Science.gov

Sample records for german cancer research

  1. ["A model of joint research"? Cancer research and the funding policies of the German Research Foundation and the Reich Research Council in National Socialist Germany].

    PubMed

    Moser, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    In 1936 the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) started planning a programme for tumour research. After discussions between representatives of the German Research Foundation, the Reich Health Office and the Ministry of Science and Education about the extent of the scheme, in December 1936 the first scientists received their grants. The scheme was mainly drawn up by the Munich pathologist Max Borst, who was supported by the German Research Foundation's employee Sergius Breuer. Scientific research on cancer was divided into four sections: (1) etiology, (2) diagnosis, (3) treatment, and (4) constitution, disposition, heredity, and statistics. Well-known German scientists were invited to contribute to the scheme. When the Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat) took over power in decision-making on research funding in 1937, cancer research was not seriously affected. Only in 1943, when further restructuring of the Reich Research Council took place, the situation changed through Kurt Blome's becoming the plenipotentiary for cancer research. Blome's position in cancer research was linked with the task of supporting scientific research on biological and chemical warfare. In general, however, the characteristics of the cancer research scheme remained astonishingly constant up to the end of World War II.

  2. The intellectual property management for data sharing in a German liver cancer research network.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Ganzinger, Matthias; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Sharing data in biomedical research networks has great potential benefits including efficient use of resources, avoiding duplicate experiments and promoting collaboration. However, concerns from data producers about difficulties of getting proper acknowledgement for their contributions are becoming obstacles for efficient and network wide data sharing in reality. Effective and convenient ways of intellectual property management and acknowledging contributions to the data producers are required. This paper analyzed the system requirements for intellectual property management in a German liver cancer research network and proposed solutions for facilitating acknowledgement of data contributors using informatics tools instead of pure policy level strategies.

  3. [Research funding in German ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, F; Meltendorf, C

    2012-11-01

    Since 2004 applications for research funding in ophthalmology have been evaluated together with those from neurosurgery, neuropathology, psychiatry, psychotherapy, psychosomatics, otolaryngology and neurology by a joint review board of the German Research Council (DFG). Facing a decreasing number of applications--in contrast to the need and importance of widespread ocular diseases--the working group "young academics" of the Deutsche Ophthalmologische Gesellschaft (DOG) assessed the perception of funding programmes and grants available. Young ophthalmologists think that they have poor prospects to receive funding by a DFG proposal. In comparison, specialist funding quotas show a stable development within the neurosciences over the last years. The sum of requested funding has a strong correlation with the total amount actually paid. By clarifying the number of funded proposals, the better transparency and communication for the existing programmes should improve the cooperativeness, the funding rate and number of applications in future. This inventory explicitly includes a motivational guidance for young researchers to take the initiative to do more proposals. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. A German Perspective on Security Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Prior to 2007, there was no coherent federal approach to conceptualise and fund security research in Germany. This changed with the initiation of the national program for civil security research, managed by the German Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF). Over the course of only four years a continuous build-up of national capacities on civil security was established to better protect German citizens, commodities and infrastructures against terrorism, organised crime and the effects of man-made and natural disasters.

  5. German acceleration research from the very beginning.

    PubMed

    Harsch, V

    2000-08-01

    German airmen were experiencing G-induced physiological effects as early as WWI, although no research on acceleration physiology was conducted at that time in Germany. This changed in 1931 with the studies of Heinz von Diringshofen, who gained experience with prolonged acceleration in flight. The first German centrifuge was constructed by the von Diringshofen brothers and was in operation at the Air Ministry's Aeromedical Research Institute in Berlin from 1935-1945. After WWII, Otto Gauer and Heinz Haher authored the paper "Man under Gravity-Free Conditions," paving the way to manned space exploration and demonstrating the change of research interest from the effects of multiple G forces to those of zero G.

  6. Second German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics & cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Beatriz; Forcales, Sonia V; Perucho, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The Second German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer was held in Barcelona on November 19–21, 2014. The workshop brought together, for the second time, scientists from 2 German and 2 Catalan research institutions: the DKFZ, from Heidelberg, the CRCME, from Freiburg, and the IMPPC and PEBC/IDIBELL, both from Barcelona. The German-Catalan Workshops are intended to establish the framework for building a Research School to foster collaborations between researchers from the different institutions. Exchange programs for graduate students are among the activities of the future School. The topics presented and discussed in 33 talks were diverse and included work on DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin biology, characterization of imprinted regions in human tissues, non-coding RNAs, and epigenetic drug discovery. Among novel developments from the previous Workshop are the report of the epigenetics angle of the Warburg effect and the long-range trans-acting interaction of DNA methylation and of nucleosome remodeling. A shift in the view on DNA methylation became apparent by the realization of the intertwined interplay between hyper- and hypo-methylation in differentiation and cancer. PMID:25849957

  7. A Generic Data Harmonization Process for Cross-linked Research and Network Interaction. Construction and Application for the Lung Cancer Phenotype Database of the German Center for Lung Research.

    PubMed

    Firnkorn, D; Ganzinger, M; Muley, T; Thomas, M; Knaup, P

    2015-01-01

    Joint data analysis is a key requirement in medical research networks. Data are available in heterogeneous formats at each network partner and their harmonization is often rather complex. The objective of our paper is to provide a generic approach for the harmonization process in research networks. We applied the process when harmonizing data from three sites for the Lung Cancer Phenotype Database within the German Center for Lung Research. We developed a spreadsheet-based solution as tool to support the harmonization process for lung cancer data and a data integration procedure based on Talend Open Studio. The harmonization process consists of eight steps describing a systematic approach for defining and reviewing source data elements and standardizing common data elements. The steps for defining common data elements and harmonizing them with local data definitions are repeated until consensus is reached. Application of this process for building the phenotype database led to a common basic data set on lung cancer with 285 structured parameters. The Lung Cancer Phenotype Database was realized as an i2b2 research data warehouse. Data harmonization is a challenging task requiring informatics skills as well as domain knowledge. Our approach facilitates data harmonization by providing guidance through a uniform process that can be applied in a wide range of projects.

  8. PMD2HD--a web tool aligning a PubMed search results page with the local German Cancer Research Centre library collection.

    PubMed

    Bohne-Lang, Andreas; Lang, Elke; Taube, Anke

    2005-06-27

    Web-based searching is the accepted contemporary mode of retrieving relevant literature, and retrieving as many full text articles as possible is a typical prerequisite for research success. In most cases only a proportion of references will be directly accessible as digital reprints through displayed links. A large number of references, however, have to be verified in library catalogues and, depending on their availability, are accessible as print holdings or by interlibrary loan request. The problem of verifying local print holdings from an initial retrieval set of citations can be solved using Z39.50, an ANSI protocol for interactively querying library information systems. Numerous systems include Z39.50 interfaces and therefore can process Z39.50 interactive requests. However, the programmed query interaction command structure is non-intuitive and inaccessible to the average biomedical researcher. For the typical user, it is necessary to implement the protocol within a tool that hides and handles Z39.50 syntax, presenting a comfortable user interface. PMD2HD is a web tool implementing Z39.50 to provide an appropriately functional and usable interface to integrate into the typical workflow that follows an initial PubMed literature search, providing users with an immediate asset to assist in the most tedious step in literature retrieval, checking for subscription holdings against a local online catalogue. PMD2HD can facilitate literature access considerably with respect to the time and cost of manual comparisons of search results with local catalogue holdings. The example presented in this article is related to the library system and collections of the German Cancer Research Centre. However, the PMD2HD software architecture and use of common Z39.50 protocol commands allow for transfer to a broad range of scientific libraries using Z39.50-compatible library information systems.

  9. German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vizoso, Miguel; Esteller, Manel

    2013-01-01

    In the First German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer held in Heidelberg, Germany (June 17–19, 2013), cutting-edge laboratories (PEBC, IMPPC, DKFZ, and the Collaborative Research Centre Medical Epigenetics of Freiburg) discussed the latest breakthroughs in the field. The importance of DNA demethylation, non-coding and imprinted genes, metabolic stress, and cell transdifferentiation processes in cancer and non-cancer diseases were addressed in several lectures in a very participative and dynamic atmosphere.   The meeting brought together leading figures in the field of cancer epigenetics to present their research work from the last five years. Experts in different areas of oncology described important advances in colorectal, lung, neuroblastoma, leukemia, and lymphoma cancers. The workshop also provided an interesting forum for pediatrics, and focused on the need to improve the treatment of childhood tumors in order to avoid, as far as possible, brain damage and disruption of activity in areas of high plasticity. From the beginning, the relevance of “omics” and the advances in genome-wide analysis platforms, which allow cancer to be studied in a more comprehensive and inclusive way, was very clear. Modern “omics” offer the possibility of identifying metastases of uncertain origin and establishing epigenetic signatures linked to a specific cluster of patients with a particular prognosis. In this context, invited speakers described novel tumor-associated histone variants and DNA-specific methylation, highlighting their close connection with other processes such as cell-lineage commitment and stemness. PMID:23884202

  10. German-Catalan workshop on epigenetics and cancer.

    PubMed

    Vizoso, Miguel; Esteller, Manel

    2013-09-01

    In the First German-Catalan Workshop on Epigenetics and Cancer held in Heidelberg, Germany (June 17-19, 2013), cutting-edge laboratories (PEBC, IMPPC, DKFZ, and the Collaborative Research Centre Medical Epigenetics of Freiburg) discussed the latest breakthroughs in the field. The importance of DNA demethylation, non-coding and imprinted genes, metabolic stress, and cell transdifferentiation processes in cancer and non-cancer diseases were addressed in several lectures in a very participative and dynamic atmosphere.   The meeting brought together leading figures in the field of cancer epigenetics to present their research work from the last five years. Experts in different areas of oncology described important advances in colorectal, lung, neuroblastoma, leukemia, and lymphoma cancers. The workshop also provided an interesting forum for pediatrics, and focused on the need to improve the treatment of childhood tumors in order to avoid, as far as possible, brain damage and disruption of activity in areas of high plasticity. From the beginning, the relevance of "omics" and the advances in genome-wide analysis platforms, which allow cancer to be studied in a more comprehensive and inclusive way, was very clear. Modern "omics" offer the possibility of identifying metastases of uncertain origin and establishing epigenetic signatures linked to a specific cluster of patients with a particular prognosis. In this context, invited speakers described novel tumor-associated histone variants and DNA-specific methylation, highlighting their close connection with other processes such as cell-lineage commitment and stemness.

  11. [German resuscitation registry : science and resuscitation research].

    PubMed

    Gräsner, J-T; Seewald, S; Bohn, A; Fischer, M; Messelken, M; Jantzen, T; Wnent, J

    2014-06-01

    resuscitation registry is an instrument of quality management and a research network. The registry documents the course in patients who have undergone resuscitation at the time points of first aid, further management and long-term outcome and it can therefore provide a complete presentation of the procedures carried out and the quality of the outcomes. In addition, important scientific questions can be answered from the database. For example, a score for benchmarking the outcome quality after out-of-hospital resuscitation, known as the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) after cardiac arrest (RACA) score, has been developed. The registry is available for all emergency medical services (EMS) and hospitals in Germany and other German-speaking countries.

  12. Limitation of medical research in German law.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    In Germany, pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices is regulated by statute. Any other kind of medical experimentation is handled according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Medical experimentation has to be reviewed by an ethics committee before the start and there has to be an elaborate research protocol, which provides for the protection of the experimental subject. In case of an accident, there is compulsory accident insurance as far as pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices are concerned. The third party accident insurance just covers material loss, there is no provision paying and suffering. The sum paid by the insurance company is set off against damages for negligence. There is no strict liability for medical experimentation, but the German courts are expected to set very high standards for medical care in experimentation. The data protection and medical confidentiality have been lessened because of the European law that requires the experimental subject to give his consent to the inspection of the data or the file and if he takes part in the experimentation, that his data and some of his cells might be with the pharmaceutical company forever. In general, the German law seems to be adequate to the protection of experimental subjects.

  13. [The German research network for mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Banaschewski, T; Heinz, A; Kamp-Becker, I; Meyer-Lindenberg, A; Padberg, F; Rapp, M A; Rupprecht, R; Schneider, F; Schulze, T G; Wittchen, H-U

    2016-09-01

    Mental disorders are among the greatest medical and social challenges facing us. They can occur at all stages of life and are among the most important commonly occurring diseases. In Germany 28 % of the population suffer from a mental disorder every year, while the lifetime risk of suffering from a mental disorder is almost 50 %. Mental disorders cause great suffering for those affected and their social network. Quantitatively speaking, they can be considered to be among those diseases creating the greatest burden for society due to reduced productivity, absence from work and premature retirement. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research is funding a new research network from 2015 to 2019 with up to 35 million euros to investigate mental disorders in order to devise and develop better therapeutic measures and strategies for this population by means of basic and translational clinical research. This is the result of a competitive call for research proposals entitled research network for mental diseases. It is a nationwide network of nine consortia with up to ten psychiatric and clinical psychology partner institutions from largely university-based research facilities for adults and/or children and adolescents. Furthermore, three cross-consortia platform projects will seek to identify shared causes of diseases and new diagnostic modalities for anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHS), autism, bipolar disorders, depression, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders as well as substance-related and addictive disorders. The spectrum of therapeutic approaches to be examined ranges from innovative pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment to novel brain stimulation procedures. In light of the enormous burden such diseases represent for society as a whole, a sustainable improvement in the financial support for those researching mental disorders seems essential. This network aims to become a nucleus for long overdue and sustained

  14. Types of Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  15. Cancer mortality in German carbon black workers 1976–98

    PubMed Central

    Wellmann, J; Weiland, S K; Neiteler, G; Klein, G; Straif, K

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated cancer risks in carbon black workers and the findings were inconclusive. Methods The current study explores the mortality of a cohort of 1535 male German blue‐collar workers employed at a carbon black manufacturing plant for at least one year between 1960 and 1998. Vital status and causes of death were assessed for the period 1976–98. Occupational histories and information on smoking were abstracted from company records. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and Poisson regression models were calculated. Results The SMRs for all cause mortality (observed deaths (obs) 332, SMR 120, 95% CI 108 to 134), and mortality from lung cancer (obs 50, SMR 218, 95% CI 161 to 287) were increased using national rates as reference. Comparisons to regional rates from the federal state gave SMRs of 120 (95% CI 107 to 133) and 183 (95% CI 136 to 241), respectively. However, there was no apparent dose response relationship between lung cancer mortality and several indicators of occupational exposure, including years of employment and carbon black exposure. Conclusions The mortality from lung cancer among German carbon black workers was increased. The high lung cancer SMR can not fully be explained by selection, smoking, or other occupational risk factors, but the results also provide little evidence for an effect of carbon black exposure. PMID:16497850

  16. The "North German Tumor Bank of Colorectal Cancer": status report after the first 2 years of support by the German Cancer Aid Foundation.

    PubMed

    Oberländer, Martina; Linnebacher, Michael; König, Alexandra; Bogoevska, Valentina; Brodersen, Christiane; Kaatz, Regina; Krohn, Mathias; Hackmann, Michael; Ingenerf, Josef; Christoph, Jan; Mate, Sebastian; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Yekebas, Emre F; Thorns, Christoph; Büning, Jürgen; Prall, Friedrich; Uhlig, Ria; Roblick, Uwe J; Izbicki, Jakob R; Klar, Ernst; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Vollmar, Brigitte; Habermann, Jens K

    2013-02-01

    Research projects and clinical trials strongly rely on high-quality biospecimens which are provided by biobanks. Since differences in sample processing and storage can strongly affect the outcome of such studies, standardization between biobanks is necessary to guarantee reliable results of large, multicenter studies. The German Cancer Aid Foundation (Deutsche Krebshilfe e.V.) has therefore initiated the priority program "tumor tissue banks" in 2010 by funding four biobank networks focusing on central nervous system tumors, melanomas, breast carcinomas, and colorectal carcinomas. The latter one, the North German Tumor Bank of Colorectal Cancer (ColoNet) is managed by surgeons, pathologists, gastroenterologists, oncologists, scientists, and medical computer scientists. The ColoNet consortium has developed and harmonized standard operating procedures concerning all biobanking aspects. Crucial steps for quality assurance have been implemented and resulted in certification according to DIN EN ISO 9001. A further achievement is the construction of a web-based database for exploring available samples. In addition, common scientific projects have been initiated. Thus, ColoNet's repository will be used for research projects in order to improve early diagnosis, therapy, follow-up, and prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. Apart from the routine sample storage at -170 °C, the tumor banks' unique characteristic is the participation of outpatient clinics and private practices to further expand the sample and clinical data collection. The first 2 years of funding by the German Cancer Aid Foundation have already led to a closer scientific connection between the participating institutions and to a substantial collection of biospecimens obtained under highly standardized conditions.

  17. Cytogenetic differences in breast cancer samples between German and Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Packeisen, J; Nakachi, K; Boecker, W; Brandt, B; Buerger, H

    2005-01-01

    Background: Japanese and German breast cancer cases differ substantially in the frequency of egfr amplification. Aims: To unravel further the cytogenetic differences between Japanese and German breast cancer cases. Methods: Forty one Japanese breast cancer cases were evaluated by means of comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH). The results were compared with the CGH results from 161 German breast cancer cases. Results: The mean number of genetic alterations/case was significantly higher in German premenopausal patients with breast cancer than in their Japanese counterparts. Japanese breast cancer cases revealed a higher number of chromosome 17p losses. Losses of 8p were associated with oestrogen receptor (ER) negativity in Japanese patients with breast cancer, whereas in the German patients gains of 3q and 6q were associated with the lack of ER expression. Conclusions: The interethnic differences of invasive breast cancer are reflected by cytogenetic aberrations, which are also associated with the differential expression of the ER. PMID:16189159

  18. International space research perspectives of commercialization for German industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    A brief overview of space flight activities is presented. West German contributions to satellite mapping, communication satellites, navigation, Spacelab, diffusion under weightlessness, crystal growth in space, metal bonding, and biochemistry are described. The future of the research in the space station is analyzed.

  19. Academics Abroad: Conducting Scholarly Research in German Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askey, Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered in conducting research in German academic libraries. Highlights include a lack of trained librarians with subject expertise who focus on helping users; numerous library catalogs rather than one integrated catalog; and an emphasis on collection preservation that includes closed stacks and restricted circulation. (LRW)

  20. [Comparative evaluation of information products regarding cancer screening of German-speaking cancer organizations].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Julia; Kien, Christina; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based information materials about the pros and cons of cancer screening are important sources for men and women to decide for or against cancer screening. The aim of this paper was to compare recommendations from different cancer institutions in German-speaking countries (Austria, Germany, and Switzerland) regarding screening for breast, cervix, colon, and prostate cancer and to assess the quality and development process of patient information materials. Relevant information material was identified through web searches and personal contact with cancer institutions. To achieve our objective, we employed a qualitative approach. The quality of 22 patient information materials was analysed based on established guidance by Bunge et al. In addition, we conducted guided interviews about the process of developing information materials with decision-makers of cancer institutes. Overall, major discrepancies in cancer screening recommendations exist among the Austrian, German, and Swiss cancer institutes. Process evaluation revealed that crucial steps of quality assurance, such as assembling a multi-disciplinary panel, assessing conflicts of interest, or transparency regarding funding sources, have frequently not been undertaken. All information materials had substantial quality deficits in multiple areas. Three out of four institutes issued information materials that met fewer than half of the quality criteria. Most patient information materials of cancer institutes in German-speaking countries are fraught with substantial deficits and do not provide an objective source for patients to be able to make an informed decision for or against cancer screening. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. The plot against cancer: heredity and cancer in German and Dutch medicine, 1933-1945.

    PubMed

    Snelders, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In the Third Reich hereditarian approaches and their eugenic implications seemed to offer possibilities for fundamental progress in the fight against cancer. This did not lead to an exclusive emphasis on genetics in theory or practice. The concept of a hereditary predisposition for cancer, the Krebs-disposition or Krebsbereitschaft, led to flexible multifactor approaches, including proposals for both eugenic and social-hygienic measures. These approaches were not typical of German medicine alone. In the Netherlands hereditarian approaches did not play a central role in the 1930s. They lacked institutional support in a country where health policies were characterised by indirect strategies working through intermediaries such as general practitioners and home nursing organisations. However, potentially the elements for similar anti-cancer policies as in Germany were present. The German occupation offered opportunities to develop these elements (concepts, institutions, personnel). This development was blocked because of the political radicalisation during the war and the German defeat.

  2. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality

    PubMed Central

    Jannasch, Olof; Udelnow, Andrej; Wolff, Stefanie; Lippert, Hans; Mroczkowski, Pawel

    2015-01-01

    Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. We compared cohorts treated in certified and noncertified hospitals regarding preoperative variables and perioperative outcomes. Outcomes were verified by matched-pair analysis. Results. Patients of noncertified hospitals had higher ASA-scores, higher prevalence of risk factors, more distant metastases, lower tumour localization, lower frequency of pelvic MRI, and higher frequencies of missing values and undetermined TNM classifications (significant differences only). Outcome analysis revealed more general complications in certified hospitals (20.3% versus 17.4%, p = 0.03). Both cohorts did not differ significantly in percentage of R0-resections, intraoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, in-hospital death, and abdominal wall dehiscence. Conclusions. The concept of BCC is a step towards improving the structural and procedural quality. This is a good basis for improving outcome quality but cannot replace it. For a primary surgical disease like rectal cancer a specific, surgery-targeted program is still needed. PMID:26064091

  3. Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel in cisplatin-refractory germ cell cancer in routine care--Registry data from an outcomes research project of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Christoph; Oechsle, Karin; Lorch, Anja; Dieing, Annette; Hentrich, Marcus; Hornig, Mareike; Grünwald, Viktor; Cathomas, Richard; Meiler, Johannes; de Wit, Maike; Bokemeyer, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy (CTX) with gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel (GOP) has demonstrated efficacy with an overall response rate (ORR) of approximately 50% in patients with multiply relapsed or cisplatin-refractory germ cell cancer (GCC) or both within a phase II study. We analyzed the efficacy and safety of GOP in routine clinical practice within a registry of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. Overall, 63 patients with refractory GCC, who received GOP because of progression under cisplatin-based treatment or relapse after high-dose CTX, were included in this database. Patient characteristics, response rate, toxicity, progression-free and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. For further risk stratification, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. GOP was applied as second to eighth treatment line (median fourth) after cisplatin-based CTX. The ORR was 44% with complete remissions achieved in 8 patients (4 patients with CTX plus additional residual tumor resections and 4 patients with CTX alone) and partial remissions achieved in 19 of all for best response evaluable patients. The median progression-free survival and OS were 4.0 months (95% CI: 3.08-4.94) and 13.3 months (95% CI: 9.50-17.06), respectively. Long-term OS of>2 years was achieved in 13 (21%), and grade III and IV toxicities, mainly thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, occurred in 29 patients. Our results were similar compared with the previous results from the phase II study with a distinct activity with an ORR of 44%, and a long-term OS in 21% of the patients. Our data support the recommendation to use GOP ± secondary surgery in patients with multiply refractory metastatic GCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood leukemia and cancers near German nuclear reactors: significance, context, and ramifications of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Rudi H

    2009-01-01

    A government-sponsored study of childhood cancer in the proximity of German nuclear power plants (German acronym KiKK) found that children < 5 years living < 5 km from plant exhaust stacks had twice the risk for contracting leukemia as those residing > 5 km. The researchers concluded that since "this result was not to be expected under current radiation-epidemiological knowledge" and confounders could not be identified, the observed association of leukemia incidence with residential proximity to nuclear plants "remains unexplained." This unjustified conclusion illustrates the dissonance between evidence and assumptions. There exist serious flaws and gaps in the knowledge on which accepted models for population exposure and radiation risk are based. Studies with results contradictory to those of KiKK lack statistical power to invalidate its findings. The KiKK study's ramifications add to the urgency for a public policy debate regarding the health impact of nuclear power generation.

  5. Kidney cancer mortality and ionizing radiation among French and German uranium miners.

    PubMed

    Drubay, Damien; Ancelet, Sophie; Acker, Alain; Kreuzer, Michaela; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2014-08-01

    The investigation of potential adverse health effects of occupational exposures to ionizing radiation, on uranium miners, is an important area of research. Radon is a well-known carcinogen for lung, but the link between radiation exposure and other diseases remains controversial, particularly for kidney cancer. The aims of this study were therefore to perform external kidney cancer mortality analyses and to assess the relationship between occupational radiation exposure and kidney cancer mortality, using competing risks methodology, from two uranium miners cohorts. The French (n = 3,377) and German (n = 58,986) cohorts of uranium miners included 11 and 174 deaths from kidney cancer. For each cohort, the excess of kidney cancer mortality has been assessed by standardized mortality ratio (SMR) corrected for the probability of known causes of death. The associations between cumulative occupational radiation exposures (radon, external gamma radiation and long-lived radionuclides) or kidney equivalent doses and both the cause-specific hazard and the probability of occurrence of kidney cancer death have been estimated with Cox and Fine and Gray models adjusted to date of birth and considering the attained age as the timescale. No significant excess of kidney cancer mortality has been observed neither in the French cohort (SMR = 1.49, 95 % confidence interval [0.73; 2.67]) nor in the German cohort (SMR = 0.91 [0.77; 1.06]). Moreover, no significant association between kidney cancer mortality and any type of occupational radiation exposure or kidney equivalent dose has been observed. Future analyses based on further follow-up updates and/or large pooled cohorts should allow us to confirm or not the absence of association.

  6. On the German debate on human embryonic stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Jan

    2004-10-01

    Germany since 1990 has one of the strictest human embryo protection laws, yet according to the Stem Cell Act of 2002 allows, under strict conditions, the import and use of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for high priority research goals. The author tries to show how this is taken to be coherent by the parliamentary majority (though not necessarily by the general public) in Germany. In doing so, he firstly looks into the chronicle of the debate in Germany showing its different stages since 1999, then dwells upon the relation between the law and the role of ethics in this issue, and thirdly presents the two fundamentally different positions of the German debate, that is, that the human embryo created for IVF purposes is a human being and stands from its very beginnings under the constitutional principles of respect for, and protection of, human life versus the position that before being implanted the human embryo may become a human being and therefore belongs to the human species only potentially, so that its right to life protection may be assessable over against other high priority goals, such as research aiming at possible help for patients with life-endangering diseases. In spite of the Stem Cell Act of 2002, the debate of the German general public goes on, especially due to the recent EU 6th Research Framework Program which plans to also fund hESC research.

  7. The many unanswered questions related to the German skin cancer screening programme.

    PubMed

    Stang, Andreas; Garbe, Claus; Autier, Philippe; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, the first nationwide skin cancer screening (SCS) programme in the world was established in Germany. The main reason to implement the SCS programme in Germany was the expected reduction of costs of care due to earlier detection of skin cancer. The aim of this commentary is to raise and discuss several unanswered questions related to the German SCS programme. The evidence of a temporary mortality decline of skin melanoma after SCS in Schleswig-Holstein is lower than previously assumed and the temporary decline may have been caused by other factors than screening (e.g. awareness effects, selection bias, data artifact, and random fluctuation). The evaluation of the nationwide effect of SCS on skin cancer mortality is hampered by birth cohort effects and low quality of the routine cause-of-death statistics. The nationwide skin melanoma mortality did not decrease from 2007 through 2014. The time interval between screenings after a screening without pathological findings is unclear. Appropriate research designs are needed that monitor and evaluate the effect of SCS not only on skin cancer mortality but also on other factors that may help to judge the potential benefits and harms of SCS including aggressiveness of therapy, costs of care, quality of life, and stage-specific incidence rates of skin cancer. Furthermore, SCS may profit from a high-risk strategy instead of population-wide screening and from newer technologies for early detection of skin cancer (e.g. dermoscopy). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The East-German Research Landscape in Transition. Part C. Research at East-German Universities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-10

    institutes of the NATIONAL RESEARCH CENTERS, of the INSTITUTES OF THE BLUE LIST, of the FRAUNHOFER SOCIETY, the MAX-PLANCK SOCIETY, and the large number...Renaturalisierung durch Kombination von Begrilnung und Sanierung. Biotechnologie der Bodensanierung, Deponiedetoxifikation, Miillkompostierung und...Pharinakaentwicklung, Bioteste, BioprozeBtechnik, Fremdstoffabbau, Altlastensanierung, Abproduktnutzung, Bodensanierung, * Biotechnologie , bkotechnologie, Umwelt

  9. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  10. Research on Educational Standards in German Science Education--Towards a Model of Student Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of research on modelling science competence in German science education. Since the first national German educational standards for physics, chemistry and biology education were released in 2004 research projects dealing with competences have become prominent strands. Most of this research is about the structure of…

  11. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  12. African-German Cooperation in Educational Research and Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    The report presents background information and proceedings from a conference held in Bonn, Germany, in September 1977 to encourage exchange of ideas between African and German educators and government officials. Specifically, the conference served to document the increasing interest of German educators to interact with educators from the third…

  13. Non-cancer diseases requiring admission to hospital among German seafarers.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Marcus; Harth, Volker; Manuwald, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This study estimated the discharge diagnosis due to non-cancer diseases of German seamen employed on German vessels in comparison to the general German male population. In a database, the German health insurance company for seafarers determined the discharge diagnoses from hospital for all German seafarers. In the time period from January 1997 to December 2007, this database encompassed on average more than 21,000 German seamen per year. It served as a source for comparison with the official national database on discharge diagnoses from the general German population. Thus, the standardised hospitalisation ratio (SHR) could be calculated. During the above mentioned time period, the most prominent non-cancer diagnoses among seafarers were diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the digestive system, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, as well as injury and poisoning. Compared to the reference population, decreased SHRs were observed for almost all examined diseases with the exception of asbestosis (SHR: 1.79; 95% CI 0.65-3.90). In contrast to the deck and engine room crew, the galley staff demonstrated an increased SHR for almost all examined diseases, particularly for lifestyle-related diseases. Although the presented data are likely biased by the healthy worker effect and by underreporting due to treatment on board or abroad, an elevated SHR for (lifestyle-related) diseases was observed in the galley staff. Therefore, especially this occupational group seems to need specific advice on healthy behaviours both on board and ashore.

  14. [German medicine of the age of romanticism (1797-1848) as research problem].

    PubMed

    Płonka-Syroka, B

    1997-01-01

    In the period between 1797 and 1848, German medicine was considerably influenced by philosophy. It absorbed ideas deriving from neo-Platonism and vitalism, as well as the modern philosophy of nature (Naturphilosophie), especially the ideas of Schelling. The article presents the main tendencies in the German medicine of that period: the distinct character of German medical thought as compared to the rest of Europe, the deductive character of medical theories, the grounding of medical thought in non-materialist philosophy and its close ties with the Protestant religion. The author's aim is investigate how German medicine of the period evolved away from European standards set by the model of medicine as an empirical science, based on the inductive method of research. The article presents the state of German medicine of the first half of the nineteenth century against the background of socio-cultural factors and relates German medical theory of the period to the social awareness of that time.

  15. Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 1. Mortality from respiratory cancers

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, S. K.; Straif, K.; Chambless, L.; Werner, B.; Mundt, K. A.; Bucher, A.; Birk, T.; Keil, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the cancer specific mortality by work area among active and retired male workers in the German rubber industry. METHODS: A cohort of 11,663 male German workers was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were classified as active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) as of 1 January 1981 and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing tyres or technical rubber goods. Work histories were reconstructed with routinely documented "cost centre codes" which were classified into six categories: I preparation of materials; II production of technical rubber goods; III production of tyres; IV storage and dispatch; V maintenance; and VI others. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age and calendar year and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), stratified by work area (employment in respective work area for at least one year) and time related variables (year of hire, lagged years of employment in work area), were calculated from national reference rates. RESULTS: SMRs for laryngeal cancer were highest in work area I (SMR 253; 95% CI 93 to 551) and were significant among workers who were employed for > 10 years in this work area (SMR 330; 95% CI 107 to 779). Increased mortality rates from lung cancer were identified in work areas I (SMR 162; 95% CI 129 to 202), II (SMR 134; 95% CI 109 to 163), and V (SMR 131; 95% CI 102 to 167). Mortality from pleural cancer was increased in all six work areas, and significant excesses were found in work areas I (SMR 448; 95% CI 122 to 1146), II (SMR 505; 95% CI 202 to 1040), and V (SMR 554; 95% CI 179 to 1290). CONCLUSION: A causal relation between the excess of pleural cancer and exposure to asbestos among rubber workers is plausible and likely. In this study, the pattern of excess of lung cancer parallels the pattern of excess of pleural cancer. This points to asbestos as one risk factor for the excess deaths from lung cancer among

  16. Risk of Second Primary Cancers in Multiple Myeloma Survivors in German and Swedish Cancer Registries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianhui; Fallah, Mahdi; Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina; Mai, Elias K; Castro, Felipe A; Katalinic, Alexander; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Geiss, Karla; Eberle, Andrea; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-02-24

    We aimed at investigating the distribution and risk of second primary cancers (SPCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) survivors in Germany and Sweden to provide etiological understanding of SPCs and insight into their incidence rates and recording practices. MM patients diagnosed in 1997-2010 at age ≥15 years were selected from the Swedish (nationwide) and 12 German cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess risk of a specific SPC compared to risk of the same first cancer in the corresponding background population. Among 18,735 survivors of first MM in Germany and 7,560 in Sweden, overall 752 and 349 SPCs were recorded, respectively. Significantly elevated SIRs of specific SPCs were observed for acute myeloid leukemia (AML; SIR = 4.9) in Germany and for kidney cancer (2.3), AML (2.3) and nervous system cancer (1.9) in Sweden. Elevated risk for AML was more pronounced in the earlier diagnosis period compared to the later, i.e., 9.7 (4.2-19) for 1997-2003 period versus 3.5 (1.5-6.9) for 2004-2010 in Germany; 3.8 (1.4-8.3) for 1997-2003 versus 2.2 (0.3-7.8) for 2004-2010 in Sweden. We found elevated risk for AML for overall, early diagnosis periods and longer follow-up times in both populations, suggesting possible side effects of treatment for MM patients.

  17. On raising the international dissemination of German research: Does changing publication language to English attract foreign authors to publish in a German basic psychology research journal?

    PubMed

    Dinkel, Andreas; Berth, Hendrik; Borkenhagen, Ada; Brähler, Elmar

    2004-01-01

    It has been proposed that German basic psychology journals should change publication language to English in order to facilitate access to research from German-speaking countries. However, to truly increase the dissemination of German research, it seems crucial to progress towards an internationalization of authors and readers. We applied bibliometric analysis to investigate the impact of the transition to English on the rate of foreign authors publishing in Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie/Experimental Psychology, as well as possible associated changes in citation patterns. There was an increase in the rate of articles published by foreign authors from 14.6 and 8.7 per cent, respectively, for the last biannual periods as German-language journal, to 52.7 per cent in the first biannual period as English-language journal. Regarding citations patterns, the clearest changes emerged for domestic authors. The results illustrate possible consequences of a transition to English as publication language, and reveal that Experimental Psychology has successfully established certain prerequisites for an increase of the international dissemination of German psychology research.

  18. How to research cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... wonder where to start. What are the most up-to-date, reliable sources for information about cancer? The guidelines ... sources and medical associations. They provide research-based, up-to-date information about all types of cancer. Here are ...

  19. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  20. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  1. Youth Research in West and East. Special Report. German Youth Institute Offers Benefit of Its Experience. Sozial-Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maertens, Rita

    This social report concerns the efforts of the German Youth Institute in working with other institutes and with other countries to develop youth policies and programs. It begins by describing German and Soviet youth researchers working together to develop a concept for a long-term youth policy based on democratic structures. The German approach to…

  2. Risk of Second Primary Cancers in Multiple Myeloma Survivors in German and Swedish Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Fallah, Mahdi; Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina; Mai, Elias K.; Castro, Felipe A.; Katalinic, Alexander; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Geiss, Karla; Eberle, Andrea; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari; Geiss, Karla; Meyer, Martin; Eberle, Andrea; Luttmann, Sabine; Stabenow, Roland; Hentschel, Stefan; Nennecke, Alice; Kieschke, Joachim; Sirri, Eunice; Holleczek, Bernd; Emrich, Katharina; Kajüter, Hiltraud; Mattauch, Volkmar; Katalinic, Alexander; Eisemann, Nora; Kraywinkel, Klaus; Brenner, Hermann; Jansen, Lina; Castro, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    We aimed at investigating the distribution and risk of second primary cancers (SPCs) in multiple myeloma (MM) survivors in Germany and Sweden to provide etiological understanding of SPCs and insight into their incidence rates and recording practices. MM patients diagnosed in 1997–2010 at age ≥15 years were selected from the Swedish (nationwide) and 12 German cancer registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess risk of a specific SPC compared to risk of the same first cancer in the corresponding background population. Among 18,735 survivors of first MM in Germany and 7,560 in Sweden, overall 752 and 349 SPCs were recorded, respectively. Significantly elevated SIRs of specific SPCs were observed for acute myeloid leukemia (AML; SIR = 4.9) in Germany and for kidney cancer (2.3), AML (2.3) and nervous system cancer (1.9) in Sweden. Elevated risk for AML was more pronounced in the earlier diagnosis period compared to the later, i.e., 9.7 (4.2–19) for 1997–2003 period versus 3.5 (1.5–6.9) for 2004–2010 in Germany; 3.8 (1.4–8.3) for 1997–2003 versus 2.2 (0.3–7.8) for 2004–2010 in Sweden. We found elevated risk for AML for overall, early diagnosis periods and longer follow-up times in both populations, suggesting possible side effects of treatment for MM patients. PMID:26908235

  3. Historical Survey: German Research on Hydrogen Peroxide/Alcohol Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Discussion of HP/fuel explosives in the scientific literature dates back to at least 1927. A paper was published that year in a German journal entitled On Hydrogen Peroxide Explosives [Bamberger and Nussbaum 1927]. The paper dealt with HP/cotton/Vaseline formulations, specifically HP89/cotton/Vaseline (76/15/9) and (70/8.5/12.5). The authors performed experiments with charge masses of 250-750 g and charge diameters of 35-45 mm. This short paper provides brief discussion on the observed qualitative effects of detonations but does not report detonation velocities.

  4. First German Disease Management Program for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rupprecht, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    The first disease management program contract for breast cancer in Germany was signed in 2002 between the Association of Regional of Physicians in North-Rhine and the statutory health insurance companies in Rhineland. At the heart of this unique breast cancer disease management program is a patient-centered network of health care professionals. The program's main objectives are: (1) to improve the quality of treatment and post-operative care for breast cancer patients, (2) to provide timely information and consultation empowering the patient to participate in decisionmaking, (3) to improve the interface between inpatient and outpatient care, and (4) to increase the number of breast-conserving surgeries. PMID:17288079

  5. Cosmic radiation and mortality from cancer among male German airline pilots: extended cohort follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Gaël Paul; Blettner, Maria; Langner, Ingo; Zeeb, Hajo

    2012-06-01

    Commercial airline pilots are exposed to cosmic radiation and other specific occupational factors, potentially leading to increased cancer mortality. This was analysed in a cohort of 6,000 German cockpit crew members. A mortality follow-up for the years 1960-2004 was performed and occupational and dosimetry data were collected for this period. 405 deaths, including 127 cancer deaths, occurred in the cohort. The mortality from all causes and all cancers was significantly lower than in the German population. Total mortality decreased with increasing radiation doses (rate ratio (RR) per 10 mSv: 0.85, 95 % CI: 0.79, 0.93), contrasting with a non-significant increase of cancer mortality (RR per 10 mSv: 1.05, 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.20), which was restricted to the group of cancers not categorized as radiogenic in categorical analyses. While the total and cancer mortality of cockpit crew is low, a positive trend of all cancer with radiation dose is observed. Incomplete adjustment for age, other exposures correlated with duration of employment and a healthy worker survivor effect may contribute to this finding. More information is expected from a pooled analysis of updated international aircrew studies.

