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Sample records for gerli padarist saab

  1. 77 FR 19565 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B Airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports...

  2. 77 FR 38470 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...-116-AD; Amendment 39-17103; AD 2012-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports indicating that...

  3. 77 FR 38224 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of...

  4. 78 FR 1731 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ...-079-AD; Amendment 39-17296; AD 2012-26-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab...). ACTION: Final rule. ] SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of chafing on the bottom panel of the...

  5. 77 FR 73279 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ...-261-AD; Amendment 39-17276; AD 2012-24-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Saab AB, Saab..., 2012). Request To Revise Company Name and Email Address Saab AB (the commenter) requested that...

  6. 76 FR 53301 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...-16787; AD 2011-18-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000... describes the unsafe condition as: Corrosion damage has been found on the aft pressure bulkhead of SAAB 2000... been found on the aft pressure bulkhead of SAAB 2000 aeroplanes, located on the rear side of the...

  7. 76 FR 31508 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... pressure bulkhead of SAAB 2000 aeroplanes, located on the rear side of the bulkhead at the bottom outboard...

  8. 76 FR 13072 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...-145-AD; Amendment 39-16623; AD 2011-05-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... upper cap of the horizontal stabilizer of SAAB 2000 aeroplanes. The affected areas are adjacent to the...

  9. 76 FR 41665 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...-111-AD; Amendment 39-16747; AD 2011-14-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... potentially unsafe condition, SAAB has published Service Bulletin (SB) 2000-32-073, describing a inspection of...

  10. 75 FR 77796 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... the rear spar upper cap of the horizontal stabilizer of SAAB 2000 aeroplanes. The affected areas are...

  11. 77 FR 60073 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Saab AB...

  12. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infants Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  13. Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teens Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  14. SAAB IRST: the system and flight trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Ingmar A.; Haglund, Leif

    2003-01-01

    Saab Bofors Dynamics has developed an IRST-system (Infra Red Search and Track) named IR-OTIS (Optical Tracking and Identification System) and flight trials have been carried out with the system mounted on a Saab JA37 Viggen fighter aircraft. This paper consists of three major parts. First an overview of Saab's IRST-programs. The second part describes the system ( IR-OTIS(Viggen) ) that made flight trials during 1998 and 1999 and finally a report from the flight trials. IR-OTIS has mainly three operating modes: 1) IRST-mode where the system covers several different FOS (Field Of Search). 2) FLIR-mode (Forward Looking IR) where the systems LOS (Line Of Sight) is directed from the aircraft. 3) Track-mode where the built-in-tracker controls the LOS. It is also possible to switch from IRST-mode to track-mode automatically. Physically the IR-OTIS(Viggen) consists of the SU (Sensor Unit) and the SPU (Signal Processing Unit). The SU is operating in the longwave IR-band with a 288*4 detector. In all modes the Sensor Unit generates images in 25 Hz and it is also possible to choose one of three FOV. The SPU consists of a Saab designed image processing hardware and several DSPs. Functions in the SPU includes a scene-based NUC (Non Uniformity Correction), anti-Narcissus, a point-target detector including estimation of SNR and a clutter classifier for CFAR, target association, a correlation target tracker and an AGC for image presentation. We carried out over 50 flight trials during 1998 and 1999 in three different rounds. The functionality of the system has increased during the rounds and at the end of the trials all major goals were achieved.

  15. The Cooperative and Interdependent Roles of GerA, GerK, and Ynd in Germination of Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    PubMed Central

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Lindbäck, Toril; Madslien, Elisabeth H.; Kidd, Shani W.; O'Sullivan, Kristin; Granum, Per Einar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT When nutrients are scarce, Bacillus species form metabolically dormant and extremely resistant spores that enable survival over long periods of time under conditions not permitting growth. The presence of specific nutrients triggers spore germination through interaction with germinant receptors located in the spore's inner membrane. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species, but it is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. The B. licheniformis ATCC 14580/DSM13 genome exhibits three gerA family operons (gerA, gerK, and ynd) encoding germinant receptors. We show that spores of B. licheniformis germinate efficiently in response to a range of different single l-amino acid germinants, in addition to a weak germination response seen with d-glucose. Mutational analyses revealed that the GerA and Ynd germination receptors function cooperatively in triggering an efficient germination response with single l-amino acid germinants, whereas the GerK germination receptor is essential for germination with d-glucose. Mutant spores expressing only GerA and GerK or only Ynd and GerK show reduced or severely impaired germination responses, respectively, with single l-amino acid germinants. Neither GerA nor Ynd could function alone in stimulating spore germination. Together, these results functionally characterize the germination receptor operons present in B. licheniformis. We demonstrate the overlapping germinant recognition patterns of the GerA and Ynd germination receptors and the cooperative functionalities between GerA, Ynd, and GerK in inducing germination. IMPORTANCE To ensure safe food production and durable foods, there is an obvious need for more knowledge on spore-forming bacteria. It is the process of spore germination that ultimately leads to food spoilage and food poisoning. Bacillus licheniformis is a biotechnologically important species that is also associated with food spoilage and food-borne disease. Despite its

  16. Vibro-Acoustic FE Analyses of the Saab 2000 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Inge S.

    1992-01-01

    A finite element model of the Saab 2000 fuselage structure and interior cavity has been created in order to compute the noise level in the passenger cabin due to propeller noise. Areas covered in viewgraph format include the following: coupled acoustic/structural noise; data base creation; frequency response analysis; model validation; and planned analyses.

  17. Vibro-acoustic FE analyses of the Saab 2000 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Inge S.

    1992-07-01

    A finite element model of the Saab 2000 fuselage structure and interior cavity has been created in order to compute the noise level in the passenger cabin due to propeller noise. Areas covered in viewgraph format include the following: coupled acoustic/structural noise; data base creation; frequency response analysis; model validation; and planned analyses.

  18. The Clostridium botulinum GerAB germination protein is located in the inner membrane of spores.

    PubMed

    Alberto, François; Botella, Lucien; Carlin, Fréderic; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Broussolle, Véronique

    2005-12-15

    Clostridium botulinum dormant spores germinate in presence of l-alanine via a specific receptor composed of GerAA, GerAB and GerAC proteins. In Bacillus subtilis spores, GerAA and GerAC proteins were located in the inner membrane of the spore. We studied the location of the GerAB protein in C. botulinum spore fractions by Western-blot analysis, using an antipeptidic antibody. The protein GerAB was in vitro translated and used to confirm the specificity of the antibodies. GerAB was not present in a coat and spore outer membrane fraction but was present in a fraction of decoated spores containing inner membrane. These results strongly suggest that the protein GerAB is located in the inner membrane of the spore.

  19. Model incidence measurement using the SAAB Eloptopos system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuijkschot, P. H.

    For measuring the angle of attack of models in the NLR transonic wind tunnel, a SAAB Eloptopos system was acquired. The system consists of two infrared light-emitting diodes mounted fore and aft in the fuselage of the model, two linear array CCD cameras, and special processors. The cameras are mounted on the sidewall of the wind tunnel and have a viewing angle of 60 deg in the vertical direction. Thanks to an individual calibration and a special optimizing algorithm the camera resolution is enhanced to 0.001 deg. At a viewing distance of 1 m the resulting resolution in angle of attack of the model is typically 0.0026 deg. The system is individually calibrated for each model under wind-off conditions, using an extremely accurate gravity-sensing inclinometer as a reference. This procedure ensures the required accuracy of 0.01 deg in angle of attack under wind-on conditions.

  20. Structure-based functional studies of the effects of amino acid substitutions in GerBC, the C subunit of the Bacillus subtilis GerB spore germinant receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfeng; Catta, Parvathimadhavi; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V; Dufner, Matthew; Setlow, Peter; Hao, Bing

    2011-08-01

    Highly conserved amino acid residues in the C subunits of the germinant receptors (GRs) of spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species have been identified by amino acid sequence comparisons, as well as structural predictions based on the high-resolution structure recently determined for the C subunit of the Bacillus subtilis GerB GR (GerBC). Single and multiple alanine substitutions were made in these conserved residues in three regions of GerBC, and the effects of these changes on B. subtilis spore germination via the GerB GR alone or in concert with the GerK GR, as well as on germination via the GerA GR, were determined. In addition, levels of the GerBC variants in the spore inner membrane were measured, and a number of the GerBC proteins were expressed and purified and their solubility and aggregation status were assessed. This work has done the following: (i) identified a number of conserved amino acids that are crucial for GerBC function in spore germination via the GerB GR and that do not alter spores' levels of these GerBC variants; (ii) identified other conserved GerBC amino acid essential for the proper folding of the protein and/or for assembly of GerBC in the spore inner membrane; (iii) shown that some alanine substitutions in GerBC significantly decrease the GerA GR's responsiveness to its germinant l-valine, consistent with there being some type of interaction between GerA and GerB GR subunits in spores; and (iv) found no alanine substitutions that specifically affect interaction between the GerB and GerK GRs.

  1. The Policy of Secondary Education about the Solution of GER Dropping in Pacitan Regency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryono, H.

    2015-01-01

    Education is an important aspect that determines the direction of a nation. The implication, it needs serious efforts in order to increase the participation in education; one of them is measured by the APK (GER). The purpose of this study is to determine the presence of GER in Pacitan and how the efforts of acceleration can be done to achieve the…

  2. Information extraction from the GER 63-channel spectrometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Richard K.

    1993-09-01

    The unprecedented data volume in the era of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) demands innovative information extraction methods and advanced processing techniques. The neural network techniques, which are intrinsic to distributed parallel processings and have shown promising results in analyzing remotely sensed data, could become the essential tools in the MTPE era. To evaluate the information content of data with higher dimension and the usefulness of neural networks in analyzing them, measurements from the GER 63-channel airborne imaging spectrometer data over Cuprite, Nevada, are used. The data are classified with 3-layer Perceptron of various architectures. It is shown that the neural network can achieve a level of performance similar to conventional methods, without the need for an explicit feature extraction step.

  3. Analysis of the Effects of a gerP Mutation on the Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    coat, the outer membrane, and the peptidoglycan cortex and germ cell wall to access the GRs. While the outer mem- brane may or may not be a significant... peptidoglycan FIG 5 Effects of overexpression of the GerA or GerB* GRs on the germination of wild-type and gerP spores. Spores of strains PS533 (wild

  4. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Lopez, Alberto J.; Theiss, Timothy J.; Graves, Ronald L.; Storey, John M.; Lewis, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. This report details the results of these evaluations.

  5. Crystal Structure of the GerBC Component of a Bacillus Subtilis Spore Germinant Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Setlow, B; Setlow, P; Hao, B

    2010-01-01

    The nutrient germinant receptors (nGRs) of spores of Bacillus species are clusters of three proteins that play a critical role in triggering the germination of dormant spores in response to specific nutrient molecules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the C protein of the GerB germinant receptor, so-called GerBC, of Bacillus subtilis spores at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution. The GerBC protein adopts a previously uncharacterized type of protein fold consisting of three distinct domains, each of which is centered by a beta sheet surrounded by multiple alpha helices. Secondary-structure prediction and structure-based sequence alignment suggest that the GerBC structure represents the prototype for C subunits of nGRs from spores of all Bacillales and Clostridiales species and defines two highly conserved structural regions in this family of proteins. GerBC forms an interlocked dimer in the crystalline state but is predominantly monomeric in solution, pointing to the possibility that GerBC oligomerizes as a result of either high local protein concentrations or interaction with other nGR proteins in spores. Our findings provide the first structural view of the nGR subunits and a molecular framework for understanding the architecture, conservation, and function of nGRs.

  6. Protéger les nourrissons contre la coqueluche

    PubMed Central

    Gilley, Meghan; Goldman, Ran D.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Question Compte tenu du taux à la hausse de la coqueluche chez les enfants, plusieurs familles m’ont demandé quels moyens prendre pour protéger leurs tout-petits de cette infection. Quelles devraient être mes recommandations à ces familles? Réponse La coqueluche est une maladie évitable qui est endémique dans le monde entier. Chez les adultes, la coqueluche cause une maladie bénigne semblable à un rhume, suivie d’une toux persistante. Chez les nourrissons, elle peut causer de l’apnée, des convulsions, une encéphalopathie, une bronchopneumonie et la mort. Les décès dus à la coqueluche se produisent dans 86 % des cas chez des nourrissons de moins de 4 mois. La stratégie du cocooning, c’est-à-dire la vaccination des adultes en étroit contact avec des nourrissons, est recommandée par de nombreuses agences mondiales et nationales, mais elle ne prévient probablement que 20 % des cas de coqueluche chez les nourrissons. La vaccination durant la grossesse est plus efficace, mais elle n’est pas encore approuvée au Canada. Il n’a pas été démontré que la vaccination à la naissance soit uniformément efficace et elle n’est donc pas recommandée à l’heure actuelle.

  7. MAC Europe 1991: Evaluation of AVIRIS, GER imaging spectrometry data for the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, F.; Richter, R.; Rothfuss, H.; Werner, K.; Hausknecht, P.; Mueller, A.; Strobl, P.

    1992-01-01

    During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign, the area of Oberpfaffenhofen including the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen was flown by the AVIRIS imaging spectrometer, the GER 2 imaging spectrometer (63 band scanner), and two SAR systems (NASA/JPL AIRSAR and DLR E-SAR). In parallel to the overflights ground spectrometry (ASD, IRIS M IV) and atmospheric measurements were carried out in order to provide data for optical sensor calibration. Ground spectrometry measurements were carried out in the runway area of the DLR research center Oberpfaffenhofen. This area was used as well during the GER 2 European flight campaign EISAC 89 as a calibration target. The land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen is located 3 km north of the DLR research center. During the MAC Europe 91 Campaign a ground survey was carried out for documentation in the ground information data base (vegetation type, vegetation geometry, soil type, and soil mixture). Crop stands analyzed were corn, barley and rape. The DLR runway area and the land application testsite Oberpfaffenhofen were flown with the AVIRIS on 29 July and with the GER 2 on 12 and 23 July and 3 Sep. AVIRIS and GER 2 scenes were processed and atmospherically corrected for optical data analysis of optical and radar data. For the AVIRIS and the GER 2 scenes, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) estimates were calculated. An example of the reflectance of 6 calibration targets inside a GER 2 scene of Oberpfaffenhofen is given. SNR values for the GER 2 for a medium albedo target are given. The integrated analysis for the optical and radar data was carried out in cooperation with the DLR Institute for Microwave Technologies.

  8. A comparison between acoustic mode measurements and acoustic finite element analysis performed for SAAB SF 340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeransson, P.; Green, I.

    1986-03-01

    In order to verify an acoustic finite element package, measured and calculated eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies for Saab SF 340 cabin acoustics were compared. The measurements were performed in an acoustic mockup. For the analysis, a two dimensional model of the cross section of the fuselage was used. The comparison shows quite good agreement, the discrepancies being due to the representation of the flexible wall of the fuselage as rigid in the analysis.

  9. Enantiospecific recognition of DNA sequences by a proflavine Tröger base.

    PubMed

    Bailly, C; Laine, W; Demeunynck, M; Lhomme, J

    2000-07-05

    The DNA interaction of a chiral Tröger base derived from proflavine was investigated by DNA melting temperature measurements and complementary biochemical assays. DNase I footprinting experiments demonstrate that the binding of the proflavine-based Tröger base is both enantio- and sequence-specific. The (+)-isomer poorly interacts with DNA in a non-sequence-selective fashion. In sharp contrast, the corresponding (-)-isomer recognizes preferentially certain DNA sequences containing both A. T and G. C base pairs, such as the motifs 5'-GTT. AAC and 5'-ATGA. TCAT. This is the first experimental demonstration that acridine-type Tröger bases can be used for enantiospecific recognition of DNA sequences.

  10. The Clostridium perfringens Germinant Receptor Protein GerKC Is Located in the Spore Inner Membrane and Is Crucial for Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Banawas, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Korza, George; Li, Yunfeng; Hao, Bing; Setlow, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium perfringens causes a variety of diseases in both humans and animals, and spore germination is thought to be the first stage of C. perfringens infection. Previous studies have indicated that the germinant receptor (GR) proteins encoded by the bicistronic gerKA-gerKC operon as well as the proteins encoded by the gerKB and gerAA genes are required for normal germination of C. perfringens spores. We now report the individual role of these GR proteins by analyzing the germination of strains carrying mutations in gerKA, gerKC, or both gerKB and gerAA. Western blot analysis was also used to determine the location and numbers of GerKC proteins in spores. Conclusions from this work include the following: (i) gerKC mutant spores germinate extremely poorly with KCl, l-asparagine, a mixture of asparagine and KCl, or NaPi; (ii) gerKC spores germinate significantly more slowly than wild-type and other GR mutant spores with a 1:1 chelate of Ca2+ and dipicolinic acid and very slightly more slowly with dodecylamine; (iii) the germination defects in gerKC spores are largely restored by expressing the wild-type gerKA-gerKC operon in trans; (iv) GerKC is required for the spores' viability, almost certainly because of the gerKC spores' poor germination; and (v) GerKC is located in the spores' inner membrane, with ∼250 molecules/spore. Collectively, these results indicate that GerKC is the main GR protein required for nutrient and nonnutrient germination of spores of C. perfringens food-poisoning isolates. PMID:24013629

  11. Analysis of the Effects of a gerP Mutation on the Germination of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Butzin, Xuan Yi; Troiano, Anthony J.; Coleman, William H.; Griffiths, Keren K.; Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Wang, Guiwen; Li, Yong-qing

    2012-01-01

    As previously reported, gerP Bacillus subtilis spores were defective in nutrient germination triggered via various germinant receptors (GRs), and the defect was eliminated by severe spore coat defects. The gerP spores' GR-dependent germination had a longer lag time between addition of germinants and initiation of rapid release of spores' dipicolinic acid (DPA), but times for release of >90% of DPA from individual spores were identical for wild-type and gerP spores. The gerP spores were also defective in GR-independent germination by DPA with its associated Ca2+ divalent cation (CaDPA) but germinated better than wild-type spores with the GR-independent germinant dodecylamine. The gerP spores exhibited no increased sensitivity to hypochlorite, suggesting that these spores have no significant coat defect. Overexpression of GRs in gerP spores did lead to faster germination via the overexpressed GR, but this was still slower than germination of comparable gerP+ spores. Unlike wild-type spores, for which maximal nutrient germinant concentrations were between 500 μM and 2 mM for l-alanine and ≤10 mM for l-valine, rates of gerP spore germination increased up to between 200 mM and 1 M l-alanine and 100 mM l-valine, and at 1 M l-alanine, the rates of germination of wild-type and gerP spores with or without all alanine racemases were almost identical. A high pressure of 150 MPa that triggers spore germination by activating GRs also triggered germination of wild-type and gerP spores identically. All these results support the suggestion that GerP proteins facilitate access of nutrient germinants to their cognate GRs in spores' inner membrane. PMID:22904285

  12. 78 FR 51803 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Léger: Modern Art and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``L ger: Modern Art and the Metropolis... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``L ger: Modern Art and the Metropolis...

  13. Identification of three complementation units in the gerA spore germination locus of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Zuberi, A R; Feavers, I M; Moir, A

    1985-01-01

    The gerA locus, mutations in which affect the germination response of spores to L-alanine and related amino acids, is contained within a 6-kilobase region of DNA cloned in phage and plasmid vectors. Fragments from this region, subcloned in the shuttle vector pHV33, were introduced into Bacillus subtilis, and their ability to complement chromosomal gerA mutations in a recE4 background was examined. Although the plasmids were somewhat unstable, it was possible to score complementation within spore-containing colonies on nutrient agar by their ability to reduce 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride in an overlay. These studies have assigned the 10 gerA mutations tested to three complementation groups. An analysis of Tn1000 insertions into the cloned DNA of two relatively stable plasmids that together encompass the entire gerA region has identified more precisely the location and extent of the complementation units; recombination studies and in vitro mutagenesis were used to further delineate the extents of two of the units. The evidence suggests that the three complementation units are adjacent and that they are probably capable of separate transcription. PMID:2985546

  14. Bowl-shaped Tröger's bases and their recognition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosca, Lorenzo; Čejka, Jan; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Jakubek, Milan; Kaplánek, Robert; Král, Vladimír; Anzenbacher, Pavel

    2016-08-23

    The tris-Tröger's bases (TBs) are electron-rich fluorescent concave receptors due to the incorporation of naphthalene or triphenylene moieties (calix-1 and calix-2). The structures of the TBs were studied using SXRD to reveal the propensity to bind nitroaromatics. Titration with explosive-related nitro-compounds suggests that the TBs may be used for sensing explosives.

  15. Teaching Management Information Systems as a General Education Requirement (GER) Capstone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoanca, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Although many IS programs nationwide use capstone courses in the major, this paper reports on the use of an upper division Management Information Systems (MIS) class as a general education requirements (GER) capstone. The class is a core requirement for all majors in the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) program at the University of Alaska…

  16. Structure-function analysis of the Bacillus megaterium GerUD spore germinant receptor protein.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Srishti; Zhou, Ke Xu; Bailey, David M D; Christie, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Germination of Bacillus spores is triggered by the interaction of germinant molecules with specialized receptor proteins localized to the spore inner membrane. Germinant receptors (GRs) are comprised typically of three interacting protein subunits, each of which is essential for receptor function. At least some GRs appear to have a fourth component, referred to as a D-subunit protein. A number of D-subunit proteins were shown previously to be capable of modulating the activity of associated GRs. Here, we investigate the topology and structure-function relationships of the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 GerUD protein, which is associated with the GerU GR. The presented data demonstrate that GerUD can be subjected to relatively extensive structural modifications while retaining function. Indeed, the presence of either of the two transmembrane spanning domains is sufficient to modulate an efficient GerU-mediated germinative response. The precise function of D-subunit proteins has yet to be established, although they may act as molecular chaperones within the spore inner-membrane environment.

  17. Amino acid residues in the GerAB protein important in the function and assembly of the alanine spore germination receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Gareth R; Moir, Anne

    2011-05-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to c-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for Instituto de Biotecnología de León, INBIOTEC, Parque Científico de León, Av. Real, 1, 24006 León, Spain-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore.

  18. Amino Acid Residues in the GerAB Protein Important in the Function and Assembly of the Alanine Spore Germination Receptor of Bacillus subtilis 168▿

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Gareth R.; Moir, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The paradigm gerA operon is required for endospore germination in response to l-alanine as the sole germinant, and the three protein products, GerAA, GerAB, and GerAC are predicted to form a receptor complex in the spore inner membrane. GerAB shows homology to the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (APC) family of single-component transporters and is predicted to be an integral membrane protein with 10 membrane-spanning helices. Site-directed mutations were introduced into the gerAB gene at its natural location on the chromosome. Alterations to some charged or potential helix-breaking residues within membrane spans affected receptor function dramatically. In some cases, this is likely to reflect the complete loss of the GerA receptor complex, as judged by the absence of the germinant receptor protein GerAC, which suggests that the altered GerAB protein itself may be unstable or that the altered structure destabilizes the complex. Mutants that have a null phenotype for l-alanine germination but retain GerAC protein at near-normal levels are more likely to define amino acid residues of functional, rather than structural, importance. Single-amino-acid substitutions in each of the GerAB and GerAA proteins can prevent incorporation of GerAC protein into the spore; this provides strong evidence that the proteins within a specific receptor interact and that these interactions are required for receptor assembly. The lipoprotein nature of the GerAC receptor subunit is also important; an amino acid change in the prelipoprotein signal sequence in the gerAC1 mutant results in the absence of GerAC protein from the spore. PMID:21378181

  19. Fuel Economy and Emissions of the Ethanol-Optimized Saab 9-5 Biopower

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H; Lopez Vega, Alberto; Theiss, Timothy J; Graves, Ronald L; Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Saab Automobile recently released the BioPower engines, advertised to use increased turbocharger boost and spark advance on ethanol fuel to enhance performance. Specifications for the 2.0 liter turbocharged engine in the Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t report 150 hp on gasoline and a 20% increase to 180 hp on E85 (nominally 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline). While FFVs sold in the U.S. must be emissions certified on Federal Certification Gasoline as well as on E85, the European regulations only require certification on gasoline. Owing to renewed and growing interest in increased ethanol utilization in the U.S., a European-specification 2007 Saab 9-5 Biopower 2.0t was acquired by the Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for benchmark evaluations. Results show that the BioPower vehicle's gasoline equivalent fuel economy on the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HFET) are on par with similar U.S.-legal flex-fuel vehicles. Regulated and unregulated emissions measurements on the FTP and the US06 aggressive driving test (part of the supplemental FTP) show that despite the lack of any certification testing requirement in Europe on E85 or on the U.S. cycles, the BioPower is within Tier 2, Bin 5 emissions levels (note that full useful life emissions have not been measured) on the FTP, and also within the 4000 mile US06 emissions limits. Emissions of hydrocarbon-based hazardous air pollutants are higher on Federal Certification Gasoline while ethanol and aldehyde emissions are higher on ethanol fuel. The advertised power increase on E85 was confirmed through acceleration tests on the chassis dyno as well as on-road.

  20. The GerW protein is essential for L-alanine-stimulated germination of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Ritsuko; Takamatsu, Hiromu

    2013-11-01

    GerW (formerly called YtfJ) is a protein found in dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis. We have studied spore proteins in B. subtilis before, and here we report the characterization of GerW protein. Northern blot analysis revealed that gerW mRNA was transcribed by SigF-containing RNA polymerase beginning 1 h after the initiation of sporulation. Fluorescence was detected in forespores and dormant spores of B. subtilis recombinant strains expressing GerW-GFP. During germination in the presence of L-alanine or a mixture of L-asparagine, D-glucose, D-fructose and potassium ions (AGFK), normal spores of B. subtilis became darkened, stained positive with Hoechst 33342 and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFDA-SE), and released dipicolinic acid (DPA). In the case of gerW-deficient spores, AGFK triggered germination in a manner similar to that seen in the wild-type spores, whereas spores stimulated by L-alanine remained refractive under the phase contrast microscope, failed to stain positive with Hoechst 33342 or CFDA-SE, and released almost no DPA. These results indicate that GerW is essential for the L-alanine-induced breakdown of spore dormancy followed by core rehydration and the resumption of enzymatic activity, and suggest that GerW is involved in the early stages of germination in the presence of l-alanine.

  1. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    PubMed

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  2. NASA's Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture Sensor Development and Its Applicability to the GER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkel, Heather; Cryan, Scott; DSouza, Christopher; Strube, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper will address how a common Automated Rendezvous and Docking/Capture (AR&D/C) sensor suite can support Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) missions, and discuss how the model of common capability development to support multiple missions can enable system capability level partnerships and further GER objectives. NASA has initiated efforts to develop AR&D/C sensors, that are directly applicable to GER. NASA needs AR&D/C sensors for both the robotic and crewed segments of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). NASA recently conducted a commonality assessment of the concept of operations for the robotic Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV) and the crewed mission segment using the Orion crew vehicle. The commonality assessment also considered several future exploration and science missions requiring an AR&D/C capability. Missions considered were asteroid sample return, satellite servicing, and planetary entry, descent, and landing. This assessment determined that a common sensor suite consisting of one or more visible wavelength cameras, a three-dimensional LIDAR along with long-wavelength infrared cameras for robustness and situational awareness could be used on each mission to eliminate the cost of multiple sensor developments and qualifications. By choosing sensor parameters at build time instead of at design time and, without having to requalify flight hardware, a specific mission can design overlapping bearing, range, relative attitude, and position measurement availability to suit their mission requirements with minimal nonrecurring engineering costs. The resulting common sensor specification provides the union of all performance requirements for each mission and represents an improvement over the current systems used for AR&D/C today. NASA's AR&D/C sensor development path could benefit the International Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) and support the GER mission scenario by providing a common sensor suite upon which GER objectives could be achieved while

  3. Real-world adjustments of driver seat and head restraint in Saab 9-3 vehicles.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Anna; Pipkorn, Linda; Kullgren, Anders; Svensson, Mats

    2017-05-19

    Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically <25 km/h) in impacts from all directions. Rear impacts, however, are the most common in the injury statistics. Females have a 1.5-3 times higher risk of whiplash injury than males.  Improved seat design is the prevailing means of increasing the protection of whiplash injury for occupants in rear impacts. Since 1997, more advanced whiplash protection systems have been introduced on the market, the Saab Active Head Restraint (SAHR) being one of the most prominent. The SAHR-which is height adjustable-is mounted to a pressure plate in the seatback by means of a spring-resisted link mechanism.  Nevertheless, studies have shown that seats equipped with reactive head restraints (such as the SAHR) have a very high injury-reducing effect for males (∼60-70%) but very low or no reduction effect for females. One influencing factor could be the position of the head restraint relative to the head, because a number of studies have reported that adjustable head restraints often are incorrectly positioned by drivers.  The aim was to investigate how female and male Saab drivers adjust the seat in the car they drive the most. The seated positions of drivers in stationary conditions have been investigated in a total of 76 volunteers (34 females, 42 males) who participated in the study. Inclusion criteria incorporated driving a Saab 9-3 on a regularly basis. The majority of the volunteers (89%) adjusted the head restraint to any of the 3 uppermost positions and as many as 59% in the top position.  The average vertical distance between the top of the head and the top of the head restraint (offset) increase linearly with increasing statures, from an average of -26 mm (head below the head restraint) for small females to an average of 82 mm (head above the head restraint) for large males. On average, the offset was

  4. Application for certification, 1992 model year light-duty vehicles - Saab Cars USA, Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Every year, each manufacturer of passenger cars, light-duty trucks, motorcycles, or heavy-duty engines submits to EPA an application for certification. The report deals with light-duty vehicles from Saab Cars USA, Incorporated. In the application, the manufacturer gives a detailed technical description of the vehicles or engines he intends to market during the upcoming model year. These engineering data include explanations and/or drawings which describe engine/vehicle parameters such as basic engine design, fuel systems, ignition systems and exhaust and evaporative emission control systems. It also provides information on emission test procedures, service accumulation procedures, fuels to be used, and proposed maintenance requirements to be followed during testing. Section 16 of the application contains the results of emission testing, a statement of compliance to the regulations, production engine parameters, and a Summary Sheet Input Form on which issuance of a Certificate of Conformity is based.

  5. Nonzonal Expressions of GAUSS-KRÜGER Projection in Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongmei; Bian, Shaofeng; Liu, Qiang; Li, Houpu; Chen, Cheng; Hu, Yanfeng

    2016-06-01

    With conformal colatitude introduced, based on the mathematical relationship between exponential and logarithmic functions by complex numbers, strict equation of complex conformal colatitude is derived, and then theoretically strict nonzonal expressions of Gauss projection in polar regions are carried out. By means of the computer algebra system, correctness of these expressions is verified, and sketches of Gauss-krüger projection without bandwidth restriction in polar regions are charted. In the Arctic or Antarctic region, graticule of nonzonal Gauss projection complies with people's reading habit and reflects real ground-object distribution. Achievements in this paper could perfect mathematical basis of Gauss projection and provide reference frame for polar surveying and photogrammetry.

  6. GEm-Related 5 (GER5), an ABA and stress-responsive GRAM domain protein regulating seed development and inflorescence architecture.

    PubMed

    Baron, Kevin N; Schroeder, Dana F; Stasolla, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    We have identified an abscisic acid (ABA) and stress-responsive GRAM (Glucosyltransferases, Rab-like GTPase activators and Myotubularins) domain protein GER5 (GEm-Related 5) closely related to GEM (GLABRA2 Expression Modulator), a novel regulator of cell division and cell fate determination in epidermal cells. A loss-of-function T-DNA line (ger5-2) and transgenic lines silencing (GER5(RNAi)) or overexpressing (GER5(OE)) GER5 displayed several defects in reproductive development affecting seed and embryo development. RNA in situ studies revealed GER5 and related GRAM genes (GEM and GEm-Related 1 (GER1)) have both overlapping and unique expression domains in male and female reproductive organs. Hormone immunolocalization experiments further indicate GER5 transcripts preferentially localize to reproductive tissues which accumulate ABA. Expression analysis revealed members of the GRAM family (GER5, GER1, GEM) display tissue-specific expression patterns and are responsive to phytohormones and abiotic stress, in addition to genetic lesions (aba1, aba2, ctr1) affecting ABA biosynthesis or ethylene signalling. Mature seeds of ger5-2 mutants also exhibit reduced sensitivity to ABA during seed germination assays. Microarray analysis of aborting and developing seeds isolated from ger5-2 mutants revealed underlying transcriptional changes in carbohydrate metabolism, hormone signalling and catabolic processes (e.g. protein degradation, autophagy). Taken together, our results indicate ABA-responsive GRAM genes play a novel role in regulating the reproductive development of plants, and raise intriguing questions regarding the functional relationship between members of the GRAM gene family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NAGT-GER: A Community of Practice to Support the Emerging Field of Geoscience Education Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukes, L.; LaDue, N.; Cheek, K.; Ryker, K.

    2014-12-01

    As the National Research Council noted in its 2012 report on discipline-based education research (DBER) in undergraduate science and engineering, in order to advance DBER as a field of inquiry, "a robust infrastructure is required to recognize and support [DBER] within professional societies." One way to develop such an infrastructure around geoscience education research is to create a community of practice within the broader geoscience education community. In recent years, the members of the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) have created two divisions to support the geoscience education needs of specific subpopulations of the geoscience community: the 2YC division, focusing on community college issues, and TED, focusing on teacher education. This year marks the first year of a new division within the National Association of Geoscience Teachers (NAGT) focused on geoscience education research. The Geoscience Education Research division (GER) is committed to the promotion of high quality, scholarly research in geoscience education that improves teaching and learning in K-12, higher education, and informal learning environments. High quality DBER in geoscience requires the ability to connect current theories of teaching and learning with deep content-specific conceptual understanding. A community of practice like NAGT GER, has the potential to improve the quality of scholarly efforts in geoscience education by providing a forum for improving the collective knowledge and expertise of the geoscience education research community. Current division initiatives and efforts will be highlighted and time for dialogue on future directions will be included.

  8. Role of the gerI Operon of Bacillus cereus 569 in the Response of Spores to Germinants

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Mark O.; Moir, Anne

    1998-01-01

    Bacillus cereus 569 (ATCC 10876) germinates in response to inosine or to l-alanine, but the most rapid germination response is elicited by a combination of these germinants. Mutants defective in their germination response to either inosine or to l-alanine were isolated after Tn917-LTV1 mutagenesis and enrichment procedures; one class of mutant could not germinate in response to inosine as a sole germinant but still germinated in response to l-alanine, although at a reduced rate; another mutant germinated normally in response to inosine but was slowed in its germination response to l-alanine. These mutants demonstrated that at least two signal response pathways are involved in the triggering of germination. Stimulation of germination in l-alanine by limiting concentrations of inosine and stimulation of germination in inosine by low concentrations of l-alanine were still detectable in these mutants, suggesting that such stimulation is not dependent on complete functionality of both these germination loci. Two transposon insertions that affected inosine germination were found to be located 2.2 kb apart on the chromosome. This region was cloned and sequenced, revealing an operon of three open reading frames homologous to those in the gerA and related operons of Bacillus subtilis. The individual genes of this gerI operon have been named gerIA, gerIB, and gerIC. The GerIA protein is predicted to possess an unusually long, charged, N-terminal domain containing nine tandem copies of a 13-amino-acid glutamine- and serine-rich sequence. PMID:9852021

  9. Promoters of the Barley Germin-Like GER4 Gene Cluster Enable Strong Transgene Expression in Response to Pathogen Attack[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Himmelbach, Axel; Liu, Luo; Zierold, Uwe; Altschmied, Lothar; Maucher, Helmut; Beier, Franziska; Müller, Doreen; Hensel, Götz; Heise, Andreas; Schützendübel, Andres; Kumlehn, Jochen; Schweizer, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Immunity of plants triggered by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) is based on the execution of an evolutionarily conserved defense response that includes the accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as multiple other defenses. The most abundant PR transcript of barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaf epidermis attacked by the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei encodes the germin-like protein GER4, which has superoxide dismutase activity and functions in PAMP-triggered immunity. Here, we show that barley GER4 is encoded by a dense cluster of tandemly duplicated genes (GER4a-h) that underwent several cycles of duplication. The genomic organization of the GER4 locus also provides evidence for repeated gene birth and death cycles. The GER4 promoters contain multiple WRKY factor binding sites (W-boxes) preferentially located in promoter fragments that were exchanged between subfamily members by gene conversion. Mutational analysis of TATA-box proximal W-boxes used GER4c promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions to reveal their enhancing effects and functional redundancy on pathogen-induced promoter activity. The data suggest enhanced transcript dosage as an evolutionary driving force for the local expansion and functional redundancy of the GER4 locus. In addition, the GER4c promoter provides a tool to study signal transduction of PAMP-triggered immunity and to engineer strictly localized and pathogen-regulated disease resistance in transgenic cereal crops. PMID:20305123

  10. Synthesis and DNA interaction of a mixed proflavine-phenanthroline Tröger base.

    PubMed

    Baldeyrou, Brigitte; Tardy, Christelle; Bailly, Christian; Colson, Pierre; Houssier, Claude; Charmantray, Franck; Demeunynck, Martine

    2002-04-01

    We report the synthesis of an asymmetric Tröger base containing the two well characterised DNA binding chromophores, proflavine and phenanthroline. The mode of interaction of the hybrid molecule was investigated by circular and linear dichroism experiments and a biochemical assay using DNA topoisomerase I. The data are compatible with a model in which the proflavine moiety intercalates between DNA base pairs and the phenanthroline ring occupies the DNA groove. DNase I cleavage experiments were carried out to investigate the sequence preference of the hybrid ligand and a well resolved footprint was detected at a site encompassing two adjacent 5'-GTC.5-GAC triplets. The sequence preference of the asymmetric molecule is compared to that of the symmetric analogues.

  11. Sensitivity of diamond-capped impedance transducer to Tröger's base derivative.

    PubMed

    Stehlik, Stepan; Izak, Tibor; Kromka, Alexander; Dolenský, Bohumil; Havlík, Martin; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2012-08-01

    Sensitivity of an intrinsic nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layer to naphthalene Tröger's base derivative decorated with pyrrole groups (TBPyr) was characterized by impedance spectroscopy. The transducer was made of Au interdigitated electrodes (IDE) with 50 μm spacing on alumina substrate which were capped with the NCD layer. The NCD-capped transducer with H-termination was able to electrically distinguish TBPyr molecules (the change of surface resistance within 30-60 kΩ) adsorbed from methanol in concentrations of 0.04 mg/mL to 40 mg/mL. An exponential decay of the surface resistance with time was observed and attributed to the readsorption of air moisture after methanol evaporation. After surface oxidation the NCD cap layer did not show any leakage due to NCD grain boundaries. We analyzed electronic transport in the transducer and propose a model for the sensing mechanism based on surface ion replacement.

  12. Modal measurements and propeller field excitation on acoustic full scale mockup of SAAB 340 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Lars

    1992-06-01

    The acoustic mockup of the cabin SAAB 340 aircraft was measured in an anechoic chamber concerning modal parameters and operating deflection shapes. The mockup was excited with vibration shakers at the fuselage for modal estimation and with a ring of loudspeakers around the fuselage to generate propeller fields for operating deflection shapes. Two cases of structure configuration were used at the measurements; one consisting of only the fuselage, without trimpanels and floorpanels and one case with trimpanels and floorpanels. Modal measurements were done with excitation on a frame of the fuselage at the propeller plane. The modes were estimated for the individual components; fuselage, trimpanels, floorpanels, and soundfield in the cabin. The modes of the fuselage were compared with the acoustic models in the cabin concerning possible coupling effects. With the loudspeakering, the sound field from the left and the right propeller were generated at a blade passage frequency of 81.9 Hz and its first harmonic. Operating deflection shapes of fuselage, panels, and cabin acoustic were estimated. The results from the measurements could be used to verify a finite element model and as a tool for developing acoustic noise control systems.

  13. Alignment silkworms as seismic animal anomalous behavior (SAAB) and electromagnetic model of a fault: a theory and laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Motoji; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Huang, Qing-Hua

    1998-05-01

    Alignment of silkworms and fish, observed as seismic anomalous animal behavior (SAAB) prior to the Kobe earthquake, were duplicated in a laboratory by applying a pulsed electric field assuming SAAB as electrophysiological responses to the stimuli of seismic electric signals (SES). The animals became aligned perpendicularly to the field direction since their skeletal muscle had a higher resistivity perpendicular to the field direction than parallel to it. An electromagnetic model of a fault is proposed in which dipolar charges, ±q are generated due to the change of seismic stress, σ(t). From a mathematical model, dq/dt=-α(dσ/dt) - q/ɛρ, where α is the charge generation constant like a piezoelectric coefficient, ɛ, the dielectric constant and ρ, the resistivity of bedrock granite. A fault having a length 2a and a displacement or rock rupture time τ, during which the stress is changed, gives pulsed dipolar charge surface densities, +q(t, x) and -q(t, x+2a), or an apparent electric dipole moment of P(t)=2aQ(t)=2aAq(t)=aM 0[ɛρ/(τ-ɛρ)](e-1/τ-e-1/σρ) using the earthquake moment M 0. The fault displacement, D, its initial velocity, D‧ and the stress drop, Δσ give τ=D/D‧=(Δσ/σ 0)(α/β). The field fintensity, F, and seismic current density at a fault zone, J were calculated as F=q/ɛ and J=F/ρ‧ using ρ‧ of water as to give J=0.1-1 A/m2 sufficient to cause SAAB experimentally. The near-field ultra low frequency (ULF) waves generated by P(t) give SES reciprocally proportional to the distance R.

  14. A Protocol for the exo-Mono and exo,exo-Bis Functionalization of the Diazocine Ring of Tröger's Base.

    PubMed

    Dawaigher, Sami; Månsson, Kristoffer; Ascic, Erhad; Artacho, Josep; Mårtensson, Roger; Loganathan, Nagarajan; Wendt, Ola F; Harmata, Michael; Snieckus, Victor; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2015-12-18

    An efficient protocol has been developed for the exo-mono and exo,exo-bis functionalization of Tröger's base in the benzylic 6 and 12 positions of the diazocine ring. The lithiation of Tröger's base using s-BuLi/TMEDA followed by electrophilic quench affords exo-mono- and exo,exo-bis-substituted derivatives of Tröger's base in good to excellent yields. The variation of the number of equivalents of s-BuLi/TMEDA and the order of addition of the electrophile strongly govern the outcome of the reaction for each electrophile.

  15. Highly Conductive Anion-Exchange Membranes from Microporous Tröger's Base Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Guo, Rui; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Carta, Mariolino; McKeown, Neil B; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-09-12

    The development of polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) combining high ion conductivity and long-term stability is a major challenge for materials chemistry. AEMs with regularly distributed fixed cationic groups, based on the formation of microporous polymers containing the V-shape rigid Tröger's base units, are reported for the first time. Despite their simple preparation, which involves only two synthetic steps using commercially available precursors, the polymers provide AEMs with exceptional hydroxide conductivity at relatively low ion-exchange capacity, as well as a high swelling resistance and chemical stability. An unprecedented hydroxide conductivity of 164.4 mS cm(-1) is obtained at a relatively a low ion-exchange capacity of 0.82 mmol g(-1) under optimal operating conditions. The exceptional anion conductivity appears related to the intrinsic microporosity of the charged polymer matrix, which facilitates rapid anion transport. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Appearance of ghost and gift authors in Ugeskrift for Læger and Danish Medical Journal.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-05-01

    Authorship should establish accountability and transparency, but previous research into authorship has demonstrated that authors do not always meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) authorship criteria. Yet, these studies have mainly focused on international, high-impact journals. The aim of the present study was to assess Danish authors' general authorship experiences and views on authorship and authorship criteria. Corresponding authors of articles published in Ugeskrift for Læger and Danish Medical Journal in 2010 received a web-based questionnaire about the sampled article, co-authors and contributors, general authorship experiences and views on authorship and authorship criteria. A total of 470 authors received the questionnaire and 292 responded (response rate 62%). 29% had experienced that "somebody" (the respondent himself/herself or an acquaintance/colleague) had been excluded from the author byline. 17% had been offered illegitimate authorship. 16% of the respondents had offered illegitimate authorship to somebody else. 25% of the respondents did not agree that legitimate authorship requires fulfilment of all three current ICMJE authorship criteria. Some contributions/functions not part of the current ICMJE criteria were also considered relevant for authorship, e.g. co-author supervision, statistical assistance and research group leadership. Illegitimate authorship is prevalent also in low-impact, national journals. In order to promote legitimate authorship, mandatory contribution statements should be considered, but education and information about existing criteria for authorship may be even more important. not relevant. not relevant.

  17. The performance of Dräger Oxylog ventilators at simulated altitude.

    PubMed

    Flynn, J G; Singh, B

    2008-07-01

    Ventilated patients frequently require transport by air in a hypobaric environment. Previous studies have demonstrated significant changes in the performance of ventilators with changes in cabin pressure (altitude) but no studies have been published on the function of modem ventilators at altitude. This experiment set out to evaluate ventilatory parameters (tidal volume and respiratory rate) of three commonly used transport ventilators (the Dräger Oxylog 1000, 2000 and 3000) in a simulated hypobaric environment. Ventilators were assessed using either air-mix (60% oxygen) or 100% oxygen and tested against models simulating a normal lung, a low compliance (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) lung and a high-resistance (asthma) lung. Ventilators were tested at a range of simulated altitudes between sea level and 3048 m. Over this range, tidal volume delivered by the Oxylog 1000 increased by 68% and respiratory rate decreased by 28%. Tidal volume delivered by the Oxylog 2000 ventilator increased by 29% over the same range of altitudes but there was no significant change in respiratory rate. Tidal volume and respiratory rate remained constant with the Oxylog 3000 over the same range of altitudes. Changes were consistent with each ventilator regardless of oxygen content or lung model. It is important that clinicians involved in critical care transport in a hypobaric environment are aware that individual ventilators perform differently at altitude and that they are aware of the characteristics of the particular ventilator that they are using.

  18. Synthesis and biological activity evaluation of hydrazone derivatives based on a Tröger's base skeleton.

    PubMed

    Kaplánek, Robert; Havlík, Martin; Dolenský, Bohumil; Rak, Jakub; Džubák, Petr; Konečný, Petr; Hajdúch, Marián; Králová, Jarmila; Král, Vladimír

    2015-04-01

    We report the design and synthesis of novel anticancer agents based on bis-hydrazones separated by a rigid Tröger's base skeleton. This novel approach combines a biologically active moiety (hydrazone) with this scaffold (Tröger's base) to construct DNA intercalators. Evaluation of the anticancer activity of these agents using seven cancer cell lines and two healthy cell lines found that several derivatives had potent anticancer activity and excellent selectivity indexes toward cancer cells. The antimicrobial activities were tested on a set of thirteen bacterial stains, but the prepared compounds were not active. Complexation studies using biologically important metal ions demonstrated that these compounds are able to bind Cu(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+) and Zn(2+). DNA intercalation studies showed that the compounds themselves do not interact with DNA, but their metallocomplexes do interact, most likely via intercalation into DNA.

  19. First record of Osmylidae (Neuroptera) from Colombia and description of two new species of Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913.

    PubMed

    Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; Noriega, Jorge Ari

    2014-06-30

    The family Osmylidae is recorded for the first time in Colombia, extending its known distribution range to the north of South America in the northern Andes. Two new species of the genus Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913, I. contrerasi n. sp. and I. septemtrionalandinus n. sp. and one morphospecies distributed along the eastern cordillera in the departments of Cundinamarca, Huila, and Norte de Santander are described and illustrated. A key to species of the genus Isostenosmylus, as well as a list of South American species of Osmylidae is included.

  20. Synthesis and Investigation of the V-shaped Tröger's Base Derivatives as Hole-transporting Materials.

    PubMed

    Braukyla, Titas; Sakai, Nobuya; Daskeviciene, Maryte; Jankauskas, Vygintas; Kamarauskas, Egidijus; Malinauskas, Tadas; Snaith, Henry J; Getautis, Vytautas

    2016-07-20

    V-shaped Tröger's base core has been investigated as a central linking unit in the synthesis of new charge-transporting materials for optoelectronic applications. The studied molecules have been synthesized in two steps from relatively inexpensive starting materials, and demonstrate high glass transition temperatures, good stability of the amorphous state, and comparatively high hole drift mobility (up to 0.011 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) ). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. [Phlebotomus from Madagascar (Diptera: Psychodidae). II--Description of the female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) fertei Depaquit, Léger & Robert, 2002; description of the male and new data for the female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) berentiensis (Léger & Rodhain, 1978) comb. nov].

    PubMed

    Depaquit, J; Léger, N; Ferté, H; Robert, V

    2004-06-01

    The female of Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) fertei Depaquit, Léger & Robert, 2002 is described from Madagascar. The spermathecae have separated ducts, a body with an enlarged-sclerified dilatation and a deriviated large bladder with thin walls and long head. P. fertei female has the following characters: long antennal segments, pharyngeal armature with small teeth and cibarium with 15 to 30 denticles, and very long legs. Its remarkable spermatheca is closely related to that of P. berentiensis. The status of P. (Anaphlebotomus) berentiensis (Léger & Rodhain, 1978) is revised into this paper. The female is redescribed and the male is described for the first time. The latter has an unusual antennal formula (2/III-XII), a cibarium with four teeth and about 30 denticles, no tuft of setae on the coxite, four spines on the style, including a very long proximal one. Males and females were linked to each other based on morphological and molecular characteristics (second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA and ND4 gene of the mitochondrial DNA). The inclusion of these taxa into the subgenus Anaphlebotomus Theodor, 1948 is exclusively based on male characters as listed by Theodor (style with four spines, no basal lobe on the coxite, paramere with two or three branches). The very heterogeneous characters of the females do not allow their use for the definition of this subgenus, which is probably not homogeneous.

  2. [German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). First results].

    PubMed

    Schulz, C; Wolf, U; Becker, K; Conrad, A; Hünken, A; Lüdecke, A; Müssig-Zufika, M; Riedel, S; Seiffert, I; Seiwert, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M

    2007-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey for Children (GerES IV) is the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) of the Robert Koch Institute and the fourth GerES of the Federal Environment Agency. The main objective of GerESs is to analyse and document the extent, distribution and determinants of exposure to environmental pollutants of the German general population. GerES IV was performed from 2003 to 2006. A total of 1.790 children aged 3-14 years from 150 sampling locations participated in GerES IV. Samples of blood, urine, tap water, house dust and indoor air were analysed. Hearing tests, measurements of traffic noise and interviews to get exposure-related information were conducted. First results indicate a clear decrease of the exposure to arsenic, lead and mercury. Cotinine concentrations in urine can be used to classify the exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke. The examination of the tap water used in the subjects' households indicates that in some households the guideline values of the German Drinking Water Ordinance were not always met. This is the case for nickel, copper and lead which are used as pipe material for domestic plumbing.

  3. The destabilizing effect of external damping: Singular flutter boundary for the Pflüger column with vanishing external dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Mirko; Kirillov, Oleg N.; Misseroni, Diego; Bigoni, Davide

    2016-06-01

    Elastic structures loaded by non-conservative positional forces are prone to instabilities induced by dissipation: it is well-known that internal viscous damping destabilizes the marginally stable Ziegler's pendulum and Pflüger column (of which the Beck's column is a special case), two structures loaded by a tangential follower force. The result is the so-called 'destabilization paradox', where the critical force for flutter instability decreases by an order of magnitude when the coefficient of internal damping becomes infinitesimally small. Until now external damping, such as that related to air drag, is believed to provide only a stabilizing effect, as one would intuitively expect. Contrary to this belief, it will be shown that the effect of external damping is qualitatively the same as the effect of internal damping, yielding a pronounced destabilization paradox. Previous results relative to destabilization by external damping of the Ziegler's and Pflüger's elastic structures are corrected in a definitive way leading to a new understanding of the destabilizating role played by viscous terms.

  4. Asynchrony Between Ventilator Flow and Pressure Waveforms and the Capnograph on Dräger Anesthesia Workstations: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Mukesh; Tripathi, Nilay; Pandey, Mamta

    2017-03-01

    Modern anesthesia workstations display capnography, flow-time, and pressure-time waveforms in real time. We observed that at certain ventilator settings (10 breaths/min) on Dräger workstations, the expiratory phase of the capnograph overlaps both the inspiratory and the expiratory phases of ventilation. This discrepancy disappears at respiratory rates of 16 breaths/min. This synchronous respiratory monitoring display at respiratory rates 16 breaths/min is not physiologically correct, because it implies a synchronization of waveforms that is not actually present. This again becomes asynchronous once the respiratory rate is increased to >18 breaths/min. Such an artifact may not affect the patient's safety in most cases but may mislead clinicians when synchrony between flow/pressure and capnography is needed for diagnostic purposes. We wish to share this discrepancy with clinicians and notify the manufacturer so that potential solutions may be found.

  5. Overview of the study design, participation and field work of the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV).

