Rösch, Comp. Theor. Chem. 2015, 1051, 151]. The 3D method eliminates the artificial superposition of explicit aqua ligands and the RISM medium and predicts essentially the same values for uranyl and uranyl-water bond lengths as a state-of-the-art polarizable continuum model. With the first solvation shell treated explicitly, the observables are nearly independent of the order of the closure relationship used when solving the set of integral equations for the various distribution functions. Furthermore, we calculated the activation barrier of water exchange with a hybrid approach that combines the 3D RISM model for the bulk aqueous solvent and a quantum mechanical description (at the level of electronic density functional theory) of uranyl interacting with explicitly represented water molecules. The calculated result agrees very well with experiment and the best theoretical estimates. PMID:26167741

  15. Surface Deformation by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael E.

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The scientific aims are to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat transfer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. Correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient shall be delivered as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters. The data will be used for benchmarking of commercial CFD codes and the tank design

  16. HMGA2, the Architectural Transcription Factor High Mobility Group, Is Expressed in the Developing and Mature Mouse Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Smeti, Ibtihel; Watabe, Isabelle; Savary, Etienne; Fontbonne, Arnaud; Zine, Azel

    2014-01-01

    Hmga2 protein belongs to the non-histone chromosomal high-mobility group (HMG) protein family. HMG proteins have been shown to function as architectural transcription regulators, facilitating enhanceosome formation on a variety of mammalian promoters. Hmga2 are expressed at high levels in embryonic and transformed cells. Terminally differentiated cells, however, have been reported to express only minimal, if any, Hmga2. Our previous affymetrix array data showed that Hmga2 is expressed in the developing and adult mammalian cochleas. However, the spatio-temporal expression pattern of Hmga2 in the murine cochlea remained unknown. In this study, we report the expression of Hmga2 in developing and adult cochleas using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR analysis. Immunolabeling of Hmga2 in the embryonic, postnatal, and mature cochleas showed broad Hmga2 expression in embryonic cochlea (E14.5) at the level of the developing organ of Corti in differentiating hair cells, supporting cells, in addition to immature cells in the GER and LER areas. By postnatal stage (P0–P3), Hmga2 is predominantly expressed in the hair and supporting cells, in addition to cells in the LER area. By P12, Hmga2 immunolabeling is confined to the hair cells and supporting cells. In the adult ear, Hmga2 expression is maintained in the hair and supporting cell subtypes (i.e. Deiters’ cells, Hensen cells, pillar cells, inner phalangeal and border cells) in the cochlear epithelium. Using quantitative real time PCR, we found a decrease in transcript level for Hmga2 comparable to other known inner ear developmental genes (Sox2, Atoh1, Jagged1 and Hes5) in the cochlear epithelium of the adult relative to postnatal ears. These data provide for the first time the tissue-specific expression and transcription level of Hmga2 during inner ear development and suggest its potential dual role in early differentiation and maintenance of both hair and supporting cell phenotypes. PMID:24551154

  17. Generic placement of the Neotropical species of “ Phragmatobia” (Erebidae, Arctiinae), with a remarkable matrivorous species from the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, B. Christian; Freina, Josef J. De

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phragmatobia Stephens is briefly reviewed and a diagnosis is provided. The South American species currently placed in Phragmatobia Stephens are revised to two new genera, Andesobia Schmidt and De Freina, gen. n., and Patagobia Schmidt and De Freina, gen. n. (subtribe Spilosomina). Both Andesobia and Patagobia exhibit adaptations to high altitude habitats, including micropterous females in Andesobia (Patagobia females are unknown) and diurnal flight of males. The adults, immature stages, and mating behaviour of Andesobia jelskii (Oberthür, 1881) are described. Males of Andesobia jelskii enter the female cocoon to mate, and the micropterous, flightless females remain in the cocoon following oviposition where newly hatched larvae feed initially on the female’s body. Four species are included in Andesobia, Andesobia jelskii comb. n. (= Paracles imitatrix Rothschild, 1922, syn. n.), Andesobia flavata (Hampson, 1901), comb. n., Andesobia boliviana (Gaede, 1923), comb. n. (=Turuptiana flavescens Rothschild, 1933, syn. n.), and Andesobia sanguinea (Hampson, 1907), comb. n. Patagobia includes only Patagobia thursbyi (Rothschild, 1910), comb. n., and Patagobia thursbyi pluto Toulgoët is relegated to its synonymy. Patagobia shows affinities to Phaos Walker, 1855 of Australia, Metacrias Meyrick, 1886 of New Zealand, and Pseudophragmatobia Krüger, 2009 of South Africa, suggesting a common ancestry of circumantarctic origin. Phragmatobia karsholti Toulgoët, 1991 is transferred to Venedictoffia Toulgoët, comb. n., an unrelated genus that is removed from subtribe Arctiina and provisionally placed in the Phaegopterina. Phragmatobia oberthueri Rothschild, 1910, described from Tibet, is a synonym of Lachana alpherakii (Grum-Grzhimailo, 1891) [Erebidae: Lymantriinae], syn. n., comb. n. PMID:22207795

  18. Improving the efficiency of isolated microspore culture in six-row spring barley: II-exploring novel growth regulators to maximize embryogenesis and reduce albinism.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Patricio; Clermont, Isabelle; Marchand, Suzanne; Belzile, François

    2014-06-01

    Two alternative cytokinins, thidiazuron and meta-topoline, were tested in isolated microspore culture on recalcitrant barley genotypes (six-row, spring), and green plant regeneration was improved substantially. Doubled-haploid (DH) plants are coveted in plant breeding and in genetic studies, since they are rapidly obtained and perfectly homozygous. In barley, DHs are produced mainly via androgenesis, and isolated microspore culture (IMC) constitutes the method offering the greatest potential efficiency. However, IMC can often be challenging in some genotypes because of low yield of microspores, low regeneration and high incidence of albinism. Six-row spring-type barleys, the predominant type grown in Eastern Canada, are considered recalcitrant in this regard. Our general objective was to optimize an IMC protocol for DH production in six-row spring barley. In particular, we explored the use of alternative hormones in the induction medium (thidiazuron and dicamba), and in the regeneration medium (meta-topoline). This optimization was performed on two typical six-row spring (ACCA and Léger), a two-row spring (Gobernadora) and a two-row winter (Igri) barley cultivar. When 6-benzyl-aminopurine (BAP) was replaced by a combination of thidiazuron and dicamba in the induction medium, a 5.1-fold increase (P < 0.01) in the production of green plants resulted. This increase was mainly achieved by a reduction of albinism. Moreover, a 2.9-fold increase (P < 0.01) in embryo differentiation into green plants was obtained using meta-topoline instead of BAP in the regeneration medium. Together, these innovations allowed us to achieve a substantial improvement in the efficiency of IMC in this recalcitrant type of barley. These results were later successfully validated using sets of F1s from a six-row spring barley breeding program. PMID:24519013

  19. Constraining depth of anisotropy in the Amazon region (Northern Brasil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Willy Corrêa Rosa, João; Bokelmann, Götz

    2014-05-01

    Seismic data recorded between November 2009 and September 2013, at the permanent station PTGA of the Brazilian seismic network were used to constrain the depth of anisotropy in the lithosphere beneath the station. 90 receiver functions (RF) have been computed, covering the backazimuthal directions from 0° to 180°. Both radial (R) and transverse (T) components of the RF contain useful information about the subsurface structure. The isotropic part of the seismic velocity profile at depth mainly affects the R-RF component, while anisotropy and dipping structures produce P-to-S conversion recorded on the T-RF component (Levin and Park, 1998; Savage, 1998). The incoming (radially polarized) S waves, when passing through an anisotropic crust, splits and part of it is projected onto the transverse component. The anisotropy symmetry orientations (Φ) can be estimated by the polarity change of the observed phases. The arrival times of the phases is related to the depth of the conversion. Depth and Φ are estimated by isolating phases at certain arrival times. SKS shear-wave splitting results from previous studies in this area (Krüger et al., 2002, Rosa et al., 2014), suggest the presence of anisotropy in the mantle with orientation of the fast splitting axis (about E-W) following major deep tectonic structures. The observed splitting orientation correlates well with the current South America plate motion (i.e. relative to mesosphere), and with observed aeromagnetic trends. This similarity leaves open the possibility of a linkage between the upper mantle fabric imaged by shear wave splitting analysis and the lower crustal structure imaged by aeromagnetometry. In this study we unravel, from RF data, two layers in which anisotropy concentrates, i.e. the lower crust and the upper mantle. Lower crustal and upper mantle anisotropy retrieved by RFs give some new hints in order to interpret the previously observed anisotropic orientations from SKS and the aeromagnetic anomalies.

  20. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar. The well-known astronomer Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) is regarded as the founder of astrophysics and as an exceptionally talented researcher whose interests spanned a remarkably broad spectrum. His work on celestial mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity theory demonstrates his great abilities as a mathematician and physicist who significantly influenced the science of his times. His investigations of photographic photometry, optics, and spectroscopy display his strengths as an observer who knew his instruments. But above all Schwarzschild pursued questions of astrophysics, addressing in particular stellar atmospheres, comets, and the structure and dynamics of stellar systems. The host of scientific works that he authored in his short life is now collected in the form of this three-volume complete works; it is supplemented by biographical material, notes from some of todays experts, and an essay by the Nobel Laureate S. Chandrasekhar.