  6. Global cancer research initiative

    PubMed Central

    Love, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested. PMID:21188101

  7. Proceedings of the 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Steininger, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Willhelm

    2017-01-01

    The 7th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Washington, DC on September 7-9, 2016. Over fifty participants representing governmental agencies, internationally recognized salt research groups, universities, and private companies helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. Representatives from several United States federal agencies were able to attend, including the Department of Energy´s Office of Environmental Management and Office of Nuclear Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. A similar representation from the German ministries showcased the covenant established in a Memorandum of Understanding executed between the United States and Germany in 2011. The US/German workshops´ results and activities also contribute significantly to the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club repository research agenda.

  8. Extended cancer mortality follow-up of a German rubber industry cohort.

    PubMed

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Taeger, Dirk; Wellman, Jürgen; Keil, Ulrich; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    We extended follow-up of a cohort of German rubber industry workers (active or retired in 1981) by 9 years (1992 to 2000) to reassess previously observed cancer mortality risks. We calculated standardized mortality ratios and stratified results by work area, duration of employment, and year of hire. The cohort includes 11,632 men and 1863 women from five tire or general rubber goods producing factories. Among men we observed significantly elevated standardized mortality ratios for cancers of the lung and the pleura in the full cohort and in specific strata. Among women we observed a significantly elevated standardized mortality ratio for cancer of the lung. We observed excess risk for several cancer sites among men and women. Further cancer risk analysis of workers in the rubber industry should focus on differences in work areas and associated exposures.

  9. Cancer Survivors Day | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Celebrates Cancer Survivors #NCSD2016 At the Center for Cancer Research, we are home to an extraordinary group of practicing physicians and scientists who passionately explore the boundaries of research to unlock the mysteries of cancer, a disease that touches nearly every American.

  10. [Motivation of young academics for medical research. Position of the German Council of Science and Humanities].

    PubMed

    Beisiegel, U

    2009-08-01

    Research needs innovative ideas, time for design, performance and discussion of projects, and freedom in the daily routine. Integrating the individual working concepts in the given profile of the university hospital and the national research system requires a suitable institutional framework and individual academic mentoring. German university medicine is shaped by a steep hierarchy and high economic pressure - factors that are justified by the medical care system, but which are counterproductive in research. There is a lack of scientific education, time, incentives, and adequate infrastructure - conditions which do not motivate for a scientific career. The increasing interdisciplinary cooperation between medicine and natural sciences, however, has had a positive impact on medical research. Wissenschaftsrat (German Council of Science and Humanities) and DFG (German Research Foundation) analyzed German university medicine and published forward-looking recommendations, which emphasize that university hospitals have to be structurally adjusted to satisfy the needs of medical research and education. Only after the implementation of the recommendations can it be assessed whether the proposed changes solve the designated problems.

  11. Lung cancer risk at low radon exposure rates in German uranium miners

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, M; Fenske, N; Schnelzer, M; Walsh, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A determination of the risk of lung cancer at low levels of radon exposure is important for occupational radiation protection. Methods: The risk of death from lung cancer at low radon exposure rates was investigated in the subcohort of 26 766 German uranium miners hired in 1960 or later. Results: A clear association between lung cancer mortality (n=334 deaths) and cumulative exposure to radon in working level months (WLM) was found. The excess relative risk per WLM was 0.013 (95% confidence intervals: 0.007; 0.021). Conclusions: The present findings provide strong evidence for an increased lung cancer risk after long-term exposure to low radon exposure rates among Wismut miners. The results are compatible to those from residential radon studies and miner studies restricted to low levels. PMID:26393888

  12. Cancer mortality among workers in the German rubber industry: 1981-91.

    PubMed Central

    Weiland, S K; Mundt, K A; Keil, U; Kraemer, B; Birk, T; Person, M; Bucher, A M; Straif, K; Schumann, J; Chambless, L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the cancer specific mortality of active and retired workers of the German rubber industry with emphasis on cancer sites which have been associated with the rubber industry in previous studies. METHODS: A cohort of 11,663 German men was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) at the beginning of the study, and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing types or general rubber goods. Vital status was ascertained for 99.7% of the cohort members, and cause of death found for 96.8% of the 2719 decedents. Age and calendar year adjusted standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated overall from national reference rates and stratified by year of hire and by years since hire. RESULTS: Mortalities from all causes (SMR 108; 95% CI 104-112) and all cancers (SMR 111; 95% CI 103-119) were significantly increased in the study cohort. Significant excesses in the mortalities from lung cancer (SMR 130; 95% CI 115-147) and pleural cancer (SMR 401; 95% CI 234-642) were identified. SMRs higher than 100 were found for cancers of the pharynx (SMR 144; 95% CI 76-246), oesophagus (SMR 120; 95% CI 74-183), stomach (SMR 110; 95% CI 86-139), rectum (SMR 123; 95% CI 86-170), larynx (SMR 129; 95% CI 69-221), prostate (SMR 108; 95% CI 84-136), and bladder (SMR 124; 95% CI 86-172), as well as for leukaemia (SMR 148; 95% CI 99-213). Mortalities from liver cancer, brain cancer, and lymphoma were lower than expected. CONCLUSIONS: Mortalities from cancer of several sites previously associated with the rubber industry were also increased among workers of the German rubber industry. Results of the stratified analyses are consistent with a role of occupational exposure in the aetiology of some of these cancers. PMID:8673175

  13. German high school students' attitudes and interest in cancer and factors influencing proactive behaviour for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Heuckmann, Benedikt; Asshoff, Roman

    2014-09-01

    Cancer diseases are pertinent topics to young people, who are confronted with the issue through media or family members that suffer from these diseases. Based on a paper-and-pencil questionnaire, we investigated German high school students' (N = 369, 16-18 years old) interest in and their attitudes towards cancer. Attitude was assessed measuring multiple dimensions that included scales to measure several components: the cognitive (beliefs about the controllability of cancer), the affective (emotional responses towards cancer) and the behavioural (intention for proactive behaviour towards cancer) components. A student assessment of carcinogenic risk factor was executed. Our results suggest that students' willingness to deal with the topic cancer (e.g. to communicate about cancer or to reconsider their lifestyle) is highly dependent on their interest, their emotional responses and their beliefs about the controllability of cancer. Their assessment of carcinogenic risk factors does not have a direct influence on their intentions to behave proactively against cancer but might have an indirect influence on their beliefs about the controllability of cancer. Based on these results, we have drawn teaching implications and discussed which factors should be included in teaching processes in order to stimulate proactive behaviour related to cancer prevention.

  14. Does Reading the Research Make a Difference? A Case Study of Teacher Growth in FL German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jamie; Becker, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Although the research literature on Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has increased exponentially over the last few decades, it is not at all clear how its findings may or may not contribute to teacher growth or otherwise influence actual classroom praxis. The case study presented here shows one instructor, a native speaker of German, translating…

  15. Does Reading the Research Make a Difference? A Case Study of Teacher Growth in FL German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Jamie; Becker, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Although the research literature on Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has increased exponentially over the last few decades, it is not at all clear how its findings may or may not contribute to teacher growth or otherwise influence actual classroom praxis. The case study presented here shows one instructor, a native speaker of German, translating…

  16. Integrated Cancer Repository for Cancer Research

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-05

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  17. Research for assessment, not deployment, of Climate Engineering: The German Research Foundation's Priority Program SPP 1689

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oschlies, Andreas; Klepper, Gernot

    2017-01-01

    The historical developments are reviewed that have led from a bottom-up responsibility initiative of concerned scientists to the emergence of a nationwide interdisciplinary Priority Program on the assessment of Climate Engineering (CE) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). Given the perceived lack of comprehensive and comparative appraisals of different CE methods, the Priority Program was designed to encompass both solar radiation management (SRM) and carbon dioxide removal (CDR) ideas and to cover the atmospheric, terrestrial, and oceanic realm. First, key findings obtained by the ongoing Priority Program are summarized and reveal that, compared to earlier assessments such as the 2009 Royal Society report, more detailed investigations tend to indicate less efficiency, lower effectiveness, and often lower safety. Emerging research trends are discussed in the context of the recent Paris agreement to limit global warming to less than two degrees and the associated increasing reliance on negative emission technologies. Our results show then when deployed at scales large enough to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2, even CDR methods such as afforestation—often perceived as "benign"—can have substantial side effects and may raise severe ethical, legal, and governance issues. We suppose that before being deployed at climatically relevant scales, any negative emission or CE method will require careful analysis of efficiency, effectiveness, and undesired side effects.

  18. [Ethical justification for human stem cell research. The view of the German Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research].

    PubMed

    Siep, L

    2008-09-01

    According to the German Stem Cell Act the Central Ethics Committee for Stem Cell Research (ZES) advices the competent authority (Robert Koch Institute) as to whether an application to import human embryonic stem-cells for research is "ethically justifiable" ("ethisch vertretbar"). The law does indeed specify some conditions of this justification, but without precisely defining them. This article clarifies the committee's understanding of ethically justifiable research. It deals with misunderstandings of the law and problems involved in its application.

  19. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  20. Research between conflicts of interest in a small German municipality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinikmann, Karin; Lewandowski, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Lake eutrophication is a traditional topic in hydrology which attracts the attention of scientists all over the world to date. However, in single cases of lakes experiencing severe consequences of nutrient overloads (e.g., toxic algae blooms, loss of species richness…) also a non-scientific public arouses interest in processes behind and reasons for these phenomena. This interest results from the various effects of eutrophication on the anthropogenic use of the lake, such as loss of the lakés recreational value, potential health impairments from contact with lake water, changes of the ecological/esthetical status, etc. We present our manifold experiences in communicating with different actors who are or at least feel affected by our research to identify sources for elevated phosphorus loads to Lake Arendsee in Germany. Among those are supporters and opponents of restoration plans as there are for example • representatives of different public authorities, • inhabitants of local communities making their income from tourism around the lake, • farmers, • fishermen, • etc. We describe different conflicts of interest arising from this situation and describe problems we had interacting with single actors. A citizen-science action was initiated which increased both, the research output and the awareness of the problem within the general local public. We conclude that even in small municipalities a complex structure of stakeholders may develop who might act in unpredictable ways to achieve their personal or political goals.

  1. Why I Do Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Harry Mahtani analyzes the gas content of nutrient media from Bioreactor used in research on human breast cancer. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  4. Cancer Prevention Research in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Siwang; Yang, Chung S; Li, Junyao; You, Weicheng; Chen, Jianguo; Cao, Ya; Dong, Zigang; Qiao, Youlin

    2015-08-01

    Although cancer incidence and mortality rates in the United States and some European countries have started to decrease, those in developing countries are increasing. China, the most populous developing country, is facing a serious challenge from cancer. Cancer incidence has been increasing for decades, and cancer is the leading cause of death in China. In 2012, the cancer incidence was 174.0 per 100,000, and the cancer mortality was 122.2 per 100,000 in China. In addition to the still-prevalent traditional Chinese cancers of the stomach, liver, esophagus, cervix, and nasopharynx, the incidence of "Western" cancers such those of the lung, breast, and colorectum has increased alarmingly in recent years. These increases are likely due to the lifestyle and environmental changes associated with rapid economic development and population aging. More importantly, a large portion of these cancers are preventable. Researchers in China have made important contributions to cancer prevention research, especially in the traditional Chinese cancers. More cancer prevention research and measures, especially on the major emerging cancers, are urgently needed. This review article highlights some of the past achievements and present needs in cancer prevention research in China and suggests important areas for future studies.

  5. Reflective Development and Developmental Research: Is There a Future for Action Research as a Research Strategy in German-Speaking Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Posch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    For about two decades only marginal relevance was attributed to action research as a research strategy by large sections of the German social science community. The growing international debate on key concepts such as community participation, community-based participatory research and participatory action research were largely ignored. In this…

  6. Complementary medicine for cancer patients in general practice: qualitative interviews with german general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Dahlhaus, Anne; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Guethlin, Corina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how general practitioners react when their cancer patients show interest in complementary medicine, and how their reaction is related to their knowledge in the field. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 German general practitioners. Interviewees came from 5 different federal states and varied in terms of urban/rural setting, single/joint practice, additional certifications, gender and length of professional experience. Interviews were electronically recorded, transcribed and then analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. General practitioners feel largely responsible for providing information on complementary medicine to their cancer patients. However, uncertainty and a lack of knowledge concerning CAM lead mainly to reactive responses to patients' needs, and the general practitioners base their recommendations on personal experiences and attitudes. They wish to support their cancer patients and thus, in order to keep their patients' hopes up and maintain a trusting relationship, sometimes support complementary medicine, regardless of their own convictions. Although general practitioners see themselves as an important source of information on complementary medicine for their cancer patients, they also speak of their uncertainties and lack of knowledge. General practitioners would profit from training in complementary medicine enabling them to discuss this topic with their cancer patients in a proactive, open and honest manner. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  7. Assessing dentists' knowledge about oral cancer: translation and linguistic validation of a standardized questionnaire from American English into German.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, Katrin; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Koller, Michael; Springer, Ingo; Jargot, Anke; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    Oral cancer represents a considerable health problem with more than 10,000 new cases each year in Germany. Nevertheless, little information is available on the knowledge of dentists and the public on oral cancer. This project aims at investigating the knowledge and opinions of dentists via a questionnaire. The present article describes the translation process of an internationally accepted instrument into German. The translation was carried out by the Mapi Research Institute, Lyon, France. The translation procedure followed an established linguistic validation process, consisting of the conceptual analysis of the source instrument, a forward and backward translation, the clinicians' review, proofreading, and the finalization. The institute identified nine cultural adaptations. After forward and backward translations, the clinical reviewers suggested 16 stylistic changes, four alternative wordings, two more cultural adaptations, and five changes of nomenclature. After debriefing, the translated questionnaire involved nine stylistic changes, four alternative wordings, and 11 changes for cultural adaptation. The described translation and validation procedure guarantees a high-quality standard instrument for the evaluation of dentists' knowledge and opinions on oral cancer in Germany and prevents misinterpretations due to cultural differences, which allows an international comparison of the data.

  8. Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 2. Mortality from non-respiratory cancers

    PubMed Central

    Straif, K.; Weiland, S. K.; Werner, B.; Chambless, L.; Mundt, K. A.; Keil, U.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the mortality from non-respiratory cancers by work area among active and retired male workers of the German rubber industry. METHODS: A cohort of 11,633 male German workers was followed up for mortality from 1 January 1981 to 31 December 1991. Cohort members were active (n = 7536) or retired (n = 4127) on 1 January 1981 and had been employed for at least one year in one of five study plants producing tyres or technical rubber goods. Work histories were reconstructed from routinely documented "cost centre codes" and classified into six categories: I preparation of materials; II production of technical rubber goods; III production of tyres; IV storage and dispatch; V general service; VI others. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), controlling for age and calendar year and stratified by work area (employment in respective work area for at least one year) and time related variables (year of hire, lagged years of employment in work area) were calculated from national mortality rates as the reference. RESULTS: Significant increases in mortality were found for pharyngeal cancer in work area IV (three deaths, SMR 486, 95% CI 101 to 1419), oesophageal cancer in work area III (11 deaths, SMR 227, 95% CI 114 to 407), and leukaemia in work areas I (11 deaths, SMR 216; 95% CI 108 to 387) and II (14 deaths, SMR 187; 95% CI 102 to 213). Furthermore, increased SMRs were found for stomach cancer in work area I (22 deaths, SMR 134; 95% CI 84 to 203), colon cancer in work area II (27 deaths, SMR 131, 95% CI 86 to 191), prostatic cancer in work area V (27 deaths, SMR 152, 95% CI 99 to 221), and bladder cancer in work areas IV (six deaths, SMR 253; 95% CI 93 to 551) and V (12 deaths, SMR 159, 95% CI 82 to 279). Mortality from cancer of the liver or gall bladder, pancreas and kidney, and from lymphomas was not substantially increased in any of the work areas. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality from cancer of several sites was

  9. The Incidence of Cancer Among Acromegaly Patients: Results From the German Acromegaly Registry.

    PubMed

    Petroff, David; Tönjes, Anke; Grussendorf, Martin; Droste, Michael; Dimopoulou, Christina; Stalla, Günter; Jaursch-Hancke, Cornelia; Mai, Manuel; Schopohl, Jochen; Schöfl, Christof

    2015-10-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by high serum levels of GH and IGF-1. Animal studies have demonstrated links between these hormones and cancer, but data regarding cancer incidence among acromegaly patients are inconsistent. Moreover, therapy options have changed considerably since many of the aforementioned data were collected. The objective was to determine whether the overall and site-specific incidence of cancer is comparable to that of the general population. Data from the German Acromegaly Registry for 446 patients (6656 person-years from diagnosis) treated in seven specialized endocrine centers were analyzed. Standard incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as compared to the general population. Overall cancer incidence was slightly but not significantly lower than in the general population (SIR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.00; P = .051) and was not significantly higher for colorectal, breast, thyroid, prostate, and lung cancers. The SIRs of those with GH in the ranges <1, 1-2.5, and ≥ 2.5 ng/mL were 0.75, 0.44, and 0.92, respectively (P = .94). There was not a significant dependence on normal vs elevated IGF-1 (P = .87), radiation therapy (P = .45), disease duration (P = .96), age at diagnosis (P = .15), or during a period of high GH and IGF-1 from 8 years before to 2 years after diagnosis of acromegaly (P = .41). Cancer screening strategies need to take incidence into account, which does not seem to be substantially higher in treated acromegaly patients than in the general population for any site of cancer.

  10. Applying cultural safety beyond Indigenous contexts: Insights from health research with Amish and Low German Mennonites.

    PubMed

    Blanchet Garneau, Amélie; Farrar, Helen; Fan, HaiYan; Kulig, Judith

    2017-06-01

    People who identify as members of religious communities, such as the Amish and Low German Mennonites, face challenges obtaining quality health care and engagement in research due in part to stereotypes that are conveyed through media and popular discourses. There is also a growing concern that even when these groups are engaged in research, the guiding frameworks of the research fail to consider the sociocultural or historical relations of power, further skewing power imbalances inherent in the research relationship. This paper aims at discussing the uses of cultural safety in the context of health research and knowledge translation with groups of people that are associated with a specific religion. Research with the Amish and Low German Mennonites is provided as examples to illustrate the use of cultural safety in this context. From these examples, we discuss how the use of cultural safety, grounded in critical theoretical perspectives, offers new insight into health research with populations that are traditionally labeled as minority, vulnerable, or marginalized, especially when a dominant characteristic is a unique religious perspective. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Current state of the art, multimodality research and future visions for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer: consensus results from "Challenges and Chances in Prostate Cancer Research Meeting 2013".

    PubMed

    Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jürgen; Feick, Günter; Hadaschik, Boris; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schüle, Roland; Zacharias, Jens-Peter; Schwardt, Malte

    2014-11-04

    A brainstorming and consensus meeting organized by the German Cancer Aid focused on modern treatment of prostate cancer and promising innovative techniques and research areas. Besides optimization of screening algorithms, molecular-based stratification and individually tailored treatment regimens will be the future of multimodal prostate cancer management. Effective interdisciplinary structures, including biobanking and data collection mechanisms are the basis for such developments.

  12. Ultrashort pulse lasers for precise processing: overview on a current German research initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolte, S.

    2014-03-01

    Ultrashort laser pulses provide a powerful means of processing a wide variety of materials with highest precision and minimal damage. In order to exploit the full potential of this technology, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research has launched an initiative with 20 Million EUR funding about two years ago. Within 9 joint research projects, different aspects from novel concepts for robust and powerful laser sources to reliable components with high damage thresholds and dynamic beam shaping and steering are investigated. Applications include eye surgery as well as the processing of semiconductors, carbon fiber reinforced plastics and metals. The paper provides an overview on the different projects and highlights first results.

  13. No Association of Vitamin D Pathway Genetic Variants with Cancer Risks in a Population-Based Cohort of German Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Mena, José Manuel; Schöttker, Ben; Saum, Kai U; Holleczek, Bernd; Burwinkel, Barbara; Wang, Thomas J; Brenner, Hermann

    2017-09-01

    Background: Several investigations assessed the association of vitamin D receptor (VDR) SNPs with cancer risk. Less is known about the implications of other vitamin D pathway SNPs on cancer risk.Methods: In a population-based cohort study of 9,949 German older adults, we used Cox regression to assess the association of 6 SNPs in the VDR, vitamin D-binding protein (GC), 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7), vitamin D 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), and vitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) genes with total and site-specific cancer incidence endpoints.Results: Overall, no association of SNPs with cancer incidence endpoints was observed, except for a genotype score based on SNPs associated with lower 25(OH)D, which was associated with higher lung cancer risk [HR, 1.20; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.03-1.39], although this was no longer significant after correcting for multiple testing.Conclusions: Our data provide little to no evidence of a major influence of vitamin D genetic predisposition on cancer risks.Impact: Large-scale genetic epidemiology consortia and meta-analysis of smaller published studies are needed to verify a potential modest influence of genetic variation in the association of vitamin D with the risk of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1459-61. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: brain research and "euthanasia"].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Karenberg, A; Fangerau, H

    2016-08-01

    The connection between systematic killing of the mentally ill and disabled, euphemistically called "euthanasia" in the National Socialism ideology, and German brain research has been thoroughly investigated and in detail; however, the impact of this criminal nexus on the image and self-perception of German neurologists as well as the status of neurology as a medical discipline is still the subject of controversial debates.Between 1939 and 1945 the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (KWI) in Berlin along with other research centres were insofar enmeshed in the "euthanasia" program as brains of killed patients were dissected in the guise of "concomitant research" in order to generate medical knowledge. Affected were mainly individuals suffering from oligophrenia, early childhood brain atrophy, cerebral palsy and epilepsy. According to current historical research, collegial networks were instrumental in receiving brains of killed patients. Furthermore, civil research units were supplemented by military ones at the KWI. These, too, were concerned with the collection of medical knowledge, for instance on injuries of the brain and spinal cord. The historical approach to consider the Nazi organizations and medicine as "resources for each other" seems, therefore, at least in part applicable to neurology.

  15. Cancer mortality in a surveillance cohort of German males formerly exposed to asbestos.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Taeger, Dirk; Johnen, Georg; Gross, Isabelle M; Weber, Daniel G; Gube, Monika; Müller-Lux, Alice; Heinze, Evelyn; Wiethege, Thorsten; Neumann, Volker; Tannapfel, Andrea; Raithel, Hans-Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Kraus, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was the estimation of the cancer risks of asbestos and asbestosis in a surveillance cohort of high-exposed German workers. A group of 576 asbestos workers was selected for high-resolution computer tomography of the chest in 1993-1997. A mortality follow-up was conducted through 2007. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and Poisson regression was performed to assess mesothelioma risks. A high risk was observed for pleural mesothelioma (SMR 28.10, 95% CI 15.73-46.36) that decreased after cessation of exposure (RR 0.1; 95% CI 0.0-0.6 for > or =30 vs. <30 years after last exposure). Asbestosis was a significant risk factor for mesothelioma (RR 6.0, 95% CI 2.4-14.7). Mesothelioma mortality was still in excess in former asbestos workers although decreasing after cessation of exposure. Fibrosis was associated with subsequent malignancy.

  16. [The importance of pathology in the German prostate cancer study PREFERE].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Stöckle, M; Albers, P; Schmidberger, H; Martus, P; Wellek, S; Härter, M; Bussar-Maatz, R; Wiegel, T

    2013-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common carcinoma of elderly males and holds the third place in the ranking of cancer-specific mortality. However, total mortality rate of 3 % is low and half of the patients die from other diseases, which is for the most part due to significantly improved diagnostic methods and the increasing use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. This has led to a stage migration towards early tumor stages that are prognostically heterogeneous and require differentiated treatment. The German and European guidelines recommend four therapy options (i.e. radical prostatectomy, percutaneous irradiation, permanent seed implantation and active surveillance) for localized prostate cancer and from contemporary study data it is unclear which therapy is most beneficial. This will be the subject of the PREFERE trial, a prospective randomized multicentre trial which plans to recruit 7,600 patients and to observe them over a period of up to 17 years. The histopathological diagnosis of the primary biopsy plays a crucial role in the inclusion criteria, as this article outlines in detail.

  17. Cancer patients' preferences for quantity or quality of life: German translation and validation of the quality and quantity questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Laryionava, Katsiaryna; Sklenarova, Halina; Heußner, Pia; Haun, Markus W; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Hartmann, Mechthild; Winkler, Eva C

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making with patients with incurable cancer often requires trade-offs between quality and length of life. The 'Quality and Quantity Questionnaire' (QQ) is an English-language measure of patients' preference for length or quality of life. The aim of this study was to translate and validate this questionnaire. 1 new item was formulated to improve the 'Quality of life' scale. Construct validity including exploratory factor analysis, convergent and discriminant validity, and reliability was determined in n = 194 patients. The acceptability of the questionnaire among patients was high. The item-non-response rate was very low (2.5-4%). The 2 QQ scales 'Quality of life' (QL) and 'Length of life' (LL) had good and acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's = 0.71 for LL and 0.59 for QL). Convergent validity was shown by significant correlation of the QL subscale with the CCAT (Cancer Communication Assessment Tool) subscale 'Limitation of treatment' (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) and the LL scale with the CCAT subscale 'Continuing treatment' (r = 0.24, p = 0.00). The German version of 'QQ' has satisfactory psychometric properties for measuring patients' preferences for LL or QL. It can be used in all research fields that should be informed by patients' preferences: shared decision-making, palliative care, and health services. © 2014 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Emotional arousal predicts observed social support in German and American couples talking about breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Melanie S; Baucom, Donald H; Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Hahlweg, Kurt; Atkins, David C; Porter, Laura S; Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-10-01

    Social support in couples often occurs during conversations and is an important predictor of positive outcomes in patients with breast cancer. Even though talking about cancer may be upsetting, vocally expressed emotional arousal and its association with social support have not been examined. The goal of this study was to examine the role of vocally encoded emotional arousal and social support behaviors in 129 German and American couples, assessed at baseline of clinical trials for women with breast cancer and their male partners. Range of fundamental frequency was used as a measure of expressed emotional arousal during videotaped interactions in which the women shared cancer-related concerns. Social support behaviors were assessed as specific social support behaviors at the talk-turn level (positive, neutral, and negative) and broader communication behaviors also relevant to social support at the global level (depth and articulation, caring, quality of communication) using the Social Support Interaction Coding System (Bradbury & Pasch, 1994). Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence models. Women displayed more positive, fewer neutral support-receiving behaviors, and greater depth and articulation if their own emotional arousal was higher. Women also displayed more neutral and (at the trend level) fewer positive support-receiving behaviors if their partners' emotional arousal was higher. Men's behaviors were not associated with their own or women's emotional arousal. Results indicate that it may be adaptive for women with cancer to openly experience their distress during social support conversations with their partners; high emotional arousal of the partners may interfere with this process. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Proceedings of the 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Walter Steininger; Wilhelm Bollingerfehr

    2016-01-11

    The 6th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Dresden. Germany on September 7-9, 2015. Over seventy participants helped advance the technical basis for salt disposal of radioactive waste. The number of collaborative efforts continues to grow and to produce useful documentation, as well as to define the state of the art for research areas. These Proceedings are divided into Chapters, and a list of authors is included in the Acknowledgement Section. Also in this document are the Technical Agenda, List of Participants, Biographical Information, Abstracts, and Presentations. Proceedings of all workshops and other pertinent information are posted on websites hosted by Sandia National Laboratories and the Nuclear Energy Agency Salt Club. The US/German workshops provide continuity for long-term research, summarize and publish status of mature areas, and develop appropriate research by consensus in a workshop environment. As before, major areas and findings are highlighted, which constitute topical Chapters in these Proceedings. In total, the scientific breadth is substantial and while not all subject matter is elaborated into chapter format, all presentations and abstracts are published in this document. In the following Proceedings, six selected topics are developed in detail.

  20. Risk Management in Coastal Engineering - Applied Research Projects for the German Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woeffler, T.; Grimm, C.; Bachmann, D.; Jensen, J.; Mudersbach, C.; Froehle, P.; Thorenz, F.; Schuettrumpf, H.

    2012-04-01

    Several islands in the northfrisian part of the UNESCO - World Natural Heritage Wadden Sea are exposed to extreme storm surges due to climate change and sea level rise. Existing coastal protection measures in this area do not consider the future sea state and are mainly based on tradition and expert knowledge. The two projects HoRisK and ZukunftHallig (supported by the German Coastal Engineering Research Council) focus on this area and implement the requirements defined in the Directive 2007/60/EC on the assessment and management of flood risk. The main objects of the projects are the design and evaluation of new coastal protection techniques for the investigation area. With numerical simulations hydrological parameters are investigated in order to design new coastal protection- and management strategies. The decision support system PROMAIDES (Protection Measure against Inundation Decision Support) developed at the Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management of the RWTH Aachen University analyzes the effects and reliability of new coastal protection techniques and evaluates inundation areas and economic damages for different hydrological boundary conditions. As a result flood risk and hazard maps are shown in this work. Furthermore sensitivity analyses expose possible variations in future storm surges and illustrate the difference in significant wave heights for varying wind climates. This risk based approach of both projects is a suitable way to ensure life for further generations on these islands under sustainable ecological und economic conditions. Acknowledgments This work was supported by the KFKI (German Coastal Engineering Research Council) and the German Federal Ministery of Education and Research (BMBF) (Project No. 03KIS094 and 03KIS078)

  1. Future Research Challenges for a Computer-Based Interpretative 3D Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage - A German Community's View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, S.; Kuroczyński, P.; Pfarr-Harfst, M.; Grellert, M.; Lengyel, D.

    2015-08-01

    The workgroup for Digital Reconstruction of the Digital Humanities in the German-speaking area association (Digital Humanities im deutschsprachigen Raum e.V.) was founded in 2014 as cross-disciplinary scientific society dealing with all aspects of digital reconstruction of cultural heritage and currently involves more than 40 German researchers. Moreover, the workgroup is dedicated to synchronise and foster methodological research for these topics. As one preliminary result a memorandum was created to name urgent research challenges and prospects in a condensed way and assemble a research agenda which could propose demands for further research and development activities within the next years. The version presented within this paper was originally created as a contribution to the so-called agenda development process initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) in 2014 and has been amended during a joint meeting of the digital reconstruction workgroup in November 2014.

  2. The German Research Network on Schizophrenia--impact on the management of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wölwer, Wolfgang; Baumann, Anja; Bechdolf, Andreas; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Häfner, Heinz; Janssen, Birgit; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Maier, Wolfgang; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Ruhrmann, Stephan; Gaebel, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The German Research Network On Schizophrenia (GRNS) is a nationwide network currently comprising 16 psychiatric university departments and 14 state and district hospitals, as well as six local networks of psychiatric practices and general practitioners collaborating on about 25 interrelated, multicenter projects on schizophrenia research. The GRNS aims to intensify collaboration and knowledge exchange between leading research institutions and qualified routine care facilities, both within (horizontal network) and between (vertical network) the two levels of research and care, in order to create the scientific preconditions for optimization of the management of schizophrenia. The concept and the first results of studies aiming at the investigation of (i) strategies for early detection and early intervention in the prodromal stage of psychosis; (ii) treatment in first-episode schizophrenia; (iii) quality management; and (iv) destigmatization, are described as examples of this effort.

  3. German CELSS research with emphasis on the C.E.B.A.S.-project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Bluem; Karlheinz, Kreuzberg

    In general the German CELSS research program covers both animal and plant systems. In the field of botany a higher plant growth unit is disposed. The construction of a continuous culture device for unicellular algae in long-term multi-generation experiments will start in 1990. In zoology an experimental system for multi-generation experiments, the AQUARACK is already under construction and a running laboratory prototype is sorrounded by a wide-spread ground research program. The combination of the algae system with AQUARACK will result in a combined animal-plant system, the "Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System", C.E.B.A.S. which may be the origin for further interdisciplinary research leading to an aquatic plant-animal-CELSS This research field is closely associated with cybernetical science because the development of the combined systems need simulation processes and highly sophisticated electronical control. A further point in the CELSS program is the study of biological waste management.

  4. US/German Collaboration in Salt Repository Research, Design and Operation - 13243

    SciTech Connect

    Steininger, Walter; Hansen, Frank; Biurrun, Enrique; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm

    2013-07-01

    Recent developments in the US and Germany [1-3] have precipitated renewed efforts in salt repository investigations and related studies. Both the German rock salt repository activities and the US waste management programs currently face challenges that may adversely affect their respective current and future state-of-the-art core capabilities in rock salt repository science and technology. The research agenda being pursued by our respective countries leverages collective efforts for the benefit of both programs. The topics addressed by the US/German salt repository collaborations align well with the findings and recommendations summarized in the January 2012 US Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future (BRC) report [4] and are consistent with the aspirations of the key topics of the Strategic Research Agenda of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) [5]. Against this background, a revival of joint efforts in salt repository investigations after some years of hibernation has been undertaken to leverage collective efforts in salt repository research, design, operations, and related issues for the benefit of respective programs and to form a basis for providing an attractive, cost-effective insurance against the premature loss of virtually irreplaceable scientific expertise and institutional memory. (authors)

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  8. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Breast tissue specimens in traditional sample dishes. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  9. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Time-lapse exposure depicts Bioreactor rotation. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  10. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Dr. Robert Richmond extracts breast cell tissue from one of two liquid nitrogen dewars. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues.

  11. Accomplishments in cancer research. 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J.G. . Medical Coll.); Rhoads, J.E. . School of Medicine)

    1987-01-01

    This book contains several papers on cancer research. Some of the titles are: Controlled DNA Replication Once and Only Once Per Cell Cycle; Tumor Growth Factors; Improvement in Radiotherapy Through Innovative Dose Fractionation; The Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Cancer Metastase; Tumor Promotion; and Molecular Cloning of Protein Kinase C and the Role of PKC in Signal Transduction and Tumor Promotion.

  12. Rationing cancer care: a survey among the members of the german society of hematology and oncology.

    PubMed

    Krause, Stefan W; Schildmann, Jan; Lotze, Christian; Winkler, Eva C

    2013-06-01

    Rising costs of cancer care and the growing burden of cancer in a world of finite resources seem to make rationing in oncology inevitable. Information is currently lacking about oncologists' strategies in responding to resource constraints and the prevalence of withholding costly treatments. An online survey was offered via e-mail to physician members of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology. Those actively practicing were asked to complete an online questionnaire asking how limited resources were currently affecting their clinical practice. Two-thirds of 345 participating oncologists reported withholding costly treatments in at least some instances. Regarding their rationale, 70% stated that evidence for costly intervention was not convincing enough, and 59% said that they rationed approved treatments because of an unfavorable cost/benefit calculation. Only 29% reported being explicit about their rationing decision if the patient did not know or inquire about the respective intervention. Withholding expensive procedures from individual patients was widespread among the respondents. Oncologists withheld treatments not only if they perceived the scientific evidence to be questionable but also if they perceived reimbursement prospects or the cost/benefit ratio to be unfavorable, a behavior that could be called rationing. Currently this mostly refers to costly procedures with limited additional benefits. Although this result may be interpreted as indicating that oncologists assume responsibility for spending the resources in a justified way, more transparency and an open discussion on cost-effectiveness and the just allocation of costly treatments is needed.

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification view of human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. The arrow points to bead surface indicating breast cancer cells (as noted by the staining of tumor cell intermediate filaments). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  15. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Exposed to Heavy Metal Carcinogen. UNMC Summer Undergraduate Research Program, August 2010. • Keidra A. Bryant...Joseph R. Wheeler, Michelle A. Montgomery, and Richard G. MacDonald. (2010). Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/Insulin-like... Effect of 4’-Bis-Thiosemicarbazide, a New Ribonucleotide Reductase Inhibitor, on Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation. UNMC Summer Undergraduate Research

  16. About Foregut Cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    About Foregut Cancers The foregut is the section of the upper gastrointestinal tract that includes the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver and bile ducts. The focus of the NIH Foregut Team is clinical research and care of patients with tumors of the foregut, including:

  17. [German neurology and neurologists during the Third Reich: exemplified by research on epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Martin, M; Fangerau, H; Karenberg, A

    2016-08-01

    There are only a small number of studies dealing with the impact of eugenic theories and practices on the research of particular neurological diseases during the Third Reich. Thus, this contribution to the special issue on neurology in Germany between 1933 and 1945 focuses exemplarily on epilepsy research. By drawing on primary sources and secondary literature the article tries to reconstruct the scientific discourse of the time and consider the implications for patients. National socialistic ideology was based on eugenic thinking and the implementation of eugenic policies was a major political objective. An immediate effect of this policy was the passing of the Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses) in 1933. According to this law "hereditary epilepsy" along with various other neurological and psychiatric disorders was regarded as a mandatory indication for forced sterilization. Subsequently, funding of epileptological research was generously increased and extended, e. g. at the German Research Institute (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt) in Munich and the Rheinische Provinzial-Institut in Bonn. The main focus was placed on idiopathic forms of the disease, which were a priori considered as hereditary. At the annual meetings of the Society of German Neurologists and Psychiatrists (Gesellschaft deutscher Neurologen und Psychiater), lectures and debates on epilepsy repeatedly constituted a key topic. Some participants opted for a broad interpretation of "endogeneity" and thus favored an extension of the practice of sterilization but others advocated a more differentiated and restricted attitude. Several neurology researchers showed a penchant for self-mobilization in line with the doctrine of the new government.

  18. German translation of the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Hoben, Matthias; Mahler, Cornelia; Bär, Marion; Berger, Sarah; Squires, Janet E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Behrens, Johann

    2013-11-16

    Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons' unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument equivalence. Essential components were

  19. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument

  20. Proceedings of the 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Francis D.; Leigh, Christi; Stein, Walter; Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Von Berlepsche, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    The 5th US/German Workshop on Salt Repository Research, Design, and Operation was held in Santa Fe New Mexico September 8-10, 2014. The forty seven registered participants were equally divided between the United States (US) and Germany, with one participant from The Netherlands. The agenda for the 2014 workshop was under development immediately upon finishing the 4th Workshop. Ongoing, fundamental topics such as thermomechanical behavior of salt, plugging and sealing, the safety case, and performance assessment continue to advance the basis for disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt formations. The utility of a salt underground research laboratory (URL) remains an intriguing concept engendering discussion of testing protocol. By far the most interest in this years’ workshop pertained to operational safety. Given events at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), this discussion took on a new sense of relevance and urgency.

  1. National Report Germany: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Research Activities Supported by the German Space Programme in 2013-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, R.; Gritzner, C.; Friedrichs, D.

    2015-09-01

    Mainly sounding rockets but also stratospheric balloons have played a crucial role in implementing the German Space Programme since many years. Research activities were conducted in the fields of Microgravity Research, Space Science, Earth Observation, Space Technology Development, and Education. Currently, the mesosphere and ionosphere of the Earth and the photosphere and chromosphere of the Sun are in the focus of German research activities in the field of Space Science. Microgravity related topics are studied in the disciplines of Life and Physical Sciences during ballistic TEXUS and MAPHEUS rocket flights. A lot of student activities are currently supported by the agencies SNSB and DLR under the auspices of the Swedish-German programme REXUS/BEXUS.