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christine; Seiwert, Margarete; Babisch, Wolfgang; Becker, Kerstin; Conrad, André; Szewzyk, Regine; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike

    2012-07-01

    The German Federal Environment Agency carried out its fourth German Environmental Survey (GerES IV), which is the first survey on children only and the environment-related module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (German acronym: KiGGS), conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). The German Environmental Surveys are nationwide population studies conducted to determine the exposure to environmental pollutants, to explore exposure pathways and to identify sub-groups with higher exposure. GerES IV was conducted on randomly selected 1790 children aged 3-14 years from the cross-sectional sample of KiGGS. The participants of GerES IV lived in 150 sampling locations all over Germany. Field work was carried out from May 2003 to May 2006. The response rate in GerES IV was 77.3%. Due to the fact that participation in GerES IV was limited to children that had previously participated in the KiGGS study, the total response rate in GerES IV resulted in 52.6%. Response rates did neither differ significantly between West and East Germany, nor between different community sizes, age groups and gender. The basic study programme included blood samples, morning urine, tap water and house dust as well as comprehensive questionnaire-based interviews. In addition, subgroups were studied with regard to "noise, hearing capacity and stress hormones", "chemical contamination of indoor air" and "biogenic indoor contamination". A key element of the field work in GerES IV was a home visit to carry out interviews, conduct measurements and collect samples. An exception was blood sampling which was carried out within KiGGS. The quality of field work, data collection, evaluation, and chemical, biological and physical analyses was successfully evaluated by internal and external quality assurance. This comprehensive overview aims at giving other research groups the opportunity to compare different study designs or to adapt their own design to get

  6. The German Environmental Survey 1990/92 (GerES II): sources of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, K; Krause, C; Seifert, B; Ullrich, D

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the second German Environmental Survey carried out in the Western part of Germany in 1990/91 (GerES IIa) 113 adults aged 25-69 years were selected at random from the total study population of about 2500 to investigate personal exposure to about 70 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Each subject wore a diffusive badge-type sampler for 1 week. The VOCs determined included alkanes, aromatics, aliphatic halocarbons, terpenes, and oxygen-containing compounds. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to determine and quantify the major sources of personal exposure to various VOCs. In this paper, results are given for benzene, and C8- and C9-aromatics. Being subject to environmental tobacco smoke was found to be the most important determinant of benzene exposure, but automobile-related activities such as driving a car or refuelling, were also associated with significantly increased levels of benzene. The major determinant of C8- and C9-aromatics concentrations was occupational exposure. Emissions from paints, lacquers, newspapers, magazines and print-works were also important contributors to C8-aromatics exposure. Renovation, painting and smoking were associated with a significant increase of the exposure to C9-aromatics.

  7. Spectral discrimination of ignimbritic rocks of southern Argentina in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery using GER SIRIS laboratory data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, Harald; Reimer, Wolfgang; Miller, Hubert

    1994-12-01

    The article shows some basic approaches to discriminate ignimbrite type pyroclastic flow deposits in Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery of semi-arid areas. Beside certain topographical and tectonical fea- tures which already describe ignimbrites and associated pyroclastic flows in those environments, our interest is focused on the influence of specific mineralogical and depositional characteristics on the spectral reflectance response. Spectral signatures in the visible and near infrared region of various fresh and weathered samples as well as desert varnish and soil samples were recorded using a GER SIRIS laboratory spectroscope to determine the factors controlling their proper response in all Thematic Mapper bands. Whole rock geochemistry data, X-ray powder diffraction analysis and microscopical studies as well as surface interpretations of the samples documented certain properties which might cause different spectral signatures also of geochemically mostly equivalent rocks. According to the semi-arid conditions of the South Patagonian Massif which are the most important constituents with respect to rock weathering and mineral alteration a more effective discrimination of the mostly leucocratic rocks was obtained using TM bands 7-4-1 and 7-5-2 as RGB false colour com- posites. Three image processing techniques, contrast stretched ratio composites, decorrelation stretched false colour composites and relative channel colour composites were examined to distinguish the variable ignimbrite outcrops in the chosen test site.

  8. Revision of the genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Neuroptera, Osmylidae) with a remarkable example of convergence in wing disruptive patterning

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.; Wang, Yongjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The charismatic lance lacewing genus Gryposmylus Krüger, 1913 (Osmylidae: Protosmylinae) from South East Asia is revised with a new species (Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n.) described from Malaysia. The genus is diagnosed and both species in the genus redescribed and figured. An extraordinary example of morphological convergence is presented, with disruptive camouflaging wing markings in Gryposmylus pennyi sp. n. being remarkably similar to the South American green lacewing Vieira leschenaulti Navás (Chrysopidae). PMID:27667953

  9. Discovery of Tröger's base analogues as selective inhibitors against human breast cancer cell line: design, synthesis and cytotoxic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Manda, Bhaskar Reddy; Alla, Manjula; Ganji, Roopa Jones; Addlagatta, Anthony

    2014-10-30

    A library of structurally diverse Tröger's base analogues has been constructed via unusual amination of methylene bridge employing Vilsmeier-Haack conditions as well as by the incorporation of five and six membered heterocycles on the aromatic core of Tröger's base framework. The constructed structurally diverse frameworks were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against a panel of three human cancer lines A549 (lung adenocarcinoma), MDAMB-231 (breast) and SK-N-SH (neuroblastoma). From the activity profile obtained, a redesign of Tröger's base analogues led to the construction of more potent molecular entities. The study led to development of a series of compounds with MDAMB-231 cell line specific cytotoxicity. Of the 30 compounds synthesized and evaluated, 7 compounds were found to possess cytotoxicity that is equivalent or better than standard drug doxorubicin against MDAMB-231 cell line while only one compound was found to be active against SK-N-SH cell line.

  10. The CO2 abundance in Comets C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P/Jäger as measured with Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Adam J.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Cochran, Anita L.; Bodewits, Dennis; DiSanti, Michael A.; Russo, Neil Dello; Lisse, Carey M.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon dioxide is one of the most abundant ices present in comets and is therefore important for understanding cometary composition and activity. We present analysis of observations of CO2 and [O I] emission in three comets to measure the CO2 abundance and evaluate the possibility of employing observations of [O I] emission in comets as a proxy for CO2. We obtained NIR imaging sensitive to CO2 of comets C/2012 K1 (PanSTARRS), C/2012 K5 (LINEAR), and 290P/Jäger with the IRAC instrument on Spitzer. We acquired observations of [O I] emission in these comets with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the 3.5-m telescope at Apache Point Observatory and observations of OH with the Swift observatory (PanSTARRS) and with Keck HIRES (Jäger). The CO2/H2O ratios derived from the Spitzer images are 12.6 ± 1.3% (PanSTARRS), 28.9 ± 3.6% (LINEAR), and 31.3 ± 4.2% (Jäger). These abundances are derived under the assumption that contamination from CO emission is negligible. The CO2 abundance for PanSTARRS is close to the average abundance measured in comets at similar heliocentric distance to date, while the abundances measured for LINEAR and Jäger are significantly larger than the average abundance. From the coma morphology observed in PanSTARRS and the assumed gas expansion velocity, we derive a rotation period for the nucleus of about 9.2 h. Comparison of H2O production rates derived from ARCES and Swift data, as well as other observations, suggest the possibility of sublimation from icy grains in the inner coma. We evaluate the possibility that the [O I] emission can be employed as a proxy for CO2 by comparing CO2/H2O ratios inferred from the [O I] lines to those measured directly by Spitzer. We find that for PanSTARRS we can reproduce the observed CO2 abundance to an accuracy of ∼20%. For LINEAR and Jäger, we were only able to obtain upper limits on the CO2 abundance inferred from the [O I] lines. These upper limits are consistent with the CO2 abundances measured

  11. Geräuschgestaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfäfflin, Bernhard; Gerhard, Hans-Martin; Ehinger, Peter; Herrmann, Rudolf; Bathelt, Hartmut; Scheinhardt, Michael; Krüger, Jan

    Neben technischen und wirtschaftlichen Gesichtspunkten spielen beim Kauf eines Automobils auch emotionale Aspekte eine erhebliche Rolle. Bei hochwertigen Produkten insbesondere mit ausgeprägt sportlichem Charakter kommt daher neben der Optik und Haptik auch dem "Sound“ eine wesentliche Bedeutung zu (Genuit et al. 1998), Zintel u. Unbehaun 2005).

  12. The German Environmental Survey 1990/1992 (GerES II): reference concentrations of selected environmental pollutants in blood, urine, hair, house dust, drinking water and indoor air.

    PubMed

    Seifert, B; Becker, K; Helm, D; Krause, C; Schulz, C; Seiwert, M

    2000-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale, representative population study that has been carried out three times up to now with a time interval of about 7 years. GerES I was performed in 1985/1986, GerES IIa in 1990/1991 in West Germany, and GerES IIb in 1991/1992 in East Germany, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). In GerES II, blood, urine, and scalp hair samples of 4021 adults aged 25-69 years and of 736 children aged 6-14 years were analysed as well as environmental samples (house dust, drinking water, indoor and personal air, diet). Characteristics of the frequency distributions of the substances analysed in the different media were calculated. The geometric mean (GM) for lead, cadmium, and mercury in the blood of adults amounted to 45.3, 0.36, and 0.51 microg/l, respectively. The corresponding values of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury in urine were 6.3, 0.29, and 0.54 microg/l, respectively. The concentrations of lead in blood, cadmium in blood and urine, and mercury in blood are lower in children than in adults. The GM ofpentachlorophenol (PCP) in urine of adults was 2.67 microg/l and in urine of children, 4.15 microg/l. These results of GerES II were compared with the so-called HBM values which represent health-based exposure guidelines and have been defined by the Human Biomonitoring Commission (HBC) of the Federal Environmental Agency, interalia for lead in blood, cadmium in urine, mercury in blood and urine, and PCP in urine. They also provided asound basis for the setting of reference values to describe the status of the German population. A total of 1.8% and 0.6% of the German females in child-bearing age had a level of lead in blood higher than HBM-I (100 microg/l) and HBM-II ( 150 microg/l), respectively. One percent of the children had a blood lead level above HBM-I. House dust and drinking water were analysed to characterise exposure in the domestic environment. Arsenic, cadmium, and lead deposition in homes amounted to 5.4 ng

  13. Detection and prevalence of drug use in arrested drivers using the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and Affiniton DrugWipe oral fluid drug screening devices.

    PubMed

    Logan, Barry K; Mohr, Amanda L A; Talpins, Stephen K

    2014-09-01

    The use of oral fluid (OF) drug testing devices offers the ability to rapidly obtain a drug screening result at the time of a traffic stop. We describe an evaluation of two such devices, the Dräger Drug Test 5000 and the Affiniton DrugWipe, to detect drug use in a cohort of drivers arrested from an investigation of drug impaired driving (n = 92). Overall, 41% of these drivers were ultimately confirmed positive by mass spectrometry for the presence of one or more drugs. The most frequently detected drugs were cannabinoids (30%), benzodiazepines (11%) and cocaine (10%). Thirty-nine percent of drivers with blood alcohol concentrations >0.08 g/100 mL were found to be drug positive. Field test results obtained from OF samples were compared with collected OF and urine samples subsequently analyzed in the laboratory by gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The Dräger Drug Test 5000 (DDT5000) and DrugWipe returned overall sensitivities of 51 and 53%, and positive predictive values of 93 and 63%, respectively. The most notable difference in performance was the DDT5000's better sensitivity in detecting marijuana use. Both devices failed to detect benzodiazepine use. Oral fluid proved to be a more effective confirmatory specimen, with more drugs being confirmed in OF than urine. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Effect of radiation on the stability of equilibrium points in the binary stellar systems: RW-Monocerotis, Krüger 60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. K.; Narang, Pankaj; Mahajan, S.; Yuasa, M.

    2008-04-01

    We have studied the stability of location of various equilibrium points of a passive micron size particle in the field of radiating binary stellar system within the framework of circular restricted three body problem. Influence of radial radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag (PR-drag) on the equilibrium points and their stability in the binary stellar systems RW-Monocerotis and Krüger-60 has been studied. It is shown that both collinear and off axis equilibrium points are linearly unstable for increasing value of β 1 (ratio of radiation to gravitational force of the massive component) in presence of PR-drag for the binary systems. Further we find that out of plane equilibrium points ( L i , i=6,7) may exists for range of values of β 1>1 for these binary systems in the presence of PR-drag. Our linear stability analysis shows that the motion near the equilibrium points L 6,7 of the binary systems is unstable both in the absence and presence of PR-drag.

  15. Assessing contamination paths of the German adult population with gold and platinum. The German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III).

    PubMed

    Benemann, Jens; Lehmann, Nils; Bromen, Katja; Marr, Anja; Seiwert, Margarete; Schulz, Christine; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Even though increased environmental platinum levels were found since the introduction of automobile catalytic converters, little is known about the pathways of corporal uptake and the bioavailability of platinum in the general adult population. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify the main exposure pathways of gold and platinum in the general adult population. The German Environmental Survey 1998 (GerES III) collected population-based data on the corporal gold and platinum burden from a large sample of 1080 persons, 18-69 years of age. Urinary metal concentration was analysed by SF-ICP-MS. Exposure data were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Data were log transformed and analysed using multiple linear regression analysis with respect to exposure variables. The R2 of the linear regression model of urinary gold and platinum (ng/l) burden is 0.349 and 0.235, respectively. In both models, the number of teeth with noble metal dental alloy restorations (NMDAR) is the most important exposure pathway. One versus no tooth with NMDAR is associated with an increase of 23.7% in urinary gold and 35.6% in platinum concentration. Chewing gum intensifies the release of gold and platinum from NMDAR: every additional day per week when gum is chewed is associated with an increased gold (5.6%) and platinum (6.9%) burden. Furthermore, elevated urinary gold and platinum concentrations were found for higher creatinine concentrations, more frequent coffee consumption and for people from the upper social class. Gold burden is also increased in people with arthritis. Platinum burden is also increased in people living in western or northern Germany. Traffic-related variables had no significant effect on platinum burden.

  16. Authorship trends over the past fifty years in the Journal of the Danish Medical Association (Danish: Ugeskrift for Læger).

    PubMed

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-03-01

    Internationally, the number of authors per scientific article is increasing. The objective of this study was to determine authorship trends over the past fifty years in Ugeskrift for Læger (UfL). From 1960 to 2010, ten volumes of the UfL, 5,962 articles in total, were studied. For each article, category and number of authors were recorded. The median number of authors per article (all categories) was one in 1960 (range 1-3), two in 1985 (range 1-9) and three in 2010 (range 1-14). The proportion of articles published by three or more authors constituted 1% in 1960 and 68% in 2010. For original articles, the median number of authors per article was two in 1960 (range 1-3), three in 1985 (range 1-9) and three in 2010 (range 1-9). For reviews, the median number of authors per article was one in 1960 (range 1-2), two in 1985 (range 1-5) and three in 2010 (range 1-14). For case reports, the median number of authors per article was one in 1960 (range 1-2), two in 1985 (range 1-5) and three in 2010 (range 1-6). The number of authors per article increased for all types of articles published in the UfL. This could reflect increases in "gift authorship", but "multiple authorship" could also be fully legitimate. Replacing or supplementing authorship criteria with contribution statements would provide some transparency and accountability. Yet, questions about credit assessment and overall responsibility need to be clarified. not relevant. not relevant.

  17. 77 FR 26158 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... corrosion. Any of the end parts on the accumulator may depart from the pressure vessel if they are affected by corrosion. This condition, if not detected and corrected, may lead to fatigue failure of...

  18. 76 FR 81889 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... cause of these failures has been traced to corrosion. Any of the end parts on the accumulator may depart from the pressure vessel if they are affected by corrosion. This condition, if not detected and corrected, may lead to fatigue failure of a hydraulic accumulator, possibly resulting in damage to...

  19. 78 FR 49982 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... SA7971SW. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of smoke, a burning odor, and possible fire in the... received reports of smoke, a burning odor, and possible fire in the flight deck and cabin of the airplane... Conditioning. (e) Unsafe Condition This AD was prompted by reports of smoke, a burning odor, and possible fire...

  20. 77 FR 29855 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... agents used on certain electrical connectors and braids could cause corrosion damage. This AD requires performing, in certain locations, a detailed inspection for corrosion of the electrical and electronics installation, and if corrosion is found repairing each affected harness braid or replacing each...

  1. 77 FR 11791 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... certain electrical connectors and braids could cause corrosion damage. This proposed AD would require performing in certain locations a detailed inspection for corrosion of the electrical and electronics installation, and if corrosion is found repairing each affected harness braid or replacing each...

  2. 78 FR 33010 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... the probability of a negative effect on the handling quality during stall, which could result in.... Mail: U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12... Transportation, Docket Operations, M-30, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue...

  3. 77 FR 1 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... (MLG) separation bolt harness for broken wires and corroded connectors, and corrective actions if necessary; and for certain airplanes, a modification of the MLG separation bolt's electrical harness. This new AD requires replacement of the separation bolt harness. This AD was prompted by reports of broken...

  4. 76 FR 19719 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 2000 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ...] Shock Strut was found loose, leading to failure of the other attachment bolt, subsequently resulting in... the actuator mounting bracket to the MLG Shock Strut was found loose, leading to failure of the other... actuator mounting bracket and shock struts for damage, cracks, and signs of corrosion; and doing corrective...

  5. 75 FR 2829 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the antennae installation, and... extensive corrosion was found on one airplane. We are proposing this AD to detect and correct corrosion and... number 142. Similar cracking was found on two additional airplanes, and extensive corrosion was found on...

  6. 75 FR 51696 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... have required inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter... was found on two additional airplanes, and extensive corrosion was found on one airplane. This action... original NPRM. We are proposing this supplemental NPRM to detect and correct corrosion and cracking behind...

  7. 76 FR 3564 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model SAAB 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... the antennae installation, and repair if necessary. The first supplemental NPRM resulted from a report of a crack found behind the external adapter plate of the antennae during inspection. Similar... correct corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the antennae of certain...

  8. Neotropical osmylids (Neuroptera, Osmylidae): Three new species of Isostenosmylus Krüger, 1913, new distributional records, redescriptions, checklist and key for the Neotropical species.

    PubMed

    Martins, Caleb Califre; Ardila-Camacho, Adrian; Aspöck, Ulrike

    2016-08-09

    Osmylidae is a small family of Neuroptera with a worldwide distribution. Only four subfamilies and five genera of Osmylidae have been reported to date for the Neotropical region, with a total of 16 species, whilst 200 species are known in the world. In this study three new species are described-Isostenosmylus bifurcatus n. sp., I. irroratus n. sp. and I. julianae n. sp. Moreover, species of Gumilla Navás, 1912 and Paryphosmylus Krüger, 1913 are redescribed; additionally one larva of Isostenosmylus sp. and the female of Isostenosmylus fasciatus Kimmins, 1940 are described. Images of type specimens of Neotropical species of Osmylidae are provided. New records of known species are reported and a distribution map is presented. An updated checklist and a key for Neotropical species of Osmylidae are provided.

  9. Correlation of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentrations determined by LC-MS-MS in oral fluid and plasma from impaired drivers and evaluation of the on-site Dräger DrugTest.

    PubMed

    Laloup, Marleen; Del Mar Ramirez Fernandez, Maria; Wood, Michelle; De Boeck, Gert; Maes, Viviane; Samyn, Nele

    2006-09-12

    Oral fluid (collected with the Intercept((R)) device) and plasma samples were obtained from 139 individuals suspected of driving under the influence of drugs and analyzed for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive constituent of cannabis, using a validated quantitative LC-MS-MS method. The first aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the analytical data obtained in the plasma and oral fluid samples, to evaluate the use of oral fluid as a 'predictor' of actual cannabis influence. The results of the study indicated a good accuracy when comparing THC detection in oral fluid and plasma (84.9-95.7% depending on the cut-off used for plasma analysis). ROC curve analysis was subsequently used to determine the optimal cut-off value for THC in oral fluid with plasma as reference sample, in order to 'predict' a positive plasma result for THC. When using the LOQ of the method for plasma (0.5 ng/mL), the optimal cut-off was 1.2 ng/mL THC in oral fluid (sensitivity, 94.7%; specificity, 92.0%). When using the legal cut-off in Belgium for driving under the influence in plasma (2 ng/mL), an optimal cut-off value of 5.2 ng/mL THC in oral fluid (sensitivity, 91.6%; specificity, 88.6%) was observed. In the second part of the study, the performance of the on-site Dräger DrugTest for the screening of THC in oral fluid during roadside controls was assessed by comparison with the corresponding LC-MS-MS results in plasma and oral fluid. Since the accuracy was always less than 66%, we do not recommend this Dräger DrugTest system for the on-site screening of THC in oral fluid.

  10. The Humidity in a Low-Flow Dräger Fabius Anesthesia Workstation with or without Thermal Insulation or a Heat and Moisture Exchanger: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sergius A. R.; Lucio, Lorena M. C.; Modolo, Norma S. P.; Hayashi, Yoko; Braz, Mariana G.; de Carvalho, Lídia R.; Braz, Leandro G.; Braz, José Reinaldo C.

    2017-01-01

    Background During anesthesia, as compared with intensive care, the time of the tracheal intubation is much shorter. An inhaled gas minimum humidity of 20 mgH2O.L-1 is recommended to reduce the deleterious effects of dry gas on the airways during anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The Fabius GS Premium® anesthesia workstation (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) has a built-in hotplate to heat gases in the breathing circuit. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) is used to further heat and humidify the inhaled gas. The humidity of the gases in the breathing circuit is influenced by the ambient temperature. We compared the humidity of the inhaled gases from a low-flow Fabius anesthesia workstation with or without thermal insulation (TI) of the breathing circuit and with or without an HME. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized trial in 41 adult female patients who underwent elective abdominal surgery. The patients were allocated into four groups according to the devices used to ventilate their lungs using a Dräger Fabius anesthesia workstation with a low gas flow (1 L.min-1): control, with TI, with an HME or with TI and an HME (TIHME). The mean temperature and humidity of the inhaled gases were measured during 2-h after connecting the patients to the breathing circuit. Results The mean inhaled gas temperature and absolute humidity were higher in the HME (29.2±1.3°C; 28.1±2.3 mgH2O·L-1) and TIHME (30.1±1.2°C; 29.4±2.0 mgH2O·L-1) groups compared with the control (27.5±1.0°C; 25.0±1.8 mgH2O·L-1) and TI (27.2±1.1°C; 24.9±1.8 mgH2O·L-1) groups (P = 0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions The low-flow Fabius GS Premium breathing circuit provides the minimum humidity level of inhaled gases to avoid damage to the tracheobronchial epithelia during anesthesia. TI of the breathing circuit does not increase the humidity of the inhaled gases, whereas inserting an HME increases the moisture of the inhaled gases closer to physiological values. PMID

  11. The Humidity in a Low-Flow Dräger Fabius Anesthesia Workstation with or without Thermal Insulation or a Heat and Moisture Exchanger: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sergius A R; Lucio, Lorena M C; Modolo, Norma S P; Hayashi, Yoko; Braz, Mariana G; de Carvalho, Lídia R; Braz, Leandro G; Braz, José Reinaldo C

    2017-01-01

    During anesthesia, as compared with intensive care, the time of the tracheal intubation is much shorter. An inhaled gas minimum humidity of 20 mgH2O.L-1 is recommended to reduce the deleterious effects of dry gas on the airways during anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The Fabius GS Premium® anesthesia workstation (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) has a built-in hotplate to heat gases in the breathing circuit. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) is used to further heat and humidify the inhaled gas. The humidity of the gases in the breathing circuit is influenced by the ambient temperature. We compared the humidity of the inhaled gases from a low-flow Fabius anesthesia workstation with or without thermal insulation (TI) of the breathing circuit and with or without an HME. We conducted a prospective randomized trial in 41 adult female patients who underwent elective abdominal surgery. The patients were allocated into four groups according to the devices used to ventilate their lungs using a Dräger Fabius anesthesia workstation with a low gas flow (1 L.min-1): control, with TI, with an HME or with TI and an HME (TIHME). The mean temperature and humidity of the inhaled gases were measured during 2-h after connecting the patients to the breathing circuit. The mean inhaled gas temperature and absolute humidity were higher in the HME (29.2±1.3°C; 28.1±2.3 mgH2O·L-1) and TIHME (30.1±1.2°C; 29.4±2.0 mgH2O·L-1) groups compared with the control (27.5±1.0°C; 25.0±1.8 mgH2O·L-1) and TI (27.2±1.1°C; 24.9±1.8 mgH2O·L-1) groups (P = 0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The low-flow Fabius GS Premium breathing circuit provides the minimum humidity level of inhaled gases to avoid damage to the tracheobronchial epithelia during anesthesia. TI of the breathing circuit does not increase the humidity of the inhaled gases, whereas inserting an HME increases the moisture of the inhaled gases closer to physiological values.

  12. Reprint of: Enantiomeric separation of functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger bases using macrocyclic cyclofructan and cyclodextrin chiral selectors in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with application of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Na, Yun-Cheol; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Sharma, Ankit; Lacour, Jérôme; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-10-01

    The enantiomeric separation of a series of racemic functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger base compounds was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using HPLC and CE the entire set of 14 derivatives was separated by chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral additives composed of cyclodextrin (native and derivatized) and cyclofructan (derivatized). Baseline separations (Rs ≥ 1.5) in HPLC were achieved for 13 of the 14 compounds with resolution values as high as 5.0. CE produced 2 baseline separations. The separations on the cyclodextrin CSPs showed optimum results in the reversed phase mode, and the LARIHC cyclofructan CSPs separations showed optimum results in the normal phase mode. HPLC separation data of the compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA biplot analysis showed that retention is governed by the size of the R1 substituent in the case of derivatized cyclofructan and cyclodextrin CSPs, and enantiomeric resolution closely correlated with the size of the R2 group in the case of non-derivatized γ-cyclodextrin CSP. It is clearly shown that chromatographic retention is necessary but not sufficient for the enantiomeric separations of these compounds.

  13. Enantiomeric separation of functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger bases using macrocyclic cyclofructan and cyclodextrin chiral selectors in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis with application of principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Choyce A; Na, Yun-Cheol; Nanayakkara, Yasith S; Woods, Ross M; Sharma, Ankit; Lacour, Jérôme; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2014-04-01

    The enantiomeric separation of a series of racemic functionalized ethano-bridged Tröger base compounds was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using HPLC and CE the entire set of 14 derivatives was separated by chiral stationary phases (CSPs) and chiral additives composed of cyclodextrin (native and derivatized) and cyclofructan (derivatized). Baseline separations (Rs≥1.5) in HPLC were achieved for 13 of the 14 compounds with resolution values as high as 5.0. CE produced 2 baseline separations. The separations on the cyclodextrin CSPs showed optimum results in the reversed phase mode, and the LARIHC™ cyclofructan CSPs separations showed optimum results in the normal phase mode. HPLC separation data of the compounds was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA biplot analysis showed that retention is governed by the size of the R1 substituent in the case of derivatized cyclofructan and cyclodextrin CSPs, and enantiomeric resolution closely correlated with the size of the R2 group in the case of non-derivatized γ-cyclodextrin CSP. It is clearly shown that chromatographic retention is necessary but not sufficient for the enantiomeric separations of these compounds.

  14. Kerstersia gyiorum gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel Alcaligenes faecalis-like organism isolated from human clinical samples, and reclassification of Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983 as Achromobacter denitrificans comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Coenye, Tom; Vancanneyt, Marc; Cnockaert, Margo C; Falsen, Enevold; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2003-11-01

    A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed on nine isolates recovered from various human clinical samples. Phenotypically, these isolates resembled Alcaligenes faecalis. Whole-cell protein analysis distinguished two different species, and this was confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridizations. Cellular fatty acid analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that these isolates were related to the genera Alcaligenes, Bordetella, Achromobacter and Pigmentiphaga and belonged to the family Alcaligenaceae. On the basis of the results of this study, the organisms were classified in a novel genus, Kerstersia gen. nov. This genus comprises one species, Kerstersia gyiorum sp. nov. (type strain LMG 5906(T)=API 184-2-84(T)=CCUG 47000(T)), and several unnamed isolates. The DNA G+C content of members of the genus Kerstersia is between 61.5 and 62.9 mol%. On the basis of previously published DNA-DNA hybridization results and data from chemotaxonomic studies, it is proposed that Alcaligenes denitrificans Rüger and Tan 1983 be reclassified as Achromobacter denitrificans comb. nov.

  15. A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the endangered Round Island boa Casarea dussumieri (Schlegel) (Serpentes: Bolyeridae) of Round Island, Mauritius: an endangered parasite?

    PubMed

    Daszak, Peter; Ball, Stanley J; Streicker, Daniel G; Jones, Carl G; Snow, Keith R

    2011-02-01

    A new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), C. durelli n. sp., is described from the endangered Round Island boa Casarea dussumieri (Schlegel) (Serpentes: Bolyeridae) from Round Island, Mauritius. Six of 11 hosts were infected. Oöcysts are spherical to subspherical, 19.2 × 18.2 (17.5-21 × 16-21) μm, n = 20, and have a shape index (mean length/mean width) of 1.05 (1.02-1.09). The bi-layered wall is composed of an outer layer of c.0.6 μm thick and an inner layer of c.0.4 μm thick. A micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule are absent. Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 14.7 × 11.0 (13-16 × 9.5-11.5) μm, n = 20, and have a shape index of 1.33. Both Stieda and substieda bodies are present. The sporocyst residuum measures c.12 × 4.5 μm, is surrounded by sporozoites and composed of numerous granules. Refractile bodies are present but not clearly visible. This is the first coccidian parasite reported from the family Bolyeridae and the first species of Caryospora durrelli [corrected] reported from the Mascarenes. Conservation issues concerning parasites of endangered host species are discussed.

  16. The humidity in a Dräger Primus anesthesia workstation using low or high fresh gas flow and with or without a heat and moisture exchanger in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, Gustavo P; Braz, Leandro G; de Jesus, Larissa S B; Pedigone, Cesar M C; de Carvalho, Lídia R; Módolo, Norma S P; Braz, José R C

    2014-10-01

    An inhaled gas absolute humidity of 20 mg H2O·L is the value most considered as the threshold necessary for preventing the deleterious effects of dry gas on the epithelium of the airways during anesthesia. Because children have small minute ventilation, we hypothesized that the humidification of a circle breathing system is lower in children compared with adults. The Primus anesthesia workstation (Dräger Medical, Lübeck, Germany) has a built-in hotplate to heat the patient's exhaled gases. A heat and moisture exchanger (HME) is a device that can be used to further humidify and heat the inhaled gases during anesthesia. To evaluate the humidifying properties of this circle breathing system during pediatric anesthesia, we compared the temperature and humidity of inhaled gases under low or high fresh gas flow (FGF) conditions and with or without an HME. Forty children were randomly allocated into 4 groups according to the ventilation of their lungs by a circle breathing system in a Dräger Primus anesthesia workstation with low (1 L·min) or high (3 L·min) FGF without an HME (1L and 3L groups) or with an HME (Pall BB25FS, Pall Biomedical, East Hills, NY; HME1L and HME3L groups). The temperature and absolute humidity of inhaled gases were measured at 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 minutes after connecting the patient to the breathing circuit. The mean inhaled gas temperature was higher in HME groups (HME1L: 30.3°C ± 1.1°C; HME3L: 29.3°C ± 1.2°C) compared with no-HME groups (1L: 27.0°C ± 1.2°C; 3L: 27.1°C ± 1.5°C; P < 0.0001). The mean inhaled gas absolute humidity was higher in HME than no-HME groups and higher in low-flow than high-flow groups ([HME1L: 25 ± 1 mg H2O·L] > [HME3L: 23 ± 2 mg H2O·L] > [1L: 17 ± 1 mg H2O·L] > [3L: 14 ± 1 mg H2O·L]; P < 0.0001). In a pediatric circle breathing system, the use of neither high nor low FGF provides the minimum humidity level of the inhaled gases thought to reduce the risk of dehydration of airways. Insertion of

  17. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Berendsen, Erwin M.; Krawczyk, Antonina O.; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T.

    2015-01-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients. PMID:26341201

  18. Bacillus thermoamylovorans Spores with Very-High-Level Heat Resistance Germinate Poorly in Rich Medium despite the Presence of ger Clusters but Efficiently upon Exposure to Calcium-Dipicolinic Acid.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Krawczyk, Antonina O; Klaus, Verena; de Jong, Anne; Boekhorst, Jos; Eijlander, Robyn T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-11-01

    High-level heat resistance of spores of Bacillus thermoamylovorans poses challenges to the food industry, as industrial sterilization processes may not inactivate such spores, resulting in food spoilage upon germination and outgrowth. In this study, the germination and heat resistance properties of spores of four food-spoiling isolates were determined. Flow cytometry counts of spores were much higher than their counts on rich medium (maximum, 5%). Microscopic analysis revealed inefficient nutrient-induced germination of spores of all four isolates despite the presence of most known germination-related genes, including two operons encoding nutrient germinant receptors (GRs), in their genomes. In contrast, exposure to nonnutrient germinant calcium-dipicolinic acid (Ca-DPA) resulted in efficient (50 to 98%) spore germination. All four strains harbored cwlJ and gerQ genes, which are known to be essential for Ca-DPA-induced germination in Bacillus subtilis. When determining spore survival upon heating, low viable counts can be due to spore inactivation and an inability to germinate. To dissect these two phenomena, the recoveries of spores upon heat treatment were determined on plates with and without preexposure to Ca-DPA. The high-level heat resistance of spores as observed in this study (D120°C, 1.9 ± 0.2 and 1.3 ± 0.1 min; z value, 12.2 ± 1.8°C) is in line with survival of sterilization processes in the food industry. The recovery of B. thermoamylovorans spores can be improved via nonnutrient germination, thereby avoiding gross underestimation of their levels in food ingredients. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Acid Reflux (GER and GERD) in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contacts Human Subjects Research Funding Process Research Training & Career Development Funded Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Meetings & Events Technology Advancement & Transfer Health Information Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease ...

  20. 76 FR 22007 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... above. This AD requires inspecting the fuselage surface for corrosion and cracking behind the external... found on two additional airplanes, and extensive corrosion was found on one airplane. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct corrosion and cracking behind the external adapter plate of the antennae...

  1. 76 FR 62656 - Airworthiness Directives; Saab AB, Saab Aerosystems Model 340A (SAAB/SF340A) and SAAB 340B Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... directive (AD) for the products listed above that would supersede an existing AD. This proposed AD results... landing and injury to the occupants. * * * * * The proposed AD would require actions that are intended to address the unsafe condition described in the MCAI. DATES: We must receive comments on this proposed AD...

  2. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  3. SAAB Tackling the Black, Brown Male Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, dropping out of high school is a one-way ticket to prison for Black men. Recent research conducted by sociologists Becky Pettit and Bruce Western indicates that 3 percent of Whites and 20 percent of Blacks born between 1965 and 1969 had served time in prison by their early thirties. The crisis among Black and Hispanic men mobilized…

  4. Gerogogy (ger-o-go-gee) in patient education.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M; Wessman, J

    1996-08-01

    As clients age, traditional teaching tools become ineffective. This article illustrates how integrating the client's age-related changes, present disease processes, level of education, and motivation into the teaching plan can facilitate learning.

  5. Wesentliche Geräuschquellen im Fahrzeug und deren Charakterisierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Klaus; Snitil, Bernhard; Wolff, Klaus; Handel, Rainer; Krüger, Jan; Gauterin, Frank; Helfer, Martin; Brass, Otto

    Der Motor ist die Kraftquelle des Fahrzeugs. Leider klingt er nicht immer so. Viele Funktionsgeräusche dieses maschinenbaulichen Konstrukts gilt es zu besänftigen und das psychoakustisch wirksame Potential an die Fahrgastzelle anzubinden.

  6. A supramolecular Tröger's base derived coordination zinc polymer for fluorescent sensing of phenolic-nitroaromatic explosives in water† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Spectroscopic (multinuclear NMR, IR HRMS) characterizations, optimized structure, TGA, powder diffraction and fluorescence titration profiles. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc04367d Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Dabadie, Charlyne; Byrne, Kevin; Savyasachi, Aramballi J.; Umadevi, Deivasigamani; Schmitt, Wolfgang; Kitchen, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    A V-Shaped 4-amino-1,8-napthalimide derived tetracarboxylic acid linker (L; bis-[N-(1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid)]-9,18-methano-1,8-naphthalimide-[b,f][1,5]diazocine) comprising the Tröger's base (TB) structural motif was rationally designed and synthesised to access a nitrogen-rich fluorescent supramolecular coordination polymer. By adopting the straight forward precipitation method, a new luminescent nanoscale Zn(ii) coordination polymer (TB-Zn-CP) was synthesized in quantitative yield using Zn(OAc)2·2H2O and tetraacid linker L (1 : 0.5) in DMF at room temperature. The phase-purity of as-synthesised TB-Zn-CP was confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction analysis, infra-red spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests that TB-Zn-CP is thermally stable up to 330 °C and the morphological features of TB-Zn-CP was analysed by SEM and AFM techniques. The N2 adsorption isotherm of thermally activated TB-Zn-CP at 77 K revealed a type-II reversible adsorption isotherm and the calculated Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area was found to be 72 m2 g–1. Furthermore, TB-Zn-CP displayed an excellent CO2 uptake capacity of 76 mg g–1 at 273 K and good adsorption selectivity for CO2 over N2 and H2. The aqueous suspension of as-synthesized TB-Zn-CP showed strong green fluorescence (λ max = 520 nm) characteristics due to the internal-charge transfer (ICT) transition and was used as a fluorescent sensor for the discriminative sensing of nitroaromatic explosives. The aqueous suspension of TB-Zn-CP showed the largest quenching responses with high selectivity for phenolic-nitroaromatics (4-NP, 2,4-DNP and PA) even in the concurrent presence of other potentially competing nitroaromatic analytes. The fluorescence titration studies also provide evidence that TB-Zn-CP detects picric acid as low as the parts per billion (26.3 ppb) range. Furthermore, the observed fluorescence quenching responses of TB-Zn-CP towards picric acid were highly

  7. Saab claims world's most modern engine-assembly plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmark, U.

    1984-01-01

    The modernization of an engine assembly plant using computer aided manufacturing techniques and robotics is described. The development of associated tools and production procedures used to assemble the Light Component Project (LCP) modular automobile are discussd. Structural design criteria used to reduce the weight and increase the fuel efficiency of the vehicle are explained.

  8. Two new species of Caryospora Léger, 1904 (Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae) from accipitrid raptors.

    PubMed

    Volf, J; Koudela, B; Modrý, D

    2000-05-01

    Two new species of Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) are described from European accipitrid raptors (Falconiformes: Accipitridae). Oöcysts of Carvospora aquilae n. sp. found in faeces of the gold eagle Aquila chrysaetos are subspherical to broad ellipsoidal and measure 43 (40-49) x 37.5 (34-39) microm. Polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical slightly polygonal sporocyst measuring 23.8 (23-25) x 23.3 (22-25) microm. Stieda and substieda bodies are absent. The sporocyst residuum is composed of numerous small granules less than 0.5 microm in diameter dispersed randomly among the sporozoites. Sporulated oöcysts of Carvospora circi n. sp. from faeces of the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus are widely oval, measuring 24.5 (23-25) x 21.8 (21-24) microm. A polar granule, oöcyst residuum and micropyle are absent. Each oöcyst contains one spherical to subspherical sporocyst measuring 16.2 (15-17) x 15.6 (15-17) microm. A compact granular, spherical to subspherical sporocyst residuum, 10.4 (10-11) x 8.5 (7-9), was present in 76% of measured sporocysts. In 24% of sporocysts the granules of sporocyst residuum were scattered among the sporozoites.

  9. Big(ger) Data as Better Data in Open Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsloo, Paul; Archer, Elizabeth; Barnes, Glen; Chetty, Yuraisha; van Zyl, Dion

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the hype, promise and perils of Big Data and the currently dominant paradigm of data-driven decision-making, it is important to critically engage with the potential of Big Data for higher education. We do not question the potential of Big Data, but we do raise a number of issues, and present a number of theses to be seriously…

  10. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  11. Revision of the genus Heterosmylus Krüger, 1913 from China (Neuroptera, Osmylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Xu, Han; Wang, Yongjie; Jia, Chunfeng; Liu, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of osmylid (Heterosmylus processus sp. n.) is described and the other species in the genus from mainland China are redescribed. Heterosmylus zhamanus Yang, 1987, syn. n. is identified as a junior synonym of Heterosmylus yunnanus Yang, 1986. A key is provided to differentiate Palaearctic and Oriental species of Heterosmylus. PMID:28138278

  12. The Saab spinning rocket attitude control (SPINRAC): An attitude control system for obtaining low impact dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, L.; Helmersson, A.

    The Spining Rocket Attitude Control system, (SPINRAC) system for three-stage sounding rocket impact dispersion reduction is described. The SPINRAC points the spin-stabilized third stage to a predetermined attitude, prior to ignition. The SPINRAC uses a roll-stabilized gyro platform for inertial attitude information, processes the signals in a microcomputer, and uses a cold-gas system for actuation. Using control theory the guidance time can be kept small and thrust force low. Typically a reorientation angle of 20 deg and a coning half-angle of 10 deg is controlled to an accuracy of 0.4 deg 3-sigma value within 20 sec. Using the SPINRAC on a three-stage sounding rocket (Black Brant X, Skylark 12) makes it possible to reach apogee altitudes of 1000 km while maintaining low impact dispersion.

  13. 75 FR 19673 - Petition for Exemption From the Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard; Saab

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... body control module (BCM), passive entry passive start module (PEPS), intrusion/inclination sensor, an... ultrasonic sensor and vehicle inclination sensor. Any attempt to enter the vehicle by means other than the... device will provide the five types of performance listed in Sec. 543.6(a)(3): promoting...

  14. Automatic treatment of flight test images using modern tools: SAAB and Aeritalia joint approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaelldahl, A.; Duranti, P.

    The use of onboard cine cameras, as well as that of on ground cinetheodolites, is very popular in flight tests. The high resolution of film and the high frame rate of cinecameras are still not exceeded by video technology. Video technology can successfully enter the flight test scenario once the availability of solid-state optical sensors dramatically reduces the dimensions, and weight of TV cameras, thus allowing to locate them in positions compatible with space or operational limitations (e.g., HUD cameras). A proper combination of cine and video cameras is the typical solution for a complex flight test program. The output of such devices is very helpful in many flight areas. Several sucessful applications of this technology are summarized. Analysis of the large amount of data produced (frames of images) requires a very long time. The analysis is normally carried out manually. In order to improve the situation, in the last few years, several flight test centers have devoted their attention to possible techniques which allow for quicker and more effective image treatment.

  15. [New localities for Phlebotomus mariae Rioux, Croset, Léger et Bailly-Choumara, 1974, in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Lambert, M; Rioux, J A; Mahjour, J; Saddiki, A

    1994-03-01

    Phlebotomus mariae was first described in the South of Morocco in 1974. More specimens were found again recently in the High Atlas, showing that this species can be considered as a valid one, placed in the sub-genus Larroussius. The female remains to be found.

  16. [Cartography in the "Universal Transverse Mercator" system (Gauss-Krüger projection) of sources shedding M. tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Alexandrescu, D; Fonea, M; Sava, N

    1980-01-01

    The authors made use of maps prepared in the projection system known as the "Universal Transverse Mercator" (Gauss-Kruger projection) for the study of an epidemiometric indicator in tuberculosis, namely the instantaneous prevalence of bacili carriers on December 31 1978 in the Ilfov District. The representation allows to evaluate the density of sources of infection, and as a consequence, of areas in which antiepidemic measured have to be intensified. The extension of the study to other districts could provide data for assessing the epidemiologic potential in various territories, as well as comparisons and the dynamics of the potential. The method could also be used in the study of other epidemiometric indicators.

  17. Fatigue experience from tests carried out with forged beam and frame structures in the development of the Saab aircraft Viggen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsson, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    A part of the lower side of the main wing at the joint of the main spar with the fuselage frame was investigated. This wing beam area was simulated by a test specimen consisting of a spar boom of AZ 74 forging (7075 aluminum alloy modified with 0.3 percent Ag) and a portion of a honeycomb sandwich panel attached to the boom flange with steel bolts. The cross section was reduced to half scale. However, the flange thickness, the panel height, and the bolt size were full scale. Further, left and right portions of the fuselage frame intended to carry over the bending moment of the main wing were tested. Each of these frame halves consisted of a forward and a rear forging (7079 aluminum alloy, overaged) connected by an outer and inner skin (Alclad 7075) creating a box beam. These test specimens were full scale and were constructed principally of ordinary aircraft components. The test load spectrum was common to both types of specimens with regard to percentage levels. It consisted of maneuver and gust loads, touchdown loads, and loads due to ground roughness. A load history of 200 hours of flight with 15,000 load cycles was punched on a tape. The loads were randomized in groups according to the flight-by-flight principle. The highest positive load level was 90 percent of limit load and the largest negative load was -27 percent. A total of 20 load levels were used. Both types of specimens were provided with strain gages and had a nominal stress of about 300 MN/sq m in some local areas. As a result of the tests, steps were taken to reduce the risk of fatigue damage in aircraft. Thus stress levels were lowered, radii were increased, and demands on surface finish were sharpened.

  18. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  19. New data on brown lacewing genus Wesmaelius Krüger, 1922 from China (Neuroptera, Hemerobiidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tian, Yanlin; Liu, Zhiqi

    2017-06-01

    A new species of the genus Wesmaelius is described from China: Wesmaelius dissectus sp. nov., which was found in Sichuan province. Wesmaelius ravus (Withycombe, 1923) was recorded in China for the first time in Hubei province and Inner Mongolia. The Wesmaelius helanensis Tian & Liu, 2011 is redescribed, with the first discovery of female in China. Updated keys to the adult males and females of the Wesmaelius from China are also provided.

  20. I/O Systems at Saab Space (SE) and Austrian Aerospace (AAe) in the Past, Today and in the Near Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, J.; Martinsson, O.; Polacek, O.

    2007-08-01

    This paper contains the following: A summary of the most important I/O systems developed the last 10-15 years at SE/AAe What will be required of the I/O systems from SE/AAe in the near future? The M2 ASIC, the core of the next generation I/O systems from SE/AAe Future study of an advanced flexible I/O system Conclusion

  1. A manufacturer's approach to ensure long term structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, Hans; Fredriksson, Billy; Holm, Ingvar

    1992-01-01

    The main features of the design concepts for the Saab 340 and Saab 2000 aircraft are described with respect to structural integrity and high reliability. Also described is the approach taken at Saab Aircraft to ensure structural integrity and high reliability. The concepts of global and local loads and sequences, and the fatigue and damage tolerance sizing and their verification are discussed. Also described is quality assurance in the production and structural maintenance program. Structural repair and feedback from operators are also covered.

  2. A manufacturer's approach to ensure long term structural integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, Hans; Fredriksson, Billy; Holm, Ingvar

    1992-01-01

    The main features of the design concepts for the Saab 340 and Saab 2000 aircraft are described with respect to structural integrity and high reliability. Also described is the approach taken at Saab Aircraft to ensure structural integrity and high reliability. The concepts of global and local loads and sequences, and the fatigue and damage tolerance sizing and their verification are discussed. Also described is quality assurance in the production and structural maintenance program. Structural repair and feedback from operators are also covered.

  3. Therapeutic education in coronary heart disease: position paper from the Working Group of Exercise Rehabilitation and Sport (GERS) and the Therapeutic Education Commission of the French Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Pavy, Bruno; Barbet, Régis; Carré, François; Champion, Christine; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Jourdain, Patrick; Juillière, Yves; Monpère, Catherine; Brion, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular mortality has decreased over the past 25 years, largely because of acute coronary syndrome care and preventive actions. Nevertheless, the rate of coronary heart disease remains high, with an annual risk of 4.7% (cardiac mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke). Cardiovascular risk factor management must be a priority in primary and secondary prevention, to improve the prognosis of this severe disease, in which absence of symptoms does not mean benignity. The current goals of therapeutic patient education are smoking cessation, regular physical activity, a cardioprotective (Mediterranean) diet, management of stress, good treatment adherence (which improves compliance), judicious use of the care system and help with occupational reintegration. Current and future programmes must be in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé recommendations published in 2007. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR-DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR-DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins.

    PubMed

    Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains.

  5. New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Saphonecrus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic, with a re-appraisal of known species world-wide.

    PubMed

    Schwéger, Szabina; Melika, George; Tang, Chang-Ti; Yang, Man-Miao; Stone, Graham N; Nicholls, James A; Sinclair, Frazer; Hearn, Jack; Bozsó, Miklós; Pénzes, Zsolt

    2015-12-08

    Fifteen new species of cynipid inquilines, Saphonecrus chinensis Tang & Schwéger, S. gilvus Melika & Schwéger, S. globosus Schwéger & Tang, S. leleyi Melika & Schwéger, S. lithocarpii Schwéger & Melika, S. longinuxi Schwéger & Melika, S. morii Schwéger & Tang, S. nantoui Tang, Schwéger & Melika, S. nichollsi Schwéger & Melika, S. pachylomai Schwéger, Tang & Melika, S. robustus Schwéger & Melika, S. saliciniai Melika, Tang & Schwéger, S. shanzhukui Melika & Tang, S. symbioticus Melika & Schwéger, and S. taitungi Schwéger, Tang & Melika, from the Eastern Palaearctic are described. Descriptions, diagnoses, biology, and host associations for the new species, and a key to Palaearctic Saphonecrus species are given. All new taxa form distinct units as demonstrated by the molecular phylogenetic analyses of Palaearctic Saphonecrus species. The status of some earlier described Saphonecrus species is discussed also. The Synergini genus Lithonecrus Nieves-Aldrey & Butterill, 2014 is synonymized with Lithosaphonecrus Tang, Melika & Bozsó, 2013. Three Saphonecrus species are transferred to Synergus: Synergus brevis (Weld) comb. nova, Synergus hupingshanensis (Liu, Yang & Zhu) comb. nova, and Synergus yukawai (Wachi, Ide & Abe) comb. nova. Synophrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno is transferred to Lithosaphonecrus: Lithosaphonecrus vietnamensis Abe, Ide, Konishi & Ueno), comb. nova. The current number of valid Saphonecrus species worldwide is 36.

  6. Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III, and IV

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Jason; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; van den Bos, Fédor; Carter, Andrew T.; Peck, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favorable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in spore germination. Here we present models for spore germination in C. botulinum based on comparative genomics analyses, with C. botulinum Groups I and III sharing similar pathways, which differ from those proposed for C. botulinum Groups II and IV. All spores germinate in response to amino acids interacting with a germinant receptor, with four types of germinant receptor identified [encoded by various combinations of gerA, gerB, and gerC genes (gerX)]. There are three gene clusters with an ABC-like configuration; ABC [gerX1], ABABCB [gerX2] and ACxBBB [gerX4], and a single CA-B [gerX3] gene cluster. Subtypes have been identified for most germinant receptor types, and the individual GerX subunits of each cluster show similar grouping in phylogenetic trees. C. botulinum Group I contained the largest variety of gerX subtypes, with three gerX1, three gerX2, and one gerX3 subtypes, while C. botulinum Group III contained two gerX1 types and one gerX4. C. botulinum Groups II and IV contained a single germinant receptor, gerX3 and gerX1, respectively. It is likely that all four C. botulinum Groups include a SpoVA channel involved in dipicolinic acid release. The cortex-lytic enzymes present in C. botulinum Groups I and III appear to be CwlJ and SleB, while in C. botulinum Groups II and IV, SleC appears to be important. PMID:27840626

  7. Gastrointestinal (GI) Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Children & Teens Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Infants ...

  8. [Symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and associated factors in adolescents: population survey].

    PubMed

    Reshetnikov, O V; Kurilovich, S A; Denisova, D V

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is frequent among the general population affecting 10-20% of adults. However, there is a notable lack of epidemiological data describing prevalence of GER in children. The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of GER symptoms (GERS) in adolescents and to evaluate factors associated with GERS including markers of H. pylori infection. All school students in grades 9-11 in four randomly selected secondary schools in Novosibirsk participated (449 adolescents, 189 boys, 260 girls aged 14-17). They completed the Bowel Disease Questionnaire, life-style questionnaire, and sera were tested for antibodies against Helicobacter pylori infection. Overall, 60% of adolescents experienced GERS (heartburn and/or acid regurgitation) over the previous year. GER symptoms on a monthly basis were reported by 22% of students, weekly GERS were reported by 9% of adolescents with the same frequency in both genders. GERS were related to family history of dyspepsia or GER, mother's lower educational attainment, overweight, unhealthy eating patterns, alcohol consumption, smoking, and H. pylori infection, as well as concomitant dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. The majority of associations were more prominent in girls. Visiting a physician, endoscopic study, and school absenteeism were reported in the last year more frequently by adolescents with GERS vs those without GERS. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms are frequent among the adolescent population and result in frequent use of health care resources. Some precipitated factors found in this study are modifiable and may be corrected in adolescent population.

  9. Analysis of Germination Capacity and Germinant Receptor (Sub)clusters of Genome-Sequenced Bacillus cereus Environmental Isolates and Model Strains.

    PubMed

    Warda, Alicja K; Xiao, Yinghua; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2017-02-15

    Spore germination of 17 Bacillus cereus food isolates and reference strains was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis in combination with fluorescent staining at a single-spore level. This approach allowed for rapid collection of germination data under more than 20 conditions, including heat activation of spores, germination in complex media (brain heart infusion [BHI] and tryptone soy broth [TSB]), and exposure to saturating concentrations of single amino acids and the combination of alanine and inosine. Whole-genome sequence comparison revealed a total of 11 clusters of operons encoding germinant receptors (GRs): GerK, GerI, and GerL were present in all strains, whereas GerR, GerS, GerG, GerQ, GerX, GerF, GerW, and GerZ (sub)clusters showed a more diverse presence/absence in different strains. The spores of tested strains displayed high diversity with regard to their sensitivity and responsiveness to selected germinants and heat activation. The two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, and 11 food isolates showed a good germination response under a range of conditions, whereas four other strains (B. cereus B4085, B4086, B4116, and B4153) belonging to phylogenetic group IIIA showed a very weak germination response even in BHI and TSB media. Germination responses could not be linked to specific (combinations of) GRs, but it was noted that the four group IIIA strains contained pseudogenes or variants of subunit C in their gerL cluster. Additionally, two of those strains (B4086 and B4153) carried pseudogenes in the gerK and gerRI (sub)clusters that possibly affected the functionality of these GRs.