  1. Observations of volcanic hotspots with TET-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakšek, Klemen; Hort, Matthias; Lorenz, Eckehard

    2016-04-01

    The most important source of uncertainties in thermal monitoring of active volcanoes from space stems from the lack of dedicated satellite instruments. Considering the currently available technology, we usually have to make a compromises between spatial and temporal resolution - if the data is available at high temporal resolution (from geostationary instruments), it is impossible to provide high spatial resolution data. The most promising solution seems to be a constellation of small satellites, for they can provide data at high spatial resolution and provide a short revisit time as there is a high number of satellites in the constellation. It is also difficult to provide narrow spectral channels at high radiometric accuracy for monitoring high and low temperatures at the same time. Instruments designed for meteorological applications are usually used in remote sensing of volcanic thermal anomalies. These instruments contain a mid-infrared channel, which provides crucial data for monitoring active volcanoes. However, the settings of meteorological instruments are optimized for monitoring low temperatures, which results in often saturated data over active volcanoes. The volcanological community can partially overcome the gap between the available meteorological satellites and its requirements with the small satellite TET-1 German abbreviation for "Technologie-Erprobungsträger 1" meaning Technology Experiment Carrier). TET-1 is the first satellite within the FireBird constellation. This consists of two small satellites which are predominantly dedicated to investigating high temperature events. They were built and are operated by the German Aerospace Center. TET-1 was launched in June 2012. Here we present the first results obtained from TET-1 data. The data were retrieved over several volcanoes: Etna, Stromboli, Bárdarbunga, etc. We show that using TET-1 data, it is possible to better constrain the time averaged lava discharge from other satellite data sources.

  2. A new methodology for the discrimination of plant species and their varieties using hyperspectral data: application on vetch and lentil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykas, Dimitris; Karathanassi, Vassilia; Fountas, Spyros

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for the discrimination of plant species and their varieties using hyperspectral data. The concept lies on the combination of spectral pre-processing algorithms (SPPA) that enhance spectral discrimination between species and their varieties. SPPA use as input a single spectral signature and transform it according to the SPPA function. A k-step combination of SPPA uses k pre-processing algorithms serially. Initially each spectral signature is used as input to the first SPPA. The result of this SPPA is used as input to the second SPPA, and so on until the desired pre-processed signatures are reached. These signatures are then discriminated by applying spectral matching algorithms. The performance of the combination is evaluated based on the number of correctly matched signatures. In this work a k-step combination of SPPA has been set up, with k ranging from 1 to 3. The following SPPA have been investigated: vector normalization, Fourier transformation, Logarithm transformation, Kubelka-Munck transformation, derivatives, continuum removal, band depth, value normalization, n order square root transformation, and smoothing. There is a very large number of possible combinations of the aforementioned SPPAs, thus a Simple Genetic Algorithm has been used for finding optimum combinations. The input hyperspectral data were the spectral signatures of 9 varieties of vetches and 9 varieties of lentils, measured by the GER1500 spectroradiometer. For all the samples, the spectral signatures were measured at two slightly different times in the growing season. The results showed that several combinations exist which can successfully discriminate and label the spectral signatures in terms of variety, and they are independent from the time of the spectral signature measurement.

  3. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Conservation Planning for Biodiversity and Wilderness: A Real-World Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceauşu, Silvia; Gomes, Inês; Pereira, Henrique Miguel

    2015-05-01

    Several of the most important conservation prioritization approaches select markedly different areas at global and regional scales. They are designed to maximize a certain biodiversity dimension such as coverage of species in the case of hotspots and complementarity, or composite properties of ecosystems in the case of wilderness. Most comparisons between approaches have ignored the multidimensionality of biodiversity. We analyze here the results of two species-based methodologies—hotspots and complementarity—and an ecosystem-based methodology—wilderness—at local scale. As zoning of protected areas can increase the effectiveness of conservation, we use the data employed for the management plan of the Peneda-Gerês National Park in Portugal. We compare the approaches against four criteria: species representativeness, wilderness coverage, coverage of important areas for megafauna, and for regulating ecosystem services. Our results suggest that species- and ecosystem-based approaches select significantly different areas at local scale. Our results also show that no approach covers well all biodiversity dimensions. Species-based approaches cover species distribution better, while the ecosystem-based approach favors wilderness, areas important for megafauna, and for ecosystem services. Management actions addressing different dimensions of biodiversity have a potential for contradictory effects, social conflict, and ecosystem services trade-offs, especially in the context of current European biodiversity policies. However, biodiversity is multidimensional, and management and zoning at local level should reflect this aspect. The consideration of both species- and ecosystem-based approaches at local scale is necessary to achieve a wider range of conservation goals.

  5. Climate Monitoring Satellite Designed in a Concurrent Engineering Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Waldemar; Braukhane, A.; Quantius, D.; Dumont, E.; Grundmann, J. T.; Romberg, O.

    An effective method of detecting Green House Gases (GHG CO2 and CH4) is using satellites, operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Satellite based greenhouse gas emissions monitoring is challenging and shows an ambitions level of requirements. Until now for corresponding scientific payload it is common to use a purpose-built satellite bus, or to install the payload on board of a larger conventional satellite. These approaches fulfils all customer requirements but could be critical from a financial point of view. Between 2014 and 2020, no space-based CH4 detection and if at all limited CO2 detection capabilities are planned internationally. In order to fill this gap the Institute for Environmental Physics (IUP) of the University of Bremen plans a GHG satellite mission with near-surface sensitivity called "CarbonSat". It shall perform synchronous global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 observations with the accuracy, precision and coverage needed to significantly advance our knowledge about the sources and sinks of Green House Gases. In order to verify technical and financial opportunities of a small satellite a Concurrent Engi-neering Study (CE-study) has been performed at DLR Bremen, Germany. To reuse knowledge in compact satellite design, the Compact/SSB (Standard Satellite Bus) was chosen as baseline design. The SSB has been developed by DLR and was already used for BIRD (Bispectral Infra-Red Detection) mission but also adapted to the ongoing missions like TET (Technologie-Erprobungs-Trüger) or AsteroidFinder. This paper deals with the highly effective design process a within the DLR-CE-Facility and with the outcomes of the CE-study. It gives an overview of the design status as well as an outlook for comparable missions.

  6. Linking land cover dynamics with driving forces in mountain landscape of the Northwestern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regos, Adrián; Ninyerola, Miquel; Moré, Gerard; Pons, Xavier

    2015-06-01

    The mountainous areas of the northwestern Iberian Peninsula have undergone intense land abandonment. In this work, we wanted to determine if the abandonment of the rural areas was the main driver of landscape dynamics in Gerês-Xurés Transboundary Biosphere Reserve (NW Iberian Peninsula), or if other factors, such as wildfires and the land management were also directly affecting these spatio-temporal dynamics. For this purpose, we used earth observation data acquired from Landsat TM and ETM + satellite sensors, complemented by ancillary data and prior field knowledge, to evaluate the land use/land cover changes in our study region over a 10-year period (2000-2010). The images were radiometrically calibrated using a digital elevation model to avoid cast- and self-shadows and different illumination effects caused by the intense topographic variations in the study area. We applied a maximum likelihood classifier, as well as other five approaches that provided insights into the comparison of thematic maps. To describe the land cover changes we addressed the analysis from a multilevel approach in three areas with different regimes of environmental protection. The possible impact of wildfires was assessed from statistical and spatially explicit fire data. Our findings suggest that land abandonment and forestry activities are the main factors causing the changes in landscape patterns. Specifically, we found a strong decrease of the 'meadows and crops' and 'sparse vegetation areas' in favor of woodlands and scrublands. In addition, the huge impact of wildfires on the Portuguese side have generated new 'rocky areas', while on the Spanish side its impact does not seem to have been a decisive factor on the landscape dynamics in recent years. We conclude rural exodus of the last century, differences in land management and fire suppression policies between the two countries and the different protection schemes could partly explain the different patterns of changes recorded in

  7. Generic placement of the Neotropical species of " Phragmatobia" (Erebidae, Arctiinae), with a remarkable matrivorous species from the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B Christian; Freina, Josef J De