  2. Accounting for Context and Experience in German (L2) Language Acquisition: A Critical Review of the Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Alene

    2004-01-01

    With its focus on simplification universals, developmental orders, teachability, and functional-grammatical bases for acquisition, the well-known research on German (L2) language acquisition has contributed much to SLA research in general. At the same time, sociolinguistic investigations focus squarely on the difficult social conditions that…

  3. [Evaluation of interest in research among surgically active medical officers in the German Armed Forces].

    PubMed

    Back, D A; Palm, H G; Willms, A; Westerfeld, A; Hinck, D; Schulze, C; Brodauf, L; Bieler, D; Küper, M A

    2015-10-01

    Research in military medicine and in particular combat surgery is a broad field that has gained international importance during the last decade. In the context of increased NATO missions, this also holds true for the Bundeswehr (German Armed Forces); however, medical officers in surgery must balance research between their clinical work load, missions, civilian and family obligation. To evaluate engagement with and interest in research, a questionnaire was distributed among the doctors of the surgical departments of the Bundeswehr hospitals by the newly founded working group Chirurgische Forschung der Bundeswehr (surgical research of the Bundeswehr). Returned data were recorded from October 2013 to January 2014 and descriptive statistics were performed. Answers were received from 87 out of 193 military surgeons (45 %). Of these 81 % announced a general interest in research with a predominance on clinical research in preference to experimental settings. At the time of the evaluation 32 % of the participants were actively involved in research and 53 % regarded it as difficult to invest time in research activities parallel to clinical work. Potential keys to increase the interest and engagement in research were seen in the implementation of research coordinators and also in a higher amount of free time, for example by research rotation. Research can be regarded as having a firm place in the daily work of medical officers in the surgical departments of the Bundeswehr; however, the engagement is limited by time and structural factors. At the departmental level and in the command structures of the military medical service, more efforts are recommended in the future in order to enhance the engagement with surgical research. This evaluation should be repeated in the coming years as a measuring instrument and data should be compared in an international context.

  4. Microarrays in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Grant, Geraldine M; Fortney, Amanda; Gorreta, Francesco; Estep, Michael; Del Giacco, Luca; Van Meter, Amy; Christensen, Alan; Appalla, Lakshmi; Naouar, Chahla; Jamison, Curtis; Al-Timimi, Ali; Donovan, Jean; Cooper, James; Garrett, Carleton; Chandhoke, Vikas

    2004-01-01

    Microarray technology has presented the scientific community with a compelling approach that allows for simultaneous evaluation of all cellular processes at once. Cancer, being one of the most challenging diseases due to its polygenic nature, presents itself as a perfect candidate for evaluation by this approach. Several recent articles have provided significant insight into the strengths and limitations of microarrays. Nevertheless, there are strong indications that this approach will provide new molecular markers that could be used in diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. To achieve these goals it is essential that there is a seamless integration of clinical and molecular biological data that allows us to elucidate genes and pathways involved in various cancers. To this effect we are currently evaluating gene expression profiles in human brain, ovarian, breast and hematopoetic, lung, colorectal, head and neck and biliary tract cancers. To address the issues we have a joint team of scientists, doctors and computer scientists from two Virginia Universities and a major healthcare provider. The study has been divided into several focus groups that include; Tissue Bank Clinical & Pathology Laboratory Data, Chip Fabrication, QA/QC, Tissue Devitalization, Database Design and Data Analysis, using multiple microarray platforms. Currently over 300 consenting patients have been enrolled in the study with the largest number being that of breast cancer patients. Clinical data on each patient is being compiled into a secure and interactive relational database and integration of these data elements will be accomplished by a common programming interface. This clinical database contains several key parameters on each patient including demographic (risk factors, nutrition, co-morbidity, familial history), histopathology (non genetic predictors), tumor, treatment and follow-up information. Gene expression data derived from the tissue samples will be linked to this database, which

  5. The German Radiological Society and the Protagonists of Radiology during the Time of National Socialism--State of Research, Explanation Attempts, Desiderata and Research Prospects.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Winzen, T; Groß, D

    2015-06-01

    The intention of the authors is the recognition and critical analysis of efforts to study the history of the German Radiological Society during the time of National Socialism from 1933 to 1945 with the goal of determining existing desiderata and identifying the resulting research prospects. There is a need to study concrete individual biographies of radiologists (members of the German Radiological Society, perpetrators, and victims) and their careers before and after 1945 as well as the importance of the interdisciplinarity of the discipline and the lack of institutional involvement during the "Third Reich". Moreover, the comparatively difficult starting situation of the study of the history of the German Radiological Society is discussed.

  6. Cancer incidence in ethnic German migrants from the Former Soviet Union in comparison to the host population.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Stegmaier, Christa; Becher, Heiko

    2014-02-01

    To investigate cancer incidence patterns among ethnic German migrants (Aussiedler) from the Former Soviet Union, a large migrant group in Germany, in comparison to autochthonous Saarland population over a 20 year observation period. Data were obtained from a cohort of Aussiedler residing in the federal state of Saarland (n=18,619). Cancer incidence and vital status were ascertained through record linkage with the Saarland Cancer Registry and local population registries. During the follow up period from 1990 to 2009 we observed 638 incident diagnoses of malignant neoplasms (except non-melanoma skin cancer). The overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.92, 1.04). However, site-specific SIRs revealed great variation. Stomach cancer incidence was significantly higher among Aussiedler. Lung cancer was elevated for males, but lower among females. Additionally, diagnoses for colorectal cancer among males were significantly lower. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) over time show not all cancer rates of Aussiedler attenuate as expected to Saarland rates. For example, lung and prostate cancer incidence rates show increasing disparity from Saarland rates and female breast cancer incidence develops in parallel. Furthermore, ASR for overall cancer incidence of Aussiedler shows a yearly decrease (p=0.06) whereas Saarland rates remain stable. Aussiedler incidence rates reflect incidence pattern observed in their countries of origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  8. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. A cross-section of a construct, grown from surgical specimens of brease cancer, stained for microscopic examination, reveals areas of tumor cells dispersed throughout the non-epithelial cell background. The arrow denotes the foci of breast cancer cells. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  9. Cancer Research Center Hotline

    PubMed Central

    Cassel, Kevin D

    2010-01-01

    The rates of melanomas and skin cancers are increasing in the United States. Children attending elementary schools are in the most danger of acquiring these diseases later in life, and elementary school children in Hawai‘i have the greatest risk of all children in the United States. The parents and educators of Hawai‘i's elementary school age children are unaware of the potential risks for cancer that young children experience every day at school. Effective sun protection policies have been implemented in other jurisdictions, including Australia, that have similar risks for over-exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in children. These proven policy models can inform sun protection practices in Hawai‘i. A simple policy whereby public elementary schools require that children wear ordinary long sleeves shirts and hats during the school's outdoor activities will protect Hawai‘i's children from overexposure to sun's ultraviolet radiation. Establishment of a state law codifying the implementation of this simple, yet scientifically proven strategy into the policies of Hawai‘i's public elementary schools can significantly reduce the incidence and deaths from melanoma and skin cancer in the state. PMID:21218379

  10. Is German Medical Education Research on the rise? An analysis of publications from the years 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ackel-Eisnach, Kristina; Raes, Patricia; Hönikl, Lisa; Bauer, Daniel; Wagener, Stefan; Möltner, Andreas; Jünger, Jana; Fischer, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The point of departure for the present work is the observation that, in comparison with Anglo-American countries or the Netherlands, Germany was responsible for only a marginal number of international publications in the field of medical education research before 2004. Recent years, however, have seen an increase in the importance of medical education research in Germany. The objective of this article is to evaluate the extent to which this trend can be substantiated by increased German publishing activity since the year 2004 in international, English-language journals in the subject area of “medical education research”. Methods: In the framework of a literature and content analysis, German-author articles from the years 2004 to 2013 in six international, English-language medical education research journals were evaluated. In order to obtain an overview of German research activity in this area, all project and original works with German first and last authors were identified and subjected to a more in-depth content analysis. Results: In total, 10,055 articles were examined. The evaluation shows that between the years 2004 and 2013 179 articles (of which 145 are project or original works) by German authors were published in the journals examined. Fluctuations over the course of time were evidenced. The project and original works are primarily cross-sectional studies (27.8%) and randomised control studies (25.6%) on the subject of “teaching and learning methods” (43.6%). Conclusions: In comparison with the years 2004-2008, a significant rise can be seen in the number of publications by German education researchers in international journals since the year 2009. PMID:26413168

  11. Decommissioning of German Research Reactors Under the Governance of the Federal Ministry of Education and Research - 12154

    SciTech Connect

    Weigl, M.

    2012-07-01

    Since 1956, nuclear research and development (R and D) in Germany has been supported by the Federal Government. The goal was to help German industry to become competitive in all fields of nuclear technology. National research centers were established and demonstration plants were built. In the meantime, all these facilities were shut down and are now in a state of decommissioning and dismantling (D and D). Meanwhile, Germany is one of the leading countries in the world in the field of D and D. Two big demonstration plants, the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant (KKN) a heavy-water cooled pressure tube reactor with carbon-dioxide cooling and the Karlstein Superheated Steam Reactor (HDR) a boiling light water reactor with a thermal power of 100 MW, are totally dismantled and 'green field' is reached. Another big project was finished in 2008. The Forschungs-Reaktor Juelich 1 (FRJ1), a research reactor with a thermal power of 10 MW was completely dismantled and in September 2008 an oak tree was planted on a green field at the site, where the FRJ1 was standing before. This is another example for German success in the field of D and D. Within these projects a lot of new solutions and innovative techniques were tested, which were developed at German universities and in small and medium sized companies mostly funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Some examples are underwater-cutting technologies like plasma arc cutting and contact arc metal cutting. This clearly shows that research on the field of D and D is important for the future. Moreover, these research activities are important to save the know-how in nuclear engineering in Germany and will enable enterprises to compete on the increasing market of D and D services. The author assumes that an efficient decommissioning of nuclear installations will help stabilize the credibility of nuclear energy. Some critics of nuclear energy are insisting that a return to 'green field sites' is not possible

  12. International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium (ICPC), is a voluntary scientific organization that provides a forum for collaboration among some of the world's leading cancer and proteogenomic research centers.

  13. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  14. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  15. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    High magnification of view of tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads, illustrting breast cells with intercellular boundaires on bead surface and aggregates of cells achieving 3-deminstional growth outward from bead after 56 days of culture in a NASA Bioreactor. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida.

  16. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Human primary breast tumor cells after 49 days of growth in a NASA Bioreactor. Tumor cells aggregate on microcarrier beads (indicated by arrow). NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Jearne Becker, University of South Florida

  17. The 'Book of Life' in the press: comparing German and Irish media discourse on human genome research.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Patrick; Schäfer, Mike Steffen

    2005-02-01

    The essay compares German and Irish media coverage of human genome research in the year 2000, using qualitative and quantitative frame analysis of a print media corpus. Drawing from a media-theoretical account of science communication, the study examines four analytic dimensions: (1) the influence of global and national sources of discourse; (2) the nature of elaboration on important themes; (3) the extent of societal participation in discourse production; (4) the cultural conditions in which the discourse resonates. The analysis shows that a global discursive package, emphasizing claims of scientific achievement and medical progress, dominates media coverage in both countries. However, German coverage is more extensive and elaborate, and includes a wider range of participants. Irish coverage more often incorporates the global package without further elaboration. These finding indicate that the global package is 'localized' differently due to national patterns of interests, German participation in human genome research, traditions of media coverage, and the domestic resonance of the issue.

  18. Standortplanung fuer die Feuerwehr der Bundeswehr mit Methoden des Operations Research (Location Planning for the Fire Department of the German Armed Forces with the Methods of Operations Research)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    die Feuerwehr der Bundeswehr mit Methoden des Operations Research (Location Planning for the Fire Department of the German Anned Forces with the...important part of the operational capability of the force. The fire stations in the premises of the German armed forces provide a smooth service and increase...the safety of the soldiers, the environment and dealing with the material. Since October I, 2012, the fire stations are centrally managed fire

  19. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Melanoma Skin Cancer About Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? Research into the ... Cancer? Key Statistics for Melanoma Skin Cancer What’s New in Melanoma Skin Cancer Research? More In Melanoma ...

  20. [Methods in health services research. The example of the evaluation of the German disease management programmes].

    PubMed

    Morfeld, M; Wirtz, M

    2006-02-01

    According to the established definition of Pfaff, health services research analyses patients' path through the institutions of the health care system. The focus is on development, evaluation and implementation of innovative measures of health care. By increasing its quality health services research strives for an improvement of efficacy and efficiency of the health care system. In order to allow for an appropriate evaluation it is essential to differentiate between structure, process and outcome quality referring to (1) the health care system in its entirety, (2) specific health care units as well as (3) processes of communication in different settings. Health services research comprises a large array of scientific disciplines like public health, medicine, social sciences and social care. For the purpose of managing its tasks adequately a special combination of instruments and methodological procedures is needed. Thus, diverse techniques of evaluation research as well as special requirements for study designs and assessment procedures are of vital importance. The example of the German disease management programmes illustrates the methodical requirements for a scientific evaluation.

  1. [Development of patient education materials for the "German Prostate Cancer Trial PREFERE"].

    PubMed

    Sänger, Sylvia; Wiegel, Thomas; Stöckle, Michael; Härter, Martin; Bergelt, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The German prostate cancer study PREFERE (www.prefere.de) started in January 2014. It is the first randomised controlled and preference-based trial to investigate all four options available for the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer. According to the "Interdisciplinary evidence-based S3 guideline for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of prostate cancer" [1], these options include: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy, brachytherapy and active surveillance. In the context of PREFERE preference-based means that potential study participants who do not agree to being randomised into all four treatment arms can maximally refuse two treatment arms. This poses a big challenge to the patient education strategy employed and the information material it requires. In order to inform patients in the context of the PREFERE trial patient education materials (patient leaflet and video) had to be designed that provide patients with balanced and guideline-based information about the disease and the treatment options available, about the need for randomisation and, in particular, about the PREFERE trial and support their individual preference finding and shared decision making for participating in the trial. An iterative structured approach was used to develop the information materials on the basis of a previous literature search. Six focus groups with a total of 40 participants from three different self-help groups, affected men that do not belong to a self-help group, healthy men as well as experts, the members of the steering committee of the PREFERE trial and a focus group consisting of 18 male and female urologists were involved in the development and testing of both the patient information leaflet and the patient video. Both the patient information leaflet and the video supporting preference finding and decision making for participating in the PREFERE trial were tested for understandability and suitability by using a

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  6. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Same long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC), but after 3 weeks in concinuous culture. Note attempts to reform duct elements, but this time in two dimensions in a dish rather that in three demensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  7. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Isolate of long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and early in culture in a dish. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  8. The pharmaceutical industry and the German National Socialist Regime: I.G. Farben and pharmacological research.

    PubMed

    López-Muñoz, F; García-García, P; Alamo, C

    2009-02-01

    Before the National Socialist party came to power, the German pharmaceutical industry constituted an international reference as far as the development of new medicines was concerned, having been responsible for synthetic analgesics (phenacetin, phenazones, acetylsalicylic acid), arsphenamine, barbiturates and sulfonamides. The year 1925 saw the founding of I.G. Farben (Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG), a conglomerate of companies that would monopolize the country's chemical production and come to own all its major pharmaceutical industries. During the World War II, I.G. Farben participated in numerous operations associated with the criminal activities of the Nazi executive, including the use of slave labour in plants built close to concentration camps, such as that at Auschwitz. With regard to medical and pharmacological research projects, I.G. Farben became involved in experimental programmes using patients from the Nazi regime's euthanasia programmes and healthy subjects recruited without their consent from concentration camps, on whom various pharmacological substances were tested, including sulfamide and arsenical derivatives and other preparations whose composition is not precisely known (B-1012, B-1034, 3382 or Rutenol, 3582 or Acridine), generally in relation to the treatment of infectious diseases, such as typhus, erysipelas, scarlet fever or paratyphoid diarrhoea. Furthermore, I.G. Farben played a decisive role in the German army's chemical warfare programme, contributing to the development of the first two neurotoxic substances, later known as 'nerve agents', tabun and sarin. Some of these activities came to light as a result of the one the famous Nuremberg Trials in 1947, which saw 24 executives and scientists from I.G. Farben brought to justice for, among other offences, the use of slave labour in the concentration camps and forced experimentation with drugs on prisoners.

  9. Linkage of mother-baby pairs in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Suling, Marc; Kloss, Sebastian; Lindemann, Christina; Schmid, Ulrike

    2011-03-01

    Administrative healthcare databases are increasingly being used to investigate potential drug risks in pregnancy. Our study aimed to develop an algorithm for linkage of mother-baby pairs (MBPs) in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD) as a prerequisite for such studies. GePaRD contains sociodemographic data, drug dispensations, ambulatory, and hospital information on more than 14 million insurants from four German statutory health insurances (SHIs) covering all regions in Germany. Linkage was based on co-insurance information of the newborn with the potential mother (direct linkage) or of both potential mother and newborn with the potential father (indirect linkage). Linkage is not possible if the baby is co-insured with the father and the mother is self-insured. Further information on birth or childbed was used to validate the potential mother as true mother in MBP. Descriptive comparisons between linked and unlinked mothers were conducted. Of 323,993 newborns identified between 2004 and 2006, 250,355 (77.3%) could be linked in MBP. Of those, 189,702 (75.8%) MBP were based on direct linkage. Mean age was similar in linked (31.1 years, standard deviation (SD = 5.4) and unlinked (31.8 years, SD = 5.5) mothers as was the proportion of caesarean sections in both groups (28.9% vs. 29.3%). The developed algorithm permits linkage of a great number of newborns with their mothers and creates a potential data source for investigation of drug risks in pregnancy. Further validation studies are needed also including information on pregnancies not resulting in live births. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Using CLIL to Enhance Pupils' Experience of Learning and Raise Attainment in German and Health Education: A Teacher Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mearns, Tessa L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates an action research project carried out by a teacher in an English comprehensive school, where a class of 13- to 14-year-olds was taught personal, social and health education and German through content-language integrated learning (CLIL) over a six-week period. The purpose of the study was to explore how CLIL…

  11. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: International Research Cooperation to Develop and Evaluate Tools and Techniques for Revitalization of Potentially Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the German Federal Mini...

  12. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP: International Research Cooperation to Develop and Evaluate Tools and Techniques for Revitalization of Potentially Contaminated Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)/Office of Research and Development (ORD) and the German Federal Mini...

  13. Using Classroom Recordings in Educational History Research. An East German Civics Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jehle, May; Blessing, Benita

    2014-01-01

    Students learned in civics lessons in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, or East Germany) that their socialist society uniquely guaranteed all individuals the right to work, and that, as good socialists, they had the duty to take on socially meaningful work. Using the example of a video recording of an East German civics lesson and its…

  14. German Academia Heading for Sustainability? Reflections on Policy and Practice in Teaching, Research and Institutional Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adomssent, Maik; Michelsen, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how far (and by what practical means) the growing global trend for universities to commit to sustainable development has spread across German academia. Following this introduction, part 2 will outline the political framework of the sustainability discourse in German higher education. Part 3 will emphasise the integration of…

  15. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  16. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Prostate Cancer About Prostate Cancer What’s New in Prostate Cancer Research? Research into the causes, ... in many medical centers throughout the world. Genetics New research on gene changes linked to prostate cancer ...

  17. [Current topics of social-psychiatric research in German speaking countries: a content analysis of scientific journals].

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Anita; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2003-11-01

    The paper is aimed at investigating what the actual topics of social-psychiatric research in German speaking countries are. German and international journals covering psychiatry and adjacent disciplines were screened for articles dealing with social-psychiatric topics. All in all, 426 relevant articles were identified and subjected to a content analysis. Almost one third of all articles was dealing with research on mental health services. Another research area that was strongly represented was epidemiology. By contrast, articles devoted to the study of psycho-social causes of mental disorders and psycho-social determinants of its course were rather rare. Possible reasons for the observed trends in social-psychiatric research are discussed. Potential risks for social psychiatry resulting from a too one-sided emphasis on health service research are pointed out.

  18. [Developments of nursing research within German-speaking countries - publications from 1988 until 2007 in the journal "Pflege"].

    PubMed

    Hausner, Elke; Halek, Margareta; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine

    2010-10-01

    "Pflege" is the nursing research journal with the largest circulation in the German-speaking area and has been nursing research experts' only communication platform for a considerable time. Analysing the structure of articles aims to focus on development and alteration of the German-speaking region's nursing research. The study consists of a retrospective analysis of publications in the nursing research journal "Pflege". 589 articles from 1988 until 2007 could be included into the analysis. Research questions refer to the amount of empirical studies and the study designs in quantitative projects. Almost 50 % of all publications of the "Pflege" represent results of empirical research; the remaining publications come from "other publications" and increasingly literature reviews. Research designs are mainly simple cross-sectional surveys; only 20 % are intervention studies (including five randomised controlled trials). The importance of intervention studies will increase in future. This development cannot be seen in the "Pflege". There is a need for further bibliometric analysis to be conducted to find out whether German-speaking nurse researchers actually seldom conduct intervention studies, or whether they prefer to publish in journals with a high impact factor.

  19. 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus – Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer: Opinions Expressed by German Experts

    PubMed Central

    Jackisch, Christian; Harbeck, Nadia; Huober, Jens; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Gerber, Bernd; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Liedtke, Cornelia; Marschner, Norbert; Möbus, Volker; Scheithauer, Heike; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Thomssen, Christoph; Loibl, Sibylle; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Blohmer, Jens-Uwe; Costa, Serban-Dan; Decker, Thomas; Diel, Ingo; Fasching, Peter A.; Fehm, Tanja; Janni, Wolfgang; Lück, Hans-Joachim; Maass, Nicolai; Scharl, Anton; Untch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary The key topics of this year's 14th St. Gallen Consensus Conference on the diagnosis and therapy of primary breast cancer were again questions about breast surgery and axillary surgery, radio-oncology and systemic therapy options in consideration of tumor biology, and the clinical application of multigene assays. This year, the consensus conference took place in Vienna. From a German perspective, it makes sense to substantiate the results of the vote of the international panel representing 19 countries in light of the updated national therapy recommendations of the AGO (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie). Therefore, 14 German breast cancer experts, 3 of whom are members of the International St. Gallen Panel, have commented on the voting results of the St. Gallen Consensus Conference 2015 in relation to clinical routine in Germany. PMID:26557827

  20. Zoonoses research in the German National Cohort : feasibility of parallel sampling of pets and owners.

    PubMed

    Hille, Katja; Möbius, Nadine; Akmatov, Manas K; Verspohl, Jutta; Rabold, Denise; Hartmann, Maria; Günther, Kathrin; Obi, Nadia; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2014-11-01

    Cats and dogs live in more than 20 % of German households and the contact between these pets and their owners can be very close. Therefore, a transmission of zoonotic pathogens may occur. To investigate whether zoonotic research questions can be examined in the context of population-based studies like the German National Cohort (GNC), two studies on different study populations were conducted as part of the feasibility tests of the GNC. The aim of the first study was to quantify the actual exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs. In the second study summarised here the feasibility of the sampling of cats and dogs by their owners was tested. To quantify the exposure of participants of the GNC to cats and dogs 744 study participants of the Pretests of the GNC were asked whether they had contact with animals. Currently 10 % have a dog and 14 % have a cat in their household. These figures confirm that a large proportion of the German population has contact with pets and that there is a need for further zoonoses research. To establish the collection of biological samples from cats and dogs in the context of large-scale population-based studies feasible methods are needed. Therefore, a study was conducted to test whether pet owners can take samples from their cats and dogs and whether the quality of these samples is comparable to samples taken by a qualified veterinarian. A total of 82 dog and 18 cat owners were recruited in two veterinary practices in Hannover and the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hannover. Sampling instructions and sample material for nasal and buccal swabs, faecal samples and, in the case of cat owners, a brush for fur samples, were given to the pet owners. The pet owners were asked to take the samples from their pets at home and to send the samples by surface mail. Swab samples were cultured and bacterial growth was quantified independent of bacterial species. The growth of Gram-positive and

  1. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  2. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunourous tissues. Here, two High-Aspect Ratio Vessels turn at about 12 rmp to keep breast tissue constructs suspended inside the culture media. Syringes allow scientists to pull for analysis during growth sequences. The tube in the center is a water bubbler that dehumidifies the air to prevent evaporation of the media and thus the appearance of destructive bubbles in the bioreactor.

  3. Basic Research and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against cancer. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of crizotinib (Xalkori®) to treat certain non-small cell lung cancers.

  4. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  5. Media | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is committed to providing the media with timely and accurate information.  This section offers key resources for patients, cancer researchers, physicians, and media professionals.

  6. Strengthening the Cancer Research Enterprise - Annual Plan

    Cancer.gov

    NCI's expanding infrastructure, support for scientists at every career stage, and funding of small business innovation enables discoveries that advance cancer research. Read more about how NCI is strenghtening the cancer research enterprise.

  7. About the Cancer Biomarkers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Biomarkers Research Group promotes research to identify, develop, and validate biological markers for early cancer detection and cancer risk assessment. Activities include development and validation of promising cancer biomarkers, collaborative databases and informatics systems, and new technologies or the refinement of existing technologies. NCI DCP News Note Consortium on Imaging and Biomarkers (CIB) Created: Eight Grants Awarded to Improve Accuracy of Cancer Screening, Detection, and Diagnosis |

  8. Basic research in kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Oosterwijk, Egbert; Rathmell, W Kimryn; Junker, Kerstin; Brannon, A Rose; Pouliot, Frédéric; Finley, David S; Mulders, Peter F A; Kirkali, Ziya; Uemura, Hirotsugo; Belldegrun, Arie

    2011-10-01

    Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Data on recently published (2005-2011) basic science papers were reviewed. Advances in basic research have shown that renal cancers can be subdivided based on specific genetic profiles. Now that this molecular basis has been established, it is becoming clear that additional events play a major role in the development of renal cancer. For example, aberrant chromatin remodelling appears to be a main driving force behind tumour progression in clear cell RCC. A large number of potential biomarkers have emerged using various high-throughput platforms, but adequate biomarkers for RCC are still lacking. To bring the potential biomarkers and biomarker profiles to the clinical arena is a major challenge for the field. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for therapy has shifted the interest away from immunologic approaches. Nevertheless, a wealth of evidence supports immunotherapy for RCC. Interestingly, studies are now appearing that suggest a combination of TKI and immunotherapy may be beneficial. Thus far, little attention has been paid to patient-specific differences. With high-throughput methods becoming cheaper and with the advances in sequencing possibilities, this situation is expected to change rapidly. Great strides have been made in the understanding of molecular mechanisms of RCC. This has led this field to the enviable position of having a range of molecularly targeted therapies. Large sequencing efforts are now revealing more and more genes responsible for tumour development and progression, offering new targets for therapy. It is foreseen that through integration of high-throughput platforms, personalised cancer treatment for RCC patients will become possible

  9. The Quality of Patient Information Booklets for Cancer Patients-an Evaluation of Free Accessible Material in German Language.

    PubMed

    Keinki, Christian; Rudolph, Ivonne; Ruetters, Dana; Kuenzel, Ulrike; Lobitz, Jessica; Schaefer, Maike; Hanaya, Hani; Huebner, Jutta

    2017-05-04

    According to the information-seeking behaviors of patients, booklets which can be downloaded from the Internet for free are an important source of information notably for patients with cancer. This study investigated whether information booklets for patients with cancer available at German websites are in accordance with the formal and content criteria of evidence-based information. We compared and compiled both content and formal criteria by matching different national and international standards for written patient information using a merged instrument. A catalog with a total of 16 items within 4 categories (quality of the publication, quality of information, quality of information representation, and transparency) was created. Patient information booklets for the most frequent tumor types were collected from the Internet. A total of 52 different patient booklets were downloaded and assessed. Overall, no booklet fulfilled all criteria. The quality of the publications was evaluated with an average value of 1.67 while the quality of the information had a mean value of 1.45, and the quality of information presentation had a similar rating (1.39). The transparency criteria were evaluated as lowest with an average of 1.07. In summary, German booklets for cancer patients have some shortcomings concerning formal and content criteria for evidence-based patient information. The applied requirement catalog is suitable for wide use and may help in quality assurance of health information. It may be used as part of an obligatory external evaluation, which could help improving the quality of health information.

  10. Diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests: a survey of german oncologists.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Julius Alexander

    2014-03-21

    This study was aimed at examining the diffusion of diagnostic lung cancer tests in Germany. It was motivated by the high potential of detecting and targeting oncogenic drivers. Recognizing that the diffusion of diagnostic tests is a conditio sine qua non for the success of personalized lung cancer therapies, this study analyzed the diffusion of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tests in Germany. Qualitative and quantitative research strategies were combined in a mixed-method design. A literature review and subsequent Key Opinion Leader interviews identified a set of qualitative factors driving the diffusion process, which were then translated into an online survey. The survey was conducted among a sample of 961 oncologists (11.34% response rate). The responses were analyzed in a multiple linear regression which identified six statistically significant factors driving the diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests: reimbursement, attitude towards R&D, information self-assessment, perceived attitudes of colleagues, age and test-pathway strategies. Besides the important role of adequate reimbursement and relevant guidelines, the results of this study suggest that an increasing usage of test-pathway strategies, especially in an office-based setting, can increase the diffusion of molecular diagnostic lung cancer tests in the future.

  11. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Colorectal Cancer About Colorectal Cancer What’s New in Colorectal Cancer Research? Research is always going ... ways to find colorectal cancer early by studying new types of screening tests and improving the ones ...

  12. Review of Recent Research (2002-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckerth, Johannes; Schramm, Karen; Tschirner, Erwin

    2009-01-01

    This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German published or completed between 2002 and 2008 may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from…

  13. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    this laboratory concentrates on the area of tumor immunology with an emphasis on immunotherapy. We have constructed microbial vaccines to be used...to the transgene product induced by the vaccine are underway. Additionally, we are carrying our "translational" research in the form of clinical...trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with prostate cancer. Important in these trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to induce anti

  14. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    i mmunology with an emphasis on immunotherapy. We ha ve constructed microbial vaccines to be used for the investigation of gene and immunotherapy... vaccine are underway. Additionally, we are carrying our "translational" research in the fo rm of clinical trials of our adenovirus vaccine in men with...prostate cancer. Important in thes e trials is the safety of the vaccine and its ability to in duce anti-tumor immunity. We have recently completed

  15. German Multicenter Study Investigating 177Lu-PSMA-617 Radioligand Therapy in Advanced Prostate Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Kratochwil, Clemens; Haberkorn, Uwe; Schäfers, Michael; Essler, Markus; Baum, Richard P; Kulkarni, Harshad R; Schmidt, Matthias; Drzezga, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Pfestroff, Andreas; Luster, Markus; Lützen, Ulf; Marx, Marlies; Prasad, Vikas; Brenner, Winfried; Heinzel, Alexander; Mottaghy, Felix M; Ruf, Juri; Meyer, Philipp Tobias; Heuschkel, Martin; Eveslage, Maria; Bögemann, Martin; Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2017-01-01

    (177)Lu-labeled PSMA-617 is a promising new therapeutic agent for radioligand therapy (RLT) of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Initiated by the German Society of Nuclear Medicine, a retrospective multicenter data analysis was started in 2015 to evaluate efficacy and safety of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in a large cohort of patients. One hundred forty-five patients (median age, 73 y; range, 43-88 y) with mCRPC were treated with (177)Lu-PSMA-617 in 12 therapy centers between February 2014 and July 2015 with 1-4 therapy cycles and an activity range of 2-8 GBq per cycle. Toxicity was categorized by the common toxicity criteria for adverse events (version 4.0) on the basis of serial blood tests and the attending physician's report. The primary endpoint for efficacy was biochemical response as defined by a prostate-specific antigen decline ≥ 50% from baseline to at least 2 wk after the start of RLT. A total of 248 therapy cycles were performed in 145 patients. Data for biochemical response in 99 patients as well as data for physician-reported and laboratory-based toxicity in 145 and 121 patients, respectively, were available. The median follow-up was 16 wk (range, 2-30 wk). Nineteen patients died during the observation period. Grade 3-4 hematotoxicity occurred in 18 patients: 10%, 4%, and 3% of the patients experienced anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukopenia, respectively. Xerostomia occurred in 8%. The overall biochemical response rate was 45% after all therapy cycles, whereas 40% of patients already responded after a single cycle. Elevated alkaline phosphatase and the presence of visceral metastases were negative predictors and the total number of therapy cycles positive predictors of biochemical response. The present retrospective multicenter study of (177)Lu-PSMA-617 RLT demonstrates favorable safety and high efficacy exceeding those of other third-line systemic therapies in mCRPC patients. Future phase II/III studies are warranted to

  16. Cervical Cancer Screening: Defining the Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    Simoes, E.; Brucker, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Ortmann, O.; Albring, C.; Wallwiener, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of a National Cancer Plan published in 2012, Germany has followed the recommendations of the WHO and the EU. The first area of action listed in Germanyʼs National Cancer Plan is improving the early detection of cancer. Both citizens and medical specialists are encouraged to take responsibility themselves and contribute to the efforts being made to meet the challenge of cancer. Screening for cervical cancer has long been an integral part of the German Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer and now – following the recommendations given in the European Guideline – an organised screening approach shall be developed to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks through a partial reorganisation of existing structures. Before this can be rolled out nationwide, it will be necessary to check the feasibility and suitability of new contents and organisational structures. The Federal Joint Committee which is largely responsible for the process according to the draft law on the implementation of the National Cancer Plan has emphasised the importance of evidence-based medicine and of collaboration between the autonomous governing bodies within the healthcare system to obtain viable results. For medical specialists, the follow-on question is which areas will need more research in future. New process steps need to be developed and verified to see whether they offer evidence which will support defined approaches or whether such evidence needs to be newly compiled, e.g. by testing invitation procedures for screening in trial schemes. The experience gained during the implementation of the existing directive on early detection of cancer should be integrated into the new process. Research initiated by specialists could encourage the development of a new version of the Directive for the Early Detection of Cancer suitable for the Germanyʼs healthcare system. PMID:26633900

  17. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  18. Lay theories toward cancer and myocardial infarction: a trans-cultural comparison of Germans and Spaniards.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Isaac; Kriston, Levente; Muthny, Fritz A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was a transcultural comparison regarding illness-related causal and control attributes using a survey of healthy Germans in Germany, Spaniards in Spain and Spaniards in Germany. Each group contained 100 persons, matched according to sex, age and education. Germans showed more pronounced internal causal as well as control beliefs while Spaniards in Germany showed fatalistic attribution and Spaniards in Spain placed more emphasis on social aspects. It was possible to correctly assign over 75 percent of persons to a group depending on their characteristics in terms of causal and control attributions. Considerations of cultural and migration-related factors regarding public health appear especially promising.

  19. Since 2015 the SinoGerman research project SIGN supports water quality improvement in the Taihu region, China.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kathrin Rachel; der Beek, Tim Aus; Dai, Xiaohu; Dong, Bingzhi; Dopp, Elke; Eichinger, Florian; Hammers-Wirtz, Monika; Haußmann, Regina; Holbach, Andreas; Hollert, Henner; Illgen, Marc; Jiang, Xia; Koehler, Jan; Koester, Stephan; Korth, Andreas; Kueppers, Stephan; Li, Aili; Lohmann, Matthias; Moldaenke, Christian; Norra, Stefan; Qin, Boqiang; Qin, Yanwen; Reese, Moritz; Riehle, Edmund; Santiago-Schuebel, Beatrix; Schaefer, Charlotte; Simon, Anne; Song, Yonghui; Staaks, Christian; Steinhardt, Joerg; Subklew, Guenter; Tao, Tao; Wu, Tingfeng; Yin, Daqiang; Zhao, Fangfang; Zheng, Binghui; Zhou, Meiyue; Zou, Hua; Zuo, Jiane; Tiehm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The Taihu (Tai lake) region is one of the most economically prospering areas of China. Due to its location within this district of high anthropogenic activities, Taihu represents a drastic example of water pollution with nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate), organic contaminants and heavy metals. High nutrient levels combined with very shallow water create large eutrophication problems, threatening the drinking water supply of the surrounding cities. Within the international research project SIGN (SinoGerman Water Supply Network, www.water-sign.de), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), a powerful consortium of fifteen German partners is working on the overall aim of assuring good water quality from the source to the tap by taking the whole water cycle into account: The diverse research topics range from future proof strategies for urban catchment, innovative monitoring and early warning approaches for lake and drinking water, control and use of biological degradation processes, efficient water treatment technologies, adapted water distribution up to promoting sector policy by good governance. The implementation in China is warranted, since the leading Chinese research institutes as well as the most important local stakeholders, e.g. water suppliers, are involved.

  20. Geomagnetic research in the 19th century: a case study of the German contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, W.; Wiederkehr, K.-H.