  10. Mothers' internal working models with infants with gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Thoyre, S M

    1994-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) places infants both at biological risk and developmental risk. Care of an infant with GER requires an integration of the physiologic and developmental needs of the infant. The author explores the physiologic bases for GER, current treatment modalities impacting caregiver problem solving, and the potential impact of GER on infants' development of self-regulatory processes. The concept of internal working models is presented as a framework for nurses to use to individualize anticipatory guidance for parents of infants with GER.

  11. Advances in Systems and Technologies Toward Interopoerating Operational Military C2 and Simulation Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Saab  Corporation,   a   Swedish   company,   had  offered  MSG-­‐085  access...SBMLServer.   Saab  further  chose  to  provide  limited  support  to   GMU   to   enable   transition   of   SBMLServer...future  commercial  support.   Saab  also  made  available  a  BML-­‐ enabled  version  of  its  battalion-­‐level

  12. Commercially Available Low Probability of Intercept Radars and Non-Cooperative ELINT Receiver Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    that enter a country’s territorial waters [22]. 15. SAAB PILOT The Pilot, manufactured by Saab, is an X-band (8 to 12.5 GHz) LPI navigation...71]) The Itata ELINT system has been developed by Desarrollo de Tecnologia y Sistemas (DTS) Ltd. and is a high-sensitivity electronic...Specific technical parameters of the system are classified. 77 68. Chilean Naval ELINT and ES Systems Desarrollo de Tecnologías y

  13. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-16

    various dates) 77 Bofors, Saab Cooperation Jeopardized, by Bjarne Stenquist 77 Morale in Industry Hurt, by Leif Norrman 82 Industry Facing Key...climate in which cooperation between Bofors and Saab is impossible. Morale in Industry Hurt Stockholm DAGENS NYHETER in Swedish 25 Oct 87 p 8...pats the barrel sitting in the lathe. "One can hope that it will be for defense. This work has moral aspects. But they are more talked about outside

  14. Heartburn according to Rome II in Spanish-Mexico: gastroesophageal reflux must be ruled out.

    PubMed

    Schmulson, Max

    2009-01-01

    Heartburn precludes ruling out gastroesophageal reflux (GER) to diagnose functional heartburn (FH). To explore the frequency of GER in patients in Mexico reporting heartburn according to Rome II and whether GER in non-heartburn patients is related to dyspepsia. We analyzed 40 patients that answered the Rome II Questionnaire in Spanish-Mexico and were tested with pH-monitoring and/or endoscopy. GER was determined in heartburn and non-heartburn patients and dyspepsia symptoms in heartburn GER and non-heartburn GER. Heartburn was reported by 40%, GER was present in 62.5% of them vs. 29.2% of the non-heartburn (p = 0.037). Accordingly, 37.5% of those reporting heartburn had FH, for a real prevalence of 15%. Of the non-heartburn GER, 43.0% reported dyspepsia symptoms. In patients with heartburn by Rome II Spanish-Mexico, GER must be ruled out. GER is also present in a subset of non heartburn patients manifested by dyspepsia symptoms.

  15. Definition of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux for studies on respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Emilsson, Össur Ingi; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndís; Ólafsson, Ísleifur; Cook, Elizabeth; Júlíusson, Sigurður; Berg, Sören; Nordang, Leif; Björnsson, Einar Stefán; Guðlaugsdóttir, Sunna; Guðmundsdóttir, Anna Soffía; Janson, Christer; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) has been associated with respiratory diseases. Our aim was to study a questionnaire method to identify nGER subjects with respiratory involvement in a general population. A subgroup of Icelandic participants in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey III (ECRHS III) reporting symptoms of nGER (n  =  48) as well as age and gender paired controls (n  =  42) were studied further by a structured interview, questionnaires, laryngeal fibrescopy, and exhaled breath condensate. A subgroup underwent 24-h oesophageal pH impedance (24-h MII-pH) measurements. Symptoms of nGER were assessed with a modified version of the reflux disease questionnaire (RDQ), where symptoms were divided into daytime and nocturnal. A report of nGER both at baseline and at follow-up was defined as persistent nGER. Participants reporting persistent nGER had significantly more signs of laryngopharyngeal reflux according to the reflux finding score than those without nGER (Mean ± SD: 5.1 ± 2.3 vs. 3.9 ± 2.2, p  =  0.02). Of the 16 persistent nGER subjects that underwent 24-h MII-pH, 11 had abnormal gastroesophageal reflux, but none of three control subjects (69% vs. 0%). Pepsin was more commonly found in exhaled breath condensate in the nGER group (67% vs. 45%, p  =  0.04). Participants with nGER symptoms at least once a month, reported on two occasions, had a high level of positive 24-h MII-pH measurements, laryngeal inflammation and pepsin in exhaled breath condensate. This nGER definition identified a representable group for studies on nGER and respiratory diseases in a general population.

  16. Protecting Pregnant Workers while Fighting Sexism: Work-Pregnancy Balance and Pregnant Nurses' Resistance in Québec HospitalsProtéger les travailleuses enceintes en luttant contre le sexisme: équilibre travail-grossesse et résistance d'infirmières enceintes dans des hôpitaux québécois.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Anne Renée; Riel, Jessica; Messing, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Women's workplaces should guarantee healthy pregnancies while supporting pregnant women as workers. In Québec (Canada), a pregnant worker exposed to a "danger" for herself or her fetus may ask her employer to be reassigned to other work appropriate to her skills. This approach differs from other regulatory contexts in North America in that protection of fetal and maternal health is embedded in the health and safety legislation. The advantage is that the pregnant worker is guaranteed access to her full salary, but some may question whether specific provisions for pregnant women single out such women and produce risks for their careers or, conversely, pregnancy should receive even more special consideration. These questions are discussed using the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with pregnant nurses, their supervisors, and their union representatives in ten hospitals in Québec. We think that the management of pregnancy under this legislation generally protects health, but that, in the absence of true employer commitment to the health of all workers, undue burdens may be placed upon other members of the work team. Résumé Les lieux de travail des femmes devraient garantir des grossesses saines tout en soutenant les femmes enceintes en tant que travailleurs. Au Québec (Canada), une travailleuse enceinte exposée à un danger pour elle-même ou son fœtus peut demander à son employeur d'être réaffectée à d'autres tãches sans danger et adaptéches à ses compétences. Cette approche diffère des autres contextes réglementaires en Amérique du Nord en ce sens que la protection de la santé foetale et maternelle est intégrée dans la législation sur la santé et la sécurité. Certains peuvent se demander si des dispositions spécifiques pour les femmes enceintes singularisent ces travailleuses et contribuent à la précarisation de leur emploi. Ou, à l'inverse, si la grossesse devrait recevoir une considération encore plus spéciale. Ces questions sont discutées à la lumière du récit d infirmières enceintes, de gestionnaires et de représentants syndicaux responsables des dossiers de conciliation travail-grossesse dans dix hôpitaux du Québec. Nous constatons que la gestion de la grossesse en vertu de cette législation est généralement protectrice de la santé, mais qu'en l'absence d'un véritable engagement de l'employeur envers la santé de tous les travailleurs, des charges excessives peuvent être imposées aux autres membres de l'équipe de travail.

  17. New amino acid germinants for spores of the enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A isolates.

    PubMed

    Udompijitkul, Pathima; Alnoman, Maryam; Banawas, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium perfringens spore germination plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of C. perfringens-associated food poisoning (FP) and non-food-borne (NFB) gastrointestinal diseases. Germination is initiated when bacterial spores sense specific nutrient germinants (such as amino acids) through germinant receptors (GRs). In this study, we aimed to identify and characterize amino acid germinants for spores of enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A. The polar, uncharged amino acids at pH 6.0 efficiently induced germination of C. perfringens spores; L-asparagine, L-cysteine, L-serine, and L-threonine triggered germination of spores of most FP and NFB isolates; whereas, L-glutamine was a unique germinant for FP spores. For cysteine- or glutamine-induced germination, gerKC spores (spores of a gerKC mutant derivative of FP strain SM101) germinated to a significantly lower extent and released less DPA than wild type spores; however, a less defective germination phenotype was observed in gerAA or gerKB spores. The germination defects in gerKC spores were partially restored by complementing the gerKC mutant with a recombinant plasmid carrying wild-type gerKA-KC, indicating that GerKC is an essential GR protein. The gerKA, gerKC, and gerKB spores germinated significantly slower with L-serine and L-threonine than their parental strain, suggesting the requirement for these GR proteins for normal germination of C. perfringens spores. In summary, these results indicate that the polar, uncharged amino acids at pH 6.0 are effective germinants for spores of C. perfringens type A and that GerKC is the main GR protein for germination of spores of FP strain SM101 with L-cysteine, L-glutamine, and L-asparagine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastroesophageal Reflux is Not Associated with Dental Erosion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Yvette K.; Heyman, Melvin B.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Dalal, Deepal H.; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Clark, Ann L.; Rechmann, Beate; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Dental erosion is a complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adults; in children, it is not clear if GER has a role in dental pathologic conditions. Dietary intake, oral hygiene, high bacterial load, and decreased salivary flow might contribute independently to GER development or dental erosion, but their potential involvement in dental erosion from GER is not understood. We investigated the prevalence of dental erosion among children with and without GER symptoms, and whether salivary flow rate or bacterial load contribute to location-specific dental erosion. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 59 children (ages 9–17 y) with symptoms of GER and 20 asymptomatic children (controls); all completed a questionnaire on dietary exposure. Permanent teeth were examined for erosion into dentin, erosion locations, and affected surfaces. The dentist was not aware of GER status, nor was the gastroenterologist aware of dental status. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and salivary bacterial load was calculated for total bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Results Controlling for age, dietary intake, and oral hygiene, there was no association between GER symptoms and dental erosion, by tooth location or affected surface. Salivary flow did not correlate with GER symptoms or erosion. Erosion location and surface were independent of total bacteria and levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli. Conclusions Location-specific dental erosion is not associated with GER, salivary flow, or bacterial load. Prospective studies are required to determine the pathogenesis of GER-associated dental erosion and the relationship between dental caries to GER and dental erosion. PMID:21820389

  19. Identification of a Novel Lipoprotein Regulator of Clostridium difficile Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Fimlaid, Kelly A.; Jensen, Owen; Donnelly, M. Lauren; Francis, Michael B.; Sorg, Joseph A.; Shen, Aimee

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. C. difficile infections are transmitted when ingested spores germinate in the gastrointestinal tract and transform into vegetative cells. Germination begins when the germinant receptor CspC detects bile salts in the gut. CspC is a subtilisin-like serine pseudoprotease that activates the related CspB serine protease through an unknown mechanism. Activated CspB cleaves the pro-SleC zymogen, which allows the activated SleC cortex hydrolase to degrade the protective cortex layer. While these regulators are essential for C. difficile spores to outgrow and form toxin-secreting vegetative cells, the mechanisms controlling their function have only been partially characterized. In this study, we identify the lipoprotein GerS as a novel regulator of C. difficile spore germination using targeted mutagenesis. A gerS mutant has a severe germination defect and fails to degrade cortex even though it processes SleC at wildtype levels. Using complementation analyses, we demonstrate that GerS secretion, but not lipidation, is necessary for GerS to activate SleC. Importantly, loss of GerS attenuates the virulence of C. difficile in a hamster model of infection. Since GerS appears to be conserved exclusively in related Peptostreptococcaeace family members, our results contribute to a growing body of work indicating that C. difficile has evolved distinct mechanisms for controlling the exit from dormancy relative to B. subtilis and other spore-forming organisms. PMID:26496694

  20. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  1. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Background Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. Design A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. Results GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Conclusions Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations. PMID:27606968

  2. Incorporating gender, equity, and human rights into the action planning process: moving from rhetoric to action.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Sanjeev; Maplazi, Joanna; Shirodkar, Apurva; Richardson, Emma; Nakaima, April

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of gender, equity, and human rights (GER) is an important focus of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other UN organizations. This paper explores the role of action plans in mainstreaming GER. This paper is informed by a theory-driven evaluation lens. A theory of change framework explored the following seven dimensions of how action plans can implement mainstreaming of GER: awareness of the foundations of GER; understanding of context; planning to impact GER; implementation for GER; monitoring, evaluation, and learning; planning for sustainability; agenda setting and buy-in. The seven dimensions were used to analyze the action plans. Reviewers also explored innovations within each of the action plans for the seven dimensions. GER mainstreaming is more prominent in the foundation, background, and planning components of the plan but becomes less so along the theory of change including implementation; monitoring and evaluation; sustainability; and agenda setting and buy-in. Our analysis demonstrates that much more can be done to incorporate GER considerations into the action planning process. Nine specific recommendations are identified for WHO and other organizations. A theory-driven approach as described in the paper is potentially helpful for developing clarity by which action plans can help with mainstreaming GER considerations.

  3. Analysis of Germination Capacity and Germinant Receptor (Sub)clusters of Genome-Sequenced Bacillus cereus Environmental Isolates and Model Strains

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yinghua; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spore germination of 17 Bacillus cereus food isolates and reference strains was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis in combination with fluorescent staining at a single-spore level. This approach allowed for rapid collection of germination data under more than 20 conditions, including heat activation of spores, germination in complex media (brain heart infusion [BHI] and tryptone soy broth [TSB]), and exposure to saturating concentrations of single amino acids and the combination of alanine and inosine. Whole-genome sequence comparison revealed a total of 11 clusters of operons encoding germinant receptors (GRs): GerK, GerI, and GerL were present in all strains, whereas GerR, GerS, GerG, GerQ, GerX, GerF, GerW, and GerZ (sub)clusters showed a more diverse presence/absence in different strains. The spores of tested strains displayed high diversity with regard to their sensitivity and responsiveness to selected germinants and heat activation. The two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, and 11 food isolates showed a good germination response under a range of conditions, whereas four other strains (B. cereus B4085, B4086, B4116, and B4153) belonging to phylogenetic group IIIA showed a very weak germination response even in BHI and TSB media. Germination responses could not be linked to specific (combinations of) GRs, but it was noted that the four group IIIA strains contained pseudogenes or variants of subunit C in their gerL cluster. Additionally, two of those strains (B4086 and B4153) carried pseudogenes in the gerK and gerRI (sub)clusters that possibly affected the functionality of these GRs. IMPORTANCE Germination of bacterial spores is a critical step before vegetative growth can resume. Food products may contain nutrient germinants that trigger germination and outgrowth of Bacillus species spores, possibly leading to food spoilage or foodborne illness. Prediction of spore germination behavior is, however, very challenging

  4. Generic seismic ruggedness of power plant equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report updates the results of a program with the overall objective of demonstrating the generic seismic adequacy of as much nuclear power plant equipment as possible by means of collecting and evaluating existing seismic qualification test data. These data are then used to construct ruggedness'' spectra below which equipment in operating plants designed to earlier earthquake criteria would be generically adequate. This document is an EPRI Tier 1 Report. The report gives the methodology for the collection and evaluation of data which are used to construct a Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectrum (GERs) for each equipment class considered. The GERS for each equipment class are included in an EPRI Tier 2 Report with the same title. Associated with each GERS are inclusion rules, cautions, and checklists for field screening of in-place equipment for GERS applicability. A GERS provides a measure of equipment seismic resistance based on available test data. As such, a GERS may also be used to judge the seismic adequacy of similar new or replacement equipment or to estimate the seismic margin of equipment re-evaluated with respect to earthquake levels greater than considered to date, resulting in fifteen finalized GERS. GERS for relays (included in the original version of this report) are now covered in a separate report (NP-7147). In addition to the presentation of GERS, the Tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to equipment of older vintage, methods for estimating amplification factors for evaluating devices installed in cabinets and enclosures, and how seismic test data from related studies relate to the GERS approach. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a Danish population: a prospective follow-up analysis of symptoms, quality of life, and health-care use.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jane Møller; Wildner-Christensen, Mette; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) in the population is high; however, data on long-term follow-up and incidence of GERS in the population are sparse. This study describes the long-term natural history of GERS, the related health-care use, and quality of life in a population followed up for 5 years. A total of 10,000 randomly selected inhabitants, 40-65 years old, received, as a part of a controlled trial of Helicobacter pylori screening and treatment (control group), a mailed questionnaire regarding demographic data, gastrointestinal symptoms (the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS)), and quality of life (the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36)) at inclusion and after 5 years. GERS was defined as a mean score > or =2 in the reflux dimension in the GSRS. Information on use of health-care resources was drawn from the questionnaires and registers. In all, 6,781 individuals answered the first questionnaire and 5-year symptom data were complete for 5,578 (82.3%) of them. The mean age at inclusion was 52.4 years, 48% were men. At inclusion, 22% reported GERS. During follow-up, symptoms resolved in 43%, of whom 10% received acid inhibitory treatment at 5-year follow-up. The incidence of GERS was 2.2% per year. Health-care use during follow-up was significantly higher in individuals with GERS at baseline than in individuals without GERS. Quality of life at 5-year follow-up was lower in individuals with GERS at inclusion than in individuals without GERS at inclusion. GERS are prevalent, long lasting, and associated with an impaired quality of life and substantial health-care use.

  6. Effect of asthma and PTSD on persistence and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehui; Brackbill, Robert M; Jordan, Hannah T; Cone, James E; Farfel, Mark R; Stellman, Steven D

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the direction of causality among asthma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and onset of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) after exposure to the 9/11/2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. Using data from the WTC Health Registry, we investigated the effects of early diagnosed post-9/11 asthma and PTSD on the late onset and persistence of GERS using log-binomial regression, and examined whether PTSD mediated the asthma-GERS association using structural equation modeling. Of 29,406 enrollees, 23% reported GERS at follow-up in 2011-2012. Early post-9/11 asthma and PTSD were each independently associated with both the persistence of GERS that was present at baseline and the development of GERS in persons without a prior history. PTSD mediated the association between early post-9/11 asthma and late-onset GERS. Clinicians should assess patients with post-9/11 GERS for comorbid asthma and PTSD, and plan medical care for these conditions in an integrated fashion. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:805-814, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Biomarkers for Gastroesophageal Reflux in Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gíslason, Þórarinn; Olin, Anna-Carin; Janson, Christer; Ólafsson, Ísleifur

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms, either through a vagal bronchoconstrictive reflex or through microaspiration of gastric contents. No diagnostic test is available, however, to diagnose when respiratory illnesses are caused by GER and when not, but research in this field has been moving forward. Various biomarkers in different types of biosamples have been studied in this context. The aim of this review is to summarize the present knowledge in this field. GER patients with respiratory diseases seem to have a different biochemical profile from similar patients without GER. Inflammatory biomarkers differ in asthmatics based on GER status, tachykinins are elevated in patients with GER-related cough, and bile acids are elevated in lung transplant patients with GER. However, studies on these biomarkers are often limited by their small size, methods of analysis, and case selections. The two pathogenesis mechanisms are associated with different respiratory illnesses and biochemical profiles. A reliable test to identify GER-induced respiratory disorders needs to be developed. Bronchoalveolar lavage is too invasive to be of use in most patients. Exhaled breath condensate samples need further evaluation and standardization. The newly developed particles in exhaled air measurements remain to be studied further. PMID:23653634

  8. Social Symmetry through Participatory Education: From Inclusion to Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Najeeb, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    In India, most of the deliberations on social inclusion in higher education focus on enhancing the gross enrollment ratio (GER) among socially disadvantaged people. New colleges and universities are started in backward areas which are diagnosed with low GER and more deprived students get access to higher learning. A quantitative approach which…

  9. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-01-01

    Background Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. Results The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. Trial registration number ISRCTN33841495. PMID:18093343

  10. Effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-Olof

    2007-12-20

    Previous studies on healthy people show that vinegar delays gastric emptying and lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar on delayed gastric emptying rate on diabetes mellitus patients. Ten patients with type 1 diabetes and diabetic gastroparesis, including one patient who had undergone vagotomy, were included and completed the investigator blinded crossover trial. The gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured using standardized real-time ultrasonography. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water (GER1), or 300 g rice pudding and 200 ml water with 30 ml apple cider vinegar (GER2). The subjects drank 200 ml water daily before breakfast one week before the measurement of GER1. The same subjects drank 200 ml water with 30 ml vinegar daily before breakfast for two weeks before the measurement of GER2. The median values of GER1 and GER2 were 27% and 17%, respectively. The effect of vinegar on the rate of gastric emptying was statistically significant (p < 0.05). This study shows that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control. ISRCTN33841495.

  11. [pH-metric parameters potentially predictive of asthmatic symptomatology: clinical and statistical research].

    PubMed

    Ponticelli, A; Capitanucci, M L; Iacobelli, B D; Nappo, S

    1995-01-01

    The gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) usually causes digestive symptoms, failure to trive and/or respiratory symptoms. Furthemore the association between GER and asthma is well known. Nevertheless, the relationship between two pathologies and role of GER in aggravation of asthma are not well known. The aims of our study is to identify the peculiar pH-metric caracteristics of GER may be responsable of asthmatic symptoms in children. The study was conducted in 32 children. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A composed of 16 children suffering from non-allergic asthma characterized by prevalent nocturnal manifestation; Group B composed of 16 children suffering from GER, without respiratory symptoms. All patients underwent to 21 pH-monitoring. The pH-metric data collected in two groups are submitted to statistic analysis using the Student's "t" Test.

  12. Gastroesophageal reflux as a cause of chronic cough, severe asthma, and migratory pulmonary infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Ribó, Paula; Pacheco, Adalberto; Arrieta, Paola; Teruel, Carlos; Cobeta, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER), asthma-type cough and upper airway disease are the most common causes of chronic cough syndrome. We present a case in which impedance–pH monitoring indicated severe mixed acid–nonacid esophageal reflux reaching the upper third of the esophagus in 75% of nonacid events. GER and the associated aspiration episodes were shown to be the cause of severe asthma attacks and migratory pulmonary infiltrates. GER was caused by a sleeve gastrectomy, which seriously disabled the mechanisms preventing reflux from reaching the airways. Respiratory symptoms improved notably after abdominal surgery to correct the GER, suggesting a close causal relationship between GER and all the symptoms, including asthma. However, this issue remains unresolved in the literature. PMID:25473547

  13. Applying principles of physics to the airway to help explain the relationship between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Turbyville, Joseph C

    2010-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and asthma have been linked, but the true nature of this relationship is incompletely understood. Most of the literature examining this association has implicated GER as the factor contributing to asthma. GER has also been linked to conditions of the upper airway like sinusitis and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and once again, usually presumed to be the causative factor. While GER seems to be capable of exacerbating airway disease, mounting evidence suggests that airway obstruction is a risk factor for developing GER. This article examines the principles of physics that predict what should occur given the anatomy of the airway and the esophagus, and provides multiple examples of disease associations that appear to support the hypothesis that airway obstruction is a significant risk factor for development of gastroesophageal reflux.

  14. US Navy Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) Capabilities, Risks, Possible Missions, and Modules to Support Future USMC Operating Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-29

    significantly earlier detection and more consistent track on attackers in the clutter." 50 "Sea Giraffe Amb- 3D Naval Surveillance Radar," SAAB...accessed February 09, 2011, http://www. saabgroup .co miN a v a liS ituational-Awareness/Multi -role-Surveillance- Radar/Sea Giraffe AMB/. 51 "MK 36...Weapon System." Accessed February 09, 2011. http://www .ra ytheon.com/capabili ties/products/ram/. SAAB. "Sea Giraffe Amb- 3D Naval Surveillance Radar

  15. Runway Exit Designs for Capacity Improvement Demonstrations. Phase 2. Computer Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-15

    same aircraft mix. RGURE 6.4 Schematic of Washington National Airport. 15 i18 Runway 18-36 J 2094 (6,870’) x 46 (150’) Runway 15-33 Remote 1582 ...Mass (In.) Base (m.) Gem (Kg.) Saab 340-2 SAAB-340 12,020 7194 21.44 7.14 90.88 British Aeios. 31 BAE-31 6,600 4,131 15.05 4.60 87.18 Embraer 120 EMB

  16. The Role of Sleep in the Modulation of Gastroesophageal reflux and Symptoms in NICU Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Aslam; Malkar, Manish; Splaingard, Mark; Khuhro, Abdul; Jadcherla, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Background Newborns sleep about 80% of the time. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is prevalent in about 10% of NICU infants. Concurrent polysomnography and pH-impedance studies clarify relationship of GER with sleep. Aims To characterize spatio-temporal and chemical characteristics of impedance-positive GER and define symptom associations in sleep and wake states in symptomatic neonates. We hypothesized that frequency of impedance-positive GER events and their association with cardiorespiratory symptoms is greater during sleep. Methods Eighteen neonates underwent concurrent polysomnography with pH-impedance study. Impedance-positive GER events (weakly acidic or acidic) were categorized between sleep vs. wake states: Symptom Index = # of symptoms with GER/total symptoms*100, Symptom Sensitivity Index = # of GER with symptoms/Total GER*100 and Symptom Association Probability = [(1-Probability of observed association between reflux and symptoms)*100]). Results We analyzed 317 GER events during 116 hours of polysomnography. During wake vs. sleep respectively, the median (interquartile range) frequency of impedance-positive GER was 4.9(3.1–5.8) vs. 1.4(0.7–1.7)events/hour (P<0.001), proximal migration was 2.6(0.8–3.3) vs. 0.2(0.0–0.9)events/hour (P<0.001); Symptom Index for cardiorespiratory symptoms for impedance-positive events was 22.5 (0–55.3) vs. 6.1(0–13), P=0.04 while Symptom Sensitivity Index was 9.1(0–23.1) vs. 18.4 (0–50), P=0.04 though Symptom Association Probability was similar, (P=0.68). Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, frequency of GER in sleep is lesser; however, spatio-temporal and chemical characteristics of GER and symptom generation mechanisms are distinct. For cardiorespiratory symptoms during sleep, lower Symptom Index entails evaluation for etiologies other than GER disease, higher Symptom Sensitivity Index implies heightened esophageal sensitivity and similar Symptom Association Probability indicates other mechanistic

  17. Histological evaluation of esophageal mucosa in children with acid gastroesophageal reflux.

    PubMed

    Semeniuk, Janusz; Kaczmarski, Maciej; Uścinowicz, Mirosława; Sobaniec-Łotowska, Maria

    2009-01-01

    histological evaluation of esophageal mucosa in children, with regard to the duration of primary acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and acid GER secondary to cow's milk allergy and/or other food allergy (CMA/FA) (prospective study). 264 children of both sexes suspected of GER were enrolled in the study. The age of examined children was 1.5-102 months, mean age 20.78+/-17.23 months. Pathological acid GER was confirmed with pH-monitoring in 138 children (52.3%). Taking into consideration complex differential diagnosis, including oral food challenge test with potentially noxious nutrient (open or blind study), children were assigned into study groups 1 and 2 (primary and secondary GER). Group 1: 76 patients (28.8%) aged 4-102 months (x=25.2+/-27.28 months) with primary GER. Group 2: 62 patients (23.5%) aged 4-74 months (x=21.53+/-17.79 months) with GER secondary to CMA/FA. Children with GERD underwent preliminary and control (after 1 year and 2 years of GERD diagnosis) endoscopic examination of the upper gastroinestinal tract. Intensity of esophagitis was assessed initially in 25 children from group 1 (32.9%), in 29 children from group 2 (46.8%), and in 9 children from group 3 - reference group (28.1%). Histological evaluation revealed infiltration of inflammatory cells, mainly neutrophils and intraepithelial lymphocytes, and also eosinophils in 10 children (13.2%) with primary GER. Infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes was found in 5 children (8.1%) with secondary GER. In 8 children (25.0%) with food allergy there were only lymphocytes. Infiltration of neutrophils and lymphocytes and basal zone hyperplasia or infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes with elongation of lamina propria papillae was found in 10 children (13.1%) with primary GER and in 20 children (32.2%) with secondary GER. Differentiation of particular types of inflammatory cells in mucosal infiltration characterized histological picture in the following way: neutrophils in 21 children (27

  18. Influence of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on gastroesophageal reflux during anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Deborah V; Boruta, Daniel T; Evans, A Tom

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether maintenance of anesthesia with halothane or sevoflurane is associated with a lower incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) than the use of isoflurane in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery. 90 dogs. Dogs were evaluated during elective orthopedic surgery. Dogs with a history of vomiting or that had received any drugs that would alter gastrointestinal tract function were excluded from the study. The anesthetic protocol used was standardized to include administration of acepromazine maleate and morphine prior to induction of anesthesia with thiopental. Dogs were allocated to receive halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane to maintain anesthesia. A sensor-tipped catheter was placed to measure esophageal pH during anesthesia. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as an esophageal pH < 4 or > 7.5. 51 dogs had 1 or more episodes of acidic GER during anesthesia. Reflux was detected in 14 dogs receiving isoflurane, 19 dogs receiving halothane, and 18 dogs receiving sevoflurane. In dogs with GER, mean +/- SD time from probe placement to onset of GER was 36 +/- 65 minutes and esophageal pH remained < 4 for a mean of 64% of the measurement period. There was no significant association between GER and start of surgery or moving a dog on or off the surgery table. Dogs that developed GER soon after induction of anesthesia were more likely to regurgitate. Maintenance of anesthesia with any of the 3 commonly used inhalant agents is associated with a similar risk for development of GER in dogs.

  19. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    PubMed Central

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy. PMID:24719900

  20. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms not responding to proton pump inhibitor: GERD, NERD, NARD, esophageal hypersensitivity or dyspepsia?

    PubMed

    Bashashati, Mohammad; Hejazi, Reza A; Andrews, Christopher N; Storr, Martin A

    2014-06-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common gastrointestinal process that can generate symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the gold standard for the treatment of GER; however, a substantial group of GER patients fail to respond to PPIs. In the past, it was believed that acid reflux into the esophagus causes all, or at least the majority, of symptoms attributed to GER, with both erosive esophagitis and nonerosive outcomes. However, with modern testing techniques it has been shown that, in addition to acid reflux, the reflux of nonacid gastric and duodenal contents into the esophagus may also induce GER symptoms. It remains unknown how weakly acidic or alkaline refluxate with a pH similar to a normal diet induces GER symptoms. Esophageal hypersensitivity or functional dyspepsia with superimposed heartburn may be other mechanisms of symptom generation, often completely unrelated to GER. Detailed studies investigating the pathophysiology of esophageal hypersensitivity are not conclusive, and definitions of the various disease states may overlap and are often confusing. The authors aim to clarify the pathophysiology, definition, diagnostic techniques and medical treatment of patients with heartburn symptoms who fail PPI therapy.

  1. [Function of oesophagus and gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Höhne, S; Wachter, R; Merkel, N; Hesse, V; Finke, R

    2014-04-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) has a special meaning for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twelve voluntary patients with CF up to the age of 25 underwent an oesophageal manometry and a 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring. These patients were without symptoms of GER. The examination proved an acid GER in 42 %. In the total population the frequency is ≤ 10 %. In 11 of 12 patients a pathologically low pressure of the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) was found. No significant correlations between the DeMeester score and the pressure of the LES, the reflux and respiratory symptomatology, the lung function as well as the quality of life could be proven. However, there was a significant correlation between the DeMeester score and the acid clearance time. 37 % of the registered cough pushes were related to a GER, of which 78 % were associated with an acid GER. Therefore, coughing in patients with CF must not necessarily be caused by the underlying disease. The timely detection of a pathological GER in patients with CF, but without symptoms of GER, and its prompt therapy could protect the lung function. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Detection of pepsin in mouth swab: correlation with clinical gastroesophageal reflux in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Farhath, Sabeena; He, Zhaoping; Saslow, Judy; Soundar, Sam; Amendolia, Barbara; Bhat, Vishwanath; Pyon, Kee; Stahl, Gary; Mehta, Dev; Aghai, Zubair H

    2013-05-01

    To study the relationship between pepsinogen/pepsin in a mouth swab and clinical gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in preterm infants. Preterm infants (birth weight ≤ 2000 g) on full enteral feeds were enrolled. Mouth swabs from cheek and below the tongue were collected one, two and three hours after feeding. An enzymatic assay with substrate fluorescein isothiocyanate-casein was used to detect pepsin A and C activities with further confirmation by western blot. Blinded investigators reviewed the infant's medical record to clinically diagnose GER. A total of 101 premature infants were enrolled. Pepsinogen/pepsin was detected in 45/101 (44.5%) infants in at least one sample. A clinical diagnosis of GER was made in 36/101 (35.6%) infants. Mouth swabs were positive in 26/36 (72%) infants with clinical GER and only 19/65 (29%) infants without GER (p < 0.001). Similarly, the levels of pepsinogen/pepsin A and C were higher in the mouth swabs of infants with clinical GER. The detection of pepsinogen/pepsin in a mouth swab correlates with clinical GER in premature infants.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux causing sleep interruptions in infants.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo; Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about the relation between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) episodes and sleep interruptions in infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between GER and the incidence of sleep interruptions in infants. Study patients included 24 infants (younger than 1 year) referred for multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria were a previous fundoplication and studies lasting <20 hours. Tests were clinically indicated to investigate suspicion of GER-related apnea (17, 70.8%), stridor (6, 25%), noisy breathing (2, 8.3%), and cyanotic spells (1, 4.2%). Most patients presented with significant comorbidities (19, 79.2%). The number of nonacid GER (NAGER) per hour was greater during sleep time than during daytime and awakening following sleep onset (median 0.27 vs 1.85 and 1.45, P<0.01). A total of 1204 (range 7-86 per infant) arousals in 24 infants was detected, 165 (13.7%) that followed GER episodes, and 43 (3.6%) that preceded GER episodes. Seven patients presented with a positive symptom association probability for arousals; 5 were exclusively because of NAGER. A positive symptom association probability for awakenings was detected in 9 patients; 4 were because of NAGER, 4 were because of AGER, and 1 was because of both NAGER and GER. Patients with awakenings related to GER presented longer mean clearance time of AGER during sleep (165.5 vs 92.8 seconds, P=0.03). GER was a frequent cause of interrupting sleep among our infant patients, and NAGER proved to be equally important as AGER for causing arousals and awakenings in infants.

  4. Acid and Weakly Acidic Gastroesophageal Reflux and Pepsin Isoforms (A and C) in Tracheal Secretions of Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Hallal, Cristiane; Chaves, Veridiana S; Borges, Gilberto C; Werlang, Isabel C; Fontella, Fernanda U; Matte, Ursula; Goldani, Marcelo Z; Carvalho, Paulo R; Trotta, Eliana A; Piva, Jefferson P; Barros, Sergio G S; Goldani, Helena A S

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and pulmonary aspiration are frequent in patients in the ICU. The presence of pepsin in airways seems to be the link between them. However, pepsin isoforms A (gastric specific) and C (pneumocyte potentially derived) need to be distinguished. This study aimed to evaluate GER patterns and to determine the presence of pepsin A and C in tracheal secretions of critically ill children receiving mechanical ventilation. All patients underwent combined multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring. Tracheal secretion samples were collected to determine the presence of pepsin. Pepsin A and C were evaluated by Western blot. MII-pH parameters analyzed were number of total GER episodes (NGER); acid, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline GER episodes; and proximal and distal GER episodes. Thirty-four patients (median age, 4 months; range, 1-174 months) were included. MII-pH monitoring detected 2,172 GER episodes (77.0% were weakly acidic; 71.7% were proximal). The median NGER episodes per patient was 59.5 (25th-75th percentile, 20.3-85.3). Weakly acidic GER episodes per patient were significantly more frequent than acid GER episodes per patient (median [25th-75th percentile], 43.5 [20.3-68.3] vs 1.0 [0-13.8], respectively; P < .001). Only three patients had an altered acid reflux index (44.9%, 12.7%, and 13.6%) while not taking antacid drugs. Pepsin A was found in 100% of samples and pepsin C in 76.5%. The majority of GER episodes of children in the ICU were proximal and weakly acidic. All patients had aspiration of gastric contents as detected by pepsin A in tracheal fluid. A specific pepsin assay should be performed to establish gastropulmonary aspiration because pepsin C was found in > 70% of samples.

  5. Geraniol Induces Antinociceptive Effect in Mice Evaluated in Behavioural and Electrophysiological Models.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Viviana; da Fonsêca, Diogo Vilar; Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; Santos, Priscila Laise; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega

    2017-01-01

    Geraniol (GER) is a monoterpene alcohol with various biochemical and pharmacological properties present in the essential oil of more than 160 species of herbs (especially the Cymbopogon genus). In this study, we evaluated the antinociceptive activity of GER in behavioural and electrophysiological in vitro experimental models of nociception using male Swiss mice. GER (12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg i.p. and 50 or 200 mg/kg p.o.) reduced the number of writhes induced by acetic acid. The opioid antagonist naloxone (5 mg/kg s.c.) administered in mice subsequently treated with GER (25 mg/kg i.p.) did not reverse such antinociceptive activity, suggesting a non-opioid pathway for the mechanism of action. GER (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg i.p.) reduced paw licking time in the second phase of the formalin test. Also, in the glutamate test, GER when administered 50 mg/kg i.p. reduced paw licking time, probably modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. GER blocked reversibly components of the compound action potential (CAP) recorded in isolated sciatic nerve in a concentration- and drug exposure time-dependent manner: 1 mM to 120 min. for the first component and 0.6 mM to 90 min. for the second component. The IC50 was calculated for the peak-to-peak amplitude (PPA) at 0.48 ± 0.04 mM. The conduction velocity was also reduced by exposure to GER starting from the concentration of 0.3 mM for both components of the CAP. In conclusion, it is suggested that GER has antinociceptive activity, especially in pain related to inflammation, and in part related to reduced peripheral nerve excitability. © 2016 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Analysis of the static yield stress for giant electrorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Youngwook P.; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Seo, Yongsok

    2017-08-01

    Cheng et al. (2010)'s experimental results for the static yield stress of giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric field strengths were reanalyzed by applying Seo's scaling function which could include both the polarization and the conductivity models. The Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions behavior after if a proper normalization of the yield stress data was taken which collapse them onto a single curve. The model predictions were also contrasted with recently proposed Choi et al.'s scaling function to rouse the attention for a proper consideration of the GER fluid mechanisms.

  7. Treatment of Post-Stent Gastroesophageal Reflux by Anti-Reflux Z-Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Roger Philip; Kew, Jacqueline; Byrne, Peter D.

    2000-11-15

    Severe symptoms of heartburn and retrosternal pain consistent with gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) developed in a patient following placement of a conventional self-expanding 16-24-mm-diameter x 12-cm-long esophageal stent across the gastroesophageal junction to treat an obstructing esophageal carcinoma. A second 18-mm-diameter x 10-cm-long esophageal stent with anti-reflux valve was deployed coaxially and reduced symptomatic GER immediately. Improvement was sustained at 4-month follow-up. An anti-reflux stent can be successfully used to treat significant symptomatic GER after conventional stenting.

  8. Sleep issues in gastroesophageal reflux disease: beyond simple heartburn control.

    PubMed

    Orr, William C

    2003-01-01

    There is a burgeoning interest in the relationship between sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the development of esophageal and extra esophageal complications. The physiological changes associated with sleep, such as suspension of the regulation of body temperature, may influence nocturnal GER and esophageal acid clearance. Data indicate that sleep induces considerable risk of prolonged acid mucosal contact and facilitates the occurrence of proximal migration of acid, thereby increasing the probability of pulmonary aspiration. Nocturnal GER can lead to the development of esophagitis and other extra esophageal complications, such as exacerbation of asthmatic symptoms.

  9. Metoclopramide, H2 blockers, and proton pump inhibitors: pharmacotherapy for gastroesophageal reflux in neonates.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, William F; Cotten, C Michael

    2012-03-01

    Pharmacotherapy for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in neonates, aimed at interfering with this physiologic process and potentially reducing the negative sequelae that providers often attribute to GER, consists primarily of drugs that increase the viscosity of feeds, reduce stomach acidity, or improve gut motility. Medications used to treat clinical signs thought to be from GER, such as apnea, bradycardia, or feeding intolerance, are among the most commonly prescribed medications in neonatal intensive care units in the United States, despite the lack of evidence of safety and efficacy in this population.

  10. Relationship of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying in infants and children: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, P.R.; Treves, S.

    1984-05-01

    One hundred twenty-six pediatric patients (0-16 yr of age) with clinically suspected gastroesophageal reflux (GER) were evaluated using radionuclide scintigraphy. Although 46 of the patients (38.3%) had abnormal studies exhibiting evidence of GER, there were no signifcant differences in gastric emptying between patients with and without GER. At 60 min after ingestion, the 76 patients less than 2 yr old had a mean residual of 54%, whereas those over 2 yr of age had a value of 29%. Gastric emptying values may be age-related.

  11. A Novel Approach to the Development of Highly Specific Inhibitors of EFG, a Critical Transcription Factor in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    amplified binding (SAAB) using the highly homologous Fli - 1 protein (Mao et al., 1994) have been synthesized with a 3’-fluorescein label. Upon binding of...ERG3. References Mao, X., Miesfeldt, S., Yang, H., Leiden, J. M., and Thompson, C. B. (1994). The FLI - 1 and chimeric EWS- FLI - 1 oncoproteins

  12. Meadow-stream processes and aquatic invertebrate community structure [chapter 6

    Treesearch

    Chris A. Jannusch; Sudeep Chandra; Tom Dudley; Jeanne C. Chambers; Wendy Trowbridge

    2011-01-01

    Riparian areas make up less than 1 percent of the total area of the Great Basin, yet they provide many critical ecosystem services, and they support a disproportionately large percentage of the regional biodiversity (Hubbard 1977; Saab and Groves 1992). Jenson and Platts (1990) estimate that over 50 percent of the riparian areas in the Great Basin are in poor...

  13. Software: Where we are and what is required in the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Jerry

    1990-01-01

    The current status and future direction of flight critical software are presented in the form of view-graphs. The following subject areas are covered: the programmers environment; Saab Grippen Flight test program; present day tools; analysis tools (reverse engineering); automatic code generators; and future plans.

  14. Deployment and release mechanisms on the Swedish satellite, VIKING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two mechanism types are presented, a rigid boom system and a 'hold and release' mechanism for spherical sensors. Both mechanisms have been designed, developed and tested by Saab-Space AB, Linkoping, Sweden for the VIKING project under a contract from the Swedish Space Corporation.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1706-99 - National LEV program in effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Cars Inc. Saab Cars USA, Inc. Subaru of America, Inc. Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. Volkswagen of... vehicles and light-duty trucks: American Honda Motor Company, Inc. American Suzuki Motor Corporation BMW of North America, Inc. Chrysler Corporation Fiat Auto U.S.A., Inc. Ford Motor Company General Motors...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1706-99 - National LEV program in effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED... Sales of America, Inc. Nissan North America, Inc. Porsche Cars of North America, Inc. Rolls-Royce Motor Cars Inc. Saab Cars USA, Inc. Subaru of America, Inc. Toyota Motor Sales, U.S.A., Inc. Volkswagen of...

  17. New-generation short-haul airliner uses advanced technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sanator, R.J.; Honczarenko, G.

    1982-06-01

    The Saab-Fairchild 340 is a twin-engined, low-wing, 34-passenger pressurized turboprop airplane. It incorporates a modern fuel efficient propulsion system and a new advanced technology wing, resulting in a new-generation airliner for the short-haul market.

  18. Automating usability of ATLAS Distributed Computing resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupputi, S. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Kouba, T.; Schovancová, J.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The automation of ATLAS Distributed Computing (ADC) operations is essential to reduce manpower costs and allow performance-enhancing actions, which improve the reliability of the system. In this perspective a crucial case is the automatic handling of outages of ATLAS computing sites storage resources, which are continuously exploited at the edge of their capabilities. It is challenging to adopt unambiguous decision criteria for storage resources of non-homogeneous types, sizes and roles. The recently developed Storage Area Automatic Blacklisting (SAAB) tool has provided a suitable solution, by employing an inference algorithm which processes history of storage monitoring tests outcome. SAAB accomplishes both the tasks of providing global monitoring as well as automatic operations on single sites. The implementation of the SAAB tool has been the first step in a comprehensive review of the storage areas monitoring and central management at all levels. Such review has involved the reordering and optimization of SAM tests deployment and the inclusion of SAAB results in the ATLAS Site Status Board with both dedicated metrics and views. The resulting structure allows monitoring the storage resources status with fine time-granularity and automatic actions to be taken in foreseen cases, like automatic outage handling and notifications to sites. Hence, the human actions are restricted to reporting and following up problems, where and when needed. In this work we show SAAB working principles and features. We present also the decrease of human interactions achieved within the ATLAS Computing Operation team. The automation results in a prompt reaction to failures, which leads to the optimization of resource exploitation.

  19. Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Follow Us Home Health Information Digestive Diseases Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ...

  20. Gastroesophageal Reflux (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop complications from GER. The constant reflux of stomach acid can lead to: breathing problems (if the stomach ... blockers, which can help block the production of stomach acid, or proton pump inhibitors, which reduce the amount ...

  1. Constipation in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  2. Diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  3. Dumping Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Syndrome Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  4. Barrett's Esophagus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Esophagus Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  5. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  6. Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  7. Hemorrhoids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hemorrhoids Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  8. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  9. Gas in the Digestive Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  10. Crohn's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  11. Gastroparesis

    MedlinePlus

    ... English English Español Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  12. Gallstones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallstones Related Topics Section Navigation Digestive Diseases Abdominal Adhesions Acid Reflux (GER & GERD) in Adults Definition & Facts ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Dental Enamel Defects and Celiac Disease Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis ...

  13. An updated review on gastro-esophageal reflux in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Hauser, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and GER disease (GERD) were developed by the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition. GERD is reflux associated with troublesome symptoms or complications. The recognition of GER and GERD is relevant to implement best management practices. A conservative management is indicated in infants with uncomplicated physiologic reflux. Children with GERD may benefit from further evaluation and treatment. Since the publications of the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidelines in 2009, no important novelties in drug treatment have been reported. Innovations are mainly restricted to the management of regurgitation in infants. During the last 5 years, pros and cons of multichannel intraluminal impedance have been highlighted. However, overall 'not much has changed' in the diagnosis and management of GER and GERD in infants and children.

  14. Ages of Lunar Mare Basalts in Mare Frigoris and Other Nearside Maria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III; Wolf, U.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    2003-03-01

    We performed new crater counts for basalts in Mare Frigoris, Nectaris, Smythii, Marginis, Vaporum, Sinus Medii, Palus Putredinis and the craters Schickard, Grimaldi, Crüger, Hubble, Joliot, Goddard, and two lava ponds south of the crater Endymion.

  15. Assessment of Muscle Fatigue from TF Distributions of SEMG Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Raton, FL, 2003. [6] A. Luttmann, M. Jäger, and W. Laurig. Electromyographical indication of muscular fatigue in occupational field studies. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics , 25:645–660, 2000.

  16. Interpenetrated Structure and Compressibility Studies in Pressure Frozen Pentafluoropyridine Crystals at 0.3 and 1.1 GPa (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Ger- many, 1997. [24] L.J. Barbour, J. Supramol. Chem. 1 (2001) 189–191. [25] Persistence of Vision Pty. Ltd. Persistence of Vision (TM) Raytracer , Version 2.6. Williamstown, Victoria, Australia, 2004.

  17. Gastroesophageal reflux and lung disease.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Keith C

    2015-08-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) can cause respiratory symptoms and may trigger, drive and/or worsen airway disorders, interstitial lung diseases and lung allograft dysfunction. Whether lifestyle changes and acid suppression alone can counter and prevent the adverse effects of GER on the respiratory tract remains unclear. Recent data suggest that antireflux surgery may be more effective in preventing lung disease progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis or lung transplant recipients who have evidence of allograft dysfunction associated with the presence of excessive GER. Additional research and clinical trials are needed to determine the role of GER in various lung disorders and identify which interventions are most efficacious in preventing the respiratory consequences of gastroesophageal reflux disease. In addition, measuring biomarkers that indicate that gastric refluxate has been aspirated into the lower respiratory tract (e.g., pepsin and bile acid concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) may prove helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision making.

  18. Failure to Thrive (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight. These include gastroesophageal reflux (GER) , chronic diarrhea , cystic fibrosis , chronic liver disease, and celiac disease . With reflux, ... on to the nutrients and calories from food. Cystic fibrosis, chronic liver disease, and celiac disease all cause ...

  19. Impact of rotavirus vaccination on childhood gastroenteritis-related mortality and hospital discharges in Panama.

    PubMed

    Bayard, Vicente; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajero, Olga; Castrejon, Maria Mercedes; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Colindres, Romulo E

    2012-02-01

    Rotavirus vaccination was introduced in Panama in March 2006. This study was carried out in order to describe the trends in gastroenteritis-related (GER) hospitalizations and mortality in children <5 years of age during the pre- and post-vaccination periods. Data from the Expanded Program on Immunization (Ministry of Health) were used to calculate vaccine coverage. GER mortality and hospitalizations were obtained through database review of the Contraloría General de la República and hospital discharge databases of five sentinel hospitals, for the period 2000-2008. Mean rates of GER mortality and mean numbers of hospitalizations during the baseline pre-vaccination period (2000-2005) were compared to those of 2007 and 2008. National coverage for the second rotavirus vaccine dose increased from 30% in 2006 to 62% in 2007 and 71% in 2008, varying from 62% in the West region to 77% in the Panama region. Overall, at 2-years post-vaccine introduction, the GER mortality rate in Panama had decreased by 50% (95% confidence interval (CI) 46-54). During 2000-2005, the GER mortality rate in children (<1 year) was 73/100 000, decreasing by 45% (95% CI 40-51) in 2008. In children aged 1-4 years, the GER mortality rate was 20.3/100 000 (2000-2005), decreasing by 54% (95% CI 48-60) in 2008. The Panama region registered the highest mortality rate reduction (69%; 95% CI 58-81) for 2008. During 2008, GER hospitalizations among children <5 years of age decreased by 30% (95% CI 21-37) from the mean number of hospitalizations during 2000-2005. A substantial reduction in GER mortality and hospitalizations was observed following the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in Panama. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study: the HUNT study.

    PubMed

    Lie, Tina Malene; Bomme, Maria; Hveem, Kristian; Hansen, Jane Møller; Ness-Jensen, Eivind

    2017-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux, but whether other tobacco products increase the risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if snus increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). The study was based on the third Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT3), a population-based study of all adult residents in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, performed in 2006-2009. The association between self-reported severe heartburn/regurgitation and snus use was assessed by logistic regression. Compared to never snus users, daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS (OR 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64-0.93), while previous snus users and those using <2 boxes of snus/month had an increased risk (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.46 and OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-1.96, respectively). There was no association between age when starting using snus and GERS. Snus users who started using snus to quit or cut down on cigarette smoking, who started using both snus and cigarettes or cigarettes alone had an increased risk of GERS. Snus users <30 years of age had an increased risk of GERS (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.16), while those aged between 50-60 and 60-70 years had a reduced risk (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93 and OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.94, respectively). Daily snus users had a reduced risk of GERS. However, previous snus users and subgroups of snus users had an increased risk of GERS indicating reverse causality, such that snus use could increase the risk of GERS.

  1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, Marcin A; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Urzykowska, Agnieszka; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Rachel, Marta; Sands, Dorota; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Albrecht, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Previously published studies have indicated that gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is common in pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to get insight into the incidence of GER and to characterize the nature of reflux episodes in children with cystic fibrosis. This was a multicenter, prospective study of children with cystic fibrosis older than 18 months. Forty four consecutive patients (22 boys, mean age 10.4 ± 3.6, range 3.0-17.8 years) were enrolled into the study. All patients underwent 24 h pH-impedance monitoring. GER were classified according to the widely recognized criteria as an acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. The pH-impedance trace was considered abnormal when acid exposure was >6 %. GER was diagnosed in 24/44 (54.5 %) children. A total of 1585 (median 35, range 7-128) reflux episodes were detected; 1199 (75.6 %) were acidic, 382 (24.1 %) weakly acidic, and 4 (0.3 %) weakly alkaline. Six hundred and ninety-one (43.6 %) reflux episodes reached the proximal esophagus. In 14/44 patients typical GER symptoms were present. We conclude that the incidence of GER in children with cystic fibrosis is very high. In the majority of patients typical GER symptoms are absent. Therefore, diagnostic procedures should be considered, regardless of lacking symptoms. Although acid reflux episodes predominate in children with cystic fibrosis, classical pH-metry may not constitute a sufficient diagnostic method in this population because of a relatively high number of proximal reflux episodes. Such episodes also indicate an increased risk for aspiration. The pH-impedance diagnostic measurement is advocated when suspecting GER in children with cystic fibrosis.