    2011-01-01

    Phragmatobia Stephens is briefly reviewed and a diagnosis is provided. The South American species currently placed in Phragmatobia Stephens are revised to two new genera, Andesobia Schmidt and De Freina, gen. n., and Patagobia Schmidt and De Freina, gen. n. (subtribe Spilosomina). Both Andesobia and Patagobia exhibit adaptations to high altitude habitats, including micropterous females in Andesobia (Patagobia females are unknown) and diurnal flight of males. The adults, immature stages, and mating behaviour of Andesobia jelskii (Oberthür, 1881) are described. Males of Andesobia jelskii enter the female cocoon to mate, and the micropterous, flightless females remain in the cocoon following oviposition where newly hatched larvae feed initially on the female's body.Four species are included in Andesobia, Andesobia jelskiicomb. n. (= Paracles imitatrix Rothschild, 1922, syn. n.), Andesobia flavata (Hampson, 1901), comb. n., Andesobia boliviana (Gaede, 1923), comb. n. (=Turuptiana flavescens Rothschild, 1933, syn. n.), and Andesobia sanguinea (Hampson, 1907), comb. n.Patagobia includes only Patagobia thursbyi (Rothschild, 1910), comb. n., and Patagobia thursbyi pluto Toulgoët is relegated to its synonymy. Patagobia shows affinities to Phaos Walker, 1855 of Australia, Metacrias Meyrick, 1886 of New Zealand, and Pseudophragmatobia Krüger, 2009 of South Africa, suggesting a common ancestry of circumantarctic origin. Phragmatobia karsholti Toulgoët, 1991 is transferred to Venedictoffia Toulgoët, comb. n., an unrelated genus that is removed from subtribe Arctiina and provisionally placed in the Phaegopterina. Phragmatobia oberthueri Rothschild, 1910, described from Tibet, is a synonym of Lachana alpherakii (Grum-Grzhimailo, 1891) [Erebidae: Lymantriinae], syn. n., comb. n. PMID:22207795

  8. cse15, cse60, and csk22 are new members of mother-cell-specific sporulation regulons in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Henriques, A O; Bryan, E M; Beall, B W; Moran, C P

    1997-01-01

    We report on the characterization of three new transcription units expressed during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Two of the units, cse15 and cse60, were mapped at about 123 degrees and 62 degrees on the genetic map, respectively. Their transcription commenced around h 2 of sporulation and showed an absolute requirement for sigmaE. Maximal expression of both cse15 and cse60 further depended on the DNA-binding protein SpoIIID. Primer extension results revealed -10 and -35 sequences upstream of the cse15 and cse60 coding sequences very similar to those utilized by sigmaE-containing RNA polymerase. Alignment of these and other regulatory regions led to a revised consensus sequence for sigmaE-dependent promoters. A third transcriptional unit, designated csk22, was localized at approximately 173 degrees on the chromosome. Transcription of csk22 was activated at h 4 of sporulation, required the late mother-cell regulator sigmaK, and was repressed by the GerE protein. Sequences in the csk22 promoter region were similar to those of other sigmaK-dependent promoters. The cse60 locus was deduced to encode an acidic product of only 60 residues. A 37.6-kDa protein apparently encoded by cse15 was weakly related to the heavy chain of myosins, as well as to other myosin-like proteins, and is predicted to contain a central, 100 residue-long coiled-coil domain. Finally, csk22 is inferred to encode a 18.2-kDa hydrophobic product with five possible membrane-spanning helices, which could function as a transporter. PMID:8990290

  9. Comparison between empirical and physically based models of atmospheric correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandanici, E.; Franci, F.; Bitelli, G.; Agapiou, A.; Alexakis, D.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    A number of methods have been proposed for the atmospheric correction of the multispectral satellite images, based on either atmosphere modelling or images themselves. Full radiative transfer models require a lot of ancillary information about the atmospheric conditions at the acquisition time. Whereas, image based methods cannot account for all the involved phenomena. Therefore, the aim of this paper is the comparison of different atmospheric correction methods for multispectral satellite images. The experimentation was carried out on a study area located in the catchment area of Yialias river, 20 km South of Nicosia, the Cyprus capital. The following models were tested, both empirical and physically based: Dark object subtraction, QUAC, Empirical line, 6SV, and FLAASH. They were applied on a Landsat 8 multispectral image. The spectral signatures of ten different land cover types were measured during a field campaign in 2013 and 15 samples were collected for laboratory measurements in a second campaign in 2014. GER 1500 spectroradiometer was used; this instrument can record electromagnetic radiation from 350 up to 1050 nm, includes 512 different channels and each channel covers about 1.5 nm. The spectral signatures measured were used to simulate the reflectance values for the multispectral sensor bands by applying relative spectral response filters. These data were considered as ground truth to assess the accuracy of the different image correction models. Results do not allow to establish which method is the most accurate. The physics-based methods describe better the shape of the signatures, whereas the image-based models perform better regarding the overall albedo.

  10. L’inhalation de corticostéroïdes est-elle sécuritaire durant la grossesse?

    PubMed Central

    Smy, Laura; Chan, Alvin C.H.; Bozzo, Pina; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Une femme atteinte d’asthme léger à modéré, autrement en santé, s’est présentée à ma clinique aujourd’hui après avoir appris qu’elle était enceinte. Elle m’a demandé si elle devait continuer à prendre ses corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI) et, dans l’affirmative, s’il pourrait y avoir des risques pour son enfant à naître. Quels seraient vos conseils à ce propos? Réponse Compte tenu des données probantes publiées, les CSI devraient être continués durant toute la grossesse à des doses allant de faibles à modérées et suffisantes pour contrôler les symptômes de l’asthme et prévenir les exacerbations. Il faut toutefois être prudent quand il s’agit de doses de plus de 1 000 µg/j (d’équivalent de béclométasone avec chlorofluorocarbures), quoiqu’il soit actuellement questionnable si de telles doses causeraient des effets indésirables. Il faut renseigner de manière continue les patientes sur l’administration appropriée des CSI et l’observance du traitement, y compris durant le premier trimestre. Un bon contrôle de l’asthme réduira la nécessité de doses plus fortes de CSI et de l’exposition possible à des corticostéroïdes systémiques et diminuera ainsi le risque de résultats périnatals ou de grossesse indésirables.

  11. The photoinduced E → Z isomerization of bisazobenzenes: a surface hopping molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Floss, Gereon; Saalfrank, Peter

    2015-05-21

    The photoinduced E → Z isomerization of azobenzene is a prototypical example of molecular switching. On the way toward rigid molecular rods such as those for opto-mechanical applications, multiazobenzene structures have been suggested in which several switching units are linked together within the same molecule (Bléger et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2011, 115, 9930-9940). Large differences in the switching efficiency of multiazobenzenes have been observed, depending on whether the switching units are electronically decoupled or not. In this paper we study, on a time-resolved molecular level, the E→ Z isomerization of the simplest multiazobenzene, bisazobenzene (BAB). Two isomers (ortho- and para-BAB), differing only in the connectivity of two azo groups on a shared phenyl ring will be considered.To do so, nonadiabatic semiclassical dynamics after photoexcitation of the isomers are studied by employing an "on-the-fly", fewest switches surface hopping approach. States and couplings are calculated by Configuration Interaction (CI) based on a semiempirical (AM1) Hamiltonian (Persico and co-workers, Chem. Eur. J. 2004, 10, 2327-2341). In the case of para-BAB, computed quantum yields for photoswitching are drastically reduced compared to pristine azobenzene, due to electronic coupling of both switching units. A reason for this (apart from altered absorption spectra and reduced photochromicity) is the drastically reduced lifetimes of electronically excited states which are transiently populated. In contrast for meta-connected species, electronic subsystems are largely decoupled, and computed quantum yields are slightly higher than that for pristine azobenzene because of new isomerization channels. In this case we can also distinguish between single- and double-switch events and we find a cooperative effect: The isomerization of a single azo group is facilitated if the other azo group is already in the Z-configuration.

  12. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage decreases lower esophageal sphincter pressure and increases frequency of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Akash; Meshram, Megha; Gopan, Amrit; Ganjewar, Vaibhav; Kumar, Praveen; Bhatia, Shobna J

    2012-06-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (tLESR) and decreased basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure are postulated mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). There is conflicting evidence on the effect of carbonated drinks on lower esophageal sphincter function. This study was conducted to assess the effect of a carbonated beverage on tLESR and LES pressure. High resolution manometry tracings (16 channel water-perfused, Trace 1.2, Hebbard, Australia) were obtained in 18 healthy volunteers (6 men) for 30 min each at baseline, and after 200 mL of chilled potable water and 200 mL of chilled carbonated cola drink (Pepsi [Pepsico India Ltd]). The sequence of administration of the drinks was determined by random number method generated by a computer. The analysis of tracings was done using TRACE 1.2 software by a physician who was unaware of the sequence of administration of fluids. The mean (SD) age of the participant was 37.3 (12.9) years. The median (range) frequency of tLESr was higher after the carbonated beverage (10.5 [0-26]) as compared to baseline (0 [0-3], p = 0.005) as well as after water (1 [0-14], p = 0.010). The LES pressure decreased after ingestion of the carbonated beverage (18.5 [11-37] mmHg) compared to baseline (40.5 [25-66] mmHg, p = 0.0001) and after water (34 [15-67] mmHg, p = 0.003). Gastric pressure was not different in the three groups. Ingestion of a carbonated beverage increases tLESr and lowers LES pressure in healthy subjects. PMID:22791463

  13. Sixteen Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System. III. Simulations and Data Unveil New Insights into Local Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterken, Veerle J.; Strub, Peter; Krüger, Harald; von Steiger, Rudolf; Frisch, Priscilla

    2015-10-01

    Interstellar dust (ISD) in the solar system was detected in situ for the first time in 1993 by the Ulysses dust detector. The study of ISD is important for understanding its role in star and solar system formation. The goal of this paper is to understand the variability in the ISD observations from the Ulysses mission by using a Monte Carlo simulation of ISD trajectories, with the final aim to constrain the ISD particle properties from simulations and the data. The paper is part of a series of three: Strub et al. describe the variations of the ISD flow from the Ulysses data set, and Krüger et al. focus on its ISD mass distribution. We describe and interpret the simulations of the ISD flow at Ulysses orbit for a wide range of particle properties and discuss four open issues in ISD research: the existence of very big ISD particles, the lack of smaller ISD particles, the shift in dust flow direction in 2005, and particle properties. We conclude that the shift in the dust flow direction in 2005 can best be explained by Lorentz force in the inner heliosphere, but that an extra filtering mechanism is needed to fit the fluxes. A time-dependent filtering in the outer regions of the heliosphere is proposed for this. Also, the high charge-to-mass ratio values found for the heavier particles after 2003 indicate that these particles are lower in density than previously assumed. This method gives new insights into the ISD properties and paves the way toward getting a complete view on the ISD from the local interstellar cloud. We conclude that in combination with the data and simulations, also impact ionization experiments are necessary using low-density dust, in order to constrain the density of the particles.