    2001-10-01

    Even before the discovery of electromagnetism by Oersted, and before the work of Ampère, who attributed all magnetism to the flux of electrical currents, A.v. Humboldt and Hansteen had turned to geomagnetism. Through the ``Göttinger Magnetischer Verein'', a worldwide cooperation under the leadership of Gauss came into existence. Even today, Gauss's theory of geomagnetism is one of the pillars of geomagnetic research. Thereafter, J.v. Lamont, in Munich, took over the leadership in Germany. In England, the Magnetic Crusade was started by the initiative of John Herschel and E. Sabine. At the beginning of the 1840s, James Clarke Ross advanced to the vicinity of the southern magnetic pole on the Antarctic Continent, which was then quite unknown. Ten years later, Sabine was able to demonstrate solar-terrestrial relations from the data of the colonial observatories. In the 1980s, Arthur Schuster, following Balfour Stewart's ideas, succeeded in interpreting the daily variations of the electrical process in the high atmosphere. Geomagnetic research work in Germany was given a fresh impetus by the programme of the First Polar Year 1882-1883. Georg Neumayer, director of the ``Deutsche Seewarte'' in Hamburg, was one of the initiators of the Polar Year. He forged a close cooperation with the newly founded ``Kaiserliches Marineobservatorium'' in Wilhelmshaven, and also managed to gain the collaboration of the ``Gauss-Observatorium für Erdmagnetismus'' in Göttingen under E. Schering. In the Polar Year, the first automatic recording magnetometers (Kew-Model) were used in the German observatory at Wilhelmshaven. Here, M. Eschenhagen, who later became director of the geomagnetic section in the new Meteorological Magnetic Observatory in Potsdam, deserves special credit. Early hypotheses of geomagnetism and pioneering palaeomagnetic experiments are briefly reviewed. The essential seismological investigations at the turn of the 19th to the 20th century are also briefly described as

  1. From diagnosis to therapy in lung cancer: management of CT detected pulmonary nodules, a summary of the 2015 Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chunxia; Meyer, Mathias; Pirker, Robert; Voigt, Wieland; Shi, Jingyun; Pilz, Lothar; Huber, Rudolf M.; Wu, Yilong; Wang, Jinghong; He, Yonglan; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jian; Zhi, Xiuyi; Shi, Meiqi; Zhu, Bo; Schoenberg, Stefan S.; Henzler, Thomas; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2016-01-01

    The first Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel was held in November 2015 one day after the 7th Chinese-German Lung Cancer Forum, Shanghai. The intention of the meeting was to discuss strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer within the context of lung cancer screening. Improved risk classification criteria and novel imaging approaches for screening populations are highly required as more than half of lung cancer cases are false positive during the initial screening round if the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demographic criteria [≥30 pack years (PY) of cigarettes, age ≥55 years] are applied. Moreover, if the NLST criteria are applied to the Chinese population a high number of lung cancer patients are not diagnosed due to non-smoking related risk factors in China. The primary goal in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules (PN) is to determine whether they are malignant or benign. Volumetric based screening concepts such as investigated in the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) seem to achieve higher specificity. Chest CT is the best imaging technique to identify the origin and location of the nodule since 20% of suspected PN found on chest X-ray turn out to be non-pulmonary lesions. Moreover, novel state-of-the-art CT systems can reduce the radiation dose for lung cancer screening acquisitions down to a level of 0.1 mSv with improved image quality to novel reconstruction techniques and thus reduce concerns related to chest CT as the primary screening technology. The aim of the first part of this manuscript was to summarize the current status of novel diagnostic techniques used for lung cancer screening and minimally invasive treatment techniques for progressive PNs that were discussed during the first Chinese-German Lung Cancer. This part should serve as an educational part for the readership of the techniques that were discussed during the Expert Panel. The second part summarizes the consensus recommendations

  2. From diagnosis to therapy in lung cancer: management of CT detected pulmonary nodules, a summary of the 2015 Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunxia; Meyer, Mathias; Pirker, Robert; Voigt, Wieland; Shi, Jingyun; Pilz, Lothar; Huber, Rudolf M; Wu, Yilong; Wang, Jinghong; He, Yonglan; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Jian; Zhi, Xiuyi; Shi, Meiqi; Zhu, Bo; Schoenberg, Stefan S; Henzler, Thomas; Manegold, Christian; Zhou, Caicun; Roessner, Eric Dominic

    2016-08-01

    The first Chinese-German Lung Cancer Expert Panel was held in November 2015 one day after the 7th Chinese-German Lung Cancer Forum, Shanghai. The intention of the meeting was to discuss strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer within the context of lung cancer screening. Improved risk classification criteria and novel imaging approaches for screening populations are highly required as more than half of lung cancer cases are false positive during the initial screening round if the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demographic criteria [≥30 pack years (PY) of cigarettes, age ≥55 years] are applied. Moreover, if the NLST criteria are applied to the Chinese population a high number of lung cancer patients are not diagnosed due to non-smoking related risk factors in China. The primary goal in the evaluation of pulmonary nodules (PN) is to determine whether they are malignant or benign. Volumetric based screening concepts such as investigated in the Dutch-Belgian randomized lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) seem to achieve higher specificity. Chest CT is the best imaging technique to identify the origin and location of the nodule since 20% of suspected PN found on chest X-ray turn out to be non-pulmonary lesions. Moreover, novel state-of-the-art CT systems can reduce the radiation dose for lung cancer screening acquisitions down to a level of 0.1 mSv with improved image quality to novel reconstruction techniques and thus reduce concerns related to chest CT as the primary screening technology. The aim of the first part of this manuscript was to summarize the current status of novel diagnostic techniques used for lung cancer screening and minimally invasive treatment techniques for progressive PNs that were discussed during the first Chinese-German Lung Cancer. This part should serve as an educational part for the readership of the techniques that were discussed during the Expert Panel. The second part summarizes the consensus recommendations

  3. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue; A: Duct element recovered from breast tissue digest. B: Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneousely die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. C: Isolate of long-term frowth HMEC from outgrowth of duct element; cells shown soon after isolation and in early full-cell contact growth in culture in a dish. D: same long-term growth HMEC, but after 3 weeks in late full-cell contact growth in a continuous culture in a dish. Note attempts to reform duct elements but this in two demensions in a dish rather than in three dimensions in tissue. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Ontologies for cancer nanotechnology research.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dennis G; Pappu, Rohit V; Baker, Nathan A

    2009-01-01

    Cancer nanotechnology research data are diverse. Ontologies that provide a unifying knowledge framework for annotation of data are necessary to facilitate the sharing and semantic integration of data for advancing the research via informatics methods. In this work, we report the development of NanoParticle Ontology (NPO) to support the terminological and informatics needs of cancer nanotechnology. The NPO is developed within the framework of the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) using well-defined principles, and implemented in the Ontology Web Language (OWL). The NPO currently represents entities related to physical, chemical and functional descriptions of nanoparticles that are formulated and tested for applications in cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Public releases of the NPO are available through the BioPortal web site, maintained by the National Center for Biomedical Ontology. Expansion of the scope and application of the NPO will depend on the needs of and feedback from the user community, and its adoption in nanoparticle database applications. As the NPO continues to grow, it will require a governance structure and well-organized community effort for the maintenance, review and development of the NPO.

  6. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. Aims To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. Methods 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants’ union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. Results On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. Conclusion We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use). PMID:25067940

  7. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attendants' union and mailed a questionnaire; 1311 responded (48% response). Descriptive statistics were used to compare the distribution of breast cancer risk factors with general German population data. On average, cabin crew were 3.0 cm (95% CI 2.7-3.3) taller than the comparison group, while their body mass index was 2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI 2.4-2.6) lower. We found less use of hormone replacement therapy, but longer average use of oral contraceptives. Nulliparity among respondents aged 45+ was 57% (95% CI 54%-60%) compared to 16%. Average age at first birth was 32.1 years (95% CI 31.7-32.4) vs. 25.5 years. The birth rate was 0.62 (95% CI 0.58-0.67), less than half the population average of 1.34. Alcohol consumption was considerably higher, whereas cabin crew tended to smoke less and performed more physical exercise. We found important differences in terms of anthropometric, gynaecological, reproductive and lifestyle factors. Some of these differences (e.g. higher nulliparity, alcohol consumption, taller size) could contribute to a higher breast cancer risk, whereas others could lead to a reduction (e.g. increased physical exercise, lower BMI, less HRT use).

  8. Radiation dose dependent risk of liver cancer mortality in the German uranium miners cohort 1946-2003.

    PubMed

    Dufey, F; Walsh, L; Sogl, M; Tschense, A; Schnelzer, M; Kreuzer, M

    2013-03-01

    An increased risk of mortality from primary liver cancers among uranium miners has been observed in various studies. An analysis of the data from a German uranium miner cohort (the 'Wismut cohort') was used to assess the relationship with ionising radiation. To that end the absorbed organ dose due to high and low linear energy transfer radiation was calculated for 58 987 miners with complete information on radiation exposure from a detailed job-exposure matrix. 159 deaths from liver cancer were observed in the follow-up period from 1946 to 2003. Relative risk models with either linear or categorical dependence on high and low linear energy transfer radiation liver doses were fitted by Poisson regression, stratified on age and calendar year. The linear trend of excess relative risk in a model with both low and high linear transfer radiation is -0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.7, 2.1) Gy(-1) and 48.3 (95% CI: -32.0, 128.6) Gy(-1) for low and high linear energy transfer radiation, respectively, and thus not statistically significant for either dose. The increase of excess relative risk with equivalent liver dose is 0.57 (95% CI: -0.69, 1.82) Sv(-1). Adjustment for arsenic only had a negligible effect on the radiation risk. In conclusion, there is only weak evidence for an increase of liver cancer mortality with increasing radiation dose in the German uranium miners cohort considered. However, both a lack of statistical power and potential misclassification of primary liver cancer are issues.

  9. Primary Therapy of Patients with Early Breast Cancer: Evidence, Controversies, Consensus: Opinions of German Specialists to the 14th St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 (Vienna 2015).

    PubMed

    Untch, M; Harbeck, N; Huober, J; von Minckwitz, G; Gerber, B; Kreipe, H-H; Liedtke, C; Marschner, N; Möbus, V; Scheithauer, H; Schneeweiss, A; Thomssen, C; Jackisch, C; Beckmann, M W; Blohmer, J-U; Costa, S-D; Decker, T; Diel, I; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Janni, W; Lück, H-J; Maass, N; Scharl, A; Loibl, S

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, this year's St. Gallen International Consensus Conference on the treatment of patients with primary breast cancer, which takes place every two years, was held not in St. Gallen (Switzerland) but - for logistical reasons - in Vienna (Austria) under its usual name. The 2015 St. Gallen International Consensus Conference was the 14th of its kind. As the international panel of the St. Gallen conference consists of experts from different countries, the consensus mirrors an international cross-section of opinions. From a German perspective, it was considered useful to translate the results of the votes of the St. Gallen conference into practical suggestions, particularly in light of the recently updated treatment guideline of the Gynecologic Oncology Group (AGO-Mamma 2015) in Germany. A German group consisting of 14 breast cancer experts, three of whom are members of the international St. Gallen panel, has therefore provided comments on the results of this year's votes at the 2015 St. Gallen Consensus Conference and their impact on clinical care in Germany. The 14th St. Gallen conference once again focused on surgery of the breast and the axilla, radio-oncologic and systemic treatment options for primary breast cancer depending on tumor biology, and the clinical use of multigene assays. The conference also considered targeted therapies for older and for younger patients, including the diagnosis/treatment of breast cancer during and after pregnancy and the preservation of fertility.

  10. Mini neutron monitor measurements at the Neumayer III station and on the German research vessel Polarstern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, B.; Galsdorf, D.; Herbst, K.; Gieseler, J.; Labrenz, J.; Schwerdt, C.; Walter, M.; Benadé, G.; Fuchs, R.; Krüger, H.; Moraal, H.

    2015-08-01

    Neutron monitors (NMs) are ground-based devices to measure the variation of cosmic ray intensities, and although being reliable they have two disadvantages: their size as well as their weight. As consequence, [1] suggested the development of a portable, and thus much smaller and lighter, calibration neutron monitor that can be carried to any existing station around the world [see 2; 3]. But this mini neutron monitor, moreover, can also be installed as an autonomous station at any location that provides ’’office” conditions such as a) temperatures within the range of around 0 to less than 40 degree C as well as b) internet and c) power supply. However, the best location is when the material above the NM is minimized. In 2011 a mini Neutron Monitor was installed at the Neumayer III station in Antarctica as well as the German research vessel Polarstern, providing scientific data since January 2014 and October 2012, respectively. The Polarstern, which is in the possession of the Federal Republic of Germany represented by the Ministry of Education and Research and operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research and managed by the shipping company Laeisz, was specially designed for working in the polar seas and is currently one of the most sophisticated polar research vessels worldwide. It spends almost 310 days a year at sea usually being located in the waters of Antarctica between November and March while spending the northern summer months in Arctic waters. Therefore, the vessel scans the rigidity range below the atmospheric threshold and above 10 GV twice a year. In contrast to spacecraft measurements NM data are influenced by variations of the geomagnetic field as well as the atmospheric conditions. Thus, in order to interpret the data a detailed knowledge of the instrument sensitivity with geomagnetic latitude (rigidity) and atmospheric pressure is essential. In order to determine the atmospheric response data from the

  11. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Although there have been tremendous progress in cancer research and treatment, the mortality caused by this disease is still very high. Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and second leading cause of death in the United States of America. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer covers topics including the role of various signaling pathways in development, regulation of cell fate, tumor angiogenesis, duodenal neoplasias, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer, cancer development and progression, microRNA in cancer and epigenetic regulation of cancer.

  12. Collaborations in Proteomics Research - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the sharing of proteomics reagents and protocols

  13. Training Postbac JHU | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Johns Hopkins University and the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have partnered to create a new concentration in the Master of Science in Biotechnology program, called

  14. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  15. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer NIH Research to Results Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... making a person immune to his or her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's ...

  16. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  17. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  18. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  19. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial cell monoculture: Long-term growth of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) grown in monoculture as 3-dimensional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical construct about 3.5 mm (less than 1/8th inch) in diameter with slightly dehydrted, crinkled beads contained on the surface as well as within the 3-dimensional structure. B: The center of these constructs is hollow. Crinkling of the beads causes a few to fall out, leaving crater-like impressiions in the construct. The central impression shows a small hole that accesses the hollow center of the construct. C: A closeup view of the cells and the hole the central impression. D: Closer views of cells in the construct showing sell-to-cell interactions. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  20. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Epithelial and fibroblast cell coculture: Long-term growth human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) admixed in coculture with fibroblast from the same initial breast tissue grown as 3-dimenstional constructions in the presence of attachment beads in the NASA Bioreactor. A: A typical constrct about 2.0 mm in diameter without beads on the surface. The center of these constrcts is hollow, and beads are organized about the irner surface. Although the coculture provides smaller constructs than the monoculture, the metabolic of the organized cells is about the same. B, C, D: Closer views of cells showing that the shape of cells and cell-to-cell interactions apprear different in the coculture than in the monoculture constructs. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Richmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  1. Silica dust and lung cancer in the German stone, quarrying, and ceramics industries: results of a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Ulm, K; Waschulzik, B; Ehnes, H; Guldner, K; Thomasson, B; Schwebig, A; Nuss, H

    1999-04-01

    A work force based case-control study of lung cancer was performed in non-silicotic subjects exposed to crystalline silica to investigate the association between silica dust and lung cancer excluding the influence of silicosis. Two hundred and forty seven patients with lung cancer and 795 control subjects were enrolled, all of whom had been employed in the German stone, quarrying, or ceramics industries. Smoking was used as a matching criterion. Exposure to silica was quantified by measurements, if available, or otherwise by industrial hygienists. Several indices (peak, average and cumulative exposure) were used to analyse the relationship between the level of exposure and risk of lung cancer as odds ratios (OR). The risk of lung cancer is associated with the year of and age at first exposure to silica, duration of exposure, and latency. All odds ratios were adjusted for these factors. Considering the peak exposure, the OR for workers exposed to high levels (>/=0.15 mg/m3 respirable silica dust which is the current occupational threshold value for Germany) compared with those exposed to low levels (<0.15 mg/m3) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.58 to 1. 25). For the time weighted average exposure the OR was 0.91 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.46). The OR for the cumulative exposure was 1.02 (95% CI 0. 67 to 1.55). No increase in risk was evident with increasing exposure. This study shows no association between exposure to crystalline silica and lung cancer. The exclusion of subjects with silicosis may have led to dilution with respect to the level of exposure and therefore reduced the power to detect a small risk. Alternatively, the risk of getting lung cancer may be restricted to subjects with silicosis and is not directly linked to silica dust.

  2. Silica dust and lung cancer in the German stone, quarrying, and ceramics industries: results of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ulm, K; Waschulzik, B; Ehnes, H; Guldner, K; Thomasson, B; Schwebig, A; Nuss, H

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—A work force based case-control study of lung cancer was performed in non-silicotic subjects exposed to crystalline silica to investigate the association between silica dust and lung cancer excluding the influence of silicosis.
METHODS—Two hundred and forty seven patients with lung cancer and 795 control subjects were enrolled, all of whom had been employed in the German stone, quarrying, or ceramics industries. Smoking was used as a matching criterion. Exposure to silica was quantified by measurements, if available, or otherwise by industrial hygienists. Several indices (peak, average and cumulative exposure) were used to analyse the relationship between the level of exposure and risk of lung cancer as odds ratios (OR).
RESULTS—The risk of lung cancer is associated with the year of and age at first exposure to silica, duration of exposure, and latency. All odds ratios were adjusted for these factors. Considering the peak exposure, the OR for workers exposed to high levels (⩾0.15 mg/m3 respirable silica dust which is the current occupational threshold value for Germany) compared with those exposed to low levels (<0.15 mg/m3) was 0.85 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.25). For the time weighted average exposure the OR was 0.91 (95% CI 0.57 to 1.46). The OR for the cumulative exposure was 1.02 (95% CI 0.67 to 1.55). No increase in risk was evident with increasing exposure.
CONCLUSIONS—This study shows no association between exposure to crystalline silica and lung cancer. The exclusion of subjects with silicosis may have led to dilution with respect to the level of exposure and therefore reduced the power to detect a small risk. Alternatively, the risk of getting lung cancer may be restricted to subjects with silicosis and is not directly linked to silica dust.

 PMID:10092697

  3. Learner Difficulties with German Case: Implications from an Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterbusch, Rachel; LaFond, Larry; Agustin, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the problems that many beginning L2 learners encounter when dealing with the German case system. It isolates three elements that make case usage challenging: understanding the concept of case itself, identifying grammatical gender, and selecting the correct case marker from a set of overlapping forms. Data from an action…

  4. German "Weil"-Clauses: Current Research and Its Implications for the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    This article examines variant word order in subordinate clauses, in particular clauses introduced with "weil" in spoken discourse. Current studies point to discourse-pragmatic conditions that guide the placement of the verb in second or final clause position. An analysis of empirical speech data shows that German speakers use both V2 and VF in…

  5. [Constipation in Patients with Incurable Cancer - Recommendations of the German S3 Guideline 'Palliative Medicine'].

    PubMed

    Wirz, Stefan; Simon, Steffen; Frieling, Thomas; Bausewein, Claudia; Voltz, Raymond; Pralong, Anne; Mönig, Stefan; Follmann, Markus; Holtmann, Martin; Becker, Gerhild

    2016-08-01

    According to the German S3-guideline 'Palliative Medicine' which has been supported by the German Guideline Program in Oncology, constipation in palliative patients requires a consistent prophylaxis and therapy. Constipation is caused by immobilisation, poor health, exsiccosis, a low-fiber diet or a preexisting functional constipation. Further important causes are substances with constipating side effects, such as opioids or anticholinergic drugs. Pragmatically, constipation should be assessed by subjective parameters such as the feeling of incomplete evacuation, straining, or other complaints. Objective parameters are hard stool or reduced number of bowel movements. For the early detection of constipation the amount of the stool mass and the stool frequency are applicable. If constipation occurs, a standardized escalating protocol applying adequate fluid intake, a high fibre diet, and laxatives is recommended. New prokinetic agents, secretagogues, or opioid antagonists may be used as reserve drugs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Sojourn time of preclinical colorectal cancer by sex and age: estimates from the German national screening colonoscopy database.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Altenhofen, Lutz; Katalinic, Alexander; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2011-11-15

    The sojourn time of preclinical colorectal cancer is a critical parameter in modeling effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening. For ethical reasons, it cannot be observed directly, and available estimates are based mostly on relatively small historic data sets that do not include differentiation by age and sex. The authors derived sex- and age-specific estimates (age groups: 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, and ≥80 years) of mean sojourn time, combining data from the German national screening colonoscopy registry (based on 1.88 million records) and data from population-based cancer registries (population base: 37.9 million people) for the years 2003-2006. Estimates of mean sojourn time were similar for both sexes and all age groups and ranged from 4.5 years (95% confidence interval: 4.1, 4.8) to 5.8 years (95% confidence interval: 5.3, 6.3) for the subgroups assessed. Sensitivity analyses indicated that mean sojourn time might be approximately 1.5 years longer if colorectal cancer prevalence in nonparticipants of screening colonoscopy is 20% lower than prevalence in participants or 1 year shorter if it exceeds the prevalence in participants by 20%. This study provides, for the first time, precise estimates of sojourn time by age and sex, and it suggests that sojourn times are remarkably consistent across age groups and in both sexes.

  7. What's New in Pancreatic Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Pancreatic Cancer About Pancreatic Cancer What’s New in Pancreatic Cancer Research? Research into the causes , ... KRAS oncogene, which affects regulation of cell growth. New diagnostic tests are often able to recognize this ...

  8. What's New in Esophageal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Esophagus Cancer About Esophagus Cancer What’s New in Esophageal Cancer Research? Research into the causes, ... people with Barrett’s esophagus. This may lead to new tests for finding the people who are likely ...

  9. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What’s New in Breast Cancer Research? Researchers around the world ... she considers most important in choosing a treatment. New lab tests Tests for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) ...

  10. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... RAI) therapy. Doctors and researchers are looking for new ways to treat thyroid cancer that are more ...

  11. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Elucidation of proteomic instability in cancer and characterization of tumor-associated amyloids. Dr. Chengkai Dai’s laboratory at the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program (MCGP) has an open post-doctoral position. The position is available immediately to participate in projects that elucidate proteomic instability of cancer and tumor-associated amyloids, exciting new phenomena in cancer biology, and explore novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategy---disrupting cancer proteome homeostasis, or proteostasis. Detailed information about Dr. Dai’s research and publications can be found at:  https://ccr.cancer.gov/Mouse-Cancer-Genetics-Program/chengkai-dai. Dr. Dai’s laboratory is conducting interdisciplinary cutting-edge research and is a pioneer in the emerging field of proteomic instability of cancer (J Clin Invest. 2012, 122:3742-54; EMBO J. 2015, 34:275-93; Cell. 2015, 160:729-44; Nature Cell Biology. 2016, 18:527-39).  

  12. Walking, bicycling, and sports in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors--results from a German patient cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bock, Christina; Schmidt, Martina E; Vrieling, Alina; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Steindorf, Karen

    2013-06-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly discussed as a means to achieve both physical and psychological benefits for breast cancer patients and survivors. However, little is known about activity-specific PA behavior following diagnosis. Our objectives were to describe sports and active transportation in the course of breast cancer and to identify factors associated with these activities. We used data from a German cohort study including 1067 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors aged 50-75 years. Data were collected about walking and bicycling for transportation purposes and sports before diagnosis, during therapy, and 1 year after surgery. Associations between these activities and clinical, behavioral, and social characteristics were analyzed with logistic regression. The proportions of physically active women decreased significantly during therapy compared with before diagnosis (walking: 75.1% vs. 89.7%; bicycling: 19.3% vs. 56.5%; sports: 14.8% vs. 64.5%; all p < 0.001). Calisthenics, swimming, and walking for exercise were the most frequent types of sport. Chemotherapy/radiotherapy was negatively associated with sports (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35 [0.17-0.73]) but positively associated with walking during therapy (OR: 2.08 [1.04-4.15]). Although sociodemographic factors showed weak associations with PA, participation in rehabilitation increased the likelihood for bicycling (OR: 1.48 [1.06-2.09]) and sports (OR: 1.88 [1.38-2.58]) 1 year after surgery. The majority of women stopped exercising and bicycling during breast cancer therapy. Interventions promoting in particular moderate activities after breast cancer diagnosis are required for this population. Increasing participation in rehabilitation might help to increase the proportion of women who bicycle and engage in sports after breast cancer diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will breakdown the process of cancer progression and the various roles that LOX plays has in the advancement of cancer. We will highlight why LOX is an exciting therapeutic target for the future.

  14. German, Austrian and Swiss consensus conference on the diagnosis and local treatment of the axilla in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jürgen; Souchon, Rainer; Lebeau, Annette; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Gruber, Günther; Rageth, Christoph; Weber, Walter; Harbeck, Nadia; Janni, Wolfgang; Kreipe, Hans; Fitzal, Florian; Resch, Alexandra; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Peintinger, Florentia

    2013-07-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss (D.A.CH) Societies of Senology gathered together in 2012 to address dwelling questions regarding axillary clearance in breast cancer patients. The Consensus Panel consisted of 14 members of these societies and included surgical oncologists, gynaecologists, pathologists and radiotherapists. With regard to omitting axillary lymph node dissection in sentinel lymph node macrometastases, the Panel consensually accepted this option for low-risk patients only. A simple majority voted against extending radiotherapy to the axilla after omitting axillary dissection in N1 disease. Consensus was yielded for the use of axillary ultrasound and prospective registers for such patients in the course of follow-up. The questions regarding neoadjuvant therapy and the timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy failed to yield consensus, yet both options (before or after) are possible in clinically node-negative disease.

  15. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer and Developmental Biology Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services, has an immediate opening for a Postdoctoral Fellow to study lipid signaling in a mammalian model system using a combination of genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological methodologies.

  16. Advances in cancer research. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect

    Vande Woude, G.F. ); Klein, G. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains articles pertaining to Advances in Cancer Research. Included are the following groups: (1) The Role of DNA Methylation in Cancer, (2) Genetic and Epigenetic Losses of Heterozygosity in Cancer Predisposition and Progression, (3) Genetic and Molecular Studies of Cellular Immortalization.

  17. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available in the Endocrine Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. The laboratory investigates the key genetic and genomic changes involved in endocrine cancer initiation and progression with the goal of identifying diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.

  18. Clinical trials in cancer research.

    PubMed Central

    Gehan, E A

    1979-01-01

    This is a review paper which gives a discussion of various aspects of clinical trials in cancer research. Since the conduct of the first randomized controlled clinical trial in cancer patients in the mid-1950's, substantial progress has been made in the utilization of the clinical trial technique for the evaluation of therapeutic efficiacy. The important elements of a protocol are given with some discussion of items to be considered in designing a protocol. The types of clinical trial (phase I, II, III) are defined, and the place of each phase of study in the context of the search for new treatments is delineated. A comprehensive discussion is given of the elements in the comparative clinical trial (phase III), including objectives, consierations in planning (comparability of treatment groups stratification of patients, feasibility and size of study, and prospective versus retrospective studies). Brief descriptions are given of designs for comparative clinical trials and a trial in oat cell lung carcinoma is discussed in some detail. Finally, some comments and references are given concerning the analysis of clinical trials. PMID:232043

  19. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents ... cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/Taking-Part-in-Cancer-Treatment-Research-Studies NIH Senior Health http://nihseniorhealth.gov/breastcancer/ ...

  20. Fighting liver cancer with combination immunotherapies | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A new clinical trial testing the effectiveness of immunotherapy treatment combinations against liver cancer is enrolling patients at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Individually, immunotherapy drugs harness the power of the human immune system to better identify and kill cancer cells. Now, researchers at the NIH’s Center for Cancer Research have begun to find evidence that the drugs may work far more effectively when taken in combination with other therapies and with each other than when taken alone.

  1. Medicine and Physiotherapy students: are they physically active? Comparative research on Spanish and German population.

    PubMed

    Zeńczak-Praga, Krystyna; Pluto-Prondzinska, Joanna; Zgorzalewicz-Stachowiak, Małgorzata

    2017-05-23

    Despite the fact that regular physical activity is beneficial to human life, there are still more and more overweight and obese people throughout the world today. Healthy habits taken from home or socioeconomic situation are factors which might influence on regular physical activity. People who lead a healthy lifestyle in childhood are also active during adulthood. On the other hand academic life might promote less healthy lifestyle. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of physical activity of both German and Spanish students of Medicine and Physiotherapy. The study involved 100 Spanish and 100 German students aged from 19 to 24 years. Based on Eurobarometer 72.3, the respondents were asked a set of questions regarding physical activity. The chi-squared test (χ2) and Mann-Whitney U test were used for the statistical analysis. The vast majority of students presented a normal BMI value, but it was not related to high physical activity. More than one-third of all students seldom practised any sports. The Spanish students usually did some form of physical activity outdoors, whereas the German students exercised in a fitness centre. Lack of time was to the Medicine and Physiotherapy students the most significant factor that did not allow them to be more physically active. Medicine and Physiotherapy students should be more physically active in order to promote a good, healthy lifestyle model to society and there should be more physical activity education to encourage more students to practise sports.

  2. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Postdoctoral position is available in the Cancer Molecular Pathology section headed by Frederic G. Barr, MD PhD in the Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. This research laboratory uses a multidisciplinary approach involving genomics and bioinformatics along with cell culture and animal models to study recurrent genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer. By focusing on specific cancer types, such as the rhabdomyosarcoma family of myogenic soft tissue cancers, this research laboratory is investigating the molecular basis and biological consequences of chromosomal translocations, amplification events, and methylation changes in these cancers. In addition, the section works closely with clinicians to investigate the utility of these recurrent changes as biomarkers for diagnosis and management.

  3. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention ; nutrition and prevention ; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Asian mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, upon highly invasive breast cancer cells, on the role of omega-3 fatty acids in preventing and treating breast...role in inhibiting or preventing cancer. Epidemiologic evidence strongly links fish oil with low incidences of several cancers.1–4 The anticancer

  4. German second-opinion network for testicular cancer: Sealing the leaky pipe between evidence and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    ZENGERLING, FRIEDEMANN; HARTMANN, MICHAEL; HEIDENREICH, AXEL; KREGE, SUSANNE; ALBERS, PETER; KARL, ALEXANDER; WEISSBACH, LOTHAR; WAGNER, WALTER; BEDKE, JENS; RETZ, MARGITTA; SCHMELZ, HANS U.; KLIESCH, SABINE; KUCZYK, MARKUS; WINTER, EVA; POTTEK, TOBIAS; DIECKMANN, KLAUS-PETER; SCHRADER, ANDRES JAN; SCHRADER, MARK

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the German Testicular Cancer Study Group initiated an extensive evidence-based national second-opinion network to improve the care of testicular cancer patients. The primary aims were to reflect the current state of testicular cancer treatment in Germany and to analyze the project’s effect on the quality of care delivered to testicular cancer patients. A freely available internet-based platform was developed for the exchange of data between the urologists seeking advice and the 31 second-opinion givers. After providing all data relevant to the primary treatment decision, urologists received a second opinion on their therapy plan within <48 h. Endpoints were congruence between the first and second opinion, conformity of applied therapy with the corresponding recommendation and progression-free survival rate of the introduced patients. Significance was determined by two-sided Pearson’s χ2 test. A total of 1,284 second-opinion requests were submitted from November 2006 to October 2011, and 926 of these cases were eligible for further analysis. A discrepancy was found between first and second opinion in 39.5% of the cases. Discrepant second opinions led to less extensive treatment in 28.1% and to more extensive treatment in 15.6%. Patients treated within the framework of the second-opinion project had an overall 2-year progression-free survival rate of 90.4%. Approximately every 6th second opinion led to a relevant change in therapy. Despite the lack of financial incentives, data from every 8th testicular cancer patient in Germany were submitted to second-opinion centers. Second-opinion centers can help to improve the implementation of evidence into clinical practice. PMID:24788853

  5. German second-opinion network for testicular cancer: sealing the leaky pipe between evidence and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Zengerling, Friedemann; Hartmann, Michael; Heidenreich, Axel; Krege, Susanne; Albers, Peter; Karl, Alexander; Weissbach, Lothar; Wagner, Walter; Bedke, Jens; Retz, Margitta; Schmelz, Hans U; Kliesch, Sabine; Kuczyk, Markus; Winter, Eva; Pottek, Tobias; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter; Schrader, Andres Jan; Schrader, Mark

    2014-06-01

    In 2006, the German Testicular Cancer Study Group initiated an extensive evidence-based national second-opinion network to improve the care of testicular cancer patients. The primary aims were to reflect the current state of testicular cancer treatment in Germany and to analyze the project's effect on the quality of care delivered to testicular cancer patients. A freely available internet-based platform was developed for the exchange of data between the urologists seeking advice and the 31 second-opinion givers. After providing all data relevant to the primary treatment decision, urologists received a second opinion on their therapy plan within <48 h. Endpoints were congruence between the first and second opinion, conformity of applied therapy with the corresponding recommendation and progression-free survival rate of the introduced patients. Significance was determined by two-sided Pearson's χ2 test. A total of 1,284 second-opinion requests were submitted from November 2006 to October 2011, and 926 of these cases were eligible for further analysis. A discrepancy was found between first and second opinion in 39.5% of the cases. Discrepant second opinions led to less extensive treatment in 28.1% and to more extensive treatment in 15.6%. Patients treated within the framework of the second-opinion project had an overall 2-year progression-free survival rate of 90.4%. Approximately every 6th second opinion led to a relevant change in therapy. Despite the lack of financial incentives, data from every 8th testicular cancer patient in Germany were submitted to second-opinion centers. Second-opinion centers can help to improve the implementation of evidence into clinical practice.

  6. Synergies in Research | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    In 1981, the NCI intramural program enrolled its first patient with AIDS. Given our expertise in epidemiology, cancer, retroviruses, cell biology, immunology, and drug development, our responsibility in the face of this public health crisis seemed obvious.

  7. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  8. Research and comprehensive cancer control coalitions.

    PubMed

    Vinson, Cynthia; La Porta, Madeline; Todd, William; Palafox, Neal A; Wilson, Katherine M; Fairley, Temeika

    2010-12-01

    The goal of cancer control research is "to generate basic knowledge about how to monitor and change individual and collective behavior and to ensure that knowledge is translated into practice and policy rapidly, effectively, and efficiently" (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). Research activities span the cancer control continuum from prevention to early detection and diagnosis through treatment and survivorship (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). While significant advancements have been made in understanding, preventing and treating cancer in the past few decades, these benefits have yielded disproportionate results in cancer morbidity and mortality across various socioeconomic and racial/ethnic subgroups (Ozols et al in J Clin Oncol, 25(1):146-1622, 2007). It has been a high priority since the beginning of the Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) movement to utilize research in the development and implementation of cancer plans in the states, tribes and tribal organizations, territories and US Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Nevertheless, dissemination and implementation of research in coalition activities has been challenging for many programs. Lessons learned from programs and coalitions in the implementation and evaluation of CCC activities, as well as resources provided by national partners, can assist coalitions with the translation of research into practice.

  9. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States. Seven Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  10. Mobile demersal megafauna at common offshore wind turbine foundations in the German Bight (North Sea) two years after deployment - increased production rate of Cancer pagurus.

    PubMed

    Krone, R; Dederer, G; Kanstinger, P; Krämer, P; Schneider, C; Schmalenbach, I

    2017-02-01

    Within the next decades the construction of thousands of different types of large wind turbine foundations in the North Sea will substantially increase the amount of habitat available to reef fauna. To gain first insights which effect these substantial changes in habitat structure and diversity might have on faunal stocks settling on hard substrata, we compared the mobile demersal megafauna associated with the common types of wind turbine foundations ('jacket', 'tripod' and 'monopile with scour protections of natural rock') in the southern German Bight, North Sea. Monopiles with scour protection were mostly colonized by typical reef fauna. They were inhabited by an average of about 5000 edible crabs Cancer pagurus (per foundation), which is more than twice as much as found at the foundation types without scour protection. Strong evidence was found that all three foundation types not only function as aggregation sites, but also as nursery grounds for C. pagurus. Assuming equal shares of the three foundation types in future wind farms, we project that about 27% of the local stock of C. pagurus might be produced on site. When, for example, comparing the existing fauna at 1000 ship wrecks and on the autochthonous soft substrate with those which probably will establish at the foundations of 5000 hypothetically realized wind turbines, it becomes clear that the German Bight in the future will provide new artificial reef habitats for another 320% crabs (C. pagurus) and 50% wrasse (Ctenolabrus rupestris) representing substrata-limited mobile demersal hard bottom species. Further research is urgently required in order to evaluate this overspill as it would be an important ecological effect of the recent offshore wind power development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer involvement in cancer research: example from a Cancer Network.

    PubMed

    Arain, Mubashir; Pyne, Sarah; Thornton, Nigel; Palmer, Susan; Sharma, Ricky A

    2015-10-01

    The involvement of consumers and the general public in improving cancer services is an important component of health services. However, consumer involvement in cancer research is relatively unexplored. The objective of this study was to explore different ways of involving consumers in cancer research in one regional network. Thames Valley Cancer Network Consumer Research Partnership (CRP) group was formed in 2009. The group consists of consumers and professionals to help in promoting consumer involvement in Cancer Research in the Thames Valley. This study evaluated the project of consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley from March 2010 to March 2011. We used different indices to judge the level of consumer involvement: number of projects involving consumers through the group, types of projects, level of involvement (ranged from consultation on research documents to collaborating in preparing grant applications) and the methods of involving consumers in cancer research. Fifteen projects were submitted to the CRP group during the 12-month period studied. Of these, eight projects were clinical trials, three were qualitative research projects, two were patients' surveys and two were non-randomized interventional studies. Seven projects requested consumer involvement on patient information sheets for clinical trials. Of these seven applications, three also requested consumers' help in designing research questionnaires and another three requested that consumers should be involved in their project management group. In addition, four projects involved consumers in the proposal development phase and another four projects asked for advice on how to increase trial recruitment, conduct patient interviews or help with grant applications. The creation of the CRP and this audit of its activity have documented consumer involvement in cancer research in the Thames Valley. We have clearly shown that consumers can be involved in designing and managing cancer

  12. What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Nasopharyngeal Cancer About Nasopharyngeal Cancer What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... the world where this cancer is common. Treatment New surgical techniques Advances in the field of skull ...

  13. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Research? Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research? Because there are only ... being made in treating chronic hepatitis. Screening Several new blood tests are being studied to see if ...

  14. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  15. What's New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thymus Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What’s New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? There ... treating thymomas is still being explored. In addition, new treatments are being developed and tested. Researchers are ...

  16. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Anal Cancer About Anal Cancer What’s New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... cancer cells is expected to help scientists develop new drugs to fight this disease. Early detection Ongoing ...

  17. [Geneticists in the service of war? The German Research Foundation, the Reich Research Council, and policy changes in research on heredity].

    PubMed

    Cottebrune, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Historical research has hitherto focused on the specific contribution of human genetics research to National Socialist racial hygiene. During the Third Reich this field had a key position and received very substantial financial support from the government. However, this state sponsorship during the Nazi period was not constant, as documents from the most important public funding organizations for academic research in Germany, the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) and the Reich Research Council (Reichsforschungsrat) show. Human genetics saw a reduction in sponsorship as the government shifted its spending towards preparations for the war. Accordingly, many human geneticists and racial hygienists were unable to continue their research or were forced to change the focus of their work. It is also important to note that much of the available funds were concentrated on the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics. This essay analyzes the institutional context of science policy as well as the dynamics between the science of human heredity and Nazi politics during the war.

  18. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  19. Cancer research network: using integrated healthcare delivery systems as platforms for cancer survivorship research.

    PubMed

    Nekhlyudov, Larissa; Greene, Sarah M; Chubak, Jessica; Rabin, Borsika; Tuzzio, Leah; Rolnick, Sharon; Field, Terry S

    2013-03-01

    Much progress has been made in cancer survivorship research, but there are still many unanswered questions that can and need to be addressed by collaborative research consortia. Since 1999, the National Cancer Institute-funded HMO Cancer Research Network (CRN) has engaged in a wide variety of research focusing on cancer survivorship. With a focus on thematic topics in cancer survivorship, we describe how the CRN has contributed to research in cancer survivorship and the resources it offers for future collaborations. We identified the following areas of cancer survivorship research: surveillance for and predictors of recurrences, health care delivery and care coordination, health care utilization and costs, psychosocial outcomes, cancer communication and decision making, late effects of cancer and its treatment, use of and adherence to adjuvant therapies, and lifestyle and behavioral interventions following cancer treatment. With over a decade of experience using cancer data in community-based settings, the CRN investigators and their collaborators are poised to generate evidence in cancer survivorship research. Collaborative research within these settings can improve the quality of care for cancer survivors within and beyond integrated health care delivery systems.

  20. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will be presented. Clinical and postdoctoral fellows who want to learn about new biotechnology advances are encouraged to attend this course.

  1. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to customizing therapies based on the molecular characteristics of patients’ tumors. Some of these targeted regimens have already been integrated into the treatment arsenal for lung cancer and others are still being studied in clinical trials, including several being conducted by researchers at NCI’s Center for Cancer Research.