  2. Cross-organ sensitization of thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input in rats with gastroesophageal reflux

    PubMed Central

    Malykhina, Anna P.; Thompson, Ann M.; Farber, Jay P.; Foreman, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) frequently triggers or worsens cardiac pain or symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease. This study aimed to determine whether GER enhances the activity of upper thoracic spinal neurons receiving noxious cardiac input. Gastric fundus and pyloric ligations as well as a longitudinal myelotomy at the gastroesophageal junction induced acute GER in pentobarbital-anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Manual manipulations of the stomach and lower esophagus were used as surgical controls in another group. At 4–9 h after GER surgery, extracellular potentials of single neurons were recorded from the T3 spinal segment. Intrapericardial bradykinin (IB) (10 μg/ml, 0.2 ml, 1 min) injections were used to activate cardiac nociceptors, and esophageal distensions were used to activate esophageal afferent fibers. Significantly more spinal neurons in the GER group responded to IB compared with the control group (69.1 vs. 38%, P < 0.01). The proportion of IB-responsive neurons in the superficial laminae of GER animals was significantly different from those in deeper layers (1/8 vs. 46/60, P < 0.01); no difference was found in control animals (7/25 vs. 20/46, P > 0.05). Excitatory responses of spinal neurons to IB in the GER group were greater than in the control group [32.4 ± 3.5 impulses (imp)/s vs. 13.3 ± 2.3 imp/s, P < 0.01]. Forty-five of 47 (95.7%) neurons responded to cardiac input and ED, which was higher than the control group (61.5%, P < 0.01). These results indicate that acute GER enhanced the excitatory responses of thoracic spinal neurons in deeper laminae of the dorsal horn to noxious cardiac stimulus. PMID:20378832

  3. National trends in gastroesophageal reflux surgery

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Ross L.; Mercer, C. Dale

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To assess the surgical technique and the frequency of different types of antireflux surgery used in Canada after the introduction of laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Design Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) surgery and population data in fiscal years 1992 through 1996. were accessed through the Canadian Institute of Health Information, provincial health ministries, MED ECHO and Statistics Canada databases. Data were also analysed by province and nationally for type of surgery (e.g., open abdominal, thoracic, thoracoscopic and laparoscopic). Results National data showed a slight increase in GER surgery in the last 5 years. Laparoscopic surgery increased 2.8 fold in 1993 and 1.6 fold in 1995 over the previous years. Open abdominal cases decreased 1.1 fold from 1992 to 1996. Thoracic cases remained essentially unchanged. Provincial and regional disparities in procedures per 100 000 population exist (Ontario 7.1 versus Nova Scotia 20.7). Areas in which little or no laparoscopic surgery was done had an average increase of 3%, whereas areas in which laparoscopic surgery was done had an average increase of 16% in GER surgery during the course of the study. In provinces west of Quebec (with the exception of Manitoba) more than 50% of GER surgery is laparoscopic; in areas east of Ontario less than 25% of GER surgery is performed laparoscopically. Five provinces (Manitoba, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland) performed significantly fewer laparoscopic procedures than the national average. Conclusions The frequency of GER surgery is increasing modestly in Canada and is performed most often by the open abdominal route. Regional disparities in open and laparoscopic techniques are apparent. Laparoscopic surgery for GER is increasing rapidly and accounts for the decrease in open GER surgery. PMID:10714258

  4. Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Prevents Gastroesophageal Reflux in Patients with Nasogastric Tube Feeding: A Prospective Study with 24-Hour pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jae Yeon; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Hyo Jong; Kim, Byung-Ho; Chang, Young Woon; Chang, Rin

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been widely used for patients with swallowing dysfunction. However, its beneficial effects in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PEG on the prevention of GER in patients with nasogastric tube (NGT) feeding. Methods Continuous 24-hour pH monitoring was performed prospectively in 21 patients receiving NGT feeding before and 7.3±2.2 days after PEG placement to compare the severity of GER. Results We studied 21 patients with a mean age of 59.8±14.1 years. The mean duration of NGT placement was 5.8±5.4 months. The causes of swallowing dysfunction included cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage and other central nervous system (CNS) lesions. When all of the patients were considered, there were no significant differences in reflux parameters after PEG placement compared to before PEG placement. However, all seven patients who had preexisting GER showed significant improvement (p<0.05) of the reflux parameters, including the frequency of acid reflux, duration of acid reflux, total time with a pH below 4.0 and the fraction of time with a pH below 4.0, after PEG placement. Conclusions PEG might prevent GER in patients receiving NGT feeding, especially in those patients with GER. PMID:21927655

  5. Myrosinase-treated glucoerucin is a potent inducer of the Nrf2 target gene heme oxygenase 1--studies in cultured HT-29 cells and mice.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anika E; Sturm, Christine; Piegholdt, Stefanie; Wolf, Insa M A; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Iori, Renato; Rimbach, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    In this study, the effect of myrosinase-treated glucoerucin (GER+MYR), which releases the isothiocyanate (ITC) erucin, on heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene expression and Nrf2 signaling was investigated in vitro in cultured cells and in vivo in mice. Treatment of HT-29 cells with GER+MYR resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA and protein levels of nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1. GER+MYR was more potent at enhancing the nuclear Nrf2 levels than were the following myrosinase-treated glucosinolates: sinigrin, glucoraphanin and gluconasturtiin, which are the precursors of allyl-ITC, R-sulforaphane and 2-phenylethyl ITC, respectively. GER+MYR also significantly induced HO-1 gene expression in the mouse intestinal mucosae and liver but not in the brain. Mechanistic studies suggest that GER+MYR induces Nrf2 via ERK1/2-, p38- and JNK-dependent signal transduction pathways. The GER+MYR-mediated increase in HO-1 expression is primarily attributable to p38 signaling.

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux in the patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Harmanci, E; Entok, E; Metintas, M; Vardareli, E; Elbek, O

    2001-01-01

    Thirty one patients with asthma (mean age was 44.4 10.7; range 18-63) were investigated for gastroesophageal reflux (GER). The patients were separated into two groups according to presence of reflux and/or nocturnal symptoms. 13 patients had one of the reflux and/or nocturnal asthma symptoms (Group 1), whereas 18 patients had none of them (Group 2). To assess GER patients underwent to scintigraphy with Tc99m. GER was determined 4 of 13 patients in group 1 (30,7 %) and 1 of 18 patients in group 2 (5,5 %). There was significant difference between the group 1 and group 2 in that respect (p < 0,001). The patients with established GER (5 patients) were given Omeprazole (a proton pomp inhibitor) 40 mg daily for 4 weeks following a 2 week placebo period. The patients recorded their daily and nocturnal symptoms of asthma, additional salbutamol use, morning and evening peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) measurements in a daily chart during placebo and omeprazole treatment without changing their antiasthma treatment. Their PEFR, FEV1 values, daily and nocturnal symptoms and additional beta agonist use did not changed after omeprazole treatment except one. But their reflux symptoms (heartburn and regurgitation) were improved. As a consequence, we suggested that asthmatics which have some complaints of reflux should be searched for GER. Not the respiratory functions but GER symptoms can be improved w

  7. GERD related micro-aspiration in chronic mustard-induced pulmonary disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aliannejad, Rasoul; Hashemi-Bajgani, Seyed-Mehdi; Karbasi, Asharaf; Jafari, Mahvash; Aslani, Jafar; Salehi, Maryam; Ghanei, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is the main pulmonary involvement resulting from sulfur mustard (SM) gas exposure that was used against Iranian civilians and military forces during the Iran-Iraq war. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and gastric micro-aspiration in SM gas injured patients with chronic pulmonary diseases and recurrent episodes of exacerbations. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Gastric micro-aspiration and GER were assessed in the enrolled patients by assessing bile acids, pepsin and trypsin in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Results: Our result showed that bile acids were found to be high in 21.4% patients, and low in 53.6% of patients. Only in 16% patients, no bile was detected in the BALF. Trypsin and pepsin were detected in BAL fluid of all patients. Conclusion: Most of BO patients after exposure to SM suffer GER, while none the etiologic factors of GER in post lung transplant BO are present. It would be hypothesized that GER per se could be considered as an aggregative factor for exacerbations in patients. Further studies will provide more advances to better understanding of pathophysiological mechanism regarding GER and BO and treatment. PMID:23798946

  8. Body positioning and medical therapy for infantile gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Loots, Clara; Kritas, Stamatiki; van Wijk, Michiel; McCall, Lisa; Peeters, Laura; Lewindon, Peter; Bijlmer, Rob; Haslam, Ross; Tobin, Jacinta; Benninga, Marc; Davidson, Geoffrey; Omari, Taher

    2014-08-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce acid gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and esophageal acid exposure in infants; however, they do not reduce total GER or symptoms attributed to GER. Reflux is reduced in the left lateral position (LLP). We hypothesize that the effect of LLP in combination with acid suppression is most effective in reducing GER symptoms in infants. In this prospective sham-controlled trial, infants (0-6 months) with symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease were studied using 8-hour pH-impedance, cardiorespiratory and video monitoring, direct nurse observation, and a validated questionnaire. Infants demonstrating a positive GER symptom association were randomized to 1 of 4 groups; PPI + LLP, PPI + head of cot elevation (HE), antacid (AA) + LLP, or AA + HE. HE and AA were considered "sham" therapies. After 2 weeks the 8-hour studies were repeated on-therapy. Fifty-one patients were included (aged 13.6 [2-26] weeks). PPI + LLP was most effective in reducing GER episodes (69 [13] to 46 [10], P < 0.001) and esophageal acid exposure (median [interquartile range] 8.9% [3.1%-18.1%] to 1.1% [0%-4.4%], P = 0.02). No treatment group showed improvement in crying/irritability, although vomiting was reduced in AA + LLP (from 7 [2] to 2 [0] episodes P = 0.042). LLP compared with HE produced greater reduction in total GER (-21 [4] vs -10 [4], P = 0.056), regardless of acid-suppressive therapy. Acid exposure was reduced on PPI compared with AA (-6.8 [2.1] vs -0.9 [1.4]%, pH < 4, P = 0.043) regardless of positional intervention. A post-hoc analysis using automated analysis software revealed a significant reduction in crying symptoms in the PPI + LLP group (99 [65-103] to 62 [32-96] episodes, P = 0.018). "Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease" implies disease causation for distressing infant symptoms. In infants with symptoms attributed to GER, LLP produced a significant reduction in total GER, but did not result in a

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux induced by white wine: the role of acid clearance and "rereflux".

    PubMed

    Pehl, Christian; Frommherz, Martina; Wendl, Barbara; Pfeiffer, Albrecht

    2002-03-01

    White wine has been demonstrated to induce gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in healthy people and GER patients. This GER is characterized by reflux episodes of prolonged duration. Our aim was to explore the pathogenesis of the prolonged reflux duration. Twelve healthy volunteers received in a randomized order 300 ml of white wine and tap water together with a standardized meal. Esophageal pH and motility were continuously monitored by a glass pH electrode and a strain gauge manometry probe (four measuring points in the esophagus and one in the pharynx to register swallowing) for 90 min after ingestion. Blinded to the ingested beverage, we calculated the fraction of time esophageal pH was <4, the number of reflux episodes and their duration, the swallowing and contraction rate, the contraction amplitude, and the distribution of primary, secondary, simultaneous, and nonpropagated contractions. The motility analysis was separately performed for periods with and without GER. During GER, the time until occurrence of the first contraction, its type, the type of the contraction that raises pH to >4, and the number of peristaltic contractions necessary to raise pH to >4 were also determined. The percentage of GER episodes with simultaneous contractions and failed peristalsis (nontransmitted swallows and nonpropagated contractions) as calculated. The percentage of GER episodes with signs of "rereflux" (further pH drop, common cavity phenomenon in the motility trace) into the acidic esophagus was also determined. The mean reflux duration and the number of peristaltic contractions needed to raise pH to >4 were recalculated by taking the rereflux events into account. White wine significantly increased the fraction of time esophageal pH was <4, reflux frequency, and reflux duration compared to water. During periods without GER, no differences in the motility data were observed between wine and water. During GER, the contraction rate after white wine was significantly lower because

  10. Characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sabati, Arash A; Kempainen, Robert R; Milla, Carlos E; Ireland, Marjorie; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Dunitz, Jordan M; Khan, Khalid M

    2010-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) is poorly characterized. This study examines the frequency and predictors of GER symptoms and their relationship to lung function in adults with CF. Cross-sectional study of adults at the University of Minnesota CF Clinic using two validated self report surveys: The Mayo GER questionnaire and the GERD Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS). Of 274 invited patients, 201 (73%) completed the surveys and 173 performed spirometry at the same visit. Frequent symptoms (at least weekly) were reported by 24% of the patients and an additional 39% experienced occasional symptoms. Heartburn, acid regurgitation and dysphagia were the most common symptoms and 18% reported that GER symptoms worsened their respiratory condition. Females and patients reporting weight loss had more symptoms (mean GSAS symptom score 4.9 vs. 4.0, p=0.025 and 5.3 vs. 4.2, p=0.04) and more severe symptoms (mean GSAS distress score 5.6 vs. 3.8, p=0.005 and 6.8 vs. 4.0, p=0.01) compared to males and those who did not report weight loss. Patients on acid suppression (n=122, 61%) continued to report heartburn (n=80, 66%) and acid regurgitation (n=47, 23%). GER symptoms and severity of symptoms were not predictive of FEV(1) or FVC. GER symptoms were present in a majority of patients. Females and patients with weight loss require special attention to their GER symptoms. Many patients on acid suppression continued to be report symptoms. Copyright © 2010 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigating the functional hierarchy of Bacillus megaterium PV361 spore germinant receptors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Srishti; Ustok, Fatma Isik; Johnson, Christian L; Bailey, David M D; Lowe, Christopher R; Christie, Graham

    2013-07-01

    Spores of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 germinate rapidly when exposed to a number of single-trigger germinant compounds, including glucose, proline, leucine, and certain inorganic salts. However, spores of strain PV361, a plasmidless QM B1551 derivative that lacks the GerU germinant receptor (GR) responsible for mediating germination in response to single-trigger compounds, can germinate efficiently when incubated in nutritionally rich media, presumably via activation of additional germinant receptors. In this work, we have identified five chromosomally encoded GRs and attempted to characterize, by mutational analysis, germinant recognition profiles associated with the respective receptors in strain PV361. Of strains engineered with single GR insertion-deletions, only GerK-null spores displayed significant defective germination phenotypes when incubated in 5% (wt/vol) beef extract or plated on rich solid medium. Cumulative decreases in viability were observed in GerK-null spores that also lacked GerA or GerA2, indicating that these GRs, which exerted little effect on spore germination when disrupted individually, have a degree of functionality. Unexpectedly, an efficient germination response to combinations of germinants was restored in GerA(+) spores, which lack all other functional GRs, providing evidence for negative cooperativity between some GRs within the spore. Tetrazolium-based germinative assays conducted with purified spores indicated that these newly characterized B. megaterium GRs are cognate for a wide and chemically diverse range of germinant molecules, but unlike GerU, can only be induced to trigger germination when stimulated by at least two different germinants.

  12. Temporal Association Between Reflux-like Behaviors and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm and Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Funderburk, Apryle; Nawab, Ursula; Abraham, Sheeja; DiPalma, Joan; Epstein, Michele; Aldridge, Heather; Aghai, Zubair H

    2016-04-01

    Multichannel intraluminal impedance studies (MII-pH) have become the criterion standard for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Several clinical signs and symptoms that are attributed to GER during infancy may not be related to true reflux. Our objective was to correlate the observed reflux-like behaviors to reflux events on MII-pH studies. This is a retrospective study on infants being evaluated for GER with MII. During the MII-pH study, the infants were observed for clinical behaviors. Symptom Index (SI), symptom sensitivity index (SSI), and symptom association probability were used to correlate symptoms with reflux events. Of 58 infants (40 preterm, 18 term) included in the study, only 6 infants (10%) had an abnormal MII-pH study. Irritability (32 infants), bradycardia (20), and desaturation (18) were the common signs and symptoms. A total of 2142 (755 acidic and 1386 nonacidic) reflux episodes and 953 clinical reflux behaviors were recorded. The incidence and pattern of GER was similar in preterm and term infants. There was no significant difference in GER episodes and acid exposure in preterm infants fed orally or via nasogastric tube. The symptom association probability was abnormal in only 6 (19%), 1 (5%), and 5 (28%) infants with irritability, bradycardia, and desaturation, respectively. The prevalence of GER as detected by MII-pH was low (10%) in symptomatic preterm and term infants. The incidence and pattern of GER was similar in preterm and term infants. The majority of suspected clinical reflux behaviors did not correlate with reflux events.

  13. Strategy Differences in Map Information Use for Route Following in Unfamiliar Cities; Implications for In-Car Navigation Systems (Strategieverschillen in Kaart-Informatiegebruik bij het Volgen van Routes in Onbekends Steden; Implicaties voor Navigatie-Systemen in Auto’s)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-03

    Technology, INRETS-LEN, Philips Research Laboratories, Saab/Scania, TNO Institute for Perception, YARD Ltd., NRC-Applied Psychology Unit, Tregie...Renault Regie, Swedish Road and Traffic Researh Institute VTI, Universitat der Bundeswehr HMnchen, and University College Dublin are represented as...Siegel, A.W., and Rosin’ki, R.R. (1978). The role of perceptual context in structuring spatial knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology : H-Aar

  14. A Prototype System Approach for the Definition of Medical Information Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-21

    important change In 301MS wms the revision of the IM which mee ptepared for the examining ocupational health physician prier to saab erkeu* per iodic...William M. Pugh Naval Health Research Center P. 0. Box 85122 San Diego, California,92138 ainget amng 52-22 as sefgecte by Naval Nadi@l asseazob mad 9...autho. so amegeat by the Depactment of the ame M bohe". givesato sold be lsfeuzei. Iof 06 - - U - - INTRODUCTION The Navy Occupational Health Information

  15. Real-time multiuser image processing system for research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Ingmar A.

    1993-01-01

    This is a description of the SAAB Missiles image processing laboratory. At present four persons can work simultaneously with advanced image processing and it is easy to expand the system. A lot of functions can be realized in real-time since it consists of 21 image processing boards. It is the combination of the extremely fast image processing and the multi-user function that makes this system unique.

  16. NATO 2000: The Role of the Spanish Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    proto- of a radar for EFA. Called the MSD (Multi- The engine for EFA will, like the aircraft type phase of the PiA development pro- mode/Silent/ Digital ...their US-supplied engines both transmission and a very powerful pro- ority digital engine controls, power met- the Saab cessin. capability. The power...it% IA,,s,. I -- - - LIST OF REFERENCES 1 J. Salgado Alba. Rear Admiral. EL ESTRECHO DE GIBRALTAR, CORAZON DE LA ESTRATEGIA MILITAR ESPANOLA

  17. Lebanon: Strategic and Political Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-31

    the current status quo, as well as U.S. aims for mutual defense pacts elsewhere in the region. President Chamoun had requested the American use of...political strife in May of 1958 between supporters and detractors of President Chamoun , it was carried out in the overall context of events which...ratified, and was finally formally revoked by the Lebanese Parliament at a later date. 57 Bilal Y . Saab and Elie D. Al-Chaer, “The Dilemma of Democracy

  18. Standard Fatigue Test Specimens for Fastener Evaluation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    ebftm& eCompleJoit wih mpk faihcimr rows, and unfito1eftsteom a iaschbow weie retevdiog .iereasaadesribad in seetio 2.1,nmmely tht teiotreuietfora...Italy University of Pisa G Cavallini The Netherlands National Aerospace H R van der LindenI Laboratory -NLR Sweden Saab-oSc nia L Jarfall Sweden...92-835-0429-1 UNCLASSIFIED s. WM Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development North Atlantic Treaty Organization 7 rue Ancele, 92200 Neuilly

  19. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires

    Treesearch

    Monica L. Bond; Rodney B. Siegel; Richard L. Hutto; Victoria A. Saab; Stephen A. Shunk

    2012-01-01

    Bond, Monica L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Hutto, Richard L.; Saab, Victoria A.; Shunk, Stephen A. 2012. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires. The Wildlife Professional. Winter 2012: 46-49. During the 2012 fire season from June through August, wildfires in the drought-stricken western and central United States burned more than 3.6 million acres of...

  20. Dysphagia-gastroesophageal reflux complex: complications due to dysfunction of solitary tract nucleus-mediated vago-vagal reflex.

    PubMed

    Saito, Y; Kawashima, Y; Kondo, A; Chikumaru, Y; Matsui, A; Nagata, I; Ohno, K

    2006-06-01

    We report on the complication of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in four patients with lower brainstem dysfunction. These patients suffered from perinatal asphyxia, cerebellar hemorrhage, or congenital dysphagia of unknown origin and showed facial nerve palsy, inspiratory stridor due to vocal cord paralysis, central sleep apnea, and dysphagia, in various combinations. Naso-intestinal tube feeding was introduced in all of the patients due to recurrent vomiting and aspiration pneumonia resulting from GER. T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed symmetrical high intensity lesions in the tegmentum of the lower pons and the medulla oblongata in two of the patients, and pontomedullary atrophy in another patient. In normal subjects, lower esophageal sphincter contraction is provoked by distension of the gastric wall, through a vago-vagal reflex. Since this reflex arc involves the solitary tract nucleus, where the swallowing center is located, the association of dysphagia and GER in the present patients is thought to result from the lesions in the tegmentum of medulla oblongata. We propose the term "dysphagia-GER complex" to describe the disturbed motility of the upper digestive tract due to lower brainstem involvement. In children with brainstem lesions, neurological assessment of GER is warranted, in addition to the examination of other signs of brainstem dysfunction, including dysphagia and respiratory disturbance.

  1. Self-assembly of mildly reduced graphene oxide monolayer for enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Fenping; Wu, Shang; Wang, Yanbin; Wu, Lan; Yuan, Peilin; Wang, Xia

    2016-05-15

    Graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted much attention recently. In present study, monolayer of chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets was chemically bonded on Si substrates and their possible applications in Raman scattering were investigated. In comparison with the mechanically exfoliated graphene, mildly reduced graphene oxide (MR-GO) monolayer is a better substrate to quench the fluorescence (FL) signals and simultaneously enhance the Raman signals of adsorbed Rhodamin 6G (R6G) molecules. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectra indicate that π–π stacking and the residual polarized oxygen groups on MRGO surface, which can produce a strong local electric field under laser excitation, are mainly responsible for the excellent GERS effect of MR-GO substrate, while the charge transfer between R6G and MR-GO has a relatively low contribution for GERS effect. Our results not only provide a new approach to realize sensitive GERS substrate, but also are helpful for improving the fundamental understanding of GERS effect on RGO substrate.

  2. Time-resolved comparative metabolomes for Koji fermentation with brown-, white-, and giant embryo-rice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da Eun; Lee, Sunmin; Singh, Digar; Jang, Eun Seok; Shin, Hye Won; Moon, Byoung Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-09-15

    A time-resolved non-targeted metabolomic study towards evaluating the effects of three rice substrate types viz., white rice (WR), giant embryo rice (GER), and brown rice (BR), on Koji fermentation was performed. Notwithstanding the relatively higher proportions of metabolites in unfermented BR (BR 0>WR 0, GER 0), the relative levels of metabolic repertoire in BR Koji were marginally enhanced during 36h fermentation except those for phenolic acids, fatty acids, and vitamins. The WR Koji showed higher levels of lysophospholipids (LysoPC's) and protease-released amino acids (WR 36>GER 36>BR 36). The higher β-glucosidase activity in GER Koji effected the increased levels of sugars and flavonoid aglycons complementing its higher antioxidant activity (GER Koji>BR Koji∼WR Koji). The present study holistically underpins the dynamic metabolomes and enzymatic states during rice Koji fermentation with varying substrate types. The present study finds applications in optimization of commercial Koji production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. German version of ItchyQoL: validation and initial clinical findings.

    PubMed

    Krause, Karoline; Kessler, Birgit; Weller, Karsten; Veidt, Jennifer; Chen, Suephy C; Martus, Peter; Church, Martin K; Metz, Martin; Maurer, Marcus

    2013-09-04

    Pruritus is a major symptom of numerous skin and systemic diseases and causes a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL). We report here the validation of the German version (GerItchyQoL) of the first pruritus-specific QoL instrument ItchyQoL. GerItchyQoL was created from the original version following standard protocols. It was completed by 308 patients with chronic pruritus of different origin and tested for validity, reliability and responsiveness. Factor analysis of Ger-ItchyQoL revealed the 4 domains symptoms, functioning, feelings, and self-perception. Reliability was demonstrated by good internal consistency of all domains. We confirmed convergent validity by comparing the instrument with itch severity, as measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS 0-10), and with the Short-Form-12 (SF-12), a widely used generic health-related QoL instrument. Concurrent validity was shown by the ability to discriminate between patient groups of different itch severity. Changes in GerItchyQoL scores correlated with changes in itch severity (VAS), suggesting responsiveness of the German tool. This study provides preliminary evidence of validity, reliability and responsiveness of GerItchyQoL and also shows a high impact of chronic pruritus on QoL. Further translations of ItchyQoL into additional languages will enable large-scale international, multilingual trials.

  4. Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Information on the World Wide Web.

    PubMed

    Balgowan, Regina; Greer, Leah C; D'Auria, Jennifer P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the type and quality of health information about infant gastroesophageal reflux (GER) that a parent may find on the World Wide Web. The data collection tool included evaluation of Web site quality and infant GER-specific content on the 30 sites that met the inclusion criteria. The most commonly found content categories in order of frequency were management strategies, when to call a primary care provider, definition, and clinical features. The most frequently mentioned strategies included feeding changes, infant positioning, and medications. Thirteen of the 30 Web sites included information on both GER and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Mention of the use of medication to lessen infant symptoms was found on 15 of the 30 sites. Only 10 of the 30 sites included information about parent support and coping strategies. Pediatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) should utilize well-child visits to address the normalcy of physiologic infant GER and clarify any misperceptions parents may have about diagnosis and the role of medication from information they may have found on the Internet. It is critical for PNPs to assist in the development of Web sites with accurate content, advise parents on how to identify safe and reliable information, and provide examples of high-quality Web sites about child health topics such as infant GER. Copyright © 2016 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resistance to and killing by the sporicidal microbicide peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Leggett, Mark J; Schwarz, J Spencer; Burke, Peter A; Mcdonnell, Gerald; Denyer, Stephen P; Maillard, Jean-Yves

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the mechanisms of spore resistance to and killing by the oxidizing microbicide peracetic acid (PAA). Mutants of Bacillus subtilis lacking specific spore structures were used to identify resistance properties in spores and to understand the mechanism of action of PAA. We also assessed the effect of PAA treatment on a number of spore properties including heat tolerance, membrane integrity and germination. The spore coat is essential for spore PAA resistance as spores with defective coats were greatly sensitized to PAA treatment. Small acid-soluble spore proteins apparently provide no protection against PAA. Defects in spore germination, specifically in germination via the GerB and GerK but not the GerA germination receptors, as well as leakage of internal components suggest that PAA is active at the spore inner membrane. It is therefore likely that the inner membrane is the major site of PAA's sporicidal activity. PAA treatment targets the spore membrane, with some of its activity directed specifically against the GerB and GerK germination receptors. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The contribution of hiatal hernia to severe gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jacqueline; Blinman, Thane A; Collins, Joy L; Laje, Pablo; Hedrick, Holly L; Adzick, N Scott; Flake, Alan W

    2014-03-01

    A relationship between gastroschisis-associated gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and hiatal hernia (HH) has not been previously reported. In reviewing our experience with gastroschisis-related GER, we noted a surprising incidence of associated HH in patients requiring antireflux procedures. A single center retrospective chart review focused on GER in all gastroschisis patients repaired between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2012 was performed. Of the 141 patients surviving initial gastroschisis repair and hospitalization, 16 (11.3%) were noted to have an associated HH (12 Type I, 3 Type II, 1 Type III) on upper gastrointestinal series for severe reflux. Ten of the 13 (76.9%) patients who required an antireflux procedure had an associated HH. The time to initiation of feeds was similar in all patients, 19 and 23 days. However, time to full feedings and discharge was delayed until a median of 80 and 96 days, respectively, in HH patients. This study describes a high incidence of associated HH in gastroschisis patients. The presence of large associated HH correlated with severe GER, delayed feeding, requirement for antireflux surgery, and a prolonged hospital stay. Patients with gastroschisis and clinically severe GER should undergo early assessment for associated HH. © 2013.

  7. Pharmacological Therapy of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Corvaglia, Luigi; Monari, Caterina; Martini, Silvia; Aceti, Arianna; Faldella, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Although gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a very common phenomenon among preterm infants, its therapeutic management is still an issue of debate among neonatologists. A step-wise approach should be advisable, firstly promoting nonpharmacological interventions and limiting drugs to selected infants unresponsive to the conservative measures or who are suffering from severe GER with clinical complications. Despite of this, a concerning pharmacological overtreatment has been increasingly reported. Most of the antireflux drugs, however, have not been specifically assessed in preterm infants; moreover, serious adverse effects have been noticed in association to their administration. This review mainly aims to draw the state of the art regarding the pharmacological management of GER in preterm infants, analyzing the best piecies of evidence currently available on the most prescribed anti-reflux drugs. Although further trials are required, sodium alginate-based formulations might be considered promising; however, data regarding their safety are still limited. Few piecies of evidence on the efficacy of histamine-2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors in preterm infants with GER are currently available. Nevertheless, a significantly increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and infections has been largely reported in association with their use, thereby leading to an unfavorable risk-benefit ratio. The efficacy of metoclopramide in GER's improvement still needs to be clarified. Other prokinetic agents, such as domperidone and erythromycin, have been reported to be ineffective, whereas cisapride has been withdrawn due to its remarkable cardiac adverse effects. PMID:23878533

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children. When to reassure and when to go further.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A. B.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review current understanding and approach to diseases resulting from gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in infants and children. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Very few randomized or blinded controlled trials have been reported in this area. MEDLINE searches for gastroesophageal reflux, gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophagitis, and pulmonary aspiration, using age-limited (all childhood) data, find most articles. Very thorough reviews undertaken by both European and North American societies for pediatric gastroenterology provide up-to-date consensus statements. MAIN MESSAGE: Gastroesophageal reflux is a normal phenomenon recognized in infants as "spitting up." Understanding the mechanism of transient lower esophageal relaxation episodes allows physicians to counsel concerned parents that reflux and spitting up occur universally, but are less visible in children older than 6 to 12 months. In infants and children, GER can result in a variety of diseases and can cause esophageal and tracheopulmonary damage. Investigation of these diseases can be specific and accurate. Therapy is available, but no drug will stop reflux. Some children suffer intractable GER with secondary complications (GERD) despite medical treatment. Failure of therapy could mean patients require surgical intervention. CONCLUSION: Visible GER is very common in infants and children and can usually be managed with explanation, reassurance, and simple measures. Diseases caused by GER can be investigated specifically and managed with accurately defined therapy. PMID:11723599

  9. ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap: A Stepwise Approach to Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Goodliff, Kandyce; Whitley, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, ISECG released the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), advancing the "Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination" by articulating the perspectives of participating agencies on exploration goals and objectives, mission scenarios, and coordination of exploration preparatory activities. The GER featured a stepwise development and demonstration of capabilities ultimately required for human exploration of Mars. In 2013 the GER was updated to reflect the ongoing evolution of agency's exploration policies and plans, informed by individual agency and coordinated analysis activities that are relevant to various elements of the GER framework as well as coordinated stakeholder engagement activities. For this release of version 2 of the GER in the mid 2013 timeframe, a modified mission scenario is presented, more firmly reflecting the importance of a stepwise evolution of critical capabilities provided by multiple partners necessary for executing increasingly complex missions to multiple destinations and leading to human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the updated mission scenario, the changes since the release of version 1, the mission themes incorporated into the scenario, and risk reduction for Mars missions provided by exploration at various destinations.

  10. Inadequate gas supply to patients with an adjustable pressure-limiting valve in the fully opened position.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Go; Uchino, Hiroyuki; Ogihara, Yukihiko; Omi, Akibumi; Ohmura, Akito

    2010-08-01

    With spontaneous ventilation, sufficient exhaust resistance at the adjustable pressure-limiting (APL) valve when fully opened ensures that the reservoir bag fills and adequately supplies gas to patients. A lack of exhaust resistance with the APL valve fully open caused inadequate gas supply to patients with four types of anesthesia machines: SA2 (Dräger), Excel-210 SE (GE), Fabius (Dräger), and Cato (Dräger). Mechanically, the SA2 and Excel-210 SE APL valve systems, which are of the spring-loaded disc type positioned horizontally, cannot maintain sufficient exhaust resistance with the APL valve fully open. As for the Fabius and Cato, an exhaust valve independent of the APL valve should maintain sufficient exhaust resistance continuously. However, accumulated viscous substances on the thin diaphragm of the exhaust valve contributed to hindrance of diaphragm closure.

  11. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  12. Discovering forgeries of modern art by the 14C Bomb Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caforio, L.; Fedi, M. E.; Mandò, P. A.; Minarelli, F.; Peccenini, E.; Pellicori, V.; Petrucci, F. C.; Schwartzbaum, P.; Taccetti, F.

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting the anomalous behaviour of the atmospheric radiocarbon concentration in the years after 1955 (so-called "Bomb Peak"), an alleged painting by Fernard Léger was unambiguously proven to be a fake just by dating the canvas support. Some art historians had questioned the authenticity of the painting, and their suspicions were fuelled by some scientific examinations of the paint materials (X-ray radiography, SEM-EDS), compared to those of another work unquestionably attributed to Léger. The decisive argument to prove that it was a fake was provided by the radiocarbon date obtained from a sample of canvas of the painting, using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at the INFN-Labec laboratory in Florence. Beyond any doubt, the cotton plant from which the canvas was produced was cut no earlier than 1959, i.e. four years after Léger's death, thus definitely confirming the concerns of a fake.

  13. Validating an energy expenditure prediction equation in overweight and obese Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Olguín, Gabriela; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E; Saldaña-Morales, Maria Vianey; Gulias-Herrero, Alfonso; Guevara-Cruz, Martha

    2014-10-01

    Antecedentes: La prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en Mexico se situa aproximadamente en el 70%; asi, la obtencion de una medicion fiable del gasto energetico en reposo (GER) en estos pacientes tiene una importancia crucial. El objetivo del estudio consistio en obtener una ecuacion de prediccion de GER en pacientes ambulatorios con sobrepeso u obesidad en la poblacion mexicana. Métodos: El estudio fue realizado en el Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran (Mexico, D.F.). Se evaluo a pacientes ambulatorios consecutivos (18-70 anos) en el servicio de Nutriologia Clinica entre marzo de 2010 y agosto 2012 tras un diagnostico de sobrepeso u obesidad (indice de masa corporal [IMC] ≥ 25 kg/ m2). Los pacientes con cualquier enfermedad que pudiera afectar la medicion de intercambio de gases fueron excluidos. Los participantes fueron evaluados mediante calorimetria indirecta (CI), analisis de impedancia bioelectrica (AIB) y mediciones antropometricas para disenar la ecuacion de prediccion de GER. Fueron evaluados dos grupos: un grupo para diseno y otro para validacion. El GER tambien fue calculado empleando las ecuaciones de Harris-Benedict, Mifflin St-Jeor, Ireton-Jones, Carrasco, Kleiber y Owen, calculando el peso actual, el peso ideal y un peso ajustado. Se obtuvo una ecuacion GER mediante regresion lineal multiple basada en las variables evaluadas, y fueron seleccionadas aquellas que aportaron la mayor precision al modelo. Luego se compararon el GER real y el GER estimado, utilizando la prueba de t de student. Para destacar las diferencias entre pares de mediciones se utilizo el metodo de Bland & Altman. Se calcularon los coeficientes de correlacion de Pearson y los coeficientes de determinacion entre valores GER medidos mediante valores de CI y GER con diversas formulas. Resultados: Un total de 77 pacientes fueron incluidos en el grupo de diseno: 38 hombres (49.4%) y 39 mujeres (50.6%). La edad media fue 48.5 } 13.9 anos, y el IMC

  14. [24-hour simultaneous esophagogastric pH-metry in children].

    PubMed

    Angulo, J M; Gorostiaga, L; Tovar, J A

    1992-07-01

    Twenty-four-hour pH-monitoring of the lower oesophagus is the best test for diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) because it is the only one allowing its quantification. Unfortunately, it is limited by the fact that acid exposure is not the only mechanism by which GER harms the oesophagus. In the last 12 months we have introduced in our Institution simultaneous oeso-gastric pH-metering using a double-channel recorder and gastric and oesophageal electrodes. This procedure enables us to know when gastric pH turns alkaline because od diet, mucus, hypoacidity or duodeno-gastric reflux (DGR) to the point of making oesophageal pH-metering useless. We report 7 illustrative cases of GER with prolonged episodes of gastric alkalinization leading to oesophageal pH-metering false negatives. In the near future, double pH-metering will very probably modify our current interpretation of conventional tracings.

  15. The Effects of Heat Activation on Bacillus Spore Germination, with Nutrients or under High Pressure, with or without Various Germination Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E.; Doona, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75°C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the l-asparagine–glucose–fructose–K+ mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation. PMID:25681191

  16. Outlook of possible European contributions to future exploration scenarios and architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perino, M. A.; Fenoglio, F.; Pelle, S.; Couzin, P.; Thaeter, J.; Eilingsfeld, F.; Hufenbach, B.; Bergamasco, A.

    2013-07-01

    Building upon the important experience acquired with the development of the International Space Station, the major spacefaring countries are working within the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at the definition of a coordinated framework for expanding the human presence beyond the Low Earth Orbit, the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER defines a long-range strategy for global exploration and include three major elements. Common goals of ISECG participating agencies for space exploration. Notional mission scenarios which are technically feasible and programmatically implementable. Two mission scenarios were defined in the 1st iteration of the GER: the "Asteroid Next" and the "Moon Next" mission scenarios. Identification of near-term opportunities for coordination and cooperation related to e.g. the development of technologies, the implementation of robotic missions to destination of interest for closing strategic knowledge gaps which need to be addressed prior to human missions as well as the utilization of ISS for demonstration of exploration enabling capabilities. In 2009 two studies have been awarded by ESA to Industrial Teams led by Thales Alenia Space—Italy and by Astrium—Germany to define, analyze and assess optional European scenarios for future human spaceflight and exploration activities, and to derive the required capabilities for the investigated timeframe until the year 2033. Work on the European scenarios has been aligned with and informed by the international work on the GER. A conceptual design of different Building Block Elements, representing critical contributions to international Design Reference Missions (DRM's) included in the ISECG GER, has been performed and analyzed with respect to programmatic risks, budgets and required technologies. Key driving requirements for the analyzed Building Block elements have been derived from the international DRM's included in the GER. The interim outcomes of the human

  17. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    El gasto energetico (GE) puede disminuir en sujetos sometidos a dietas hipocaloricas, en una magnitud que excede la reduccion explicada por los cambios en la composicion corporal; dificultando la mantencion del peso perdido. Objetivo: verificar si el Gasto Energetico en Reposo (GER) y Total (GET) experimentan una disminucion mayor a lo atribuible a cambios en la composicion corporal y dependen de la adherencia al tratamiento dietario. Metodología: veintidos mujeres (23-44 anos) con Indice de Masa Corporal (IMC) entre 25 y 32 kg/m2 fueron sometidas a tres meses de restriccion calorica (20 kcal/kg de peso inicial) y motivadas a aumentar su actividad fisica. Al inicio y al final se evaluo: peso, masa grasa (MG) y masa libre de grasa (MLG) con DEXA, GER (calorimetria indirecta), Gasto Energetico por Actividad Fisica (GEAF) y GET (actigrafia). Las participantes que perdieron ≥ 5% del peso inicial fueron consideradas como adherentes a la dieta. Resultados: el grupo adherente tuvo una disminucion significativa del GER absoluto [-164 } 168 kcal/dia (10,6%) y -4,3 } 4,6 kcal/kg MLG (10,5%)]. Esta disminucion fue significativamente mayor que la observada en el grupo no adherente [-6,2 } 1.42 kcal/dia (0.16%) y -0,5 } 3,4/kg FFM (0.96%)]. La MLG no cambio en ninguno de los dos grupos. Existio asociacion significativa entre MLG y GER (r = 0,56; p < 0,05) solo al inicio en el grupo total. Conclusiones: las mujeres adherentes a la restriccion calorica mostraron una reduccion en el GER tanto absoluto como ajustado por la MLG, lo cual, junto con la perdida de correlacion entre el GER y la MLG al final de la intervencion, sugieren adaptacion metabolica.

  18. A Clostridium difficile-Specific, Gel-Forming Protein Required for Optimal Spore Germination

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, M. Lauren; Li, William; Li, Yong-qing; Hinkel, Lauren; Setlow, Peter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC. Activated SleC degrades the protective spore cortex layer, a step that is essential for germination to proceed. Since CspC incorporation into spores also depends on CspA, a related pseudoprotease domain, Csp family proteins play a critical role in germination. However, how Csps are incorporated into spores remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that incorporation of the CspC, CspB, and CspA germination regulators into spores depends on CD0311 (renamed GerG), a previously uncharacterized hypothetical protein. The reduced levels of Csps in gerG spores correlate with reduced responsiveness to bile salt germinants and increased germination heterogeneity in single-spore germination assays. Interestingly, asparagine-rich repeat sequences in GerG’s central region facilitate spontaneous gel formation in vitro even though they are dispensable for GerG-mediated control of germination. Since GerG is found exclusively in C. difficile, our results suggest that exploiting GerG function could represent a promising avenue for developing C. difficile-specific anti-infective therapies. PMID:28096487

  19. The effects of heat activation on Bacillus spore germination, with nutrients or under high pressure, with or without various germination proteins.

    PubMed

    Luu, Stephanie; Cruz-Mora, Jose; Setlow, Barbara; Feeherry, Florence E; Doona, Christopher J; Setlow, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in spores' inner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75 °C heat activation times: 15 min for l-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine-glucose-fructose-K(+) mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates. These results are consistent with heat activation acting primarily on GRs. However, (i) heat activation had no effects on GR or GerD protein conformation, as probed by biotinylation by an external reagent; (ii) spores prepared at low and high temperatures that affect spores' IM properties exhibited large differences in heat activation requirements for nutrient germination; and (iii) spore germination by 550 MPa of HP was also affected by heat activation, but the effects were relatively GR independent. The last results are consistent with heat activation affecting spores' IM and only indirectly affecting GRs. The 150- and 550-MPa HP germinations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spores, a potential surrogate for Clostridium botulinum spores in HP treatments of foods, were also stimulated by heat activation.

  20. Murine Macrophages Kill the Vegetative Form of Bacillus anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-18

    inhibitor of the germination of B. anthracis and Bacillus cereus spores. It converts L-alanine to D-alanine, an isomer that is not recognized by...nation of Bacillus cereus spores in response to L-alanine and to inosine: the roles of gerL and gerQ operons. Microbiology 148:2089–2095. 5. Dixon, T...anthracis. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 62:269–273. 32. Todd, S. J., A. J. Moir, M. J. Johnson, and A. Moir. 2003. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis

  1. Analysis of giant electrorheological fluids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Youngwook P; Seo, Yongsok

    2013-07-15

    The yield stress dependence on electric field strength for giant electrorheological (GER) fluids over the full range of electric fields was examined using Seo's scaling function which incorporated both the polarization and the conductivity models. If a proper scaling was applied to the yield stress data to collapse them onto a single curve, the Seo's scaling function could correctly fit the yield stress behavior of GER suspensions, even at very high electric field strengths. The model predictions were also compared with recently proposed Choi et al.'s model to allow a consideration of the universal framework of ER fluids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and anti-reflux procedures among polish children with gastrostomies: a 10-year nationwide analysis

    PubMed Central

    Toporowska-Kowalska, E; Gębora-Kowalska, B; Fendler, W; Popińska, K; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, A; Grzybowska-Chlebowczyk, U; Wiernicka, A; Borkowska, A; Sibilska, M; Więcek, S; Hapyn, E; Kierkuś, J

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To analyse the approach to diagnose gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the qualification criteria for anti-reflux (AR) procedures in Polish children fed via gastrostomy between 2000 and 2010. Subjects/Methods: An electronic questionnaire containing questions on the demographic and clinical data of patients with gastrostomies was distributed to six Polish centres of nutritional therapy. The portion pertaining to GER included data on clinical exponents, diagnostic procedures (pH-metry, pH-impedance, scintigraphy and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series) and AR. Results: In total, 348 children (M199/F149; age at gastrostomy 5.78±5.49 years) were included. Data on the diagnosis of GER and the AR criteria were available for 343 and 336 subjects, respectively. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was performed in 258/348 patients (74.1%), while surgery was performed in 80/348 patients (23%). The data from 10/348 (2.9%) cases were unavailable. At least one of the tests for GER was conducted in 177/343 (51.6%) of patients: pH-metry in 74/343 (21.6%), pH-impedance in 17/343 (5.0%), scintigraphy in 60/343 (17.5%) and upper GI series in 102/343 (29.7%). GER was reported in 114/343 cases (33.2%), and fundoplication was performed in 87 children (76.3% of patients with GER). The highest congruence between a positive test result and the decision to perform fundoplication was documented in cases of scintigraphy and upper GI series (P=0.00000 and P=0.00191, respectively). A significant increase in the prevalence of simultaneous gastrostomy and AR was observed over the decade analysed (r=0.8, P=0.009). This study revealed a centre-specific attitude towards the diagnosis of GER and the assessment of qualifications for fundoplication in Polish gastrostomy-fed children. Conclusions: The unified diagnostic algorithm of GER and the universal qualification criteria for AR procedures need to be defined for gastrostomy-fed children. PMID:24065062

  3. The influence of season and living environment on children's urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Huang, Yu-Kai; Luvsan, Munkh-Erdene; Gombojav, Enkhjargal; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bulgan, Jargal; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2015-02-01

    Heating indoor living environments elevates air pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of season and living environment on children's urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Our study subjects were 320 children aged 11-15 years living in gers, brick houses and apartments, in ger and non-ger areas of Ulaanbaatar. Spot urine samples and questionnaires were collected three times from each subject in three seasons, September (warm) and December (cold) in 2011 and March (moderate) in 2012. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC/FLD). Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were applied to estimate the seasonal and residential effects on 1-OHP levels, adjusting for demographic and environmental factors. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels showed significant seasonal differences with 0.30 ± 0.57 μmol/mol creatinine in cold season, 0.14 ± 0.12 μmol/mol creatinine in moderate season, and 0.14 ± 0.21 μmol/mol creatinine in warm season. After controlling confounding factors, the GEE model showed that season, living area, and housing type had significant influence on children's urinary 1-OHP levels. Urinary 1-OHP levels in the cold and moderate seasons were, respectively 2.13 and 1.37 times higher than the warm season. Urinary 1-OHP levels for children living in ger areas were 1.27 times higher than those living in non-ger areas. Children who lived in gers or brick houses had 1.58 and 1.34 times higher 1-OHP levels, respectively, compared with those living in apartments. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels were associated with either estimated NO2 or SO2 concentrations at their home addresses in Ulaanbaatar. Mongolian children's urinary 1-OHP levels were significantly elevated during the cold season, and for those living in ger areas, gers, or brick houses in Ulaanbaatar. Children's urinary 1-OHP levels were associated PAH co

  4. Activities of the COSPAR Panel on Exploration supporting the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; McKay, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) is driven by several goals and objectives that include space science, the search for life as well as preparatory science activities to enable human space exploration. The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), through its Commissions and Panels provides an international forum that supports and promotes space exploration worldwide. COSPAR's Panel on Exploration (PEX) investigates a stepwise approach of preparatory research on Earth and in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to facilitate a future global space exploration program. We summarize recent activities and workshops of PEX in support of the GER.

  5. Maropitant prevented vomiting but not gastroesophageal reflux in anesthetized dogs premedicated with acepromazine-hydromorphone

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rebecca A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of maropitant for prevention of vomiting and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in dogs following acepromazine-hydromorphone premedication and inhalation anesthesia. Study design Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study. Animals Twenty-six dogs admitted for elective soft tissue or orthopedic procedures that were 3.1 ± 3.1 years of age and weighed 20.5 ± 11.4 kg. Methods Dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: Group M received maropitant (1.0 mg kg−1) and Group S received 0.9% saline (0.1 ml kg−1) intravenously 45–60 minutes before premedication with hydromorphone (0.1 mg kg−1) and acepromazine (0.03 mg kg−1) intramuscularly. An observer blinded to treatment documented any retching or vomiting for 20 minutes before induction with propofol (2–6 mg kg−1) and inhalation anesthesia. A pH probe inserted into the distal esophagus was used to detect GER. Results None of the dogs in Group M retched or vomited (0/13), 6/13 (46%) in Group S were observed to retch or vomit, and the difference between groups was significant (p = 0.015). There were no differences between groups in the number of dogs with GER (Group M: 4/13, Group S: 6/13 dogs) or the number of reflux events. Esophageal pH at the end of anesthesia was significantly lower in both M and S groups in dogs with GER versus dogs without GER (p = 0.004 and 0.011, respectively). Only dogs with GER in Group S had significantly lower pH at the end compared to the beginning of anesthesia (p = 0.004). Conclusions and clinical relevance Intravenous maropitant prevented retching and vomiting associated with acepromazine-hydromorphone premedication. Maropitant did not prevent the occurrence of GER. Fewer dogs in Group M developed GER but further study with a larger number of dogs is necessary to determine if there is a significant difference. PMID:24330310

  6. Beschallungstechnik, Beschallungsplanung und Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Wolfgang; Goertz, Anselm

    Die primäre Aufgabe einer Lautsprecheranlage ist es, Musik, Sprache oder auch Signaltöne und Geräusche wiederzugeben. Diese können von einem Tonträger kommen (CD, Sprachspeicher), von einem anderen Ort übertragen (Zuspielung über Radio, TV, Telefon) oder vor Ort erzeugt werden. Letzteres umfasst Konzerte, Ansprachen, Durchsagen oder künstlerische Darbietungen, bei denen es meist darum geht, eine bereits vorhandene Quelle einer größeren oder weiter verteilten Anzahl von Personen zugänglich zu machen.

  7. SULFUR CYCLING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quarles, Robert L., Jessica A. Rivord and Richard Devereux. In press. Sulfur Cycling in Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed Sediments (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and S...

  8. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 57, Number 2 (June 2013)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Piraten often congregated at railway stations, sported edelweiss flower pins (long the symbol of Ger- man youth resistance) for mutual recognition...with coun- terintelligence in different ways while also working collaboratively. (25) 1 See for example: Hank Prunckun, Handbook of Scientific... CRC Press, 2013) 352 pp., end of chapter references, photos, index. While preparing an undergraduate introductory course at the University of

  9. Mstack: A Lightweight Cross-Platform Benchmark for Evaluating Co-Processing Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    1Owens, J. D.; Luebke, D.; Govindaraju, N.; Harris , M.; Krüger, J.; Lefohn, A. E.; Purcell, T. J. A... LASSING RD SAN DIEGO CA 92152-6148 1 UNIV OF TENNESSEE ASSOC DIR INNOVATIVE COMPUTING LAB CMPTR SCI DEPT S MOORE 1122 VOLUNTEER

  10. Your Colicky Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... food moves too quickly through a baby's digestive system or is incompletely digested. Other theories are that colic is due to a baby's temperament, that some babies just take a little bit longer to get adjusted to the world, or that some have undiagnosed gastroesophageal reflux (GER) . ...

  11. Opting for Migration: Is It Just an Economic Necessity?--A Comparison between German and Polish Highly Skilled Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Alexandra; Barwinska-Malajowicz, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the migration motives of German and Polish final semester students and university graduates in the partner cities of Bielefeld (GER) and Rzeszów (PL), who are on the threshold of their professional careers. The survey presented here was motivated by the question: are the current migration motives of highly-skilled graduates…

  12. A Different Kind of Science for the Non-Science Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibarra, Hector

    This paper reports on a small scale study undertaken at the University of Iowa to examine whether students perceive a difference as to the value of learning in General Education Requirement (GER) science classes compared to learning in science application courses. It also explores the need for a different approach to the teaching of science…

  13. [Gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    PubMed

    Larrosa Haro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Physiological gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is the passage of gastric contents into the esophagus and occurs up 2/3 of normal infants; and, it resolves spontaneously around 9-12 months of age. When GER causes symptoms or complications is considered gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and it is associated to growth impairment, anemia, apnea, wheezing or other chronic respiratory symptoms, asthma, recurrent pneumonia or sleeping problems. Diagnosis of GERD implies studies as upper gastrointestinal series, upper endoscopy and 24 h esophageal pH monitoring; special cases may require motility and nuclear medicine studies. GER may be successfully treated with prone elevated position (30-45 degrees), shortening the feeding intervals to 3 h and anti-GER high-viscosity formulas. The regular use of prokinetic drugs is not recommended. The efficacy of proton pump inhibitors and H2 histamine receptor antagonists in the treatment of GERD has been demonstrated in children by diminishing de acid secretion of parietal cells, lowering the gastric contents and decreasing its ability to cause peptic-acid damage to the esophagus or to the respiratory tract. Surgical treatment is indicated in chronic recurrent GERD, usually in children 5 years or older with dependent proton pump inhibitor erosive esophagitis, chronic respiratory disease and in risk-selected cases.

  14. Dreiphasenwechselstrom (Drehstrom)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Herbert

    Wegen des großen Energiebedarfs reicht für viele Anlagen und Geräte der Einphasenwechselstrom mit U = 230 V nicht mehr aus. Heute ist bei der Erzeugung und Verteilung elektrischer Energie das leistungsfähigere Dreiphasenwechselstrom-System üblich. Abb. 32.1 zeigt die Erzeugung eines Dreiphasenwechselstromes.