  14. [Status of lung function in females of a North Rhine-Westphalia rural and urban-industrial area].

    PubMed

    Islam, M S; Dolgner, R; Schlipköter, H W

    1990-02-01

    A comparative investigation of the pulmonary function status was carried out in women, aged between 52 and 56 years, from a rural and a municipal industrial area in North Rhine Westphalia. A questionnaire that the subjects had to complete themselves, provided us with information on personal medical history, smoking habits, the nature of domestic heating, and social status (education). The function tests were performed in a mobile pulmonary function laboratory (Jäger, Inc.). The airway resistance (Raw) and the intrathoracic gas volume (ITGV) were measured with the aid of a constant-volume body plethysmograph; a pneumotachographic system was employed to measure the ventilatory pulmonary function. All lung volumes were recalculated in terms of BTPS, and expressed as a percentage of the predicted values. Women from Leverkusen complained somewhat more frequently of hay fever, allergies of all kinds, and non-respiratory disturbances, than did women from Borken. In contrast, respiratory symptoms were indicated equally frequently in both areas. In the case of the Leverkusen group, a mean Raw of 0.323 +/- 0.183 kPa.1-1.s, was obtained, and in the case of the Borken group, a mean Raw of 0.258 +/- 0.182 kPa.1-1.s; this difference is statistically significant (p less than 0.05). On average, the women from Leverkusen also had a significantly higher SRaw (p less than 0.005) and ITGV (p less than 0.05) than did the women from Borken. These results argue in favour of a negative influence of air pollution on the pulmonary function.

  15. Norwegian remote sensing spectrometry for mapping and monitoring of algal blooms and pollution - NORSMAP-89

    SciTech Connect

    Pettersson, L.H.; Johannessen, O.M.; Frette, O. )

    1990-01-09

    During the late spring of 1988 an extensive bloom of the toxic algae Chrysocromulina polylepis occurred in the Skagerrak region influencing most life in the upper 30 meter of the ocean. The algal front was advected northward with the Norwegian Coastal Current along the coast of southern Norway, where it became a severe threat to the Norwegian seafarming industry. An ad-hoc expert team was established to monitor and forecast the movement of the algae front. Remote sensing of sea surface temperature from the operational US NOAA satellites monitored the movement of the algal front, consistent with a warm ocean front. The lack of any optical remote sensing instrumentation was recognized as a major de-efficiency during this algal bloom. To prepare for similar events in the future Nansen Remote Sensing Center initiated a three week pilot study in the Oslofjord and Skagerrak region, during May 1989. The Canadian Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) was installed in the surveillance aircraft. Extensive in situ campaigns was also carried out by the Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Institute of Marine Research. A ship-borne non-imaging spectrometer was operated from the vessels participating in the field campaign. As a contribution from a joint campaign (EISAC '89) between the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Community and the European Space Agency (ESA) both the Canadian Fluorescence Line Imager (FLI) and the US 64-channel GER scanner was operated simultaneously at the NORSMAP 89 test site. Regions of different biological and physical conditions were covered during the pilot study and preliminary analysis are obtained from oil slicks, suspended matter from river, as well as minor algal bloom. The joint analysis of the data collected during the NORSMAP 89 campaign and conclussions will be presented, as well as suggestions for future utilization of airborne spectroscopy systems for operational monitoring of algal bloom and water pollution.

  16. Exposure to phthalates in 5-6 years old primary school starters in Germany--a human biomonitoring study and a cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koch, Holger M; Wittassek, Matthias; Brüning, Thomas; Angerer, Jürgen; Heudorf, Ursel

    2011-06-01

    We determined the internal exposure of 111 German primary school starters by analyzing urinary metabolites of six phthalates: butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-iso-decylphthalate (DiDP). From the urinary metabolite levels, we calculated daily intakes and related these values to Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) values. By introducing the concept of a relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum)) value, we tried to account for the cumulative exposure to several of the above-mentioned phthalates. The TDI(cum) was derived as follows: the daily intake (DI) calculated from the metabolite level was divided by the TDI for each phthalate; this ratio was multiplied by 100% indicating the TDI percentage for which the DI accounted. Finally the % TDIs of the different phthalates were totalled to get the TDI(cum). A TDI(cum) above 100% is a potential cause for concern. We confirmed the ubiquitous exposure of the children to all phthalates investigated. Exposures were within range of levels previously reported for GerES, albeit slightly lower. Regarding daily intakes, two children exceeded the TDI for DnBP, whereas one child closely approached the TDI for DEHP. 24% of the children exceeded the TDI(cum) for the three most critical phthalates: DEHP, DnBP and DiBP. Furthermore, 54% of the children had total exposures that used up more than 50% the TDI(cum). Therefore, the overall exposure to a number of phthalates, and the knowledge that these phthalates (and other anti-androgens) act in a dose-additive manner, urgently warrants a cumulative risk assessment approach.

  17. Evaluation of hyperspectral imagery for detecting hydrocarbon microseepage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhikang Chen; Ahl, D.; Albasini, J.

    1996-07-01

    Loark Producing Company (Loark) of Jackson, Mississippi, is a small consulting organization providing services for hydrocarbon exploration. Current methods used for {open_quotes}finding oil{close_quotes} include geophysics, geochemistry, geobotany, and surface mapping, but these techniques are not definitive. The oil and gas industries primary goal is to minimize the initial economic risk associated with hydrocarbon exploration. Loark is participating in a Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) project at Stennis Space Center in cooperation with the Mississippi Office of Geology to explore the use of hyperspectral imaging to detect hydrocarbon microseepage. Extensive evidence in favor of vertical migration of hydrocarbon from subsurface petroleum reservoirs has been presented during the past 30 years. Migrating volatiles from reservoirs can alter surface rocks, thus changing their weathering characteristics or producing soil environments containing higher concentrations of iron and manganese that can in turn contaminate surface vegetation or alter growth patterns. The ability to detect indicator species, vegetation stress, and/or forest structure dynamics provides a potential methodology for hydrocarbon detection and exploration. The effects of vegetation stress from microseepage are subtle in nature and are not readily apparent using broad-band sensors, such as TM or SPOT. It is hypothesized that hyperspectral airborne sensors, having narrower spectral bandwidths and higher spatial resolutions, may provide improved discriminatory ability for detecting vegetation stress due to microseepage. In this study, geochemical data are being utilized for preliminary determination of microseepage sites. High spectral resolution GER Mark V data of both control and microseepage sites have been acquired and analyzed to examine hydrocarbon microseepage evidence. High spectral and high spatial resolution airborne TRWIS-B sensor data of these sites have also been acquired.

  18. Dépression et niveau de fardeau chez les aidants familiaux des sujets déments en Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Thabet, Jihène; Jaoua, Feriel; Charfi, Nada; Zouari, Lobna; Zouari, Nasreddine; Maalej, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Introduction La démence peut retentir lourdement sur les aidants familiaux du patient. Les objectifs de notre étude étaient de déterminer le niveau de fardeau et de la dépression chez les aidants familiaux de sujets déments, et d'identifier les facteurs associés à un niveau de fardeau élevé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une enquête auprès de 65 aidants tunisiens. Les niveaux de fardeau et de la dépression ont été évalués par, respectivement, l'inventaire de Zarit et l’échelle de Beck. Résultats Le taux des aidants qui avaient un niveau de fardeau élevé était de 52,3 %. Une dépression modérée ou sévère a été relevée chez 46,2 %. Un niveau de fardeau élevé était corrélé, du côté de l'aidant, avec le niveau socio-économique moyen à élevé, la cohabitation avec le patient, le fait d’être son conjoint, la réduction des activités quotidiennes et la sévérité de la dépression, et, du côté du dément, avec l'agressivité. Conclusion Les facteurs corrélés à un niveau de fardeau élevé orientent vers les cibles d'intervention et sont susceptibles d’être améliorés par la prise en charge, ce qui contribuerait à alléger la détresse des aidants. PMID:22384291