  2. The ACRIDICON-CHUVA observational study of tropical convective clouds and precipitation using the new German research aircraft HALO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendisch, Manfred; Pöschl, Ulrich; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Albrecht, Rachel; Schlager, Hans; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Krämer, Martina

    2015-04-01

    An extensive airborne/ground-based measurement campaign to study tropical convective clouds is introduced. It was performed in Brazil with focus on the Amazon rainforest from 1 September to 4 October 2014. The project combined the joint German-Brazilian ACRIDICON (Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems) and CHUVA (Machado et al.2014) projects. ACRIDICON aimed at the quantification of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions and their thermodynamic, dynamic and radiative effects in convective cloud systems by in-situ aircraft observations and indirect measurements (aircraft, satellite, and ground-based). The ACRIDICON-CHUVA campaign was conducted in cooperation with the second Intensive Operational Phase (IOP) of the GOAmazon (Green Ocean Amazon) program. The focus in this presentation is on the airborne observations within ACRIDICON-CHUVA. The German HALO (High Altitude and Long-Range Research Aircraft) was based in Manaus (Amazonas State); it carried out 14 research flights (96 flight hours in total). HALO was equipped with remote sensing and in-situ instrumentation for meteorological, trace gas, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation measurements. Five mission objectives were pursued: (1) cloud vertical evolution (cloud profiling), (2) aerosol processing (inflow and outflow), (3) satellite validation, (4) vertical transport and mixing (tracer experiment), and (5) clouds over forested and deforested areas. The five cloud missions collected data in clean atmospheric conditions and in contrasting polluted (urban and biomass burning) environments.

  3. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  4. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    institutions. A major project in the lab is targeted therapy of prostate cancer using PSMA-guided aptamers. Prabhat Goswami, PhD; Professor...derived dendritic cell (DC) and T cell functional deficiencies. Long-term goals are to develop novel, immune-based therapies for advanced solid tumors...and radiolabeling of peptides and small molecules for small molecule cancer therapy , molecular imaging, and radionuclide therapy for cancer. He

  5. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    autophagy in cancer. Additionally she is interested in investigating novel combined modality therapies that target the EGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway and...how one can predict sensitivity to these therapies in cancer disease sites. Elaine Smith, PhD; Professor, Department of Epidemiology, College of...efficacy of monoclonal antibody therapy of cancer. Preclinical and clinical studies are exploring the relative role of various effector cells in

  6. Proteomics in prostate cancer research.

    PubMed

    Hellström, Magnus; Lexander, Helena; Franzén, Bo; Egevad, Lars

    2007-02-01

    The incidence of early prostate cancer (PCa) among middle-aged men has increased rapidly. For many of these men, curatively intended treatment does more harm than good. Established prognostic factors are tumor stage and grade. As a result of earlier detection a majority of patients now have nonpalpable tumors (T1c) of intermediate grade (Gleason score 6). Prostate specific antigen in serum in such cases is generally at a low level and not a reliable predictor of prognosis. Altogether there is an urgent need for adjunctive prognostic indicators. In the search for relevant tumor markers for improved patient selection an exploration of the proteome (the human proteins) could be fruitful. This paper critically reviews the use of 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) for proteome research. Additional steps such as image analysis and mass spectrometry are described. Techniques based on non-2-DE platforms: surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization (SELDI), isotope coded affinity tags (ICAT) and array-based technologies are also summarized. Although labor-intensive and time-consuming, 2-DE is presently the most powerful method for analysis of cellular protein phenotype and may potentially reveal gene regulations that cannot be detected on a genetic level.

  7. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, K

    2002-09-01

    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  8. African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: position and vision for cancer research on the African Continent.

    PubMed

    Ogunbiyi, J Olufemi; Stefan, D Cristina; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    The African Organization for Research and training in Cancer (AORTIC) bases the following position statements on a critical appraisal of the state on cancer research and cancer care in Africa including information on the availability of data on cancer burden, screening and prevention for cancer in Africa, cancer care personnel, treatment modalities, and access to cancer care.

  9. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Gallbladder Cancer About Gallbladder Cancer What’s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment? Research into ... Chemotherapy and radiation therapy Researchers are looking at new ways of increasing the effectiveness of radiation therapy . ...

  10. Bayesian bias adjustments of the lung cancer SMR in a cohort of German carbon black production workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A German cohort study on 1,528 carbon black production workers estimated an elevated lung cancer SMR ranging from 1.8-2.2 depending on the reference population. No positive trends with carbon black exposures were noted in the analyses. A nested case control study, however, identified smoking and previous exposures to known carcinogens, such as crystalline silica, received prior to work in the carbon black industry as important risk factors. We used a Bayesian procedure to adjust the SMR, based on a prior of seven independent parameter distributions describing smoking behaviour and crystalline silica dust exposure (as indicator of a group of correlated carcinogen exposures received previously) in the cohort and population as well as the strength of the relationship of these factors with lung cancer mortality. We implemented the approach by Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods (MCMC) programmed in R, a statistical computing system freely available on the internet, and we provide the program code. Results When putting a flat prior to the SMR a Markov chain of length 1,000,000 returned a median posterior SMR estimate (that is, the adjusted SMR) in the range between 1.32 (95% posterior interval: 0.7, 2.1) and 1.00 (0.2, 3.3) depending on the method of assessing previous exposures. Conclusions Bayesian bias adjustment is an excellent tool to effectively combine data about confounders from different sources. The usually calculated lung cancer SMR statistic in a cohort of carbon black workers overestimated effect and precision when compared with the Bayesian results. Quantitative bias adjustment should become a regular tool in occupational epidemiology to address narrative discussions of potential distortions. PMID:20701747

  11. The Biomaterialbank of the German Competence Network of Heart Failure (CNHF) is a valuable resource for biomedical and genetic research.

    PubMed

    Posch, Maximilian G; Gelbrich, Götz; Pieske, Burkert; Lehmkuhl, Elke; Angermann, Christiane E; Störk, Stefan; Neumann, Till; Düngen, Hans-Dirk; Scheffold, Thomas; Müller-Tasch, Thomas; Maisch, Bernhard; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Dietz, Rainer; Ozcelik, Cemil

    2009-07-24

    Genetic research on heart failure (HF) requires large cohorts of well-phenotyped patients. The German Competence Network of Heart Failure (CNHF) organized a biobank in 2004 to supply the necessary infrastructure and standard operating procedures (SOPs) for a centralized collection of blood specimen. We centralized data and collected serum, plasma and DNA of well characterized HF subjects all over Germany. Different pseudonyms were created automatically to address data safety and other concerns about privacy. Thus far, we have collected 85,000 sample specimen from 9,500 prospectively evaluated patients with HF. Detailed medical data were prospectively acquired together with corresponding blood samples. In 2008 clinician-scientists can apply for access to the material. Our biobank represents a major facet of the CNHF and has already documented research and clinical utility.

  12. The German government's global health strategy--a strategy also to support research and development for neglected diseases?

    PubMed

    Fehr, Angela; Razum, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Neglected tropical infectious diseases as well as rare diseases are characterized by structural research and development (R&D) deficits. The market fails for these disease groups. Consequently, to meet public health and individual patient needs, political decision makers have to develop strategies at national and international levels to make up for this R&D deficit. The German government recently published its first global health strategy. The strategy underlines the German government's commitment to strengthening global health governance. We find, however, that the strategy lacks behind the international public health endeavors for neglected diseases. It fails to make reference to the ongoing debate on a global health agreement. Neither does it outline a comprehensive national strategy to promote R&D into neglected diseases, which would integrate existing R&D activities in Germany and link up to the international debate on sustainable, needs-based R&D and affordable access. This despite the fact that only recently, in a consensus-building process, a National Plan of Action for rare diseases was successfully developed in Germany which could serve as a blueprint for a similar course of action for neglected diseases. We recommend that, without delay, a structured process be initiated in Germany to explore all options to promote R&D for neglected diseases, including a global health agreement.

  13. Behavioral Research in Cancer Prevention and Control

    PubMed Central

    Klein, William M. P.; Bloch, Michele; Hesse, Bradford W.; McDonald, Paige G.; Nebeling, Linda; O’Connell, Mary E.; Riley, William T.; Taplin, Stephen H.; Tesauro, Gina

    2013-01-01

    Human behavior is central to the etiology and management of cancer outcomes and presents several avenues for targeted and sustained intervention. Psychosocial experiences such as stress and health behaviors including tobacco use, sun exposure, poor diet, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of some cancers yet are often quite resistant to change. Cancer screening and other health services are misunderstood and over-utilized, and vaccination underutilized, in part because of the avalanche of information about cancer prevention. Coordination of cancer care is suboptimal, and only a small fraction of cancer patients enroll in clinical trials essential to the development of new cancer treatments. A growing population of cancer survivors has necessitated a fresh view of cancer as a chronic rather than acute disease. Fortunately, behavioral research can address a wide variety of key processes and outcomes across the cancer controbiol continuum from prevention to end-of-life care. Here we consider effects at the biobehavioral and psychological, social and organizational, and environmental levels. We challenge the research community to address key behavioral targets across all levels of influence, while taking into account the many new methodological tools that can facilitate this important work. PMID:24512871

  14. Micrographic surgery of skin cancer in German hospitals 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Stang, A; Weichenthal, M

    2011-04-01

    Surgical therapy of skin cancer includes conventional wide excision and micrographic surgery (MS). Little is known about the population-wide spread of MS for the treatment of skin cancer. The aim was to estimate the in-hospital use of MS for the treatment of skin cancer in Germany. We used nationwide DRG data from 2005 through 2006. We identified hospitalizations with a main diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) (ICD-10: C43) or non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (ICD-10: C44). MS was identified by OPS procedure codes including 5-895.1, 5-895.3, 5-212.1, 5-181.1, 5-181.4, 5-181.6, 5-182.1, 5-091.1, or 5-091.3. We identified 52 660 and 98 484 hospitalizations with a primary diagnosis of CMM and NMSC respectively; 54.6% and 36.5% of NMSC and CMM-related admissions with local skin cancer treatment included MS. The relative frequency of MS varied by anatomic subsite of the skin cancer and by region of the hospital. Local infections were the most frequent complications after MS with 3.2-4.0% for NMSC and 2.3-2.9% for CMM followed by haemorrhages. Dehiscence of the operation wound is a rare event with risks ranging between 0.1% and 0.3%. Micrographic surgery is frequently used for the local treatment of NMSC and varies considerably across Federal States of Germany. It is difficult to speculate how many MS might be performed in private or ambulatory settings in Germany. As MS requires surgical expertise, technical support and dermatopathology, we speculate that MS is much less frequently undertaken in private practices in Germany. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  15. [An Analysis of contributions to the main German chat forum for cancer patients regarding palliative care].

    PubMed

    Lamb, E-S; Liebl, P; Köster, M-J; Hübner, J

    2016-06-01

    Patients are looking for information regarding palliative care in different sources. Goal of this study is the analysis of the most important online forum for cancer patients, Cancer Compass, concerning palliative care. On the chosen date, 3.02.2012, all threads on the various topics (cancer types, cancer treatment, specific user groups, general topics, advice and addresses, countries and regions, Über den Krebs-Kompass & Vermischtes) were systematically analyzed. All entries relating to palliative care were recorded and subsequently analyzed and summarized. From 231 threads relating to palliative care, 163 were relevant.The general practitioner is the main source of information, but the internet is gaining importance. The forum users often offer good explanations of cancer and palliative care and also refer to web pages with exact definitions. Reliability of web pages is a one issue discussed in the forum.Patients are afraid of pain and dying. Relatives fear for the patient, are overwhelmed and experience existential problems. Both groups use the Cancer Compass to share experiences and get psychological support. Thus Cancer Compass offers a possibility to discuss options for improving quality of life.Especially in the initial phase of care, many users are uncertain what palliative care means. The treatment of pain represents the main concern of patients and their families. Whereas dedicated palliative care wards are rated positively, users speak less positively about pain treatment in general wards in home care.In general, inpatient palliative care was rated positively. However information regarding outpatient care is lacking. Family care is mostly not possible on account of geographical distance. One point of criticism is the discrepancy between urban and rural areas. Patients place more trust in their general practitioner than in hospital doctors. Cancer Compass is an important medium for patients and their families to share information, i. a. on palliative

  16. About BTTC | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    About Combined Forces Drive BTTC The Brain Tumor Trials Collaborative (BTTC) was created in 2003 - a combined effort of many professionals, entities and organizations to help those suffering from brain tumors. The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Center for Cancer Research serves as the lead institution and provides the administrative infrastructure, clinical database and oversight for the collaborative.

  17. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Cancer.gov

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  18. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Research will involve peptide, peptide mimetic and small molecule organic synthesis directed at biological targets related to the etiology and treatment of cancers and AIDS. Salary and benefit package are highly competitive. The Chemical Biology Laboratory (CBL) is equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation and is located on the campus of the National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD.

  19. $540 million gift boosts cancer research.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    Ludwig Cancer Research, based in New York, NY, announced that it will disburse $540 million from the estate of Daniel K. Ludwig equally to Ludwig Centers at Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Stanford University, and the University of Chicago.

  20. The importance of biobanking in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Pelayo, Tania; Babinszky, Sindy; LeBlanc, Jodi; Watson, Peter H

    2015-06-01

    Establishing the importance of biobanking in cancer research is important for research funders and for planning health research infrastructure. This study delineates the importance of biobanking to the cancer research landscape in Canada and relative to other forms of health research infrastructure. The Cancer Research Society (CRS) is a Canadian organization with a broad mission and national portfolio that funds studies across the spectrum of cancer research. We selected all 35 investigators who received CRS grants in the 2010/11 competition and then analyzed their publications from 2010 to 2014. Articles were categorized by overall research area, acknowledged source of funding, specific scientific focus, and the presence of any data that involved an 'indicator' (human biospecimens, cell lines, animal models, advanced microscopy, flow cell sorters, and next generation sequencing) of dependence on different kinds of health research infrastructures. Publications involving biobanking and utilizing biospecimens were further classified by biospecimen provenance and type of biospecimen used. These investigators generated 502 (from a total of 749) papers that were related to the field of cancer research. Amongst 445 papers that contained primary data, we found no significant differences between CRS funded and 'other funded' papers in terms of biospecimen use, which occurred in 38% of articles. Overall biospecimens were mostly obtained directly from patients (17%), or indirectly from biorepositories (31%) and hospitals (46%). The proportions of studies using other tools was as follows: 54% cell lines, 32% animal models, 14% advanced microscopy, 14% flow sorters, and 8% next generation sequencing. The spectrum of research was very similar to the overall profile of cancer research in Canada in 2010. This study suggests that biorepositories that coordinate the activity of biobanking rank amongst the most important of established health research infrastructures as

  1. Linkage analysis in German breast cancer families with early onset of the disease, using highly polymorphic markers from the chromosome 17q11-q24 region

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, W.; Bender, E.; Rohde, K.; Reis, A.; Krause, H.; Prokoph, H.; Werner, S.; Scherneck, S. ); Wiseman, R.; Futreal, A. )

    1993-04-01

    Linkage analysis in German breast cancer families with early onset of the disease by using six markers on chromosome 17q11-q24 has been carried out. In the region between markers D17S250 and GH, three markers showed positive LOD scores at an estimated distance of zero. Evidence for linkage is greatest for D17S250, with a LOD score of 2.42. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  3. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  4. American Institute for Cancer Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... that manages everything from our own appetite to metabolism. Learn More » From Our Blog: AICR ... Updates: CRU: Women Drinking Increasing Amounts of Alcohol, More Cancer Risk 35 Years of Fast Food ...

  5. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  6. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/ Insulin -like Growth Factor II Receptor in DU145 Prostate Cancer Cells. UNMC Summer Undergraduate...Lynnette Lefall Date Published: Friday, August 6, 2010 Keidra Bryant – Abstract Effect of Metal Ion Chelators on Mannose 6-Phosphate/ Insulin ...chelators would inhibit this process in the insulin -like growth factor-responsive human prostate cancer cell line DU145. Cells were grown to 70-80

  7. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Oncology Departments at the University of Iowa and other institutions. A major project in the lab is targeted therapy of prostate cancer using PSMA...develop novel, immune-based therapies for advanced solid tumors, using the knowledge we gain from our pre-clinical studies. Because her goal is to...in the molecular design, organic synthesis, characterization, and radiolabeling of peptides and small molecules for small molecule cancer therapy

  8. First-line Bevacizumab-containing Therapy for HER2-negative Metastatic Breast Cancer: Final Results from a Prospective German Study.

    PubMed

    Schneeweiss, Andreas; Förster, Frank; Tesch, Hans; Aktas, Bahriye; Gluz, Oleg; Geberth, Matthias; Hertz-Eichenrode, Martin M; Schönegg, Winfried; Schumacher, Claudia; Kutscheidt, Andreas; Kiewitz, Claudia; Klawitter, Sandra; Schmidt, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    The German ML21165 study evaluated bevacizumab-containing therapy for metastatic breast cancer (mBC) in routine oncology practice. Patients received bevacizumab with chemotherapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Pre-specified end-points were safety and efficacy [response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)]. Between May 2007 and September 2009, 865 patients received first-line bevacizumab plus paclitaxel for mBC, of whom 16% were aged ≥70 years and 9% had ECOG performance status of 2 or more. At data cut-off (median of 15.9 months' follow-up), the median PFS was 9.6 months [95% confidence interval (CI)=9.0-10.4 months] and the median OS was 21.6 months (95% CI=19.4-23.5 months). The most common non-haematological adverse drug reactions of grade 3 or more were pain (9%), hypertension (5%), sensory neuropathy (3%) and proteinuria (3%). Prolonged bevacizumab was well-tolerated. The efficacy and safety of first-line bevacizumab-paclitaxel in routine oncology practice is consistent with results from randomized trials. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  9. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Cancer.gov

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  10. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... study with Matthew Vander Heiden, MD, PhD , of MIT and Dana-Farber. “Detecting the disease earlier in ... the Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. Their experiments showed that mice with newly formed ...

  11. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  12. Completed | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the current Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), previously funded initiatives associated with clinical proteomics research included: Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC 2.0) Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer Initiative (CPTC) Mouse Proteomic Technologies Initiative

  13. The desire for children and fertility issues among young German cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Geue, Kristina; Richter, Diana; Schmidt, Ricarda; Sender, Annekathrin; Siedentopf, Friederike; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve

    2014-05-01

    For young cancer patients, family planning is not always completed at the time of cancer diagnosis. This study investigated young cancer patients' desire to have children, its intensity, and their discussion with oncologists and fertility specialists about fertility. Furthermore, gender differences, differences between childless patients and patients with children, and correlations with psychological distress were analyzed. A total of 149 cancer patients (range, 18-45 years of age) answered a self-developed questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. Seventy-four percent of patients had a desire to have children at the time of diagnosis. Whereas the intensity of the desire for children increased pre- to post-treatment in childless patients, it decreased in patients who already had children. A total of 55 patients who wanted a child (50%) needed supportive care concerning this issue; 60% of the total sample had discussed fertility aspects with their oncologists and 20% with fertility specialists. Patients reported higher levels of satisfaction with their discussions with fertility specialists than with their discussions with oncologists. Men (56%) underwent fertility preservation more often than did women (31%). Female sex was the only variable predicting psychological distress, whereas parenthood, fertility preservation, and desire for children had no significant impact. The desire to have children and the fertility issues involved are important for young cancer patients. Reasons for not discussing fertility aspects with oncologists and the cause of low referral rates to fertility specialists should be explored in future studies. The implementation of structured psychosocial supportive care might address the needs of highly fertility-distressed patients. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of professional psychological care in a large German sample of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Faller, Hermann; Weis, Joachim; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mehnert, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Although one-third of cancer patients are perceived to have a need for psychological support based on the percentage of mental disorders, little is known about the actual utilization of psychological care in cancer. We aimed to assess cancer patients' reported use of psychological care and its correlates in a large, representative sample. In a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Germany, 4020 cancer patients (mean age 58 years, 51% women) were evaluated. We obtained self-reports of use of psychotherapy and psychological counseling. We measured distress with the Distress Thermometer, symptoms of depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire, anxiety with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale, and social support with the Illness-specific Social Support Scale. In a subsample of 2141, we evaluated the presence of a mental disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In total, 28.9% (95% confidence interval 27.4%-30.4%) reported having used psychotherapy or psychological counseling or both because of distress due to cancer. Independent correlates of utilization included age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97 per year], sex (male, OR = 0.55), social support (OR = 0.96), symptoms of depression (OR = 1.04) and anxiety (OR = 1.08), the diagnosis of a mental disorder (OR = 1.68), and a positive attitude toward psychosocial support (OR = 1.27). Less than half of those currently diagnosed with a mental disorder reported having taken up psychological support offers. Special efforts should be made to reach populations that report low utilization of psychological care in spite of having a need for support. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The German-Chinese research collaboration YANGTZE-GEO: Assessing the geo-risks in the Three Gorges Reservoir area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, S.; Behrens, T.; Bieger, K.; Ehret, D.; Frei, M.; Hörmann, G.; Seeber, C.; Schleier, M.; Schmalz, B.; Fohrer, N.; Kaufmann, H.; King, L.; Rohn, J.; Subklew, G.; Xiang, W.

    2012-04-01

    The river impoundment by The Three Gorges Dam leads to resettlement and land reclamation on steep slopes. As a consequence, ecosystem changes such as soil erosion, mass movements, and diffuse sediment and matter fluxes are widely expected to increase rapidly. In order to assess and analyse those ecosystem changes, the German-Chinese joint research project YANGTZE-GEO was set up in 2008. Within the framework of YANGTZE-GEO five German universities (Tuebingen, Erlangen, Giessen, Kiel, Potsdam) conducted studies on soil erosion, mass movements, diffuse matter inputs, and land use change and vulnerability in close collaboration with Chinese scientists. The Chinese partners and institutions are according to their alphabetic order of hometown the Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES; Beijing), the Standing Office of the State Council Three Gorges Project Construction Committee (Beijing), the National Climate Centre (NCC) of the China Meteorological Administration (CMA; Beijing), the Aero Geophysical Survey and Remote Sensing for Land and Resources (AES; Beijing), the Nanjing University, the CAS Institute of Soil Science (Nanjing), the Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology at CAS (NIGLAS; Nanjing), the China University of Geosciences (CUG; Wuhan), the CAS Institute of Hydrobiology (Wuhan), and the China Three Gorges University (Yichang). The overall aim of YANGTZE-GEO is the development of a risk assessment and forecasting system to locate high risk areas using GIS-based erosion modelling, data mining tools for terrace condition analysis and landslide recognition, eco-hydrological modelling for diffuse matter inputs, and state-of-the-art remote sensing to assess the landscape's vulnerability. Furthermore, the project aims at the recommendation of sustainable land management systems. YANGTZE-GEO showed the relevance of such research and crucially contributes to the understanding of the dimension and dynamics of the ecological consequences of

  16. Translating cancer research into targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    de Bono, J S; Ashworth, Alan

    2010-09-30

    The emphasis in cancer drug development has shifted from cytotoxic, non-specific chemotherapies to molecularly targeted, rationally designed drugs promising greater efficacy and less side effects. Nevertheless, despite some successes drug development remains painfully slow. Here, we highlight the issues involved and suggest ways in which this process can be improved and expedited. We envision an increasing shift to integrated cancer research and biomarker-driven adaptive and hypothesis testing clinical trials. The goal is the development of specific cancer medicines to treat the individual patient, with treatment selection being driven by a detailed understanding of the genetics and biology of the patient and their cancer.

  17. Incorporating the Patient into Urologic Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    Gore, John L

    2017-09-01

    Patient engagement in research has been increasingly prioritized by funders and adopted by health researchers. In this Seminars issue, we explore several different mechanisms of engagement in the reciprocal relationship between patients and researchers. This includes the generation of understandable patient health information, how patients engage in treatment decision-making for urologic cancers, patient involvement in the development of research ideas and research design, and patient engagement in their personalized survivorship care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Research challenges in adolescent and young adult cancer survivor research.

    PubMed

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2011-05-15

    Every year in Canada and the United States, about 26,000 adolescent and young adults (AYA) between ages 15 and 29 years are diagnosed with cancer. Although the majority of AYA cancer patients will survive their primary cancer, many will develop serious health problems or die prematurely secondary to their curative cancer therapy. Much is known about the long-term health outcomes after adolescent cancer. In contrast, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the long-term outcomes after most young adult cancers. To optimize the health and quality of life of AYA cancer survivors and improve upon curative cancer therapy, it is essential to further investigate the long-term outcomes of this population. Before embarking upon this endeavor, it is important for the investigator and the funding agency to be cognizant about some of the unique challenges in research of AYA cancer survivors. To this end, the authors present a brief overview of some of the key research challenges, discuss the strengths and limitations of using available AYA cohorts and databases, and highlight potential future directions.

  19. Cancer communication and informatics research across the cancer continuum.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Bradford W; Beckjord, Ellen; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Fagerlin, Angela; Cameron, Linda D

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, dramatic changes brought about by a rapid diffusion of Internet technologies, cellular telephones, mobile devices, personal digital assistants, electronic health records, and data visualization have helped to create a revolution in health communication. To understand the implications of this communication revolution for cancer care, the National Cancer Institute launched an ambitious set of research priorities under its "extraordinary opportunities" program. We present an overview of some of the relevant behavioral research being conducted within the perspective of this extraordinary opportunity in cancer communication research. We begin by tracing the implications of this research for behavioral scientists across the continuum of cancer care from primary prevention (e.g., tobacco control, diet, exercise, sun protection, and immunization against human papilloma virus), to secondary prevention (e.g., screening for polyps, lesions, and early stage neoplasms), to diagnosis and treatment, posttreatment survivorship, and end of life. Along each point of the continuum, we describe a natural evolution of knowledge from studies on the traditional role of media to research on the changing role of new media and informatics, and we carefully highlight the role that psychological research has played in improving communication- and health-related outcomes along the way. We conclude with an appeal to psychologists of many different backgrounds to join with biomedical researchers, engineers, clinical practitioners, and others to accelerate progress against cancer.

  20. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to increase the diversity of trainee applicants to the Center for Cancer Research (CCR). We have placed 339 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the CCR. The Division provides the training dollars, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (View and/or print the 2018 flier).

  1. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? Risk factors ... This information eventually is expected to lead to new drugs for preventing and treating familial ovarian cancer. ...

  2. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Eye Cancer About Eye Cancer What’s New in Eye Cancer Research and Treatment? Many medical ... high risk group. Using genes to help find new treatments Identifying gene changes in eye cancer cells ...

  3. German influence in USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertok, B.

    2004-08-01

    In June 1945 this author was one of the organizers of the, first in the postwar history, Soviet-German institute RABE. The main task of its activity was to study the history of the German rocket technology developments and rebuild the technology of the long range ballistic missiles V-2. This work was supported by the Soviet military authorities and also by the Soviet government. In the Turingia region of Germany a big institute, "Nordhausen", was established, in which Soviet and German specialists jointly worked on the rocket technology problems. In November 1947 a big group of German specialists was transferred to the Soviet Union. All the works in Germany were cancelled. German specialists took part in the preparation and running of the flight test of rocket V-2 in October-November of 1947 on Kapustin Yar test range. Until the beginning of the 50s a big group of German specialists worked in the daughter institute of the leading Soviet research institute on rocket technique, NII-88, under the management of Helmut Grettrupe, one of the former von Braun employees. They worked out the design of ballistic missiles of range up to 800 km with principally new guidance system. Germans also took part in the development of the technology of fluid rocket engine production. In 1952-1953 German specialists returned to Germany and rocket technology in the USSR matured independently. The Soviet and German scientists cooperation resumed in 1960s after manned space flights were started. The author was one of the leading participants in those joint works.

  4. Attitudes of members of the German Society for Palliative Medicine toward complementary and alternative medicine for cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Conrad, A C; Muenstedt, K; Micke, O; Prott, F J; Muecke, R; Huebner, J

    2014-07-01

    A high proportion of cancer patients use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In oncology, risks of CAM are side effects and interactions. Our aim was to conduct a survey on professionals in palliative care regarding attitudes toward CAM. An internet-based survey with a standardized questionnaire was sent to all members of the German Society for Palliative Care. The questionnaire collected data on attitude toward CAM and experiences. Six hundred and ninety questionnaires (19 %) were returned (49 % physicians, 35 % nurses, 3 % psychologists). Acceptance of CAM is high (92 % for complementary and 54 % for alternative medicine). Most participants had already been asked on CAM by patients (95 %) and relatives (89 %). Forty-four percent already had used complementary methods and 5 % alternative methods. Only 21 % think themselves adequately informed. Seventy-four percent would use complementary methods in a patient with advanced tumor, and 62 % would use alternative therapy in patients if there was no other therapy. Even from those who are skeptical 45 % would treat a patient with alternative methods. In order to inform patients on CAM and to further patients' autonomy, evidence on benefits and harms of CAM must be provided. As awareness of risks from CAM is low and critical appraisal especially of alternative medicine missing, but interest on information on CAM is high, experts should provide evidence-based recommendations for CAM in palliative care to members of different professions. This could be done by a curriculum focusing on the most often used CAM methods.

  5. The role of research in a technical assistance agency: the case of the 'German Agency for Technical Co-operation'.

    PubMed

    Horchler, S; Gerhardus, A; Schmidt-Ehry, G; Schmidt-Ehry, B; Korte, R; Mitra, S K; Sauerborn, R

    2004-11-01

    Technical assistance agencies have a sustainable impact on the health systems of the countries they are operating in. As well as policy-makers at the national level, technical assistance agencies see themselves confronted that their interventions should be based on evidence, usually meaning the results of research. This study has the aim to analyse role of research in the implementation of technical assistance. We sent a questionnaire to all health project managers of the 'German Agency for Technical Co-operation' and performed a qualitative case study in one of the health projects. Forty-seven of 80 (58.8%) of the questionnaires were completed and sent back. The managers considered publications of International Organisations (IOs), scientific articles and local research as most important for their work. The case study showed application problems in the daily work. Research use not only depends on the relevance of the data but also on analytical skills, linguistic barriers and technical access to research by the potential users. The role of knowledge and information management has to be clearly defined in an organisation of technical assistance. The specific needs at the different levels have to be analysed so that skills and resources can be allocated adequately.

  6. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  7. Mechanisms of disturbed emotion processing and social interaction in borderline personality disorder: state of knowledge and research agenda of the German Clinical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja; Ende, Gabriele; Flor, Herta; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Schneider, Miriam; Spanagel, Rainer; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a strong rise in empirical research in the mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder. Major findings comprise structural as well as functional alterations of brain regions involved in emotion processing, such as amygdala, insula, and prefrontal regions. In addition, more specific mechanisms of disturbed emotion regulation, e.g. related to pain and dissociation, have been identified. Most recently, social interaction problems and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, e.g. disturbed trust or hypersensitivity to social rejection, have become a major focus of BPD research. This article covers the current state of knowledge and related relevant research goals. The first part presents a review of the literature. The second part delineates important open questions to be addressed in future studies. The third part describes the research agenda for a large German center grant focusing on mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in BPD.

  8. Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).

    PubMed

    Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine

    2012-06-01

    To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality. In the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), which was recruited in 1994-1998, 23,943 participants without pre-existing cancer and myocardial infarction/stroke at baseline were included in the analyses. Vitamin/mineral supplementation was assessed at baseline and during follow-up. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 1,101 deaths were documented (cancer deaths = 513 and cardiovascular deaths = 264). After adjustment for potential confounders, neither any vitamin/mineral supplementation nor multivitamin supplementation at baseline was statistically significantly associated with cancer, cardiovascular, or all-cause mortality. However, baseline users of antioxidant vitamin supplements had a significantly reduced risk of cancer mortality (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.97) and all-cause mortality (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.88). In comparison with never users, baseline non-users who started taking vitamin/mineral supplements during follow-up had significantly increased risks of cancer mortality (HR: 1.74; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.77) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.58; 95% CI: 1.17, 2.14). Based on limited numbers of users and cases, this cohort study suggests that supplementation of antioxidant vitamins might possibly reduce cancer and all-cause mortality. The significantly increased risks of cancer and all-cause mortality among baseline non-users who started taking supplements during follow-up may suggest a "sick-user effect," which researchers should be cautious of in future observational studies.

  9. A Surgeon's View of Prostate Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Robert Reiter, M.D., M.B.A., is a Professor of Urology and Molecular Biology, Director of the Prostate Cancer Treatment and Research Program, and Director of Urologic Research at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).

  10. Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed Central

    Kjaerheim, K

    1999-01-01

    Occupational cancer research in the Nordic countries benefits from certain structural advantages, including the existence of computerized population registries, national cancer registries with high-quality data on cancer incidence, and a personal identification number for each inhabitant. This article outlines the utilization of this research infrastructure in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, together with research examples from the different countries. Future research on occupational cancer in this region requires that national legislation on electronic handling of sensitive personal information should not be stricter than the European Union Directive on individual protection with regard to personal data. A personal identification number is essential both for keeping up the high quality of data of the registers and for the high quality of the process of linking the different data sources together. Although previous occupational research has focused on male workers, a broader approach is needed in the future, including a study of how cancer risk in women may be affected by occupational activity and the question of possible cancer risk in offspring of men and women exposed to workplace carcinogens. PMID:10350505

  11. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: current status of the Austrain-Czech-German gastric cancer prevention trial (PRISMA-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Miehlke, S.; Kirsch, C.; Dragosics, B.; Gschwantler, M.; Oberhuber, G.; Antos, D.; Dite, P.; Luter, J.; Labenz, J.; Leodolter, A.; Malfertheiner, P.; Neubauer, A.; Ehninger, G.; Stolte, M.; rffer, E. Bayerdö

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori eradication alone can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer in a subgroup of individuals with an increased risk for this fatal disease. METHODS: It is a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled multinational multicenter trial. Men between 55 and 65 years of age with a gastric cancer phenotype of Helicobacter pylori gastritis are randomized to receive a 7 day course of omeprazole 2 × 20 mg, clarithromycin 2 × 500 mg, and amoxicillin 2 × 1 g for 7 days, or omeprazole 2 × 20 mg plus placebo. Follow-up endoscopy is scheduled 3 months after therapy, and thereafter in one-year intervals. Predefined study endpoints are gastric cancer, precancerous lesions (dysplasia, adenoma), other cancers, and death. RESULTS: Since March 1998, 1524 target patients have been screened, 279 patients (18.3%) had a corpus dominant type of H. pylori gastritis, and 167 of those were randomized (58.8%). In the active treatment group (n = 86), H. pylori infection infection was cured in 88.9% of patients. Currently, the cumulative follow-up time is 3046 months (253. 38 patient years, median follow up 16 months). So far, none of the patients developed gastric cancer or any precancerous lesion. Three (1.8%) patients reached study endpoints other than gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Among men between 55 and 65 years of age, the gastric cancer phenotype of H. pylori gastritis appears to be more common than expected. Further follow up and continuing recruitment are necessary to fulfil the main aim of the study. PMID:11819768

  12. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation of tumor cells that can self-renew and give rise to more differentiated tumor cells. It is thought that these stem cells survive initial therapies (such as chemotherapy and hormone therapy) and then generate new tumor cells that are resistant to these standard treatments. If prostate cancer stem cells could be identified and characterized, it might be possible to design treatments that prevent resistance.

  13. What's New in Kidney Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What’s New in Kidney Cancer Research and Treatment? Research on ... can also be used to develop new treatments. New approaches to local treatment High-intensity focused ultrasound ( ...

  14. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  15. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Cancer.gov

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  16. What's New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Bone Cancer About Bone Cancer What’s New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment? Research on ... from growing for a time. Some are testing new chemo drugs. Targeted therapy Targeted therapy drugs work ...

  17. Tenure Track Investigators | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (LBMB), Center of Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) invites applications for a Tenure Track Investigator position. We seek candidates who have demonstrated excellence, originality, and productivity in research, and whose research programs use innovative approaches to address basic biological problems in areas of chromosome or chromatin biology, RNA biology, and/or cell biology with a general relevance to cancer biology. The successful candidate will perform independent research funded by the NCI Intramural Research Program and will join an interdisciplinary group within the LBMB, which fosters a highly interactive and collaborative research environment, in which the methods of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, cell biology and biophysics are used to solve fundamental problems in the broader area of chromosome biology. Current LBMB research programs (http://1.usa.gov/1OaVSK3) are integrated into the NCI Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology (https://ccrod.cancer.gov/confluence/display/CECB/Home), and the research environment at the NIH Bethesda campus affords ample opportunities for intellectual interactions and collaborations with basic and clinical scientists. Research is supported by a wide array of resources, including animal facilities and dedicated, high quality technology cores in areas such as imaging/microscopy, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, genomics/DNA sequencing, transgenics and knock out mice, and human genetics/bioinformatics.

  18. Tenure Track Investigator | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (LBMB), Center of Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) invites applications for a Tenure Track Investigator position. We seek candidates who have demonstrated excellence, originality, and productivity in research, and whose research programs use innovative approaches to address basic biological problems in areas of chromosome or chromatin biology, RNA biology, and/or cell biology with a general relevance to cancer biology. The successful candidate will perform independent research funded by the NCI Intramural Research Program and will join an interdisciplinary group within the LBMB, which fosters a highly interactive and collaborative research environment, in which the methods of biochemistry, genetics, genomics, cell biology and biophysics are used to solve fundamental problems in the broader area of chromosome biology. Current LBMB research programs (http://1.usa.gov/1OaVSK3) are integrated into the NCI Center of Excellence in Chromosome Biology (https://ccrod.cancer.gov/confluence/display/CECB/Home), and the research environment at the NIH Bethesda campus affords ample opportunities for intellectual interactions and collaborations with basic and clinical scientists. Research is supported by a wide array of resources, including animal facilities and dedicated, high quality technology cores in areas such as imaging/microscopy, mass spectrometry, flow cytometry, genomics/DNA sequencing, transgenics and knock out mice, and human genetics/bioinformatics.

  19. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R(2)) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tissue Engineering Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) ......................................................................... 117 German Cancer Research Center...National Cancer Center Research Institute...................................................................................... 173 National Institute for...Green in the United States, has been the focus of skin tissue engineering at Nagoya University. Work at the National Cancer Center Institute in Tokyo

  1. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled 'Rethinking Cancer', which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Disparate companions: tissue engineering meets cancer research.

    PubMed

    Tilkorn, Daniel J; Lokmic, Zerina; Chaffer, Christine L; Mitchell, Geraldine M; Morrison, Wayne A; Thompson, Erik W

    2010-01-01

    Recreating an environment that supports and promotes fundamental homeostatic mechanisms is a significant challenge in tissue engineering. Optimizing cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, and providing suitable stromal support and signalling cues are keys to successfully generating clinically useful tissues. Interestingly, those components are often subverted in the cancer setting, where aberrant angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, cell signalling and resistance to apoptosis drive malignant growth. In contrast to tissue engineering, identifying and inhibiting those pathways is a major challenge in cancer research. The recent discovery of adult tissue-specific stem cells has had a major impact on both tissue engineering and cancer research. The unique properties of these cells and their role in tissue and organ repair and regeneration hold great potential for engineering tissue-specific constructs. The emerging body of evidence implicating stem cells and progenitor cells as the source of oncogenic transformation prompts caution when using these cells for tissue-engineering purposes. While tissue engineering and cancer research may be considered as opposed fields of research with regard to their proclaimed goals, the compelling overlap in fundamental pathways underlying these processes suggests that cross-disciplinary research will benefit both fields. In this review article, tissue engineering and cancer research are brought together and explored with regard to discoveries that may be of mutual benefit.