  15. [24-h intraesophageal pH determination in children allergic to cow's milk protein at a tertiary care hospital].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Mayans, J A; Toro-Monjaraz, E M; Romero-Trujillo, J; Cervantes-Bustamante, R; Zárate-Mondragón, F; Montijo-Barrios, E; Cadena-León, J; Cazares-Méndez, M

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is being seen more frequently on a daily basis in pediatric consultations. It shares symptoms with gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which can complicate the differential diagnosis. To attempt to corroborate the presence of acid GER in children with CMPA, as well as to find a characteristic profile through the 24-hour pH monitoring study in children with GER and CMPA METHODS: The intraesophageal pH monitoring studies performed on 47 children with CMPA were reviewed. The measurements in all the studies were carried out within a 24-hour period using Digitrapper® equipment with a multi-use GeroFlex® catheter, after calibration with pH 7 and pH 1 buffer solutions. Of the 47 children, 23 were boys (32.4%) and 24 were girls (33.8%) and the mean age was 5±3.7 years. Fourteen of the 47 children (29%) presented with GER, according to the result of the 24-hour intraesophageal measurement. Only 2 of the 47 patients studied fit the phasic profile. The findings show the existing relation between the two pathologies. Nevertheless, it is important to determine the presence of non-acid or weak acid reflux, because their existence can increase this association. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Holographically Fabricated Photonic Crystals with Large Reflectance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-16

    for helpful discussions, and A. Griffith and J. Busbee for assistance with the laser system. J. B. Geddes III and J. T. Lee gratefully acknowledge...Weinheim, Ger. 18, 2964 2006. 16A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics : The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, 3rd ed

  17. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange rust, Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, is an important disease of sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum L. species) that causes yield losses, and impacts breeding programs. Initially confined to the Asia-Oceania region (5), P. kuehnii was reported in Florida in June 2007 (2) and lat...

  18. SULFUR CYCLING IN THALASSIA TESTUDINUM SEAGRASS BED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quarles, Robert L., Jessica A. Rivord and Richard Devereux. In press. Sulfur Cycling in Thalassia testudinum Seagrass Bed Sediments (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and S...

  19. Quantum Chemical Study of Rare Gas/Halide Interactions as a Model for High Energy Density Material: 2. The Interaction of Hydrogen Chloride with the Rare Gas Xenon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    inechanislns for dissociating F2 (Alimi, GerCbr, and Apkarian 1990), C12 (Gerber, Alimi, and Apkarian 1989; Alimi, Brokman , and Gerber 1989), and lI...Research Report, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, to be published. Alimi, R., A. Brokman , and R. B. Gerber. "Molccular Dynamics Simulations of’Reactions in

  20. Diorganostyrylzinndiorganophosphine und Ihre Tricarbonylnickelkomplexe (Diorganostyryltin Phosphines and its Tricarbonylnickel Complexes).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-03

    Umkristallisieren aus Pentan/Benzol/Toluol gereinigt werden konnen; IVb zeigt bereits ab 0°C Polym erisationserschei- nungen. Vb und VIb werden als heligelbe...einem Rar.ger Engeneering M6ssbauer Spectrometer benutzt wurde. in C 6 D 6c) die Ha lbwertsbreiten wurden als glei~h vorausgesetzt , um dos Si gnal als

  1. Physik gestern und heute Das Eiskalorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, P.

    2003-07-01

    Kalorimetrische Messungen gehören heute zum experimentellen Standardrepertoire im Bereich der Thermodynamik und der physikalischen Chemie. Das erste Gerät für derartige Messungen entwickelten Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts die französischen Wissenschaftler Antoine Laurent Lavoisier und Pierre Simon de Laplace.

  2. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  3. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  4. [Inspiratory and expiratory resistance of 8 semi-closed circle systems].

    PubMed

    Feigenwinter, P; Zbinden, A M

    1991-08-01

    The resistance of a circle system is an important factor that determines the respiratory effort of the patient. The inspiratory and expiratory resistances were measured in eight semi-closed circle systems used in Europe: Dräger Cicero, Dräger 8 ISO, Dräger AV1, Ohmeda Modulus II Plus, Gambro Engström Elsa, Siemens Servo Ventilator 900 D with circle system 985, Siemens Ventilator 710, and Megamed 700A with circle system 219. The measurements were all performed in the position "spontaneous breathing" according to a new proposal of the CEN (Comité Européen de Normalisation). The following circle systems exceeded the proposed limit of 0.6 kPa at a gas flow of 60 l/min (with CO2-Absorber): Dräger AV1 in expiration and Siemens Servo Ventilator in both expiration and inspiration. The expiratory resistance was also determined by using intermittent flows. The results differed, as the expiratory gas flow can be influenced by the falling or rising ventilator bellows. The authors conclude that considerable differences exist between various breathing systems and that not all systems can be recommended for use in patients with limited breathing force, such as small children.

  5. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  6. HABITAT ASSESSMENT USING A RANDOM PROBABILITY BASED SAMPLING DESIGN: ESCAMBIA RIVER DELTA, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  7. The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) project: A Public-Private Partnership (PPP) to increase genetic diversity in US maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project is a mission-oriented, cooperative research effort of the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), land grant universities, private industry, and international agricultural research centers to broaden the ger...

  8. Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

  9. Gastroesophageal Reflux in Critically Ill Children: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile. PMID:23431462

  10. GENETIC DIVERSITY AND POPULATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS OF ACCESSIONS IN THE U.S. PEANUT MINI-CORE COLLECTION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanut seeds contain not only a high percentage of oil (49%) with high oleate but also a high percentage of protein (25%) and nutritious phytochemicals (such as flavonoids and resveratrol). Therefore, peanut is one of the most important oilseed and nutritional crops in the world. The U.S. Peanut ger...

  11. Raspberry Breeding and Genetics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter describes the origin, speciation, and history of improvement of the raspberries, Rubus section idaeobatus. The world industry in North America, Australasia, China, Europe, Eastern Europe, Africa, and South America and the breeding objectives of programs in those areas are discussed. Ger...

  12. Conservation of fern spores

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ferns are a diverse and important group of plants, but diversity of species and populations are at risk from increasing social pressures, loss of habitat and climate change. Ex situ conservation is a useful strategy to limit decline in genetic diversity and requires technologies to preserve fern ger...

  13. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  14. Evaluation of B10Plus+* proportional detectors for neutron coincidence counting

    SciTech Connect

    Beddingfield, David H.; Yoon, Seokryung

    2015-07-01

    GE-Reuter-Stokes (GERS) has developed a new line of neutron proportional counters, the B10Plus+* proportional counter. The detector design is intended to serve as a cost-effective alternative to traditional {sup 3}He proportional counters in a variety of applications. The detector is a hybrid design 10B-lined tube optimized with the addition of a small quantity of 3He gas to improve the detector performance and efficiency. As a demonstration of the B10Plus+* detector, GERS has constructed a Uranium Neutron Collar (UNCL) system consisting of B-10Plus+* proportional counters. GERS has designed and built a demonstration UNCL system intended to match the performance of a Type-I UNCL design in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) geometry operating in thermal mode. GERS offered their system on loan to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Division of Technical and Scientific Services for an assessment of the detector technology and the demonstration system. We have characterized the demonstration UNCL system and compared its performance with a traditional Type-I UNCL design in regular use by the IAEA. This paper summarizes our findings and observations during the characterization and testing activity. (authors)

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill children: a review.

    PubMed

    Solana García, Maria José; López-Herce Cid, Jesús; Sánchez Sánchez, César

    2013-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in children due to immaturity of the antireflux barrier. In critically ill patients there is also a high incidence due to a partial or complete loss of pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter though other factors, such as the use of nasogastric tubes, treatment with adrenergic agonists, bronchodilators, or opiates and mechanical ventilation, can further increase the risk of GER. Vomiting and regurgitation are the most common manifestations in infants and are considered pathological when they have repercussions on the nutritional status. In critically ill children, damage to the esophageal mucosa predisposes to digestive tract hemorrhage and nosocomial pneumonia secondary to repeated microaspiration. GER is mainly alkaline in children, as is also the case in critically ill pediatric patients. pH-metry combined with multichannel intraluminal impedance is therefore the technique of choice for diagnosis. The proton pump inhibitors are the drugs of choice for the treatment of GER because they have a greater effect, longer duration of action, and a good safety profile.

  16. A Tool for Viewing IDL (Interface Description Language) Data Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    on a machine with a different architecture. Test input for IDLVIEw could be created with a text editor. Control characters would be available to help...8217Our thanks to James Coggins for suggesting this design. 54 References 1. Beander, B. VAX DEBUG: An Interactive, Symbolic, Multilingual Debug- ger, in

  17. Genetic enhancement of cold tolerance to overcome a major limitation in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early season cold tolerance during stand establishment at cool soil temperature of 54ºF to 59ºF (12 ºC to 15ºC) is a key agronomic trait for warm season cereal crops such as sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. [Moench]), lacks cold tolerance and is adversely affected by cool temperatures during ger...

  18. Effect of orange rust on sugarcane breeding program at canal Point

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orange rust of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids), caused by Puccinia kuehnii (W. Krüger) E.J. Butler, appeared in the Western Hemisphere ten years ago. Orange rust substantially reduces yields in susceptible sugarcane genotypes. Majority of the commercial cultivars were susceptible at the time of o...

  19. HABITAT ASSESSMENT USING A RANDOM PROBABILITY BASED SAMPLING DESIGN: ESCAMBIA RIVER DELTA, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  20. International Space Exploration Coordination Group Assessment of Technology Gaps for Dust Mitigation for the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Vangen, Scott; Abel, Phil; Agui, Juan; Buffington, Jesse; Calle, Carlos; Mary, Natalie; Smith, Jonathan Drew; Straka, Sharon; Mugnuolo, Raffaele; hide

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) formed two Gap Assessment teams to evaluate topic discipline areas that had not been worked at an international level to date. Accordingly, the ISECG Technology Working Group (TWG) recommended two discipline areas based on Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) Critical Technology Needs reflected within the GER Technology Development Map (GTDM): Dust Mitigation and LOX/Methane Propulsion, with this paper addressing the former. The ISECG approved the recommended Gap Assessment teams, and tasked the TWG to formulate the new teams with subject matter experts (SMEs) from the participating agencies. The participating agencies for the Dust Mitigation Gap Assessment Team were ASI, CSA, ESA, JAXA, and NASA. The team was asked to identify and make a presentation on technology gaps related to the GER2 mission scenario (including cislunar and lunar mission themes and long-lead items for human exploration of Mars) at the international level. In addition the team was tasked to produce a gap assessment in the form of a summary report and presentation identifying those GER Critical Technology Needs, including opportunities for international coordination and cooperation in closing the identified gaps. Dust is still a principal limiting factor in returning to the lunar surface for missions of any extended duration. However, viable technology solutions have been identified, but need maturation to be available to support both lunar and Mars missions.

  1. Inclusive & Quality Education for Tribals: Case Study KISS (Odisha)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2016-01-01

    The 12th Plan highlighted Equity, Access & Excellence as the tripod of India's education policy. The RTE Act 2009 has ensured a high level of Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER). However, the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) present a dismal picture of the outcome dimensions of our schooling system. The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)…

  2. Etiologic factors in long-term respiratory function abnormalities following esophageal atresia repair.

    PubMed

    LeSouëf, P N; Myers, N A; Landau, L I

    1987-10-01

    Recurrent respiratory illnesses are frequent in infants following repair of esophageal atresia and functional abnormalities of respiratory and esophageal function are often seen in older children. Recurrent aspiration is a potential cause of these respiratory abnormalities, but a relationship between abnormalities of gastrointestinal and respiratory mechanics has not been adequately investigated. We sought an association between lower esophageal sphincter (LES) incompetence, gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and respiratory function abnormalities in 18 subjects (age 12 to 21 years) following repair of esophageal atresia (Vogt type 111B). In each subject, measurements were made of spirometry, lung volumes assessed by plethysmography, esophageal manometry recorded using a constantly infused fluid-filled trilumen catheter to assess LES pressure and esophageal motility, and esophageal pH monitoring to detect GER. Subjects were grouped according to the presence or absence of a radiologically supported diagnosis of pneumonia in the first 4 years of life. Lung volumes were mildly but significantly decreased in the "pneumonia" group compared with the "nonpneumonia" group. There was no association between abnormalities of respiratory function and abnormal LES pressure or the presence of GER. These data suggest that pneumonia in esophageal atresia infants is associated with mild long-term lung damage. LES dysfunction and GER do not appear to play a major role in this process.

  3. Feeding and Reflux: A Parent & Professional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Martorana, Pamela; Vitello, Louise; Eicher, Peggy S.; LaCour, Tricia

    2008-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as a cause of an infant or child's refusal to eat is becoming better recognized. However, the many more subtle influences that reflux can have on feeding are less often recognized. Although vomiting after meals is the classic presentation, infants and children may present with a variety of more subtle symptoms less…

  4. Elephantiasis, elastin, and chronic wound healing: 19th century and contemporary viewpoints relevant to hypotheses concerning lymphedema, leprosy, erysipelas, and psoriasis--review and reflections.

    PubMed

    Ryan, T J

    2009-03-01

    Both wound healing and lymphedema have fibrosis of the skin in common. They also share destruction of elastin by elastases from neutrophils as a significant feature. These are not new observations, and the writings of Unna and Kaposi are recalled. The contemporary observations on elastin by Gerli and his team are discussed in the light of these much earlier opinions.

  5. Effect of temperature and water availability during late maturation of the soybean seed on germ and cotyledon isoflavone content and composition

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean seeds contain high levels of isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, glycitein), which have been associated with many positive human health effects. Seed isoflavone content is strongly influenced by both environment and genotype. The isoflavone concentration and composition of the soybean seed ger...

  6. COLIPHAGES AS POTENTIAL VIRAL INDICATORS OF FECAL POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Friedman, Stephanie D. In press. Coliphages as Potential Viral Indicators of Fecal Pollution (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems of the Gulf of Mexico and Southeastern United States, 6-9 October ...

  7. Interdisciplinary Science Courses for College General Education Requirements: Perspectives of Faculty at a State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dass, Pradeep Maxwell

    Science educators have been advocating a broader role for science education--that of helping all students see the relevance of science to their own lives. Yet the only experience with post-secondary science that non-science majors get is through a couple of science courses which are part of the general education requirements (GERs) for a liberal…

  8. Schooling for All in South Africa: Closing the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shindler, Jennifer; Fleisch, Brahm

    2007-01-01

    It has been widely assumed that South Africa has achieved universal basic education. Through an analysis of the 2001 census and two national enrolment datasets rather than statistical projections, this study re-examines this assumption and provides new estimates of enrolment levels in primary, basic and secondary education. Using GER, NER, and…

  9. Getting into Print in P & G: How it's Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Judy

    1974-01-01

    In this article the author, a staff member at APGA headquarters, provides and overview of the production process, with a view to giving P & G'ers an inside look at what happens to a manuscript between the time it's submitted and the time it's published. (Author)

  10. Preschool Children's Memory for Repeated Changes in the Lunch Routine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krackow, Elisa

    An experiment examined the possibilities that: (1) repeated deviations in a routine event become fused into the general event representation (GER) for that event; and (2) when deviations go unreported, it is because they have been forgotten. Preschool children were interviewed to get their script reports before and after repeated deviations in the…

  11. The Mystery and Misery of Acid Reflux in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Mike; Davenport, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    When a child is sick, parents want answers. They want to know what is wrong, what they can do, and how to get their child healthy--pronto. Regrettably, there are some puzzling illnesses affecting children that are surrounded by mystery. One of them is gastroesophageal reflux (GER), otherwise known as acid reflux--or "reflux" for short. Reflux…

  12. Improvement of obesity phenotype by Chinese sweet leaf tea (Rubus suavissimus) components in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gar Yee; McCutcheon, Kathleen; Zhang, Fang; Liu, Dong; Cartwright, Carrie A; Martin, Roy; Yang, Peiying; Liu, Zhijun

    2011-01-12

    Drinking an herbal tea to lose weight is a well-liked concept. This study was designed to examine the possible improvement of obesity phenotype by a new tea represented by its purified components, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and rubusoside (GER). Male obese-prone SD rats were given low-fat diet, high-fat diet, or high-fat diet plus GER at the dose of 0.22 g/kg of body weight for 9 weeks. GER significantly reduced body weight gain by 22% compared to the high-fat diet control group with 48% less abdominal fat gain. Food intake was not affected. Blood glucose was lowered in the GER-treated group, whereas serum triglycerides and cholesterol were significantly reduced by 50%. This improved obesity phenotype may be associated with the attenuated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells. Although other underlying, possibly multiple, mechanisms behind the improved phenotype are largely unknown, the observed improvement of multiple obesity-related parameters by the new tea warrants further investigations.

  13. The Program of Gene Transcription for a Single Differentiating Cell Type during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Eichenberger, Patrick; Fujita, Masaya; Jensen, Shane T; Conlon, Erin M; Rudner, David Z; Wang, Stephanie T; Ferguson, Caitlin; Haga, Koki; Sato, Tsutomu; Liu, Jun S

    2004-01-01

    Asymmetric division during sporulation by Bacillus subtilis generates a mother cell that undergoes a 5-h program of differentiation. The program is governed by a hierarchical cascade consisting of the transcription factors: σE, σK, GerE, GerR, and SpoIIID. The program consists of the activation and repression of 383 genes. The σE factor turns on 262 genes, including those for GerR and SpoIIID. These DNA-binding proteins downregulate almost half of the genes in the σE regulon. In addition, SpoIIID turns on ten genes, including genes involved in the appearance of σK . Next, σK activates 75 additional genes, including that for GerE. This DNA-binding protein, in turn, represses half of the genes that had been activated by σK while switching on a final set of 36 genes. Evidence is presented that repression and activation contribute to proper morphogenesis. The program of gene expression is driven forward by its hierarchical organization and by the repressive effects of the DNA-binding proteins. The logic of the program is that of a linked series of feed-forward loops, which generate successive pulses of gene transcription. Similar regulatory circuits could be a common feature of other systems of cellular differentiation. PMID:15383836

  14. Feeding and Reflux: A Parent & Professional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, William J.; Martorana, Pamela; Vitello, Louise; Eicher, Peggy S.; LaCour, Tricia

    2008-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) as a cause of an infant or child's refusal to eat is becoming better recognized. However, the many more subtle influences that reflux can have on feeding are less often recognized. Although vomiting after meals is the classic presentation, infants and children may present with a variety of more subtle symptoms less…

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of patients with nonacid gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianghuai; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Lv, Hanjing; Qiu, Zhongmin

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is one of the most common causes of chronic cough, and chronic cough due to GER represents a subtype of GER-related diseases. Gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) can be divided into two subgroups based on the pH of the GER. Nonacid GERC is less common than acid GERC, and its diagnosis and treatment strategy have not been standardized. However, nonacid GERC usually presents with its unique set of characteristics and features upon diagnosis and treatment in the clinic. Although the underlying molecular mechanism of nonacid GERC is not fully understood, it is considered to be associated with reflux theory, reflex theory and airway hypersensitivity. Multi-channel intraluminal impedance combined with pH monitoring is a promising new technique that can detect both acid and nonacid reflux, and our findings as well as those of others have shown its usefulness in diagnosing nonacid GERC. Development of new diagnostic techniques has led to an increased rate of nonacid GERC diagnosis. We summarize our experience in the diagnosis and treatment of nonacid GERC and provide a guide for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:26759577

  16. Validation of molecular markers for resistance among Pakistani chickpea germplasm to races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DNA markers in chickpea have been identified against different races of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris (Foc), but validation of these markers is essential for their effective use in resistant breeding. In view of this, different simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers were analysed in Pakistani ger...

  17. Insights into Evolution of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Complete Genome Sequence of Closely Related O55:H7 Precursor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in developing countries. In spite of this, only two EPEC genomes have been fully sequenced: the typical, model EPEC strain E2348/69 (O127:H6), and the contemporary, atypical EPEC strain CB9615 (O55:H7, Ger...

  18. Girls' Education and Gender in Education Sector Plans and GPE-Funded Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Global Partnership for Education, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Since the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, efforts and commitments at both national and international levels have brought significant progress in education systems with a view to reducing inequity between girls and boys. Among the Global Partnership for Education (GPE) partner developing countries, the primary Gross Enrollment Rate (GER)…

  19. Continuing the International Roadmapping Effort - An Introduction to the Evolution of the ISECG Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlutz, Juergen; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Laurini, Kathy; Spiero, Francois

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As ISECG agencies advance their individual planning, they also advance the mission themes and reference architecture of the GER to consolidate common goals, near-term mission scenarios and initial opportunities for collaboration. In this context, particular focus has been given to the Better understanding and further refinement of cislunar infrastructure and potential lunar transportation architecture Interaction with international science communities to identify and articulate the scientific opportunities of the near-term exploration mission themes Coordination and consolidation of interest in lunar polar volatiles prospecting and potential for in-situ resource utilisation Identification and articulation of the benefits from exploration and the technology transfer activities The paper discusses the ongoing roadmapping activity of the ISECG agencies. It provides an insight into the status of the above activities and an outlook towards the evolution of the GER that is currently foreseen in the 2017 timeframe.

  20. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Copper Content in Synthetic Copper Carbonate: A Statistical Comparison of Experimental and Expected Results by H. Gamsjäger and W. Preis Re: article by D. Sheeran The author replies The Amateur Mineral Chemist by Dana Martin Morong More on Double Replacement by George B. Kauffman Re: article by R. B. Martin

  1. Withdrawing with Honor: Strategic Lessons Learned from Case Studies on Military Withdrawals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    Ronald Frankum and Stephen Maxner’s The Vietnam War for Dummies (Frankum and Maxner 2003). Mark Lawrence’s detailed account of the entire Vietnam War to...Ronald, and Stephen Maxner. 2002. The Vietnam War for dummies . NY: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Gerring, John. 2004. What is a case study and what is it

  2. Oocysts of Neospora caninum, Hammondia heydorni, Toxoplasma gondii and Hammondia hammondi in faeces collected from dogs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schares, G; Pantchev, N; Barutzki, D; Heydorn, A O; Bauer, C; Conraths, F J

    2005-12-01

    Faecal samples of 24,089 dogs were examined coproscopically in two veterinary laboratories in Germany between March 2001 and October 2004. In 47 dogs, oocysts of 9-14 microm size were found. Their morphology was similar to those of Hammondia heydorni and Neospora caninum. Samples of 28 of these dogs were further examined by inoculation into gerbils: seven isolates induced a specific antibody response against antigens of N. caninum NC-1 tachyzoites. This response suggests that the isolates contained N. caninum. In addition to H. heydorni (12 times isolated), Toxoplasma gondii occysts (twice) and Hammondia hammondi oocysts (twice) were observed in dog faeces. The latter findings suggest that coprophagia with a subsequent intestinal passage by dogs plays a role in the dissemination of coccidian parasites for which cats are definitive hosts. Five of the seven N. caninum (NC-GER2, NC-GER3, NC-GER4, NC-GER5, NC-GER6) and the two T. gondii isolates (TG-dgGER1, TG-dgGER2) were successfully passaged into cell culture and are now available for detailed characterization. In contrast to oocysts of other parasites, N. caninum oocysts were predominantly found between January and April (Fisher exact; P=0.038). In the sera of dogs shedding N. caninum, no reactions against the immunodominant antigens with apparent molecular weights of 19, 29, 30, 33 and 37 kDa of N. caninum tachyzoites were observed 3-5 weeks after shedding. However, the animals recognized a 152-kDa N. caninum antigen. Compared with those identified as H. heydorni, T. gondii or H. hammondi, N. caninum oocyst isolates were significantly smaller in length with the 75th percentiles

  3. Carbon isotopes as indicators of peatland growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alewell, Christine; Krüger, Jan Paul; von Sengbusch, Pascal; Szidat, Sönke; Leifeld, Jens

    2016-04-01

    As undisturbed and/or growing peatlands store considerable amounts of carbon and are unique in their biodiversity and species assemblage, the knowledge of the current status of peatlands (growing with carbon sequestration, stagnating or degrading with carbon emissions) is crucial for landscape management and nature conservation. However, monitoring of peatland status requires long term measurements and is only feasible with expert knowledge. The latter determination is increasingly impeded in a scientific world, where taxonomic expert knowledge and funding of long term monitoring is rare. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes depth profiles in peatland soils have been shown to be a useful tool to monitor the degradation of peatlands due to permafrost thawing in Northern Sweden (Alewell et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2014), drainage in Southern Finland (Krüger et al., 2016) as well as land use intensification in Northern Germany (Krüger et al., 2015). Here, we tackle the questions if we are able to differentiate between growing and degrading peats with the use of a combination of carbon stable (δ13C) and radiogenic isotope data (14C) with peat stratification information (degree of humification and macroscopic plant remains). Results indicate that isotope data are a useful tool to approximate peatland status, but that expert taxonomic knowledge will be needed for the final conclusion on peatland growth. Thus, isotope tools might be used for landscape screening to pin point sites for detailed taxonomic monitoring. As the method remains qualitative future research at these sites will need to integrate quantitative approaches to determine carbon loss or gain (soil C balances by ash content or C accumulation methods by radiocarbon data; Krüger et al., 2016). Alewell, C., R. Giesler, J. Klaminder, J. Leifeld, and M. Rollog. 2011. Stable carbon isotopes as indicators for micro-geomorphic changes in palsa peats. Biogeosciences, 8, 1769-1778. Krüger, J. P., Leifeld, J

  4. Lighting up the Raman signal of molecules in the vicinity of graphene related materials.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Deng, Shibin; Mao, Nannan; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Zhang, Jin

    2015-07-21

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a popular technique to detect the molecules with high selectivity and sensitivity. It has been developed for 40 years, and many reviews have been published to summarize the progress in SERS. Nevertheless, how to make the SERS signals repeatable and quantitative and how to have deeper understanding of the chemical enhancement mechanism are two big challenges. A strategy to target these issues is to develop a Raman enhancement substrate that is flat and nonmetal to replace the conventional rough and metal SERS substrate. At the same time, the newly developed substrate should have a strong interaction with the adsorbate molecules to guarantee strong chemical enhancement. The flatness of the surface allows better control of the molecular distribution and configuration, while the nonmetal surface avoids disturbance of the electromagnetic mechanism. Recently, graphene and other two-dimensional (2D) materials, which have an ideal flat surface and strong chemical interaction with plenty of organic molecules, were developed to be used as Raman enhancement substrates, which can light up the Raman signals of the molecules, and these substrates were demonstrated to be a promising for microspecies or trace species detection. This effect was named "graphene enhanced Raman scattering (GERS)". The GERS technique offers significant advantages for studying molecular vibrations due to the ultraflat and chemically inert 2D surfaces, which are newly available, especially in developing a quantitative and repeatable signal enhancement technique, complementary to SERS. Moreover, GERS is a chemical mechanism dominated effect, which offers a valuable model to study the details of the chemical mechanism. In this Account, we summarize the systematic studies exploring the character of GERS. In addition, as a practical technique, the combination of GERS with a metal substrate incorporates the advantages from both conventional SERS and GERS. The

  5. The ISECG Science White Paper - A Scientific Perspective on the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussey, David B.; Worms, Jean-Claude; Spiero, Francois; Schlutz, Juergen; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2016-07-01

    Future space exploration goals call for sending humans and robots beyond low Earth orbit and establishing sustained access to destinations such as the Moon, asteroids and Mars. Space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) are discussing an international approach for achieving these goals, documented in ISECG's Global Exploration Roadmap (GER). The GER reference scenario reflects a step-wise evolution of critical capabilities from ISS to missions in the lunar vicinity in preparation for the journey of humans to Mars. As an element of this continued road mapping effort, the ISECG agencies are therefore soliciting input and coordinated discussion with the scientific community to better articulate and promote the scientific opportunities of the proposed mission themes. An improved understanding of the scientific drivers and the requirements to address priority science questions associated with the exploration destinations (Moon, Near Earth Asteroids, Mars and its moons) as well as the preparatory activities in cis-lunar space is beneficial to optimize the partnership of robotic assets and human presence beyond low Earth orbit. The interaction has resulted in the development of a Science White Paper to: • Identify and highlight the scientific opportunities in early exploration missions as the GER reference architecture matures, • Communicate overarching science themes and their relevance in the GER destinations, • Ensure international science communities' perspectives inform the future evolution of mission concepts considered in the GER The paper aims to capture the opportunities offered by the missions in the GER for a broad range of scientific disciplines. These include planetary and space sciences, astrobiology, life sciences, physical sciences, astronomy and Earth science. The paper is structured around grand science themes that draw together and connect research in the various disciplines, and it will focus on

  6. Role of the Spore Coat Layers in Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance to Hydrogen Peroxide, Artificial UV-C, UV-B, and Solar UV Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Riesenman, Paul J.; Nicholson, Wayne L.

    2000-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis possess a thick protein coat that consists of an electron-dense outer coat layer and a lamellalike inner coat layer. The spore coat has been shown to confer resistance to lysozyme and other sporicidal substances. In this study, spore coat-defective mutants of B. subtilis (containing the gerE36 and/or cotE::cat mutation) were used to study the relative contributions of spore coat layers to spore resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and various artificial and solar UV treatments. Spores of strains carrying mutations in gerE and/or cotE were very sensitive to lysozyme and to 5% H2O2, as were chemically decoated spores of the wild-type parental strain. Spores of all coat-defective strains were as resistant to 254-nm UV-C radiation as wild-type spores were. Spores possessing the gerE36 mutation were significantly more sensitive to artificial UV-B and solar UV radiation than wild-type spores were. In contrast, spores of strains possessing the cotE::cat mutation were significantly more resistant to all of the UV treatments used than wild-type spores were. Spores of strains carrying both the gerE36 and cotE::cat mutations behaved like gerE36 mutant spores. Our results indicate that the spore coat, particularly the inner coat layer, plays a role in spore resistance to environmentally relevant UV wavelengths. PMID:10653726

  7. Insulin Pump and CGM Usage in the United States and Germany

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Weber, Dietmar; Faber-Heinemann, Gabriele; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Background: This survey collected and evaluated user responses about routine tasks and preferences regarding insulin pumps and infusion sets (IIS) with comparison of intercountry differences between the United States (US) and Germany (GER), chosen for their large insulin pump populations. Methods: A total of 985 subjects (534 US, 451 GER; 60% female) with type 1 diabetes on pump therapy anonymously answered 20 pump-related questions. US subjects also answered 11 questions about continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) usage. Results: Length of use of insulin cartridges is shorter in US than in GER, mean (SD) 4.3 (5.0) versus 5.3 (3.2) days (P < .001), while the IIS is used longer: 3.3 (1.0) versus 2.7 (1.1) days (P < .001). Lower self-reported HbA1c levels were associated with longer use of insulin cartridges (7.3% for >3 days vs 7.7% for <3 days; P < .01), and with use of an auto-insertion device (vs manual IIS insertion) in the US (7.2% vs 6.9%), but not in GER (7.7% vs 7.9%). Only 47% of pump wearers stated that they were “very satisfied” with their pump (49% US vs 45% GER, ns). However, 98% would recommend the pump to others (95% vs 93%, ns). Analysis of CGM questions showed that 297 (60%) of 496 US responders currently wore one. Of these, 84% said they would recommend CGM to others. CGM wearers who stated they were “very satisfied” with their CGM had lower HbA1c than those who said they were “partly satisfied” (6.9% vs 7.2%). Conclusions: This survey shows interesting differences in real-world use of insulin pumps in 2 large markets, and suggests areas where insulin pumps and CGMs might be improved. PMID:26071425

  8. Efficacy and Safety of a Natural Remedy for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Double-Blinded Randomized-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Alecci, Umberto; Bonina, Francesco; Bonina, Andrea; Rizza, Luisa; Inferrera, Santi

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum), on GER-related symptoms. Male/female 118 (intention to treat) subjects with moderate GER and having at least 2 to 6 days of GER episodes/week were treated with verum (6 g/day) or placebo for two months. The questionnaires Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQoL) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) were self-administered by participants before the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Verum produced statistically significant reduction of GERD-HRQoL and GSAS scores, −56.5% and −59.1%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. Heartburn and acid regurgitation episodes for week were significantly reduced by verum (p < 0.01). Results indicate that Mucosave formulation provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment for reducing the frequency and intensity of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:27818697

  9. Screening for Helicobacter pylori in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Lung Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Michael; Kirsten, Detlef; Bahmer, Thomas; Penzel, Roland; Claussen, Martin; Ehlers-Tenenbaum, Svenja; Muley, Thomas; Palmowski, Karin; Eichinger, Monika; Leider, Marta; Herth, Felix J F; Rabe, Klaus F; Bittmann, Iris; Warth, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a role of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis. Recently, an association between serum Helicobacter pylori (HP) antibody positivity and more severe disease was described, but HP has not been directly analysed in lung tissue so far. To investigate the presence of HP in the lung tissue of IPF patients. Two tertiary interstitial lung disease care centre databases were screened for available lung biopsy material from IPF patients. Clinical and radiological data, including presence of GER and antiacid medication, were evaluated. HP-specific PCR was carried out on the IPF lung biopsy specimens. A total of 39 IPF patients were included, of whom 85% were male. The patients' median age was 66 years, their vital capacity was 79% predicted, and their diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was 53% predicted. In all, 82% of the lung biopsies were surgical and 18% transbronchial. Comorbidities were GER disease in 23% (n = 9), sleep apnoea in 13% (n = 5) and hiatal hernia in 38% of the cases (n = 15). Proton pump inhibitors were prescribed at the time of biopsy in 21% of the cases (n = 9). After a median follow-up of 25 months (range 6-69), there were 1 death, 1 lung transplantation and 8 acute exacerbations without relevant differences between the GER and non-GER subgroups. HP DNA was not detected in any of the lung tissue samples. The fact that no HP DNA was detected in the lung tissues calls into question the proposed relevance of HP to the direct pathogenesis of IPF. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effect of Severity of Esophageal Acidification on Sleep vs Wake Periods in Infants Presenting with Brief Resolved Unexplained Events.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Janani; Qureshi, Aslam H; Woodley, Frederick; Splaingard, Mark; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2016-12-01

    To describe the pattern of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) events in wake and sleep states with increasing acid reflux index (ARI) in neonates and to test the hypothesis that GER-related symptoms are frequent in ARI >7% in wake state. Infants underwent 24-hour pH-impedance studies with 6-hour concurrent video-polysomnography studies. Data were stratified based on the 24-hour ARI (% duration that esophageal pH is <4) into ARI < 3% (normal), ARI 3 ≥ to ≤7% (intermediate), and ARI >7% (abnormal). GER frequency, clearance mechanisms, and symptoms were distinguished during wake state and sleep state. Total wake and sleep duration was similar (P ≥ .2) in all ARI groups. Acidic events were frequent with increasing ARI in wake state vs sleep state (P ≤ .03). The symptom index increased with increasing ARI (P ≤ .02) in both wake state and sleep state. Acid clearance time increased with increasing ARI in wake state (P ≤ .02). In ARI > 7% vs ARI ≤ 7%, frequency of acidic GER events was higher (P ≤ .02) in wake state and sleep state; proximal migration of acid (P = .03) and acid clearance time were higher in wake state (P = .0005) only. Symptom index was higher in ARI >7% vs ARI ≤ 7% in wake state (P < .0001), comparable in normal vs intermediate (P = .4), and higher in abnormal vs intermediate (P = .0004) groups. Severe esophageal acid exposure (ARI >7%) is associated with increased reflux-associated symptoms in wake state. Sleep state appears to be protective regardless of ARI, likely because of greater chemosensory thresholds. Attention to posture and movements during wake state can be helpful. Scrutiny for non-GER etiologies should occur for infants presenting with life-threatening symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of GutsyGum(tm), A Novel Gum, on Subjective Ratings of Gastro Esophageal Reflux Following A Refluxogenic Meal.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel; Sam, Cecilia H Y; Green, Tim; Wood, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Chewing gum alleviates symptoms of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) following a refluxogenic meal. GutsyGum(tm), a chewing gum developed to alleviate the symptoms of GER contains calcium carbonate, with a proprietary blend of licorice extract, papain, and apple cider vinegar (GiGs®). The efficacy of GutsyGum(tm) was determined in alleviating the symptoms of GER after a refluxogenic meal compared to placebo gum. This double-blind, placebo-controlled-crossover trial with a one-week washout between treatments had 24 participants with a history of GER consume a refluxogenic meal and then chew GutsyGum(tm) or placebo gum. Participants completed GER symptom questionnaires, consisting of symptom based 10 cm Visual Analogue Scales, immediately following the meal and then at regular intervals out to four hours postmeal. Adjusted mean ± SEM heartburn score (15-min postmeal to 240 min) was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo gum treatment (0.81 ± 0.20 vs. 1.45 ± 0.20 cm; p = 0.034). Mean acid reflux score was significantly lower in GutsyGum(tm) than in placebo treatment (0.72 ± 0.19 vs. 1.46 ± 0.19 cm; p = 0.013). There were no significant differences for any of the secondary outcomes. However, pain approached significance with less pain reported in GutsyGum(tm) versus placebo treatment (0.4 ± 0.2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 cm; p = 0.081). Although nausea (p = 0.114) and belching (p = 0.154) were lower following GutsyGum(tm), the difference was not statistically significant. GutsyGum(tm) is more effective than a placebo gum in alleviating primary symptoms of heartburn and acid reflux (Clinical Trial Registration: ACTRN12612000973819).

  12. Preventative effect of massage on gastric volvulus in infants with gastroesophageal reflux-induced pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Suqi; Xiong, Xiaoli; Wan, Qi; Liu, Fan; Tang, Jianqiao; Jiang, Zhixia; Zhou, Lishan; Yuan, Kai; Xie, Dong

    2015-10-01

    To study the preventative effects of massage on gastric volvulus (GV) in infants with gastroesophageal reflux (GER)-induced pneumonia. One-hundred and eighty GV with GER-induced pneumonia inpatients were divided randomly into four groups: basic treatment 1 (n = 60), basic treatment 2 (n = 30), massage treatment 1 (n = 60) and massage treatment 2 (n = 30). Clinical examinations selected between groups 1 and 2 were different. Radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract using iodine-containing contrast was assessed in group 1 before and after treatment, whereas 24-h pH monitoring of the distal esophagus was assessed in group 2 before and after treatment. Symptom scores and chest radiography were assessed in all groups upon hospital admission and after procedures. Clinical effects were estimated after procedures in all groups. The prevalence of severe pneumonia among the four groups was compared. Massage treatment groups showed a significantly higher percentage of cure and total effect (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and a lower prevalence of recurrence (but with no statistic difference, P > 0.05) than basic treatment groups. Furthermore, massage treatment groups had remarkably lower scores for symptoms and signs (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), especially for choking on milk, than basic treatment groups. There was significant attenuation of chest inflammation (P < 0.05, P < 0.01), GV (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) and GER (P < 0.05, P < 0.01) in massage treatment groups compared with those in basic treatment groups. Finally, massage treatment groups demonstrated a lower prevalence of severe pneumonia than basic treatment groups (P < 0.05). Massage treatment can prevent GV with GER-induced pneumonia in infants by timely correction of stomach rotation and subsequent attenuation of GER.

  13. Insulin Pump and CGM Usage in the United States and Germany: Results of a Real-World Survey With 985 Subjects.

    PubMed

    Walsh, John; Roberts, Ruth; Weber, Dietmar; Faber-Heinemann, Gabriele; Heinemann, Lutz

    2015-06-12

    This survey collected and evaluated user responses about routine tasks and preferences regarding insulin pumps and infusion sets (IIS) with comparison of intercountry differences between the United States (US) and Germany (GER), chosen for their large insulin pump populations. A total of 985 subjects (534 US, 451 GER; 60% female) with type 1 diabetes on pump therapy anonymously answered 20 pump-related questions. US subjects also answered 11 questions about continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) usage. Length of use of insulin cartridges is shorter in US than in GER, mean (SD) 4.3 (5.0) versus 5.3 (3.2) days (P < .001), while the IIS is used longer: 3.3 (1.0) versus 2.7 (1.1) days (P < .001). Lower self-reported HbA1c levels were associated with longer use of insulin cartridges (7.3% for >3 days vs. 7.7% for <3 days; P < .01), and with use of an auto-insertion device (vs. manual IIS insertion) in the US (7.2% vs. 6.9%), but not in GER (7.7% vs. 7.9%). Only 47% of pump wearers stated that they were "very satisfied" with their pump (49% US vs. 45% GER, ns). However, 98% would recommend the pump to others (95% vs. 93%, ns). Analysis of CGM questions showed that 297 (60%) of 496 US responders currently wore one. Of these, 84% said they would recommend CGM to others. CGM wearers who stated they were "very satisfied" with their CGM had lower HbA1c than those who said they were "partly satisfied" (6.9% vs. 7.2%). This survey shows interesting differences in real-world use of insulin pumps in 2 large markets, and suggests areas where insulin pumps and CGMs might be improved. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  15. German health-related environmental monitoring: assessing time trends of the general population's exposure to heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Becker, K; Schroeter-Kermani, C; Seiwert, M; Rüther, M; Conrad, A; Schulz, C; Wilhelm, M; Wittsiepe, J; Günsel, A; Dobler, L; Kolossa-Gehring, M

    2013-06-01

    The German system of a health-related environmental monitoring is based upon two instruments: The German Environmental Survey (GerES) and the Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). The ESB is a tool to describe time trends of human exposure. Each year approx. 500 students from 4 sampling locations are analysed for their heavy metal contents in blood, blood plasma, and urine. GerES is a nationwide representative cross-sectional study that has been conducted four times up to now. Both instruments have been used to measure heavy metals over the last decades and thus provide complementary information. Both instruments are useful to describe time trends. However, combining the two has an added value, which is demonstrated for heavy metals for the first time in this paper. Major results and the changing importance of sources of exposure to heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, Au, Pt, U and Ni) are shown. This leads to the following conclusion about the today's relevance of exposure in Germany. For the study participants of the city of Muenster, lead in whole blood decreased from about 70 μg/l in 1981 to levels below 15 μg/l in 2009. GerES data of young adults confirmed this time trend and GerES IV on children revealed the decreasing relevance of lead in outdoor air and in drinking water. The concentrations of mercury in urine decreased because in Germany it is no longer recommended to use amalgam fillings for children. However, GerES IV and ESB data also demonstrate that despite the decline of these heavy metals exposures to nickel and uranium originating from drinking water are still of importance.

  16. On design methods for bolted joints in composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireman, Tomas; Nyman, Tonny; Hellbom, Kurt

    The problems related to the determination of the load distribution in a multirow fastener joint using the finite element method are discussed. Both simple and more advanced design methods used at Saab Military Aircraft are presented. The stress distributions obtained with an analytically based method and an FE-based method are compared. Results from failure predictions with a simple analytically based method and the more advanced FE-based method of multi-fastener tension and shear loaded test specimens are compared with experiments. Finally, complicating factors such as three-dimensional effects caused by secondary bending and fastener bending are discussed and suggestions for future research are given.

  17. Airborne IRST target range: modelling and flight trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engvall, Asa

    2003-01-01

    A method for calculation of the target range of an airborne IRST has been verified with data from flight trials. The calculation method includes modelling of sensor performance, atmospheric transmission and infrared radiation from target and background. The flight trials were performed with the IR-OTIS system mounted on a Saab JA37 Viggen fighter aircraft, and a similar aircraft serving as target. Detection range was measured at various flight altitudes, for front and rear aspect. The correspondence between measured and predicted range is very good, with a deviation of less than 10 %.

  18. IR Materials Rain Damage Prediction And Tests Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassaing, Joseph J.; Deom, Alain A.; Bouveret, Andre M.; Balageas, Daniel L.

    1989-09-01

    A comparison between G.S. Springer's theory, that predicts rain optical and rain mass degradations for different kinds of infrared materials, and the experimental results obtained by ONERA on the SAAB rain rotating arm on IR homogeneous samples is presented. The agreement between theory and experiment is rather poor. A very simple correlation between optical degradation and V, C, p (respectively : droplet impact velocity, longitudinal wave velocity and density of infrared materials) is proposed, which is in good agreement with all data obtained in the range of 200 to 300 m/s for the 9 tested materials.

  19. Infrared surveillance system for surface-to-air defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsson, Hans H.

    1993-01-01

    A land-based, passive IR system for the detection of airborne targets has been developed at Saab Missiles. The system operates in the 8 - 12 micrometers region. It scans 360 degree(s) in azimuth and up to 45 degree(s) in elevation and detects targets automatically. The paper describes the system in general, and in more detail the principles of the signal processing, that enable automatic detection of targets in the thermal clutter of sky and terrain background. A unique concept for rejection of false alarms from small objects at short distance (birds) is also described.

  20. The COLE System-on-Chip and its Software Development Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hult, T.; Sandin, P.; Rynäs, A.; Karlsson, A.

    2008-08-01

    The basic architecture of the Saab Space Data Handling systems has been presented in earlier DASIA conferences during 2003 - 2006. In 2006 also the new processor function based on the COLE system-on-chip device was presented. The COLE chip is now available as prototypes and the validation of the ASIC is currently in progress. The paper summarises the key features of the COLE system-on-chip device, its performance and its software development environment including the basic software available to ease the integration with a user application.

  1. Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, George; Boisvert, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This document is the final report for the project entitled "Upgrades to the Probabilistic NAS Platform Air Traffic Simulation Software." This report consists of 17 sections which document the results of the several subtasks of this effort. The Probabilistic NAS Platform (PNP) is an air operations simulation platform developed and maintained by the Saab Sensis Corporation. The improvements made to the PNP simulation include the following: an airborne distributed separation assurance capability, a required time of arrival assignment and conformance capability, and a tactical and strategic weather avoidance capability.

  2. Swedish Defence Research Abstracts 81/82-2 (Froe Foersvars Forsknings Referat 81/82-2).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    studies of the resistance of electronic components to ionising radiation Lennart Hagstr~m and Sten Jarldn (SAAB-6cania) November 1981 This report is an...report C20435-D4 Study of the penetration of buildings by conventional weapons and the distribu- tion of the point of explosion Lennart Gbtherskjbld... Svensson November 1981 This report describes the development of a 9.4 GHz GaAs FET amplifier. It is intended for use as a pre-amplifier in a radar

  3. High Angle-of-Attack Aerodynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    of oil-streak lines toward a particular line. Whether this is also a sufficient con- dition is a matter of current debate. Of the many attempts to...ON THE SAAB-VIGGEN CANARD-WING AIRCRAFT AT 30-DEGREE AGA INORTHROP WATER TUNNEL) I ins viiribls flowus interactin al-5 occrs’r’ betwieens 41 ligslY...lead, with the missile mass in mind , to structures with minimal structural stiffness. Consequently, effects of aeroelasticity may play a role. Due to

  4. Comparative Measurements of Condensation and Evaporation In The Alpine Regions of Thegiant Mountains, Poland and The Dischma, E. Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, C.; Mundelius, M.; Migala, K.

    During the summers of 1998, 1999 and 2001, two basins were instrumented for detailed comparative measurements of evaporation, transpiration and condensation. The catchments of the Reifträger, situated in the Giant Mountains of Poland and the Dischma, situated in the Kanton Graubünden in Eastern Switzerland range in altitude between 850 - 1410 m and 1600 - 3100 m respectively. All hydrological and meteorological measurements were carried out above the treeline. Both regions consist mainly of dwarf shrubs with dwarf pines, ferns, and moors dominating in the Reifträger and alpine pasture and dwarf shrubs in the Dischma. Automatic we ighing lysimeters and evaporation pans recorded evaporation, transpiration, condensation and rainfall data at 10 minute intervals over different slope profiles. On the Reifträger, condensation occurs between 05:00-07:00 and is followed by the onset of evaporation. Evaporation stagnates nearly entirely between 11:00-12:00 but it is subsequently reinitiated due to rapidly increasing wind speeds, reaching a maximum at 14:00. Evaporation continues until 18:00, followed by some nighttime evaporation in the early morning hours. Unlike the Reifträger, the Dischma has two daily maxima for evaporation and transpiration, again preceded in the morning hours by intensive condensation. In the Dischma, evaporation and transpiration is variable according to valley side but the first maximum usually occurs at 15:00 followed by a second maximum between 18:00-19:00 after sunset. The differences in the timing and pattern of evaporation and transpiration of the two catchments can be explained by influence of fog on the Reifträger compared to the regular exchange of moist and dry air from the glacier in the Dischma. In both cases, evaporation is delayed relative to radiation so that there is an evaporation lag of approximately 30 - 50 minutes on the Reifträger and up to 2 hours in the Dischma. Evaporation should therefore be modelled through a function

  5. The effect of CP concentration in the diet on urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea in cattle: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Valadares Filho, S C; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares, R F D

    2017-08-01

    In ruminants, urea recycling is considered an evolutionary advantage. The amount of urea recycled mainly depends of the nitrogen (N) intake and the amount of organic matter (OM) digested in the rumen. Because recycled N contributes to meeting microbial N requirements, accurate estimates of urea recycling can improve the understanding of efficiency of N utilization and N losses to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate urea kinetics and microbial usage of recycled urea N in ruminants using a meta-analytical approach. Treatment mean values were compiled from 25 studies with ruminants (beef cattle, dairy cows and sheep) which were published from 2001 to 2016, totalling 107 treatment means. The data set was analyzed according to meta-analysis techniques using linear or non-linear mixed models, taking into account the random variations among experiments. Urea N synthesized in the liver (UER) and urea N recycled to the gut (GER) linearly increased (P<0.001) as N intake (g/BW0.75) increased, with increases corresponding to 71.5% and 35.2% of N intake, respectively. The UER was positively associated (P<0.05) with dietary CP concentration and the ratio of CP to digestible OM (CP:DOM). Maximum curvature analyses identified 17% dietary CP as the point where there was a prominent increase in hepatic synthesis of urea N, likely due to an excess of dietary N leading to greater ammonia absorption. The GER:UER decreased with increasing dietary CP concentration (P<0.05). At dietary CP⩾19%, GER:UER reached near minimal values. The fraction of UER eliminated as urinary urea N and the contribution of urea N to total urinary N were positively associated with dietary CP (P<0.05), both reaching values near the plateau when dietary CP was 17%. The fractions of GER excreted in the feces and utilized for anabolism decreased, whereas the fraction of GER returned to the ornithine cycle increased with dietary CP concentration (P<0.05). Recycled urea N assimilated by

  6. Mode of delivery and its influence on women's satisfaction with childbirth.

    PubMed

    Spaich, Saskia; Welzel, Grit; Berlit, Sebastian; Temerinac, Dunja; Tuschy, Benjamin; Sütterlin, Marc; Kehl, Sven

    2013-10-01

    Many factors affect women's satisfaction with the experience of childbirth. Some of these are known, but most have not been fully evaluated. The influence of the mode of delivery is unclear. This study investigated the extent to which satisfaction with childbirth depends on the mode of delivery, and evaluated factors determining postpartum satisfaction. Women with singleton pregnancies at term were included prospectively. After childbirth, all women meeting the inclusion criteria received a standardised questionnaire - the German version of Salmon's Item List (SIL-Ger) - for completion before discharge to evaluate the birth experience. The chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were used for statistical analysis. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between demographic and pregnancy-associated variables and variables influencing the perception of childbirth in the total SIL-Ger score. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression models were used to evaluate effects of demographic and clinical parameters on SIL-Ger scores of <70 versus SIL-Ger scores of ≥ 70. All covariates with a P value ≤ 0.10 in the univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression models. All tests were two-sided, and P values<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The analysis included 335 questionnaires. No differences were observed between different modes of delivery (normal 84.5 ± 14.6, primary caesarean 87.0 ± 13.5, secondary caesarean 83.2 ± 13.8, emergency caesarean 79.3 ± 7.3, operative vaginal delivery 83.9 ± 13.6; P=0.503). Multivariate analysis identified two independent factors associated with higher SIL-Ger scores: good/very good satisfaction with childbirth (P<0.001) and good/very good involvement in decision-making afterwards (P=0.005). Severe pain perception during childbirth was associated with lower SIL-Ger scores (P=0.003). Absence of a person of trust

  7. [Common causes of sleep disturbances in Icelandic children who undergo sleep studies.].