  19. Involvement of Coat Proteins in Bacillus subtilis Spore Germination in High-Salinity Environments.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Katja; Setlow, Peter; Reineke, Kai; Driks, Adam; Moeller, Ralf

    2015-10-01

    The germination of spore-forming bacteria in high-salinity environments is of applied interest for food microbiology and soil ecology. It has previously been shown that high salt concentrations detrimentally affect Bacillus subtilis spore germination, rendering this process slower and less efficient. The mechanistic details of these salt effects, however, remained obscure. Since initiation of nutrient germination first requires germinant passage through the spores' protective integuments, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the proteinaceous spore coat in germination in high-salinity environments. Spores lacking major layers of the coat due to chemical decoating or mutation germinated much worse in the presence of NaCl than untreated wild-type spores at comparable salinities. However, the absence of the crust, the absence of some individual nonmorphogenetic proteins, and the absence of either CwlJ or SleB had no or little effect on germination in high-salinity environments. Although the germination of spores lacking GerP (which is assumed to facilitate germinant flow through the coat) was generally less efficient than the germination of wild-type spores, the presence of up to 2.4 M NaCl enhanced the germination of these mutant spores. Interestingly, nutrient-independent germination by high pressure was also inhibited by NaCl. Taken together, these results suggest that (i) the coat has a protective function during germination in high-salinity environments; (ii) germination inhibition by NaCl is probably not exerted at the level of cortex hydrolysis, germinant accessibility, or germinant-receptor binding; and (iii) the most likely germination processes to be inhibited by NaCl are ion, Ca(2+)-dipicolinic acid, and water fluxes. PMID:26187959

  20. EDITORIAL: Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Conference 2013 (EMAG2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellist, Pete

    2014-06-01

    It has once again been my pleasure to act as editor for these proceedings, and I must thank all those who have acted as reviewers. I am always struck by the scientific quality of the oral and poster contributions and the vibrant discussions that occur both in the formal sessions and in the exhibition space at EMAG. I am convinced that a crucial part of maintaining that scientific quality is the opportunity that is offered of having a paper fully reviewed by two internationally selected referees and published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. For many students, this is the first fully reviewed paper they publish. I hope that, like me, you will be struck by the scientific quality of the 80 papers that follow, and that you will find them interesting and informative. I must also personally thank all the organisers of EMAG2013 for arranging such an excellent meeting. Ian MacLaren, as Chair of the EMAG Group and of the meeting itself, has contributed a foreword to these proceedings describing the meeting in more detail. A particular highlight of the conference was the special symposium in honour of Professor Archie Howie. We all enjoyed a wonderful speech from Archie at the conference dinner, along with some of his electron microscopy-related poetry. I have great pleasure in publishing the conference dinner poems in this proceedings. I hope you will find these proceedings to be an interesting read and an invaluable resource. Pete Nellist Conference committee Conference chair: Dr I MacLaren Programme organiser: Dr C Ducati Proceedings editor: Prof P D Nellist Trade exhibition organiser: C Hockey (CEM Group) Local organisers: Professor E Boyes, Professor P Gai, Dr R Kröger, Dr V Lazarov, Dr P O'Toole, Dr S Tear and Professor J Yuan Advanced school organisers: Dr S Haigh, Dr A Brown Other committee members: Mr K Meade, Mr O Heyning, Dr M Crawford, Mr M Dixon and Dr Z Li

  1. [Diuretics and their potential effect on breath-alcohol concentration--a case report].

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Georg; Skopp, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    Many objections were raised to breath-alcohol analysis upon its introduction in the field of traffic law enforcement in Germany, but in the meantime this issue has become less relevant in forensic routine work. In the present case, the defending lawyer claimed that the ethanol concentration in the blood and hence in the breath of his client, which was 0.35 mg/l according to the Dräger Alcotest 7110® Evidential and thus above the legal limit of 0.25 mg/l, had been changed by diuretics taken 4 hours before the breath alcohol test, viz. 10 mg of torasemide, a loop diuretic, and 50 mg of spironolactone, a competitive aldosterone antagonist. According to the literature, the maximum urinary output in healthy subjects within the first 4 hours after 10 mg torasemide was 1450 ml. In patients suffering from heart failure, the urinary volume was reduced by a factor of 2.5-3; after chronic intake of torasemide, water loss did not differ from placebo. Spironolactone, which acts on the distal tubule, has little effect on urinary output. In a publication, the loss of water in excess within 24 hours was 90 ml. Co-administration of 100 mg spironolactone and 20 mg furosemide, which roughly compares to 10 mg torasemide, resulted in a mean urinary volume of 1566 ml within the first 4 hours. In terms of the reported case and provided that no compensatory fluid had been taken, a purely theoretical maximum shift of 0.007 mg/ may occur in the breath-alcohol concentration due to the smaller distribution volume even considering maximum urinary excretion values. On the other hand, already mild levels of dehydration may be associated with negative symptoms affecting driving ability. PMID:26427279

  2. Hyperspectral Mapping of the Invasive Species Pepperweed and the Development of a Habitat Suitability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Andrew; Gole, Alexander; Randall, Jarom; Dlott, Glade; Zhang, Sylvia; Alfaro, Brian; Schmidt, Cindy; Skiles, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Mapping and predicting the spatial distribution of invasive plant species is central to habitat management, however difficult to implement at landscape and regional scales. Remote sensing techniques can reduce the impact field campaigns have on these ecologically sensitive areas and can provide a regional and multi-temporal view of invasive species spread. Invasive perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium) is now widespread in fragmented estuaries of the South San Francisco Bay, and is shown to degrade native vegetation in estuaries and adjacent habitats, thereby reducing forage and shelter for wildlife. The purpose of this study is to map the present distribution of pepperweed in estuarine areas of the South San Francisco Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project (Alviso, CA), and create a habitat suitability model to predict future spread. Pepperweed reflectance data were collected in-situ with a GER 1500 spectroradiometer along with 88 corresponding pepperweed presence and absence points used for building the statistical models. The spectral angle mapper (SAM) classification algorithm was used to distinguish the reflectance spectrum of pepperweed and map its distribution using an image from EO-1 Hyperion. To map pepperweed, we performed a supervised classification on an ASTER image with a resulting classification accuracy of 71.8%. We generated a weighted overlay analysis model within a geographic information system (GIS) framework to predict areas in the study site most susceptible to pepperweed colonization. Variables for the model included propensity for disturbance, status of pond restoration, proximity to water channels, and terrain curvature. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) was also used to generate a probability map and investigate the statistical probability that each variable contributed to predict pepperweed spread. Results from the GAM revealed distance to channels, distance to ponds and curvature were statistically significant (p < 0.01) in determining

  3. Linking geophysics and soil function modelling - biomass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, J.; Franko, U.; Werban, U.; Fank, J.

    2012-04-01

    The iSOIL project aims at reliable mapping of soil properties and soil functions with various methods including geophysical, spectroscopic and monitoring techniques. The general procedure contains three steps (i) geophysical monitoring, (ii) generation of soil property maps and (iii) process modelling. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the mentioned procedure with a focus on process modelling. It deals with the dynamics of soil water and the direct influence on crop biomass production. The new module PLUS extends CANDY to simulate crop biomass production based on environmental influences. A soil function modelling with an adapted model parameterisation based on data of ground penetration radar (GPR) and conductivity (EM38) was realized. This study shows an approach to handle heterogeneity of soil properties with geophysical data used for biomass production modelling. The Austrian field site Wagna is characterised by highly heterogenic soil with fluvioglacial gravel sediments. The variation of thickness of topsoil above a sandy subsoil with gravels strongly influences the soil water balance. EM38, mounted on a mobile platform, enables to rapidly scan large areas whereas GPR requires a greater logistical effort. However, GPR can detect exact soil horizon depth between topsoil and subsoil, the combination of both results in a detailed large scale soil map. The combined plot-specific GPR and field site EM38 measurements extends the soil input data and improves the model performance of CANDY PLUS for plant biomass production (Krüger et al. 2011). The example demonstrates how geophysics provides a surplus of data for agroecosystem modelling which identifies and contributes alternative options for agricultural management decisions. iSOIL - "Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping" is a Collaborative Project (Grant Agreement number 211386) co-funded by the Research DG of the European Commission

  4. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring

    PubMed Central

    Linschooten, Joost O.; Verhofstad, Nicole; Gutzkow, Kristine; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Yauk, Carole; Oligschläger, Yvonne; Brunborg, Gunnar; van Schooten, Frederik J.; Godschalk, Roger W. L.