  3. [The benefit of large-scale cohort studies for health research: the example of the German National Cohort].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Wolfgang; Jöckel, K-H

    2015-08-01

    The prospective nature of large-scale epidemiological multi-purpose cohort studies with long observation periods facilitates the search for complex causes of diseases, the analysis of the natural history of diseases and the identification of novel pre-clinical markers of disease. The German National Cohort (GNC) is a population-based, highly standardised and in-depth phenotyped cohort. It shall create the basis for new strategies for risk assessment and identification, early diagnosis and prevention of multifactorial diseases. The GNC is the largest population-based cohort study in Germany to date. In the year 2014 the examination of 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years started in 18 study centers. The study facilitates the investigation of the etiology of chronic diseases in relation to lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic, psychosocial and environmental factors. By this the GNC creates the basis for the development of methods for early diagnosis and prevention of these diseases. Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal and infectious diseases are in focus of this study. Due to its mere size, the study could be characterized as a Big Data project. We deduce that this is not the case.

  4. Cancer Research by the Numbers - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Biostatistician Dr. Jill Barnholtz-Sloan strives to make a difference in the field of cancer research while inspiring her students at the same time. Learn more about how she uses TCGA data in her career in this TCGA in Action Researcher Profile.

  5. [German Version of the Social Impact Scale (SIS-D)--Pilot Testing of an Instrument for Measuring Experienced Stigmatization in a Sample of Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Svenja; Mehnert, Anja; Stephan, Marc

    2015-05-01

    PURPOSE of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the newly adapted German Version of the Social Impact Scale (SIS), a multidimensional questionnaire measuring perceived stigmatization. The SIS was translated into the German language following state-of-the-art criteria and completed in a sample of 139 outpatients with mixed tumor entities. In addition to the SIS-D, participants answered questions about their experience of discrimination and perceived visibility of their disease as well as about illness beliefs and perceptions of cancer control. Comparably to the original scale, exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 4-factor solution and the following dimensions: "social isolation" (Cronbachs α=0.89), "social rejection" (α=0.81), "internalized shame" (α=0.81) and "financial insecurity" (α=0.81). Considering the results of this pilot study, it can be concluded that the German version of the SIS is an instrument measuring perceived stigmatization in cancer patients with very good psychometric properties. However, further validation studies are considered necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Wolin laboratory has recently moved to the National Cancer Institute as part of a new initiative in RNA Biology. A fully funded postdoctoral position is available in the areas of noncoding RNA function, RNA surveillance pathways, and the mechanisms by which defects in RNA decay pathways contribute to diseases such as cancer and autoimmunity. We use mammalian cells and bacteria as complementary systems, and projects in both systems are available. Our group is part of the newly formed RNA Biology Laboratory in the Center for Cancer Research. We are part of the Center of Cancer Research’s RNA Initiative, which includes more than 50 laboratories evenly split between the Frederick and Bethesda campuses of the National Cancer Institute. The environment is highly collaborative and collegial, with the ability to interact with a wide range of scientists. The position is ideal for motivated candidates who are seeking additional training in RNA biology.

  7. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…

  8. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists…

  9. [Medical research travel 100 years ago: the 14th German Medical Study Trip to North America and Canada in the year 1912].

    PubMed

    Neid, T; Helm, J

    2012-12-01

    Already before the First World War the North American medicine had developed within less years so far that it had an excellent reputation and that famous scientists and medicines from Europe came in the country for extensive study trips and congressional visits. Exactly 100 years ago the delegation biggest till then of German doctors visited in the course of the 14th German Medical Study Trip the United States of America. The very amicable relation between the doctors of both nations made easier the scientific exchange during this study trip and allowed a deep insight into the medicine of the USA to the participants. Even though the German doctors were very impressed with the developement in the USA and reported partly in their native country in detail about that, it didn't succeed in keeping pace with the rapid developement of the USA into the leading research nation in the following decades.

  10. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  11. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics: focus on collaboration and diversity.

    PubMed

    Nieder, C

    2012-10-01

    Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted.

  12. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Introduction 6 6. Body 9 7. Key Research Accomplishments 15 8. Reportable Outcomes 15 9. Conclusions 16 10. References 17 11. Bibliography 20 12. Personnel 20...seen in human breast cancer (2-4). Third, a high percentage of the resulting rat mammary cancers are hormonally responsiveness, closely mimicking that...13, 17), activated c-neu (18-20), wild type c-neu (21), deregulated growth hormone (22), and deregulated transforming growth factor a (23-25) has

  13. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available in the lab of Dr. Steven A. Feldman, Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute for a highly-motivated individual to carry out translational research studies aimed at developing and improving novel adoptive T cell therapies for solid cancers. A major focus of the position will utilize gene editing strategies (ZFN and Crispr) to enhance T cell function and/or re-direct T cells by TCR insertion for development of novel personalized cancer therapies based on identifying and targeting immunogenic mutations expressed by a patient’s tumor. 

  14. Research Training Program in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-30

    AD GRANT NO: DAMD17-94-J-4204 TITLE: Research Training Program in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Daniel Medina CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Program in Breast Cancer DAMD17-94-J-4204 Dr. Daniel Medina S-:* , LiNG ORGANI-ZA FiON ;8A•E(Sj -’ r.,DE53(25) . :ERFOGMJNG ORGANIZATION Baylor: College...program is to produce highly qualified scientists for careers as independent investigators in the field of breast cancer . In the last 20 years, there has

  15. Rethinking cancer: current challenges and opportunities in cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Cagan, Ross; Meyer, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cancer therapeutics currently have the lowest clinical trial success rate of all major diseases. Partly as a result of the paucity of successful anti-cancer drugs, cancer will soon be the leading cause of mortality in developed countries. As a disease embedded in the fundamentals of our biology, cancer presents difficult challenges that would benefit from uniting experts from a broad cross-section of related and unrelated fields. Combining extant approaches with novel ones could help in tackling this challenging health problem, enabling the development of therapeutics to stop disease progression and prolong patient lives. This goal provided the inspiration for a recent workshop titled ‘Rethinking Cancer’, which brought together a group of cancer scientists who work in the academic and pharmaceutical sectors of Europe, America and Asia. In this Editorial, we discuss the main themes emerging from the workshop, with the aim of providing a snapshot of key challenges faced by the cancer research community today. We also outline potential strategies for addressing some of these challenges, from understanding the basic evolution of cancer and improving its early detection to streamlining the thorny process of moving promising drug targets into clinical trials. PMID:28381596

  16. [Central online quality assurance in radiology: an IT solution exemplified by the German Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    PubMed

    Czwoydzinski, J; Girnus, R; Sommer, A; Heindel, W; Lenzen, H

    2011-09-01

    Physical-technical quality assurance is one of the essential tasks of the National Reference Centers in the German Breast Cancer Screening Program. For this purpose the mammography units are required to transfer the measured values of the constancy tests on a daily basis and all phantom images created for this purpose on a weekly basis to the reference centers. This is a serious logistical challenge. To meet these requirements, we developed an innovative software tool. By the end of 2005, we had already developed web-based software (MammoControl) allowing the transmission of constancy test results via entry forms. For automatic analysis and transmission of the phantom images, we then introduced an extension (MammoControl DIANA). This was based on Java, Java Web Start, the NetBeans Rich Client Platform, the Pixelmed Java DICOM Toolkit and the ImageJ library. MammoControl DIANA was designed to run locally in the mammography units. This allows automated on-site image analysis. Both results and compressed images can then be transmitted to the reference center. We developed analysis modules for the daily and monthly consistency tests and additionally for a homogeneity test. The software we developed facilitates the immediate availability of measurement results, phantom images, and DICOM header data in all reference centers. This allows both targeted guidance and short response time in the case of errors. We achieved a consistent IT-based evaluation with standardized tools for the entire screening program in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Statistical Tutorial | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Tutorial course is designed as a follow-up to the Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course, which was held in April 2017. The tutorial will apply the general principles of statistical analysis of research data, including descriptive statistics, z- and t-tests of means and mean differences, simple and multiple linear regression, ANOVA tests, and Chi-Squared distribution.

  18. Guidelines | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Animal Resource Program: Guidelines for Importation of Research Animals DVR and LASP monitor the health status of rodents and rabbits from various commonly used vendors of research animals. These vendors are considered "Approved Sources." Animals from these sources are generally shipped directly to NIH animal facilities for immediate investigator accessibility.

  19. Environmental Education in Three German-Speaking Countries: Tensions and Challenges for Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikel, Jutta; Reid, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we explore a series of issues and tensions raised by the papers in this Special Issue of "Environmental Education Research." This papers focus on developments in environmental education and ESD research in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In order to provide an alternative framework for contextualising and understanding…

  20. Interactive Research on Innovations in Vocational Education and Training (VET): Lessons from Dutch and German Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchert, Joanna; Hoeve, Aimée; Kämäräinen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on two examples of interactive research (IR) in vocational education and training. IR is a process which brings together practitioners and researchers with the aim to implement an innovation. This innovation in the first project meant to create a hybrid learning environment; in the second it supported introducing digital media…

  1. Environmental Education in Three German-Speaking Countries: Tensions and Challenges for Research and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikel, Jutta; Reid, Alan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we explore a series of issues and tensions raised by the papers in this Special Issue of "Environmental Education Research." This papers focus on developments in environmental education and ESD research in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. In order to provide an alternative framework for contextualising and understanding…

  2. Interactive Research on Innovations in Vocational Education and Training (VET): Lessons from Dutch and German Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchert, Joanna; Hoeve, Aimée; Kämäräinen, Pekka

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on two examples of interactive research (IR) in vocational education and training. IR is a process which brings together practitioners and researchers with the aim to implement an innovation. This innovation in the first project meant to create a hybrid learning environment; in the second it supported introducing digital media…

  3. Covert Operation ``Sun God'' - History of German Solar Research in the Third Reich and Under Allied Occupation (German Title: Kommandosache ``Sonnengott'' - Geschichte der deutschen Sonnenforschung im Dritten Reich und unter alliierter Besatzung)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, Michael P.

    Between 1939 and 1945 the Luftwaffe of the Third Reich invested large sums in solar research and the establishment of a chain of solar observatories under the code word “Sun God”. Observations of the different phenomena of solar activity were intended to allow a dependable daily prediction of the best frequency bands for long-range military radio. For the development of these research activities the Luftwaffe used a young astrophysicist, who - being the son of a well-known leftist publisher of the Weimar Republic - did appear not well suited to perform “war decisive research” for the Nazi regime: Karl-Otto Kiepenheuer (1910-1975). Circumventing the usual academic tenure, Hitler's war turned the barely thirty-year-old and up to then rather unsuccessful Kiepenheuer into an influential director of a research institution, which he was to remain for the next three decades as well. This book recounts the history of German solar research in the period 1939-1949, her entanglement with the crimes of the Nazi regime as well as her use by the Western Allies until the founding of the German Federal Republic.

  4. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    PubMed

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  5. Utilization of psychosocial care and oncological follow-up assessments among German long-term survivors of cancer with onset during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Dieluweit, U; Seitz, D C M; Besier, T; Debatin, K-M; Grabow, D; Kaatsch, P; Goldbeck, L

    2011-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric cancer are at increased risk for medical and psychosocial late effects. This study retrospectively investigated the utilization of oncological and psychosocial care by former adolescent cancer patients (≥ 5 years since cancer diagnosis) in Germany. Based on data of the German Childhood Cancer Registry (N=1 876 survivors of cancer with an age at diagnosis between 15 and 18 years), the study cohort comprised 820 survivors of adolescent cancer (time since diagnosis: M=13.7, SD=6.0, age at follow-up: M=30.4, SD=6.0 years). Survivors of adolescent cancer completed standardized questionnaires measuring symptoms of posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety as well as items on their utilization of medical and psychosocial care. More than a quarter (26.2%) of the survivors was no longer attending regular oncological follow-up assessments. Less than half of the survivors (44.4%) had received psychosocial care, mostly during their in-patient cancer treatment and their post-acute rehabilitation phase. Out of 184 survivors showing clinically relevant symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and/or depression at time of the study, 12.0% received psychosocial care and 13.6% took psychotropic medication. It should be studied further why only a small proportion of the survivors showing clinically relevant symptoms received psychosocial or psychopharmacological treatment. Systematic oncological follow-up assessments should take psychological late effects into greater account. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. [Thyroid hormone action beyond classical concepts. The priority programme "Thyroid Trans Act" (SPP 1629) of the German Research Foundation].

    PubMed

    Führer, D; Brix, K; Biebermann, H

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are of crucial importance for the function of nearly all organ systems. In case of dysfunction of thyroid hormone production and function many organ systems may be affected. The estimation of normal thyroid function is based on determination of TSH and the thyroid hormones T3 and T4. However, international conventions about the normal TSH range are still lacking which bears consequences for patient`s treatment. Hence not unexpected, many patients complain although their thyroid hormone status is in the normal range by clinical estimation. Here, more precise parameters are needed for a better definition of the healthy thyroid status of an individual. Recently, new key players in the system of thyroid hormone action were detected, like specific transporters for uptake of thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone derivatives. DFG, the German Research Foundation supports the priority program Thyroid Trans Act to find answers to the main question: what defines the healthy thyroid status of an individual. The overall aim of this interdisciplinary research consortium is to specify physiological and pathophysiological functions of thyroid hormone transporters and thyroid hormone derivative as new players in thyroid regulation in order to better evaluate, treat, and prevent thyroid-related disease.

  7. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A fully-funded postdoctoral position is available in the Women’s Malignancies Branch in the laboratory of Patricia S. Steeg, Ph.D. The laboratory focuses on molecular and cellular aspects of cancer metastasis, and translation of experimental data to the clinic. The research project will center on suppression of metastasis via tumor-derived vesicles using in vitro and in vivo breast cancer model systems and analysis of human tissues. The goal of the research is to move promising findings toward clinical application. 

  8. About the Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Gastrointestinal and Other Cancers Research Group conducts and supports prevention and early detection research on colorectal, esophageal, liver, pancreatic, and hematolymphoid cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. |

  9. New targets for immunotherapy-based treatment of HPV-related cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at the Center for Cancer Research and three other cancer research institutions show that immunotherapy treatments that resulted in complete regression of metastatic cervical cancer largely targeted two non-viral antigens. Read more…  

  10. [Determination of interval cancer rates in the German mammography screening program using population-based cancer registry data].

    PubMed

    Urbschat, I; Heidinger, O

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of interval cancers (ICA) and false-negative diagnoses (FND) is important for the quality assurance of the mammography screening program (MSP) for women aged 50-69 years. We aimed to investigate ICA in the states of Lower Saxony (NDS) and North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW). ICA could be identified by record linkage of data from screening attendees (TN) with data from population-based cancer registries. The frequencies of ICA and FND are described, and problems in the categorization of ICA according to EU guidelines are discussed. Record linkage in the cancer registries was performed with the encrypted data from 83,724 TN in NDS and 885,940 TN in NRW. ICA were identified; in NDS, ICA were categorized by the regional MSP reference center. In all, 208 ICA in NDS and 2.018 ICA in NRW were ascertained. In relation to the regional background incidence rate (IR), the relative ICA rates were 22.5%/26.7% in the first year after screening (recommendation of EU guidelines <30% of IR) and 55.6%/54.2% in the second year after screening (recommendation of EU guidelines <50% of IR). It was found that 17.3% of all categorized ICA in NDS were FND (recommendation of EU guidelines <20%). The relative ICA rates for the 2-year interval are consistent with the recommendations of the EU guidelines. Unlike in NDS, the categorization of ICA was not possible in NRW. The MSP needs the diagnostic mammograms of all ICA in order to identify FND. However, data protection regulations are hindering this process and nationwide comparability of FND is therefore not guaranteed. In NDS, the state government has enacted laws to facilitate the transfer of diagnostic mammograms to the MSP. There is need for this sort of action in other federal states too.

  11. [Ten years national research project "familial prostate cancer": problems in identifying risk families].

    PubMed

    Herkommer, K; Schmidt, C; Gschwend, J E

    2011-07-01

    The German national research project"familial prostate cancer" has been recruiting prostate cancer patients nationwide since 1999. In 2009, a comprehensive data analysis of the 25,065 families recruited was performed. Of these, 77.4% were identified as sporadic, 20.0% as familial and 2.6% as hereditary cases of prostate cancer. However, obtaining comprehensive, validated information about all relatives often fails. The high average age of the patients, the lower life expectancy in further generations and the low number of first-degree male relatives hampers the classification of sporadic, familial and hereditary cases. Consequently we describe here that in our database the identification of 100 hereditary cases requires a recruitment of more than 5,000 patients with their families. For 100 sporadic patients with 2 first-degree male relatives without a case history 1,250 patients are needed.

  12. Translational Research and Plasma Proteomic in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Santini, Annamaria Chiara; Giovane, Giancarlo; Auletta, Adelaide; Di Carlo, Angelina; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Cito, Letizia; Astarita, Carlo; Giordano, Antonio; Alfano, Roberto; Feola, Antonia; Di Domenico, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Proteomics is a recent field of research in molecular biology that can help in the fight against cancer through the search for biomarkers that can detect this disease in the early stages of its development. Proteomic is a speedily growing technology, also thanks to the development of even more sensitive and fast mass spectrometry analysis. Although this technique is the most widespread for the discovery of new cancer biomarkers, it still suffers of a poor sensitivity and insufficient reproducibility, essentially due to the tumor heterogeneity. Common technical shortcomings include limitations in the sensitivity of detecting low abundant biomarkers and possible systematic biases in the observed data. Current research attempts are trying to develop high-resolution proteomic instrumentation for high-throughput monitoring of protein changes that occur in cancer. In this review, we describe the basic features of the proteomic tools which have proven to be useful in cancer research, showing their advantages and disadvantages. The application of these proteomic tools could provide early biomarkers detection in various cancer types and could improve the understanding the mechanisms of tumor growth and dissemination.

  13. Facility Head | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Facility HeadConfocal Microscopy Core FacilityLaboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics The Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Genetics (LCBG), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is looking for a motivated and skilled microscopist to fill a Facility Head position to lead its Confocal Microscopy Core Facility. The CCR Microscopy Core provides microscopy equipment and support to approximately 150 active users representing over 20 NCI laboratories. The Core places an emphasis on training independent users, but the staff is available to assist in all phases of experiments. This includes experimental design, data acquisition, and data analysis. The Core provides state-of-the-art microscopic analyses to better understand critical biological structures and cellular processes involved in cancer. The Facility Head will also be expected to participate in the CCR Microscopy Core meetings and to interact extensively with the other microscopy facilities in CCR. Light microscopic techniques and analytic methods currently used in this facility include, but are not limited to: 1) co-localization of fluorescent fusion proteins with organelles; 2) demonstration of membrane ruffling, cytoskeletal organization, focal adhesions and other cell morphology; 3) live time-lapse translocation of fluorescent fusion proteins; 4) fluorescent indicators of oxidative stress in live cells; 5) 4D imaging of cell division; 6) Super-Resolution imaging; 7) tiling; 8) Fluorescent Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET); 9) Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS); 10) Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM); and, 11) Second Harmonic Generation imaging (SHG) of whole live tissue/organ. The Facility's equipment includes a Zeiss LSM 710 NLO for two-photon imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780 for higher sensitivity imaging, a Zeiss LSM 780/ELYRA for super-resolution imaging of fixed cells, and the Zeiss LSM 880/Airyscan for super-resolution imaging of live and

  14. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  15. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    PubMed Central

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  16. Prostate cancer mortality risk in relation to working underground in the Wismut cohort study of German uranium miners, 1970–2003

    PubMed Central

    Dufey, Florian; Tschense, Annemarie; Schnelzer, Maria; Sogl, Marion; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Objective A recent study and comprehensive literature review has indicated that mining could be protective against prostate cancer. This indication has been explored further here by analysing prostate cancer mortality in the German ‘Wismut’ uranium miner cohort, which has detailed information on the number of days worked underground. Design An historical cohort study of 58 987 male mine workers with retrospective follow-up before 1999 and prospective follow-up since 1999. Setting and participants Uranium mine workers employed during the period 1970–1990 in the regions of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, contributing 1.42 million person-years of follow-up ending in 2003. Outcome measure Simple standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses were applied to assess differences between the national and cohort prostate cancer mortality rates and complemented by refined analyses done entirely within the cohort. The internal comparisons applied Poisson regression excess relative prostate cancer mortality risk model with background stratification by age and calendar year and a whole range of possible explanatory covariables that included days worked underground and years worked at high physical activity with γ radiation treated as a confounder. Results The analysis is based on miner data for 263 prostate cancer deaths. The overall SMR was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.95). A linear excess relative risk model with the number of years worked at high physical activity and the number of days worked underground as explanatory covariables provided a statistically significant fit when compared with the background model (p=0.039). Results (with 95% CIs) for the excess relative risk per day worked underground indicated a statistically significant (p=0.0096) small protective effect of −5.59 (−9.81 to −1.36) ×10−5. Conclusion Evidence is provided from the German Wismut cohort in support of a protective effect from working underground on prostate cancer mortality risk. PMID

  17. Prostate cancer mortality risk in relation to working underground in the Wismut cohort study of German uranium miners, 1970-2003.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Linda; Dufey, Florian; Tschense, Annemarie; Schnelzer, Maria; Sogl, Marion; Kreuzer, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    A recent study and comprehensive literature review has indicated that mining could be protective against prostate cancer. This indication has been explored further here by analysing prostate cancer mortality in the German 'Wismut' uranium miner cohort, which has detailed information on the number of days worked underground. An historical cohort study of 58 987 male mine workers with retrospective follow-up before 1999 and prospective follow-up since 1999. Uranium mine workers employed during the period 1970-1990 in the regions of Saxony and Thuringia, Germany, contributing 1.42 million person-years of follow-up ending in 2003. Simple standardised mortality ratio (SMR) analyses were applied to assess differences between the national and cohort prostate cancer mortality rates and complemented by refined analyses done entirely within the cohort. The internal comparisons applied Poisson regression excess relative prostate cancer mortality risk model with background stratification by age and calendar year and a whole range of possible explanatory covariables that included days worked underground and years worked at high physical activity with γ radiation treated as a confounder. The analysis is based on miner data for 263 prostate cancer deaths. The overall SMR was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.95). A linear excess relative risk model with the number of years worked at high physical activity and the number of days worked underground as explanatory covariables provided a statistically significant fit when compared with the background model (p=0.039). Results (with 95% CIs) for the excess relative risk per day worked underground indicated a statistically significant (p=0.0096) small protective effect of -5.59 (-9.81 to -1.36) ×10(-5). Evidence is provided from the German Wismut cohort in support of a protective effect from working underground on prostate cancer mortality risk.

  18. Cancer Core Europe: a consortium to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum challenge.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Caldas, Carlos; Ringborg, Ulrik; Medema, René; Tabernero, Josep; Wiestler, Otmar

    2014-11-01

    European cancer research for a transformative initiative by creating a consortium of six leading excellent comprehensive cancer centres that will work together to address the cancer care-cancer research continuum. Prerequisites for joint translational and clinical research programs are very demanding. These require the creation of a virtual single 'e-hospital' and a powerful translational platform, inter-compatible clinical molecular profiling laboratories with a robust underlying computational biology pipeline, standardised functional and molecular imaging, commonly agreed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for liquid and tissue biopsy procurement, storage and processing, for molecular diagnostics, 'omics', functional genetics, immune-monitoring and other assessments. Importantly also it requires a culture of data collection and data storage that provides complete longitudinal data sets to allow for: effective data sharing and common database building, and to achieve a level of completeness of data that is required for conducting outcome research, taking into account our current understanding of cancers as communities of evolving clones. Cutting edge basic research and technology development serve as an important driving force for innovative translational and clinical studies. Given the excellent track records of the six participants in these areas, Cancer Core Europe will be able to support the full spectrum of research required to address the cancer research- cancer care continuum. Cancer Core Europe also constitutes a unique environment to train the next generation of talents in innovative translational and clinical oncology.

  19. Unlocking Data for Clinical Research - The German i2b2 Experience.

    PubMed

    Ganslandt, T; Mate, S; Helbing, K; Sax, U; Prokosch, H U

    2011-01-01

    Data from clinical care is increasingly being used for research purposes. The i2b2 platform has been introduced in some US research communities as a tool for data integration and querying by clinical users. The purpose of this project was to assess the applicability of i2b2 in Germany regarding use cases, functionality and integration with privacy enhancing tools. A set of four research usage scenarios was chosen, including the transformation and import of ontology and fact data from existing clinical data collections into i2b2 v1.4 instances. Query performance was measured in comparison to native SQL queries. A setup and administration tool for i2b2 was developed. An extraction tool for CDISC ODM data was programmed. Interfaces for the TMF privacy enhancing tools (PID Generator, Pseudonymization Service) were implemented. Data could be imported in all tested scenarios from various source systems, including the generation of i2b2 ontology definitions. The integration of TMF privacy enhancing tools was possible without modification of the platform. Limitations were found regarding query performance in comparison to native SQL and certain temporal queries. i2b2 is a viable platform for data query tasks in use cases typical for networked medical research in Germany. The integration of privacy enhancing tools facilitates the use of i2b2 within established data protection concepts. Entry barriers should be lowered by providing tools for simplified setup and import of medical standard formats like CDISC ODM.

  20. Researching Religious Education Journals: Methodology and Selected Results from a German Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik; Moschner, Sara; Muller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project concerning the development of religious education as an academic discipline in Germany during the twentieth century. Applying a methodology that has been of growing interest in a number of fields, the project proceeded by analysing major religious education journals published between 1900 and 1975. The…

  1. Researching Religious Education Journals: Methodology and Selected Results from a German Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik; Moschner, Sara; Muller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a research project concerning the development of religious education as an academic discipline in Germany during the twentieth century. Applying a methodology that has been of growing interest in a number of fields, the project proceeded by analysing major religious education journals published between 1900 and 1975. The…

  2. Breast Cancer Research Update | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National ... sheet Extended Drug Therapy Benefits Some Women with Breast Cancer Results from a recent clinical trial showed that ...

  3. What's New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hypopharyngeal Cancer About Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer What’s New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancers Research and Treatment? ... to better tests for early detection and to new targeted treatments. Chemoprevention Chemoprevention is the use of ...

  4. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Salivary Gland Cancer About Salivary Gland Cancer What’s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment? Medical ... they hope to use this information to develop new treatments that work better and cause fewer side ...

  5. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bile Duct Cancer About Bile Duct Cancer What’s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment? Bile ... is tumor blood vessels. Bile duct tumors need new blood vessels to grow beyond a certain size. ...

  6. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Neuro-Oncology Branch (NOB), Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health is seeking outstanding postdoctoral candidates for laboratory research related to brain tumors.  NOB is comprised of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, healthcare providers, and scientists who are dedicated to developing new therapies and improving outcomes for patients with primary brain and spinal cord tumors. One postdoctoral position is available in the translational research program of NOB.  The position is focused on performing translational research studies on the interaction between gliomas and their microenvironments in glioblastoma.  Major laboratory efforts aim to better understand the genomic, immunologic, and metabolic pathogenic basis of malignant brain tumors with the overriding goal of translating findings to improve patient outcome.

  7. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    ScienceCinema

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2016-07-12

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  8. Isotope Cancer Treatment Research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Weidner, John; Nortier, Meiring

    2012-04-11

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced medical isotopes for diagnostic and imaging purposes for more than 30 years. Now LANL researchers have branched out into isotope cancer treatment studies. New results show that an accelerator-based approach can produce clinical trial quantities of actinium-225, an isotope that has promise as a way to kill tumors without damaging surrounding healthy cells.

  9. Partners | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Awardees and Affiliated Institutions Agilent Technologies, Inc., Cambridge, MA Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Biomedical Hosting LLC, Arlington, MA Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Cambridge, MA Brown University, Providence, RI Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA Chang Gung University, Molecular Medicine Research Center, Taoyuan City, Taiwan Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA Fluidigm Corp., Cambridge, MA

  10. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available for a candidate with interests in signal transduction and/or molecular and cellular biology in a NCI intramural research laboratory. Approaches include molecular, biochemical and cell-based assays in cell culture and in vivo mouse cancer models.

  11. Psychiatric governance, völkisch corporatism, and the German Research Institute of Psychiatry in Munich (1912-26). Part 1.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J; Burgmair, Wolfgang; Weber, Matthias M

    2016-03-01

    This is the first of two articles exploring in depth some of the early organizational strategies that were marshalled in efforts to found and develop the German Research Institute of Psychiatry (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie) in 1917. After briefly discussing plans for a German research institute before World War I, the article examines the political strategies and networks that Emil Kraepelin used to recruit support for the institute. It argues that his efforts at psychiatric governance can best be understood as a form of völkisch corporatism which sought to mobilize and coordinate a group of players in the service of higher biopolitical and hygienic ends. The article examines the wartime arguments used to justify the institute, the list of protagonists actively engaged in recruiting financial and political support, the various social, scientific and political networks that they exploited, and the local contingencies that had to be negotiated in order to found the research institute.

  12. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1. Brittany T. Jones, Poomy Pandey, Srustidhar Das and Surinder K. Batra. (2010) Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15...else has every thought. She’s currently working in Dr. Surinder K. Batra’s lab, where her research project is to monitor "What effect do Curcumin ...project is supported in part by DOD PC094594 and NCI CA88184.) Brittany Jones – Abstract Therapeutic Potential of Curcumin : Inhibition of MIC-1/GDF-15

  13. The East German Research Landscape in Transition. Part B. Non-University Institutes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-02

    inclusion of orbital magnetic polarization, the study of magnetolastic effects, the inclusion of d- and f- electron shells in a molecular dynamics free...metal adsorbed layers on semiconductor surfaces. - Development of a method of parameter-free molecular - dynamic description of heavy atoms, especially of...molecules, #086 drug research, #016 dust in star-forming regions, #078 dust sensor, #004 dynamics , molecular , free of parameters, #089 dynamics , non

  14. Unlocking Data for Clinical Research – The German i2b2 Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ganslandt, T.; Mate, S.; Helbing, K; Sax, U.; Prokosch, H.U.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Data from clinical care is increasingly being used for research purposes. The i2b2 platform has been introduced in some US research communities as a tool for data integration and querying by clinical users. The purpose of this project was to assess the applicability of i2b2 in Germany regarding use cases, functionality and integration with privacy enhancing tools. Methods A set of four research usage scenarios was chosen, including the transformation and import of ontology and fact data from existing clinical data collections into i2b2 v1.4 instances. Query performance was measured in comparison to native SQL queries. A setup and administration tool for i2b2 was developed. An extraction tool for CDISC ODM data was programmed. Interfaces for the TMF privacy enhancing tools (PID Generator, Pseudonymization Service) were implemented. Results Data could be imported in all tested scenarios from various source systems, including the generation of i2b2 ontology definitions. The integration of TMF privacy enhancing tools was possible without modification of the platform. Limitations were found regarding query performance in comparison to native SQL and certain temporal queries. Conclusions i2b2 is a viable platform for data query tasks in use cases typical for networked medical research in Germany. The integration of privacy enhancing tools facilitates the use of i2b2 within established data protection concepts. Entry barriers should be lowered by providing tools for simplified setup and import of medical standard formats like CDISC ODM. PMID:23616864

  15. [Unemployment and Health: An overview of current research results and data from the 2010 and 2012 German Health Update].

    PubMed

    Kroll, Lars Eric; Müters, Stephan; Lampert, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes the association of unemployment and health using national and international research data. It is based on data from the 2010 and 2012 German Health Update (GEDA), conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. For our analysis, participants aged from 18 to 64 years were selected if they gave information on their unemployment experiences within the five years prior to the study (n = 31,955). The results show that the self-rated health of the unemployed in Germany is significantly worse compared to the workforce. Additionally, the unemployed suffer from medically diagnosed depression. The association of unemployment and health is more pronounced in men than in women for all major outcomes. When compared to workers of the same age, the unemployed smoke more frequently and do less sports. Regarding alcohol consumption, no systematic relationship was found. While the use of medical screening measures for the early detection of diseases is lower among the unemployed than among the employed, they visit general practitioners and hospitals more often than their counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that unemployed people should remain an important target group of preventive measures in Germany and that the corresponding measures should be intensified.

  16. The need for a holistic approach in mangrove-related fisheries research: a specific review of the German and Brazilian research project MADAM.

    PubMed

    Saint-Paul, U; Schneider, H

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the bilateral German-Brazilian mangrove development and management (MADAM) programme (mangrove dynamics and management) was to generate the scientific basis to enable the sustainable stewardship of the resources of the Caeté mangrove estuary in north-east Brazil in the sense of integrated coastal (zone) management. Main emphasis was given to fishes and crabs captured by artisanal fishermen. This paper describes the project strategy as developed and modified in the context of research results obtained over a period of 10 years. It is argued that a continuous discussion process is essential to assess the validity of the strategies formulated at the beginning of a medium-term project, particularly if the project is of an interdisciplinary nature. To achieve this, it was necessary to acquire in-depth knowledge of natural processes as well as of the relevant institutional, cultural, economic, social and political dynamics.

  17. Why is Physics Important to Cancer Research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Anna D.

    Cancer is increasingly described as a ''disease of the genes'', and while the genome (in fact all of the ``omes'') are important information molecules that drive aspects of the initiation and progression of cancer, they are far from the whole story. Cancer is an extraordinarily complex system (in fact a complex of systems) that occurs in three-dimensional space, across multiple scales - and often over extended periods of time. The most challenging issues that plague the cancer field such as metastasis, cellular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy are in large part more rationally explained in the context of the physics of these systems vs. genomics. For example, the biology of metastasis has been studied extensively for decades with little progress. Metastatic disease depends on cells acquiring (or expressing innate information) new properties that enable and sustain their ability to migrate to distant sites. Developing a fundamental understanding of key cancer processes ranging from metastasis to immunotherapeutic responses requires that physicists (and mathematicians and engineers) be integrated into a new generation of cancer research - period! The presentation will focus on those areas where physics is essential - and the how's and whose of achieving the integration required.

  18. Imaging genome abnormalities in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Heng, Henry HQ; Stevens, Joshua B; Liu, Guo; Bremer, Steven W; Ye, Christine J

    2004-01-13

    Increasing attention is focusing on chromosomal and genome structure in cancer research due to the fact that genomic instability plays a principal role in cancer initiation, progression and response to chemotherapeutic agents. The integrity of the genome (including structural, behavioral and functional aspects) of normal and cancer cells can be monitored with direct visualization by using a variety of cutting edge molecular cytogenetic technologies that are now available in the field of cancer research. Examples are presented in this review by grouping these methodologies into four categories visualizing different yet closely related major levels of genome structures. An integrated discussion is also presented on several ongoing projects involving the illustration of mitotic and meiotic chromatin loops; the identification of defective mitotic figures (DMF), a new type of chromosomal aberration capable of monitoring condensation defects in cancer; the establishment of a method that uses Non-Clonal Chromosomal Aberrations (NCCAs) as an index to monitor genomic instability; and the characterization of apoptosis related chromosomal fragmentations caused by drug treatments.

  19. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  20. Hierarchical Decimal Classification of Information Related to Cancer Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, John H.

    The classification may be used (1) to identify cancer research efforts supported by NCI in selected areas of research (at any general or specific level desired), (2) to store information related to cancer research and retrieve this information on request, and (3) to match interests of cancer research scientists against information in published…

  1. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  2. [Evaluation of the German Research Foundation's (GRF) »Clinical Trials Academy for Junior Researchers« - publications and funding profiles].

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Levka; Krummenauer, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Background | The »Clinical Trials Academy for Junior Researchers« is a strategic funding instrument of the German Research Foundation (GRF). In clinical research, this program responds to an increasing lack of qualified clinician scientists. Application for participation in the workshop is based on a self-proposed academy project; participants can furthermore apply for a GRF grant to implement this academy project. This evaluation should quantify publication and third-party-funding profiles after participation in one of the previous GRF junior researchers workshops on clinical trials. Methods | Participants of all four GRF workshops were addressed by a standardized questionnaire to consider the project related number of publications and the cumulative impact factor, as well as the cumulative project-related consequential third-party-funding. Results | 64 of 92 former participants took part in the survey. From 41 implemented projects, 32 were granted with initial financial support by the GRF. 27 publications with a cumulative impact factor of 130 impact factor points (IP) were published by 13 authors. Of the 21 persons who submitted a grant application for subsequent third-party-funding a cumulative total grant volume of 5 223 000 € was reported by 13 participants. Conclusion | Although only 13 out of 64 participants reported impact publications or third-party-funding, respectively, these junior researchers' output can be considered encouraging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Functional genomics in translational cancer research: focus on breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yulug, Isik G; Gur-Dedeoglu, Bala

    2008-01-01

    Conventional molecular and genetic methods for studying cancer are limited to the analysis of one locus at a time. A cluster of genes that are regulated together can be identified by DNA microarray, and the functional relationships can uncover new aspects of cancer biology. Breast cancer can be used to provide a model to demonstrate the current approaches to the molecular analysis of cancer. Meta-analysis is an important tool for the identification and validation of differentially expressed genes to increase power in clinical and biological studies across different sets of data. Recently, meta-analysis approaches have been applied to large collections of microarray datasets to investigate molecular commonalities of multiple cancer types not only to find the common molecular pathways in tumour development but also to compare the individual datasets to other cancer datasets to identify new sets of genes. Several investigators agree that microarray results should be validated. One commonly used method is quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the expression profiles of the target genes obtained through microarray experiments. qRT-PCR is attractive for clinical use, since it can be automated and performed on fresh or archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. The outcome of these analyses might accelerate the application of basic research findings into daily clinical practice through translational research and may have an impact on foreseeing the clinical outcome, predicting tumour response to specific therapy, identification of new prognostic biomarkers, discovering targets for the development of novel therapies and providing further insights into tumour biology.

  4. Storytelling and German Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  5. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  6. Teaching German with TPRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidheiser, James

    2002-01-01

    Outlines the research leading to Total Physical Response (TRP) and later Total Physical Response Storytelling (TPRS) methods. Discusses the day-to-day use in the German classroom of TPRS by an experienced practitioner and explains the reasons for its success. Presents student evaluations of the method and the material available for its use. (AS)

  7. Theodor Benzinger, German pioneer in high altitude physiology research and altitude protection.

    PubMed

    Harsch, Viktor

    2007-09-01

    Theodore Benzinger was a pilot-physician who performed pioneering research-often involving self-experimentation-in areas related to flight at high altitude during World War II. Of greatest historical interest to those of us in aerospace medicine is his work on the effects of rapid decompression and related oxygen equipment. Benzinger was born in Stuttgart, Germany, on 28th August 1905. He studied medicine and natural sciences at the universities of Tuebingen, Munich, and Berlin. From 1934 to 1944, Benzinger headed the aeromedical laboratory "EMed" in Rechlin, where he was instrumental in conducting studies related to stratospheric flight, including self-experimentation with rapid decompression up to 19,000 m (62,320 ft). His Rechlin experiments made an important contribution to understanding the physiology and life-support requirements for high-altitude aviation and later work under space-equivalent conditions. Following World War II, Benzinger joined the staff of the U.S. Army Air Force Aeromedical Center in Heidelberg. In 1947 he was recruited by "Operation Paperclip" to work at the U.S. Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) in Bethesda, MD, where he worked on various aspects of human physiology. He died as a U.S. citizen in Bethesda, MD, on 26th October 1999.

  8. Researchers identify potential therapeutic targets for a rare childhood cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR researchers have identified the mechanism behind a rare but extremely aggressive childhood cancer called alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) and have pinpointed a potential drug target for its treatment. Learn more...