    PubMed

    Hákonarson, H; Thornórsson, A

    2001-10-01

    Sleep disturbances are common problems in children. Frequently, these problems are attributed to learned behavioral patterns, but little is known about organic causes of sleep disturbances in children. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common cause of sleep disordered breathing in adults. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is also common in this population. Less is known about OSA and GER as potential causative agents of sleep disturbances in children, and these medical problems have not been addressed in Icelandic children. This study was designed to investigate the organic causes of sleep disordered breathing in Icelandic children, evaluate their severity and possible therapies. One hundred and ninty children who were referred to the Pediatric Department at Reykjavik Hospital due to sleep disturbances were hospitalized over night and a sleep study was recorded, using the sleep equipment, EMBLA. The latter machine has 16 channels that record informations about sleep patterns and breathing. The children were 0-18 years of age. Informations were collected from EEGs, EMGs, and eye movements to determine sleep stages, and with respiratory belts with sensors on the chest and abdomen as well as an air-flow sensor that measures airflow through the nose and mouth. When GER was suspected, a pH meter was inserted and the pH values were measured in the upper and lower parts of the esophagus. The results demonstrate that a large number of children who suffer from sleep disturbances have an underlying disease. Of 61 children who underwent a sleep study and were suspected to have OSA, 46 had a positive study that resulted in a change in therapy. In addition, 69 of 89 children who underwent pH measurements in the esophagus were diagnosed with GER which prompted changes in therapy. The study demonstrates that both OSA and GER are common problems in children with sleep disturbances. We conclude that sleep studies are important in the overall workup of children with sleep disturbances

  8. Does CPAP treatment lead to gastroesophageal reflux in patients with moderate and severe OSA?

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Hatice; Kayar, Yusuf; Danalioglu, Ahmet; Arabaci, Elif; Uysal, Omer; Yakar, Fatih; Kart, Levent

    2017-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) leads to upper respiratory tract obstruction, causing increased abdominal-gastric pressure and decreased lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and thus gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is known to be an effective method for OSA treatment, but its effect on GER is still controversial. There are a very few studies investigating CPAP and GER relationship and performed based on pre- and post-treatment objective parameters of GER in patients with OSA. The study investigated the effect of CPAP treatment in patients with moderate and severe OSA without GER complaints on pre- and post-treatment objective GER parameters. The study included 25 patients with respiratory disturbance indices >15 without reflux symptoms who had undergone polysomnography at sleep laboratory. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist, and neck circumference of the patients were documented. DeMeester score, LES pressure, and polysomnography parameters were evaluated pre- and post-CPAP. The results were statistically evaluated, and p value <0.05 is considered significant. Out of 25 patients, 21 were male (84 %) and mean age was 49.2 ± 8.6 (range 31-66). At the pre-CPAP phase, mean sphincter pressure was 22.2 ± 1.2 (range 8-73), and mean DeMeester score was 18 ± 15.5 (range 0.2-57). At the post-CPAP, mean sphincter pressure was 22.9 ± 1.6 (range 9-95), and mean DeMeester score was 16.3 ± 14.8 (range 0.2-55). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found comparing pre-CPAP and post-CPAP measurements. Objective criteria show that CPAP treatment does not cause reflux in patients with OSA. Unlike studies reported in the literature, this conclusion has been reached by pre- and post-CPAP assessments.

  9. [PROPOSAL FOR A NEW FORMULA FOR ESTIMATING RESTING ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR HEALTHY SPANISH POPULATION].

    PubMed

    de la Cruz Marcos, Sandra; de Mateo Silleras, Beatriz; Camina Martín, Ma Alicia; Carreño Enciso, Laura; Miján de la Torre, Alberto; Galgani Fuentes, José E; Redondo del Río, Ma Paz

    2015-11-01

    Introducción: aunque se dispone de técnicas precisas y exactas para la estimación del GER, como la calorimetría indirecta (CI), en la práctica diaria se precisan métodos rápidos, fáciles de aplicar y económicos, como los modelos predictivos. Objetivo: desarrollar una nueva ecuación predictiva del gasto energético en reposo (GER) para población española adulta sana. Métodos: se determinó el GER en 95 sujetos sanos con normopeso mediante CI. Se utilizó la regresión lineal múltiple para la obtención del modelo, empleando como criterios analíticos la Cp de Mallows y el R2 ajustado. Se estudió el comportamiento del modelo generado en una muestra de 39 sujetos con IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2 mediante el coeficiente de correlación intraclase (ICC) y la prueba de Bland-Altman. La significación se alcanzó con p < 0,05. Resultados: la edad media fue de 42 años (rango: 23,0– 63,2). El valor medio del GER estimado fue de 1.589,1 kcal/d (312,0). La ecuación seleccionada fue: [GER (kcal/d) = 1.376,4 – 308 Sexo (V = 0; M = 1) + 11,1 Peso (kg) – 8 Edad (años)] (R2: 0,68; EE: 175,95). El CCI entre el nuevo modelo predictivo y la CI fue de 0,901 (IC del 95%: 0,851 – 0,934) en la muestra con normopeso. La aplicación del modelo en la muestra de sujetos con IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2 alcanzó una buena concordancia (CCI de 0,880; IC del 95%: 0,772 – 0,937). Conclusiones: se presenta un nuevo modelo de estimación del GER para población sana española fácilmente aplicable en la práctica diaria, que incluye las variables sexo, edad y peso. La ecuación propuesta presenta un comportamiento adecuado en sujetos con IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2.

  10. Radionuclide scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux in symptomatic and asymptomatic pre-term infants.

    PubMed

    Morigeri, C; Bhattacharya, A; Mukhopadhyay, K; Narang, A; Mittal, B R

    2008-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is very common in pre-term infants. The diagnosis based on symptoms is always questionable. The incidence of GER in symptomatic babies varies from 22% to 85%, but literature regarding the incidence of reflux in asymptomatic pre-term infants is lacking. We used radionuclide scintigraphy to evaluate the incidence of GER in symptomatic as well as asymptomatic pre-term neonates and to assess whether symptoms have any relation with positive scintigraphy. We studied 106 pre-term infants (52 symptomatic, 54 asymptomatic) of less than 34 weeks of gestation, who fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Babies were considered symptomatic in the presence of vomiting, regurgitation, apnea, de-saturations, unexplained bradycardia and recurrent lung collapses. Radionuclide scintigraphy was conducted at post-conceptional age of 32-34 weeks when they were clinically stable for 72 h. Feeding was avoided for 2 h preceding the study. (99m)Tc sulphur colloid was administered in a dose of 1.85 MBq (0.05 mCi) in 1 ml, followed by milk (full feed) through an orogastric tube, prior to imaging under a gamma camera. Reflux was graded as low or high, and reflux episodes during the study were counted. The incidence of GER in the symptomatic group was 71.2% and in asymptomatic babies 61.1% (p = 0.275). High-grade reflux was more common (71.4%) than low-grade (28.6%) in both groups (p = 0.449). Mean number of reflux episodes in 20 min was 4.4 +/- 2.4 in symptomatic babies and 4.9 +/- 2.2 in asymptomatic babies (p = 0.321). Babies with positive scintigraphy were similar in birth weight, gestation, time to achieve full feeds, weight and age at discharge to those with negative scintigraphy. GER is common in pre-term infants of less than 34 weeks gestation. The incidence of positive scintigraphy and grade of reflux is not significantly different in symptomatic vs. asymptomatic babies. Though radionuclide scintigraphy is a simple, quick and non-invasive investigation in

  11. Use of renewable sources of energy in Mexico case: San Antonio Agua Bendita

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez-Vera, J. )

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents a project undertaken in Mexico to electrify the remote village of San Antonio Agua Bendita (SAAB) using a custom designed hybrid power system. The hybrid power system will provide grid quality electricity to this community which would otherwise not have been electrified via traditional distribution lines. The hybrid power system was designed to electrify the entire community, incorporate multiple sources of renewable power with on-demand power, operate autonomously, and be cost effective in dollars per watt of electricity generated over the system's usable life. A major factor in the success of this project is the use of renewable energy for economic development and community partnership. Many rural electrification projects have provided power for domestic use but few have successfully provided power to improve the economic condition of the people served by the system. The SAAB hybrid avoids this pitfall by providing 120 VAC power at 60 Hz to anticipated industrial loads in the village, as well as providing grid quality power for domestic use.

  12. Acoustic design criteria in a general system for structural optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brama, Torsten

    1990-01-01

    Passenger comfort is of great importance in most transport vehicles. For instance, in the new generation of regional turboprop aircraft, a low noise level is vital to be competitive on the market. The possibilities to predict noise levels analytically has improved rapidly in recent years. This will make it possible to take acoustic design criteria into account in early project stages. The development of the ASKA FE-system to include also acoustic analysis has been carried out at Saab Aircraft Division and the Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden in a joint project. New finite elements have been developed to model the free fluid, porous damping materials, and the interaction between the fluid and structural degrees of freedom. The FE approach to the acoustic analysis is best suited for lower frequencies up to a few hundred Hz. For accurate analysis of interior cabin noise, large 3-D FE-models are built, but 2-D models are also considered to be useful for parametric studies and optimization. The interest is here focused on the introduction of an acoustic design criteria in the general structural optimization system OPTSYS available at the Saab Aircraft Division. The first implementation addresses a somewhat limited class of problems. The problems solved are formulated: Minimize the structural weight by modifying the dimensions of the structure while keeping the noise level in the cavity and other structural design criteria within specified limits.

  13. Two recently developed guidance and control systems for sounding rockets and similar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljunge, Lars

    2003-08-01

    Saab Ericsson Space has continued its development of digital control systems, based on its previous experiences from the Maxus GCS and DS19. Two new systems now exist: The S19D guidance and control system, which uses DS19 hardware to execute S19 type guidance and control. The GCS/DMARS guidance, navigation and control system, which is a modernisation of the GCS/RIINS. The family of guidance systems provided by Saab Ericsson Space now includes: The analog S19 and the digital S19D for constant attitude guidance during the first part of a sounding rocket's powered flight. The DS19, that controls the attitude throughout the motor burn phase and navigates the vehicle to a pre-set impact point. The (Maxus) GCS with the same function as the DS19, but using thrust vector control via moveable nozzles instead of canard control. The SPINRAC and the RACS, providing exo-atmospheric impact point and attitude control by on-board thrusters.

  14. On wave radar measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Feld, Graham; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The SAAB REX WaveRadar sensor is widely used for platform-based wave measurement systems by the offshore oil and gas industry. It offers in situ surface elevation wave measurements at relatively low operational costs. Furthermore, there is adequate flexibility in sampling rates, allowing in principle sampling frequencies from 1 to 10 Hz, but with an angular microwave beam width of 10° and an implied ocean surface footprint in the order of metres, significant limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution might be expected. Indeed there are reports that the accuracy of the measurements from wave radars may not be as good as expected. We review the functionality of a WaveRadar using numerical simulations to better understand how WaveRadar estimates compare with known surface elevations. In addition, we review recent field measurements made with a WaveRadar set at the maximum sampling frequency, in the light of the expected functionality and the numerical simulations, and we include inter-comparisons between SAAB radars and buoy measurements for locations in the North Sea.

  15. QWIP at Acreo in Sweden: not only a nightvision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschauer, Bernhard; Andersson, Jan Y.; Alverbro, Jorgen; Halldin, Urban; Malm, Hedda; Martijn, Henk H.; Nordahl, Charlotte; Norden, Ulrika

    2003-01-01

    Acreo in Sweden has been invovled in Quantum Well IR Photodetector (QWIP) reserach and development since 1986. During the first years a small group led by Jan Andersson was dedicated to research on QWIP structures and means of coupling radiation into the quantum-well structure. One of the resarech results is a 2D optical grating couler to create an optimal elecgtric field pattern for highest possible absorption and responsivity. Acreo holds a patent for this grating coupler. Since 1988 FLIR Systems, later FMV, Saab Dynamics, Celsius Tech and NUTEK have sponsoered an R and D project with the goal to develop QWIP detectors and start up production. Soon it became clear that an adapted ROIC deisng and the hybridization of the focal plane array are key issues in order to achieve the highest possible performance and operability of the complete detector device for voluem production. Extended measures where taken in 1996. In 1997 the industrial interest increased further, ClesiusTech and Saab Dynamics, merged in 2000, and now a division of FLIR Systems AB started to sponsor the R and D project. Because of its success during the last years it has now been expanded and scheduled until 2003 and beyond. Volume production of QWIP FPAs started in 2000.

  16. Metabolomics to Decipher the Chemical Defense of Cereals against Fusarium graminearum and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Léa; Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Chéreau, Sylvain; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Gibberella ear rot (GER), two devastating diseases of wheat, barley, and maize. Furthermore, F. graminearum species can produce type B trichothecene mycotoxins that accumulate in grains. Use of FHB and GER resistant cultivars is one of the most promising strategies to reduce damage induced by F. graminearum. Combined with genetic approaches, metabolomic ones can provide powerful opportunities for plant breeding through the identification of resistant biomarker metabolites which have the advantage of integrating the genetic background and the influence of the environment. In the past decade, several metabolomics attempts have been made to decipher the chemical defense that cereals employ to counteract F. graminearum. By covering the major classes of metabolites that have been highlighted and addressing their potential role, this review demonstrates the complex and integrated network of events that cereals can orchestrate to resist to F. graminearum. PMID:26492237

  17. Giant electrorheological effect in Fe2O3 nanofluids under low dc electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raykar, Vijay S.; Sahoo, S. K.; Singh, Ashok K.

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we report the electrorheological (ER) properties of low concentration Fe2O3 nanofluids prepared in ethylene glycol (EG). Spherical Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained by emulsion method in powder form. The obtained NPs were stabilized in time by acetylacetone in EG. The prepared Fe2O3 NPs were characterized using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Fe2O3 nanofluids were tested for ER behavior at low dc electric fields. Giant ER (GER) effect was observed in Fe2O3 nanofluid of higher concentration at electric field of 10 V/mm. The current passing through suspensions and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) convection was reflected in ring like structure formation of Fe2O3 NPs. Relation between suspension viscosity and Mason number revealed that the analysis has to be revised for GER fluids.

  18. Respiratory Pathogens Adopt a Chronic Lifestyle in Response to Bile

    PubMed Central

    Reen, F. Jerry; Woods, David F.; Mooij, Marlies J.; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal

    2012-01-01

    Chronic respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, most particularly in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The recent finding that gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) frequently occurs in CF patients led us to investigate the impact of bile on the behaviour of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and other CF-associated respiratory pathogens. Bile increased biofilm formation, Type Six Secretion, and quorum sensing in P. aeruginosa, all of which are associated with the switch from acute to persistent infection. Furthermore, bile negatively influenced Type Three Secretion and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa, phenotypes associated with acute infection. Bile also modulated biofilm formation in a range of other CF-associated respiratory pathogens, including Burkholderia cepacia and Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, our results suggest that GER-derived bile may be a host determinant contributing to chronic respiratory infection. PMID:23049911

  19. New reference value and the background exposure for the PAH metabolites 1-hydroxypyrene and 1- and 2-naphthol in urine of the general population in Germany: basis for validation of human biomonitoring data in environmental medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Hardt, Jochen; Schulz, Christine; Angerer, Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Reference values for environmental pollutants in the German population are established continuously by the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency. The reference value for 1-hydroxypyrene in urine was derived from the representative adult population data collection of the 1998 German Environmental Survey (GerES III) and the representative data collection for children of the German Environmental Survey on Children, 2003/06 (GerES IV). For the non-smoking general population (aged 3-69 years) the commission derived a reference value of 0.5 microg/l (corresponding to 0.3 microg/g creatinine) for 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. For 1- and 2-naphthol levels in urine the amount of data is small and not representative of the German population. Therefore, the commission recommends the following upper margins of background exposures for adult non-smokers: 1-naphthol less than 30 microg/l, 2-naphthol less than 20 microg/l.

  20. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  1. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Zhiqi; Heron, John; Clarkson, James; Hong, Jeongmin; Ko, Changhyun; Biegalski, Michael; Aschauer, Ulrich; Hsu, Shang-Lin; Nowakowski, Mark; Wu, Junqiao; Christen, Hans; Salahuddin, Sayeef; Bokor, Jeffrey; Spaldin, Nicola; Schlom, Darrell; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a ``giant'' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities, and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behavior is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites, and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  2. [The role of preventive chemotherapy in the present tuberculosis epidemiology of GDR (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Krebs, A

    1977-01-01

    The risk of "Gesunde Befundträger" (healthy carriers of pulmonary lesions) to develop pulmonary tuberculosis is compared with that of persons with X-ray shadows in the lung. In the group of "Gesunde Befundträger" this risk can be further differentiated, being highest among males with positive tuberculin skin test and more extended X-ray shadows in the lung. Judging from a follow-up of 4 years in the double-blind trial on isoniazid preventive treatment in persons with fibrotic lesions, the risk of developing pulmonary tuberculosis is reduced by 2/3 by giving 300 mg isoniazid daily during 24 weeks. In the present epidemiological stage of tuberculosis in GDR, preventive treatment of persons with highest risk of developing tuberculosis disease is the most promising prophylactic measure. The recommedations to reduce side-effects must be observed.

  3. Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Pescarus, Radu; Shlomovitz, Eran; Swanstrom, Lee L

    2014-01-01

    Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for achalasia. Since the first modern human cases were published in 2008, around 2,000 cases have been performed worldwide. This technique requires advanced endoscopic skills and a learning curve of at least 20 cases. POEM is highly successful with over 90 % improvement in dysphagia while offering patients the advantage of a low impact endoscopic access. The main long-term complication is gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with an estimated incidence of 35 %, similar to the incidence of GER post-laparoscopic Heller with fundoplication. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift in the treatment of achalasia, more long-term data are clearly needed to further define its role in the treatment algorithm of this rare disease.

  4. Cryptosporidium is more closely related to the gregarines than to coccidia as shown by phylogenetic analysis of apicomplexan parasites inferred using small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Carreno, R A; Martin, D S; Barta, J R

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic placement of gregarine parasites (Apicomplexa: Gregarinasina) within the Apicomplexa was derived by comparison of small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Gregarine sequences were obtained from Gregarina niphandrodes Clopton, Percival, and Janovy, 1991, and Monocystis agilis Stein, 1848 (Eugregarinorida Léger 1900), as well as from Ophriocystis elektroscirrha McLaughlin and Myers, 1970 (Neogregarinorida Grassé 1953). The sequences were aligned with several other gregarine and apicomplexan sequences from GenBank and the resulting data matrix analyzed by parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. The gregarines form a monophyletic clade that is a sister group to Cryptosporidium spp. The gregarine/ Cryptosporidium clade is separate from the other major apicomplexan clade containing the coccidia, adeleids, piroplasms, and haemosporinids. The trees indicate that the genus Cryptosporidium has a closer phylogenetic affinity with the gregarines than with the coccidia. These results do not support the present classification of the Cryptosporidiidae in the suborder Eimerioirina Léger, 1911.

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease: recent advances and its association with sleep.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Hwan

    2016-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is prevalent in Asia as well as in Western countries. Sleep disturbance and breathing disorders during sleep are becoming increasingly prevalent, and they are commonly associated with GERD. The relationship between GERD and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is still questionable, and it has expanded to include Barrett's esophagus. Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) symptoms might be clinically important in the explanation of this association. The therapy for reflux symptoms has resulted in improved subjective sleep parameters and enhanced sleep quality, thus supporting a direct relationship between GERD and sleep disturbance. This review discusses the epidemiology of sleep disturbances in GERD patients; the causative relationship between GERD and OSA, even though it remains an area of controversy; and the possible role of nGER in sleep problems. It also provides an update on the current state of knowledge linking GERD and sleep. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Generalized balance equations for charged particle transport via localized and delocalized states: Mobility, generalized Einstein relations, and fractional transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Peter W.; Philippa, Bronson; Cocks, Daniel; White, Ronald D.

    2017-04-01

    A generalized phase-space kinetic Boltzmann equation for highly nonequilibrium charged particle transport via localized and delocalized states is used to develop continuity, momentum, and energy balance equations, accounting explicitly for scattering, trapping and detrapping, and recombination loss processes. Analytic expressions detail the effect of these microscopic processes on mobility and diffusivity. Generalized Einstein relations (GER) are developed that enable the anisotropic nature of diffusion to be determined in terms of the measured field dependence of the mobility. Interesting phenomena such as negative differential conductivity and recombination heating and cooling are shown to arise from recombination loss processes and the localized and delocalized nature of transport. Fractional transport emerges naturally within this framework through the appropriate choice of divergent mean waiting time distributions for localized states, and fractional generalizations of the GER and mobility are presented. Signature impacts on time-of-flight current transients of recombination loss processes via both localized and delocalized states are presented.

  7. UAVs - Current Situation and Considerations for the Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    prospectionAAI Corp. has been involved with the Pioneer UAV from Examples Crecerelle, Dragon, EyeView, Fox , Heliot+, Mirach 26, Nlshant, the onset, and...Tactical LADP RS Hussard FW Tactical CR FOG RSTA Altec Industries S-Mart FW Tactical SR RSTA CAC Systbmes Fox AT & TX FW Tactical SR RSTA K100 FW...high-winged monoplane with boom fuselage - Schiebel Elektr. Ger.te, Austria Camcopter andT tail unit (Raven-Flight Refueling, UK & Fox MLCS

  8. Vapor Jet Ejector Used to Generate Free Waste Heat Driven Cooling in Military Environmental Cooling Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    vap erant vapor is or by a J-tub essure side of using similar pressure incre ump in order o the diesel-e per heat excha recovered at to the exhaus...top of the a tering the com at exchanger. g of the conve id flow. A nit essure pulsati tor where the ed in the cool erature level. ger where wa

  9. Evaluation of Methodologies for Estimating Vulnerability to Electromagnetic Pulse Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    consequences, and the best near-term practices and lo.ger-term research needed for meeting it. *6 The heart of the EMP problem is to ensure completion...Electromagnetic Pulse--System-Relevant Issues and Recomaendations HRIAR S. CABA1AN, La.rence Livermore National Laboratory tigh-Altitude EM? ( HEMP ...Mexico: Air Force Weapons Laboratory (MFWL-TR-80-128, Pt. 1). September. Boeing Company. 1981. HEMP Protection Capabilities as Indicated by the NAVCAMS

  10. Review of High Power Density Superconducting Generators: Present State and Prospects for Incorporating YBCO Windings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    efficient cryocoolers such as Stirling and Pulse Tube cryocoolers . Stirling cryocoolers have been used by the military for decades for sensor cool- ing...but these cryocoolers are too small for cooling the lar- ger volume associated with superconducting power applications. Large Stirling and Pulse Tube...Air Force contract for a laser application is a lightweight Stirling cryocooler weighing only 19 lbs and delivering 16 W of refrigeration at 80 K [39

  11. [The rural exodus continues in the city, at Monterrey, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zuniga, V

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of recent rural migrants in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, is presented. The focus of the study is on the impact of rural-urban migration on social class. The author concludes that in contrast to Europe, where the assimilation of rural migrants has been the norm, migrants in Monterrey are in the process of establishing original and distinct social and economic structures in the city. (summary in ENG, GER, SPA)

  12. Adaptive Reorganization of German Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Assistance ME Mission Element MOD Ministry of Defense MFR Military Leadership Council (German: Militärischer Führungsrat) NATO North Atlantic...option of assuming command responsibility as a framework nation and  Providing the required capabilities for the entire task spectrum, into which...unclassified NATO paper that cannot issue directives regarding Germany’s approach to establishing GER SOF’s chain of command, NATO provides the framework

  13. The Anthrax Terror. DOD’s Number-One Biological Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    large quantities of anthrax and glanders organisms were grown. A Ger­ man agent, Capt Frederick Hinsch, used these to inoculate horses in Baltimore...program began receiv­ ing scrutiny under President F. W. de Klerk in the early 1990s, which led to the firing of nu­ merous scientists working the program...Rise of CB Weapons (New York: Humanities Press, 1971), 216; and Frederick R. Sidell, Ernest T. Takafuji, and David R. Franz, eds., Textbook of

  14. Fortresses and Icebergs: The Evolution of the Transatlantic Defense Market and the Implications for U.S. National Security Policy. Volume 2: Country Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    unsustainable social welfare system have created pressure to limit or reduce defense spending.216 With the increasing complexity and cost of modern weapon...31, 2007: • Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales (SEPI) (5.49 percent equity) A holding company owned by the Spanish government • Daimler...industries, of bringing infrastructure up to Western standards, of providing the East Ger- man population with job training and the level of social

  15. Breast Tumor Detection and Treatment Using Tarvacin Labeled with Arsenic Radionuclides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    as bavituximab (formerly named TarvacinTM). Normally, PS exclusively resides on the cytosolic leaflet of the plasma membrane . However, in tumors PS...germanium in 8 M HCl or other mineral acids on silica gel columns. Under th ese conditions elements like gallium, arsenic and zinc are eluted from the...TCEP. 5. Conclusion A highly selective method for the separation of nca radioarsenic isotopes from bulk amounts of ger manium targets and

  16. Verification of Cost Estimating Procedures for MAPS Computer Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    has been assuming a lar- data entered are stored in the data base from run-to-run so ger role in planning assistance in water supply recently through...population and water Equation and a numerical approximation to the Moody dis- ue projections can be stored in the program for each service gram. The...water sources were adequate potatal Reonm of Nashville Urbn Study. Waser Supply Nmmssue for future needs. The moat promising surface watRC sou11rces

  17. Biological Terrorism: US Policies to Reduce Global Biothreats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    hardening of partisan divisions on national security and foreign policy, limiting productive debate and blocking effective action by Congress and...likely to deploy diplomatic, eco- nomic, and political tools to support their foreign policies than to order military action against one another...bioterrorist ambitions and plans omi- nously portend a clear and present dan- ger of the highest order that Al Qaeda (or another terrorist group) will

  18. Esophageal Bolus Transit in Newborns with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms: A Multichannel Intraluminal Impedance Study

    PubMed Central

    Liguori, Stefania Alfonsina; Maggiora, Elena; Locatelli, Emanuela; Indrio, Flavia; Bertino, Enrico; Coscia, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate bolus transit during esophageal swallow (ES) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) events and to investigate the relationship between the characteristics of ES and GER events in a population of term and preterm newborns with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods The study population consisted of term and preterm newborns referred to combined multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) and pH monitoring for GERD symptoms. The frequency and characteristics of ES and GER events were assessed by two independent investigators. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Fifty-four newborns (23 preterm) were included in the analyses. Median bolus head advancing time corrected for esophageal length (BHATc) was shorter during mealtime than during the postprandial period (median, interquartile range): 0.20 (0.15-0.29) s/cm vs. 0.47 (0.39-0.64) s/cm, p<0.001. Median bolus presence time (BPT) was prolonged during mealtime: 4.71(3.49-6.27) s vs. 2.66 (1.82-3.73) s, p<0.001. Higher BHATc (p=0.03) and prolonged BPT (p<0.001) were observed in preterm newborns during the postprandial period. A significant positive correlation between BHATc and bolus clearance time was also observed (ρ=0.33, p=0.016). Conclusion The analysis of ES and GER events at the same time by MII provides useful information to better understand the physiopathology of GERD. In particular, the analysis of BHATc during the postprandial period could help clinicians identify newborns with prolonged esophageal clearance time due to impaired esophageal motility, which could allow for more accurate recommendations regarding further tests and treatment. PMID:26770898

  19. Evaluation of the Portable Instantaneous Display Analysis Spectrometer (PIDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, R. J. P.; Rubin, Tod; Ohashi, Makoto

    1988-01-01

    The Portable Instantaneous Display Analysis System (PIDAS) was evaluated by measuring 125 spectra of mineral specimens and rock samples under the following conditions: in the laboratory under artificial illumination and outdoors, on the building patio, while still using the line voltage electric power supplies. The PIDAS was compared and contrasted with the GEOSCAN PFS, Daedalus-Spectrafax 440, and the Geophysical Environmental Research (GER) IRIS Mark 4.

  20. The Sociopolitical Aspects of German Industrial Organization. A Model for Eastern Europe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    a distinctive form of corporate governance and a managerial ethos that is substantially differ- ent from that found in the United States. It has also... GOVERNANCE The corporate governance process in Germany is structured to reflect the (current) desire for inclusivity, here best defined as a...opposed to an exclusive industrial system. Thus, compared to other models of corporate governance , the Ger- man model is unique, in that the overall

  1. Effect of the duration of food withholding prior to anesthesia on gastroesophageal reflux and regurgitation in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Viskjer, Sivert; Sjöström, Lennart

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the incidence of and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and regurgitation associated with preanesthetic food withholding for periods of 18 hours (overnight) and 3 hours in healthy dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. ANIMALS 82 healthy (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I or II) client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES Food was withheld for 18 hours (18-hour group [n = 41]) or each dog was allowed to consume half its daily ration of canned food approximately 3 hours (3-hour group [n = 41]) prior to induction of anesthesia. In each anesthetized dog, a pH catheter was introduced through the oropharynx into the distal portion of the esophagus; the pH was continuously recorded throughout the period of anesthesia. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as pH < 4.0. RESULTS Gastroesophageal reflux was significantly associated with age, dorsal recumbency, and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. Regurgitation was significantly associated with duration of GER and duration of preanesthetic food withholding. During anesthesia, 25 (61%) dogs in the 3-hour group had GER and 12 (48%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content; 18 (43.9%) dogs in the 18-hour group had GER and 2 (11.1%) of those dogs regurgitated gastric content. The mean lowest pH measured in the refluxate in the 3-hour group (2.3) was significantly greater than that in the 18-hour group (1.3). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Among the study dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery, consumption of a light meal 3 hours prior to anesthesia was associated with significantly greater odds of reflux and regurgitation, compared with overnight food withholding.

  2. Inspiratory oscillatory flow with a portable ventilator: a bench study

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guenther E; Trimmel, Helmut; Fitzgerald, Robert D

    2005-01-01

    Introduction We observed an oscillatory flow while ventilating critically ill patients with the Dräger Oxylog 3000™ transport ventilator during interhospital transfer. The phenomenon occurred in paediatric patients or in adult patients with severe airway obstruction ventilated in the pressure-regulated or pressure-controlled mode. As this had not been described previously, we conducted a bench study to investigate the phenomenon. Methods An Oxylog 3000™ intensive care unit ventilator and a Dräger Medical Evita-4 NeoFlow™ intensive care unit ventilator were connected to a Dräger Medical LS800™ lung simulator. Data were registered by a Datex-S5™ Monitor with a D-fend™ flow and pressure sensor, and were analysed with a laptop using S5-Collect™ software. Clinical conditions were simulated using various ventilatory modes, using various ventilator settings, using different filters and endotracheal tubes, and by changing the resistance and compliance. Data were recorded for 258 combinations of patient factors and respirator settings to detect thresholds for the occurrence of the phenomenon and methods to overcome it. Results Under conditions with high resistance in pressure-regulated ventilation with the Oxylog 3000™, an oscillatory flow during inspiration produced rapid changes of the airway pressure. The phenomenon resulted in a jerky inspiration with high peak airway pressures, higher than those set on the ventilator. Reducing the inspiratory flow velocity was effective to terminate the phenomenon, but resulted in reduced tidal volumes. Conclusion Oscillatory flow with potentially harmful effects may occur during ventilation with the Dräger Oxylog 3000™, especially in conditions with high resistance such as small airways in children (endotracheal tube internal diameter <6 mm) or severe obstructive lung diseases or airway diseases in adult patients. PMID:16137343

  3. Monovalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Protects Guinea Pigs and Nonhuman Primates Against Infection with Multiple Marburg Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Kolesnikova L, Smolina M et al. Ebola virus infection in guinea pigs: presumable role of granulomatous inflammation in pathogenesis . Arch. Virol. 141...Slenczka W. The pathogenesis and epidemiology of the “Marburg- virus ” infection. Ger. Med. Mon. 14(1), 7–10 (1969). 36 Haas R, Maass G. Experimental...isolates. KEYWORDS: antibody • Ebola • filovirus • Marburg • nonhuman primate • protective immunity • vaccine • virus -like particle Marburg virus (MARV

  4. Anthrax Vaccines: Pasteur to the Present

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    After host death, bacteria in the carcass exposed to air (through hemorrhages, opening of the carcass by scaven- gers, etc.) sporulate and return to...genes [16]. The chromosomal sequence and gene or- ganization is quite similar to that of the closely related bacteria B. cereus and B. thuringiensis [17...codes lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET) [18, 19], while the biosynthetic enzymes of the poly-D-gamma glutamic acid capsule are encoded on a

  5. The Self-Shielding of Fallout Gamma Rays by Terrain Roughness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-28

    Monte C, ORNL/TM-9355, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 1985. 98 7. Emmett, M. B., General Purpose Monte Carlo Multigroup Neutron and Gamma...I 28 FEBRUARY 1991 Di~t 3; or A v o p Approved for public release; distribution unlimited .- - i. ... .. F...model the fallout gamma source distribution , it will be modelled as an infinite plane source with gamma emission rates (GER) and gamma energy spectra as

  6. Acquisition of diagnostic and surgical skills in otorhinolaryngology: a comparison of France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oker, Natalie; Escabasse, Virginie; Al-Otaibi, Naif; Coste, Andre; Albers, Andreas E

    2015-11-01

    With the coalescing of the European countries, among many others, official initiatives have been launched to propose minimum requirements for Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery (ORL) specialty training by creating an European log book. This study was initiated to assess and compare the acquisition of basic medical key diagnostic and surgical skills by residents and recent ORL specialists in France (FRA) and Germany (GER) and to determine whether gender-specific differences exist. For this, an anonymous questionnaire with questions to basic medical, diagnostic and surgical procedures specific to ORL was developed. 120 FRA and 125 GER questionnaires were returned from participants with a median training experience of 4 years. The female to male ratio was 1.3:1 and 78% of respondents were residents and 22% recent specialists. Concerning diagnostic procedures, there was no significant overall difference. Germans performed better in basic medical skills, while study participants from FRA had performed surgical procedures significantly more often in a more independent manner than German respondents in the areas of otology, rhinology and head and neck. Only in septoplasty, as part of rhinology, the Germans had a light advantage compared to the French. No difference was found for trauma surgery. No gender-specific difference became apparent. Taken together, in FRA, ORL training is far more surgically orientated than in GER. It remains unclear at what time, the Germans may catch up with their skills. Initiatives should be taken in GER to secure an adequate acquisition of surgical skill and experience to maintain a high level of ORL-specific competence.

  7. JPRS Report Science & Technology Europe, Economic Competitiveness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    urinary tracts. Participants: Aix- la-Chapelle Technology University, Deutsches Woll- forchungsinstitut; Union Explosivos Rio Tinto (Sp), Vygon (Ger...time being on activities that will be profitable in the short term. At the end of 1989, there were 87,000 people working in industrial R&D in the...basis of innovation—does not have an easy task ahead. With the association, basic research and training , especially at university level

  8. Effects of the SpoVT Regulatory Protein on the Germination and Germination Protein Levels of Spores of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Peralta, Arturo; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V.; Thomas, Stacy K.; Setlow, Barbara; Chen, Zhan; Li, Yong-qing

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis isolates lacking the SpoVT protein, which regulates gene expression in developing forespores, gave spores that released their dipicolinic acid (DPA) via germinant receptor (GR)-dependent germination more rapidly than wild-type spores. Non-GR-dependent germination via dodecylamine was more rapid with spoVT spores, but germination via Ca-DPA was slower. The effects of a spoVT mutation on spore germination were seen with spores made in rich and poor media, and levels of SpoVT-LacZ were elevated 2-fold in poor-medium spores; however, elevated SpoVT levels were not the only cause of the slower GR-dependent germination of poor-medium spores. The spoVT spores had ≥5-fold higher GerA GR levels, ∼2-fold elevated GerB GR levels, wild-type levels of a GerK GR subunit and the GerD protein required for normal GR-dependent germination, ∼2.5-fold lower levels of the SpoVAD protein involved in DPA release in spore germination, and 30% lower levels of DNA protective α/β-type small, acid-soluble spore proteins. With one exception, the effects on protein levels in spoVT spores are consistent with the effects of SpoVT on forespore transcription. The spoVT spores were also more sensitive to UV radiation and outgrew slowly. While spoVT spores' elevated GR levels were consistent with their more rapid GR-dependent germination, detailed analysis of the results suggested that there is another gene product crucial for GR-dependent spore germination that is upregulated in the absence of SpoVT. Overall, these results indicate that SpoVT levels during spore formation have a major impact on the germination and the resistance of the resultant spores. PMID:22522895

  9. Gastroesophageal reflux in morbidly obese patients treated with gastric banding or vertical banded gastroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Ovrebø, K K; Hatlebakk, J G; Viste, A; Bassøe, H H; Svanes, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare gastric banding (GB) and vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG) with respect to postsurgical gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and to investigate the role of preexisting hiatus hernia. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: GB and VBG have for a long time been used in the treatment of morbidly obese patients. The introduction of laparoscopic techniques has renewed the interest in these operations. The long-term results after GB have, however, been poor. VBG was suggested to have antireflux properties because it involves repositioning and retaining the gastroesophageal junction within the abdomen and constructing an elongated intraabdominal tube. METHODS: Forty-three morbidly obese patients accepted for GB or VBG were evaluated for GER before and at regular intervals after surgery. All patients were questioned about adverse symptoms and need for antireflux medication. Both before and after surgery, 24-hour pH measurement and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of heartburn and acid regurgitation among patients treated with GB increased from 14% and 13% to 63% and 69%, respectively. Heartburn and acid regurgitation were present before surgery in 32% and 23% of patients treated with VBG, percentages unchanged by the procedure. The 24-hour reflux time increased significantly from 6.4% to 30.9% in patients treated with GB but was essentially unchanged in patients treated with VBG. The prevalence of esophagitis after GB and VBG was 75% and 20%. Acid inhibitors were needed in 81% of patients after GB and 29% of patients after VBG. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of GER was unchanged by VBG, but VBG did not demonstrate antireflux properties. The incidence of GER increased markedly after GB. PMID:9671066

  10. Training Effectiveness Assessment. Volume II. Problems, Concepts, and Evaluation Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-01

    arize train i ng mana gers and poter t iai training evaluators wit h the general requ i rements and procedures for ma~ing suchassessments . EVALUATION...Performance Te stin A Practical Guide for Test Makers. January 1971 . Educationa Testing Service , Princeton , NJ. Harris , J . H., Campbell , R. C...1970. American Institutes for Research , P i tts bur gh , PA. pp. 48-66. Harris , C. (Ed.) Problems in Measuring Change. 1963. Univers ity of Wi

  11. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Simin; dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R.; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A.; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (EF) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule’s vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10−11 M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps. PMID:27532043

  12. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of extended release gabapentin in provoked vestibulodynia and biological correlates of response

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Candace S; Foster, David C; Wan, Jim Y; Rawlinson, Leslie; Bachmann, Gloria A

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted to establish evidence-based management protocols for provoked vestibulodynia (PVD), a chronic vulvar pain condition affecting approximately 14 million women in the U.S. We describe the rationale and design of an NIH funded multicenter clinical trial utilizing an extended release formulation of gabapentin (G-ER), an intervention that preliminary data suggest may be efficacious for this condition. Objectives 1) to determine if pain from tampon insertion (primary outcome measure) is lower in PVD patients when treated with G-ER compared to when treated with placebo and 2) to determine if G-ER reduces vulvar mechanical hyperalgesia, vaginal muscle pain to palpation, the number and intensity of somatic tenderpoints, spontaneous and provoked pain to intradermal capsaicin with an accompanying increase in cardiac beat-to-beat variability and to identify mechanistically-based PVD subtypes. Additional outcomes include subject reported intercourse pain and summative 24-hour pain. Methods This 16-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study will enroll 120 women 18 years and older who report tenderness localized to the vulvar vestibule, pain with tampon insertion, and, when sexually active, insertional dyspareunia. Electronically entered daily diaries will be used to determine if pain is lower in PVD subjects when treated with G-ER (up to 3000 mg/d) compared to when treated with placebo. Psychophysiological measures will be obtained at baseline and after 2 weeks at the maximum tolerated dose. Conclusion We will conduct the first multicenter RCT to confirm efficacy of an agent that is currently used in clinical practice for treating PVD. PMID:23816491

  13. The Effect of Acute Stress on Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Sub; Noh, Chung Kyun; Lee, Kwang Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Little research has been done to evaluate the effect of stress in exacerbating the symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). We aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress on esophageal motility and GER parameters in healthy volunteers. Methods A total of 10 (M:F = 8:2, median age 34 years-old) healthy volunteers without any recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms participated in this study. They underwent esophageal high-resolution manometry with 10 wet swallows (Experiment I) and esophageal impedance-pH monitoring (Experiment II) in the basal period and in the stress period. In the stress period, either real stress or sham stress was given in a randomized cross-over design. The stress scores, symptom severity, and pulse rates were measured. Results The stress scores and the severity of nausea were significantly greater under real stress, compared with sham stress. The percentages of weak, failed, rapid, premature, and hyper-contractile contractions were not significantly altered during real stress and during sham stress, compared with the basal period. The median resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter and distal contractile integral of esophageal contractions did not differ in the stress period, compared with the basal period. Contractile front velocity and distal latency of esophageal peristaltic contractions were significantly changed during real stress, which was not observed during sham stress. GER parameters were not significantly altered during real stress and during sham stress. Conclusion Although acute auditory and visual stress seems to affect esophageal body motility, it does not induce significant motor abnormalities or increase GER in healthy humans. PMID:28049863

  14. Low validation rate of quantitative trait loci for Gibberella ear rot resistance in European maize.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Pedro Correa; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Schrag, Tobias A; Utz, H Friedrich; Schipprack, Wolfgang; Kessel, Bettina; Ouzunova, Milena; Miedaner, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Six quantitative trait loci (QTL) for Gibberella ear rot resistance in maize were tested in two different genetic backgrounds; three QTL displayed an effect in few near isogenic line pairs. Few quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping studies for Gibberella ear rot (GER) have been conducted, but no QTL have been verified so far. QTL validation is prudent before their implementation into marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs. Our objectives were to (1) validate six QTL for GER resistance, (2) evaluate the QTL across two genetic backgrounds, (3) investigate the genetic background outside the targeted introgressions. Pairs of near isogenic lines (NILs) segregating for a single QTL (Qger1, Qger2, Qger10, Qger13, Qger16, or Qger21) were developed by recurrent backcross until generation BC3S2. Donor parents (DP) carrying QTL were backcrossed to a susceptible (UH009) and a moderately resistant (UH007) recurrent parent. MAS was performed using five SNP markers covering a region of 40 cM around each QTL. All NILs were genotyped with the MaizeSNP50 assay and phenotyped for GER severity and deoxynivalenol and zearalenone content. Traits were significantly (P < 0.001) intercorrelated. Out of 34 NIL pairs with the UH009 genetic background, three pairs showed significant differences in at least one trait for three QTL (Qger1, Qger2, Qger13). Out of 25 NIL pairs with the UH007 genetic background, five pairs showed significant differences in at least one trait for two QTL (Qger2, Qger21). However, Qger16, Qger10 and Qger13 were most likely false positives. The genetic background possibly affected NIL pairs comparisons due to linkage drag and/or epistasis with residual loci from the DP in non-target regions. In conclusion, validation rates were disappointingly low, which further indicates that GER resistance is controlled by many low-effect QTL.

  15. Approaches to Synthesis of a CMOS Accelerometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    tartP o in ti In itia l S o ln w ith in te ger variab le s ha v ing re al va lues X in t1= X int1 X int2= X in t2 R elaxed O p tim ization X...37 V . Verification of Synthesis...39 V .1 Lumped Parameter Model Validation for Equation-based

  16. Role of Electronic-Commerce in the Growth of Tunisian Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    biggest reasons behind the abstention from online shopping continues to be security related with 30% (up by 5%) of abstainers stating that they didn’t...Abstaining from Online Shopping , [http://www.tnsofres.com/ger2002/onlineshopping/index.cfm#online2002], June, 2002 22. Zitoun, Hassoumi and...also marked an exponential growth in western European countries. The report identified Germany, Britain and France as the top three consumer online

  17. Six Sinopoda species (Araneae: Sparassidae) from Fujian and Yunnan Provinces in China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yang; Cao, Xiaowei; Liu, Jie

    2017-02-02

    Five new Sinopoda species collected from China are diagnosed, described and illustrated: S. afflata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan), S. horizontalis sp. nov. (♀, Fujian), S. liui sp. nov. (♀, Fujian), S. mamillata sp. nov. (♂♀, Yunnan), S. separata sp. nov. (♀, Yunnan). The female of S. anguina Liu, Li & Jäger, 2008 is described for the first time from Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture and Baoshan City, Yunnan province, China.

  18. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with increased impedance measures of reflux compared to non-fibrotic disease among pre-lung transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Gavini, S; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2015-09-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although the mechanism remains unclear. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration may lead to lung fibrosis, while increased pulmonary workload may also worsen GER. Comparing the GER profile of IPF patients to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with similar lung function may help delineate the role of GER in IPF pathogenesis. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF and COPD patients undergoing pre-lung transplant multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) off acid suppression at a tertiary center in 2008-2014. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Baseline demographics, pulmonary function test, and MII-pH results were recorded. Univariate analyses were performed using Fisher's exact (binary variables) and Student's t (continuous variables) tests. Logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. A total of 90 subjects (54 IPF, 36 COPD) met inclusion criteria. Compared to COPD, IPF patients had increased total reflux episodes (65.9 vs 46.1, p = 0.02), proximal reflux episodes (30.3 vs 20.3, p = 0.04), and prevalence of abnormal total reflux episodes (38.9% vs 16.7%, p = 0.02). On multivariate analyses, abnormal total reflux episodes (OR: 4.9, p = 0.05) and bolus reflux exposure time (OR: 4, p = 0.04) remained significantly associated with IPF. Abnormal reflux was significantly more prevalent among IPF patients after controlling for lung disease severity. Gastroesophageal reflux/microaspiration likely plays a role in fibrosis in IPF. A significant portion of IPF patients had increased non-acid reflux. Therapies aiming to prevent reflux of gastric contents may be more beneficial than antisecretory medications alone in these patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Ultrasensitive molecular sensor using N-doped graphene through enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Feng, Simin; Dos Santos, Maria Cristina; Carvalho, Bruno R; Lv, Ruitao; Li, Qing; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Elías, Ana Laura; Lei, Yu; Perea-López, Nestor; Endo, Morinobu; Pan, Minghu; Pimenta, Marcos A; Terrones, Mauricio

    2016-07-01

    As a novel and efficient surface analysis technique, graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS) has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. In particular, chemically doped graphene exhibits improved GERS effects when compared with pristine graphene for certain dyes, and it can be used to efficiently detect trace amounts of molecules. However, the GERS mechanism remains an open question. We present a comprehensive study on the GERS effect of pristine graphene and nitrogen-doped graphene. By controlling nitrogen doping, the Fermi level (E F) of graphene shifts, and if this shift aligns with the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of a molecule, charge transfer is enhanced, thus significantly amplifying the molecule's vibrational Raman modes. We confirmed these findings using different organic fluorescent molecules: rhodamine B, crystal violet, and methylene blue. The Raman signals from these dye molecules can be detected even for concentrations as low as 10(-11) M, thus providing outstanding molecular sensing capabilities. To explain our results, these nitrogen-doped graphene-molecule systems were modeled using dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Furthermore, we demonstrated that it is possible to determine the gaps between the highest occupied and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO) of different molecules when different laser excitations are used. Our simulated Raman spectra of the molecules also suggest that the measured Raman shifts come from the dyes that have an extra electron. This work demonstrates that nitrogen-doped graphene has enormous potential as a substrate when detecting low concentrations of molecules and could also allow for an effective identification of their HOMO-LUMO gaps.

  20. European Scientific Notes. Volume 39, Number 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    currently considering application of a lands, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Japan, rudder-roll stabilization autopilot to a and Spain. Sixty unclassified...an adaptive autopilot . These parame- ger is the Liaison Scientist for Materi- ters are equally important for assessing als Science in Europe and the...Middle the performance of an autopilot with East for the Office of Naval Research’s respect to fuel economy, because the London Branch Office. He is on

  1. MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIESL: Operation Rosselsprung and the Elimination of Tito, 25 May 1944: A Failure in Planning and Intelligence Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    39 Otto Kumm, Prinz Eugen: The History of the 7. SS-Mountain Division ( Winnipeg : J.J. Fedorowicz... Division . Winnipeg : J.J. Fedorowicz Publishing, 1995. Kunzmann, Adolf, and Siegfried Milius. Fallschirmjäger der Waffen-SS im Bild. Osnabruck: Munin...seize abandoned Italian supply dumps on the Adriatic coast and were able to equip themselves with more than 10 divisions worth of equipment.5 One of

  2. Soviet Night Operations in World War II (Leavenworth Papers, Number 6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    to capitalize on nrght operations and to explort that capability rn its quest for vrctory over the German Army. The Soviets have not forgotten that...operations.al Hitler had ordered certain German bridgeheads on the Dnieper held at all costs , Among these were Zaporozh’e and Kiev, both of which figured...occupation force by morning. This encirclement battle alone cost the Ger- mans 20,000 killed and 10,000 captured.44 To the south, the forces of

  3. Merging medical humanism and technology.

    PubMed

    Armentano, R; de Forteza, E

    2010-01-01

    Dr. René Gerónimo Favaloro (12 July 1923 to 29 July 2000) was an Argentinian cardiovascular surgeon who revolutionized the field with his pioneering contributions, the most remarkable being the standardization of the coronary artery bypass surgery, performed for the first time in 1967. This technique, today one of the most commonly performed major operations, improved and saved the lives of countless patients with ischemic heart disease throughout the world and gained him international recognition.

  4. DEU Needs on Ammunition Storage in Missions Abroad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    climatic conditions 1 e.g. the German Basic Law (particularly Article 87 a/b, Article 24, para 2, Article ...35 and Article 91), the Ger- man Weapons Law and the German law on explosive substances (Explosives Act) 2 German Joint Service Regulations of...engineering are employed and re- ceive further specialist training. In close cooperation and coordination with the Bundeswehr technical centers, the

  5. Physics in Europe--A Data File of Selected Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-18

    Phys. Lett. 41, no.7, p604 (1982). 336 HYDROD ring vortex turbulent behavior 0 W Ger Gottingen MPI fur Stromungsforsch Schneider MPI report ISSN 0436...Nature 307, p245, 19 Jan 1984 430 HYDROD vortex sheddinq spinning cylinder experiments Spain Tarragona Univ. de Barcelona Diaz Phys. Fluids 26, No.12...Phys. Dl7, p185 (1984) 445 DIAGNO cold neutron radiography grain size UK Birmingham Univ. of Birmingham Allen J. Phys. D17, p99 (1984) 446 DIAGNO

  6. Dynamic Compressibility, Shear Strength, and Fracture Behavior of Ceramic Microstructures Predicted from Mesoscale Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    grain geometries are produced using a Monte Carlo grain growth algorithm [24]. Volume meshes of tetrahedral elements are created from stereo...24. Rollett, A. D. and Manohar, P., “The Monte Carlo method,” in: Continuum Scale Simulation of Engineering Materials, Wiley-VCH, Weinhem, Ger...NO. OF COPIES ORGANIZATION 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL (PDF INFORMATION CTR only) DTIC OCA 8725 JOHN J KINGMAN RD STE 0944 FORT BELVOIR

  7. Leistungsverzeichnis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bölke, Klaus-Peter

    Grundvoraussetzung eines jeden Dienstleistungsauftrages ist eine Ausschreibung, die öffentlich oder auch beschränkt erfolgen kann. Hierfür sind vom Auftraggeber entsprechende Ausschreibungstexte herauszugeben. Diese Ausschreibungstexte müssen sich aus den Vorbemerkungen, die die allgemeinen Erläuterungen zum Leistungsumfang, den Leistungen des Auftraggebers, den Anforderungen zur personellen, gerätetechnischen und fachlichen Kompetenz eines Auftragnehmers sowie den Anforderungen zur Durchführung der zu leistenden Arbeit und den allgemeinen Vertragsbedingungen beinhalten,

  8. Ein Framework für echtzeitfähige Ethernet-Netzwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopatka, Frank

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Entwicklung eines formalen Framewoks vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe zwischen der Kompatibilität zum verbreiteten baumförmigen Standard-Ethernet und der Einhaltung von Echtzeitanforderungen einer automatisierten Anlage variiert werden kann. Damit kann bereits vor der Auswahl einer bestimmten Technologie eine Schedule der Echtzeit-Übertragungen offline kalkuliert und simuliert werden, sobald die Anforderungen der Geräte im industriellen Echtzeit-Netzwerk bekannt sind.