    2013-01-01

    Paternal exposure to high levels of radioactivity causes heritable germline minisatellite mutations. However, the effect of more general paternal exposures, such as cigarette smoking, on germline mutations remains unexplored. We analyzed two of the most commonly used minisatellite loci (CEB1 and B6.7) to identify germline mutations in blood samples of complete mother–father–child triads from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). The presence of mutations was subsequently related to general lifestyle factors, including paternal smoking before the partner became pregnant. Paternally derived mutations at the B6.7 locus (mutation frequency 0.07) were not affected by lifestyle. In contrast, high gross yearly income as a general measure of a healthy lifestyle coincided with low-mutation frequencies at the CEB1 locus (P=0.047). Income was inversely related to smoking behavior, and paternally derived CEB1 mutations were dose dependently increased when the father smoked in the 6 mo before pregnancy, 0.21 vs. 0.05 in smoking and nonsmoking fathers, respectively (P=0.061). These results suggest that paternal lifestyle can affect the chance of heritable mutations in unstable repetitive DNA sequences. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting an effect of lifestyle on germline minisatellite mutation frequencies in a human population with moderate paternal exposures.—Linschooten, J. O., Verhofstad, N., Gutzkow, K., Olsen, A.-K., Yauk, C., Oligschläger, Y., Brunborg, G., van Schooten, F. J., Godschalk, R. W. L. Paternal lifestyle as a potential source of germline mutations transmitted to offspring. PMID:23538710

  5. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  6. [Developments in neurophysiology in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Hess, C W

    1994-04-19

    The rise of neurophysiology in the 19th century was kindled by Luigi Aloysius Galvani's revolutionary claim for animal electricity at the end of the preceding century. He was first challenged by Allessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta who showed that the muscle twitch in Galvani's experiment was the result of electric stimulation rather than of an enabled biological current. The controversy between Galvani and Volta became a predominant and stimulating issue among the scientists of the early century and found its ultimate elucidation only 40 years later by the pioneering work of Carlo Matteucci of Pisa and Emil Heinrich Du Bois-Reymond of Berlin, who both deserve the reknown as founders of modern neurophysiology. As the first influential promoter and mastermind of the experimental physiology, François Magendie of Paris primarily investigated the nervous system and inaugurated the lesion experiments to clarify specific functions of neural structures. Johannes Müller founded the German school of physiology with its eminent neurophysiological offspring: Du Bois-Reymond, Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz, and Eduard Friedrich Wilhelm Pflüger. It was Helmholtz's merit to have for the first time precisely assessed the motor conduction velocity by measuring the time interval between two different stimulation sites of the sciatic nerve of the frog. In their brilliant work published in 1870 Gustav Theodor Fritsch and Eduard Hitzig demonstrated that appropriately located focal electrical stimulation of the exposed cortex of dogs induces movement of the contralateral limbs and unequivocally disproved the then prevailing dogma of holistic capacity of the hemispheres, which denied localised functions within the cortex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8191189

  7. Regurgitation and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Six to Nine Months Old Indonesian Infants

    PubMed Central

    Hegar, Badriul; Satari, Debora Hindra I.; Sjarif, Damayanti R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Regurgitation is known to peak at the age of 3-4 months, with a sharp decrease around the age of 6 months. Little is known about the natural evolution of infants who still regurgitate after the age of 6 months. Methods Hundred thirty-one infants older than 6 months regurgitating more than once a day were followed for a period of 3 months. Results According to our data, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is seldom at this age. Most of the infants regurgitated 3 or more times/day and spit up an estimated volume of more than 15 mL. Eighty-five parents were educated regarding frequency of feeding. There were only 6 infants that still had frequent regurgitation (>3 times/day) despite an appropriate feeding schedule. The Infant GER Questionnaire score reached a score of 0 in 50% of the infants after one month of follow-up and in 81.9% at the third month of follow-up. There was an increase of the "weight for age z-score" trends in infants that still regurgitated at the end of follow-up and a declining z-score in infants that no longer regurgitated. An explanation may be that infants that regurgitate drink larger volumes than infants who do not regurgitate. Conservative treatment (reassurance, dietary treatment, behavioral advice) resulted in a significant better outcome than natural evolution. Conclusion Regurgitation that persisted after the age of 6 months, strongly decreased during a 3-month follow-up with conservative treatment. GERD is rare in this age group; therefore, anti-reflux medication is only seldom needed. PMID:24511520

  8. The relationship between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth: Hierarchical structure methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya; Deviren, Bayram

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has an essential role in the current debate on sustainable development and environmental protection. CO2 emission is also directly linked with use of energy which plays a focal role both for production and consumption in the world economy. Therefore the relationship between the CO2 emission and economic growth has a significant implication for the environmental and economical policies. In this study, within the scope of sociophysics, the topology, taxonomy and relationships among the 33 countries, which have almost the high CO2 emission and economic growth values, are investigated by using the hierarchical structure methods, such as the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT), over the period of 1970-2010. The average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) is also used to examine the cluster structure more clearly in HTs. According to their proximity, economic ties and economic growth, different clusters of countries are identified from the structural topologies of these trees. We have found that the high income & OECD countries are closely connected to each other and are isolated from the upper middle and lower middle income countries from the MSTs, which are obtained both for the CO2 emission and economic growth. Moreover, the high income & OECD clusters are homogeneous with respect to the economic activities and economic ties of the countries. It is also mentioned that the Group of Seven (G7) countries (CAN, ENG, FRA, GER, ITA, JPN, USA) are connected to each other and these countries are located at the center of the MST for the results of CO2 emission. The same analysis may also successfully apply to the other environmental sources and different countries.

  9. Recherche de leptons lourds au LEP 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafirout, Reda

    En 1989, la mise en opération de la première phase du LEP (le LEP 1), au CERN, a une Energie correspondant a la résonance du boson Z0, a permis d'étudier et de confirmer avec une grande précision le Modèle Standard des interactions électrofaibles. Malgré le succès remarquable de ce modèle à décrire toutes les données expérimentales recueillies jusqu'à ce jour en physique des hautes énergies, ce dernier laisse plusieurs questions sans réponse. Il n'explique pas entre autres pourquoi il n'y a que trois familles de particules dont le neutrino associé est léger et la hiérarchie des masses observées des fermions reste une énigme. Ici, nous nous intéressons à l'existence éventuelle de nouveaux fermions, tels que prédits par des extensions du Modèle Standard. Ces nouveaux fermions ont été recherches au LEP 1, mais en vain, et une limite inférieure sur leur masse d'environ MZ/2 a pu être imposée. La deuxième phase du LEP (le LEP 2) qui a débuté dans l'automne 1995 avec une énergie disponible de √s = 130, et 136 GeV, puis dans l'été 1996 a √s = 161 GeV a permis d'améliorer ces limites. Nous présentons ici la recherche de leptons lourds, neutres (N) et chargés (L+/-), effectuée à partir des données recueillies dans l'automne 1996 avec le détecteur de la collaboration OPAL au LEP 2, à des énergies au centre de masse de √s = 170 et 172 GeV. La luminosité totale intégrée fut de 10.3 pb-1. Un nouveau générateur, EXOTIC, conçu et développé a cette fin, a été utilise pour la simulation des échantillons d'événements Monte Carlo qui ont servi à comparer les données obtenues avec les prédictions théoriques. Plus spécifiquement, nous avons recherché le processus e+e- --> NN où N, pouvant être de type Dirac ou Majorana, se désintègre en un lepton léger standard (e, μ, ou τ) et un boson W+/- virtuel (W+/-*). Pour un N de type Dirac, une limite inférieure sur la masse à 95% de niveau de confiance est obtenue

  10. Highly sensitive measurements of substrates and inhibitors on the basis of tyrosinase sensors and recycling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streffer, Katrin

    2002-12-01

    compounds in river and sea water and the results could correlated very well with the corresponding DIN-test for the determination of phenolic compounds. An other developed tyrosinasesensor showed a very high sensitiveness for catecholamines, substances which are of special importance in the medical diagnostics. In addition, the investigations of two different tyrosinases, which were carried out also in the context of this thesis, have shown, that a special tyrosinase (tyrosinase from Streptomyces antibioticus) will be the better choice as tyrosinase from Agaricus bisporus, which is used in the area of biosensor research till now, if one wants to develop in future even more sensitive tyrosinasesensors. Furthermore, first successes became reached on a molecular biological field, the production of tyrosinasemutants with special, before well-considered features. These successes can be used to develop a new generation of tyrosinasesensors, tyrosinasesensors in which tyrosinase can be bound directionally both to the corresponding physical pickup or also to another enzyme. From this one expects to achieve ways minimized which the substance to be determined (or whose product) otherwise must cover. Finally, this should result in an clearly visible increase of sensitivity of the Biosensor. Analytische Chemie heute meint nicht länger nur die große Messtechnik, die zeit- und kostenintensiv ist, die außerdem nur von qualifiziertem Personal zu bedienen ist und deren Resultate nur durch dieses Personal auswertbar sind. Meist erfordert diese sagen wir 'klassische analytische Messtechnik' auch noch spezielle Räumlichkeiten und oft eine relative große Menge an speziell vorbereiteten Proben. Neben dieser klassischen analytischen Messtechnik hat sich besonders in den letzten Jahren eine auf bestimmte Stoffgruppen und Anforderungen zugeschnittene Messtechnik durchgesetzt, die oft auch durch einen Laien bedient werden kann. Meist sind es sehr kleine Geräte. Auch die ben

  11. Study of Organic Matter in Soils of the Amazon Region Employing Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Nicolodelli, Gustavo; Mounier, Stéphane; Montes, Célia Regina; Marcondes Bastos Pereira Milori, Débora

    2014-05-01

    were a discontinuity in the accumulation of humified organic matter in the progress of depth. A hypothesis for occurrence of this behavior might be due to texture sandy and aggregate stability present in these soils, which can be difficulty the degradation of labile chains organic matter, thus promoting carbon sequestration in the long time in these soils. References [1]-Milori, D. M. B. P.; Galeti, H. V .A.; Martin-Neto, L.; Dieckow, J.; González-Pérez, M.; Bayer, C.; Salton, J. Organic matter study of whole soil samples using laser-induced fluorescense spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 70, 57-63, 2006. [2]-Martins, T.; Saab, S. C.; Milori, D. M. B. P.; Brinatti, A. M.; Rosa, J. A.; Cassaro, F. A. M.; Pires, L. F. Soil organic matter humification under diferente tillage managements evaluated by Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and C/N ratio. Soil & Tillage Research, 111, 231-235, 2011. [3]-Milori, D. M. B. P.; Segnini, A.; Silva, W. T. L.; Posadas, A.; Mares, V.; Quiroz, R.; Martin-Neto, L. Emerging techniques for soil carbon measurements. Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security, nº 2, 2011. [4]-Senesi, N.; Plaza, C.; Brunetti, G.; Polo, A. A comparative survey of recente results on humic-like fractions in organic amendments and effects on native soil humic substances. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 1244-1262, 2007.