  9. German for physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ben

    2009-04-01

    "German is the language of science" I remember my father telling me as a boy growing up in the Bronx in New York during the 1970s. As I watched astronomy programmes on TV with my father and older brothers, I imagined having to speak ceaselessly in fluent German if I was ever to become a scientist as a grown-up. But when I started my studies at university in New York in the 1980s, I realized my father's advice - sought from weekly trips to the neighbourhood public library - was way out of date. Not only did my physics professors present their research in English at conferences all around the world, but they also published in English-language journals - thus seemingly not needing a single word of German.

  10. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design. PMID:26909134

  11. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Post-doctoral positions in cellular and molecular immunology are available in the lab of Dr. Chuan Wu, Experimental Immunology Branch, National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, MD. The laboratory's research interest focuses on the role of intestinal neuroimmune interactions in health and disease. Specifically, we seek to study cytokine regulation of intestinal peristalsis, reciprocal regulation of colonic Treg cells and enteric neuron, and human enteric neuron system lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in humanized colitis model. More information on projects in the Wu lab can be found here: https://ccr.cancer.gov/Experimental-Immunology-Branch/chuan-wu.

  12. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design.

  13. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are

  14. Basic and Applied Materials Science Research Efforts at MSFC Germane to NASA Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, a number of investigations are ongoing that blend basic research with engineering applications in support of NASA goals. These include (1) "Pore Formation and Mobility (PFMI) " An ISS Glovebox Investigation" NASA Selected Project - 400-34-3D; (2) "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) Project - 279-62-00-16; (3) "Molybdenum - Rhenium (Mo-Re) Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" TD Collaboration - 800-11-02; (4) "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" ED Collaboration - 090-50-10; (5) "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" SD Effort; (6) "Other Research". In brief, "Pore Formation and Mobility" is an experiment to be conducted in the ISS Microgravity Science Glovebox that will systematically investigate the development, movement, and interactions of bubbles (porosity) during the controlled directional solidification of a transparent material. In addition to promoting our general knowledge of porosity physics, this work will serve as a guide to future ISS experiments utilizing metal alloys. "Interactions Between Rotating Bodies" is a CDDF sponsored project that is critically examining, through theory and experiment, claims of "new" physics relating to gravity modification and electric field effects. "Molybdenum - Rhenium Alloys for Nuclear Fuel Containment" is a TD collaboration in support of nuclear propulsion. Mo-Re alloys are being evaluated and developed for nuclear fuel containment. "Fabrication of Alumina - Metal Composites for Propulsion Components" is an ED collaboration with the intent of increasing strength and decreasing weight of metal engine components through the incorporation of nanometer-sized alumina fibers. "Radiation Shielding for Deep-Space Missions" is an SD effort aimed at minimizing the health risk from radiation to human space voyagers; work to date has been primarily programmatic but experiments to develop hydrogen-rich materials for shielding are

  15. Senior Clinician | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR), NCI, NIH, HHS is seeking to fill several Senior Clinician positions with outstanding oncologists with research experience and expertise in one of the following areas:  1) genitourinary malignancies, 2) thoracic malignancies; 3) gastrointestinal malignancies; 4) lymphomas; 5) pediatric cancers; or 6) genetic tumor predisposition syndromes. These positions are located at the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The NIH Clinical Center is the world’s largest research hospital which offers state-of-the-art facilities, collaborative opportunities, and core facilities for advanced technologies.  The Senior Clinician will have available resources including funding for clinical trials, nurse practitioners, research nurses, and patient care coordinators.  In addition, the senior clinician will have access to a robust clinical trials infrastructure including data management, training, protocol support office, regulatory support, information systems and technology, and data safety monitoring.  The CCR’s collaborative culture also offers research staff access to a wide array of intellectual and technological assets, including high-quality technology cores dedicated to pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, protein chemistry, natural products chemistry, biophysics, mass spectrometry, imaging, microscopy, proteomics and genomics, bioinformatics/biostatistics, and flow cytometry.  For an overview of CCR, please visit http://ccr.cancer.gov/.  For more information contact Lori Holliday at hollidal@mail.nih.gov.

  16. MaNIDA: Integration of marine expedition information, data and publications: Data Portal of German Marine Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koppe, Roland; Scientific MaNIDA-Team

    2013-04-01

    The Marine Network for Integrated Data Access (MaNIDA) aims to build a sustainable e-infrastructure to support discovery and re-use of marine data from distinct data providers in Germany (see related abstracts in session ESSI 1.2). In order to provide users integrated access and retrieval of expedition or cruise metadata, data, services and publications as well as relationships among the various objects, we are developing (web) applications based on state of the art technologies: the Data Portal of German Marine Research. Since the German network of distributed content providers have distinct objectives and mandates for storing digital objects (e.g. long-term data preservation, near real time data, publication repositories), we have to cope with heterogeneous metadata in terms of syntax and semantic, data types and formats as well as access solutions. We have defined a set of core metadata elements which are common to our content providers and therefore useful for discovery and building relationships among objects. Existing catalogues for various types of vocabularies are being used to assure the mapping to community-wide used terms. We distinguish between expedition metadata and continuously harvestable metadata objects from distinct data providers. • Existing expedition metadata from distinct sources is integrated and validated in order to create an expedition metadata catalogue which is used as authoritative source for expedition-related content. The web application allows browsing by e.g. research vessel and date, exploring expeditions and research gaps by tracklines and viewing expedition details (begin/end, ports, platforms, chief scientists, events, etc.). Also expedition-related objects from harvesting are dynamically associated with expedition information and presented to the user. Hence we will provide web services to detailed expedition information. • Other harvestable content is separated into four categories: archived data and data products, near

  17. The Caater Facility Falcon of the German Aerospace Cente: A multipurpose airborne research Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giez, A.; Krautstrunk, M.

    2003-04-01

    The DLR research aircraft Falcon D-CMET was available to scientists through an EC-funded IHP-ARI contract. 9 different research projects have been funded by CAATER on the Falcon with an average of about 10 flight hours per project. More than 20 users from 5 countries have benefited from this access project between 1999--2003. As a fan jet the Falcon covers a wide atmospheric range between the boundary layer and the lower stratosphere. Many modifications have been added to the aircraft to provide suitable interfaces for the scientific payload: openings in the fuselage to house large optical windows and inlets for in situ experiments, hard points under wings and fuselage, additional electrical generators and standardized electrical and mechanical interfaces for the installation of scientific instrumentation onboard. The Falcon is equipped with a data acquisition system and a basic instrumentation providing data on aircraft parameters and meteorology for the scientific users. Additional instrumentation is available from the different DLR institutes in Oberpfaffenhofen and can be added to the aircraft. CAATER users have access to an extensive infrastructure on the ground which includes workshops, calibration setups, an environmental simulation chamber and an own user lab. They are supported by several groups within the Facility who lead them through the different steps of an airborne field experiment such as certification and installation of their instruments on the aircraft, campaign and flight planning and the processing and preparation of aircraft data right after a flight. The users have been stimulated to use DLR's Approved Design Organisation status together with its Airworthiness Office to develop and operate new airborne instrumentation . Several new instrument packages have been installed and certified for the first time on the Falcon within CAATER.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 12-13, 2017 from 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM at the Natcher Conference Center, Balcony A on the Bethesda campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview of the general principles of statistical analysis of research data. The course will be taught by Paul W. Thurman of Columbia University.

  19. Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-21

    kidney cancer, blood cancer, colorectal Peer Reviewed Cancer Research Program Fiscal Year 2012 Report to Congress 5 cancer, Listeria vaccine for cancer... Listeria vaccine for infectious disease and cancer, and radiation protection utilizing nanotechnology. This was later revised to remove Listeria ...genetic cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, blood cancer, colorectal cancer, mesothelioma, and Listeria vaccine for infectious disease and cancer

  20. Psychiatric governance, völkisch corporatism, and the German Research Institute of Psychiatry in Munich (1912-26). Part 2.

    PubMed

    Engstrom, Eric J; Burgmair, Wolfgang; Weber, Matthias M

    2016-06-01

    This is the second of two articles exploring in depth some of the early organizational strategies that were marshalled in efforts to found and develop the German Research Institute of Psychiatry (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie). The first article analysed the strategies of psychiatric governance - best understood as a form of völkisch corporatism - that mobilized a group of stakeholders in the service of higher bio-political and hygienic ends. This second article examines how post-war imperatives and biopolitical agendas shaped the institute's organization and research. It also explores the financial challenges the institute faced amidst the collapse of the German financial system in the early Weimar Republic, including efforts to recruit financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation and other philanthropists in the USA.

  1. Automated payload and instruments for astrobiology research developed and studied by German medium-sized space industry in cooperation with European academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Wolfgang; Hofer, Stefan; Hofmann, Peter; Thiele, Hans; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Toporski, Jan; Rettberg, Petra

    2007-06-01

    For more than a decade Kayser-Threde, a medium-sized enterprise of the German space industry, has been involved in astrobiology research in partnership with a variety of scientific institutes from all over Europe. Previous projects include exobiology research platforms in low Earth orbit on retrievable carriers and onboard the Space Station. More recently, exobiology payloads for in situ experimentation on Mars have been studied by Kayser-Threde under ESA contracts, specifically the ExoMars Pasteur Payload. These studies included work on a sample preparation and distribution systems for Martian rock/regolith samples, instrument concepts such as Raman spectroscopy and a Life Marker Chip, advanced microscope systems as well as robotic tools for astrobiology missions. The status of the funded technical studies and major results are presented. The reported industrial work was funded by ESA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR).

  2. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    One fully-funded postdoctoral position is available for a highly-motivated individual to study cancer immunotherapy at the National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch.  Projects will focus on translational research aimed at developing new chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies for cancer.  The overall goal of the group is improving chimeric antigen receptor therapies for hematological malignancies.  A wide variety of activities are carried out by the group including development of new chimeric antigen receptors, optimizing gene therapy technologies, cellular immunology including in vitro and ex vivo studies, murine models of hematological malignancies, and clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapies. 

  3. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  4. Applications of Genetic Programming in Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Worzel, William P.; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.

    2012-01-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allows scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future. PMID:18929677

  5. Cranberries: ripe for more cancer research?

    PubMed

    Neto, Catherine C

    2011-10-01

    Berries have been recognized as a functional food with potential to protect against a variety of health conditions, including some cancers. Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) production and consumption have grown in recent years, warranting further evaluation of potential health benefits. Extracts and isolated constituents from cranberry fruit inhibit growth and proliferation of tumor cells in vitro, and recent data from animal studies lend further support to cranberry's reputation as a cancer fighter. Several likely mechanisms of action for cranberry against prostate and other cancers have been identified, including induction of apoptosis and inhibition of events linked to cellular invasion and migration. This article attempts to put into perspective what is known about cranberry's potential chemopreventive properties, what is yet to be determined, and some factors to consider as research moves forward. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Linguistic validation of the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use, for German residential long term care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To study the association between organizational context and research utilization in German residential long term care (LTC), we translated three Canadian assessment instruments: the Alberta Context Tool (ACT), Estabrooks’ Kinds of Research Utilization (RU) items and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale. Target groups for the tools were health care aides (HCAs), registered nurses (RNs), allied health professionals (AHPs), clinical specialists and care managers. Through a cognitive debriefing process, we assessed response processes validity–an initial stage of validity, necessary before more advanced validity assessment. Methods We included 39 participants (16 HCAs, 5 RNs, 7 AHPs, 5 specialists and 6 managers) from five residential LTC facilities. We created lists of questionnaire items containing problematic items plus items randomly selected from the pool of remaining items. After participants completed the questionnaires, we conducted individual semi-structured cognitive interviews using verbal probing. We asked participants to reflect on their answers for list items in detail. Participants’ answers were compared to concept maps defining the instrument concepts in detail. If at least two participants gave answers not matching concept map definitions, items were revised and re-tested with new target group participants. Results Cognitive debriefings started with HCAs. Based on the first round, we modified 4 of 58 ACT items, 1 ACT item stem and all 8 items of the RU tools. All items were understood by participants after another two rounds. We included revised HCA ACT items in the questionnaires for the other provider groups. In the RU tools for the other provider groups, we used different wording than the HCA version, as was done in the original English instruments. Only one cognitive debriefing round was needed with each of the other provider groups. Conclusion Cognitive debriefing is essential to detect and respond to problematic instrument

  7. What`s New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Cervical Cancer What's New in Cervical Cancer Research and Treatment? New ways to prevent and treat ... This drug continues to be studied. Hyperthermia Some research indicates that adding hyperthermia to radiation may help ...

  8. Antibody Characterization Lab | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Antibody Characterization Lab (ACL), an intramural reference laboratory located at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Frederick, Maryland, thoroughly characterizes monoclonal antibodies or other renewable affinity binding reagents for use in cancer related research.

  9. Publication activities of German junior researchers in academic medicine: which factors impact impact factors?

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Mona; Fischer, Martin R; Bauer, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    Previous studies have shown medical students in Germany to have little interest in research while at the same time there is a lack of physician scientists. This study's aim is to investigate factors influencing publication productivity of physicians during and after finishing their medical doctorate. We conducted a PubMed search for physicians having received their doctoral degree at Ludwig-Maxmilians-University Munich Faculty of Medicine between 2011 and 2013 (N = 924) and identified the appropriate impact factor (IF) for each journal the participants had published in. Gender, age, final grade of the doctorate, participation in a structured doctoral study program and joint publication activities between graduate and academic supervisor were defined as factors. For analyses we used nonparametric procedures. Men show significantly more publications than women. Before their doctoral graduation men publish 1.98 (SD ± 3.64) articles on average, women 1.15 (±2.67) (p < 0.0001, d = 0.27). After completion of the doctorate (up to 06/2015), 40 % of men still publish, while only 24.3 % of women (p < 0.0001, φ = 0.17) continue to publish. No differences were found concerning the value of IFs. Similar results were found regarding the variable 'participation in a structured doctoral study program'. Until doctoral graduation, program participants publish 2.82 (±5.41) articles, whereas participants doing their doctorate individually only publish 1.39 (±2.87) articles (p < 0.0001, d = 0.46). These differences persist in publication activities after graduation (45.5 vs. 29.7 %, p = 0.008, φ = 0.09). A structured doctorate seems to have positive influence on IFs (4.33 ± 2.91 vs. 3.37 ± 2.82, p = 0.006, d = 0.34). Further significant results concern the variables 'final grade' and 'age': An early doctoral graduation and an excellent or very good grade for the doctoral thesis positively influence publication

  10. VIROTHERAPY RESEARCH IN GERMANY - FROM ENGINEERING TO TRANSLATION A Review as contribution to the Combined Annual Meeting of the German and European Societies of Gene (and Cell) Therapy 2017.

    PubMed

    Ungerechts, Guy; Engeland, Christine E; Buchholz, Christian J; Eberle, Jürgen; Fechner, Henry; Geletneky, Karsten; Holm, Per Sonne; Kreppel, Florian; Kühnel, Florian; Lang, Karl Sebastian; Leber, Mathias F; Marchini, Antonio; Moehler, Markus; Mühlebach, Michael D; Rommelaere, Jean; Springfeld, Christoph; Lauer, Ulrich M; Nettelbeck, Dirk M

    2017-09-04

    Virotherapy is a unique modality for treatment of cancer with oncolytic viruses (OVs) that selectively infect and lyse tumor cells, spread within tumors, and activate anti-tumor immunity. Different viruses are being developed as OVs preclinically and clinically, several of them engineered to encode therapeutic proteins for tumor-targeted gene therapy. Scientists and clinicians in Germany have made significant contributions to OV research and development, which are highlighted in this review article. Innovative strategies for "shielding", entry- or post-entry targeting, and "arming" of OVs have been established focusing on adeno-, measles, parvo-, and vaccinia virus platforms. Thereby, new generation virotherapeutics have been derived. Moreover, immunotherapeutic properties of OVs and combination therapies with pharmaco-, radio- and especially immunotherapy have been investigated and optimized. German investigators are increasingly assessing their OV innovations in investigator-initiated and sponsored clinical trials. As prototype, parvovirus has been tested as OV from preclinical proof-of-concept up to first-in-man clinical studies. The approval of the first OV in the western world, T-VEC (Imlygic TM), has further spurred involvement of investigators in Germany in international multicenter studies. With the recent encouraging developments in funding, commercialization and regulatory procedures, more German engineering will be translated into OV clinical trials in the near future.

  11. [Markers of prostate cancer stem cells: research advances].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shun-Qi; Huang, Sheng-Song

    2013-12-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most seriously malignant diseases threatening men's health, and the mechanisms of its initiation and progression are not yet completely understood. Recent years have witnessed distinct advances in researches on prostate cancer stem cells in many aspects using different sources of materials, such as human prostate cancer tissues, human prostate cancer cell lines, and mouse models of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer stem cell study offers a new insight into the mechanisms of the initiation and progression of prostate cancer and contributes positively to its treatment. This article presents an overview on the prostate cancer stem cell markers utilized in the isolation and identification of prostate cancer stem cells.

  12. Death-Related Anxiety in Patients With Advanced Cancer: Validation of the German Version of the Death and Dying Distress Scale.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Dorit; Scheffold, Katharina; Friedrich, Michael; Hartung, Tim J; Schulz-Kindermann, Frank; Lordick, Florian; Schilling, Georgia; Lo, Chris; Rodin, Gary; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-10-01

    Distress and anxiety about issues related to death and dying is commonly experienced in patients with advanced disease and a limited life expectancy. To evaluate the psychometric properties of the German version of the Death and Dying Distress Scale (DADDS-G) in advanced cancer patients. We recruited advanced patients with mixed tumor entities (Union for International Cancer Control [UICC] Stage III/IV) treated in two German University Medical Centers during their outpatient treatment. After testing a preliminary version of the state-of-the-art translated original Death and Dying Distress Scale, we analyzed the psychometric properties of the shortened nine-item adapted DADDS-G using validated instruments measuring distress, anxiety, depression, fear of progression, and quality of life. We obtained complete questionnaires from 77 of 93 patients with advanced cancer (response rate: 83%). Participants were mostly married or cohabiting (75%), well-educated, and both sexes were almost equally represented (52% men; mean age 58 years, SD = 12). The total mean DADDS-G score was 13.3 (SD = 8.5). Patients reported to be most distressed by the feeling of being a burden to others. The exploratory factor analysis led to one factor that accounted for more than 59% of the variance. The DADDS-G's internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha = 0.91. The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a very good model fit. Death-related anxiety was significantly associated with distress, depression, anxiety, fear of progression, and lower quality of life (P < 0.001). Results provide further evidence that the DADDS-G is a valid and reliable instrument of high clinical relevance for use in patients with advanced cancer. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subsequent malignancies among long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis of German cancer registry data (1990-2012).

    PubMed

    Baras, Nadia; Dahm, Stefan; Haberland, Jörg; Janz, Martin; Emrich, Katharina; Kraywinkel, Klaus; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2017-04-01

    The increased risk of subsequent primary malignancies (SPM) in survivors of adult-onset Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains a challenging clinical problem worldwide. The German cancer registry database, pooled from 14 federal states, was used to calculate the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) of SPM in 128 587 patients registered with first primary HL/NHL between 1990 and 2012. Conversely, SIRs were also calculated for a subsequent HL/NHL following other first cancers. The risk of developing SPM was significantly increased over twofold for HL survivors (SIR = 2·14, EAR = 51·87 cases/10 000 person-years) and 1·5-fold for NHL survivors (SIR = 1·48, EAR = 55·23) compared with the general German population. For solid cancers, SIRs were significantly elevated (1·6- and 1·4-fold; respectively) and were highest (threefold) in patients below 30 years of age upon initial diagnosis. Overall, SIRs were consistently elevated for lip/oral cavity, colon/rectum, lung, skin melanoma, breast, kidney and thyroid. Significantly increased SIRs for oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, testis, prostate, and brain/central nervous system were observed following NHL only. For certain SPM, SIRs remained significantly elevated more than 10 years following HL/NHL diagnosis. Positive reciprocal associations were demonstrated between HL/NHL and several solid cancers mentioned above; for some, common aetiological mechanisms seem plausible. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quantitative sensory testing in the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): standardized protocol and reference values.

    PubMed

    Rolke, R; Baron, R; Maier, C; Tölle, T R; Treede, R-D; Beyer, A; Binder, A; Birbaumer, N; Birklein, F; Bötefür, I C; Braune, S; Flor, H; Huge, V; Klug, R; Landwehrmeyer, G B; Magerl, W; Maihöfner, C; Rolko, C; Schaub, C; Scherens, A; Sprenger, T; Valet, M; Wasserka, B

    2006-08-01

    The nationwide multicenter trials of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS) aim to characterize the somatosensory phenotype of patients with neuropathic pain. For this purpose, we have implemented a standardized quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol giving a complete profile for one region within 30 min. To judge plus or minus signs in patients we have now established age- and gender-matched absolute and relative QST reference values from 180 healthy subjects, assessed bilaterally over face, hand and foot. We determined thermal detection and pain thresholds including a test for paradoxical heat sensations, mechanical detection thresholds to von Frey filaments and a 64 Hz tuning fork, mechanical pain thresholds to pinprick stimuli and blunt pressure, stimulus/response-functions for pinprick and dynamic mechanical allodynia, and pain summation (wind-up ratio). QST parameters were region specific and age dependent. Pain thresholds were significantly lower in women than men. Detection thresholds were generally independent of gender. Reference data were normalized to the specific group means and variances (region, age, gender) by calculating z-scores. Due to confidence limits close to the respective limits of the possible data range, heat hypoalgesia, cold hypoalgesia, and mechanical hyperesthesia can hardly be diagnosed. Nevertheless, these parameters can be used for group comparisons. Sensitivity is enhanced by side-to-side comparisons by a factor ranging from 1.1 to 2.5. Relative comparisons across body regions do not offer advantages over absolute reference values. Application of this standardized QST protocol in patients and human surrogate models will allow to infer underlying mechanisms from somatosensory phenotypes.

  15. Partners | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank at the University of Iowa NCI’s OCCPR works closely with The University of Iowa's Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank (DSHB) that distributes all hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies from NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer initiative (CPTC). DSHB supplies researchers with monoclonal antibodies, which may be ordered as tissue culture supernatants, ascites, or concentrate; selected hybridomas are also available as frozen or growing cells.

  16. Improving Cancer Care Through Nursing Research.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research and nurse researchers have been an integral and significant part of the Oncology Nursing Society's (ONS's) history, as evidenced by the development of the Nursing Research Committee within a few years of ONS's establishment. Ruth McCorkle, PhD, RN, FAAN, was the committee's first chairperson in 1979. This was followed by the creation of the Advanced Nursing Research Special Interest Group in 1989 under the leadership of Jean Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN. ONS also began to recognize nurse researchers in 1994 by creating the annual ONS Distinguished Researcher Award to recognize the contributions of a member who has conducted or promoted research that has enhanced the science and practice of oncology nursing. The list of recipients and of their work is impressive and reflects the wide range of our practice areas (see http://bit.ly/1MTC5cp for the recipient list). In addition, the ONS Foundation began funding research in 1981 and has distributed more than $24 million in research grants, research fellowships, and other scholarships, lectures, public education projects, and career development awards (ONS Foundation, 2015). And, in 2006, the Putting Evidence Into Practice resource was unveiled, which provides evidence-based intervention reviews for the 20 most common problems experienced by patients with cancer and their caregivers (www.ons
.org/practice-resources/pep)
.

  17. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  18. Scientific Management Training | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI intramural program is one of the largest centers for cancer research in the world, with approximately 200 principal investigators and 500 postdoctoral fellows. While outstanding scientific research is conducted at NCI, many of the scientists who go on to lead their own laboratories have few management skills. The Scientific Management Training course focuses on personnel and project management. In the “Art of Supervision” section, the emphasis is on the uniqueness of each person and how each staff member should be treated to achieve desired outcomes.

  19. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, Patrick; Dash, Rajesh C; Chilukuri, Ram; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Johnson, Kimberly; Annechiarico, Robert; Cuticchia, A Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™) has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform) tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes. PMID:19108734

  20. Research on bodies of the executed in German anatomy: an accepted method that changed during the Third Reich. Study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    While it is known that bodies of the executed were used for anatomical research in Germany during the Third Reich, it is unclear whether this type of work was unique to the time period or more common in Germany than elsewhere. The dissected persons and the anatomists involved have not been fully investigated. This study of anatomical journals from 1924 to 1951 shows that 166 out of 7,438 [2.2%] German language articles mentioned the use of "material" from the bodies of executed persons. In comparison, only 2 out of 4,702 English language articles explicitly mentioned bodies of the executed. From 1924 to1932, 33 of a total of 3,734 [1%] German articles listed the use of the executed. From 1933 to 1938 the number rose to 46 out of 2,265 [2%], and increased again from 1939 to 1945 to 73 out of 984 [7%]. After the war 15 out of 455 [3%] still dealt with "material" from the executed. German anatomists' familiarity with the use of the executed as a standard for healthy tissues even before 1933 may have contributed to the ease with which they accepted the "opportunities" (large-scale studies and research on women) presented to them by unlimited access to bodies of the executed provided by the abusive National Socialist (NS) legislation and continued using them for some years after the war. German postwar anatomy was built in part on the bodies of NS victims. Information given in some publications will help with further identification of these victims.

  1. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India

    Cancer.gov

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  2. Linguistic Models, Acquisition Theories, and Learner Corpora: Morphological Productivity in SLA Research Exemplified by Complex Verbs in German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lüdeling, Anke; Hirschmann, Hagen; Shadrova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The present study analyzes morphological productivity for complex verbs in second language acquisition by analyzing a corpus of German as a Foreign Language (GFL). It shows that advanced learners of GFL use prefix and particle verbs relatively frequently and productively but less so than native speakers do and discusses these findings in the light…

  3. Loneliness as Related to Various Personality and Environmental Measures: Research with the German Adaptation of the UCLA Loneliness Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Ekkehard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, Freiburg Personality Inventory, and other questions to 247 West German college students. Loneliness was found to be correlated with several personality subscales (psychosomatic complaints, depression, and neuroticism; negative correlation with social skills, self-esteem,…

  4. A Citation-Based Ranking of German-Speaking Researchers in Business Administration with Data of Google Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilger, Alexander; Müller, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Rankings of academics can be constructed in two different ways, either based on journal rankings or based on citations. Although citation-based rankings promise some fundamental advantages they are still not common in German-speaking business administration. However, the choice of the underlying database is crucial. This article argues that for…

  5. Loneliness as Related to Various Personality and Environmental Measures: Research with the German Adaptation of the UCLA Loneliness Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Ekkehard; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Administered University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, Freiburg Personality Inventory, and other questions to 247 West German college students. Loneliness was found to be correlated with several personality subscales (psychosomatic complaints, depression, and neuroticism; negative correlation with social skills, self-esteem,…

  6. A Citation-Based Ranking of German-Speaking Researchers in Business Administration with Data of Google Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilger, Alexander; Müller, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Rankings of academics can be constructed in two different ways, either based on journal rankings or based on citations. Although citation-based rankings promise some fundamental advantages they are still not common in German-speaking business administration. However, the choice of the underlying database is crucial. This article argues that for…

  7. Prostate Cancer Clinical Consortium Clinical Research Site:Targeted Therapies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Cornell Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program (WCMC-PCRP) is a Clinical Research Site of the Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium...effectively bring novel agents and new biomarker driven trials directly to patients 17 Table of Contents Page 1. Introduction...purpose and scope of the research. The Weill Cornell Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program (WCMC-PCRP) is a Clinical Research Site of the

  8. MBCP - Patients - Support Groups | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Support Groups Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN) – a community of advocates, survivors, medical and research professionals united in support of people touched by bladder cancer. American Bladder Cancer Society (ABCS) – ABCS features a bladder cancer forum, treatment center finder, blog, and more . . .

  9. Office Overview | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) aims to improve prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer by enhancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer, advancing proteome/proteogenome science and technology development through community resources (data and reagents), and accelerating the translation of molecular findings into the clinic.

  10. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    mentally disabled teens require special contraceptive care, Contraceptive Technology Update, American Health Consultants: Atlanta, 8 (12), 154-156...International Cancer Care Nurses Attitudes about Cervical Cancer Screening” Sixth Annual Sigma Theta Tau Research Day Conference: Health Disparities...Nurses Attitudes About Cervical Cancer Screening”. Podium presentation at the 13th International Conference on Cancer Nursing 2004: Celebrating

  11. Active Early Detection Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  12. Top classic citations in pancreatic cancer research.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2016-11-29

    The number of times that articles are cited by is widely used to evaluate the impact of an article or an individual author has on its scientific community. This bibliometric analysis aimed to explore the top classic citations in pancreatic cancer (PC) research. A computerized literature search was conducted using the database, the Science Citation Index Expanded. The top 100 highly cited articles were included and further analyzed. The most cited article had 3,032 citations, with a mean of 626 citations per paper. These highly cited articles were published in 37 journals, led by Cancer Research (15 articles). Of the 100 articles, 40 were observational studies, 36 dealt with basic science, and 14 were randomized controlled trials. These articles came from 11 countries, with the USA contributing 79 articles. Fifty-one institutions produced these 100 citation classics, led by Johns Hopkins University (20 articles). Twenty-seven persons authored two or more of the top-cited articles, led by Kern SE (6) and Yeo CJ (5). This analysis of the top highly cited articles allows for the recognition of major advances in PC research and gives a historic perspective on the progress of this specialty of PC research.

  13. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology (LTIB) functions as a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary translational research programmatic effort with the goal of developing novel immunotherapies for cancer. The LTIB strategic plan focuses on the development of novel immunotherapeutics for human cancer, not only as monotherapies, but more importantly, in combination with other immune-mediating modalities, and other conventional or experimental therapies, as part of an immuno-oncology programmatic effort. Within this effort are several research groups, a clinical trials group, and multiple collaborations with intramural and extramural scientific and clinical investigators and with investigators in the private sector. The program takes advantage of the uniqueness of the NCI intramural program in that it spans high-risk basic discovery research in immunology, genomics and tumor biology, through preclinical translational research, to paradigm-shifting clinical trials. Focus is placed on the design and development of novel "off-the-shelf" recombinant immunotherapeutics that can be used in clinical studies at numerous institutions. A major strength of the program is the rapid translation of preclinical studies to hypothesis-generating clinical trials. We are looking for postdoctoral fellows interested in learning immunology and immunotherapy, as well as those postdoctoral fellows with a background and/or interest in experimental pathology.  The position is available immediately. The appointment duration is up to 5 years. Stipends are commensurate with education and experience.

  14. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  15. Crossing the Lexicon: Anglicisms in the German Hip Hop Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garley, Matthew E.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…

  16. Occupational risk factors for skin cancer and the availability of sun protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

    PubMed

    Ruppert, Linda; Ofenloch, Robert; Surber, Christian; Diepgen, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Germany implemented a new occupational disease "squamous cell carcinoma or multiple actinic keratosis due to natural UV radiation (UVR)" into the German ordinance on occupational diseases. Since primary prevention is very important, the aim of this study was to assess the provision of sun protection measures by the employers in vocational school students for outdoor professions. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the availability of sun protection measures at German workplaces and the risk of occupational sunburn by surveying 245 vocational school students working in outdoor occupations. More than 40 % of the students did not receive any sun protection measures by their employer, and 34.5 % of the students got sunburned during work. Working in the shade was a protective factor for occupational sunburn but was merely available for 23.7 % of the outdoor workers. Our study reveals a strong need for effective sun protection measures, including both administrative controls like education and personal protection measures at German outdoor workplaces.

  17. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  18. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    PubMed

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China.

  19. About Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The program supports research in three areas: prevention or treatment of acute or chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment and caregiving (symptom management research); effects on quality of life from cancer, its treatment and caregiving (quality of life research); and end-of-life psychosocial issues, caregiving and treatment strategies (end-of-life research). |

  20. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Neuro-Oncology Branch (NOB) at the NCI Center for Cancer Research, National Institutes of Health (NIH), is seeking outstanding postdoctoral candidates for research related to brain tumors. NOB is comprised of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, healthcare providers, and scientists who are dedicated to developing new therapies and improving outcomes for patients with primary brain and spinal cord tumors. One postdoctoral position is available in the Patient Outcomes Program of the NOB on its exciting translational, interdisciplinary research team. NOB seeks creative and bright individuals who have a keen interest in making a substantial contribution to the understanding of brain tumor biology. A major interest of the lab, and part of a multi-center collaboration, is in exploring the biologic underpinnings of symptoms in central nervous system (CNS) cancer. A current emphasis is on the role of clock genes in modifying risk and alterations in circadian pathways in the occurrence of radiation-induced somnolence, fatigue, and cognitive function. The results from these studies could lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies to improve clinical outcomes of primary CNS tumors.

  2. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  3. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  4. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral position is available in 2018 to study the role of Eph receptors, ephrin ligands, and Wnt signaling pathways in cell movement and morphogenesis. A combination of molecular, cell biological, and biochemical techniques are applied in the amphibian developmental and mammalian culture systems. Our laboratory is located at the NCI at Frederick campus and offers state-of-the-art facilities in an exciting environment for postdoctoral research. The NCI offers competitive postdoctoral stipends. Please visit our website for more information:  https://ccr.cancer.gov/ira-o-daar.

  5. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  6. Published Research - NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has published much exciting and impactful research over the years. Find here a list of all of these listed in PubMed and others across the field of Cancer Nanotechnology.

  7. Highlights from the 2013 national cancer research institute conference.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Cancer research is a multifaceted endeavour that incorporates not only a myriad of techniques and specialties but also encompasses a huge range of disease types. The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK partnership comprising 21 charity and government funders of cancer research along with the Association of British Pharmaceutical Industry. Each year, the NCRI hosts the largest cancer meeting in the UK; bringing together members of the UK cancer research community, research leaders from around the world, health professionals, service users, research funders, and industry to discuss the latest findings in cancer research from a wide range of disciplines. The 2013 NCRI Conference attracted over 1700 delegates and 150 speakers from 15 different countries. The conference programme covered a large range of topic areas including prevention, screening, model systems, the provision of information, survivorship, and end-of-life care. This conference report gives an overview of the plenary sessions at the conference as well as highlights from the parallel sessions.

  8. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  9. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  10. Informed consent, biobank research, and locality: perceptions of breast cancer patients in three European countries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Imme; Desmedt, Christine; Harris, Adrian; Buffa, Francesca; Kollek, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Comparative studies are missing that explore how socio-cultural and institutional circumstances influence patient comprehension and expectations regarding informed consent for current and future research on their tissue and data. This study compares how breast cancer patients in three European countries (the United Kingdom, Belgium, and Germany) who have consented to participate in tumor banking assess the given consent and the accompanying local contextual factors influencing it. Our survey demonstrates that only 59% of the patients in the British survey, but about 90% in the German and Belgian surveys, correctly recalled tissue and data donation for study purposes. Of those who remembered the study participation status correctly, about 90% had altruistic motives. At the same time, approximately half of the survey participants, or even 70% of the Belgians, expected personal benefit from research participation and information on cancer risk within the family. About half of the interviewees, but only 27% of the British participants, definitively wanted to be asked for re-consent for future research. Of the local contextual factors under study, participants' appraisals of medical science and data protection were particularly pertinent. More culturally and contextually sensitive comparative research is needed to better understand patient attitudes toward research participation and tissue donation in the context of biobank research.

  11. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  12. [Strengthen the prevention and health promotion in a science-based way--Results and experience of the German National Prevention Research Initiative].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Kliche, T; Pawils, S; Nöcker, G; Trenker, M; Finck, S; Linden, S; Plaumann, M

    2015-09-01

    From 2004 to 2013, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. Objectives of this programme were the prevention of widespread health risks and diseases and to reinforce health promotion. Within this programme, 4 phases concentrated on socially disadvantaged target groups and on methodical and structural challenges relating to prevention/ health promotion. The projects covered evaluating the effectiveness of existing or newly-designed measures, developing and testing new concepts, programmes and access routes. Furthermore, the projects should contribute to the development of methods. The umbrella project "Kooperation für nachhaltige Präventionsforschung" (KNP-Cooperation for sustainable prevention research) was set up in 2009 to support the meaningful processing and application of key knowledge from this BMBF funding focus on prevention research and to promote networking between science, practice, and politics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. An analysis of cancer research funding in the UK.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Liam; Nurse, Paul; Radda, George

    2003-02-01

    Until recently, a lack of comparable and reliable data on ongoing research activity has been a significant limiting factor in strategic planning for cancer research. This article describes a new initiative in the UK, which is aimed at facilitating the coordination and strategic planning of cancer research at the national level.

  14. Cancer fear and fatalism: how African American participants construct the role of research subject in relation to clinical cancer research.

    PubMed

    Somayaji, Darryl; Cloyes, Kristin Gates

    2015-01-01

    Lack of African American participation in cancer clinical trials has been identified as a critical problem. Historical interactions related to race, identity, and power may contribute to continued inequity in healthcare and research participation. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of African Americans regarding cancer and research and how these perceptions shape their beliefs about participating as cancer research subjects. Three African American focus groups were conducted including people who had never participated in cancer research, those who had, and those who were asked but refused (n = 16). Discussion focused on their perceptions of cancer research and actual or potential participation as research subjects. Data were coded using both structured and inductive coding methods. Fear and fatalism emerged in relation to research, race, power, and identity and were related to larger historical and social issues rather than only individual thoughts or feelings. Participants described fears of the unknown, death, mistrust, conspiracy, and discrimination together with positive/negative tensions between self, family, and community responsibilities. Complex identities linked perceptions of cancer and cancer research with broader historical and cultural issues. Fear, fatalism, and current and historical relationships influence how people perceive themselves as research subjects and may influence their decisions to participate in cancer research. Acknowledging how complex factors including race and racism contribute to health disparities may give nurses and other healthcare providers a better appreciation of how historical, social, and cultural dynamics at individual, community, and organizational levels influence access to and participation in cancer research.

  15. Processing interrogative sentence mood at the semantic-syntactic interface: an electrophysiological research in Chinese, German, and Polish.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-09-29

    Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more generally, to the overarching status of sentence mood in the semantic

  16. Processing Interrogative Sentence Mood at the Semantic-Syntactic Interface: An Electrophysiological Research in Chinese, German, and Polish

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chung-Shan; Dietrich, Rainer; Sommer, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Background Languages differ in the marking of the sentence mood of a polar interrogative (yes/no question). For instance, the interrogative mood is marked at the beginning of the surface structure in Polish, whereas the marker appears at the end in Chinese. In order to generate the corresponding sentence frame, the syntactic specification of the interrogative mood is early in Polish and late in Chinese. In this respect, German belongs to an interesting intermediate class. The yes/no question is expressed by a shift of the finite verb from its final position in the underlying structure into the utterance initial position, a move affecting, hence, both the sentence's final and the sentence's initial constituents. The present study aimed to investigate whether during generation of the semantic structure of a polar interrogative, i.e., the processing preceding the grammatical formulation, the interrogative mood is encoded according to its position in the syntactic structure at distinctive time points in Chinese, German, and Polish. Methodology/Principal Findings In a two-choice go/nogo experimental design, native speakers of the three languages responded to pictures by pressing buttons and producing utterances in their native language while their brain potentials were recorded. The emergence and latency of lateralized readiness potentials (LRP) in nogo conditions, in which speakers asked a yes/no question, should indicate the time point of processing the interrogative mood. The results revealed that Chinese, German, and Polish native speakers did not differ from each other in the electrophysiological indicator. Conclusions/Significance The findings suggest that the semantic encoding of the interrogative mood is temporally consistent across languages despite its disparate syntactic specification. The consistent encoding may be ascribed to economic processing of interrogative moods at various sentential positions of the syntactic structures in languages or, more

  17. Understanding coping with cancer: how can qualitative research help?

    PubMed

    Chittem, Mahati

    2014-01-01

    Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients' psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding of the reasons, processes and types of strategies that patients use to deal with cancer, qualitative study designs are necessary. Few studies have used qualitative designs such as semi-structured interviews to explore coping with cancer. The current paper aims to review the suitability and benefits of using qualitative research designs to understand coping with cancer with the help of some key literature in psycho-oncology research.