  9. Naval War College Review. Volume 61, Number 4, Autumn 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    that control much of Serbia’s economy and politics, but much more effort is required to defeat the perverse system that originated under Tito and...World War, p. 665. 6. J. P. Hobbs , Dear General: Eisenhower’s War- time Letters to Marshall (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1971), p. 55. 7...in the Second World War, p. 481. 39. Hobbs , Dear General, p. 54. 40. ZTPGM/2863, 2864, in ULTRA: Secret Ger- man Messages from World War II—Military

  10. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, Military History Journal, No. 1, January 1988

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-15

    carrying out the tasks con- fronting the Armed Forces. This, as was pointed out at a meeting of the party aktiv of the USSR Ministry of Defense means the...ideological aktiv , for this helps the commanders avoid excessive management by mere injunction. "The CPSU considers it essential to subsequently...instance of the landing of the West Ger- man sports aircraft in Moscow is clear confirmation of this. In speaking about discipline under present-day

  11. Polypyrrole Stability and Coatings for Radar Absorbing Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    organiques . Dans cet article, on examine la chimie du polypyrrole électro-conducteur et les facteurs relatifs à la préparation de revêtements faits à partir...l’absorbeur. Les absorbeurs faits de matériaux organiques tels que des polymères conducteurs sont légers et présentent des propriétés qu’il est possible de

  12. Ergonomics: The Study of Work

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    and illness logs. OSHA cited companies for hazardous work- place conditions that caused problems such as tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome , and back...such as tendinitis, teno- synovitis, De Quervain’s disease, trigger fin- ger, and carpal tunnel syndrome are the most common occupational MSDs...billion annually. • On average, it takes workers 28 days recover from carpal tunnel syndrome , longer than the time needed to recover from amputation or

  13. A Critical Review of the Drug/Performance Literature. Volume II.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Addict British Journal of Addictions Br J Anaesthes British Journal o! Anaesthesiology Br J Clin Pharm British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Br J...Pharm Physiol Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Clin Genetics Clinical Genetics Cln Pharm Ther Clinical Pharmacology and...European Journal of Toxicology Exp Neurol Experimental Neurology EEG Clin Neurophys EEG Clinical Neurophysiology EEG J EEG Journal Ger Med German Medicine

  14. Military-civilian collaboration in trauma care and the senior visiting surgeon program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-27

    exchange during 2-to-4-week tours at the Land- stuhl Regional Medical Center in Landstuhl, Ger- many, between the leaders in civilian trauma care in the...performing surgical procedures and directing intensive care ; they also contribute to education at the center through lectures, serve as scientific...unlike any trau- ma center in the United States. The medical staff is charged with providing care for critically in- jured soldiers who have already

  15. Modeling the Response of Dual Cross-Linked Nanoparticle Networks to Mechanical Deformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-31

    Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Workshop on Dynamics of Suspensions, Gels, Cells and Tissues, Cambridge, UK, June 24-28, 2013...Thierry Savin, German V. Kolmakov, Isaac  G. Salib, Anna C. Balazs, Martin Kröger, Viola Vogel. Fibers with Integrated Mechanochemical Switches...Minimalistic Design Principles Derived from Fibronectin, Biophysical Journal, (11 2012): 0. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2012.09.028 Balaji V. S. Iyer, Isaac G

  16. The Evolution of the Advanced Attack Helicopter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-06

    engineering laboratory at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio. The first helicopter which appears to have been evaluated was th. Peter Cooper Hewitt design...through five decades to an evaluation of the Peter Cooper Hewitt design in 1918. The first helicopter contracted for by the military was the 199 200 de...used counter-rotating rotors, control vanes below, 24-hp Antoinette engine, two 20 foot rotors. On 13 Nov lifted inventor and two passen- gers, a

  17. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 12, Number 5.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    53 Frames and Arches ...... 70 Harbors and Dams ....... 54 Panels ............... 70 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN .... 96 Construction Equipment ... 54...1000 Berlin 12, Ger- many, Ing. Arch ., 48 (6), pp 383-392 (1979, 7 figs, Key Words: Interaction: tire-pavement, Pneumatic tires, 6 refs Tires...into atmosphere, in ends composed of an elliptic arc bar and straight bars and 68 those of a catenary curved bar and straight bars are analyzed. K

  18. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 75, Number 1, January-February 1932

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1932-02-01

    kettle isn’t boiling after all." However, difficulties are not want- ing. The rising Hitler tide, the presidential election scheduled for April, the...German labor would not accept any recommendations that the council might make. Hitler has made a bid for popularity outside of Ger- many by announcing...that, though reparations must be abolished, his party will respect th~ private debts which Germany owes. Meanwhile, Hitler continues his at- tack against

  19. Effect of low-proof alcoholic beverages on duodenogastro-esophageal reflux in health and GERD.

    PubMed

    Seidl, H; Gundling, F; Schepp, W; Schmidt, T; Pehl, C

    2011-02-01

    Alcoholic beverages are known to increase acidic gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) and the risk of esophagitis. Moreover, duodenogastro-esophageal reflux (DGER), containing bile acids, was shown to harmfully alter the esophageal mucosa, alone and synergistically with HCl and pepsin. However, studies directly addressing potential effects of different low proof alcoholic beverages on DGER in health and disease are missing. Bilitec readings for beer and white, rose, and red wine were obtained in vitro from pure and from mixtures with bile. One-hour DGER monitoring and pH-metry were performed in 12 healthy subjects and nine reflux patients with DGER after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal together with 300 mL of water, white wine, and in the volunteers, beer and rose wine. Bilitec measurement was found to be feasible in the presence of beer, white wine, and using a threshold of 0.25, rose wine. However, the presence of red wine resulted in extinction values above this threshold. The consumption of all investigated alcoholic beverages, especially of white wine, triggered increased acidic GER, both in healthy participants and patients with reflux disease. In contrast, no relevant DGER was found after intake of alcoholic beverages. Fiber-optic bilirubin monitoring can be used for DGER monitoring in combination with alcoholic beverages, except with red wine. Low-proof alcoholic beverages are a strong trigger of GER, but not of DGER, both in healthy subjects and patients with reflux disease. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Learning curve and his consequences in laparoscopic antireflux surgery].

    PubMed

    Cristian, D; Sgarbură, Olivia; Jitea, N; Burcoş, T

    2005-01-01

    The laparoscopic fundoplication became the gold standard of the laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS). Our aim is to indicate the evolution of the learning curve as well as its consequences on the patient's outcome. We studied the gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) cases treated laparoscopically in Colţea University Hospital throughout 6 years. We gathered a group of 40 patients with an average age of 54, 57 years and a sex ratio F:M = 1.67. The patients had either a simple GER disease, small and medium hiatal hernias (21 cases) or giant hiatal hernias (GHH--19 cases). Two equal groups resulted: group 1 consisted of the first 20 patients operated from 1999 to 2002, group 2 consisted of the rest of the patients. Operating time, hospital time, complication rate and postoperatory endoscopy were compared. The average of the operating time was calculated. For giant hiatal hernias, a separate average was also taken into account. The total operating time for GER, small and medium hiatal hernias was 115 min in group 1 and 80 min in group 2 meanwhile for GHH it was 143 min vs. 130 min. The average operatory time was 129 min vs. 105 min. All these differences were statistically significant but there were no differences concerning complication rate and post-operatory endoscopy. Although the learning of the laparoscopic fundoplication requires practice, the learning curve does not have influence on the patients' outcome.

  1. Effect of amino acids on lower esophageal sphincter characteristics and gastroesophageal reflux in humans.

    PubMed

    Gielkens, H A; Lamers, C B; Masclee, A A

    1998-04-01

    The effect of a commercially available mixed amino acids solution, when given either intravenously or intragastrically, on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure, frequency of transient LES relaxations (TLESRs) and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) was investigated in six healthy volunteers. LES pressure and esophageal pH were simultaneously recorded on three separate occasions 1 hr before (basal) and 3 hr during intravenous or intragastric infusion of amino acids (250 mg protein/kg/hr) or saline (control). No significant changes in LES pressure were seen in the control experiment. Intravenous amino acids caused a rapid and sustained (P < 0.01) decrease in LES pressure whereas intragastric amino acids decreased LES pressure only gradually and temporarily (P < 0.01). In the three experiments no significant differences were observed in TLESR frequency, the number of GER episodes, the mechanism of reflux, or duration of acid exposure. In healthy subjects both intragastric and, especially, intravenous infusion of amino acids significantly decrease LES pressure but do not affect the frequency of TLESRs or GER episodes during a continuous liquid gastric load.

  2. Time and Energy, Exploring Trajectory Options Between Nodes in Earth-Moon Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Roland; Condon, Gerald; Williams, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) was released by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) in September of 2011. It describes mission scenarios that begin with the International Space Station and utilize it to demonstrate necessary technologies and capabilities prior to deployment of systems into Earth-Moon space. Deployment of these systems is an intermediate step in preparation for more complex deep space missions to near-Earth asteroids and eventually Mars. In one of the scenarios described in the GER, "Asteroid Next", there are activities that occur in Earth-Moon space at one of the Earth-Moon Lagrange (libration) points. In this regard, the authors examine the possible role of an intermediate staging point in an effort to illuminate potential trajectory options for conducting missions in Earth-Moon space of increasing duration, ultimately leading to deep space missions. This paper will describe several options for transits between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the libration points, transits between libration points, and transits between the libration points and interplanetary trajectories. The solution space provided will be constrained by selected orbital mechanics design techniques and physical characteristics of hardware to be used in both crewed missions and uncrewed missions. The relationships between time and energy required to transfer hardware between these locations will provide a better understanding of the potential trade-offs mission planners could consider in the development of capabilities, individual missions, and mission series in the context of the ISECG GER.

  3. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Two Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frech, Tracy M.; Boynton, Kathleen; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Jones, Bryan; Kriesel, John D.; Peterson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is the most common extracutaneous organ system damaged in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and is the presenting feature in 10% of patients. The esophagus as the portion of the GIT is the most commonly affected and there is an association of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with SSc interstitial lung disease (ILD). Thus, an aggressive treatment for GER is recommended in all SSc patients with ILD; however, it is recognized that a long-term benefit to this treatment is needed to understand its impact. In this case report we discuss the presence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in two SSc patients and discuss the role for early EGD in SSc patients with moderate-severe GER symptoms for tissue study. Assessment of esophageal biopsy specimens for the presence of eosinophils and possibly ANA can help elucidate disease pathogenesis and direct therapy, as the presence of EoE in SSc has important management considerations, particularly with regards to dietary modification strategies. PMID:26904346

  4. Developing the global exploration roadmap: An example using the humans to the lunar surface theme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Carpenter, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    The development of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) by 12 space agencies participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group broadly outlines a pathway to send humans beyond low Earth orbit for the first time since Apollo. Three themes have emerged: Exploration of a Near-Earth Asteroid, Extended Duration Crew Missions, and Humans to the Lunar Surface. The lack of detail within each of these themes could mean that realizing the goals of the GER would be significantly delayed. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that many of the details needed to fully define and evaluate these themes in terms of scientific rationale, economic viability, and technical feasibility already exist and need to be mapped to the GER. Here, we use the Humans to the Lunar Surface theme as an example to illustrate how this process could work. By mapping documents from a variety of international stakeholders, this process can be used to cement buy-in from the current partners and attract new ones to this effort.

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux and congenital gastrointestinal malformations

    PubMed Central

    Marseglia, Lucia; Manti, Sara; D’Angelo, Gabriella; Gitto, Eloisa; Salpietro, Carmelo; Centorrino, Antonio; Scalfari, Gianfranco; Santoro, Giuseppe; Impellizzeri, Pietro; Romeo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Although the outcome of newborns with surgical congenital diseases (e.g., diaphragmatic hernia; esophageal atresia; omphalocele; gastroschisis) has improved rapidly with recent advances in perinatal intensive care and surgery, infant survivors often require intensive treatment after birth, have prolonged hospitalizations, and, after discharge, may have long-term sequelae including gastro-intestinal comorbidities, above all, gastroesophageal reflux (GER). This condition involves the involuntary retrograde passage of gastric contents into the esophagus, with or without regurgitation or vomiting. It is a well-recognized condition, typical of infants, with an incidence of 85%, which usually resolves after physiological maturation of the lower esophageal sphincter and lengthening of the intra-abdominal esophagus, in the first few months after birth. Although the exact cause of abnormal esophageal function in congenital defects is not clearly understood, it has been hypothesized that common (increased intra-abdominal pressure after closure of the abdominal defect) and/or specific (e.g., motility disturbance of the upper gastrointestinal tract, damage of esophageal peristaltic pump) pathological mechanisms may play a role in the etiology of GER in patients with birth defects. Improvement of knowledge could positively impact the long-term prognosis of patients with surgical congenital diseases. The present manuscript provides a literature review focused on pathological and clinical characteristics of GER in patients who have undergone surgical treatment for congenital abdominal malformations. PMID:26229394

  6. Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

  7. The ISECG* Global Exploration Roadmap as Context for Robotic and Human Exploration Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lupisella, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) provides a broad international context for understanding how robotic missions and robotic assets can enable future human exploration of multiple destinations. This presentation will provide a brief high-level review of the GER with a focus on key robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide enabling technology advancements and that also raise interesting operational challenges in both the near-term and long-term. The GER presently features a variety of robotic missions and robotic assets that can provide important technology advancements as well as operational challenges and improvements, in areas ranging from: (a) leveraging the International Space Station, (b) planetary science robotic missions to potential human destinations, (c) micro-g body proximity operations (e.g. asteroids), (d) autonomous operations, (e) high and low-latency telerobotics, (f) human assisted sample return, and (g) contamination control. This presentation will highlight operational and technology challenges in these areas that have feed forward implications for human exploration.

  8. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Höglund, Peter; Almér, Lars-Olof; Darwiche, Gassan

    2008-04-27

    Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar) in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar) on gastric emptying rate (GER), postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose <6.1 mmol/l or plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l as an inclusion criterion. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of the various meals. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose was measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher (<0.05) satiety than the wholemeal wheat bread and white wheat bread with vinegar and the reference bread. Wheat fiber present in the wholemeal wheat bread, or the presence of wheat kernels per se, did not affect the postprandial blood glucose or GER significantly compared with white wheat bread, neither did the addition of vinegar to white bread affect these variables. There was no correlation found between the satiety with antral areas or GER CONCLUSION: The present

  9. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Hlebowicz, Joanna; Lindstedt, Sandra; Björgell, Ola; Höglund, Peter; Almér, Lars-Olof; Darwiche, Gassan

    2008-01-01

    Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar) in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar) on gastric emptying rate (GER), postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose <6.1 mmol/l or plasma glucose <7.0 mmol/l as an inclusion criterion. The GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 minutes after ingestion of the various meals. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose was measured before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min after the start of the meal. Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher (<0.05) satiety than the wholemeal wheat bread and white wheat bread with vinegar and the reference bread. Wheat fiber present in the wholemeal wheat bread, or the presence of wheat kernels per se, did not affect the postprandial blood glucose or GER significantly compared with white wheat bread, neither did the addition of vinegar to white bread affect these variables. There was no correlation found between the satiety with antral areas or

  10. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Darwiche, Gassan; Björgell, Ola; Almér, Lars-olof

    2003-01-01

    Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal) was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal), containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5%) provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER). Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding) was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %), (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %). Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p < 0.01), median GER 54 %, (range 7 to 71 %), (the first quartile = 48 %, the third quartile = 60 %). When the viscosity of the rice pudding was decreased (basic test meal added with water), the difference in median GER 65 %, (range 38 to 79 %), (the first quartile = 56 %, the third quartile = 71 %) was not significantly different (p = 0.28) compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy

  11. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  12. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-15

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  13. Battery Charge Affects the Stability of Light Intensity from Light-emitting Diode Light-curing Units.

    PubMed

    Tongtaksin, A; Leevailoj, C

    This study investigated the influence of battery charge levels on the stability of light-emitting diode (LED) curing-light intensity by measuring the intensity from fully charged through fully discharged batteries. The microhardness of resin composites polymerized by the light-curing units at various battery charge levels was measured. The light intensities of seven fully charged battery LED light-curing units-1) LY-A180, 2) Bluephase, 3) Woodpecker, 4) Demi Plus, 5) Saab II, 6) Elipar S10, and 7) MiniLED-were measured with a radiometer (Kerr) after every 10 uses (20 seconds per use) until the battery was discharged. Ten 2-mm-thick cylindrical specimens of A3 shade nanofilled resin composite (PREMISE, Kerr) were prepared per LED light-curing unit group. Each specimen was irradiated by the fully charged light-curing unit for 20 seconds. The LED light-curing units were then used until the battery charge fell to 50%. Specimens were prepared again as described above. This was repeated again when the light-curing units' battery charge fell to 25% and when the light intensity had decreased to 400 mW/cm(2). The top/bottom surface Knoop hardness ratios of the specimens were determined. The microhardness data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with Tukey test at a significance level of 0.05. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine significant correlations between surface hardness and light intensity. We found that the light intensities of the Bluephase, Demi Plus, and Elipar S10 units were stable. The intensity of the MiniLED unit decreased slightly; however, it remained above 400 mW/cm(2). In contrast, the intensities of the LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II units decreased below 400 mW/cm(2). There was also a significant decrease in the surface microhardnesses of the resin composite specimens treated with MiniLED, LY-A180, Woodpecker, and Saab II. In conclusion, the light intensity of several LED light-curing units decreased as the battery was

  14. PDMS based microfluidic chips and their application in material synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiuqing

    Microfluidics is a highly interdisciplinary science which is to deal with the behavior, control and manipulation of fluids that are constrained to sub-milimeter scale. It incorporates the knowledge and technique intersecting physics, chemistry, mechanics, nanoscience and biotechnology, with practical applications to the design of systems in which small volumes of fluids will be used. In this thesis, we started our research from GER fluid synthesis which then is applied to designing different functions of microfluidic devices, valve, pump, and mixer. We built a way to correlate mechanical signal with electric signal by soft matter. The mechanical devices based GER fluid had good operating stability and mechanical performance. We studied how to improve the performance of GER fluid by increasing the yield stress while avoiding the sendimentation of nanoparticles in GER suspension. The meaning of this work is to enhance the stability and mechanical strength of GER fluid when it is applyed to the microfluidc channels. We tried different oils and studied the particle size for the GER effect. The largest yield stress which amounts to 300 kPa is achievable compared to previous GER fluid with 100 kPa. Microfluidic reactor, directing the flow of microliter volumes along microscale channels, offers the advantages of precise control of reagent loading, fast mixing and an enhanced reaction rate, cessation of the reaction at specific stages, and more. Basically, there are two microfluidic flow regimes, continuous flow and segmented flow (suspended droplets, channel-spanning slug, and wall-wetting films). Both flow regimes offer chemical reaction applications, e.g., continuous flow formation of polymer nanospheres and inorganic nanoparticles, size- and shape-control synthesis by segmented flow, and precipitate-forming reactions in droplets, wherein the segmented flow has gained more popularity in that area. The compartmentalization of segmented flow offers advantages to chemical

  15. Emerging Geoscience Education Research at the University of British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, F. M.; Harris, S.; Wieman, C.; Gilley, B.; Lane, E.; Caulkins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience education research (GER) in UBC’s Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences (EOS) began due to a well funded 5-yr Faculty of Science project called the Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative (CWSEI). This initiative takes an evidence-based, scientific approach to improving education by 1) establishing what students should learn; 2) scientifically measuring what students are learning; 3) adapting instruction and curricula using effective technologies and pedagogical research; and 4) disseminating and adopting what works. The presentation will discuss how this initiative has fostered a growing GER presence within our Department. CWSEI funding has enabled the EOS Department to hire 4 full-time Science Teaching and Learning Fellows (STLFs) who work directly with faculty to optimize courses and curricula. Much of the effort goes into developing active learning opportunities and rigorous ways to measure student learning and attitudes. Results serve as feedback for both students and instructors. Over 10 research projects have so far been initiated as a result of course and curriculum transformation. Examples include studies about: student attitudes towards Earth and Ocean Sciences; the effects of multiple instructors in courses; links between student in-class engagement and pedagogy; how certain instructional interventions promote metacognition; and others. Also, many modified courses use pre- and post-testing to measure learning gains. One undergraduate honors thesis, about assessing conceptual understanding of geological time, has been completed. Keys to fostering GER in our setting include: (1) faculty commitment to change, based on funding from CWSEI, (2) full-time Earth scientists (STLFs) who catalyze and support change, and (3) support from CWSEI science education experts. Specifically: - STLFs are trained Earth scientists but were not initially science education experts. Continuous support from CWSEI has been crucial for building expertise about how

  16. Land use patterns and SO2 and NO2 pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Kai; Luvsan, Munkh-Erdene; Gombojav, Enkhjargal; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Bulgan, Jargal; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-07-01

    We proposed to study spatial distribution and source contribution of SO2 and NO2 pollution in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. We collected 2-week ambient SO2 and NO2 concentration samples at 38 sites, which were classified by major sources of air pollution such as ger areas and/or major roads, in three seasons as warm (September, 2011), cold (November-December, 2011), and moderate (March, 2012) in Ulaanbaatar. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were collected by Ogawa ambient air passive samplers and analyzed by ion chromatography and spectrophotometry methods, respectively. Stepwise regression models were used to estimate the contribution of emission proxies, such as the distance to major roads, ger areas, power plants, and city center, to the ambient concentrations of SO2 and NO2. We found that the SO2 and NO2 concentrations were significantly higher in the cold season than in the warm and moderate seasons at all 38 ambient sampling sites. The SO2 concentrations in 20 ger sites (46.60 ppb in the cold season and 17.82 ppb in the moderate season) were significantly higher than in 18 non-ger sites (23.35 ppb in the cold season and 12.53 ppb in the moderate season). The NO2 concentrations at 19 traffic/road sites (12.85 ppb in the warm season and 20.48 ppb in the moderate season) were significantly higher than those at 19 urban sites (7.60 ppb and 14.39 ppb in the moderate season). Multiple regression models show that SO2 concentrations decreased by 23% in the cold and 17% in the moderate seasons at 0.70 km from the ger areas, an average of all sampling sites, and by 29% in the moderate season at 4.83 km from the city center, an average of all sampling sites. Multiple regression models show that the NO2 concentrations at 4.83 km from the city center decreased by 38% in the warm and 29% in the moderate seasons. Our models also report that NO2 concentrations at 0.16 km from the main roads decreased by 15% and 9% in the warm and the moderate seasons, respectively, and by 16% in the

  17. The Cobra helmet mounted display system for Gripen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jörgen; Blomqvist, Tommy

    2008-04-01

    Selected to meet the stringent requirements of the Gripen swing-role combat aircraft, the Cobra Helmet Mounted Display System, has been integrated as a key component to the Gripen weapon delivery system. Saab Aerosystems has since 2003 together with BAE System been developing the Cobra HMD and in parallel integrating the system in Gripen for South Africa. Work is currently done to prepare other customer for the Cobra HMDS. This paper will highlight some technical challenges and experiences with integrating a HMDS in a small cockpit environment as in Gripen and present an overview of the Cobra HMD design and installation. Furthermore the paper will discuss the importance of having the pilots and users involved during the design phase and throughout the development.

  18. Airborne laser depth sounding: system aspects and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove K.; Koppari, Kurt R.; Karlsson, Ulf C. M.

    1994-10-01

    In Sweden work on airborne depth sounding lidar has taken place for more than ten years. Activities include the development of a helicopter borne lidar called FLASH as well as instrumentation (HOSS) for in situ measurement of the optical water parameters. These instruments have been used in rather extensive field trials some of which are discussed in more detail. Recently we have been engaged in analysis of lidar data to determine system performance and possible ways to optimize that relation to lidar parameters and anticipated bottom depth and topography. Examples from that analysis are presented. Comparisons between laser and acoustic soundings are presented. The FLASH system has been further developed into two operational systems called Hawk Eye with Saab Instruments as the main contractor and Optech Inc. as the main subcontractor. The first of these two systems has now been delivered for helicopter installation and acceptance flights. Data from Hawk Eye is discussed.

  19. Aircraft interior sound field analysis in view of active control: Results from the ASANCA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Auweraer, Herman; Otte, Dirk; Venet, G.; Catalifaud, J.

    Control of interior noise by active and passive measures is currently an important issue in the transportation industry. Essential to the optimal design and configuration of such control measures is the thorough understanding of the vibro-acoustic response characteristics of the system under study. This includes both the sound and vibration response fields in normal operating conditions, as well as the intrisic vibro-acoustic characteristics of the structure and the cabin cavity. In the present paper, this test and analysis procedure is discussed in view of the active control of interior aircraft noise. The work was performed in the context of the Brite/Euram project ASANCA, in which demonstrator active control systems for the reduction of periodic aircraft noise were developed. To realize this goal, an extensive flight and ground test program was set up and executed on four selected aircraft: the Dornier 228, the Alenia ATR 42, the Saab 340 and the Fokker 100.

  20. Study of exhaust emissions from 1978-1980 model year three way catalyst vehicles in Los Angeles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.L.; Jones, A.D.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents and summarizes exhaust emission data and other information obtained as a result of the testing and inspection of 350 in-use passenger cars. The test fleet was made up of 1978, 1979 and 1980 automobiles manufactured by Ford, General Motors, Mazda, Saab, Toyota, Volkswagen/Audi and Volvo. Each vehicle was equipped with a three way catalyst control system. They were obtained randomly from private owners in the Los Angeles and Orange County areas. The testing was completed December, 1979. Each vehicle was tested only in as-received condition. The test sequence consisted of the 1975 Federal Test Procedure (exhaust emissions only), a Highway Fuel Economy test, a Two-Speed Idle test, a Federal Three Mode test, and a Loaded Two Mode test. After the initial test sequence, each vehicle was subjected to a thorough underhood inspection.

  1. Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursery areas: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Paris, Claire B.; Wolanski, Eric; Morais, Pedro

    2016-12-01

    A series of complementary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the recruitment of marine and temperate pelagic fish larvae originated from pelagic eggs in coastal environments. In this review, we propose a new and complementary hypothesis describing the biophysical processes intervening in the recruitment of temperate fish larvae into estuaries. This new hypothesis, the Sense Acuity And Behavioral (SAAB) hypothesis, recognizes that recruitment is unlikely if the larvae drift passively with the water currents, and that successful recruitment requires the sense acuity of temperate fish larvae and their behavioral response to the estuarine cues present in coastal areas. We propose that temperate fish larvae use a hierarchy of sensory cues (odor, sound, visual and geomagnetic cues) to detect estuarine nursery areas and to aid during navigation towards these areas. The sensorial acuity increases along ontogeny, which coincides with increased swimming capabilities. The swimming strategies of post-flexion larvae differ from offshore areas to the tidal zone. In offshore areas, innate behavior might lead larvae towards the coast guided by a sun compass or by the earth's geomagnetic field. In areas under limited influence of estuarine plumes (either in energetic nearshore areas or offshore), post-flexion larvae display a searching swimming behavior for estuarine disconnected patches (infotaxis strategy). After finding an estuarine plume, larvae may swim along the increasing cue concentration to ingress into the estuary. Here, larvae exhibit a rheotaxis behavior and avoid displacement by longshore currents by keeping bearing during navigation. When larvae reach the vicinity of an estuary, merging diel rhythms with feeding and predator avoidance strategies with tidally induced movements is essential to increase their chances of estuarine ingress. A fish larva recruitment model developed for the Ria Formosa lagoon supports the general framework of the SAAB hypothesis. In

  2. Commentary on "integrative genomic analyses reveal an androgen-driven somatic alteration landscape in early-onset prostate cancer." Weischenfeldt J, Simon R, Feuerbach L, Schlangen K, Weichenhan D, Minner S, Wuttig D, Warnatz HJ, Stehr H, Rausch T, Jäger N, Gu L, Bogatyrova O, Stütz AM, Claus R, Eils J, Eils R, Gerhäuser C, Huang PH, Hutter B, Kabbe R, Lawerenz C, Radomski S, Bartholomae CC, Fälth M, Gade S, Schmidt M, Amschler N, Haß T, Galal R, Gjoni J, Kuner R, Baer C, Masser S, von Kalle C, Zichner T, Benes V, Raeder B, Mader M, Amstislavskiy V, Avci M, Lehrach H, Parkhomchuk D, Sultan M, Burkhardt L, Graefen M, Huland H, Kluth M, Krohn A, Sirma H, Stumm L, Steurer S, Grupp K, Sültmann H, Sauter G, Plass C, Brors B, Yaspo ML, Korbel JO, Schlomm T, Genome Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.: Cancer Cell 2013;23(2):159-70.

    PubMed

    Olumi, Aria F

    2014-02-01

    Early-onset prostate cancer (EO-PCA) represents the earliest clinical manifestation of prostate cancer. To compare the genomic alteration landscapes of EO-PCA with "classical" (elderly-onset) PCA, we performed deep sequencing-based genomics analyses in 11 tumors diagnosed at young age, and pursued comparative assessments with seven elderly-onset PCA genomes. Remarkable age-related differences in structural rearrangement (SR) formation became evident, suggesting distinct disease pathomechanisms. Whereas EO-PCAs harbored a prevalence of balanced SRs, with a specific abundance of androgen-regulated ETS gene fusions including TMPRSS2:ERG, elderly-onset PCAs displayed primarily non-androgen-associated SRs. Data from a validation cohort of>10,000 patients showed age-dependent androgen receptor levels and a prevalence of SRs affecting androgen-regulated genes, further substantiating the activity of a characteristic "androgen-type" pathomechanism in EO-PCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Training satisfaction and work environment in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery: a comparison between France and Germany.

    PubMed

    Oker, Natalie; Escabasse, Virginie; Pensky, Helge; Alotaibi, Naif; Coste, Andre; Albers, Andreas E

    2014-09-01

    With the coalescing of Europe, increased mobility of professionals emerges. Initiatives to harmonize medical education were launched. In Otolaryngology, Head and Neck surgery (ORL) an European board examination was created to ensure standards. Quality of training, satisfaction and quality of life of residents and recent ORL specialists were compared to assess different aspects of work and hierarchical relationships in France (FRA) and Germany (GER) by means of an anonymous questionnaire. 120 FRA and 125 GER questionnaires were included. 78 % of respondents were residents. 86 % would choose the same training again. In both countries, a majority felt well considered with responsibilities adapted to their level of training and with supportive supervisors. Germans reported average daily work hours of 9.6 versus 11 in FRA with compensated overtime (76 %) and a possibility of part-time work (62 %), both nearly inexistent in FRA. In GER, the day-off after duty was more often respected. French attributed their seniors better pedagogic skills, taking time for explanations and providing better teaching. Offering a good training was a more important objective in French training centers (77 vs. 51 %). In both countries, surgical training relied on coaching. Research activities were comparable. The overall satisfaction with ORL training was high. Differences concerned structure of training, guidance by senior doctors and the working conditions. The study results provide guidance before choosing a program and may help to improve current training by identifying positive aspects that, if combined could lead to a convergence of programs. However, present high standards of education must be maintained.

  4. Hospitalizations for asthma among adults exposed to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Miller-Archie, Sara A; Jordan, Hannah T; Alper, Howard; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Cone, James E; Friedman, Stephen M; Brackbill, Robert M

    2017-06-06

    We described the patterns of asthma hospitalization among persons exposed to the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) attacks, and assessed whether 9/11-related exposures or comorbidities, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS), were associated with an increased rate of hospitalization. Data for adult enrollees in the WTC Health Registry, a prospective cohort study, with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma who resided in New York State on 9/11 were linked to administrative hospitalization data to identify asthma hospitalizations during September 11, 2001-December 31, 2010. Multivariable zero-inflated Poisson regression was used to examine associations among 9/11 exposures, comorbid conditions, and asthma hospitalizations. Of 11 471 enrollees with asthma, 406 (3.5%) had ≥1 asthma hospitalization during the study period (721 total hospitalizations). Among enrollees diagnosed before 9/11 (n = 6319), those with PTSD or GERS had over twice the rate of hospitalization (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.1; ARR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2, respectively) compared to those without. This association was not statistically significant in enrollees diagnosed after 9/11. Compared to higher educational attainment, completing less than college was associated with an increased hospitalization rate among participants with both pre-9/11- and post-9/11-onset asthma (ARR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9; ARR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.1, respectively). Sinus symptoms, exposure to the dust cloud, and having been a WTC responder were not associated with asthma hospitalization. Among enrollees with pre-9/11 asthma, comorbid PTSD and GERS were associated with an increase in asthma hospitalizations. Management of these comorbidities may be an important factor in preventing hospitalization.

  5. Volume-targeted ventilation and arterial carbon dioxide in neonates.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Catherine; Davies, Mark William

    2005-01-01

    To review the arterial carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO(2)) in newborn infants ventilated using synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) in volume guarantee mode (using the Dräger Babylog 8000+) with a unit policy targeting tidal volumes of approximately 4 mL/kg. Data on ventilator settings and arterial PaCO(2) levels were collected on all arterial blood gases (ABG; n = 288) from 50 neonates (<33 weeks gestational age) ventilated using the Dräger Babylog 8000+ ventilator (Dräger Medizintechnik GmbH, Lübeck, Germany) in SIMV plus volume guarantee mode. Data were analysed for all blood gases done on the entire cohort in the first 48 h of life and a subanalysis was done on the first gas for each infant (n = 38) ventilated using volume guarantee from admission to the nursery. The number of ABG showing severe hypocapnoea (PaCO(2) < 25 mmHg) and/or severe hypercapnoea (PaCO(2) > 65 mmHg) were determined. The mean (SD) PaCO(2) during the first 48 h was 46.6 (9.0) mmHg. The mean (SD) PaCO(2) on the first blood gas of those infants commenced on volume guarantee from admission was 45.1 (12.5) mmHg. Severe hypo- or hypercapnoea occurred in 8% of infants at the time of their first blood gas measurement, and in <4% of blood gas measurements in the first 48 h. Infants ventilated with volume guarantee ventilation targeting approximately 4 mL/kg (range: 2.9-5.1) have acceptable PaCO(2) levels at the first blood gas measurement and during the first 48 h of life; and avoid severe hypo- or hypercapnoea over 90% of the time.

  6. Satiation meal and the effects of meal and body sizes on gastric evacuation rate in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial pellets.

    PubMed

    Khan, U; Seyhan, K; Başçinar, N; Başçinar, N S

    2016-08-01

    Gastric evacuation (GE) experiments were performed on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis fed commercial food pellets. The experiments included small fish (36 g; 15 cm total length, LT ) fed meals of 0·2, 0·4 and 0·8 g and large fish (152 g; 23 cm) fed meals of 0·8, 2·0 and 4·0 g at temperatures ranging from 15·1 to 18·2° C. The stomach contents were thereafter sampled and weighed at 3 h intervals until the first empty stomach was observed. The course of GE was examined by use of a general power function of the data that revealed that the square-root function described the GE rate (GER) by the current stomach content mass independently of original meal size. Using the square-root function, the relationship between GER and fish size was described by a power function of fish length, whereas the effect of temperature was described by a simple exponential function. GER of the commercial pellets fed to S. fontinalis could thus be described by dStdt=-0·000464L1·31e0·052TSt (g h(-1) ), where St is stomach mass (g) at time t (h), L is total fish length (cm) and T is temperature (° C). The result of this study should provide a useful tool for planning of feeding regimes in production of S. fontinalis by optimizing growth and minimizing food waste. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  7. Avian Influenza Virus H3 Hemagglutinin May Enable High Fitness of Novel Human Virus Reassortants

    PubMed Central

    Kreibich, Anne; Stech, Olga; Hundt, Jana; Ziller, Mario; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Stech, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    Reassortment of influenza A virus genes enables antigenic shift resulting in the emergence of pandemic viruses with novel hemagglutinins (HA) acquired from avian strains. Here, we investigated whether historic and contemporary avian strains with different replication capacity in human cells can donate their hemagglutinin to a pandemic human virus. We performed double-infections with two avian H3 strains as HA donors and a human acceptor strain, and determined gene compositions and replication of HA reassortants in mammalian cells. To enforce selection for the avian virus HA, we generated a strictly elastase-dependent HA cleavage site mutant from A/Hong Kong/1/68 (H3N2) (Hk68-Ela). This mutant was used for co-infections of human cells with A/Duck/Ukraine/1/63 (H3N8) (DkUkr63) or the more recent A/Mallard/Germany/Wv64-67/05 (H3N2) (MallGer05) in the absence of elastase but presence of trypsin. Among 21 plaques analyzed from each assay, we found 12 HA reassortants with DkUkr63 (4 genotypes) and 14 with MallGer05 (10 genotypes) that replicated in human cells comparable to the parental human virus. Although DkUkr63 replicated in mammalian cells at a reduced level compared to MallGer05 and Hk68, it transmitted its HA to the human virus, indicating that lower replication efficiency of an avian virus in a mammalian host may not constrain the emergence of viable HA reassortants. The finding that HA and HA/NA reassortants replicated efficiently like the human virus suggests that further HA adaptation remains a relevant barrier for emergence of novel HA reassortants. PMID:24265752

  8. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  9. A placebo-controlled study to assess Standardized Field Sobriety Tests performance during alcohol and cannabis intoxication in heavy cannabis users and accuracy of point of collection testing devices for detecting THC in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Bosker, W M; Theunissen, E L; Conen, S; Kuypers, K P C; Jeffery, W K; Walls, H C; Kauert, G F; Toennes, S W; Moeller, M R; Ramaekers, J G

    2012-10-01

    Standardized Field Sobriety Tests (SFST) and oral fluid devices are used to screen for driving impairment and roadside drug detection, respectively. SFST have been validated for alcohol, but their sensitivity to impairment induced by other drugs is relatively unknown. The sensitivity and specificity for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) of most oral fluid devices have been low. This study assessed the effects of smoking cannabis with and without alcohol on SFST performance. Presence of THC in oral fluid was examined with two devices (Dräger Drug Test® 5000 and Securetec Drugwipe® 5). Twenty heavy cannabis users (15 males and 5 females; mean age, 24.3 years) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessing percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and the sensitivity of two oral fluid devices. Participants received alcohol doses or alcohol placebo in combination with 400 μg/kg body weight THC. We aimed to reach peak blood alcohol concentration values of 0.5 and 0.7 mg/mL. Cannabis was significantly related to performance on the one-leg stand (p = 0.037). Alcohol in combination with cannabis was significantly related to impairment on horizontal gaze nystagmus (p = 0.029). The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 demonstrated a high sensitivity for THC, whereas the sensitivity of the Securetec Drugwipe® 5 was low. SFST were mildly sensitive to impairment from cannabis in heavy users. Lack of sensitivity might be attributed to tolerance and time of testing. SFST were sensitive to both doses of alcohol. The Dräger Drug Test® 5000 appears to be a promising tool for detecting THC in oral fluid as far as correct THC detection is concerned.

  10. DIVA diagnostic of Aujeszky's disease using an insect-derived virus glycoprotein E.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Sebastián, S; Pérez-Filgueira, D M; Gómez-Casado, E; Nuñez, M C; Sánchez-Ramos, I; Tabarés, E; Escribano, J M

    2008-10-01

    Commercial vaccines against Aujeszky's disease are mainly formulated using deleted versions of attenuated or inactivated Pseudorabies virus (PRV) particles lacking of the structural glycoprotein E (gE). Complementary diagnostic assays used to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals (DIVAs), are based on the detection of serum antibodies against gE. A recombinant version of the PRV gE protein was expressed in a baculovirus vector system in Trichoplusia ni insect larvae in order to obtain this diagnostic reagent for large scale diagnosis at reduced costs. A recombinant gE gene (gEr), lacking of signal peptide and transmembrane domains, was cloned into a modified baculovirus vector to allow glycosylation of the protein and its subsequent exportation to the extracellular space. Analysis by SDS-PAGE, Western-blotting and glycoprotein staining revealed that a glycosylated protein of the expected electrophoretic mobility was obtained in infected larvae. Time course experiments revealed that maximum expression levels were reached 72h post-infection using 10(4)pfu of the recombinant baculovirus (BACgEr) per inoculated larva. An indirect PRV gE-ELISA was developed using gEr as a coating antigen. A comparison between larvae-derived PRV gE-ELISA and two commercially available PRV diagnostic kits showed good correlation between assays and better sensitivity when testing certain sera pig samples using the gEr ELISA. More than 30,000 ELISA determinations could be performed from crude extracts obtained from a single larva infected with the recombinant baculovirus, indicating the feasibility of this strategy for inexpensive production of glycosylated antigens for PRV diagnosis.

  11. Integrating in situ reflectance with satellite imagery to determine chlorophyll and turbidity for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Tina

    The overall objective of this study was to use hyperspectral field spectra to find possible spectral regions in which chlorophyll- a and turbidity could be identified to assist in the assessment and monitoring of water quality using satellite remote sensing technology. Using statistical analysis between the mean reflectance values measured with the GER1500 field spectroradiometer across the spectrum and the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (mug/L) and turbidity (NTU) acquired simultaneously, regression analyses were applied to determine the best wavelengths for determining the concentration of these parameters. Each regression model (512 in total) corresponded to a measured wavelength of the GER1500 field spectrometer. The achieved correlations presented as R2 values against wavelengths, indicated the regions with high correlation values, chlorophyll-a , and turbidity. Based on the results from this study and by matching the spectral bands of the field spectroradiometer with those of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite sensor, several suitable spectral regions were determined for monitoring water quality in Kentucky Lake. For chlorophyll- a, the spectral region of 0.45-0.52 mum (TM band 1), and for turbidity the region 0.52-0.60 mum (TM bands 1 and 2) were determined to be suitable wavelengths to determine such data. In this study, the wavelengths of 700 nm and 675 nm from the GER1500 spectroradiometer were found to be the most suitable wavelengths for predicting chlorophyll-a concentrations. Correlation analysis between remotely sensed data and chlorophyll- a data indicated the possibility of mapping chlorophyll- a concentrations accurately. The wavelengths that represented the difference of 770.82nm-742.60nm correlated best to turbidity (R2 = 0.74).

  12. Collagen-mimetic peptides mediate flow-dependent thrombus formation by high- or low-affinity binding of integrin alpha2beta1 and glycoprotein VI.

    PubMed

    Munnix, I C A; Gilio, K; Siljander, P R M; Raynal, N; Feijge, M A H; Hackeng, T M; Deckmyn, H; Smethurst, P A; Farndale, R W; Heemskerk, J W M

    2008-12-01

    Collagen acts as a potent surface for platelet adhesion and thrombus formation under conditions of blood flow. Studies using collagen-derived triple-helical peptides have identified the GXX'GER motif as an adhesive ligand for platelet integrin alpha2beta1, and (GPO)(n) as a binding sequence for the signaling collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). The potency was investigated of triple-helical peptides, consisting of GXX'GER sequences within (GPO)(n) or (GPP)(n) motifs, to support flow-dependent thrombus formation. At a high-shear rate, immobilized peptides containing both the high-affinity alpha2beta1-binding motif GFOGER and the (GPO)(n) motif supported platelet aggregation and procoagulant activity, even in the absence of von Willebrand factor (VWF). With peptides containing only one of these motifs, co-immobilized VWF was needed for thrombus formation. The (GPO)(n) but not the (GPP)(n) sequence induced GPVI-dependent platelet aggregation and procoagulant activity. Peptides with intermediate affinity (GLSGER, GMOGER) or low-affinity (GASGER, GAOGER) alpha2beta1-binding motifs formed procoagulant thrombi only if both (GPO)(n) and VWF were present. At a low-shear rate, immobilized peptides with high- or low-affinity alpha2beta1-binding motifs mediated formation of thrombi with procoagulant platelets only in combination with (GPO)(n). Triple-helical peptides with specific receptor-binding motifs mimic the properties of native collagen I in thrombus formation by binding to both platelet collagen receptors. At a high-shear rate, either GPIb or high-affinity (but not low-affinity) GXX'GER mediates GPVI-dependent formation of procoagulant thrombi. By extension, high-affinity binding for alpha2beta1 can control the overall platelet-adhesive activity of native collagens.

  13. Impact of total fundoplication on esophageal transit: analysis by combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry.

    PubMed

    Del Genio, Gianmattia; Tolone, Salvatore; Del Genio, Federica; D'Alessandro, Antonio; Brusciano, Luigi; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Conzo, Giovanni; Orditura, Michele; Docimo, Ludovico; Del Genio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic total fundoplication is considered the most effective surgical option for gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Some authors assume that total fundoplication may expose the patient to delayed transit of the swallowed bolus and increased risk of dysphagia, particularly when peristaltic dysfunction is present. We undertook this study to evaluate by means of combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal manometry (MII-EM) the impact of fundoplication on esophageal physiology. An objective measurement of the influence of the total wrap on bolus transit may be helpful in refining the optimal antireflux wrap (ie, partial vs. total). In this study, 25 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic Nissen-Rossetti fundoplication had MII-EM and combined 24-hour pH and multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII-pH) before and after the surgical procedure. All patients completed preoperative and postoperative symptom questionnaires. The following were calculated for liquid and viscous deglutition lower esophageal sphincter pressure and relaxation, distal esophageal amplitude, the number of complete esophageal bolus transits and the mean total bolus transit time. The acid and nonacid GER episodes were calculated by MII-pH with the patient in both upright and recumbent positions. The postoperative MII-EM showed an increased lower esophageal sphincter pressure (P < 0.05), whereas lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and distal esophageal amplitude did not change after surgery (P = NS). Complete esophageal bolus transits and bolus transit time did not change for liquid swallows (P = NS), but was more rapid for viscous after surgery (P < 0.05). Twenty-four hour pH monitoring confirmed the postoperative reduction of both acid and nonacid reflux (P < 0.05). Laparoscopic Nissen-Rossetti is effective in controlling both acid and nonacid GER without impairment of esophageal function. Appropriate preoperative investigation, meticulous patient selection and

  14. Spore germination and germinant receptor genes in wild strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, O M; Moir, A

    2014-09-01

    To compare the germination of laboratory and wild strains of Bacillus subtilis. The spore germination of B. subtilis 168 (subsp. subtilis) was compared with that of the laboratory strain W23 (subsp. spizizenii) and desert-sourced isolates, including one member of subsp. subtilis (RO-NN-1), strains TU-B-10, RO-E-2, N10 and DV1-B-1, (all subsp. spizizenii), the B. mojavensis strain RO-H-1 and a B. subtilis natto strain. All germinated in L-alanine, although some were slower, and some 10-fold less sensitive to germinant. All germinated in calcium dipicolinate (CaDPA). Germination in asparagine, glucose, fructose + KCl was slow and incomplete in many of the strains, and decoating RO-NN-1 and W23 spores did not restore germination rates. Comparing the sequences of B. subtilis strains 168, RO-NN-1, W23, TU-B-10 and DV1-B-1, the operons encoding GerA, B and K germinant receptors were intact, although the two additional operons yndDEF and yfkQRST had suffered deletions or were absent in several spizizenii strains. Wild strains possess an efficient germination machinery for L-alanine germination. AGFK germination is often less efficient, the gerB genes more diverged, and the two germinant receptor operons of unknown function have been lost from the genome in many subsp. spizizenii strains. The two major subspecies of B. subtilis have conserved GerA receptor function, confirming its importance, at least in the natural environments of these strains. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Memory of childbirth in the second year: the long-term effect of a negative birth experience and its modulation by the perceived intranatal relationship with caregivers.

    PubMed

    Stadlmayr, W; Amsler, F; Lemola, S; Stein, S; Alt, M; Bürgin, D; Surbek, D; Bitzer, J

    2006-12-01

    To assess the memory of various subdimensions of the birth experience in the second year postpartum, and to identify women in the first weeks postpartum at risk of developing a long-term negative memory. DESIGN, METHOD, OUTCOME MEASURES: New mothers' birth experience (BE) was assessed 48-96 hours postpartum (T1) by means of the SIL-Ger and the BBCI (perception of intranatal relationships); early postnatal adjustment (week 3 pp: T1(bis)) was also assessed. Then, four subgroups of women were defined by means of a cluster-analysis, integrating the T1/T1(bis) variables. To evaluate the memory of the BE, the SIL-Ger was again applied in the second year after childbirth (T2). First, the ratings of the SIL-Ger dimensions of T1 were compared to those at T2 in the whole sample. Then, the four subgroups were compared with respect to their ratings of the birth experience at T2 (correlations, ANOVAs and t-tests). In general, fulfillment, emotional adaptation, physical discomfort, and anxiety improve spontaneously over the first year postpartum, whereas in negative emotional experience, control, and time-going-slowly no shift over time is observed. However, women with a negative overall birth experience and a low level of perceived intranatal relationship at T1 run a high risk of retaining a negative memory in all of the seven subdimensions of the birth experience. Women at risk of developing a negative long-term memory of the BE can be identified at the time of early postpartum, when the overall birth experience and the perceived intranatal relationship are taken into account.

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings in adolescents and young adults with gastroesophageal reflux and antral gastritis: eradication results to no significant clinical improvement.

    PubMed

    Xinias, Ioannis; Maris, Theophanis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Panteliadis, Christos; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-02-05

    The relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) gastritis and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) remains controversial. The aim was to investigate the association between Hp infection and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and the impact of Hp eradication on esophageal acid exposure and motility in adolescents and young adults with Hp gastritis and GERD. Sixty-four patients with symptoms suggestive for GERD, of which 40 Hp-positive (group A) and 24 Hp-negative (group B), underwent endoscopy-biopsy, esophageal manometry and 24-hour pH-metry. All group A patients received eradication treatment and were re-evaluated six months later again with 24-hour pH-metry, esophageal manometry, endoscopy-biopsy and clinical assessment. At inclusion, there were no significant differences between the two groups regarding sex, age, grade of endoscopic esophagitis, manometric and pH-metry findings. All Hp-positive patients had an antral predominant gastritis. Eradication of Hp was successful in all patients, and gastritis and esophagitis were healed in all patients. The mean lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP) increased significantly from 11.25 mmHg before to 11.71 mmHg after eradication (P<0.05). A significant decrease in reflux index was observed (mean RI 6.02% before versus 4.96% after eradication (P<0.05). However clinical symptoms of GER improved not significantly after 6 months follow up. Conclusively, in children and young adults with GER symptoms and GERD, the presence or absence of Hp has no impact on manometric and pH-metric findings. Eradication of Hp infection results in increase in LESP with a consequent decrease in esophageal acid exposure but not significant clinical improvement.

  17. The risk of Barrett's esophagus associated with abdominal obesity in males and females.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2013-05-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett's esophagus (BE). Both occur predominantly in males. The role of abdominal obesity in this sex distribution is uncertain. Our study aimed to determine whether there is an association between abdominal obesity and risk of BE and if present was it modified by sex. A structured interview and anthropometric measures were conducted within a population-based case-control study. We recruited 237 BE cases (70% male) and 247 population controls, frequency matched by age and sex. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In the overall group and males, all measures of abdominal obesity [waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and waist-height ratio (WHtR)] were strongly associated with risk of BE (Overall: WC OR 2.2 95% CI 1.4-3.5, WHR 1.8 95% CI 1.2-2.9, SAD 2.3 95% CI 1.4-3.7, WHtR 1.9 95% CI 1.2-3.0, males WC 2.5 95% CI 1.4-4.3, WHR 2.4 95% CI 1.3-4.2, SAD 2.5 95% CI 1.4-4.3, WHtR 1.9 95% CI 1.1-3.4). These associations were minimally attenuated by adjusting for ever-symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). These findings suggest in males, non-GER factors related to abdominal obesity may be important in the development of BE. In females, there was modest association between measures of abdominal obesity and risk of BE but these were all abolished after adjusting for ever-symptoms of GER. The power to detect differences between sexes in the risk of BE associated with abdominal obesity was limited by the number of females in the study. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  18. The risk of Barrett’s esophagus associated with abdominal obesity in males and females

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Hayward, Nicholas K; Prins, Johannes B; O’Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises from Barrett’s esophagus (BE). Both occur predominantly in males. The role of abdominal obesity in this sex distribution is uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether there is an association between abdominal obesity and risk of BE and if present was it modified by sex. A structured interview and anthropometric measures were conducted within a population based case-control study. We recruited 237 BE cases (70% male) and 247 population controls, frequency matched by age and sex. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. In the overall group and males, all measures of abdominal obesity (waist circumference - WC, waist-hip ratio - WHR, sagittal abdominal diameter – SAD and waist-height ratio - WHtR) were strongly associated with risk of BE. (Overall - WC OR 2.2 95%CI 1.4-3.5, WHR 1.8 95%CI 1.2-2.9, SAD 2.3 95%CI 1.4-3.7, WHtR 1.9 95%CI 1.2-3.0, Males WC 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.3, WHR 2.4 95%CI 1.3-4.2, SAD 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.3, WHtR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.4). These associations were minimally attenuated by adjusting for ever-symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER). These findings suggest in males, non-GER factors related to abdominal obesity may be important in the development of BE. In females, there was modest association between measures of abdominal obesity and risk of BE but these were all abolished after adjusting for ever-symptoms of GER. The power to detect differences between sexes in the risk of BE associated with abdominal obesity was limited by the number of females in the study. PMID:23034724

  19. The ENGAGE Workshop: Encouraging Networks between Geoscientists and Geoscience Education Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubenthal, M.; LaDue, N.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The geoscience education community has made great strides in the study of teaching and learning at the undergraduate level, particularly with respect to solid earth geology. Nevertheless, the 2012 National Research Council report, Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering suggests that the geosciences lag behind other science disciplines in the integration of education research within the discipline and the establishment of a broad research base. In January 2015, early career researchers from earth, atmospheric, ocean, and polar sciences and geoscience education research (GER) gathered for the ENGAGE workshop. The primary goal of ENGAGE was to broaden awareness of discipline-based research in the geosciences and catalyze relationships and understanding between these groups of scientists. An organizing committee of geoscientists and GERs designed a two-day workshop with a variety of activities to engage participants in the establishment of a shared understanding of education research and the development of project ideas through collaborative teams. Thirty-three participants were selected from over 100 applicants, based on disciplinary diversity and demonstrated interest in geoscience education research. Invited speakers and panelists also provided examples of successful cross-disciplinary collaborations. As a result of this workshop, participants indicated that they gained new perspectives on geoscience education and research, networked outside of their discipline, and are likely to increase their involvement in geoscience education research. In fact, 26 of 28 participants indicated they are now better prepared to enter into cross-disciplinary collaborations within the next year. The workshop evaluation revealed that the physical scientists particularly valued opportunities for informal networking and collaborative work developing geoscience education research projects. Meanwhile, GERs valued

  20. Mitosis and apoptosis in postnatal auditory system of the C3H/He strain.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, K; Takahashi, K; Kitamura, K; Momoi, T; Yoshikawa, Y

    2001-05-18

    The mouse auditory neurons, hair cells and their supporting cells in the cochlea are considered to be generated mainly in the embryonic days and to be sustained throughout the whole life. In the present study, however, we observed that auditory ganglion cells in the spiral ganglia undergo apoptosis and mitosis in the suckling mouse (1- to 2-week-old C3H/HeJ mice) with a normal auditory system. In spiral ganglia at postnatal days 7 (P7) and 10 (P10), TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling)-positive and morphologically apoptotic ganglion cells were found. Furthermore, by bromodeoxyuridine labeling, mitosis of auditory ganglion cells was found at P10 to P14. In a functional study of auditory brainstem response, we demonstrated that the C3H/HeJ mouse acquires the ability to hear airborne sound at P12 and this is the same time as the opening of their external acoustic meatus (EAM). These results indicate that C3H/HeJ auditory ganglion cells have the ability to proliferate even after opening of the EAM and the initial input of airborne sound. We found that postnatal apoptosis and mitosis after P7 also occurred in the greater epithelial ridge (GER) which is an important organ for maturation of the organ of Corti and is located around the inner hair cells. This indicates that GER cells are not only degenerated but also regenerated until their disappearance around P12. This is the first report on mammals to demonstrate that neuronal mitosis of spiral ganglion cells and that of GER cells occur not only in embryonic and neonatal development but also in postnatal development of the normal auditory system.