  12. An Analysis of Ball Lightning-Aircraft Incidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R. K.; Keul, A. G.; Bychkov, V.

    2009-12-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Research and design have created aircraft that withstand average lightning strikes. Ball lightning (BL), a metastable, rare lightning type, is also observed from (and within) aircraft. Science and the media focused on individual BL incidents and did not analyze general patterns. Lacking established incident reporting channels, most BL observations are still passed on as “aviation lore”. To overcome this unsatisfactory condition, the authors collected and analyzed an international data bank of 87 BL-aircraft case histories from 1938 to 2007. 37 Russian military and civil BL reports were provided by the third author. Of the whole sample, 36 (41%) cases occurred over Russia/RF/SU, 24 (28%) over USA/Canada, 23 (26%) over Europe, and 4 (5%) over Asia/Pacific. Various types of military (US: C-54/141, B-52, KC-97/135 Stratotankers, C130, P-3 Orion, RF/SU: PO-2, IL, SU, TU, MIG; Nimrod, Saab-105) and civilian aircraft (US: DC-3/6, Metroliner, B-727/737/757/777, RF/SU: AN, TU; VC-10, Fokker F-28, CRJ-200), as well as general aviation (C-172, Falcon-20), were involved. BL reports show a flat annual April to August maximum. At BL impact, 15 aircraft were climbing, 7 descending; most were at cruising altitude. 42 (48%) reported BL outside the aircraft, 37 (43%) inside, 7 (8%) both in-and outside. No damage was reported in 34 (39%) cases, 39 objects (45%) caused minor damage, 11 major damage (13%), 3 even resulted in military aircraft losses. 3 objects caused minor, 1 major crew injury. 23 damage cases were associated with BL inside the fuselage; all 4 crew injury cases were of that BL type. Mean size is described as 25 cm, sometimes over 1 m, color 30% in the yellow-red, 10% in the blue-green spectral region, 8% white, duration around 10 seconds, sometimes over 1 minute. 33 (38%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. Thunderstorm conditions were reported by 25 (29%) of the observers, 9 (10%) said there

  13. The expression level of gC1qR is down regulated at the early time of infection with porcine circovirus of type 2 (PCV-2) and gC1qR interacts differently with the Cap proteins of porcine circoviruses.

    PubMed

    Kouokam Fotso, Guy Baudry; Bernard, Cécilia; Bigault, Lionel; de Boisséson, Claire; Mankertz, Annette; Jestin, André; Grasland, Béatrice

    2016-07-15

    Porcine circoviruses (PCV) are small, non-enveloped single-stranded DNA-viruses. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) is the causal agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) whereas porcine circovirus of type 1 (PCV-1) is non- pathogenic. gC1qR is a membrane-located receptor of the complement protein subunit C1q and interacts with PCV capsid proteins. The mechanisms associated with the triggering of PMWS are not well known and gC1qR may have a role in the life cycle and eventually in the pathogenicity of PCV. The objectives of this study were to determine the level of expression of gC1qR during early PCV-2 infection, to determine the region of PCV-2 capsid protein (Cap) required for the interaction with gC1qR and to evaluate the interaction of gC1qR with Cap proteins of different PCV strains. The results indicate that gC1qR transcripts are downregulated in the tonsils and the tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of piglets infected by PCV-2 at the early time of the infection. The N-terminal amino acids (a.a. 1-59) of PCV-2b Cap, an arginine rich region, are involved in the interaction with gC1qR. Porcine gC1qR interacts with Cap proteins of two pathogenic viral strains, PCV-2a and PCV-2b, while interaction has been observed with only one Cap protein of two investigated strains of PCV-1. The amino acids 30 and 49 of PCV-1Cap, solely, were not responsible of the difference of interaction observed. We have also shown that gC1qR interacts strongly with PCV-2Caps and PCV-1 GER Cap. This result suggests that the different interaction of gC1qR with PCV Cap proteins may have an impact on the pathogenicity of the PCV. PMID:27063333

  14. Structures and properties of molecular torsion balances to decipher the nature of substituent effects on the aromatic edge-to-face interaction.

    PubMed

    Gardarsson, Haraldur; Schweizer, W Bernd; Trapp, Nils; Diederich, François

    2014-04-14

    Various recent computational studies initiated this systematic re-investigation of substituent effects on aromatic edge-to-face interactions. Five series of Tröger base derived molecular torsion balances (MTBs), initially introduced by Wilcox and co-workers, showing an aromatic edge-to-face interaction in the folded, but not in the unfolded form, were synthesized. A fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group was introduced onto the edge ring in ortho-, meta-, and para-positions to the C-H group interacting with the face component. The substituents on the face component were varied from electron-donating to electron-withdrawing. Extensive X-ray crystallographic data allowed for a discussion on the conformational behavior of the torsional balances in the solid state. While most systems adopt the folded conformation, some were found to form supramolecular intercalative dimers, lacking the intramolecular edge-to-face interaction, which is compensated by the gain of aromatic π-stacking interactions between four aryl rings of the two molecular components. This dimerization does not take place in solution. The folding free enthalpy ΔG(fold) of all torsion balances was determined by (1)H NMR measurements by using 10 mM solutions of samples in CDCl3 and C6D6. Only the ΔG(fold) values of balances bearing an edge-ring substituent in ortho-position to the interacting C-H show a steep linear correlation with the Hammett parameter (σ(meta)) of the face-component substituent. Thermodynamic analysis using van't Hoff plots revealed that the interaction is enthalpy-driven. The ΔG(fold) values of the balances, in addition to partial charge calculations, suggest that increasing the polarization of the interacting C-H group makes a favorable contribution to the edge-to-face interaction. The largest contribution, however, seems to originate from local direct interactions between the substituent in ortho-position to the edge-ring C-H and the substituted face ring.

  15. Health Assessment of the White Pine Community in the Lincoln National Forest of New Mexico through Spectral Reflectivity Variance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, A. E.; Pingitore, N. E.; Keller, R.; Conklin, D. A.

    2003-12-01

    The health of forests worldwide has become of greater interest to the scientific community in the last decades. Catastrophic events such as wild fires, insect infestations, and diseases all point to a less than ideal state in these areas. In the last fifteen years the Forest Health Protection office of the Forest Service identified and has been monitoring the distribution and effects of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) in the white pine community in the stands of the Lincoln National Forest. The Lincoln National Forest covers an area of approximately 1,196,419 acres in parts of four counties in southeastern New Mexico. It consists of three ranger districts: Sacramento, Smokey Bear and Guadalupe. The Lincoln National Forest attracts visitors because of its natural beauty and recreational areas. It is also home to several endangered and threatened species such as the Mexican Spotted Owl., the Sacramento Prickly Poppy, and the Sacramento Mountain Thistle. Loss of white pine stands is detrimental not only from a human perspective but would also result in loss of natural habitats for already rare species. According to Conklin (1994) there are nearly 500,000 acres of forests in the Sacramento Mountains, the adjoining White Mountains and the nearby Capitan Mountains that contain southwestern white pine. Starting in 1990 Conklin established several infected plots within this area and monitors them on a 3-year rotation period. In an attempt to further analyze the effects of the disease, samples from the different localities were obtained and their spectral responses studied by using a GER spectroradiometer with data acquisition capabilities in the 350 to 2500 nm range. The interaction of an object with electromagnetic energy is unique for each target and is based on its physical characteristics. We are able to note spectral differences in areas other than the visible range which are not accessible to the human eye. Plants stressed by such factors as drought

  16. On the impact of climate change on surface water temperature of Lake Garda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Sighel, Maria-Caterina; Bresciani, Mariano

    2013-04-01

    Regional Circulation Model (RCM) for the Alpine region of Northern Italy (Züger J., Knoflacher M., AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Uncertainties of scenarios - Regional climate change scenario, Deliverable 4.3.3, Project EULAKES, 2012), whilst SWT refer to estimates from satellite imagery derived from MODIS data. Once calibrated, the model has been adopted to assess the impact on SWT using a future projection of climate change provided by the RCM for the next century.