  18. Contact Us | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    For more information, please contact: Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research Center for Strategic Scientific Initiatives Office of the Director National Cancer Institute 31 Center Drive, MS 2580 Bethesda, MD 20892-2580 Phone: (240) 781-3370 Email: cancer.proteomics@mail.nih.gov

  19. Symposium 'Methodology in Medical Education Research' organised by the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee of the German Society of Medical Education May, 25th to 26th 2013 at Charité, Berlin.

    PubMed

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin; Kiessling, Claudia; Ahlers, Olaf; Hautz, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Methodology in Medical Education Research Committee ran a symposium on "Research in Medical Education" as part of its ongoing faculty development activities. The symposium aimed to introduce to participants educational research methods with a specific focus on research in medical education. Thirty-five participants were able to choose from workshops covering qualitative methods, quantitative methods and scientific writing throughout the one and a half days. The symposium's evaluation showed participant satisfaction with the format as well as suggestions for future improvement. Consequently, the committee will offer the symposium again in a modified form in proximity to the next annual Congress of the German Society of Medical Education.

  20. Palliative systemic therapy and overall survival of 1,395 patients with advanced breast cancer - Results from the prospective German TMK cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fietz, Thomas; Tesch, Hans; Rauh, Jacqueline; Boller, Emil; Kruggel, Lisa; Jänicke, Martina; Marschner, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Data on treatment and outcome of advanced breast cancer in routine practice are rare, especially concerning recurrent disease, but important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on choice of systemic first-line treatment, number of treatment lines, and survival of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany. 1395 patients recruited by 124 sites at start of first-line therapy into the ongoing, prospective German clinical cohort study TMK (Tumour Registry Breast Cancer) between February 2007 and October 2015 were analysed. The median OS was 33.8 months (95% CI 30.2-40.2) for HR-positive/HER2-negative, 38.2 months (95% CI 31.3-43.0) for HER2-positive and 16.8 months (95% CI 11.5-22.0) for triple negative breast cancer. Patients with triple negative tumours more often died before start of a third-line therapy than patients with HR-positive or HER2-positive tumours (44% vs. 25%). Use of taxane-based chemotherapies has increased since 2007, with 65% of all first-line chemotherapy-treatments containing taxanes in 2013-15 (60% HR-positive/HER2-negative, 75% HER2-positive, 56% triple negative). 52% of the patients with HR-positive/HER2-negative tumours received first-line endocrine therapy in 2013-15; when restricted to patients with only non-visceral metastases this percentage increased to 63%. To our knowledge, this is the first cohort study showing systemic first-line therapy for all subtypes of advanced breast cancer. Overall survival in the TMK is comparable to that reported by clinical trials despite the inclusion of older and comorbid patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping Cancer Cells’ Starting Lines | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Many of the defective regulatory pathways that lead to aberrant proliferation in cancer converge on DNA replication. So replication regulatory pathways could be targeted to more specifically kill cancer cells.  Unfortunately such targeting would require knowing where and when DNA replication starts in the cancer genome.  In yeast, the locations of replication initiation sites on chromatin have been extensively mapped, but in human cancer cells only a handful of these sites have been identified.

  2. Out-FOXing Pancreatic Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancer types worldwide with increasing incidence and mortality rates in the United States. Consequently, it is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2020. Poor patient outcomes are due to a combination of diagnosis at an advanced stage and a lack of effective treatments. However, a better understanding of the molecular pathways at work in pancreatic cancers may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  3. California Cancer Registry Enhancement for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-01

    programs to correlate screening status with subsequent diagnostic status. In collaboration with the California Breast and Cervical Cancer Control...screened for breast and cervical cancer with a CCR file of all female cancer cases diagnosed between 1988 and 1997 that were available to the CCR as of...BC, April 22, 1998. 5. Schulman J, Richardson L, Sever L, Wolters C. Follow-Up and Treatment Issues in the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early

  4. A Teacher's Notebook: German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Independent Schools, Boston, MA.

    This guide for teachers of German at independent schools is a result of a collective effort of a number of experienced German teachers during the year 1973. It is directed mainly toward the new teacher as a quick source of reference for all aspects of instruction of German at the secondary level. Contents include: (1) "Why Study German?," (2)…

  5. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  6. Single-cell sequencing in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Mato Prado, Mireia; Frampton, Adam E; Stebbing, Justin; Krell, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide single-cell sequencing investigations have the potential to classify individual cells within a tumor mass. In recent years, various single-cell DNA and RNA quantification techniques have facilitated significant advances in our ability to classify subpopulations of cells within a heterogeneous population. These approaches provide the possibility of unraveling the complex variability in genetic, epigenetic and transcriptional interactions that occur within identical cells in a tumor. This should enhance our knowledge of the underlying biological phenotypes and could have a huge impact in designing more precise anticancer treatments in order to improve outcomes and avoid tumor resistance. In addition, single-cell sequencing analysis has the potential to allow the development of better diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and thus aid the delivery of more personalized targeted cancer therapy. Nevertheless, further research is still required to overcome technical, biological and computational problems before clinical application.

  7. Factor Structure, Reliability and Measurement Invariance of the Alberta Context Tool and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale, for German Residential Long Term Care

    PubMed Central

    Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing

  8. Molecules discovered that block cancer-associated microRNAs | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators from the Center for Cancer Research have identified a new class of compounds that block the action of a microRNA associated with the development of human cancers, cardiovascular diseases and immune disorders.  Read more...

  9. A Comprehensive Infrastructure for Big Data in Cancer Research: Accelerating Cancer Research and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Hinkson, Izumi V; Davidsen, Tanja M; Klemm, Juli D; Kerlavage, Anthony R; Kibbe, Warren A

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing and other -omics technologies are accelerating the detailed molecular characterization of individual patient tumors, and driving the evolution of precision medicine. Cancer is no longer considered a single disease, but rather, a diverse array of diseases wherein each patient has a unique collection of germline variants and somatic mutations. Molecular profiling of patient-derived samples has led to a data explosion that could help us understand the contributions of environment and germline to risk, therapeutic response, and outcome. To maximize the value of these data, an interdisciplinary approach is paramount. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has initiated multiple projects to characterize tumor samples using multi-omic approaches. These projects harness the expertise of clinicians, biologists, computer scientists, and software engineers to investigate cancer biology and therapeutic response in multidisciplinary teams. Petabytes of cancer genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, proteomic, and imaging data have been generated by these projects. To address the data analysis challenges associated with these large datasets, the NCI has sponsored the development of the Genomic Data Commons (GDC) and three Cloud Resources. The GDC ensures data and metadata quality, ingests and harmonizes genomic data, and securely redistributes the data. During its pilot phase, the Cloud Resources tested multiple cloud-based approaches for enhancing data access, collaboration, computational scalability, resource democratization, and reproducibility. These NCI-led efforts are continuously being refined to better support open data practices and precision oncology, and to serve as building blocks of the NCI Cancer Research Data Commons.

  10. Development of the Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    viable community network ties. One project will investigate health care seeking behavior of AA, another will investigate the role of lycopene in PCa risk...SUBJECT TERMS Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors, Lycopene , Genetic predisposition, African-Americans, Cancer research training, Prostate cancer...The PI awaits comments from the HSRRB. Project 1: (Dr. Ukoli, PI / Dr. Dittus, Mentor) “ Lycopene in Prostate Cancer Risk among African-Americans

  11. Stopping Liver Cancer's Rogue COP | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer type and the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Many liver tumors are actually metastases, tumors seeded in the liver by cancer cells from another organ, but hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), the most common liver tumors, are a heterogeneous family of cancers that arise in hepatocytes, the functional cells of the liver. HCCs are often associated with cirrhosis or liver scarring. Because of the variation in tumor phenotypes, the poor understanding of the molecular origins of these tumors, and the increasing number of diagnoses especially in the US, HCC is a major clinical challenge.

  12. Expected long-term impact of the German screening colonoscopy programme on colorectal cancer prevention: analyses based on 4,407,971 screening colonoscopies.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Altenhofen, Lutz; Stock, Christian; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopy based screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in an increasing number of countries. In Germany, screening colonoscopy at age 55 or older has been offered since the end of 2002. We aimed to estimate the long-term impact of this offer on CRC prevention. We estimated numbers of prevented CRC cases by expected age and year of their (prevented) occurrence over four decades (2005-2045) by four state Markov models (non-advanced adenoma, advanced adenoma, preclinical CRC, clinically manifest CRC). Estimates are based on screening colonoscopies reported to the German screening colonoscopy registry in 2003-2012 (N=4,407,971), transition rates between the four states and general population mortality rates. Numbers of prevented clinically manifest CRC cases are projected to increase from <100 in 2005 to approximately 6500 in 2015, 12,600 in 2025, 15,400 in 2035 and 16,000 in 2045, compared to approximately 58,000 incident cases observed in 2003. The annual number of prevented cases is expected to be higher among men than among women and to strongly vary by age. The vast majority of prevented cases would have occurred at age 75 or older. Despite modest participation rates, the German screening colonoscopy programme will lead to substantial reductions in the CRC burden. The reductions will be fully disclosed in the long run only and predominantly affect numbers of incident cases above 75years of age. Screening offers would need to start at younger ages in order to achieve more effective CRC prevention at younger ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Research progress in applying proteomics technology to explore early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lu; Dong, Li-You; Yan, Qi-Gui; Cao, San-Jie; Wen, Xin-Tian; Huang, Yong; Huang, Xiao-Bo; Wu, Rui; Ma, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report , breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.

  14. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN). Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life) were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major cancer charity, which funds

  15. Lessons learned in applying the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology to translating Canadian Emergency Department Information System Presenting Complaints List into German.

    PubMed

    Brammen, Dominik; Greiner, Felix; Dormann, Harald; Mach, Carsten; Wrede, Christian; Ballaschk, Anne; Stewart, Declan; Walker, Steven; Oesterling, Christine; Kulla, Martin

    2017-03-02

    The patient's presenting complaint guides diagnosis and treatment in the emergency department, but there is no classification system available in German. The Canadian Emergency Department Information System (CEDIS) Presenting Complaint List (PCL) is available only in English and French. As translation risks the altering of meaning, the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) has set guidelines to ensure translational accuracy. The aim of this paper is to describe our experiences of using the ISPOR guidelines to translate the CEDIS PCL into German. The CEDIS PCL (version 3.0) was forward-translated and back-translated in accordance with the ISPOR guidelines using bilingual clinicians/translators and an occupationally mixed evaluation group that completed a self-developed questionnaire. The CEDIS PCL was forward-translated (four emergency physicians) and back-translated (three mixed translators). Back-translation uncovered eight PCL items requiring amendment. In total, 156 comments were received from 32 evaluators, six of which resulted in amendments. The ISPOR guidelines facilitated adaptation of a PCL into German, but the process required time, language skills and clinical knowledge. The current methodology may be applicable to translating the CEDIS PCL into other languages, with the aim of developing a harmonized, multilingual PCL.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/.

  16. Translational research in cancer genetics: the road less traveled.

    PubMed

    Schully, S D; Benedicto, C B; Gillanders, E M; Wang, S S; Khoury, M J

    2011-01-01

    Gene discoveries in cancer have the potential for clinical and public health applications. To take advantage of such discoveries, a translational research agenda is needed to take discoveries from the bench to population health impact. To assess the current status of translational research in cancer genetics, we analyzed the extramural grant portfolio of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) from Fiscal Year 2007, as well as the cancer genetic research articles published in 2007. We classified both funded grants and publications as follows: T0 as discovery research; T1 as research to develop a candidate health application (e.g., test or therapy); T2 as research that evaluates a candidate application and develops evidence-based recommendations; T3 as research that assesses how to integrate an evidence-based recommendation into cancer care and prevention; and T4 as research that assesses health outcomes and population impact. We found that 1.8% of the grant portfolio and 0.6% of the published literature was T2 research or beyond. In addition to discovery research in cancer genetics, a translational research infrastructure is urgently needed to methodically evaluate and translate gene discoveries for cancer care and prevention.

  17. Advancing Proteomics Research through Collaboration | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  18. CPTAC | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) is a national effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of large-scale proteome and genome analysis, or proteogenomics.

  19. Charting the Future of Cancer Health Disparities Research: A Position Statement from the American Association of Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Cancer Institute

    Cancer.gov

    The American Association for Cancer Research, American Cancer Society, American Society of Clinical Oncology, and NCI present a unified strategy to promote cooperation in all areas of the cancer health disparities research community.

  20. About the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | FNLCR

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. The lab addresses some of the most urgent and intractable probl

  1. About the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research | FNLCR Staging

    Cancer.gov

    The Frederick National Lab is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC) sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. The lab addresses some of the most urgent and intractable probl

  2. Korea University Joins the International Efforts in Clinical Proteogenomics Cancer Research | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, part of the National Institutes of Health, and Korea University (KU) located in The Republic of Korea have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in clinical proteogenomics cancer research. The MOU between NCI and KU represents the twenty-ninth institution and eleventh country to join the continued effort of the International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium (ICPC), an effort catalyzed through the vision of the 47th Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden, Jr. and the Cancer Moonshot.

  3. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    conduct an breast education intervention study. She submitted applications to the following agencies: 1.) "The Sexual Side Effects of Breast Cancer Treatments Among...African American Women," American Cancer Society, January 31, 1997, not funded; 2.) "The Sexual Side Effects of Breast Cancer Treatments ," The

  4. What is being researched in rectal cancer?

    PubMed

    Reina Duarte, Angel; Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; Rubio Gil, Francisco A; Belda Lozano, Ricardo; Alvarez García, Antonio; Blesa Sierra, Isabel; Fuentes Porcel, Orlando; Vidaña Márquez, Elisa; Rosado Cobian, Rafael

    2014-11-25

    Clinical evidence has a more significant role in medical specialties than in surgery. Rectal cancer (CR) is no exception. This paper explores what CR-related subjects are being investigated at the present time in a quantitative and qualitative way and analyzes this information to know what possible answers clinical research could give us in the future. The data collection was carried out in April 2014 and was based on 3 sources: 2 institutional clinical trials registries -American (clinicaltrials.gov) and European (EU Clinical Trials Register)- and a survey given to members of the Asociación Española de Coloproctología (AECP). The obtained studies were exported to a database designed especially for this review, which included a number of descriptive elements that would allow the cataloging of the different studies. The AECP survey results were analyzed separately. There are currently 216 clinical trials ongoing related to CR. Two-thirds are primarily conducted by oncologists. Nearly a third are surgical. The research focuses on improving preoperative treatment: new drugs, new schemes of chemo-radiotherapy (usually induction or consolidation schemes) or optimization of radiotherapy and its effects. Surgical clinical trials are related to robotics, laparoscopy, stoma, low colorectal anastomosis, distal CR and local treatment. Most of the current clinical trials ongoing on CR are analyzing aspects of chemo-radiotherapy and its effects. A third focus on purely surgical issues. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Job Opening for Medical Officer in DCP’s Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |

  6. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Cancer.gov

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  7. Big Data for Population-Based Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F.; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary “team science” approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health. PMID:25046092

  8. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  9. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  10. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  11. What's New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ... About Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers? What’s New in Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancer Research ...

  12. Research highlights about contributions on cancer published in Electronic Physician Journal between 2009 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Khelassi, Abdeljalil

    2016-12-01

    This article aims to highlight the important research work on cancer published in Electronic Physician Journal. The journal has published 18 articles concerning cancer research, i.e., two review articles, two case reports, and 14 original articles from 2009 through 2015. The types of cancer are breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, leukemia, cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and papillary thyroid Cancer. In addition, the articles have addressed several aspects of cancer, including prevention, diagnosis, follow-up, and therapy.

  13. Research highlights about contributions on cancer published in Electronic Physician Journal between 2009 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Khelassi, Abdeljalil

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the important research work on cancer published in Electronic Physician Journal. The journal has published 18 articles concerning cancer research, i.e., two review articles, two case reports, and 14 original articles from 2009 through 2015. The types of cancer are breast cancer, prostate cancer, ovarian cancer, leukemia, cervical cancer, rectal cancer, and papillary thyroid Cancer. In addition, the articles have addressed several aspects of cancer, including prevention, diagnosis, follow-up, and therapy. PMID:28163841

  14. Intercenter validation of a knowledge based model for automated planning of volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer. The experience of the German RapidPlan Consortium.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carolin; Waletzko, Oliver; Weiss, Christian; Voelzke, Dirk; Toperim, Sevda; Roeser, Arnd; Puccini, Silvia; Piroth, Marc; Mehrens, Christian; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Hierholz, Kirsten; Gerull, Karsten; Fogliata, Antonella; Block, Andreas; Cozzi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of a model-based optimisation process for volumetric modulated arc therapy applied to prostate cancer in a multicentric cooperative group. The RapidPlan (RP) knowledge-based engine was tested for the planning of Volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc on prostate cancer patients. The study was conducted in the frame of the German RapidPlan Consortium (GRC). 43 patients from one institute of the GRC were used to build and train a RP model. This was further shared with all members of the GRC plus an external site from a different country to increase the heterogeneity of the patient's sampling. An in silico multicentric validation of the model was performed at planning level by comparing RP against reference plans optimized according to institutional procedures. A total of 60 patients from 7 institutes were used. On average, the automated RP based plans resulted fully consistent with the manually optimised set with a modest tendency to improvement in the medium-to-high dose region. A per-site stratification allowed to identify different patterns of performance of the model with some organs at risk resulting better spared with the manual or with the automated approach but in all cases the RP data fulfilled the clinical acceptability requirements. Discrepancies in the performance were due to different contouring protocols or to different emphasis put in the optimization of the manual cases. The multicentric validation demonstrated that it was possible to satisfactorily optimize with the knowledge based model patients from all participating centres. In the presence of possibly significant differences in the contouring protocols, the automated plans, though acceptable and fulfilling the benchmark goals, might benefit from further fine tuning of the constraints. The study demonstrates that, at least for the case of prostate cancer patients, it is possibile to share models among different clinical institutes in a cooperative framework.

  15. Intercenter validation of a knowledge based model for automated planning of volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer. The experience of the German RapidPlan Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Carolin; Waletzko, Oliver; Weiss, Christian; Voelzke, Dirk; Toperim, Sevda; Roeser, Arnd; Puccini, Silvia; Piroth, Marc; Mehrens, Christian; Kueter, Jan-Dirk; Hierholz, Kirsten; Gerull, Karsten; Fogliata, Antonella; Block, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the performance of a model-based optimisation process for volumetric modulated arc therapy applied to prostate cancer in a multicentric cooperative group. The RapidPlan (RP) knowledge-based engine was tested for the planning of Volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc on prostate cancer patients. The study was conducted in the frame of the German RapidPlan Consortium (GRC). Methods and materials 43 patients from one institute of the GRC were used to build and train a RP model. This was further shared with all members of the GRC plus an external site from a different country to increase the heterogeneity of the patient’s sampling. An in silico multicentric validation of the model was performed at planning level by comparing RP against reference plans optimized according to institutional procedures. A total of 60 patients from 7 institutes were used. Results On average, the automated RP based plans resulted fully consistent with the manually optimised set with a modest tendency to improvement in the medium-to-high dose region. A per-site stratification allowed to identify different patterns of performance of the model with some organs at risk resulting better spared with the manual or with the automated approach but in all cases the RP data fulfilled the clinical acceptability requirements. Discrepancies in the performance were due to different contouring protocols or to different emphasis put in the optimization of the manual cases. Conclusions The multicentric validation demonstrated that it was possible to satisfactorily optimize with the knowledge based model patients from all participating centres. In the presence of possibly significant differences in the contouring protocols, the automated plans, though acceptable and fulfilling the benchmark goals, might benefit from further fine tuning of the constraints. The study demonstrates that, at least for the case of prostate cancer patients, it is possibile to share models among different

  16. Biospecimens, biobanking and global cancer research collaborations

    PubMed Central

    Ragin, Camille; Park, Jong Y

    2014-01-01

    The disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality continue to be a global public health problem. Efforts to address the prostate cancer disparity in black men have been met with a number of challenges, specifically in the accessibility to biospecimens in the context of global prostate cancer collaborations. During the International Educational Workshop at the Science of Global Prostate Cancer Disparities conference held 1–4 November 2012 in Nassau, the Bahamas, an overview of biobanking and biospecimen repositories, and materials transfer in global prostate cancer collaborations were discussed. The challenges faced by low-resource countries were identified, and potential solutions were recommended. PMID:25228910

  17. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A postdoctoral fellowship position is available in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (LMB) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on the NIH main campus in Bethesda, Maryland. Our lab uses single domain antibodies to generate cancer therapeutics, including immunotoxins and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells [Feng et al. PNAS 2013; Gao et al. Hepatology 2014; Gao et al. Nature Communications 2015; Li et al. PNAS 2017]. We are interested in the role of glypicans (e.g., GPC2, GPC3) as co-receptors for Wnt signaling and the modulation of their activities in cancer, including liver cancer and pediatric cancers.

  18. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease. PMID:26593898

  19. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  20. Eliminating cancer stem cells: an interview with CCR’s Steven Hou | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Steven Hou, Ph.D., senior investigator in the Basic Research Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research describes his latest research that has uncovered potential ways to eliminate cancer stem cells and may offer hope to patients with reoccurring tumors.  Learn more...

  1. Future Prospects in Breast Cancer ResearchCancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Henk R.; Klaase, Joost M.; Brinkhuis, Mariël; van den Berg, Albert; Vermes, István

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among women. Although significant advances in the prevention, diagnosis and management are made, still every year half a million women die of breast cancer. Personalised treatment has the potential to increase treatment efficacy, and hence decrease mortality rates. Moreover, understanding cancer biology and translating this knowledge to the clinic, will improve the breast cancer therapy regime tremendously. Recently, it has been proposed that cancer stem cells (CSC) play an important role in tumour biology. CSC have the ability for self-renewal and are pivotal in setting the heterogeneous character of a tumour. Additionally, CSC possess several characteristics that make them resistant and more aggressive to the conventional chemo- and radiotherapy. Nowadays, breast cancer therapy is focused on killing the differentiated tumour cells, leaving the CSC unharmed, potentially causing recurrence of the disease and metastasis. Specific targeting of the CSC will improve the disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. In this article, two methods are described, aiming at specifically attacking the differentiated tumour cells (‘Apoptosis chip’) and the cancer stem cell. For this, microfluidics is used. PMID:27683420

  2. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (U.S.D.A.) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  3. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  4. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  5. Advancing Cancer Control Through Research and Cancer Registry Collaborations in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Banydeen, Rishika; Rose, Angela M.C.; Martin, Damali; Aiken, William; Alexis, Cheryl; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ashing, Kimlin; Avery, J. Gordon; Avery, Penny; Deloumeaux, Jacqueline; Ekomaye, Natasha; Gabriel, Owen; Hassell, Trevor; Hughes, Lowell; Hutton, Maisha; Jyoti, Shravana Kumar; Layne, Penelope; Luce, Danièle; Patrick, Alan; Prussia, Patsy; Smith-Ravin, Juliette; Veronique-Baudin, Jacqueline; Blackman, Elizabeth; Roach, Veronica; Ragin, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Background Few national registries exist in the Caribbean, resulting in limited cancer statistics being available for the region. Therefore, estimates are frequently based on the extrapolation of mortality data submitted to the World Health Organization. Thus, regional cancer surveillance and research need promoting, and their synergy must be strengthened. However, differences between countries outweigh similarities, hampering registration and availability of data. Methods The African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium (AC3) is a broad-based resource for education, training, and research on all aspects of cancer in populations of African descent. The AC3 focuses on capacity building in cancer registration in the Caribbean through special topics, training sessions, and biannual meetings. We review the results from selected AC3 workshops, including an inventory of established cancer registries in the Caribbean region, current cancer surveillance statistics, and a review of data quality. We then describe the potential for cancer research surveillance activities and the role of policymakers. Results Twelve of 30 Caribbean nations have cancer registries. Four of these nations provide high-quality incidence data, thus covering 14.4% of the population; therefore, regional estimates are challenging. Existing research and registry collaborations must pave the way and are facilitated by organizations like the AC3. Conclusions Improved coverage for cancer registrations could help advance health policy through targeted research. Capacity building, resource optimization, collaboration, and communication between cancer surveillance and research teams are key to obtaining robust and complete data in the Caribbean. PMID:26678981

  6. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  7. Independent Clinical Research May Alleviate Disparities in Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zwitter, Matjaz

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in cancer care are a reality of the modern world. Unfortunately, current clinical research is in the hands of for-profit pharmaceutical companies and of researchers from the developed world. Problems specific to cancer care in developing countries and among deprivileged populations are ignored. Independent clinical research can offer new valuable knowledge and identify affordable and cost-effective treatments. As such, research not depending on commercial sponsors should become one of the important avenues to alleviate the problem of cancer disparities. PMID:28083547

  8. Latin American Cancer Research Coalition. Community primary care/academic partnership model for cancer control.

    PubMed

    Kreling, Barbara A; Cañar, Janet; Catipon, Ericson; Goodman, Michelle; Pallesen, Nancy; Pomeroy, Jyl; Rodriguez, Yosselyn; Romagoza, Juan; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Huerta, Elmer E

    2006-10-15

    The Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC) was funded by NCI as a Special Populations Network to 1) provide training to clinic staff in cancer control and foster development of Latino faculty training, 2) conduct a needs assessment with the community clinics, 3) enhance the ability of the clinics to promote healthy lifestyles, 4) collaborate on research projects to improve use of early detection, and 5) explore partnerships to increase access to culturally competent cancer care. The LACRC developed a model for cancer control focused on community-based clinics as the focal point for in-reach and community outreach targeted to Latinos to reduce cancer disparities. This framework was designed to link the community to local hospitals and academic centers, build capacity, and promote diffusion of innovations directly into delivery systems. Eight research projects submitted by junior investigator/clinic teams have been funded by NCI. These research projects range from recruiting for clinical trials to prevention to survivorship. The LACRC has trained 6 cancer control coordinators from partner sites and educated 59 undergraduate minority student interns in aspects of cancer control research. Central to LACRC's success to date has been the creation and maintenance of an infrastructure of trusting relationships, especially those developed between clinician/investigators and individuals within the greater Latino community. Community clinics can be effective agents for cancer control among Latinos. Latinos are likely to participate in research conducted by culturally representative teams of researchers using culturally appropriate recruiting strategies. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  9. Targeted Infrared Photoimmunotherapy for Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A longstanding goal of cancer therapy is the extensive destruction of cancer cells with minimal collateral damage to normal cells. This goal has been very hard to accomplish. Most existing efficacious treatments inevitably inflict collateral damage on nearby normal cells and tissue.

  10. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer: Summary and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M.S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summarizes a multidisciplinary international meeting on male breast cancer, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health Office of Rare Diseases and the National Cancer Institute Divisions of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics and Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis. The meeting included representatives from the fields of epidemiology, genetics, pathology and molecular biology, health services research, and clinical oncology and the advocacy community, with a comprehensive review of the data. Presentations focused on highlighting differences and similarities between breast cancer in males and females. To enhance our understanding of male breast cancer, international consortia are necessary. Therefore, the Breast International Group and North American Breast Cancer Group have joined efforts to develop an International Male Breast Cancer Program and to pool epidemiologic data, clinical information, and tumor specimens. This international collaboration will also facilitate the future planning of clinical trials that can address essential questions in the treatment of male breast cancer. PMID:20308661

  11. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    PubMed

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  12. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    PubMed

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  13. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Turati, Federica; Bravi, Francesca; Di Maso, Matteo; Bosetti, Cristina; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Dalmartello, Michela; Giacosa, Attilio; Montella, Maurizio; Tavani, Alessandra; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-08

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) released in 2007 eight recommendations for cancer prevention on body fatness, diet and physical activity. Our aim is to evaluate the relation between adherence to these recommendations and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies including overall 2419 patients with CRC and 4723 controls. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR guidelines was summarised through a score incorporating seven of the WCRF/AICR recommendations, with higher scores indicating higher adherence to the guidelines. Odds ratios (ORs) of colorectal cancer were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Higher adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with a significantly reduced CRC risk (OR 0.67, 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.56-0.80 for a score ≥5 versus <3.5), with a significant trend of decreasing risk for increasing adherence (p < 0.001). Consistent results were found for colon (OR 0.67) and rectal cancer (OR 0.67). Inverse associations were observed with the diet-specific WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.61-0.84 for ≥3.5 versus <2.5 points) and with specific recommendations on body fatness (OR 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.97), physical activity (OR 0.86, 95% CI, 0.75-1.00), foods and drinks that promote weight gain (OR 0.70, 95% CI, 0.56-0.89), foods of plant origin (OR 0.56, 95% CI, 0.42-0.76), limiting alcohol (OR 0.87, 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and salt intake (OR 0.63, 95% CI, 0.48-0.84). Our study indicated that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations is inversely related to CRC risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  15. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit.

    PubMed

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK "Brexit" vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised.

  16. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK “Brexit” vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised. PMID:28275394

  17. ETIB opens clinical trial for patients with HPV-16+ cancers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Christian Hinrichs, Lasker Clinical Research Scholar in the Experimental Transplantation and Immunology Branch, is leading a study of a new therapy for cancers caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), which include cervical, throat, anal, and genital cancers. HPV-related cancer cells carry a protein called E7.  Learn more...

  18. Next Generation Distributed Computing for Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  19. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  20. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  1. Distance Learners of German and Intercultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumann, Uwe; Shelley, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The article describes a research project undertaken with advanced adult learners of German at a distance at The Open University, United Kingdom. Their gains in intercultural competence were investigated by looking at how far the students met the prescribed learning outcomes, their knowledge items, language skills, attitudes towards Germans and…

  2. Leadership Practices in German and UK Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Grace

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to determine whether leadership practices vary between German and UK organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The author used self-assessment documents submitted by German and UK organisations to the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), to identify leadership practices in both countries. A…

  3. German Library Networks in the Web Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Discusses German libraries' access to the Internet and World Wide Web, and reviews German library development and organization. Topics include state libraries; research library networks; national scientific service organizations that provide specialized information services; funding; standards; online catalog software; document delivery and…

  4. Learning from Cancer Precursors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Cancers that are preceded by distinct nonmalignant lesions provide an opportunity to study cancer progression and develop early detection and intervention strategies. Multiple myeloma—a cancer of the bone marrow that originates in a type of white blood cell called plasma cells—is consistently preceded by one of two nonmalignant precursor diseases: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smoldering myeloma. Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D., and Adam Waxman, B.A., of the CCR Medical Oncology Branch recently published a case presentation and review in JAMA that discusses current understanding of myeloma precursor diseases and future opportunities for improving personalized management of patients with these conditions.

  5. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  6. German Cancer Society Neuro-Oncology Working Group NOA-03 multicenter trial of single-agent high-dose methotrexate for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herrlinger, Ulrich; Schabet, Martin; Brugger, Wolfram; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Küker, Wilhelm; Deckert, Martina; Engel, Corinna; Schmeck-Lindenau, Hans-Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Hans-Günther; Krauseneck, Peter; Benöhr, Christian; Meisner, Christoph; Wiestler, Otmar D; Dichgans, Johannes; Kanz, Lothar; Bamberg, Michael; Weller, Michael

    2002-02-01

    The prospective multicenter NOA-03 trial, conducted by the Neuro-Oncology Working Group (NOA) of the German Cancer Society, was initiated to define the feasibility and efficacy of single-agent high-dose methotrexate therapy without concomitant radiotherapy in immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. Thirty-seven patients (median age, 60 years) received 179 biweekly courses of 8 g/m2 methotrexate. Response was assessed after 3 and 6 courses. We had planned to enter 105 patients into the trial. Since fewer than the projected 18 of 37 patients achieved a complete response after an intermediate analysis, the trial was closed. In intention-to-treat analysis, 11 of 37 patients (29.7%) achieved complete response, whereas 14 of 37 patients (37.8%) were found to have progressive disease. The median relapse-free survival among complete response patients was 13.7 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid application during the first methotrexate course was associated with complete response. The regimen was well tolerated, but, unlike previously reported results, the activity of high-dose methotrexate was only moderate.

  7. How to evaluate the risks of work equipment and installations for health and safety? Research and activities of the German Committee for Plant Safety and consequences for regulation.

    PubMed

    Pieper, R

    2012-01-01

    Work equipment and installations with a high risk for health and safety of employees should be paid a special attention. The German Product Safety Act, which is aimed to manufacturers or distributors in order to protect consumers, maintains a conclusive catalogue of these so-called "installations in need of monitoring" fixing the work equipment and installations for which such special inspections can be demanded. This catalogue has remained unchanged for decades and has been transformed nearly unmodified into the Plant Safety Ordinance. Currently, there is a discussion about this catalogue in Germany. A major point of concern is the definition and the significance of "especially" dangerous work equipment and installations. Two recent research projects are dealing with the problem how to define "especially".

  8. Why German? Motivation of Students Studying German at English Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Williams, Marion

    2010-01-01

    What drives students to study German at university level? Although motivational research has been booming in recent years, students' motivation to pursue a modern foreign language beyond school level has not received much attention in the UK. This article sheds light on the various reasons that drive students in the UK to pursue a modern foreign…

  9. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, R

    2007-01-01

    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  10. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  11. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Kim, Miseon; Kim, Hak Jae; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Jae Weon

    2016-11-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7-9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review.

  12. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2014.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Hoon; Lee, Kyung Hun; Kim, Kidong; Kang, Sokbom; Kim, Jae Weon

    2015-04-01

    In 2014, 9 topics were selected as major advances in clinical research for gynecologic oncology: 2 each in cervical and corpus cancer, 4 in ovarian cancer, and 1 in breast cancer. For cervical cancer, several therapeutic agents showed viable antitumor clinical response in recurrent and metastatic disease: bevacizumab, cediranib, and immunotherapies including human papillomavirus (HPV)-tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and Z-100. The HPV test received FDA approval as the primary screening tool of cervical cancer in women aged 25 and older, based on the results of the ATHENA trial, which suggested that the HPV test was a more sensitive and efficient strategy for cervical cancer screening than methods based solely on cytology. For corpus cancers, results of a phase III Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) 249 study of early-stage endometrial cancer with high-intermediate risk factors are followed by the controversial topic of uterine power morcellation in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. Promising results of phase II studies regarding the effectiveness of olaparib in various ovarian cancer settings are summarized. After a brief review of results from a phase III study on pazopanib maintenance therapy in advanced ovarian cancer, 2 outstanding 2014 ASCO presentations cover the topic of using molecular subtypes in predicting response to bevacizumab. A review of the use of opportunistic bilateral salpingectomy as an ovarian cancer preventive strategy in the general population is presented. Two remarkable studies that discussed the effectiveness of adjuvant ovarian suppression in premenopausal early breast cancer have been selected as the last topics covered in this review.

  13. CCR Careers | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Be part of our mission to make breakthrough scientific discoveries to find cures and treatments for cancer. Our Principal Investigators lead teams of laboratory scientists, trainees, clinicians, and administrators to unlock scientific knowledge to advance the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS.

  14. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  15. feature - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    "Cancer is a disease of the genome," noted Lynda Chin, M.D., professor of dermatology, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. "And understanding the impact of genomic changes in the proteome is critically important for converting genomic knowledge into something that a clinician can use on their patients."

  16. Treatment, outcome and quality of life of 1239 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer - final results from the prospective German TLK cohort study.

    PubMed

    von Verschuer, Ulla; Schnell, Roland; Tessen, Hans Werner; Eggert, Jochen; Binninger, Adrian; Spring, Lisa; Jänicke, Martina; Marschner, Norbert

    2017-08-22

    Real-life data on advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are centrally important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on the choice of systemic first- and second-line treatment, number of treatment lines, survival and longitudinal data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany. 1239 patients with advanced NSCLC were recruited at start of first-line therapy into the prospective German clinical cohort study TLK (Tumour Registry Lung Cancer) by 107 sites between February 2010 and December 2013 and followed-up until January 2016. HRQOL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and LC13 questionnaires. Most patients receive carboplatin- or cisplatin-based doublet chemotherapy in first-line treatment. The choice of platinum agent did neither influence the outcome: median overall survival (OS) was 12.2 months for carboplatin combinations (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.0-13.8) and 11.9 months for cisplatin combinations (95% CI 10.2-13.8), nor did it have a marked impact on the HRQOL. Patients receiving cisplatin were younger and fitter at start of therapy than patients receiving carboplatin or mono-chemotherapy. The longitudinal HRQOL analysis revealed the main symptoms that need to be addressed in follow-up care, irrespective of the platinum agent: fatigue, nausea, dyspnoea and pain. The patients receiving targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) had a median OS of 22.1 months (95% CI 15.0-35.1) and considerably superior HRQOL. There was no difference in outcome between the platinum compounds cisplatin and carboplatin in first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC in routine care. This is the first report of longitudinal HRQOL data comparing treatments, showing no difference between carboplatin and cisplatin. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each immunotoxin consists of two components an antibody and a toxin that are fused together. The custom-designed antibody acts as a homing signal, seeking out a specific target present on the surface of cancer cells. When the antibody binds its target, the whole immunotoxin is brought inside the cell. Unwittingly, the cancer cell has exposed itself to a powerful poison, a mistake that will likely condemn it to death.

  18. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa)

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand; Busta, Susanne; Mikus, Stefan; Sanden, Per-Holger; Sörgel, Andrea; Ruppert, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs) involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA) when performing outsourced clinical studies. This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s). Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight’s evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial. PMID:28163667

  19. Current practice and perspectives in CRO oversight based on a survey performed among members of the German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies (vfa).

    PubMed

    Hennig, Michael; Hundt, Ferdinand; Busta, Susanne; Mikus, Stefan; Sanden, Per-Holger; Sörgel, Andrea; Ruppert, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the number and scope of outsourced activities in the pharmaceutical industry have increased heavily. In addition, also the type of outsourcing has changed significantly in that time. This raises the question of whether and how sponsors retain the capability to select and to control the contract research organizations (CROs) involved and what expertise still has to be present in the development department as well as other relevant departments to ensure adequate oversight, also in line with the expectations of regulators and health authorities. In order to answer these questions, a survey was conducted among the German vfa member companies. The survey describes the latest developments and experiences in outsourcing by 18 German vfa member companies. It concentrates on measures how to implement Quality Assurance (QA) when performing outsourced clinical studies. This study shows that the majority of companies apply a full-outsourcing, preferred-provider model of clinical trial services, with the clinical research department playing the major role in this process. A large amount of guiding documents, processes and tools are used to ensure an adequate oversight of the services performed by the CRO(s). Finally the guiding principles for all oversight processes should be transparent communication, a clearly established expectation for quality, a precise definition of accountability and responsibility while avoiding silo mentality, and a comprehensive documentation of the oversight's evidence. For globally acting and outsourcing sponsors, oversight processes need to be aligned with regards to local and global perspectives. This survey shows that the current implementation of oversight processes in the participating companies covers all relevant areas to ensure highest quality and integrity of the data produced by the outsourced clinical trial.

  20. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.