  1. Lung disease severity in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is more strongly associated with impedance measures of bolus reflux than pH parameters of acid reflux alone.

    PubMed

    Gavini, S; Borges, L F; Finn, R T; Lo, W-K; Goldberg, H J; Burakoff, R; Feldman, N; Chan, W W

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Pathogenesis may be related to chronic micro-aspiration. We aimed to assess objective measures of GER on multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH study (MII-pH) and their relationship with pulmonary function testing (PFT) results, and to compare the performance of pH/acid reflux parameters vs corresponding MII/bolus parameters in predicting pulmonary dysfunction in IPF. This was a retrospective cohort study of IPF patients undergoing prelung transplant evaluation with MII-pH off acid suppression, and having received PFT within 3 months. Patients with prior fundoplication were excluded. Severe pulmonary dysfunction was defined using diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) ≤40%. Six pH/acid reflux parameters with corresponding MII/bolus reflux measures were specified a priori. Multivariate analyses were applied using forward stepwise logistic regression. Predictive value of each parameter for severe pulmonary dysfunction was calculated by area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic-curve or c-statistic. Forty-five subjects (67% M, age 59, 15 mild-moderate vs 30 severe) met criteria for inclusion. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were similar between pulmonary dysfunction groups. Abnormal total reflux episodes and prolonged bolus clearance time were significantly associated with pulmonary dysfunction severity on univariate and multivariate analyses. No pH parameters were significant. The c-statistic of each pH parameter was lower than its MII counterpart in predicting pulmonary dysfunction. MII/bolus reflux, but not pH/acid reflux, was associated with pulmonary dysfunction in prelung transplant patients with IPF. MII-pH may be more valuable than pH testing alone in characterizing GER in IPF. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oogenesis in the free proglottis of Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris (Cestoda, Tetraphyllidea).

    PubMed

    Mahendrasingam, S; Fairweather, I; Halton, D W

    1990-01-01

    The early (ovarian) stages of oogenesis in Trilocularia acanthiaevulgaris have been studied by light microscope histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. The process proceeds as far as meiotic prophase in the primary oocyte. The oogonia and early immature primary oocytes occupy the anterior and outer edges of the ovary and are typically undifferentiated cells, showing a high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio. The scant cytoplasm is packed with free ribosomes and contains a small number of mitochondria and a few short strands of granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER). The oogonia undergo a number of mitotic divisions, marked by the presence of centrioles. The immature primary oocytes enter meiotic prophase, as evidenced by the appearance of nuclear synaptonemal complexes. The maturing primary oocytes, which occupy the inner, central region of the ovary, undergo a growth phase that is accompanied by an increased nucleolar volume and export of RNA to the cytoplasm via nuclear pores, and by an increase in the number of mitochondria. A GER network develops and, together with the Golgi complexes, is involved in the production of a small number of cortical granules. The GER often takes the form of concentric cisternae. Numerous lipid droplets are also present in the cytoplasm. The mature primary oocytes predominate in the posterior region of the ovary, near the oviduct. They represent a resting phase in development, in which cellular activity is minimal. Lipid droplets are abundant and the cortical granules remain in more central regions of the cell and do not migrate to the periphery of the cell. The ovary contains a second, non-germinal type of cell, the follicle cell. The cell body is smaller in size than the oogonia, and cytoplasmic processes from it ramify around the periphery of the ovary. The different cell types within the ovary are embedded in a cytoplasmic matrix that contains a number of organelles.

  3. Utility of baseline impedance level measurement in patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ban-Suk; Park, Seon-Young; Lee, Du-Hyun; Cho, Eun-Ae; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) and pH monitoring is used for detecting reflux episodes in patients with gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. However, the clinical significance of baseline impedance levels (BILs) has not been well studied. We aimed to evaluate whether BILs are related to various reflux events or acid-related parameters and to determine whether BILs during specific intervals could be substituted for 24-h BILs. One-hundred forty-two patients GER symptoms underwent 24-h pH/impedance monitoring. We measured pH [(5 cm above the low esophageal sphincter (LES)] and BILs from three sites (3, 5, and 15 cm above the LES). Eighty-one subjects (57.0%) were diagnosed with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 53 (37.3%) had acid reflux and 28 (19.7%) had nonacid reflux. The 24-h BILs at distal sites were lower in the "reflux" group than in the "no reflux" group (p < 0.001) and lower in the "acid reflux" group than in the "nonacid reflux" group (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in 24-h BILs at the proximal site among the "no reflux", "acid reflux", and "nonacid reflux" groups. The interclass correlation coefficient value of 24-h BILs with daytime 6-h BILs was 0.916 (95% CI 0.882-0.940) and that with nighttime 6-h BILs was 0.909 (95% CI 0.871-0.935). BILs are related to GER, especially acid reflux. Location and duration of assessment for BILs needs to be standardized. Six-hour BILs could be substitutes for 24-h BILs. During analysis of MII-pH, more attention should be paid to BILs in the lower esophagus.

  4. Developing the "Lunar Vicinity" Scenario of the Global Exploration Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G.; Neal, C. R.; Crawford, I. A.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2014-04-01

    The Global Exploration Roadmap (GER, [1]) has been developed by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG - comprised of 14 space agencies) to define various pathways to getting humans beyond low Earth orbit and eventually to Mars. Such pathways include visiting asteroids or the Moon before going on to Mars. This document has been written at a very high level and many details are still to be determined. However, a number of important papers regarding international space exploration can form a basis for this document (e.g. [2,3]). In this presentation, we focus on developing the "Lunar Vicinity" scenario by adding detail via mapping a number of recent reports/documents into the GER. Precedence for this scenario is given by Szajnfarber et al. [4] who stated "We find that when international partners are considered endogenously, the argument for a "flexible path" approach is weakened substantially. This is because international contributions can make "Moon first" economically feasible". The documents highlighted here are in no way meant to be all encompassing and other documents can and should be added, (e.g., the JAXA Space Exploration Roadmap). This exercise is intended to demonstrate that existing documents can be mapped into the GER despite the major differences in granularity, and that this mapping is a way to promote broader national and international buy-in to the Lunar Vicinity scenario. The documents used here are: the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Panel on Exploration report on developing a global space exploration program [5], the Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) report from the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) [6], the Lunar Exploration Roadmap developed by LEAG [7], the National Research Council report Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon (SCEM) [8], the scientific rationale for resuming lunar surface exploration [9], the astrobiological benefits of human space exploration [9,10].

  5. Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items. Volume 10

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    excess ammonia gas is separated from the aque- dure, the "once-through" process (Fig 1), uses liq ous carbamate solution, purified from the last...34, GerP 2555335 (1976) & CA 85, 145418 (1976) Urea Calcium Nitrate. 6(NH 2 )C:O + Ca(N0 3 )2 ; 28) SiM. Song, " Improvement of the Process mw 524.46; N...on strong heating. Decompd on con- guanidine Derived from Urea/ Ammonia Nitrate tact with w. CA Registry No [31332-72-6]. Process ", AR LCD-TR-78063

  6. Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation of Gale Data Using a Multivariate Analysis Scheme and a Mesoscale Model with Diabatic Initialization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-06

    to forecast error variance f Coriolis parameter [s-l] F forcing terms representing physical processes ( D ger,,ralized geopotential [m] 0 geopotential...divergence D is defined by D = V.(psV) = .[ (psu hy)+ a (psv hl] 3.8 SV = xh yJ and D is the vertically integrated mass divergence given by f = V (p 5 )da 3.9...Here, f is the Coriolis parameter, D is the mass divergence, u and v are the horizontal wind components, and 0) is the generalized geopotential

  7. Operation CROSSROADS-1946

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    CROSSROADS General Information Bulletinft T.A. Solberg CJTF 1 1946 B.0.15 Oceanographic Factors Involved In Decontaminationt W.H. Monk J’TF 1 15 May...961t University of California. Berkeley, to Adm. T.A. Solberg 25 October 1946 • - -S.. C.1.19 Memorandum: Summary Report of Conditions of Target...in berth 187. 1940 Anchorpl In berth 3t9. Carl 54nr survey party to deterimne cond’t Ion .round Saran a and take sourdtngs. 3 July 1212 G.-er way to

  8. To imitate or not to imitate? How the brain can do it, that is the question!

    PubMed

    Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Bekkering, Harold

    2003-12-01

    In this paper the authors discuss the most prominent views addressing the issue of how we imitate actions. It is argued that the existing theories lay along a continuum, with the direct mapping approach at one end (Butterworth, 1990; Gray, Neisser, Shapiro, & Kouns, 1991) the Active Intermodal Matching approach (Melzoff & Moore, 1997) in the middle, and the goal-directed theory (Bekkering, Wohlshäger, & Gattis, 2000) and the dual route theory (Rumiati & Tessari, 2002) at the opposite end. Interestingly the latter views can account for behaviors that cannot be explained by invoking the direct mapping or the Active Intermodal Matching approach.

  9. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    PubMed

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER)

  10. Training for Technical Assistants: Technical Assistance Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    commertial or other practical application. o Federal Technol yatalo An index of more than 1,200 new tecnologies identified by Federal L laboratories. A • A...idea of clean- Is designed to clean dumpsters In CERL Portawasher have been Ing garbage cans, towever Army place rather than transporting transferred...the lower and upper grades.., M1. Ger•-ny has developed ne dual OhAber garbage containers that allow uource separatio1 •t•o th truck. 32. Ger-.any

  11. A Model for Translating MAC (Military Airlift Command) Flying Hours into Airlift Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    DOVER (DOV) to: From PATRICK (COF) to: Germany (GER) Africa (AFR) Mediterranean (MED) Middle East (M/E) From MCGUIRE (WRI) to: From NORFOLK (NGU) to...portion of C-5 hours. In the Atlantic region (Table 4.4), the MAI WRI-MED ( McGuire to the Mediterranean) has the largest portion of C-141 hours while DOV...Thumrait 1 x 20 = 20 04V7 Norfolk - Rota 4 x 20 80 Total Capability in Tons 1700 438 MAW 0707 McGuire - FSS 30 x 20 = 600 0759 McGuire - MED 4 x 20

  12. [Foreign labor in a reunited Germany].

    PubMed

    Blaschke, J

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses migration into Germany, primarily since World War II, with a focus on the impact on the German labor market. The radical changes that came about in the late 1980s as a result of granting political asylum to third-world refugees and of the readmittance of persons of German descent who wanted to repatriate are then assessed. Following reunification, the author foresees new trends in migration into the country and predicts some of their effects. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND GER)

  13. Notes from "Pavlov's Wednesdays": Gestalt relationships as conditioned stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, H D

    1976-12-01

    When A.O. Dolin's dog Ger was trained to differentiate between metronomic frequencies of 60 (positive) and 120 (negative) per minute, its conditioned salivary reaction to the positive stimulus was attenuated immediately after a test on a more positive stimulus (30 per minute) and that to the negative stimulus was augmented immediately after a test on a more negative stimulus (200 per minute). Pavlov and his colleagues considered explanations based on the relationship between the test and trained stimuli, on reciprocal induction, and on gradients of generalized excitation and inhibition à la Spence. This was just before Pavlov's death, but his last words on the topic leaned in the Gestalt relational direction.

  14. [Comparison of resting energy expenditure determined by indirect calorimetry and estimated by predictive formulas in women with obesity degrees I to III].

    PubMed

    Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Cherem-Cherem, Loren; Galindo-De Noriega, Daniela; Díaz-Gutiérrez, Mary Carmen; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Hernández-Guerrero, César

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La determinación del gasto energético en reposo (GER) se calcula cotidianamente a partir de fórmulas predictivas aunque el resultado varía dependiendo de la población. Objetivo: Comparar la determinación del GER mediante calorimetría indirecta y mediante las ecuaciones Harris-Benedict (HB), Mifflin (MF), Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), «Institute of Medicine» (IOM), Fórmula Rápida (FR) y Valencia (VA) en mujeres con grados de obesidad I a III. Métodos: Mujeres adultas mestizas mexicanas se incluyeron en el estudio y formaron 3 grupos a partir del índice de masa corporal (IMC). Obesidad grado I (IMC 30,0-34,9; n = 42), grado II (IMC 35,0-39,9; n = 38) y grado III (IMC > 40; n = 41). Se determinó el GER mediante calorimetría indirecta y mediante las ecuaciones antes señaladas. ANOVA de Kruskal-Wallis y la prueba de Dunn se emplearon para el análisis estadístico (p < 0,05 se aceptó como diferencia). Resultados: No se observó diferencia estadística entre los valores de las fórmulas HB, OMS y VA respecto a la CI. La concordancia obtenida de dichas fórmulas fue 63%, 67% y 64%, respectivamente, al analizar los datos en un solo grupo de obesidad. Asimismo, las fórmulas IOM, ER y MF mostraron diferencia estadística significativa versus la CI, siendo la concordancia 58%, 53% y 54%, respectivamente. En el grado III de obesidad la concordancia de VA (78%) y FR (71%) fue la mayor obtenida. Discusión: Las fórmulas HB, OMS y VA fueron las mejores para estimar el GER en mujeres mexicanas con IMC>30. En el grado III VA y FR muestran el mejor desempeño.

  15. Wage distributions and spatial preferences in competitive job search and migration.

    PubMed

    Pickles, A; Rogerson, P

    1984-04-01

    "Aggregate interstate migration data [for the United States] indicate that the majority of observed flows are from higher to lower wage states, quite contrary to the predictions of human capital theory. It is argued that a search theoretic framework may be used to complement and strengthen human capital theory. Such a framework may then include consideration of the flows of job information and aspects of job competition. A model is proposed for application to longitudinal micro-level data which overcomes a variety of theoretical and inferential problems and which remains within the bounds of empirical application." (summary in FRE, GER)

  16. Complications of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bendig, D W; Seilheimer, D K; Wagner, M L; Ferry, G D; Barrison, G M

    1982-04-01

    Seven patients with cystic fibrosis who had complications of gastroesophageal reflux including abdominal pain, peptic esophagitis, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and esophageal stricture are described. We believe that these are gastrointestinal complications of CF and that they may be responsible for significant morbidity. The mechanical influence of a depressed diaphragm caused by hyperinflation, along with increased abdominal pressure with chronic coughing, may contribute to GER in CF. Early detection and treatment are important not only to prevent esophageal complications but also to increase the quality of life by relief of pain and by avoiding the resultant decrease in appetite, which can contribute to malnutrition.

  17. Genotype-by-environment interaction of growth traits in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a continental scale study.

    PubMed

    Sae-Lim, P; Kause, A; Mulder, H A; Martin, K E; Barfoot, A J; Parsons, J E; Davidson, J; Rexroad, C E; van Arendonk, J A M; Komen, H

    2013-12-01

    Rainbow trout is a globally important fish species for aquaculture. However, fish for most farms worldwide are produced by only a few breeding companies. Selection based solely on fish performance recorded at a nucleus may lead to lower-than-expected genetic gains in other production environments when genotype-by-environment (G × E) interaction exists. The aim was to quantify the magnitude of G × E interaction of growth traits (tagging weight; BWT, harvest weight; BWH, and growth rate; TGC) measured across 4 environments, located in 3 different continents, by estimating genetic correlations between environments. A total of 100 families, of at least 25 in size, were produced from the mating 58 sires and 100 dams. In total, 13,806 offspring were reared at the nucleus (selection environment) in Washington State (NUC) and in 3 other environments: a recirculating aquaculture system in Freshwater Institute (FI), West Virginia; a high-altitude farm in Peru (PE), and a cold-water farm in Germany (GER). To account for selection bias due to selective mortality, a multitrait multienvironment animal mixed model was applied to analyze the performance data in different environments as different traits. Genetic correlation (rg) of a trait measured in different environments and rg of different traits measured in different environments were estimated. The results show that heterogeneity of additive genetic variances was mainly found for BWH measured in FI and PE. Additive genetic coefficient of variation for BWH in NUC, FI, PE, and GER were 7.63, 8.36, 8.64, and 9.75, respectively. Genetic correlations between the same trait in different environments were low, indicating strong reranking (BWT: rg = 0.15 to 0.37, BWH: rg = 0.19 to 0.48, TGC: rg = 0.31 to 0.36) across environments. The rg between BWT in NUC and BWH in both FI (0.31) and GER (0.36) were positive, which was also found between BWT in NUC and TGC in both FI (0.10) and GER (0.20). However, rg were negative between BWT

  18. Real-Time, General-Purpose, High-Speed Signal Processing Systems for Underwater Research. Proceedings of a Working Level Conference held at Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic, Anti-Submarine Warfare Research Center (SACLANTCEN) on 18-21 September 1979. Part 1. Sessions I to III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    intelligent graphics terminals in real-tim processing S (e) 5-1 to 5-9 MIel ita|ger The application of high-speed processors to propagation e.piriamnts...interface SACLANTCEN CP-25 5-2 M IM M STEIGER: Intelligent graphics terminals The less desirable features of the terminal are listed below. reiatively small...hours. Dismantling of the equipment is normally performed in less than one-half hour and often while waiting to clear customs. Transportation of the

  19. Assessment of Motion Effects on the FPSO (Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading) Vessel Terra Nova

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    sur le sommeil , les sympt6mes et la gravit6 du mal de mer et l’ex~cution des tdches a 6t6 effectu6 A divers moments dans le cours d’une p~riode de...partir des 911 questionnaires retourn~s, on a appris que les probli-mes assochis aux troubles de sommeil et aux sympt6mes du mal des transports pouvaient...tre qualifiis de l6gers A mod~r~s. Par contre, la correlation entre les troubles de sommeil et les mouvements du navire 6tait relativement 6lev~e. Le

  20. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  1. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, J C; Sobrino, F; Dopazo, J

    1993-10-01

    A phylogenetic tree based on the VPI sequences of type O foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been derived. Direct sequencing of PCR products has been used to obtain the VP1 gene sequences of new isolates. The tree exhibits four main lineages that largely correlate with the geographical origin of isolates. The analysis supports a close relationship between European O1 field isolates and vaccine strains, with the exception of O Thalheim Aus/81 and O Wuppertal Ger/82 which were probably of non-European origin. Analysis of nucleotide substitutions indicates that synonymous mutations play a major role in FMDV evolution.

  2. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    PubMed

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Studies in Intelligence. Volume 54, Number 2, June 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    of two gentleman yachtsmen who, cruising in the North Sea, stumble upon a secret German plot to invade England; and William le Queux’s Spies of...ing races,” he declared in a let- ter to Basil Williams , a close friend, in October 1903.39 The South African War deeply colored Childers’s thinking...legacy was in laying the foundation for the anti-Ger- man crusades of William le Queux, who, in concert with military careerists like Lt. Col. James

  4. In the Service of Empire: Imperialism and the British Spy Thriller, 1901-1914

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    England; and William le Queux’s Spies of the Kaiser (1909), a dire prophecy of German espionage in advance of an invasion. In recent years...possibilities of an alliance of the English speak- ing races,” he declared in a let- ter to Basil Williams , a close friend, in October 1903.39 The...section will discuss, perhaps Childers’s greatest legacy was in laying the foundation for the anti-Ger- man crusades of William le Queux, who, in

  5. Agricultural depopulation in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stambuk, M

    1991-01-01

    Trends in urban depopulation since 1945 in Yugoslavia and specifically in Croatia are analyzed. Two phases are identified: the first involved the eradication of the peasant farm under the Communist system, which resulted in a large-scale exodus from agricultural to urban-based activities. The second phase, which has lasted until the present, has two features: one is the tendency of those staying on family farms to have other employment off the farm; the other involves the likelihood of seeking employment abroad. (SUMMARY IN FRE AND GER)

  6. Comparison of nonciliated tracheal epithelial cells in six mammalian species: ultrastructure and population densities.

    PubMed

    Plopper, C G; Mariassy, A T; Wilson, D W; Alley, J L; Nishio, S J; Nettesheim, P

    1983-12-01

    Three types of nonciliated epithelial cells in mammalian conducting respiratory airways are thought to be secretory: mucous (goblet) cells, serous epithelial cells, and Clara cells. Mucous and serous cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the trachea. Clara cells are considered to be the secretory cells of the most distal conducting airways or bronchioles. To ascertain if mucous and serous epithelial cells are common to the tracheal epithelium of mammalian species, we characterized the ultrastructure and population densities of tracheal epithelial cells in six species: hamster (H), rat (Rt), rabbit (Rb), cat (C), Bonnet monkey (M. radiata) (B), and sheep (S). Following fixation by airway infusion with glutaraldehyde/paraformaldehyde, tracheal tissue was processed for light and electron microscopy (EM) by a selective embedding technique. Tracheal epithelium over cartilage was quantitated by light microscopy and characterized by transmission EM. Mucous cells were defined by abundant large nonhomogeneous granules, numerous Golgi complexes, basally located nuclei and granular endoplasmic reticulum (GER). The percentage of mucous cells in the tracheal epithelium was: H (0%), Rt (0.5%), Rb (1.3%), C (20.2%), B (8%), S (5.1%). Serous cells had homogeneous, electron-dense granules and extensive GER. Serous cells were present only in rats (39.2%). Clara cells had homogeneous electron-dense granules, abundant agranular endoplasmic reticulum (AER) and basal GER. Clara cells were found in hamsters (41.4%) and rabbits (17.6%). In sheep trachea, 35.9% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, abundant AER and numerous Golgi complexes. In Bonnet monkey trachea, 16% of the epithelial cells had small electron-lucent granules, numerous polyribosomes, perinuclear Golgi apparatus and moderate GER. In cat trachea, 5.4% of the epithelial cells lacked granules, and had moderate numbers of mitochondria, moderate amounts of polyribosomes, a central nucleus, and

  7. The science of the stars in Danzig from Rheticus to Hevelius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Derek

    This dissertation asks how civic institutions (the city council and the academic gymnasium), socio-economic structures (civic and private patronage) and religion and civic ideals in the city of Danzig shaped creative thought about the science of the stars during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Reciprocally, it looks at how the use of scientific knowledge created distinctive representations of the city both as it appeared to its own citizens and as it was presented to others outside of the city walls. By employing a variety of sources, including Latin texts, printed prognostications, astrological and astronomical pamphlets, handwritten marginalia, German poetry, artwork (both printed illustrations and freestanding pieces), travelers' accounts, personal correspondence and funeral sermons, I explore how those who lived in Danzig represented their observations of the stars. While concentrating on Danzig, the dissertation compares and contrasts experiences in Danzig to other places. Examples of comparisons are those in chapters 1 and 4, which compare systems of courtly patronage found in other European cities with systems of civic and private patronage found in Danzig. Chapter 2 considers the books of Peter Crüger (1580-1639), professor of mathematics and poetry in the Danzig gymnasium, and his concern to remain within the bounds of correct Lutheran doctrine. He wrote at a time when Lutherans held powerful positions within city government and in the administration of the gymnasium. In chapter 3, I focus on the writings of Peter Crüger's pupil, Andreas Gryphius (1616-1664). Gryphius later became a celebrated German poet and statesman. Understanding his stay in Danzig and his studies under Crüger, I argue, are vital to understanding his poetry, plays and prose. Chapters 5 through 7 concentrate on another of Crüger's students, namely, Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Chapter 5 studies Hevelius's first major publication, Selenographia (1647) and argues that

  8. Historical Characteristics of Combat for Wargames. (Benchmarks)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Terraii Cover dity ture; Maneuver Wdth Dpth::Suprs; Monte Acero Itily V Oct-43 US Ger Div Div Rugged Mixed Dry Temp Frontal Atk 8 No Monte Camino I...Ia ------ ;Posture Wdth OpthU:Oays Hrs;: Atkr Dfdr:Atkr Dfdrlment8: Attacker Defender :--Men---:: Sqds: Monte Acero Delay 8 2 133 130 5...8pns8IGuns Msl:ties: :--Men--8: Sqds: tars:;8pns;:Tanks8:Wpns8;Guns Msli;ties: Monte Acero 66 106 32 69 0 6,435 51 32 44 40 43 0 53 Monte Camino I 218

  9. Self-assembly of heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites from multivalent ligands via social self-sorting

    PubMed Central

    Benkhäuser, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Summary A Tröger's base-derived racemic bis(1,10-phenanthroline) ligand (rac)-1 and a bis(2,2'-bipyridine) ligand with a central 1,3-diethynylbenzene unit 2 were synthesized. Each of these ligands acts as a multivalent entity for the binding of two copper(I) ions. Upon coordination to the metal ions these two ligands undergo selective self-assembly into heteroleptic dinuclear metallosupramolecular kites in a high-fidelity social self-sorting manner as evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. PMID:26124873

  10. Transient Combustion in Granular Propellant Beds. Part I. Theoretical Modeling and Numerical Solution of Transient Combustion Processes in Mobile Granular Propellant Beds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    cFAD iNJ ~) CONTRACT REPORT NO. 346 O~TRANSIENT COMýBUST ION IN GRANULAR PROPELLANT BEDS. PART 1 :. THEOREH-CAI 0 MODELING AND NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF...University Park, PA 16102 C. tw. August 1977 * 1 ~ k MI Dsettvy this report whea it is no lon~ger needed. Do not i-.ttxan it tc the origin~ator...1161ORY Pllphoo coCVtzO Prope.luat Bads. Part ZP Theoretical Modeling anO N4aorll a Solution of Trausiont Combustion Prqeti Fb 1 ,U1-6.1~ 9 I--Mob ..e

  11. Subsystem Testing and Flight Test Instrumentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    d’appui tactique 1L-ger, et de ce fait elle diff~re de la version frangaise, dite "Ecole", essentiellement par son syst~me de navigation et d’attaque...d’environnement des quipements install~s tant dans le poste pilote que dans les diff~rents compartiments fuselage. Cela concerne essentiellement *les temp...navigation sont essentiellement des vols triangulaires, chacun des 3 trongons correspondant A plus de 100 NM que ce soit au-dessus de la terre ou de la

  12. Description of the scissors mode within the Moszkowski model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, A. A.

    1995-06-01

    The schematic model proposed by Moszkowski to study the interplay between single particle and collective degrees of freedom is extended to a heterogeneous system of protons and neutrons. The pairing correlations are also introduced. The magnetic states are defined with respect to an gerR3 group acting in a fictitious three-dimensional space. Their properties are successively considered within three different approaches. The numerical analysis shows that most of the scissors mode properties, which are pointed out in realistic calculations, are qualitatively described by this very simple model.

  13. A simple model for understanding the DIM dust measurement at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, Morris; Flandes, Alberto; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Krüger, Harald

    2016-11-01

    We present a simple model for gas and dust flow from 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko that can be used to understand the grain impact observed by the DIM instrument on Philae (Krüger et al., 2015). We show how model results when applied to the GIADA measurements (Rotundi et al., 2015; Della Corte et al., 2015) can be used, in conjunction with the results found by the MIRO (Schloerb et al., 2015) and VIRTIS (De Sanctis et al., 2015) instruments to infer surface properties such as surface temperature and surface ice fraction.

  14. Scintigraphic assessment of Barrett's esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Kotler, J.A.; Sampliner, R.E.; Kogan, F.J.; Henry, R.E.; Mason, B.F.

    1984-01-01

    Barrett's (B) esophagus is defined by the presence of columnar epithelium above the gastroesophageal junction. Patients with 5cm histologically proven B were evaluated for mucosal labeling (ML), esophageal motility (EM), gastroesophageal reflux (GER), and gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids with and without iv metaclopramide (MCP). ML, after premedication with cimetidine, was evaluated 20 and 40 min after injection of Tc-99m04 with ANT and RAO views. Eight of 11 B and 0 of 2 controls (C) labeled esophageal mucosa. EM was assessed in the supine position over one min after a 15 ml swallow Tc-99mSc-H2O. The normal pattern shows sequential, aboral, discreet peaks with no retrograde movement over one min in three computer derived regions over the esophagus. Five of 16 B and 1 of 6 C demonstrated abnormal pattern. GER was assessed in the supine position by serially increasing extrinsic binder pressures from 0 to 100 Torr after ingestion of 300 ml of Tc-99mSc-orange juice (OJ). GER was present in 13 of 15 B and 0 of 11 C. Reflux ranged from 5.1% to 30% at 100 Torr. Hiatal hernia (HH) was identified in 14 of 16 B by endoscopy and in 10 of 16 by scintigraphy. GE was evaluated after a liquid meal of 300 ml Tc-99mSc-OJ and a solid meal of Tc-99mSc-egg salad sandwich. The supine subject was imaged anteriorly for 30 min (liquid) or 60 min (solid). GE was assessed an additional 10 min after MCP. Clearance time (50%) for solid Ge was calculated from extrapolated linear fits of decay corrected data. There was no significant difference in liquid or solid GE between B and C. The authors conclude the following: 1) ML detects B with lower sensitivity than previously reported; 2) EM disorders are frequently found in B; 3) GER is frequently identified in B; 4) HH can be identified by nuclear technique; and 5) B shows normal GE and responds to MCP.

  15. The Impact of Video Compression on Remote Cardiac Pulse Measurement Using Imaging Photoplethysmography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-30

    Texas, USA) to generate a hardware-timed (120 Hz, 90% duty cycle) trigger/ exposure control signal, resulting in a capture rate of 120 (fps) and 7.5 ms... exposures . Imagers: Scout scA640-120gc (Basler, Ahrensburg, Ger- many) GigE-standard, color, progressive-scan, CCD cameras DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...triggering and exposure control, capturing 8- bit, 658x492 pixel, raw Bayer-format images were used for video capture. The imagers were equipped with 16 mm

  16. Does gastroesophageal reflux increase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations?

    PubMed

    Iliaz, Sinem; Iliaz, Raim; Onur, Seda Tural; Arici, Serpil; Akyuz, Umit; Karaca, Cetin; Demir, Kadir; Besisik, Fatih; Kaymakoglu, Sabahattin; Akyuz, Filiz

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been investigated less than asthma-GER. We aimed to evaluate the presence of GER in patients with COPD and its impact on exacerbations. We included 24 patients with stable mild-moderate stage COPD and 19 volunteers as the control group. We conducted a gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptom questionnaire, gastroscopy, manometry, and an ambulatory 24-h pH-impedance study. According to the GERD questionnaire, only 5 (20.8%) patients with COPD had typical GER symptoms. According to the 24-h pH-impedance study, the mean DeMeester score (DMS) was 38.1 ± 34.6 in the COPD group and 13.3 ± 16.8 in the control group (p = 0.01). The acid reflux (DMS > 14.7) rate was higher in patients with COPD than in controls (73.9% vs 26.3%, p = 0.01). The symptom association probability positivity rate was 17.4% (n = 4) in the COPD group, which was similar to the controls (p = 0.11). The mean proximal extension rate of reflux (Z 17 cm) was 26.4 ± 12.9% in the COPD group. The proximal extent of reflux was positively correlated with the number of COPD exacerbations per year (p = 0.03, r = 0.448). In the motility results, only 2 (20%) patients in the control group had a minor motility disorder. Seventeen (70.8%) patients in the COPD group had a minor motility disorder, and 4 (16.7%) had major motility disorders (p < 0.001). In our study, gastroesophageal reflux was frequent in patients with COPD, but only a quarter had typical reflux symptoms. The proximal extent of reflux may trigger frequent exacerbations of COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  18. Internal migration in West Germany and implications for east-west salary convergence.

    PubMed

    Decressin, J W

    1994-01-01

    "Using a simple model of gross migration [in West Germany], the paper shows that provided economic agents are sufficiently risk averse, migrational flows are likely to be procyclical. The econometric results confirm that flows are highly procyclical. They further indicate that changes in regional economic disparities significantly affect migrational flows. However, given the widening of regional disparities in the 1980s accompanied by a worsening in aggregate conditions, migration seems least effective in offsetting the differentiated impact of labor market shocks when it would be most useful. The paper concludes by applying the results to the issue of east-west migration and salary convergence." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  19. Ökologische Aspekte von Thin Clients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Knermann, Christian

    Hersteller von IT-Technologie haben angesichts der Debatte um Klimaschutz und Nachhaltigkeit erkannt, dass für Endkunden, ob privat oder gewerblich, auch ökologische Gesichtspunkte beim Kauf von PC, Laptop oder Netzwerkgeräten eine immer größere Rolle spielen und Energie- oder Ökoeffizienz der Geräte kaufentscheidend wirken können. Betrachtet und bewertet wurden bislang aber hauptsächlich isolierte Einzelaspekte, wie der Energieverbrauch in der Nutzungsphase oder der Einsatz toxikologisch unbedenklicher Stoffe. Was fehlt, ist eine ganzheitliche Ausrichtung auf Nachhaltigkeit über die Lebensphasen Produktion, Nutzung sowie Recyling/Entsorgung.

  20. Performance Characteristics of an Aircraft Engine with Exhaust Turbine Supercharger

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1941-05-01

    installation of’the ex- haust turbine supercha~ger. The two piston rods at oppb- si t e ends of the s e r vo c~rl iuder ware connect a d to the aut 0... crankshaft through multispeed gears. INTRODUCTION It is the function of superchargers in general to aug- Dent the porforcance of an internal-combustion engine...to the arbitrary design limit of the turbine and blower combination, the unit should be capable of main- taining approximate12r sea-level operating

  1. Analysis of Factors That Have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 1. Main Report. Selected Battles 1600 - 1973.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    attacks by the 1st and 9th Infantry Divisions on the 10th Panzer and Centauro Divisions, 24 March-S April; and the successful withdrawil of the two Axis...8217arch-10 April 1943, states (p. 5 thaton 23a st anry vision counter-attacked by Ger.n 10th Panzer Division and elements Centauro Division. Yet, the... Centauro Division occupied an 86- Attacker, 250 In error. kilometer front due to the penetration of the US 1st Armored Division on the right flank of

  2. Stream Traffic Communication in Packet Switched Networks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    of the UCLA computing facility. Special thanks to my sons, Jason and Bret, who have request- ed and received very Little of my ti%P these past several...routing scheme by using the flow deviation method [ Gert 73J for example. Notice that fixed routing always performed better than the foreground routing...February 1977, pp 42-45. [ Gert 73) GerLa, M. "The Design of Store-and-Forward (S/F) Networks for Computer Communication." Computer Science Department

  3. Fahrzeug-Außengeräusch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genuit, Klaus

    Wirtschaftliches Wachstum ist mit steigenden Anforderungen an Mobilität und Transport verknüpft. Zukunftsorientierter Fortschritt muss hierbei die Wirkungen von Verkehrsgeräuschen auf Mensch und Umwelt berücksichtigen, um eine hohe Lebensqualität sicherstellen zu können. Mehr als die Hälfte der Bevölkerung in der EU fühlt sich durch Verkehrslärm belästigt oder befürchtet direkte Auswirkungen auf Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden. Nach einer repräsentativen Umfrage des Umweltbundesamtes fühlen sich durch Straßenverkehrslärm 20 % der Bevölkerung stark oder wesentlich belästigt (UBA 2008). Daher ist das "Fahrzeug-Außengeräusch“ Gegenstand zahlreicher Forschungsprojekte zu Themen wie Identifikation wesentlicher Geräuschquellen, Zusammenhang zwischen Verkehrsgeräusch und Belästigung, medizinische Folgen aufgrund chronischer Lärmexposition, Geräuschqualität, Entwicklung neuer Methoden und Technologien zur Fahrzeug-Außengeräuschmessung und das Fahrzeug-Außengeräusch als wesentliches Produktattribut, das aktiver Gestaltung bedarf.

  4. Gastroesophageal Reflux Affects Sleep Quality in Snoring Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Woodley, Frederick W; Skaggs, Beth; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Eneli, Ihuoma; Splaingard, Mark; Mousa, Hayat

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the quality of sleep in snoring obese children without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA); and to study the possible relationship between sleep interruption and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in snoring obese children. Study subjects included 13 snoring obese children who were referred to our sleep lab for possible sleep-disordered breathing. Patients underwent multichannel intraluminal impedance and esophageal pH monitoring with simultaneous polysomnography. Exclusion criteria included history of fundoplication, cystic fibrosis, and infants under the age of 2 years. Significant association between arousals and awakenings with previous reflux were defined by symptom-association probability using 2-minute intervals. Sleep efficiency ranged from 67-97% (median 81%). A total of 111 reflux episodes (90% acidic) were detected during sleep, but there were more episodes per hour during awake periods after sleep onset than during sleep (median 2.3 vs. 0.6, p=0.04). There were 279 total awakenings during the sleep study; 56 (20.1%) of them in 9 patients (69.2%) were preceded by reflux episodes (55 acid, 1 non-acid). In 5 patients (38.5%), awakenings were significantly associated with reflux. The data suggest that acid GER causes sleep interruptions in obese children who have symptoms of snoring or restless sleep and without evidence of OSA.

  5. Einleitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, Klaus; Reinhardt, Andreas; Pfeffer, Michael

    In nahezu allen elektronischen Geräten dienen leistungselektronische Systeme zur Umformung und Steuerung der notwendigen Spannungen bzw. Ströme. Aufgrund ihrer komplexen Baustrukturen und der häufig geringen Losgrößen werden diese Systeme jedoch hauptsächlich in zeitintensiver Handarbeit gefertigt. Viele Firmen, die sich mit der Montage solcher Systeme auseinandersetzen, entscheiden sich deswegen zu einer Verlagerung der Wertschöpfungsschritte in sogenannte Niedriglohnländer. Im Projekt Wettbewerbsfähige Produktionskonzepte und Montageverfahren für leistungselektronische Systeme in globalen Märkten" (ProMoLeS), das unter dem Themenfeld Kompetenz Montage: Global agieren, am Standort Deutschland montieren" durchgeführt wurde, sind die Ergebnisse entstanden und Lösungen entwickelt worden, welche in den nachfolgenden Kapiteln ein breites Spektrum rund um die Montage leistungselektronischer Systeme abdecken. Das Themenfeld Kompetenz Montage" wurde mit Mitteln des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) innerhalb des Rahmenkonzeptes Forschung für die Produktion von morgen" gefördert und vom Projektträger Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (PTKA) betreut.

  6. Effect of static electric fields in root cells of Vicia faba (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Demiray, H

    2006-01-01

    Serial electron microscopic sections were prepared from half-ripened meristematic root cells of Vicia faba (Fabaceae) which had been exposed gradually to 700, 1000, 2500, 3500, and 5000 V/m static electric fields during seven days with and without Zn and Cd electrodes. At the end of five weeks, wall loosenings and very small nuclei were observed in those root cells which were exposed to static electric currents from the lower side of the medium without electrodes, while abnormalities in cell formation, e.g., two cells with one nucleus, and GER occurrence were present in an electrolytic (Cd upward and Zn downward) medium. The cells exposed to a static current from the upper side of the medium had small nuclei and abnormal cell divisions in the electrolyte, but in a non-electrolyte very large nuclei and thicker cell walls were observed, the cytoplasm was dense with GER, pinocytosis was seen filled with mitochondria, and protoplast formation with big nuclei was seen in exocytosis.

  7. Effects of coffees before and after special treatment procedure on cell membrane potentials in stomach cells.

    PubMed

    Fiebich, B L; Valente, P; Ferrer-Montiel, A; Candelario-Jalil, E; Menthe, J; Luecker, P

    2006-01-01

    Coffee, one of the most excessively used beverages worldwide, commences the risk of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which may lead to gastric ulcers and increase the risk of gastric cancer. Many attempts have been made by the coffee industry to diminish the irritating effect on mucosa by means of altering the extraction methods concerning gerbic acids and the roasting processes. This paper describes the effect of differently produced coffees involving two brands of Darboven and two brands of other coffee roasters. The aim of this study was to prove the results of gastric potential measurements we found in literature by using human AGS gastric epithelial cells (human adenocarcinoma). All four coffee extracts tested differentially affected the membrane resting potential of AGS cells. Coffees no. 1 and no. 2 depolarized the cells, presumably by increasing the cation entry into the cytosol. In marked contrast, coffee no. 4 hyperpolarizes the cells, possibly by H(+) extrusion and/or Cl(-) influx, suggesting that this coffee might increase acidity in the stomach, which might negatively affect the stomach, especially in people with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Overall, our data suggest that different roasting methods of coffees affect the membrane potentials of AGS stomach cells, resulting in increased influx of H+ possibly resulting in decreased stomach acidity and thus reducing GER. These results are in good accordance with clinical pharmacological results from potential difference measurements in healthy volunteers we found in the literature.

  8. The importance of monitoring adverse drug reactions in elderly patients: the results of a long-term pharmacovigilance programme.

    PubMed

    Carnovale, Carla; Gentili, Marta; Fortino, Ida; Merlino, Luca; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia; ViGer Group

    2016-01-01

    To recognise and prevent ADRs (including DDIs) in the elderly through a 4-year post-marketing active pharmacovigilance programme. The programme was designed to enhance high quality spontaneous reporting of ADRs in elderly patients by sampling the Italian population and was termed 'Pharmacovigilance in Geriatry (ViGer)'. ADRs were collected for adults aged over 65 years of age treated in nursing homes, continuing care retirement communities and territorial health services in Lombardy. ADRs were evaluated using the Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale (Naranjo) and analysed with respect to time, sex, category of ADR, seriousness, suspected medicines, notoriety. We analysed all the potential DDIs. We detected 1073 cases reports corresponding to 2110 ADRs. Vaccines, antibacterials for systemic use and antineoplastic agents were the pharmacotherapeutic subgroups most frequently involved. 18% of ADRs reports were classified as serious. In 752 reports patients were described as in polytherapy; in 55 patients (7.3%) the reported ADR were probably preventable because of DDIs involvement. The ViGer project demonstrated that active pos-marketing pharmacovigilance programmes are a valid strategy to increase awareness on geriatrics pharmacology, reduce underreporting and provide important information on previous unknown ADRs and DDIs, resulting in a therapy optimisation in clinical practice in the geriatric setting.

  9. Influence of ethanol on the pharmacokinetic properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Toennes, Stefan W; Schneider, Kirsten; Wunder, Cora; Kauert, Gerold F; Moeller, Manfred R; Theunissen, Eef L; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2013-04-01

    Oral fluid (OF) tests aid in identifying drivers under the influence of drugs. In this study, 17 heavy cannabis users consumed alcohol to achieve steady blood alcohol concentrations of 0 to 0.7 g/L and smoked cannabis 3 h afterward. OF samples were obtained before and up to 4 h after smoking and on-site tests were performed (Dräger DrugTest 5000 and Securetec DrugWipe 5+). Maximum concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) immediately after smoking (up to 44,412 ng/g) were below 4,300 (median 377) ng/g 1 h after smoking and less than 312 (median 88) ng/g 3 h later with 5 of 49 samples negative, suggesting that recent cannabis use might occasionally not be detectable. An influence of alcohol was not observed. Drinking 300 mL variably influenced THC concentrations (median only -29.6%), which suggests that drinking does not markedly affect on-site test performance. Many (92%) Dräger tests performed 4 h after smoking were still positive, indicating sufficient sensitivity for recent cannabis use. Differences in the results of a roadside study with DrugTest 5000 (sensitivity 84.8%, specificity 96.0%, accuracy 84.3%) could be explained by a higher number of true negatives, differences between OF and serum and differences between occasional and chronic users.

  10. Review of the Relationship Between Galilean Relativity and the Velocity of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinaku, Shukri

    2013-09-01

    In the part of physics called "classical mechanics" the Galilean principle of relativity is accepted by everyone. But, according to the theory of special relativity (TSR) this principle cannot be applied to light. By analyzing several experiments (Fizeau's experiment, Michelson's experiment, de Sitter's observation and Alväger's experiment) in this paper it will be concluded that the reliance of TSR's postulates in those experiments is unsustainable. The essence of the reviewing these experiments is that some of them do not have the same conditions as the motion to which refers the Galileo principle (Fizeau's experiment, the de Sitter's observation and the Alväger's experiment) and in some of them the Galileo principle is not applied correctly (Michelson's experiment). In this paper it is also concluded that the light obeys to the Galileo principle like all other bodies. Finally, an idea is proposed for conducting an experiment which will prove that the velocity of light is not constant in all reference frames.

  11. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans (Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  12. Image based remote sensing method for modeling black-eyed beans ( Vigna unguiculata) Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) over Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadavid, Giorgos; Fasoula, Dionysia; Hadjimitsis, Michael; Skevi Perdikou, P.; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, Leaf Area Index (LAI) and Crop Height (CH) are modeled to the most known spectral vegetation index — NDVI — using remotely sensed data. This approach has advantages compared to the classic approaches based on a theoretical background. A GER-1500 field spectro-radiometer was used in this study in order to retrieve the necessary spectrum data for estimating a spectral vegetation index (NDVI), for establishing a semiempirical relationship between black-eyed beans' canopy factors and remotely sensed data. Such semi-empirical models can be used then for agricultural and environmental studies. A field campaign was undertaken with measurements of LAI and CH using the Sun-Scan canopy analyzer, acquired simultaneously with the spectroradiometric (GER1500) measurements between May and June of 2010. Field spectroscopy and remotely sensed imagery have been combined and used in order to retrieve and validate the results of this study. The results showed that there are strong statistical relationships between LAI or CH and NDVI which can be used for modeling crop canopy factors (LAI, CH) to remotely sensed data. The model for each case was verified by the factor of determination. Specifically, these models assist to avoid direct measurements of the LAI and CH for all the dates for which satellite images are available and support future users or future studies regarding crop canopy parameters.

  13. Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a Raft-Forming Alginate Reflux Suppressant (Liquid Gaviscon) for the Treatment of Heartburn during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Strugala, Vicki; Bassin, Julian; Swales, Valerie S.; Lindow, Stephen W.; Dettmar, Peter W.; Thomas, Edward C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) and the symptoms of heartburn and regurgitation are common in pregnancy. These symptoms are transient and mostly resolve postpartum but have a negative impact on quality of life. Here, we present a prospective clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of an alginate raft-forming oral suspension that is licensed for use in pregnancy. The study was a multicentre, prospective, open-label, and baseline-controlled study of Liquid Gaviscon (LG) in the treatment of heartburn in pregnant women with current symptoms of heartburn and/or reflux requiring treatment (recruited 144). The efficacy of the study medication was rated by the investigator (primary endpoint) and patient. Treatment was deemed to be a success in 91% of patients as judged by the investigator (95% CI 85.0–95.3) and 90% (95% CI 84.1–94.8) when assessed by the patient themselves. Very few adverse events or serious adverse events were reported that were considered to be related to the study medication, and these were consistent with the normal population incidences. Serum sodium levels remained unchanged. This prospective open-label study in a large number of pregnant women has shown that LG is both safe and highly efficacious in the treatment of heartburn and GER symptoms in pregnancy. PMID:23209926

  14. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z. Q.; Heron, J. T.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, J.; Ko, C.; Biegalski, M. D.; Aschauer, U.; Hsu, S. L.; Nowakowski, M. E.; Wu, J.; Christen, H. M.; Salahuddin, S.; Bokor, J. B.; Spaldin, N. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Ramesh, R.

    2015-01-07

    Giant physical responses were discovered, in numerous systems, when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. We have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. Finally, the observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  15. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z. Q.; Heron, J. T.; ...

    2015-01-07

    Giant physical responses were discovered, in numerous systems, when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. We have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a 'giant' electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic andmore » antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. Finally, the observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.« less

  16. Seven new species of Psechrus and additional taxonomic contributions to the knowledge of the spider family Psechridae (Araneae).

    PubMed

    Bayer, Steffen

    2014-01-27

    Seven new Psechrus species are described from South East Asia: P. arietinus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. insulanus sp. nov.(♂, Thailand), P. ampullaceus sp. nov.(♂♀, Vietnam), P. omistes sp. nov.(♂, Indonesia, Sumatra), P. quasillus sp. nov.(♂♀, Malaysia, Borneo), P. huberi sp. nov.(♀, Philippines), and P. wade sp. nov.(♂, Philippines). For the following species, new records are listed and intraspecific variation is discussed and illustrated: P. libelti Kulczyński, 1908, P. norops Bayer, 2012, P. rani Wang & Yin, 2001, P. khammouan Jäger, 2007, P. luangprabang Jäger, 2007, P. jaegeri Bayer, 2012, P. obtectus Bayer, 2012, P. kenting Yoshida, 2009 and P. crepido Bayer, 2012, and Fecenia protensa Thorell, 1891. The latter species is recorded from Vietnam for the first time. P. norops, P. libelti and an unidentified Psechrus species from Baluno, Mindanao are for the first time characterised and illustrated by their pre-epigynes and pre-vulvae.

  17. International Coordination of Space Exploration - A Scientific Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiero, Francois; Hill, Juergen

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was created in 2007. It is a non-binding forum aiming at coordinating exploration activities of 14 space agencies around the world. The international group released the second version of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) in August 2013 and the document on Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration in September 2013. Subsequently, ISECG reviewed its coordination process and its working structure. This led, in early 2014, to the creation of a new ISECG committee: the Science Working Group (SWG). The two authors are the co-chairs of the SWG. The SWG's main purpose is to propose a concrete plan for a coordinated interaction between the exploration community and the science community, where appropriate to advance common goals. This effort could address priorities for the scientific content of missions to the exploration destinations: the Moon - including cis-lunar space -, Near Earth Objects and Mars. Science opportunities in the GER mission scenario are also reviewed. The paper will discuss the scope and approach of the ISECG Science Working Group.

  18. The nutritional status in adolescent Spanish cyclists.

    PubMed

    Julián-Almárcegui, C; Gómez-Cabello, A; González-Agüero, A; Olmedillas, H; Gómez-Bruton, A; Matute-Llorente, A; Casajús, J A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La adolescencia es un periodo importante de vulnerabilidad nutricional dados las mayores demandas alimentarias. Objetivo: Describir el estado nutritivo de ciclistas adolescentes y de un grupo de controles con actividad normal. Métodos: Se utilizó la Herramienta de Evaluación Alimentaria HELENA para evaluar la ingesta nutricional de 20 ciclistas adolescentes y 17 controles. Se registraron la ingesta total de energía, el gasto de energía en reposo (GER), el gasto de energía total (GET), los macronutrientes y diversos micronutrientes y se compararon con las guías dietéticas. Resultados: El GER fue menor y el GTE mayor en los ciclistas que en los controles (ambos P < 0,01). Se observaron diferencias significativas en el fósforo y la vitamina B1, siendo mayores en los ciclistas (P < 0,05). La mayor parte de los participantes, tanto ciclistas como controles, no alcanzó los requerimientos en macronutrientes, vitaminas ni minerales. Conclusión: El estado nutritivo de los adolescentes ciclistas y de los controles parece no adecuarse a las recomendaciones de cantidad y calidad. Deberían investigarse las posibles implicaciones de la salud actual y futura, especialmente en los adolescentes atletas.

  19. Large resistivity modulation in mixed-phase metallic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeonbae; Liu, Z. Q.; Heron, J. T.; Clarkson, J. D.; Hong, J.; Ko, C.; Biegalski, M. D.; Aschauer, U.; Hsu, S. L.; Nowakowski, M. E.; Wu, J.; Christen, H. M.; Salahuddin, S.; Bokor, J. B.; Spaldin, N. A.; Schlom, D. G.; Ramesh, R.

    2015-01-01

    In numerous systems, giant physical responses have been discovered when two phases coexist; for example, near a phase transition. An intermetallic FeRh system undergoes a first-order antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition above room temperature and shows two-phase coexistence near the transition. Here we have investigated the effect of an electric field to FeRh/PMN-PT heterostructures and report 8% change in the electrical resistivity of FeRh films. Such a ‘giant’ electroresistance (GER) response is striking in metallic systems, in which external electric fields are screened, and thus only weakly influence the carrier concentrations and mobilities. We show that our FeRh films comprise coexisting ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases with different resistivities and the origin of the GER effect is the strain-mediated change in their relative proportions. The observed behaviour is reminiscent of colossal magnetoresistance in perovskite manganites and illustrates the role of mixed-phase coexistence in achieving large changes in physical properties with low-energy external perturbation.

  20. The role of proximal versus distal stomach resection in the weight loss seen after vertical sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Bhushan V; LaSance, Kathleen; Sorrell, Joyce E; Lemen, Lisa; Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J; Sandoval, Darleen

    2016-11-01

    The mechanisms involved in the weight loss seen after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) are not clear. The rat stomach has two morphologically and functionally distinct proximal and distal parts. The rat model for VSG involves complete removal of the proximal part and 80% removal of the distal part along the greater curvature. The purpose of this study was to understand the potential independent contributions of removal of these distinct gastric sections to VSG outcomes. We prepared four surgical groups of male Long-Evans rats: VSG, sham surgery (control), selective proximal section removal (PR), and selective distal section removal (DR). Gastric emptying rate (GER) was highest after VSG compared with all other groups. However, PR, in turn, had significantly greater GER compared with both DR and sham groups. The surgery-induced weight loss followed the same pattern with VSG causing the greatest weight loss and PR having greater weight loss compared with DR and sham groups. The results were robust for rats fed regular chow or a high-fat diet. Body mass analysis revealed that the weight loss was due to the loss of fat mass, and there was no change in lean mass after the surgeries. In conclusion, removal of the proximal stomach contributes to most, but not all, of the physiological impact of VSG.