  17. The German Atmospheric Research Programme of The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (afo 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, R.; Zock, H.; Koppmann, R.

    The Earth's atmosphere will change in the next decades with evident and increased unwanted effects on the living conditions, as a result of growing anthropogenic in- fluences in combination with climate variability. The wish to counteract and correct the resulting dangers requires comprehensive knowledge of all factors determining the conditions and dynamics of the atmosphere. Only through this knowledge a continued development of diagnostic and prognostic models will be possible, which then allows to estimate and assess adequately the effect and outcome of technical and administra- tive precautionary strategies. In order to identify the needs more precisely and to estab- lish priorities for their assessment, a working group was appointed which defined the relevant research tasks for future projects in the "Concept for Priority Mid-term Ger- man Atmospheric Research". This concept lead to announcement of the main funding focus "Atmospheric Research 2000" (AFO2000) within the German "Environmental Research Programme". The projects of AFO2000 are thematically structured into 4 in- terdisciplinary groups: 1. Surface-Atmosphere-Interactions, 2. Dynamics-Chemistry- Interactions, 3.Gas-Liquid-Solid Phase-Interactions, and 4. Overall Synthesis - Gen- eral Aspects. The first theme focuses on the chemical emissions, transport of mass and energy through the boundary layer into the free troposphere, chemical transformations near the surface, and other issues related to air quality. The second theme includes is- sues such as long-range and convective transport, and global budget of chemical com- pounds, as well as mesospheric and stratospheric processes. The third theme addresses the problems related to the microphysics and chemistry of different types of aerosols and the role of aerosol chemical composition in cloud formation. Finally, as part of the fourth theme, a large synthesis effort will be made using observational data and models. Here, the most advanced models will be

  18. Osteoarthritis Classification Scales: Interobserver Reliability and Arthroscopic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rick W.; Ross, James R.; Haas, Amanda K.; Huston, Laura J.; Garofoli, Elizabeth A.; Harris, David; Patel, Kushal; Pearson, David; Schutzman, Jake; Tarabichi, Majd; Ying, David; Albright, John P.; Allen, Christina R.; Amendola, Annunziato; Anderson, Allen F.; Andrish, Jack T.; Annunziata, Christopher C.; Arciero, Robert A.; Bach, Bernard R.; Baker, Champ L.; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.; Baumgarten, Keith M.; Bechler, Jeffery R.; Berg, Jeffrey H.; Bernas, Geoffrey A.; Brockmeier, Stephen F.; Brophy, Robert H.; Bush-Joseph, Charles A.; Butler V, J. Brad; Campbell, John D.; Carpenter, James E.; Cole, Brian J.; Cooper, Daniel E.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Cox, Charles L.; Creighton, R. Alexander; Dahm, Diane L.; David, Tal S.; DeBerardino, Thomas M.; Dunn, Warren R.; Flanigan, David C.; Frederick, Robert W.; Ganley, Theodore J.; Gatt, Charles J.; Gecha, Steven R.; Giffin, James Robert; Hame, Sharon L.; Hannafin, Jo A.; Harner, Christopher D.; Harris, Norman Lindsay; Hechtman, Keith S.; Hershman, Elliott B.; Hoellrich, Rudolf G.; Hosea, Timothy M.; Johnson, David C.; Johnson, Timothy S.; Jones, Morgan H.; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Kamath, Ganesh V.; Klootwyk, Thomas E.; Lantz, Brett A.; Levy, Bruce A.; Ma, C. Benjamin; Maiers, G. Peter; Mann, Barton; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; Mathien, Gregory M.; McAllister, David R.; McCarty, Eric C.; McCormack, Robert G.; Miller, Bruce S.; Nissen, Carl W.; O’Neill, Daniel F.; Owens, LTC Brett D.; Parker, Richard D.; Purnell, Mark L.; Ramappa, Arun J.; Rauh, Michael A.; Rettig, Arthur; Sekiya, Jon K.; Shea, Kevin G.; Sherman, Orrin H.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Smith, Matthew V.; Spang, Jeffrey T.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Stuart, Michael J.; Svoboda, LTC Steven J.; Taft, Timothy N.; Tenuta, COL Joachim J.; Tingstad, Edwin M.; Vidal, Armando F.; Viskontas, Darius G.; White, Richard A.; Williams, James S.; Wolcott, Michelle L.; Wolf, Brian R.; York, James J.; Carey, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis of the knee is commonly diagnosed and monitored with radiography. However, the reliability of radiographic classification systems for osteoarthritis and the correlation of these classifications with the actual degree of confirmed degeneration of the articular cartilage of the tibiofemoral joint have not been adequately studied. Methods: As the Multicenter ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Revision Study (MARS) Group, we conducted a multicenter, prospective longitudinal cohort study of patients undergoing revision surgery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. We followed 632 patients who underwent radiographic evaluation of the knee (an anteroposterior weight-bearing radiograph, a posteroanterior weight-bearing radiograph made with the knee in 45° of flexion [Rosenberg radiograph], or both) and arthroscopic evaluation of the articular surfaces. Three blinded examiners independently graded radiographic findings according to six commonly used systems—the Kellgren-Lawrence, International Knee Documentation Committee, Fairbank, Brandt et al., Ahlbäck, and Jäger-Wirth classifications. Interobserver reliability was assessed with use of the intraclass correlation coefficient. The association between radiographic classification and arthroscopic findings of tibiofemoral chondral disease was assessed with use of the Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: Overall, 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had higher interobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 0.65) compared with anteroposterior radiographs (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.56). Similarly, the 45° posteroanterior flexion weight-bearing radiographs had higher correlation with arthroscopic findings of chondral disease (Spearman rho = 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.39) compared with anteroposterior radiographs (Spearman rho = 0.29; 95

  19. Review of COSPAR Mars Special Regions Parameter Definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles; Kminek, Gerhard; Perfumo, Amedea; Kelly, Laura

    Review of COSPAR Mars Special Regions Parameter Definition Charles S. Cockell (??), Ger-hard Kminek (??), Amedea Perfumo (??), Laura Kelly (??) 1. Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, Open University, CityplaceMilton Keynes, country-regionU.K. 2. ESA-ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 Noordwijk, Netherlands. A Mars special region is a `region within which terrestrial organisms are likely to propagate, or a region which is interpreted to have a high potential for the existence of extant martian life forms'. We are undertaking a review of the parameter space that defines a special region. We agree, consistent with the COSPAR Mars Special Regions Colloquium held in Rome in 2007, that any region experiencing temperatures > -25°C for a few hours a year and a water activity > 0.5 can potentially allow the replication of terrestrial microorganisms. However, with respect to the role of salts in defining a special region, recent research shows that water activity per se may not be the limiting factor for life in extremely arid environments (??). Chaotropic salts (those which have a tendency to destabilize macromolecules), such as MgCl2 and CaCl2, may exert a more important influence on the survival of microorganisms in very arid environments. Given the unlikelihood of high concentrations of kosmotropic (stabilizing) substances, such as sugars, many Martian environments, particularly ancient sedimentary deposits, may turn out to be places where chaotropic characteristics of salts will be a more important factor for biological macromolecules than water activity, although water activity still remains an important metric in defining biological activity. Even with the presence of transient liquid water, chaotropic salts may still act to limit the growth and reproduction of life. Chaotropism needs to be assessed for a range of new salts in relation to different microorganisms and in relation to the predicted salt composition of Martian surface (including evaporitic

  20. Steps towards improvement of Latvian geoid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janpaule, Inese; Balodis, Janis

    2013-04-01

    The high precision geoid model is essential for the normal height determination when the GNSS positioning methods are used. In Latvia for more than 10 years gravimetric geoid model LV'98 is broadely used by surveyors and scientists. The computation of this model was performed using GRAVSOFT software using gravimetric measurements, digitised gravimetric data and satellite altimetry data over Baltic sea, the estimated accuracy of LV'98 geoid model is 6-8cm. (J. Kaminskis, 2010) However, the accuracy of Latvian geoid model should be improved. In order to aacomplish this task, the evaluation of several methods and test computations have been made. KTH method was developed at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm. This method utilizes the least-squares modification of the Stokes integral for the biased, unbiased, and optimum stochastic solutions. The modified Bruns-Stokes integral combines the regional terrestrial gravity data with a global geopotential model (GGM) (R. Kiamehr, 2006). DFHRS (Digital Finite-Element Height Reference Surface) method has been developed at the Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Geomatics (R. Jäger, 1999). In the DFHRS concept the area is divided into smaller finite elements - meshes. The height reference surface N in each mesh is calculated by a polynomial in term of (x,y) coordinates. Each group of meshes form a patch, which are related to a set of individual parameters, which are introduced by the datum parametrizations. As an input data the European Gravimetric Geoid Model 1997 (EGG97) and 102 GNSS/levelling points were used. In order to improve the Latvian geoid model quality and accuracy the development of mobile digital zenith telescope for determination of vertical deflections with 0.1" expected accuracy is commenced at University of Latvia, Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation. The project was started in 2010, the goal of it is to design a portable, cheap and robust instrument, using industrially